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Sample records for research rocky gap

  1. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2010 Research Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2010-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  2. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2011 Annual Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  3. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2012-2013 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass Cairns

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the...

  4. Rocky Mountain Research Station invasive species visionary white paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Pearson; M. Kim; J. Butler

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species represent one of the single greatest threats to natural ecosystems and the services they provide. Effectively addressing the invasive species problem requires management that is based on sound research. We provide an overview of recent and ongoing invasive species research conducted by Rocky Mountain Research Station scientists in the Intermountain...

  5. Research, Research Gap and the Research Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dissanayake, D.M.N.S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Mainly, due to new scientific inquiries and technological advancements Knowledge becomes obsolete. So it creates a dilemma where the applicability of so called theories and models which we learnt in class can still be applied to solve problems? Thus, the scholars bring the notion of RESEARCH as a definite solution which enriches the existing understanding of a phenomenon. This can be either a theory testing or a theory extension (theory building) approach. In fact, gap identification and form...

  6. Rocky Mountain Research Station 2008-2012 National Fire Plan Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika Gallegos

    2013-01-01

    This report highlights selected accomplishments by the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station's Wildland Fire and Fuels Research & Development projects in support of the National Fire Plan from 2008 through 2012. These projects are examples of the broad range of knowledge and tools developed by National Fire Plan funding beginning in 2008.

  7. Closing the gap between research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Marcia Patton-Mallory

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the reasons for gaps in communication between researchers and natural resource managers and identify methods to close these gaps. Gaps originate from differing patterns of language use, disparities in organizational culture and values, generation of knowledge that is too narrowly-focused to solve complex problems, failure by managers to relay...

  8. Closing the Gaps. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Achievement gaps between groups of students (minority and white, rich and poor, English speakers and English language learners) are complex and intractable. Increasingly, they are being seen as a result of disparities between opportunities for learning available to different groups. By changing the opportunity structures of schools and…

  9. Fisher research in the US Rocky Mountains: A critical overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Schwartz; J. Sauder

    2013-01-01

    In this talk we review the recent fisher research and monitoring efforts that have occurred throughout Idaho and Montana in past 2 decades. We begin this talk with a summary of the habitat relationship work that has examined fisher habitat use at multiple scales. These have largely been conducted using radio and satellite telemetry, although a new, joint effort to use...

  10. Sexting: Current Research Gaps and Legislative Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Fawn; Jaishankar, K; Agustina, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    'Sexting, the portmanteau of Sex and Texting, has become a hot topic of debate between the legislators, researchers, educators, parents and teens' (Jaishankar, 2009, para 1). In spite of the considerable and growing body of literature on sexting, there are significant gaps in the current research. A review of research to date also reveals a dearth of cross-national and cross-cultural research on the topic of sexting. Notably, legal and ethical issues abound with the current method for punishi...

  11. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  12. Level of evidence gap in orthopedic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Keith D; Bernstein, Joseph; Ahn, Jaimo; McKay, Scott D; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    2012-09-01

    Level of evidence is the most widely used metric for the quality of a publication, but instances exist in which a Level I study is neither feasible nor desirable. The goal of this study was to evaluate the level of evidence gap in current orthopedic research, which the authors defined as the disparity between the level of evidence that would be required to optimally answer the primary research question and the level of evidence that was actually used. Five orthopedic surgeons (K.D.B., J.B., J.A., S.D.M., W.N.S.) evaluated blinded articles from the first 6 months of 2010 in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American Volume) (JBJS-Am), classifying the study type and design and extracting a primary research question from each article. Each evaluator then defined the study type and method, along with the level of evidence that would ideally be used to address the primary research question. The level of evidence gap was then calculated by subtracting the actual level of evidence of the manuscript from the level of evidence of the idealized study. Of the 64 JBJS-Am manuscripts eligible for analysis, the average level of evidence was between Level II and III (mean, 2.73). The average level of evidence gap was 1.06 compared with the JBJS-Am-designated level of evidence and 1.28 compared with the evaluators' assessment. Because not all questions require Level I studies, level of evidence alone may not be the best metric for the quality of orthopedic surgery literature. Instead, the authors' concept of a level of evidence gap may be a better tool for assessing the state of orthopedic research publications. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. [Research progress of larger flexion gap than extension gap in total knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weisong; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-05-01

    To summarize the progress of larger flexion gap than extension gap in total knee arthro-plasty (TKA). The domestic and foreign related literature about larger flexion gap than extension gap in TKA, and its impact factors, biomechanical and kinematic features, and clinical results were summarized. During TKA, to adjust the relations of flexion gap and extension gap is one of the key factors of successful operation. The biomechanical, kinematic, and clinical researches show that properly larger flexion gap than extension gap can improve both the postoperative knee range of motion and the satisfaction of patients, but does not affect the stability of the knee joint. However, there are also contrary findings. So adjustment of flexion gap and extension gap during TKA is still in dispute. Larger flexion gap than extension gap in TKA is a new joint space theory, and long-term clinical efficacy, operation skills, and related complications still need further study.

  14. Rocky Mountain Research Station Part 2 [U.S. Forest Service scientists continue work with the Lincoln National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Rawlinson

    2010-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) is studying the effects of fuels reduction treatments on Mexican Spotted Owls and their prey in the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico. One challenge facing Forest Service managers is that much of the landscape is dominated by overstocked stands resulting from years of fire suppression.

  15. Animal Research on Nicotine Reduction: Current Evidence and Research Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy T; Rupprecht, Laura E; Denlinger-Apte, Rachel L; Weeks, Jillian J; Panas, Rachel S; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2017-09-01

    A mandated reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes may improve public health by reducing the prevalence of smoking. Animal self-administration research is an important complement to clinical research on nicotine reduction. It can fill research gaps that may be difficult to address with clinical research, guide clinical researchers about variables that are likely to be important in their own research, and provide policy makers with converging evidence between clinical and preclinical studies about the potential impact of a nicotine reduction policy. Convergence between clinical and preclinical research is important, given the ease with which clinical trial participants can access nonstudy tobacco products in the current marketplace. Herein, we review contributions of preclinical animal research, with a focus on rodent self-administration, to the science of nicotine reduction. Throughout this review, we highlight areas where clinical and preclinical research converge and areas where the two differ. Preclinical research has provided data on many important topics such as the threshold for nicotine reinforcement, the likelihood of compensation, moderators of the impact of nicotine reduction, the impact of environmental stimuli on nicotine reduction, the impact of nonnicotine cigarette smoke constituents on nicotine reduction, and the impact of nicotine reduction on vulnerable populations. Special attention is paid to current research gaps including the dramatic rise in alternative tobacco products, including electronic nicotine delivery systems (ie, e-cigarettes). The evidence reviewed here will be critical for policy makers as well as clinical researchers interested in nicotine reduction. This review will provide policy makers and clinical researchers interested in nicotine reduction with an overview of the preclinical animal research conducted on nicotine reduction and the regulatory implications of that research. The review also highlights the utility of

  16. Reducing Excellence Gaps: A Research-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Peters, Scott J.; Schmalensee, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    As the awareness of the existence and negative effects of excellence gaps has grown among educators and policy makers, so too has a desire for research-supported interventions to reduce these gaps. A recent review of research related to promoting equitable outcomes for all gifted students identified six specific strategies for reducing excellence…

  17. Race, ethnicity, recreation, and leisure: An assessment of research gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Gomez

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify research gaps related to the race/ethnicity and leisure literature. This was done by first highlighting the trends involved in the ethnicity and leisure literature, and then presenting five gaps found in the literature for future researchers to consider.

  18. Addressing the "Research Gap" in Special Education through Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Janette K.; Boardman, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    At least some of the challenges faced in special education, such as the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students, the gap between research and practice, and inequitable educational opportunities, can be explained in part by a research gap, or, in other words, a failure to conduct the different types of…

  19. Bridging the Research-Practice Gap: Research Translation and/or Research Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschkorn, Mark; Geelan, David

    2008-01-01

    The issue of the "research-practice gap"--the problematic relationship between research in education and educational practice--has been widely reported in the literature. This critical literature review explores some of the causes and features of the gap and suggests some possible approaches for addressing it. These solutions involve changes in…

  20. The Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health related research. Volume 4: Production and materials handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume 4 is to describe record series pertaining to production and materials handling activities at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE's Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI's role in the project, provides a history of production and materials handling practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to production and materials handling policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records

  1. The Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume 5: Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This is the fifth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume 5 is to describe record series pertaining to waste management activities at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE's Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI's role in the project, provides a history of waste management practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to waste management policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of this volume and the organization to contact for access to these records

  2. Airframe Icing Research Gaps: NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapczuk, Mark

    2009-01-01

    qCurrent Airframe Icing Technology Gaps: Development of a full 3D ice accretion simulation model. Development of an improved simulation model for SLD conditions. CFD modeling of stall behavior for ice-contaminated wings/tails. Computational methods for simulation of stability and control parameters. Analysis of thermal ice protection system performance. Quantification of 3D ice shape geometric characteristics Development of accurate ground-based simulation of SLD conditions. Development of scaling methods for SLD conditions. Development of advanced diagnostic techniques for assessment of tunnel cloud conditions. Identification of critical ice shapes for aerodynamic performance degradation. Aerodynamic scaling issues associated with testing scale model ice shape geometries. Development of altitude scaling methods for thermal ice protections systems. Development of accurate parameter identification methods. Measurement of stability and control parameters for an ice-contaminated swept wing aircraft. Creation of control law modifications to prevent loss of control during icing encounters. 3D ice shape geometries. Collection efficiency data for ice shape geometries. SLD ice shape data, in-flight and ground-based, for simulation verification. Aerodynamic performance data for 3D geometries and various icing conditions. Stability and control parameter data for iced aircraft configurations. Thermal ice protection system data for simulation validation.

  3. "Mind the Gap": Researchers Ignore Politics at Their Own Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Judith

    2016-02-01

    No matter how distasteful researchers find policy politics, effective policy requires that they engage. Drawing on her career bridging the research/politics gap in health care policy, the author makes a case for why and how researchers can do just that. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  4. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume VII. Employee occupational exposure and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This is the seventh in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume VII is to describe record series pertaining to employee occupational exposure and health at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of occupational exposure monitoring and health practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to occupational exposure monitoring and health policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records. Comprehensive introductory and background information is available in Volume 1. Other volumes in the guide pertain to administrative and general subjects, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, environmental and workplace monitoring, and waste management. In addition, HAI has produced a subject-specific guide, titled The September 1957 Rocky Flats Fire: A Guide to Record Series of the Department of Energy and Its Contractors, which researchers should consult for further information about records related to this incident.

  5. Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest presents the many facets of riparian research at the station. Included are articles about protecting the riparian habitat, the social and economic values of riparian environments, watershed restoration, remote sensing tools, and getting kids interested in the science.

  6. Collective Genius: Bridging the Gaps among Research, Innovation and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hair, Mary John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on bridging the gaps among research, innovation, and practice. First, the author reflects on historical perspectives involving the use of research to improve education and serve the public good. Second, the author explores the current climate as reflected by three national reports highlighting future roles of…

  7. Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: Voice of Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrani, Mehdi B.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the strategies that could be potentially employed in the Iranian ELT context to bridge the gap between research and practice. Data were collected through conducting a "focus group discussion" with a number of practitioner-researchers. The findings showed that to improve the relationship between…

  8. Safety analysis report: A comparison of incidents from Safety Years 2006 through 2010, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station Inventory and Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devon Donahue

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of 5 years of accident data for the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) Inventory and Monitoring (IM) Program that identifies past trends, allows for standardized self-comparison, and increases our understanding of the true costs of injuries and accidents. Measuring safety is a difficult task. While most agree that...

  9. Overcoming the Gap between Diversity Recruitment Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.

    2012-01-01

    The profession of school psychology has repeatedly advocated for increasing the diversity of its membership. However, the production of diversity recruitment research has not coalesced with the urgency espoused by organizations governing school psychology. This gap between official organizational position and production of literature has…

  10. Animating Research with Counseling Values: A Training Model to Address the Research-to-Practice Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristi A.; Dewell, John A.; Holmes, Courtney M.

    2014-01-01

    The persistent research-to-practice gap poses a problem for counselor education. The gap may be caused by conflicts between the humanistic values that guide much of counseling and the values that guide research training. In this article, the authors address historical concerns regarding research training for students and the conducting of research…

  11. Teaching and physics education research: bridging the gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, James M; Miller, Kelly; Dowd, Jason E; Tucker, Laura; Mazur, Eric; Timan, Anneke L

    2014-01-01

    Physics faculty, experts in evidence-based research, often rely on anecdotal experience to guide their teaching practices. Adoption of research-based instructional strategies is surprisingly low, despite the large body of physics education research (PER) and strong dissemination effort of PER researchers and innovators. Evidence-based PER has validated specific non-traditional teaching practices, but many faculty raise valuable concerns toward their applicability. We address these concerns and identify future studies required to overcome the gap between research and practice. (key issues reviews)

  12. Heat stress intervention research in construction: gaps and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Chan, Albert Ping-Chuen

    2017-06-08

    Developing heat stress interventions for construction workers has received mounting concerns in recent years. However, limited efforts have been exerted to elaborate the rationale, methodology, and practicality of heat stress intervention in the construction industry. This study aims to review previous heat stress intervention research in construction, to identify the major research gaps in methodological issues, and to offer detailed recommendations for future studies. A total of 35 peer-reviewed journal papers have been identified to develop administrative, environmental or personal engineering interventions to safeguard construction workers. It was found that methodological limitations, such as arbitrary sampling methods and unreliable instruments, could be the major obstacle in undertaking heat stress intervention research. To bridge the identified research gaps, this study then refined a research framework for conducting heat stress intervention studies in the construction industry. The proposed research strategy provides researchers and practitioners with fresh insights into expanding multidisciplinary research areas and solving practical problems in the management of heat stress. The proposed research framework may foster the development of heat stress intervention research in construction, which further aids researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in formulating proper intervention strategies.

  13. The research-practice gap: bridging the schism between eating disorder researchers and practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ritschel, Lorie A; Lynn, Steven Jay; Brown, Amanda P; Cautin, Robin L; Latzman, Robert D

    2013-07-01

    The field of eating disorders (EDs) treatment has been beset by a marked disjunction between scientific evidence and clinical application. We describe the nature and scope of the research-practice gap in the ED field. We draw on surveys and broader literature to better understand the research-practice gap in ED treatment and reasons for resistance to evidence-based practice. We identify three sources of the research-practice gap: (1) attitudinal factors, (2) differences in the definition of "evidence," and (3) cognitive factors, especially naïve realism and confirmation bias. We affirm the role of science as a safeguard against human fallibility and as a means of bridging the research-practice gap, and delineate key principles of scientific thinking for ED researchers and practitioners. We conclude with proposals for narrowing the research-practice gap in ED treatment and enhancing the quality of interventions for ED clients. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Systemic accident analysis: examining the gap between research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Peter; Waterson, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    The systems approach is arguably the dominant concept within accident analysis research. Viewing accidents as a result of uncontrolled system interactions, it forms the theoretical basis of various systemic accident analysis (SAA) models and methods. Despite the proposed benefits of SAA, such as an improved description of accident causation, evidence within the scientific literature suggests that these techniques are not being used in practice and that a research-practice gap exists. The aim of this study was to explore the issues stemming from research and practice which could hinder the awareness, adoption and usage of SAA. To achieve this, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 42 safety experts from ten countries and a variety of industries, including rail, aviation and maritime. This study suggests that the research-practice gap should be closed and efforts to bridge the gap should focus on ensuring that systemic methods meet the needs of practitioners and improving the communication of SAA research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Collaborative Professional Development in Chemistry Education Research: Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szteinberg, Gabriela; Balicki, Scott; Banks, Gregory; Clinchot, Michael; Cullipher, Steven; Huie, Robert; Lambertz, Jennifer; Lewis, Rebecca; Ngai, Courtney; Weinrich, Melissa; Talanquer, Vicente; Sevian, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Professional development that bridges gaps between educational research and practice is needed. However, bridging gaps can be difficult because teachers and educational researchers often belong to different Communities of Practice, as their activities, goals, and means of achieving those goals often differ. Meaningful collaboration among teachers…

  16. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the...

  17. Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap in group psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Mark A; Ogrodniczuk, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Sochting, Ingrid

    2010-04-01

    Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap requires a different clinical research paradigm: participatory research that encourages community agency-academic partnerships. In this context, clinicians help define priorities, determine the type of evidence that will have an impact on their practice (affecting the methods that are used to produce the evidence), and develop strategies for translating, implementing, and disseminating their findings into evidence-based practice. Within this paradigm, different roles are assumed by the partners, and sometimes these roles are blended. This paper will consider the perspectives of people who assume these different roles (clinician, researcher, and clinician-researcher) with group psychotherapy as the specific focus. Finally, the establishment of a practice-research network will be discussed as a potentially promising way to better engage group therapists in research.

  18. Why "Gender" Disappeared from the Gender Gap: (Re-)Introducing Gender Identity Theory to Educational Gender Gap Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Vermeersch, Hans; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Educational gender gap research tries to explain the differential achievement of boys and girls at secondary school, which manifests in many western countries. Several explanatory frameworks are used for this purpose, such as masculinities theory. In this review article, the history of educational gender gap research in Anglo-Saxon literature and…

  19. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  20. Brokering the Research-Practice Gap: A typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Neal, Zachary P; Kornbluh, Mariah; Mills, Kristen J; Lawlor, Jennifer A

    2015-12-01

    Despite widespread recognition of a research-practice gap in multiple service sectors, less is known about how pre-existing communication channels facilitate the flow of information between researchers and practitioners. In the current study, we applied an existing typology of brokerage developed by Gould and Fernandez (Sociol Methodol 19:89-126, 1989) to examine what types of brokerage facilitate information spread between researchers and educational practitioners. Specifically, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 school administrators and staff in two public school districts regarding their experiences searching for information about instructional, health, and social skills programs. Using deductive content analysis, we found evidence of all five types of brokerage identified by Gould and Fernandez (1989). However, only three types of brokerage-gatekeepers, representatives, and liaisons-were involved in the flow of information between school administrators and researchers. Moreover, information transfer often occurred in longer chains that involved multiple, distinct types of brokerage. We conclude with the broad implications of our findings for narrowing the research-practice gap by improving researchers' dissemination efforts and practitioners' search for information.

  1. Bridging the Gap: The Role of Research in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Michael, P. J.

    2001-12-01

    Teaching in K-12 science classrooms across the country does not accurately model the real processes of science. To fill this gap, programs that integrate science education and research are imperative. Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic (TEA) is a program sponsored and supported by many groups including NSF, the Division of Elementary, Secondary, and Informal Education (ESIE), and the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). It places teachers in partnerships with research scientists conducting work in polar regions. TEA immerses K-12 teachers in the processes of scientific investigation and enables conveyance of the experience to the educational community and public at large. The TEA program paired me with Dr. Peter Michael from the University of Tulsa to participate in AMORE (Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition) 2001. This international mission, combining the efforts of the USCGC Healy and RV Polarstern, involved cutting-edge research along the geologically and geophysically unsampled submarine Gakkel Ridge. While in the field, I was involved with dredge operations, CTD casts, rock cataloging/ processing, and bathymetric mapping. While immersed in these aspects of research, daily journals documented the scientific research and human aspects of life and work on board the Healy. E-mail capabilities allowed the exchange of hundreds of questions, answers and comments over the course of our expedition. The audience included students, numerous K-12 teachers, research scientists, NSF personnel, strangers, and the press. The expedition interested and impacted hundreds of individuals as it was proceeding. The knowledge gained by science educators through research expeditions promotes an understanding of what research science is all about. It gives teachers a framework on which to build strong, well-prepared students with a greater awareness of the role and relevance of scientific research. Opportunities such as this provide valauble partnerships that bridge

  2. A Global Synthesis Reveals Gaps in Coastal Habitat Restoration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Stacy Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems have drastically declined in coverage and condition across the globe. To combat these losses, marine conservation has recently employed habitat restoration as a strategy to enhance depleted coastal ecosystems. For restoration to be a successful enterprise, however, it is necessary to identify and address potential knowledge gaps and review whether the field has tracked scientific advances regarding best practices. This enables managers, researchers, and practitioners alike to more readily establish restoration priorities and goals. We synthesized the peer-reviewed, published literature on habitat restoration research in salt marshes, oyster reefs, and seagrasses to address three questions related to restoration efforts: (i How frequent is cross-sector authorship in coastal restoration research? (ii What is the geographic distribution of coastal restoration research? and (iii Are abiotic and biotic factors equally emphasized in the literature, and how does this vary with time? Our vote-count survey indicated that one-third of the journal-published studies listed authors from at least two sectors, and 6% listed authors from all three sectors. Across all habitat types, there was a dearth of studies from Africa, Asia, and South America. Finally, despite many experimental studies demonstrating that species interactions can greatly affect the recovery and persistence of coastal foundation species, only one-fourth of the studies we examined discussed their effects on restoration. Combined, our results reveal gaps and discrepancies in restoration research that should be addressed in order to further propel coastal restoration science.

  3. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Julie L.; Johnston, Elizabeth; Berndt, Sam; Segal, Katie; Lei, Ming; Wiest, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    The United States has experienced an unsustainable increase of the biomedical research workforce over the past 3 decades. This expansion has led to a myriad of consequences, including an imbalance in the number of researchers and available tenure-track faculty positions, extended postdoctoral training periods, increasing age of investigators at first U.S. National Institutes of Health R01 grant, and exodus of talented individuals seeking careers beyond traditional academe. Without accurate data on the biomedical research labor market, challenges will remain in resolving these problems and in advising trainees of viable career options and the skills necessary to be productive in their careers. We analyzed workforce trends, integrating both traditional labor market information and real-time job data. We generated a profile of the current biomedical research workforce, performed labor gap analyses of occupations in the workforce at regional and national levels, and assessed skill transferability between core and complementary occupations. We conclude that although supply into the workforce and the number of job postings for occupations within that workforce have grown over the past decade, supply continues to outstrip demand. Moreover, we identify practical skill sets from real-time job postings to optimally equip trainees for an array of careers to effectively meet future workforce demand.—Mason, J. L., Johnston, E., Berndt, S., Segal, K., Lei, M., Wiest, J. S. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce. PMID:27075242

  4. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Julie L; Johnston, Elizabeth; Berndt, Sam; Segal, Katie; Lei, Ming; Wiest, Jonathan S

    2016-08-01

    The United States has experienced an unsustainable increase of the biomedical research workforce over the past 3 decades. This expansion has led to a myriad of consequences, including an imbalance in the number of researchers and available tenure-track faculty positions, extended postdoctoral training periods, increasing age of investigators at first U.S. National Institutes of Health R01 grant, and exodus of talented individuals seeking careers beyond traditional academe. Without accurate data on the biomedical research labor market, challenges will remain in resolving these problems and in advising trainees of viable career options and the skills necessary to be productive in their careers. We analyzed workforce trends, integrating both traditional labor market information and real-time job data. We generated a profile of the current biomedical research workforce, performed labor gap analyses of occupations in the workforce at regional and national levels, and assessed skill transferability between core and complementary occupations. We conclude that although supply into the workforce and the number of job postings for occupations within that workforce have grown over the past decade, supply continues to outstrip demand. Moreover, we identify practical skill sets from real-time job postings to optimally equip trainees for an array of careers to effectively meet future workforce demand.-Mason, J. L., Johnston, E., Berndt, S., Segal, K., Lei, M., Wiest, J. S. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce. © FASEB.

  5. Achieving biodiversity benefits with offsets: Research gaps, challenges, and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Vargas, Camila; Carreras, Maria Jose; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Donlan, C Josh

    2017-03-01

    Biodiversity offsets are becoming increasingly common across a portfolio of settings: national policy, voluntary programs, international lending, and corporate business structures. Given the diversity of ecological, political, and socio-economic systems where offsets may be applied, place-based information is likely to be most useful in designing and implementing offset programs, along with guiding principles that assure best practice. We reviewed the research on biodiversity offsets to explore gaps and needs. While the peer-reviewed literature on offsets is growing rapidly, it is heavily dominated by ecological theory, wetland ecosystems, and U.S.-based research. Given that majority of offset policies and programs are occurring in middle- and low-income countries, the research gaps we identified present a number of risks. They also present an opportunity to create regionally based learning platforms focused on pilot projects and institutional capacity building. Scientific research should diversify, both topically and geographically, in order to support the successful design, implementation, and monitoring of biodiversity offset programs.

  6. Research Facility for Mechanical Press Closed Gap Adjuster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ancifirov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an example of the research facility for closed gap adjustment mechanism based on the KD2128 closed-die forging press. Its rated force with a servo drive used is 630kN. The servo drive consists of a motor with nominal power of 1.57kW and a frequency converter with power of 7.5kW, which has functions of the programmable logic controller.The article notes that such a facility is expedient and useful for practical classes on forging-andstamping machines at the BMSTU Department of «Technology processing by pressure» to demonstrate the capabilities of existing technological facility, learn a design of forging-andstamping machine units, solve the problems of automatic control, monitoring, and diagnostics in blank manufacturing.The article presents a detailed facility diagram of the closed gap adjustment mechanism and its photograph, describes the mechanism and its basic parameters, gives characteristics of the synchronous motor to drive the mechanism, reviews practical works, which the research facility may provide.Based on the four experiments the article estimates an efficiency of the research facilityuse under consideration, especially when modeling a servo motor shaft under the maximum load. The relevant diagrams confirm experimental results, namely: control current, angle of motor shaft and its speed versus time. Thus, upon the diagram analysis it can be noted that the research facility design allows providing kinematics and dynamics of the press closed gap adjuster.This article describes how to determine the closed gap adjusting accuracy of the press. Eight experiments have been conducted to evaluate a working out control signal to the linear movement of the press punch when using the research facility. It is noted that the linear positioning accuracy of the press punch reaches the hundredth parts of a millimeter of the adjustment value that is sufficient to achieve the required precision when performing operations such as

  7. Advances, gaps, and future prospects in biological soil crust research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bettina; Büdel, Burkhard; Belnap, Jayne

    2017-04-01

    Research progress has led to the understanding that biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are often complete miniature ecosystems comprising a variety of photosynthesizers (cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes), decomposers like bacteria, fungi, and archaea, and heterotrophic organisms, like protozoa, nematodes, and microarthropods feeding on them. Biocrusts are one of the oldest terrestrial ecosystems, playing central roles in the structure and functioning of dryland ecosystems and presumably also influencing global biogeochemical cycles. On the other hand, biocrusts have been shown to be highly sensitive to global change, being easily destroyed by mechanical disturbance and severely threatened by minor changes in climate patterns. Despite the large increase in biocrust research, we still see major knowledge gaps which need to be tackled. Considering biodiversity studies, there are major regions of potential biocrust occurrence, where hardly any studies have been conducted. Molecular identification techniques are increasingly employed, but genetically characterized entities need to be linked with morphologically identified organisms to identify their ecological roles. Although there is a large body of research on the role of biocrusts in water and nutrient budgets, we are still far from closing the overall cycles. Results suggest that not all mechanisms have been identified, yet, leading to sometimes contradictory results between different studies. Knowledge on how to minimize impact to biocrusts during surface-disturbing activities has hardly been gained, and despite research efforts, instructions on effective biocrust restoration are still exemplary. In order to fill these research gaps, novel scientific approaches are needed. We expect that global research networks could be extremely helpful to answer scientific questions by tackling them within different regions, utilizing the same methodological techniques. Global networks could also be used for long

  8. Investments in tuberculosis research - what are the gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mishal S; Fletcher, Helen; Coker, Richard

    2016-08-25

    Through decades of research, numerous studies have generated robust evidence about effective interventions for tuberculosis control. Yet, the global annual decline in incidence of approximately 1 % is evidence that current approaches and investment strategies are not sufficient. In this article, we assess recent tuberculosis research funding and discuss two critical gaps in funding and in scientific evidence from topics that have been left off the research priority agenda.We first examine research and development funding goals in the 2011-2015 Global Plan to Stop Tuberculosis and analyze disbursements to different research areas by funders worldwide in 2014. We then summarize, through a compilation of published literature and consultation with 35 researchers across multiple disciplines in the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine TB Centre, priorities identified by the tuberculosis research community. Finally, we compare researchers' priority areas to the global funding agendas and activities.Our analysis shows that, among the five key research areas defined in the 2011-2015 Global Plan - namely drugs, basic science, vaccines, diagnostics and operational research - drug discovery and basic science on Mycobacterium tuberculosis accounted for 60 % of the $2 billion annual funding target. None of the research areas received the recommended level of funding. Operational research, which had the lowest target, received 66 % of its target funding, whereas new diagnostics received only 19 %. Although many of the priority research questions identified by researchers fell within the Global Plan categories, our analysis highlights important areas that are not explicitly mentioned in the current plan. These priority research areas included improved understanding of tuberculosis transmission dynamics, the role of social protection and social determinants, and health systems and policy research.While research priorities are increasingly important in light of the

  9. Internet Research Ethics and the Policy Gap for Ethical Practice in Online Research Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, Jacqueline G.; Jacobsen, Michele

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of education and social science researchers design and conduct online research. In this review, the Internet Research Ethics (IRE) policy gap in Canada is identified along with the range of stakeholders and groups that either have a role or have attempted to play a role in forming better ethics policy. Ethical issues that current…

  10. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Credit: CDC A male cayenne tick, Amblyomma cajennense, ... and New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases are becoming ...

  11. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spotted fever on the foot Rocky Mountain spotted fever, petechial rash Antibodies Deer and dog tick References McElligott SC, Kihiczak GG, Schwartz RA. Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other rickettsial infections. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann ...

  12. Bridging the Gap between Climate Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M.; Lambert, K. F.; Buonocore, J.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    The weak link between science and policy jeopardizes the wellbeing of people and the planet. Climate change is a pressing example of this disconnect. Policies are not keeping pace with the best of our knowledge from climate change research. We are working to bridge the science-policy divide and advance climate solutions by focusing on the positive health, ecosystem, and economic benefits of policy action. In 2013, we brought together an interdisciplinary team to estimate the co-benefits of U.S. power plant carbon standards for air quality and health, plus the economic value of the benefits. The results demonstrate that strong carbon standards with flexible compliance options can change the power sector, yielding substantial air quality and health benefits nationwide. The results also show that the economic value of these benefits outweighs the costs nationally and regionally. We advanced the policy applications of this research through a strategic campaign with three key elements: media communication, targeted outreach, and information for policymakers. Our strategy was to build widespread awareness of the research outcomes via media engagement, amplify our message via targeted outreach to citizens groups, and inform policy solutions by sharing research results with decision makers. The research was reported in more than 600 unique news stories in mainstream media outlets and received social media posts by members of Congress and senior White House officials. We amplified the messages via 14 webinars for citizens groups. We also held 16 briefings for policymakers and the public, in addition to meetings with relevant policy staff. Regional, state and federal policy leaders have used the research to understand air quality and health benefits of power plant carbon standards. This model of pairing research with media communication, targeted outreach, and information for policymakers is effective for bridging the gap between climate research and policy, and can be

  13. Evidence-Based Practice in Autism Educational Research: Can We Bridge the Research and Practice Gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldberg, Karen

    2017-01-01

    In order to develop deeper and better understandings of what constitutes effective educational practices, and to bridge the gap between research and practice, there is a need for a paradigm shift in autism educational research. The contribution of this paper is to examine the key methodological challenges that stand in the way of autism…

  14. Filling the gaps in SCWR materials research: advanced nuclear corrosion research facilities in Hamilton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausher, J.L.; Zheng, W.; Li, J.; Guzonas, D.; Botton, G.

    2011-01-01

    Research efforts on materials selection and development in support of the design of supercritical water-cooled reactors (SCWRs) have produced a considerable amount of data on corrosion, creep and other related properties. Summaries of the data on corrosion [1] and stress corrosion cracking [2] have recently been produced. As research on the SCWR advances, gaps and limitations in the published data are being identified. In terms of corrosion properties, these gaps can be seen in several areas, including: 1) the test environment, 2) the physical and chemical severity of the tests conducted as compared with likely reactor service/operating conditions, and 3) the test methods used. While some of these gaps can be filled readily using existing facilities, others require the availability of advanced test facilities for specific tests and assessments. In this paper, highlights of the new materials research facilities jointly established in Hamilton by CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory and McMaster University are presented. (author)

  15. Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  16. Communication of research to practice in library and information science: Closing the gap

    OpenAIRE

    G. Haddow; J. E. Klobas

    2004-01-01

    Reviews the literature in which claims about the gap between research and practice in library and information science, and suggestions for remediation, are made. Provides a classification of the gaps and a model of the process of research-practice communication. Analysis of research results shows only one strategy - researchers publish accounts of their research in practitioner journals - has been demonstrated to effectively close the gap.

  17. A Framework for Rigorously Identifying Research Gaps in Qualitative Literature Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Bloch, Christoph; Kranz, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Identifying research gaps is a fundamental goal of literature reviewing. While it is widely acknowledged that literature reviews should identify research gaps, there are no methodological guidelines for how to identify research gaps in qualitative literature reviews ensuring rigor and replicability....... Our study addresses this gap and proposes a framework that should help scholars in this endeavor without stifling creativity. To develop the framework we thoroughly analyze the state-of-the-art procedure of identifying research gaps in 40 recent literature reviews using a grounded theory approach....... Based on the data, we subsequently derive a framework for identifying research gaps in qualitative literature reviews and demonstrate its application with an example. Our results provide a modus operandi for identifying research gaps, thus enabling scholars to conduct literature reviews more rigorously...

  18. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 3 - vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. In this paper, we report updated findings in the field of FMD vaccine research. This paper consists of the following four sections: 1) Research priorities identified in the 2010 GFRA gap ana...

  19. Ontology-Based Identification of Research Gaps and Immature Research Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Beckers , Kristian; Eicker , Stefan; Faßbender , Stephan; Heisel , Maritta; Schmidt , Holger; Schwittek , Widura

    2012-01-01

    Part 1: Conference; International audience; Researchers often have to understand new knowledge areas, and identify research gaps and immature areas in them. They have to understand and link numerous publications to achieve this goal. This is difficult, because natural language has to be analyzed in the publications, and implicit relations between them have to be discovered. We propose to utilize the structuring possibilities of ontologies to make the relations between publications, knowledge ...

  20. Research on Knowledge Gap Recognition Mechanism of Virtual Industry Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Cheng

    2013-01-01

    As a new organizing form, VIC gets rid of regional limit of traditional cluster, realizing virtual space agglomeration which crossing space and time. Knowledge sharing and complementary is foundation to form VIC and be one of the main goals. As preparation of the knowledge transfer, recognizing and making up for knowledge gap did not caused most scholars' attention. This study argues that, knowledge gap recognition is the premise of knowledge transfer, combined with knowledge theories, the co...

  1. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  2. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-05-01

    To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are 'eco-friendly' or 'green', despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern.

  3. Closing the Gap Between Research and Field Applications for Multi-UAV Cooperative Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    REPORT DATE September 2013 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CLOSING THE GAP BETWEEN RESEARCH AND FIELD...iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited CLOSING THE GAP BETWEEN RESEARCH AND FIELD APPLICATIONS FOR MULTI-UAV COOPERATIVE...the report is to lay the groundwork for future analysis in multi-UAV analysis to close the gap between existing research and efficient multi-UAV

  4. A New Model of Tracheostomy Care: Closing the Research-Practice Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    521 A New Model of Tracheostomy Care: Closing the Research –Practice Gap Joel St. Clair Abstract Performance improvements have brought about...and it continues to close the research - practice gap . The WRAMC Department of Nursing is presently developing similar evidence-based procedures for... Research -Practice Gap 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  5. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume I, introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This guide consists of seven volumes which describe records useful for conducting health-related research at the DOE`s Rocky Flats Plant. Volume I is an introduction, and the remaining six volumes are arranged by the following categories: administrative and general, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, waste management, workplace and environmental monitoring, and employee occupational exposure and health. Volume I briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Project and provides information on the methodology used to inventory and describe the records series contained in subsequent volumes. Volume II describes records concerning administrative functions and general information. Volume III describes records series relating to the construction and routine maintenance of plant buildings and the purchase and installation of equipment. Volume IV describes records pertaining to the inventory and production of nuclear materials and weapon components. Records series include materials inventories, manufacturing specifications, engineering orders, transfer and shipment records, and War Reserve Bomb Books. Volume V describes records series pertaining to the storage, handling, treatment, and disposal of radioactive, chemical, or mixed materials produced or used at Rocky Flats. Volume VI describes records series pertaining to monitoring of the workplace and of the environment outside of buildings onsite and offsite. Volume VII describes records series pertaining to the health and occupational exposures of employees and visitors.

  6. Bridging the clinician/researcher gap with systemic research: the case for process research, dyadic, and sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Megan; Whiting, Jason

    2013-01-01

    In Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT), as in many clinical disciplines, concern surfaces about the clinician/researcher gap. This gap includes a lack of accessible, practical research for clinicians. MFT clinical research often borrows from the medical tradition of randomized control trials, which typically use linear methods, or follow procedures distanced from "real-world" therapy. We review traditional research methods and their use in MFT and propose increased use of methods that are more systemic in nature and more applicable to MFTs: process research, dyadic data analysis, and sequential analysis. We will review current research employing these methods, as well as suggestions and directions for further research. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  7. Research gaps in neonatal HIV-related care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Ann Davies

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African prevention of mother to child transmission programme has made excellentprogress in reducing vertical HIV transmission, and paediatric antiretroviral therapyprogrammes have demonstrated good outcomes with increasing treatment initiation inyounger children and infants. However, both in South Africa and across sub-Saharan African,lack of boosted peri-partum prophylaxis for high-risk vertical transmission, loss to followup,and failure to initiate HIV-infected infants on antiretroviral therapy (ART before diseaseprogression are key remaining gaps in neonatal HIV-related care. In this issue of the Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine, experts provide valuable recommendations for addressingthese gaps. The present article highlights a number of areas where evidence is lacking toinform guidelines and programme development for optimal neonatal HIV-related care.

  8. Diffusion of Innovation Theory: A Bridge for the Research-Practice Gap in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine E.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a diffusion of innovation theory-based framework for addressing the gap between research and practice in the counseling profession. The author describes the nature of the research-practice gap and presents an overview of diffusion of innovation theory. On the basis of the application of several major postulates of diffusion…

  9. The gap-startle paradigm to assess auditory temporal processing: Bridging animal and human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Philippe; Hébert, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The gap-prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (GPIAS) paradigm is the primary test used in animal research to identify gap detection thresholds and impairment. When a silent gap is presented shortly before a loud startling stimulus, the startle reflex is inhibited and the extent of inhibition is assumed to reflect detection. Here, we applied the same paradigm in humans. One hundred and fifty-seven normal-hearing participants were tested using one of five gap durations (5, 25, 50, 100, 200 ms) in one of the following two paradigms-gap-embedded in or gap-following-the continuous background noise. The duration-inhibition relationship was observable for both conditions but followed different patterns. In the gap-embedded paradigm, GPIAS increased significantly with gap duration up to 50 ms and then more slowly up to 200 ms (trend only). In contrast, in the gap-following paradigm, significant inhibition-different from 0--was observable only at gap durations from 50 to 200 ms. The finding that different patterns are found depending on gap position within the background noise is compatible with distinct mechanisms underlying each of the two paradigms. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Research Market Gap in Law Enforcement Technology: Lessons from Czech Security Research Funding Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Moravec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While security research funding schemes are nothing new to the EU (Horizon 2020 and FP7, or to several Member States, their priorities and procedures are usually decided administratively or shaped by advisory groups of varying membership. Only recently did the EU shift its focus to the role of end users in security research programmes, seeking their input in order to maximise the utility of funded solutions. Such a hint to limited usefulness of some industrial solutions is not exactly inconspicuous. This paper discusses the gap between the stated needs of law enforcement agencies in terms of R&D funding and the grant project applications in the area of law enforcement. It aims to define and describe the gap, and consequently the market opportunities, between the supply and demand sides represented by industry-driven grant project applications and end-user-formulated calls. The study is based on empirical data from two Czech security research funding programmes that have been running since 2010 and should deliver their results by 2015. It seeks to contribute some preliminary observations about the structure of both end user needs and industry capabilities in such a particular area as law enforcement technology.

  11. Closing the translation gap for justice requirements in international research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Zion, Deborah; Lwin, Khin Maung; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Nosten, Francois; Loff, Bebe

    2012-09-01

    Bioethicists have long debated the content of sponsors and researchers' obligations of justice in international clinical research. However, there has been little empirical investigation as to whether and how obligations of responsiveness, ancillary care, post-trial benefits and research capacity strengthening are upheld in low- and middle-income country settings. In this paper, the authors argue that research ethics guidelines need to be more informed by international research practice. Practical guidance on how to fulfil these obligations is needed if research groups and other actors are to successfully translate them into practice because doing so is often a complicated, context-specific process. Case study research methods offer one avenue for collecting data to develop this guidance. The authors describe how such methods have been used in relation to the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit's vivax malaria treatment (VHX) trial (NCT01074905). Relying on the VHX trial example, the paper shows how information can be gathered from not only international clinical researchers but also trial participants, community advisory board members and research funder representatives in order to: (1) measure evidence of responsiveness, provision of ancillary care, access to post-trial benefits and research capacity strengthening in international clinical research; and (2) identify the contextual factors and roles and responsibilities that were instrumental in the fulfilment of these ethical obligations. Such empirical work is necessary to inform the articulation of obligations of justice in international research and to develop guidance on how to fulfil them in order to facilitate better adherence to guidelines' requirements.

  12. Bridging the Gap: A Canadian Perspective on Translational Kidney Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber O Molnar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of review: Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 3 million Canadians. Ongoing investment in high quality kidney research is needed to improve the care of patients with kidney disease. The barriers to translating such research are discussed in this review. Sources of information: Personal knowledge, research funding body websites, and published reports. Findings: In this review, we discuss the meaning of the term translational research and present some of the programs aimed at ensuring efficient translation of scientific discoveries with a discussion of the barriers to translation. We highlight some successes and barriers to kidney research translation using recent examples of research in Canadian nephrology. We present the following examples of kidney research: (1 research aimed at identifying the causative genes for inherited kidney diseases; (2 recent discoveries in cell-based therapies for kidney disease; (3 an examination of the impact of acute kidney injury in renal transplant patients; and (4 the development of a kidney failure risk equation to improve prognosis accuracy. Limitations: This review focuses on research conducted by the authors. Implications: The process of research translation is prolonged and challenging and therefore requires resources, patience, and careful planning. With increased awareness and understanding of the barriers to research translation, researchers and funding bodies can work together to increase the rate at which important research findings reach clinical practice and improve the care of patients with kidney disease.

  13. Accounting Research on Health Care - trends and gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmmose, Margit

    2018-01-01

    and 1990s have gradually changed to a performance measure focus and different atypical areas, signalling increased nuances in the role of accounting in the health care sector. Thus, although the majority of the existing accounting literature has focused on NPM market reforms, NPM health care reform is far......This study reviews three hundred seventeen accounting studies in health care from the past forty years. In addition to a traditional description of the theory and methods applied, this review focuses on the countries that have been studied, the stakeholder perspectives that have been represented...... through data collection and the longitudinal accounting topic focuses that have been developed. The findings illuminate trends and gaps in the literature. Specifically, this study identifies a growing trend of applying interviews as a method of data collection, which increases the possibility...

  14. Closing the Gaps: Health Equity Research Initiative in India | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India's shortage of research on health inequities The Commission on Social ... project's activities will also include establishing a network of health equity researchers. ... Strength in collaboration and numbers The project will help increase the connections between previously disconnected researchers, civil ... Site internet.

  15. Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: Implementation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Prelock, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article introduces implementation science, which focuses on research methods that promote the systematic application of research findings to practice. Method: The narrative defines implementation science and highlights the importance of moving research along the pipeline from basic science to practice as one way to facilitate…

  16. Research rigor and the gap between academic journals and business practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Perea, Eva; Brady, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    • Purpose: This paper examines the engagement of business practitioners with academic business research. The main purpose is to assess whether there is a gap between academic research and business people, and, if so, how to bridge this gap. • Design/methodology/approach: Over 150 senior business practitioners were surveyed, in order to capture their views on the usefulness of academic research to them in their roles as practicing managers. Survey questions covered both their current acce...

  17. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  18. Gaps and strategies in developing health research capacity: experience from the Nigeria Implementation Science Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Menson, William Nii Ayitey; Patel, Dina; Aarons, Gregory; Olutola, Ayodotun; Obiefune, Michael; Dakum, Patrick; Okonkwo, Prosper; Gobir, Bola; Akinmurele, Timothy; Nwandu, Anthea; Khamofu, Hadiza; Oyeledun, Bolanle; Aina, Muyiwa; Eyo, Andy; Oleribe, Obinna; Ibanga, Ikoedem; Oko, John; Anyaike, Chukwuma; Idoko, John; Aliyu, Muktar H; Sturke, Rachel

    2018-02-12

    Despite being disproportionately burdened by preventable diseases than more advanced countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) continue to trail behind other parts of the world in the number, quality and impact of scholarly activities by their health researchers. Our strategy at the Nigerian Implementation Science Alliance (NISA) is to utilise innovative platforms that catalyse collaboration, enhance communication between different stakeholders, and promote the uptake of evidence-based interventions in improving healthcare delivery. This article reports on findings from a structured group exercise conducted at the 2016 NISA Conference to identify (1) gaps in developing research capacity and (2) potential strategies to address these gaps. A 1-hour structured group exercise was conducted with 15 groups of 2-9 individuals (n = 94) to brainstorm gaps for implementation, strategies to address gaps and to rank their top 3 in each category. Qualitative thematic analysis was used. First, duplicate responses were merged and analyses identified emerging themes. Each of the gaps and strategies identified were categorised as falling into the purview of policy-makers, researchers, implementing partners or multiple groups. Participating stakeholders identified 98 gaps and 91 strategies related to increasing research capacity in Nigeria. A total of 45 gaps and an equal number of strategies were ranked; 39 gaps and 43 strategies were then analysed, from which 8 recurring themes emerged for gaps (lack of sufficient funding, poor research focus in education, inadequate mentorship and training, inadequate research infrastructure, lack of collaboration between researchers, research-policy dissonance, lack of motivation for research, lack of leadership buy-in for research) and 7 themes emerged for strategies (increased funding for research, improved research education, improved mentorship and training, improved infrastructure for research, increased collaboration between

  19. Knowledge gaps and research recommendations for essential tremor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopfner, F.; Haubenberger, D.; Galpern, W.R.; Gwinn, K.; Veer, A. van der; White, S.; Bhatia, K.; Adler, C.H.; Eidelberg, D.; Ondo, W.; Stebbins, G.T.; Tanner, C.M.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Lenz, F.A.; Sillitoe, R.V.; Vaillancourt, D.; Vitek, J.L.; Louis, E.D.; Shill, H.A.; Frosch, M.P.; Foroud, T.; Kuhlenbaumer, G.; Singleton, A.; Testa, C.M.; Hallett, M.; Elble, R.; Deuschl, G.

    2016-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is a common cause of significant disability, but its etiologies and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Research has been hampered by the variable definition of ET and by non-standardized research approaches. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (USA)

  20. Development of a framework to identify research gaps from systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen A; Saldanha, Ian J; McKoy, Naomi A

    2011-12-01

    Our objective was to develop a framework to identify research gaps from systematic reviews. We reviewed the practices of (1) evidence-based practice centers (EPCs), and (2) other organizations that conduct evidence syntheses. We developed and pilot tested a framework for identifying research gaps. Four (33%) EPCs and three (8%) other organizations reported using an explicit framework to determine research gaps. Variations of the PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcomes) framework were most common. We developed a framework incorporating both the characterization of the gap using PICOS elements (also including setting) and the identification of the reason(s) why the gap exists as (1) insufficient or imprecise information, (2) biased information, (3) inconsistency or unknown consistency, and (4) not the right information. We mapped each of these reasons to concepts from three common evidence-grading systems. Our framework determines from systematic reviews where the current evidence falls short and why or how the evidence falls short. This explicit identification of research gaps will allow systematic reviews to maximally inform the types of questions that need to be addressed and the types of studies needed to address the research gaps. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 6 - immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. This has been updated with findings reported in a series of papers. Here we present findings for FMD immunology research. The paper consists of the following four sections: 1. Research prior...

  2. Extension Systems in Tanzania: Identifying Gaps in Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Tanzania on agricultural extension systems; review research globally on agricultural ... cal techniques, unique results and major recommendations. .... participation in decision-making, natural .... soil and water management technologies in.

  3. Bridging two translation gaps: a new informatics research agenda for telemonitoring of chronic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardisty, A.R.; Peirce, S.C.; Preece, A.; Bolton, C.E.; Conley, E.C.; Gray, W.A.; Rana, O.F.; Yousef, Z.; Elwyn, G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose a research agenda that addresses technological and other knowledge gaps in developing telemonitoring solutions for patients with chronic diseases, with particular focus on detecting deterioration early enough to intervene effectively. DESIGN: A mixed methods approach

  4. Cochrane systematic reviews are useful to map research gaps for decreasing maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Evelina; Reveiz, Ludovic; Chambliss, Amy; Sangalang, Stephanie; Bonfill, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    To use an "evidence-mapping" approach to assess the usefulness of Cochrane reviews in identifying research gaps in the maternal health. The article describes the general mapping, prioritizing, reconciling, and updating approach: (1) identifying gaps in the maternal health research using published systematic reviews and formulating research questions, (2) prioritizing questions using Delphi method, (3) reconciling identified research priorities with the existing literature (i.e., searching of ongoing trials in trials registries), (4) updating the process. A comprehensive search of Cochrane systematic reviews published or updated from January 2006 to March 2011 was performed. We evaluated the "Implications for Research" section to identify gaps in the research. Our search strategy identified 695 references; 178 systematic reviews identifying at least one research gap were used. We formulated 319 research questions, which were classified into 11 different categories based on the direct and indirect causes of maternal mortality: postpartum hemorrhage, abortion, hypertensive disorders, infection/sepsis, caesarean section, diabetes, pregnancy prevention, preterm labor, other direct causes, indirect causes, and health policies and systems. Most research questions concerned the effectiveness of clinical interventions, including drugs (42.6%), nonpharmacologic interventions (16.3%), and health system (14.7%). It is possible to identify gaps in the maternal health research by using this approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of Gap Model in the Researches of Hotel Services Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Blešić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the research results of the hotel services quality by applying Gap model and SERVQUAL questionnaire. The research was conducted in five health spa centers in the West Morava river valley region during August and September 2008. The reach is aimed at testing of Gap model, i.e. identification of exceptions when the hotel services quality in the observed sample is concerned.

  6. Efforts to Bridge the Gap between Research and Practice in Social Work: Precedents and Prospects: Keynote Address at the Bridging the Gap Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This keynote address discusses previous and ongoing efforts to reduce the persistent gap between research and practice in social work and offers recommendations for further bridging that gap. Key among those recommendations is the need to conduct descriptive outcome studies of efforts to adapt research-supported interventions in everyday practice…

  7. Writing and translation process research: Bridging the gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Dam-Jensen & Carmen Heine

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Writing and translation are traditionally addressed as two different objects of study. However, they also share many characteristics - as revealed by the research carried out in the two fields, which often uses the same methods to investigate both areas. In this introduction, it is suggested that writing and translation can be studied as types of text production. Different dimensions of text production are sketched as examples of research topics at the interface between writing and translation. The two articles that follow this introduction explore two such dimensions: competence and profiles.

  8. MATWIN: bridging the gap between academic research and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiffers, Josy; Robert, Lucia

    2015-09-16

    MATWIN (Maturation and Accelerating Translation With INdustry) is part of the nationwide effort to support cancer innovation. This unique program is willing to support innovative research projects providing tools, resources, and staff dedicated to project leaders wishing to optimize the industrial attractiveness of their project. The overall objective is clear: fight cancer always more effectively.

  9. Research gaps identified during systematic reviews of clinical trials: glass-ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickenautsch, Steffen

    2012-06-29

    To report the results of an audit concerning research gaps in clinical trials that were accepted for appraisal in authored and published systematic reviews regarding the application of glass-ionomer cements (GIC) in dental practice Information concerning research gaps in trial precision was extracted, following a framework that included classification of the research gap reasons: 'imprecision of information (results)', 'biased information', 'inconsistency or unknown consistency' and 'not the right information', as well as research gap characterization using PICOS elements: population (P), intervention (I), comparison (C), outcomes (O) and setting (S). Internal trial validity assessment was based on the understanding that successful control for systematic error cannot be assured on the basis of inclusion of adequate methods alone, but also requires empirical evidence about whether such attempt was successful. A comprehensive and interconnected coverage of GIC-related clinical topics was established. The most common reasons found for gaps in trial precision were lack of sufficient trials and lack of sufficient large sample size. Only a few research gaps were ascribed to 'Lack of information' caused by focus on mainly surrogate trial outcomes. According to the chosen assessment criteria, a lack of adequate randomisation, allocation concealment and blinding/masking in trials covering all reviewed GIC topics was noted (selection- and detection/performance bias risk). Trial results appear to be less affected by loss-to-follow-up (attrition bias risk). This audit represents an adjunct of the systematic review articles it has covered. Its results do not change the systematic review's conclusions but highlight existing research gaps concerning the precision and internal validity of reviewed trials in detail. These gaps should be addressed in future GIC-related clinical research.

  10. Research gaps identified during systematic reviews of clinical trials: glass-ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickenautsch Steffen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report the results of an audit concerning research gaps in clinical trials that were accepted for appraisal in authored and published systematic reviews regarding the application of glass-ionomer cements (GIC in dental practice Methods Information concerning research gaps in trial precision was extracted, following a framework that included classification of the research gap reasons: ‘imprecision of information (results’, ‘biased information’, ‘inconsistency or unknown consistency’ and ‘not the right information’, as well as research gap characterization using PICOS elements: population (P, intervention (I, comparison (C, outcomes (O and setting (S. Internal trial validity assessment was based on the understanding that successful control for systematic error cannot be assured on the basis of inclusion of adequate methods alone, but also requires empirical evidence about whether such attempt was successful. Results A comprehensive and interconnected coverage of GIC-related clinical topics was established. The most common reasons found for gaps in trial precision were lack of sufficient trials and lack of sufficient large sample size. Only a few research gaps were ascribed to ‘Lack of information’ caused by focus on mainly surrogate trial outcomes. According to the chosen assessment criteria, a lack of adequate randomisation, allocation concealment and blinding/masking in trials covering all reviewed GIC topics was noted (selection- and detection/performance bias risk. Trial results appear to be less affected by loss-to-follow-up (attrition bias risk. Conclusion This audit represents an adjunct of the systematic review articles it has covered. Its results do not change the systematic review’s conclusions but highlight existing research gaps concerning the precision and internal validity of reviewed trials in detail. These gaps should be addressed in future GIC-related clinical research.

  11. Rocky Flats Compliance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) (OTD) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The primary objective of the Office of Technology Development, Rocky Flats Compliance Program (RFCP), is to develop altemative treatment technologies for mixed low-level waste (wastes containing both hazardous and radioactive components) to use in bringing the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) into compliance with Federal and state regulations and agreements. Approximately 48,000 cubic feet of untreated low-level mixed waste, for which treatment has not been specified, are stored at the RFP. The cleanup of the Rocky Flats site is driven by agreements between DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Under these agreements, a Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan (CTMP) was drafted to outline the mechanisms by which RFP will achieve compliance with the regulations and agreements. This document describes DOE's strategy to treat low-level mixed waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and sets specific milestones related to the regulatory aspects of technology development. These milestones detail schedules for the development of technologies to treat all of the mixed wastes at the RFP. Under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the CTMP has been incorporated into Rocky Flats Plant Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP). The CSTP will become the Rocky Flats Plant site Treatment Plan in 1995 and will supersede the CTMP

  12. Timber productivity research gaps for extensive forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.C. Irland

    2011-01-01

    On extensive areas of small scale forests, significant opportunities for improving the value of future timber harvests while also improving other resource values are now being missed. A new focus on practical extensive management research is needed, especially as implementation of intensive practices has been declining in many areas, and new ‘‘close to nature’’...

  13. Identification of gaps in the national research effort related to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M.C.; Plews, M.; Kane, P.

    1987-08-01

    Based on papers submitted to the Government's Radioactivity Research and Environmental Monitoring Committee (RadREM), this report presents a consolidated summary of perceived research requirements for 1988/89 and a comparison with the research proposed for that period. On this basis, discussion is included of gaps in the national research effort to 1989, duplication of research plans and areas where better co-ordination or funding of research might be appropriate. (author)

  14. Science For Sendai - Bridging the gap between research and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, J.

    2015-12-01

    Disasters have an enormous cost in lives and livelihoods, but the use of rigorous evidence-based scientific approaches to minimise their impact remains poor. Vast amounts of science which could be readily applied for disaster risk reduction (DRR) is under-utilised, if used at all. Previous international agreements have failed to change this picture, but there is a clear call from the international community that the 2015 Sendai framework should make a difference; it is thus re-appraising how to bridge the chasm that exists between DRR relevant scientists and potential users of their research. There is widespread recognition of the need for risk affected countries and communities to engage in science-based decision-making, but several barriers, such as a lack of infrastructure or necessary skills, institutions, and enforcement of science-based policies require significant attention. There are now incentives for governments to respond: the framework has science embedded throughout and it sets-out national targets against which science uptake can be monitored; similarly, widening access to insurance also demands sound science. Advances such as open-data and models, increasing computational capacity, expanding networks, evolving diverse mobile technologies and the other multiple facets of the big data agenda, also should drive change. So, how does the scientific community need to adapt? Whilst vast amounts of 'DRR-relevant' science has been produced, too little of it can be readily used in DRR science. Much remains highly disciplinary and focused on analysis of limited distributions or single processes with a small number of agents; by contrast real-world DRR problems are commonly complex, with multiple drivers and uncertainties. There is a major need for a trans-disciplinary DRR-focused risk research agenda to evolve. Not only do research funders need to develop and resource risk research, but researchers themselves need to identify that focussing on the bigger risk

  15. Using Electronic Communication to Bridge the Research to Practice Gap among Mentoring Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy Ann; Willox, Lara; Olds, Courtney

    2017-01-01

    The field of mentoring includes a broad base of stakeholders, such as researchers and practitioners who implement mentoring programs. The research-to-practice gap is an ongoing area of concern in many fields of social science including mentoring. One reason for this is that researchers and practitioners often operate in isolation. Technology is…

  16. 76 FR 72957 - 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of Psychological Health and Traumatic... is hereby given of the ``4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and... Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland. This year's event focuses on bridging the gap between research and...

  17. Perceptions and experiences of a gender gap at a Canadian research institute and potential strategies to mitigate this gap: a sequential mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Moore, Julia E; Tricco, Andrea C; Hamid, Jemila; Daly, Caitlin; Bain, Julie; Jassemi, Sabrina; Kiran, Tara; Baxter, Nancy; Straus, Sharon E

    2017-01-01

    The gender gap in academia is long-standing. Failure to ensure that our academic faculty reflect our student pool and national population deprives Canada of talent. We explored the gender distribution and perceptions of the gender gap at a Canadian university-affiliated, hospital-based research institute. We completed a sequential mixed-methods study. In phase 1, we used the research institute's registry of scientists (1999-2014) and estimated overall prevalence of a gender gap and the gap with respect to job description (e.g., associate v. full-time) and research discipline. In phase 2, we conducted qualitative interviews to provide context for phase 1 data. Both purposive and snowball sampling were used for recruitment. The institute included 30.1% ( n = 62) women and 69.9% ( n = 144) men, indicating a 39.8% gender gap. Most full-time scientists (60.3%, n = 70) were clinicians; there were 54.2% more male than female clinician scientists. Ninety-five percent of basic scientists were men, indicating a 90.5% gap. Seven key themes emerged from 21 interviews, including perceived impact of the gender gap, factors perceived to influence the gap, recruitment trends, presence of institutional support, mentorship and suggestions to mitigate the gap. Several factors were postulated to contribute to the gender gap, including unconscious bias in hiring. A substantial gender gap exists within this research institute. Participants identified strategies to address this gap, such as establishing transparent search processes, providing opportunities for informal networking and mentorship of female scientists and establishing institutional support for work-life balance.

  18. Bridging the Gap between Instructional and Research Laboratories: Teaching Data Analysis Software Skills through the Manipulation of Original Research Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sarah J. R.; Zhu, Jieling; Karch, Jessica M.; Sorrento, Cristina M.; Ulichny, Joseph C.; Kaufman, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    The gap between graduate research and introductory undergraduate teaching laboratories is often wide, but the development of teaching activities rooted within the research environment offers an opportunity for undergraduate students to have first-hand experience with research currently being conducted and for graduate students to develop…

  19. The mycetoma knowledge gap: identification of research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Wendy W J; Maghoub, El Sheikh; Fahal, Ahmed H; Goodfellow, Michael; Welsh, Oliverio; Zijlstra, Ed

    2014-03-01

    Mycetoma is a tropical disease which is caused by a taxonomically diverse range of actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma). The disease was only recently listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a neglected tropical disease (NTD). This recognition is the direct result of a meeting held in Geneva on February 1, 2013, in which experts on the disease from around the world met to identify the key research priorities needed to combat mycetoma. The areas that need to be addressed are highlighted here. The initial priority is to establish the incidence and prevalence of the disease in regions where mycetoma is endemic, prior to determining the primary reservoirs of the predominant causal agents and their mode of transmission to susceptible individuals in order to establish novel interventions that will reduce the impact of the disease on individuals, families, and communities. Critically, economical, reliable, and effective methods are required to achieve early diagnosis of infections and consequential improved therapeutic outcomes. Molecular techniques and serological assays were considered the most promising in the development of novel diagnostic tools to be used in endemic settings. Improved strategies for treating eumycetoma and actinomycetoma are also considered.

  20. A research study to determine the effect of Total Quality Management (TQM) on employee morale in Plant Procedures Division at EG&G, Rocky Flats, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Erleen F. [Univ. of Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1994-01-01

    EG&G at Rocky Flats, Golden, Colorado, experienced a high amount of low morale, due to the plant site having been designated to close, and the uneasiness of the working force was very visible. Some employees accepted early retirement in October 1992, however, all received letters of 120 days notice in March 1993, and were advised several cuts Would be made by October 1, 1993. This information alone caused many insecurities in employees, and caused morale to decrease even more. This is an in depth study of morale, which was upgraded in Plant Procedures Group (PPG), through the effect of TQM. The primary research included a survey of employees with results included. The study also increased additional questions in PPG, some of which were added to the agenda of the Process Improvement Team (PIT) to improve PPG in the eyes of customers. Statistics did show that morale improved, not necessarily because of TQM or the progress of the Process Improvement Team (PIT), but due to efforts of the staff implementing the principles of TQM the best they knew how.

  1. Translational research: bridging the gap between long-term weight loss maintenance research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jeremy D; Estabrooks, Paul A; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-10-01

    The number of US adults classified as overweight or obese has dramatically increased in the past 25 years, resulting in a significant body of research addressing weight loss and weight loss maintenance. However, little is known about the potential of weight loss maintenance interventions to be translated into actual practice settings. Thus, the purpose of this article is to determine the translation potential of published weight loss maintenance intervention studies by determining the extent to which they report information across the reach, efficacy/effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. A secondary purpose is to provide recommendations for research based on these findings. To identify relevant research articles, a literature search was conducted using four databases; 19 weight loss maintenance intervention studies were identified for inclusion. Each article was evaluated using the RE-AIM Coding Sheet for Publications to determine the extent to which dimensions related to internal and external validity were reported. Approximately half of the articles provided information addressing three RE-AIM dimensions, yet only a quarter provided information addressing adoption and maintenance. Significant gaps were identified in understanding external validity, and metrics that could facilitate the translation of these interventions from research to practice are presented. Based upon this review, it is unknown how effective weight loss maintenance interventions could be in real-world situations, such as clinical or community practice settings. Future studies should be planned to address how weight loss maintenance intervention programs will be adopted and maintained, with special attention to costs for participants and for program implementation. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mind the gap: social media engagement by public health researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brett; Labrique, Alain; Jain, Kriti M; Pekosz, Andrew; Levine, Orin

    2014-01-14

    The traditional vertical system of sharing information from sources of scientific authority passed down to the public through local health authorities and clinicians risks being made obsolete by emerging technologies that facilitate rapid horizontal information sharing. The rise of Public Health 2.0 requires professional acknowledgment that a new and substantive forum of public discourse about public health exists on social media, such as forums, blogs, Facebook, and Twitter. Some public health professionals have used social media in innovative ways: to surveil populations, gauge public opinion, disseminate health information, and promote mutually beneficial interactions between public health professionals and the lay public. Although innovation is on the rise, most in the public health establishment remain skeptical of this rapidly evolving landscape or are unclear about how it could be used. We sought to evaluate the extent to which public health professionals are engaged in these spaces. We conducted a survey of professorial- and scientist-track faculty at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We asked all available faculty via email to complete a 30-question survey about respondent characteristics, beliefs about social media, and usage of specific technologies, including blogs, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. A total of 181 (19.8%) of 912 professor- and scientist-track faculty provided usable responses. The majority of respondents rarely used major social media platforms. Of these 181 respondents, 97 (53.6%) had used YouTube, 84 (46.4%) had used Facebook, 55 (30.4%) had read blogs, and 12 (6.6%) had used Twitter in the prior month. More recent degree completion was the best predictor of higher usage of social media. In all, 122 (67.4%) agreed that social media is important for disseminating information, whereas only 55 (30.4%) agreed that social media is useful for their research. In all, 43 (23.8%) said social media

  3. Discovering the Literacy Gap: A Systematic Review of Reading and Writing Theories in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Tracey S.; Feng, Luxi; Kuo, Li-Jen; McTigue, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Research is failing to consistently report theoretical frameworks, increasing the gap between research and practice, and increasing the difficulty teachers face in effectively matching interventions with student needs. However, this lack of theoretical understanding has not been well documented in the current literature. The purpose of this…

  4. Bridging the Gap between Academic Research and Regional Development in the Basque Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, James; Larrea, Miren; Wilson, James R.; Aranguren, Mari Jose

    2012-01-01

    The discussion in this article focuses on how the gap between academic knowledge and regional development can be bridged, creating conditions for change processes between researchers and regional agents. Institutional entrepreneurs can create regional development organisations and research organisations, but in order to fulfil regional needs it is…

  5. Bridging the Gap: A Research-Based Approach for Teaching Interdisciplinary Science to Undergraduate Freshman Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica; Comeau, Dawn; Liddle, Kathleen; Khanna, Nikki; Perrone, Lisa; Palmer, Katrina; Lynn, David

    2006-01-01

    A new program, On Recent Discoveries by Emory Researchers (ORDER), has been developed as a bridge across the ever-widening gap between graduate and undergraduate education in the sciences. This bridge is created by merging the needs of graduate/postdoctoral students to educate more interdisciplinary scholars about their research discoveries with…

  6. Using a research framework to identify knowledge gaps in research on food marketing to children in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget; King, Lesley

    2009-06-01

    Research in the field of food marketing to children requires a better understanding of the research gaps in order to inform policy development. The purpose of this paper was to propose a framework for classifying food marketing research, using Australian research on food marketing to children to demonstrate how this framework can be used to determine knowledge gaps. A literature review of research databases and 'grey' material was conducted to identify research from the previous 10 years. Studies were classified according to their research focus, and media type, as either: exposure, including content analyses; effects of exposure, including opinions, attitudes and actions resulting from food marketing exposure; regulations, including the type and level of regulation that applies to food marketing; or breaches of regulations, including instances where marketing regulations have been violated. The majority of Australian research on food marketing to children has focused on television advertising and exposure research. Research has consistently shown that the content of food marketing directed at children is predominately for unhealthy foods. There is a lack of research on the effects of food marketing, which would be valuable to inform policy. The development of a logical framework for food marketing research allows for the identification of research gaps and enables research priorities to be identified.

  7. The research-practice relationship in ergonomics and human factors--surveying and bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Shorrock, Steven T

    2011-05-01

    Significant discord has been aired regarding the widening research-practice gap in several disciplines (e.g. psychology, healthcare), especially with reference to research published in academic journals. The research-practice gap has profound and wide-ranging implications for the adequacy of ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) research and the implementation of research findings into practice. However, no substantive research on this issue has been identified in E/HF. Using an online questionnaire, practitioners were asked about their application of scientific research findings published in peer-reviewed journals and to suggest ways to improve research application in practice. A total of 587 usable responses were collected, spanning 46 countries. This article describes some of the key differences and correlations concerning reading, usefulness and barriers to application among respondents, who varied in terms of organisational type, percentage of work time devoted to application vs. research, society membership and experience. Various solutions proposed by the survey respondents on ways to bridge the research-practice gap are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between research and practice in E/HF has long been a subject of discussion, with commentators pointing to tension and possible implications for the adequacy of the discipline. Findings from a cross-sectional survey provide ergonomics practitioners' views on research, leading to discussion of strategies for achieving better integration.

  8. Closing the research to practice gap in children's mental health: structures, solutions, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter S; Foster, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Failure to apply research on effective interventions spans all areas of medicine, including children's mental health services. This article examines the policy, structural, and economic problems in which this gap originates. We identify four steps to close this gap. First, the field should develop scientific measures of the research-practice gap. Second, payors should link incentives to outcomes-based performance measures. Third, providers and others should develop improved understanding and application of effective dissemination and business models. Fourth, efforts to link EBP to clinical practice should span patient/consumers, providers, practices, plans, and purchasers. The paper discusses each of these in turn and relates them to fundamental problems of service delivery.

  9. Cross-disciplinary research in cancer: an opportunity to narrow the knowledge-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, R; Grunfeld, E; Jackson, L; Sargeant, J; Porter, G A

    2013-12-01

    Health services researchers have consistently identified a gap between what is identified as "best practice" and what actually happens in clinical care. Despite nearly two decades of a growing evidence-based practice movement, narrowing the knowledge-practice gap continues to be a slow, complex, and poorly understood process. Here, we contend that cross-disciplinary research is increasingly relevant and important to reducing that gap, particularly research that encompasses the notion of transdisciplinarity, wherein multiple academic disciplines and non-academic individuals and groups are integrated into the research process. The assimilation of diverse perspectives, research approaches, and types of knowledge is potentially effective in helping research teams tackle real-world patient care issues, create more practice-based evidence, and translate the results to clinical and community care settings. The goals of this paper are to present and discuss cross-disciplinary approaches to health research and to provide two examples of how engaging in such research may optimize the use of research in cancer care.

  10. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 2 - epidemiology, wildlife and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research ings in the fields of (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of foot-and- economics. Although the three sections, epidemiology, wildlife and economics are presented as separate entities, the fields are ...

  11. The challenge and future of rocky desertification control in karst areas in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Dai, M. H.; Wang, L. C.; Zeng, C. F.; Su, W. C.

    2016-01-01

    Karst rocky desertification occurs after vegetation deteriorates as a result of intensive land use, which leads to severe water loss and soil erosion and exposes basement rocks, creating a rocky landscape. Karst rocky desertification is found in humid areas in southwest China, the region most seriously affected by rocky desertification in the world. In order to promote ecological restoration and help peasants out of poverty, the Chinese government carried out the first phase of a rocky desertification control project from 2006 to 2015, which initially contained the expansion of rocky desertification. Currently, the Chinese government is prepared to implement the second phase of the rocky desertification control project, and therefore it is essential to summarise the lessons learned over the last 10 years of the first phase. In this paper, we analyse the driving social and economic factors behind rocky desertification, summarise the scientific research on rocky desertification in the region, and finally identify the main problems facing rocky desertification control. In addition, we put forward several policy suggestions that take into account the perspective of local peasants, scientific research, and China's economic development and urbanisation process. These suggestions include promoting the non-agriculturalization of household livelihoods, improving ecological compensation, strengthening the evaluation of rocky desertification control and dynamic monitoring, and strengthening research on key ecological function recovery technologies and supporting technologies.

  12. Top IS research on quality of transaction standards: a structured literature review to identify a research gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Berends, W.; Oude Luttighuis, P.; Hillegersberg, J. van

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains the results of a systematic literature review executed to determine the coverage of transaction standards in top information systems (IS) and management journals. Specifically, it aims to identify a research gap with respect to this topic. The top 25 journals are thoroughly

  13. The Data Gap in the EHR for Clinical Research Eligibility Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Alex; Wei, Wei; Yuan, Chi; Kang, Tian; Si, Yuqi; Weng, Chunhua

    2018-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to leverage EHR data for matching patients into clinical trials. However, EHRs may not contain all important data elements for clinical research eligibility screening. To better design research-friendly EHRs, an important step is to identify data elements frequently used for eligibility screening but not yet available in EHRs. This study fills this knowledge gap. Using the Alzheimer's disease domain as an example, we performed text mining on the eligibility criteria text in Clinicaltrials.gov to identify frequently used eligibility criteria concepts. We compared them to the EHR data elements of a cohort of Alzheimer's Disease patients to assess the data gap by usingthe OMOP Common Data Model to standardize the representations for both criteria concepts and EHR data elements. We identified the most common SNOMED CT concepts used in Alzheimer 's Disease trials, andfound 40% of common eligibility criteria concepts were not even defined in the concept space in the EHR dataset for a cohort of Alzheimer 'sDisease patients, indicating a significant data gap may impede EHR-based eligibility screening. The results of this study can be useful for designing targeted research data collection forms to help fill the data gap in the EHR.

  14. Research on monitoring technology of axial gap change about high-speed rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaochan; Liu Fanglei; Hu Shihua; Xie Qing; Li Zhen

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes that the only measuring point of high-speed rotating machinery (speed monitoring transducer) measuring the operation of the axial gap change and application. According to mechanism analysis the speed monitoring transducer's signal, prove its amplitude changes including the axial gap change information. To carry out the speed monitoring transducer qualitative and quantitative axial gap change research, Find the output signal amplitude and clearance change corresponding relationship formula of speed monitoring transducer, define the measurement method. Based on the above analsis, manufacture the single channel measurement devices and multiple unit measurement system, provide an important fault decision of high-speed rotating machinery, it can be applied to new equipment development and production. (authors)

  15. A review of higher education image and reputation literature: Knowledge gaps and a research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Lafuente-Ruiz-de-Sabando

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions are investing increasing resources in order to achieve favourable perceptions among their stakeholders. However, image and reputation management is a complex issue and how stakeholders perceive universities does not always coincide with the image the latter wish to project. For this reason, in this article we address a review of the literature on higher education image and reputation to identify the main knowledge gaps and establish the research lines that merit deeper examination in the future. The gaps identified highlight the need to improve knowledge about the way perceptions (image and reputation of university institutions are shaped, pinpointing the dimensions or essential aspects that influence their formation and determining whether their degree of influence differs when considering the perspectives of different stakeholders or individuals from different geographical areas. Theoretical propositions related to the identified gaps have been set out.

  16. Closing the gap in travel medicine: reframing research questions for a new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Leder, Karin; Wilson, Mary E

    2017-07-01

    Travel medicine needs are changing. New patterns of travel, including greater travel by individuals from emerging economies with different values in costs, risks and benefits, must be considered. This review aims to (1) highlight selected studies that have been published that address previously identified gaps in knowledge; (2) propose possible ways to consider questions regarding travel medicine practice for travelers from emerging economies, underscoring priorities for research focusing on these important populations; (3) highlight potential deficiencies in relevance of current international guidelines as they pertain to travelers from emerging economies; (4) frame research questions for travelers from emerging economies and (5) consider roles for ISTM in closing the gap. We reviewed past travel medicine research priorities published in 2010 to identify publications that responded to some research questions posed. We also reviewed CDC and WHO recommendations and assessed their applicability to travelers from emerging economies. Recent publications have responded to some research questions, but gaps remain and new questions have emerged. Re-framing of several key research questions is needed for travelers from emerging economies. A new challenge looms for traditional travel medicine fields to identify and attend to knowledge and guideline gaps, particularly to rethink questions regarding travel medicine to make them relevant for travelers from emerging economies. The International Society of Travel Medicine is well positioned to assist emerging economies assess their resources and needs, formulate research priorities and tailor the development of travel medicine into a framework aligned to their requirements. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Top IS research on quality of transaction standards: a structured literature review to identify a research gap

    OpenAIRE

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Berends, W.; Oude Luttighuis, P.; Hillegersberg, J. van

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains the results of a systematic literature review executed to determine the coverage of transaction standards in top information systems (IS) and management journals. Specifically, it aims to identify a research gap with respect to this topic. The top 25 journals are thoroughly searched and the selected publications are classified in order to make grounded statements. A moderate amount of literature found specifically aims at transaction standards. Hardly any research is found...

  18. Forests under climate change and air pollution: gaps in understanding and future directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Calfapietra, C; de Vries, W; Dizengremel, P; Ernst, D; Jolivet, Y; Mikkelsen, T N; Mohren, G M J; Le Thiec, D; Tuovinen, J-P; Weatherall, A; Paoletti, E

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems ("supersites") will be conducive to addressing these gaps by enabling integration of experimentation and modelling within the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, as well as further model development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Kepler's first rocky planet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batalha, N.M.; Borucki, W.J.; Bryson, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Kepler Mission uses transit photometry to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets in or near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The mission reached a milestone toward meeting that goal: the discovery of its first rocky planet, Kepler-10b. Two distinct sets of transit events were...... tests on the photometric and pixel flux time series established the viability of the planet candidates triggering ground-based follow-up observations. Forty precision Doppler measurements were used to confirm that the short-period transit event is due to a planetary companion. The parent star is bright...

  20. Bridging the Gap: Who Takes a Gap Year and Why? Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David D.; Mlotkowski, Peter; Lumsden, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Taking a break between completing high school and entering university is common overseas, and is becoming more popular in Australia. There are many reasons why young people take a gap year. It may be to travel, to take a break, to study, or to work. The authors' definition of a "gapper" is a young person who commenced university one to…

  1. Bridging the Measurement Gap Between Research and Clinical Care in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Opler, Mark G A; Correll, Christoph U

    2017-01-01

    studies suggest that the much briefer PANSS-6 is a psychometrically valid measure of core positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and that the scale is sensitive to symptom improvement following pharmacological treatment. SNAPSI is a brief interview that yields the information needed to rate PANSS......There is currently a "measurement gap" between research and clinical care in schizophrenia. The main reason behind this gap is that the most widely used rating scale in schizophrenia research, the 30-item Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), takes so long to administer that it is rarely......-item PANSS in clinical practice; 2) how the brief, six-item version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-6) was derived empirically from the full 30-item PANSS and what the initial results obtained with PANSS-6 entail; and 3) how PANSS-6 ratings, guided by the newly developed, 15...

  2. The Research Plan: Closing the ExMC Med02 "Pharmacy" Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Vernie; Bayuse, Tina; Mulcahy, Robert; Shah, Ronak; Antonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    HRP Human Research Roadmap: Risk and Gap Risk of Adverse Health Outcomes and Decrements in Performance due to Inflight Medical Conditions. Med02 "Pharmacy" Gap: We do not have the capability to provide a safe and effective medication formulary for exploration missions delivering a recommendation for a chemically stable, safe, and effective medication formulary that will support the operational needs of exploration space missions research strategy evidence-based formulary and models innovative analytical tools and methodologies novel treatments and preventive measures Planned review by a panel of experts from the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory, and academic scientific communities Formulary Selection Formulary Potency and Shelf life Formulary Safety and Toxicity Novel Technology Proof-of-Concept Portable real-time chemical analysis Innovative drug development / design

  3. Corporate reputation and CSR reporting to stakeholders: Gaps in the literature and future lines of research

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Ruiz, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the underdeveloped stream of research that analyses corporate reputation as an outcome of corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting. Design/methodology/approach - The author systematically reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on the CSR reporting-reputation relationship, identify several gaps in the body of knowledge and provide new lines of study to develop this relevant stream of researc...

  4. NITARP: Bridging the Gap Between the Traditional Science Classroom and Authentic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalnaker, Olivia K.; Evans, Sam; Rutherford, Thomas; Taylor, John; Rebull, Luisa

    2018-01-01

    In this poster, the differences between what occurs in the traditional secondary science classroom and what happens in the actual research world is examined. Secondary classroom teachers generally have limited, if any, research experience beyond what is presented through their undergraduate college lab coursework. A disparity exists between classroom laboratory work and professional research. Opportunities like NITARP provide research elements that bridge this gap. NITARP teams are in a unique situation, joining a small team working alongside Caltech researchers on cutting edge investigations in astrophysics. In this poster it is shown how the NITARP program provides key components and experiences to expand the skill sets that teachers bring to their classrooms, bridging the gap between the typical secondary classroom and the world of the professional researcher. The NASA/IPAC program immerses participating teachers into a year-long training experience via online and face-to-face learning that translates into enhanced instruction at the secondary level. This work was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program.

  5. An undergraduate course to bridge the gap between textbooks and scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegant, Fred; Scager, Karin; Boonstra, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a one-semester Advanced Cell Biology course that endeavors to bridge the gap between gaining basic textbook knowledge about cell biology and learning to think and work as a researcher. The key elements of this course are 1) learning to work with primary articles in order to get acquainted with the field of choice, to learn scientific reasoning, and to identify gaps in our current knowledge that represent opportunities for further research; 2) formulating a research project with fellow students; 3) gaining thorough knowledge of relevant methodology and technologies used within the field of cell biology; 4) developing cooperation and leadership skills; and 5) presenting and defending research projects before a jury of experts. The course activities were student centered and focused on designing a genuine research program. Our 5-yr experience with this course demonstrates that 1) undergraduate students are capable of delivering high-quality research designs that meet professional standards, and 2) the authenticity of the learning environment in this course strongly engages students to become self-directed and critical thinkers. We hope to provide colleagues with an example of a course that encourages and stimulates students to develop essential research thinking skills.

  6. School nurses can address existing gaps in school-age sleep research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A; Kieckhefer, Gail M

    2013-06-01

    Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults. School-age children exhibit increasing independence around health-related behaviors, which provide health professionals the opportunity to educate and promote healthy sleep behaviors. This commentary extends previous research reviews by identifying the current gaps in sleep research, highlighting future directions needed in sleep research, and explaining why school nurses are best suited to address this growing public health issue.

  7. Forests under climate change and air pollution: Gaps in understanding and future directions for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Calfapietra, C.; Vries, W. de; Dizengremel, P.; Ernst, D.; Jolivet, Y.; Mikkelsen, T.N.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Le Thiec, D.; Tuovinen, J.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems (“supersites”) will be conducive to addressing these gaps by enabling integration of experimentation and modelling within the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, as well as further model development. - Highlights: ► Research needs are identified for forests under climate change and air pollution. ► Abiotic–biotic interactions in response impede tree-ecosystem upscaling. ► Integration of empirical and modelling research is advocated. ► The concept of multi-scale investigations at novel “Supersites” is propagated. ► “Supersites” warrant mechanistic understanding of soil-plant-atmosphere interface. - Forests under climate change and air pollution require empirical and modelling research needs to be integrated at novel “Supersites” through multi-scale investigations.

  8. Innovative Competency Gap Analysis; A Malaysian Nuclear Research Institute Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhd Husamuddin A Khalil; Zakaria Taib; Zuraida Zainudin; Munira Shaikh Nasir; Abul Adli Anuar

    2015-01-01

    Human resource development has become an essential component to the development process of Research and Development institute like Malaysian Nuclear Agency as it relies heavily on a specialized and highly trained work force for its technical capability and sustainability. In this paper, it is urged that human resource development be supported by appropriate survey tools to achieve its one of the most important objective which is to prepare training platforms that follow-through from the systematic competency gap analysis approach. The purpose of this study was to find the competency needs and investigate the competency gaps in Malaysia Nuclear Agency using modified Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs for Regulatory Bodies of Nuclear Facilities (SARCoN) tools by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) based on basic, applied and specialized Science and Technology area of expertise. To achieve this purpose, the secretariat identified the appropriate competency statements based on each Division and investigation has been done on all the researchers to find the competency gaps via survey using SARCoN tools. On this ground, it has been concluded that a lot of competency on specialized subject matters need to be systematically analyzed using innovative analytical method that yield 2 important parameters: i. organizational core competencies; ii. Personnel core competencies. From a before and after comparison, it is concluded that the new strategy is better placed to manage the training and educational programme to preserve the sustainability of subject matter experts of nuclear HRD in this organization and Malaysia as a whole. (author)

  9. Integrating research into clinical internship training bridging the science/practice gap in pediatric psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Spirito, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a "capstone experience"; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the "business of science." Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists.

  10. Integrating Research Into Clinical Internship Training Bridging the Science/Practice Gap in Pediatric Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a “capstone experience”; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the “business of science.” Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists. PMID:22286345

  11. Closing the Gap between Research Evidence and Clinical Practice: Jordanian Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Research Utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad; Musa, Ahmad S.; Al-Khawaldeh, Omar A.; Al Qudah, Hani; Alhabahbeh, Atalla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nursing profession is a combination of theory and practical skill, and nurses are required to generate and develop knowledge through implementing research into clinical practice. Considerable number of barriers could hind implementing research findings into practice. Barriers to research utilisation are not identified in the…

  12. The Work-family Field: Gaps and Missing Links as Opportunities for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherina Kuschel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a synthesis and a critique of the development of the existing workfamily (WF literature during the last decade in order to highlight gaps and limitations in current research. The study revises 83 peer-reviewed articles, book chapters and conference presentations (2004-2014 related to WF in economics, management and psychology disciplines, and classifies the current research into three broad themes for future research paths: i definitions and theories; ii background and outcomes of wf conflict, balance and enrichment; and iii methodological gaps. Advances have been made this decade on meta-analysis and the understanding of the positive side of WF interface. Future research opportunities in this field will include a deeper understanding of how to effectively cope with WF conflict, how to achieve WF enrichment, the use of different methods (qualitative, longitudinal and experimental studies on samples of new occupations, and how researchers could address methodological problems (causality, endogeneity, simultaneity, effect size, and self-selection bias to better handle the complexity of WF issues.

  13. Barriers to participation in mental health research: findings from the Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Anna; Howard, Louise; Morgan, Craig

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate why people with a first episode of psychosis choose or decline to participate in mental health research, using a qualitative study design. Participants were recruited via referrals from the Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) study. A total of 26 individuals with a first-episode of psychosis (nine of whom declined participation in the GAP study and 17 who participated) were individually interviewed and asked about their attitudes towards mental health research participation. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was used to determine dominant themes and sub-themes on what constituted barriers and facilitators to participation. Reasons for research participation identified included a desire to help others, curiosity, and positive experiences with clinicians. Decisions to participate or not were also influenced by practical issues, including the timing of the approach, researchers' communication skills and whether individuals had concerns that it may be potentially harmful to their health. Other barriers to participation included patients' conceptualizations of mental health problems and the influence of other inpatients. Information on barriers and facilitators to recruitment in mental health research could inform recruitment strategies, thereby maximizing recruitment rates and minimizing the risk of selection biases.

  14. Mapping the global research landscape and knowledge gaps on multimorbidity: a bibliometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaolin; Mishra, Gita D; Jones, Mark

    2017-06-01

    To summarize global research trends and activities on multimorbidity; then to assess the knowledge gaps and to identify implications for knowledge exchange between high income countries (HICs) and low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). A comprehensive search was conducted to identify research publications on multimorbidity in the Web of Science TM , as well as diabetes, depression, hypertension, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The time frame for the search was from 1900 to June, 2016. Information (such as publication date, subject category, author, country of origin, title, abstract, and keywords) were extracted and the full texts were obtained for the co-citation analysis. Data were linked with the life expectancy at birth (years) and Gross National Income (GNI). Co-citation and hierarchal clustering analysis was used to map the trends and research networks with CiteSpace II (JAVA freeware, copyright Chaomei Chen, http://cluster.cis.drexel.edu/~cchen/citespace/). We identified 2864 relevant publications as at June 2016, with the first paper on this topic indexed in 1974 from Germany, but 80% were published after 2010. Further analysis yielded two knowledge gaps: (1) compared with single conditions (diabetes, hypertension, depression, and COPD), there is a mismatch between the high prevalence of multimorbidity and its research outputs (ratio of articles on multimorbidity vs other four single conditions is 1:13-150); (2) although a total of 76 countries have contributed to this research area, only 5% of research originated from LMICs where 73% of non-communicable disease (NCD) related deaths had occurred. Additional analysis showed the median year of first publication occurred 15 years later in the LMICs compared with HICs (2010 vs 1995); and longer life expectancy was associated with exponentially higher publication outputs (Pearson correlation coefficient r  = 0.95) at the global level. The life expectancy at the median year (1994) of

  15. Exposing ecological and economic costs of the research-implementation gap and compromises in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareksela, Santtu; Moilanen, Atte; Ristaniemi, Olli; Välivaara, Reima; Kotiaho, Janne S

    2018-02-01

    The frequently discussed gap between conservation science and practice is manifest in the gap between spatial conservation prioritization plans and their implementation. We analyzed the research-implementation gap of one zoning case by comparing results of a spatial prioritization analysis aimed at avoiding ecological impact of peat mining in a regional zoning process with the final zoning plan. We examined the relatively complex planning process to determine the gaps among research, zoning, and decision making. We quantified the ecological costs of the differing trade-offs between ecological and socioeconomic factors included in the different zoning suggestions by comparing the landscape-level loss of ecological features (species occurrences, habitat area, etc.) between the different solutions for spatial allocation of peat mining. We also discussed with the scientists and planners the reasons for differing zoning suggestions. The implemented plan differed from the scientists suggestion in that its focus was individual ecological features rather than all the ecological features for which there were data; planners and decision makers considered effects of peat mining on areas not included in the prioritization analysis; zoning was not truly seen as a resource-allocation process and not emphasized in general minimizing ecological losses while satisfying economic needs (peat-mining potential); and decision makers based their prioritization of sites on site-level information showing high ecological value and on single legislative factors instead of finding a cost-effective landscape-level solution. We believe that if the zoning and decision-making processes are very complex, then the usefulness of science-based prioritization tools is likely to be reduced. Nevertheless, we found that high-end tools were useful in clearly exposing trade-offs between conservation and resource utilization. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Identifying knowledge gaps for gene drive research to control invasive animal species: The next CRISPR step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Moro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive animals have been linked to the extinctions of native wildlife, and to significant agricultural financial losses or impacts. Current approaches to control invasive species require ongoing resources and management over large geographic scales, and often result in the short-term suppression of populations. New and innovative approaches are warranted. Recently, the RNA guided gene drive system based on CRISPR/Cas9 is being proposed as a potential gene editing tool that could be used by wildlife managers as a non-lethal addition or alternative to help reduce pest animal populations. While regulatory control and social acceptance are crucial issues that must be addressed, there is an opportunity now to identify the knowledge and research gaps that exist for some important invasive species. Here we systematically determine the knowledge gaps for pest species for which gene drives could potentially be applied. We apply a conceptual ecological risk framework within the gene drive context within an Australian environment to identify key requirements for undertaking work on seven exemplar invasive species in Australia. This framework allows an evaluation of the potential research on an invasive species of interest and within a gene drive and risk context. We consider the currently available biological, genetic and ecological information for the house mouse, European red fox, feral cat, European rabbit, cane toad, black rat and European starling to evaluate knowledge gaps and identify candidate species for future research. We discuss these findings in the context of future thematic areas of research worth pursuing in preparation for a more formal assessment of the use of gene drives as a novel strategy for the control of these and other invasive species. Keywords: Invasive species, Gene drive, CRISPR, Pest management, Islands

  17. Mind the gap: implementation challenges break the link between HIV/AIDS research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Reisner, Sari; Hoffmann, Michael; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Nunn, Amy; Bastos, Leonardo; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite de; Kerr, Ligia; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Dourado, Inês

    2016-11-03

    Sampling strategies such as respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and time-location sampling (TLS) offer unique opportunities to access key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. Limited work has assessed implementation challenges of these methods. Overcoming implementation challenges can improve research quality and increase uptake of HIV services among key populations. Drawing from studies using RDS in Brazil and TLS in Peru, we summarize challenges encountered in the field and potential strategies to address them. In Brazil, study site selection, cash incentives, and seed selection challenged RDS implementation with MSM. In Peru, expansive geography, safety concerns, and time required for study participation complicated TLS implementation with MSM and transgender women. Formative research, meaningful participation of key populations across stages of research, and transparency in study design are needed to link HIV/AIDS research and practice. Addressing implementation challenges can close gaps in accessing services among those most burdened by the epidemic.

  18. Mind the gaps in research on the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of farmed ruminants and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlier, J; Thamsborg, S M; Bartley, D J

    2018-01-01

    , to support the development of roadmaps and strategic research agendas by governments, industry and policymakers. These priorities were derived from the DISCONTOOLS gap analysis for nematodes and follow-up discussions within the recently formed Livestock Helminth Research Alliance (LiHRA). In the face......Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode control has an important role to play in increasing livestock production from a limited natural resource base and to improve animal health and welfare. In this synthetic review, we identify key research priorities for GI nematode control in farmed ruminants and pigs......-use and farm husbandry changes. More emphasis needs to be placed on the upfront evaluation of the economic value of these innovations as well as the socio-psychological aspects to prioritize research and facilitate uptake of innovations in practice. Finally, targeted regulatory guidance is needed to create...

  19. Bridging the gap from research-to-high-technology ventures with experienced entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Murdock, Karen; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    2015-01-01

    t: The paper outlines an initiative undertaken to increase the number of spin-outs from a research university. The Bridging the Gap (BtG) model takes a systematic approach to identify and match experienced external entrepreneurs at a very early stage in the technological development process...... with university researchers to improve the technology spin-out process. The experiences, market insight and network connections of experienced entrepreneurs when combine with technical knowledge and capabilities of the researchers create a strong resource base for start-ups. This strong resource base can shorten...... the actual time taken to spin-out a technology and also increase the prospects for the emerging start-ups to achieve sustainable growth. The empirical evidence to support the model comes from two research departments at the Technical University of Denmark....

  20. Mind the gap: implementation challenges break the link between HIV/AIDS research and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Reisner, Sari; Hoffmann, Michael; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Nunn, Amy; Bastos, Leonardo; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Kerr, Ligia; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Dourado, Inês

    2018-01-01

    Sampling strategies such as respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and time-location sampling (TLS) offer unique opportunities to access key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. Limited work has assessed implementation challenges of these methods. Overcoming implementation challenges can improve research quality and increase uptake of HIV services among key populations. Drawing from studies using RDS in Brazil and TLS in Peru, we summarize challenges encountered in the field and potential strategies to address them. In Brazil, study site selection, cash incentives, and seed selection challenged RDS implementation with MSM. In Peru, expansive geography, safety concerns, and time required for study participation complicated TLS implementation with MSM and transgender women. Formative research, meaningful participation of key populations across stages of research, and transparency in study design are needed to link HIV/AIDS research and practice. Addressing implementation challenges can close gaps in accessing services among those most burdened by the epidemic. PMID:27828609

  1. Practical recommendations to help students bridge the research-implementation gap and promote conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietri, Diana M; Gurney, Georgina G; Benitez-Vina, Nancy; Kuklok, Audrey; Maxwell, Sara M; Whiting, Libby; Vina, Michael A; Jenkins, Lekelia D

    2013-10-01

    Seasoned conservation researchers often struggle to bridge the research-implementation gap and promote the translation of their work into meaningful conservation actions. Graduate students face the same problems and must contend with obstacles such as limited opportunities for relevant interdisciplinary training and a lack of institutional support for application of research results. However, students also have a crucial set of opportunities (e.g., access to academic resources outside their degree programs and opportunities to design research projects promoting collaboration with stakeholders) at their disposal to address these problems. On the basis of results of breakout discussions at a symposium on the human dimensions of the ocean, a review of the literature, and our own experiences, we devised recommendations on how graduate students can create resources within their academic institutions, institutionalize resources, and engage with stakeholders to promote real-world conservation outcomes. Within their academic institutions, graduate students should foster links to practitioners and promote knowledge and skill sharing among students. To institutionalize resources, students should cultivate student leaders and faculty sponsors, systematically document their program activities, and engage in strategic planning to promote the sustainability of their efforts. While conducting research, students should create connections to and engage actively with stakeholders in their relevant study areas and disseminate research results both to stakeholders and the broader public. Our recommendations can serve as a template for graduate students wishing to bridge the research-implementation gap, both during their current studies and in their future careers as conservation researchers and practitioners. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Income Inequality and the Online Reading Gap: Teaching Our Way to Success With Online Research and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Donald J.; Forzani, Elena; Kennedy, Clint

    2015-01-01

    A recent study in "Reading Research Quarterly" provided evidence that an online reading achievement gap, based on income inequality, exists that is separate and independent from the well-known achievement gap in offline reading. This column briefly reviews the evidence and provides an initial set of instructional suggestions that may be…

  3. Integrated Knowledge Translation and Grant Development: Addressing the Research Practice Gap through Stakeholder-informed Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joanna; Brownlie, Elizabeth; Rosenkranz, Susan; Chaim, Gloria; Beitchman, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    We describe our stakeholder engagement process for grant application development that occurred as part of our integrated knowledge translation plan and make recommendations for researchers. In phase 1, a stakeholder consultation group was developed. In phase 2, surveys regarding knowledge gathering, research agenda, and research collaboration preferences were sent to 333 cross-sectoral youth-serving organizations in Ontario, including family and consumer organizations. In phase 1, 28 stakeholders from six sectors participated in the consultation group and provided input on multiple aspects of the proposal. Through this process, 19 stakeholders adopted formal roles within the project. In phase 2, 206 surveys were received (response rate = 62%). Survey responses supported the grant focus (concurrent youth mental health and substance use problems). Respondents also prioritized project goals and provided specific feedback on research and knowledge translation. Finally, although some stakeholders chose greater involvement, most survey respondents indicated a preference for a moderate level of participation in research rather than full team membership. Despite short timelines and feasibility challenges, stakeholders can be meaningfully engaged in and contribute to the grant proposal development process. Consideration is needed for the practical challenges that stakeholder organizations face in supporting and participating in research.

  4. Enhancing the Employability of Chinese International Students: Identifying Achievements and Gaps in the Research Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemeng Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article shows what achievements have been made by existing studies on graduate employability, and what gaps need to be filled in this field. It starts with a retrospective account of the changing concept of employability, followed by a presentation of the practices that have been used to support graduate employability enhancement in different countries. Moreover, this article gives a critical review of Chinese contexts of graduate labour market. Last but not least, limitations of existing studies are identified, which reflect an expectation for future research on graduate employability to meet the demand of an increasingly international dimension of higher education.

  5. Enhancing the hermeneutic single-case efficacy design: Bridging the research-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jessie M; Kwee, Janelle L; Hu, Monica; McDonald, Marvin J

    2017-09-01

    Systematic case study designs are emerging as alternative paradigm strategies for psychotherapy and social science research. Through enhanced sensitivity to context, these designs examine idiographic profiles of causal processes. We specifically advocate the use of the hermeneutic single-case efficacy design (HSCED). HSCED has recently been used to investigate the efficacy of an existing therapy with a new population (Observed and Experiential Integration for athlete performance barriers) and an emerging therapy (Lifespan Integration Therapy). We describe innovations in HSCED that were implemented for these studies. These developments include (a) integrating psychotherapists as case developers, (b) incorporating multiple cases in one investigation, and (c) tailoring the repertoire of assessment tools. These extensions strategically incorporated principles of contextual paradigms in HSCED, thus complementing single-case designs that neglect idiographic contexts. We discuss recommendations for using HSCED in practice-based research, highlighting its potential as a bridge to address the research-practice gap.

  6. Forests under climate change and air pollution: Gaps in understanding and future directions for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Calfapietra, C.

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between...... changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research...... for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems (“supersites”) will be conducive to addressing...

  7. Bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beronius, Anna; Hanberg, Annika; Zilliacus, Johanna; Rudén, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory risk assessment is traditionally based primarily on toxicity studies conducted according to standardized and internationally validated test guidelines. However, health risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is argued to rely on the efficient integration of findings from academic research. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of current developments to facilitate the use of academic research in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals and how certain aspects of study design and reporting are particularly important for the risk assessment process. By bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of EDCs, scientific uncertainty in risk assessment conclusions can be reduced, allowing for better targeted policy decisions for chemical risk reduction. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Mind the Gap: Promoting Careers in Academic Research to Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posporelis, Sotirios; Sawa, Akira; Smith, Gwenn S.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Chisolm, Margaret S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the shift of interest in psychiatry towards patient-oriented research with clinically relevant outcomes, there is a critical need for well-trained psychiatrist-scientists. The authors report on two developmentally-tailored, longitudinal research training curricula designed to use peer mentoring to bridge the gap between physicians and scientists, and to promote careers in academic research. Methods The authors instituted two independent research training curricula, one for first-year and one for second-to-fourth year psychiatry residents, spanning two campuses of one institutional residency training program. Each curriculum’s participants included psychiatry residents and peer scientific investigators, and both were attended by senior scientists and departmental leaders. The authors developed and administered an anonymous survey at the end of the first cycle of the first-year resident curriculum to assess participant attitudes. Results The first-year and second-to-fourth-year resident curricula have been implemented for 3and 2 years respectively. The authors observed overall participant satisfaction with the first-year curricula, independent of trainee status. Furthermore, first-year psychiatry residents reported increased interest in academic research careers after exposure to the curricula. Conclusions Results suggest it is possible to encourage academic research careers using peer mentoring, an innovative approach that requires minimal funding, little disruption to the residents’ schedule, and engages the gamut of individuals involved in psychiatry care and research: psychiatrists-in-training and young non-clinician scientists-in-training. PMID:24497181

  9. The construct-behavior gap in behavioral decision research: A challenge beyond replicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Robinson, Maria M

    2017-10-01

    Behavioral decision research compares theoretical constructs like preferences to behavior such as observed choices. Three fairly common links from constructs to behavior are (1) to tally, across participants and decision problems, the number of choices consistent with one predicted pattern of pairwise preferences; (2) to compare what most people choose in each decision problem against a predicted preference pattern; or (3) to enumerate the decision problems in which two experimental conditions generate a 1-sided significant difference in choice frequency 'consistent' with the theory. Although simple, these theoretical links are heuristics. They are subject to well-known reasoning fallacies, most notably the fallacy of sweeping generalization and the fallacy of composition. No amount of replication can alleviate these fallacies. On the contrary, reiterating logically inconsistent theoretical reasoning over and again across studies obfuscates science. As a case in point, we consider pairwise choices among simple lotteries and the hypotheses of overweighting or underweighting of small probabilities, as well as the description-experience gap. We discuss ways to avoid reasoning fallacies in bridging the conceptual gap between hypothetical constructs, such as, for example, "overweighting" to observable pairwise choice data. Although replication is invaluable, successful replication of hard-to-interpret results is not. Behavioral decision research stands to gain much theoretical and empirical clarity by spelling out precise and formally explicit theories of how hypothetical constructs translate into observable behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Bridging the gap between research and practice: The development of a digital library of research syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Julie; Edlin, April; Sandelowski, Margarete; Lambe, Camille

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of a digital library as a resource for clinicians and researchers working with women with HIV infection. We wanted to find a new way of communicating the findings from the 114 studies that we used as the method case. The development of the SandBar Digital Library (http://sonweb.unc.edu/sandbar), a product of a 5-year project to develop the analytic techniques for qualitative metasynthesis, is described from its inception, including analyses of the potential users and how they might use such a resource. The Digital Library evolved over a 3-year period, with continuous feedback from a group of researchers and clinicians who are also experts in the care of HIV-positive people. It provides a concise and comprehensive compilation of findings in two major areas of concern for the seropositive women who were the participants in the studies: motherhood and stigma.

  11. Current Understandings of the Research-Practice Gap From the Viewpoint of Complementary Medicine Academics: A Mixed-Method Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Matthew J; Tucker, Basil

    Research plays an important role in advancing health and healthcare. However, much research evidence is not reflected in contemporary complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practice. Understanding and addressing the reasons for this research-practice gap may have positive implications for quality of care. To shed light on the gap between research and CAM practice. Descriptive cross-sectional, mixed-method study. A total of 126 senior CAM academics across Australasia, Europe, UK, and North America. Participants completed a 30-item online survey and a semi-structured interview; both of which explored the research-practice gap in CAM. A total of 43 (34%) academics completed the survey, with 29 (67%) respondents undergoing an interview. There was general agreement among respondents that CAM research should be informed by practice, and practice informed by research; however, most agreed that this did not reflect the current situation. Translational issues were perceived to be the primary reason for the research-practice gap in CAM. Suggested strategies for closing the gap focussed mostly around improving CAM student/practitioner education and training, and researcher-practitioner engagement and collaboration. Study findings point toward the presence of a research-practice gap in CAM, with several factors likely to be instrumental in sustaining this gap. Attention now needs to focus on understanding the views of CAM clinicians on this issue. Insights gained from this research will help inform the development of a multi-modal strategy that will effectively target the barriers to change in order to bring CAM research and practice closer together. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wildfire smoke exposure and human health: Significant gaps in research for a growing public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carolyn; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Bassein, Jed A; Miller, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on human health represents a unique interdisciplinary challenge to the scientific community. Population health studies indicate that wildfire smoke is a risk to human health and increases the healthcare burden of smoke-impacted areas. However, wildfire smoke composition is complex and dynamic, making characterization and modeling difficult. Furthermore, current efforts to study the effect of wildfire smoke are limited by availability of air quality measures and inconsistent air quality reporting among researchers. To help address these issues, we conducted a substantive review of wildfire smoke effects on population health, wildfire smoke exposure in occupational health, and experimental wood smoke exposure. Our goal was to evaluate the current literature on wildfire smoke and highlight important gaps in research. In particular we emphasize long-term health effects of wildfire smoke, recovery following wildfire smoke exposure, and health consequences of exposure in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. What do human factors and ergonomics professionals value in research publications? Re-examining the research-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Williamson, Ann; Shorrock, Steven T

    2014-01-01

    The research-practice gap is of concern in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) as there is a belief that HF/E research may not be making an impact on practice in the 'real world'. A potential issue is what researchers and practitioners perceive as important in HF/E journal articles as a primary means of conveying research findings to practitioners. This study examined the characteristics that make scientific journal articles appeal to HF/E researchers and practitioners using a web-based survey. HF/E researchers and practitioners were more similar than expected in judgements of important attributes and the selection of articles. Both practitioners and researchers considered practical significance to be more important than theoretical significance, in direct contrast to professionals from a related discipline--psychology. Well-written articles were appreciated across disciplines. The results signal a strong interest in practical applications in HF/E, but a relative lack of focus on development of theories that should be the basis for practical applications.

  14. The Longitudinal Study of Aging in Human Young Adults: Knowledge Gaps and Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Belsky, Daniel W; Danese, Andrea; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2017-02-01

    To prevent onset of age-related diseases and physical and cognitive decline, interventions to slow human aging and extend health span must eventually be applied to people while they are still young and healthy. Yet most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease, and little is known about aging in healthy young humans. This article explains how this knowledge gap is a barrier to extending health span and puts forward the case that geroscience should invest in researching the pace of aging in young adults. As one illustrative example, we describe an initial effort to study the pace of aging in a young-adult birth cohort by using repeated waves of biomarkers collected across the third and fourth decades to quantify the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (eg, pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, metabolic, and immune function). Findings provided proof of principle that it is possible to quantify individual variation in the pace of aging in young adults still free of age-related diseases. This article articulates research needs to improve longitudinal measurement of the pace of aging in young people, to pinpoint factors that slow or speed the pace of aging, to compare pace of aging against genomic clocks, to explain slow-aging young adults, and to apply pace of aging in preventive clinical trials of antiaging therapies. This article puts forward a research agenda to fill the knowledge gap concerning lifelong causes of aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Rocky road in the Rockies: Challenges to biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomback, Diana F.; Kendall, Katherine C.; Baron, Jill S.

    2002-01-01

    To people worldwide, the Rocky Mountains of the United States and Canada represent a last bastion of nature in its purest and rawest form-unspoiled forests teeming with elk and deer stalked by mountain lions and grizzly bears; bald eagles nesting near lakes and rivers; fat, feisty native trout in rushing mountain streams; and dazzling arrays of wildflowers in lush meadows. In fact, the total biodiversity of the Rocky Mountains is considerable, with relatively high diversity in birds, mammals, butterflies, reptiles, and conifers (Ricketts et al. 1999) and with geographic variation in the flora and fauna of alpine, forest, foothill, and adjacent shortgrass prairie and shrub communities over more than 20 degrees of latitude and more than 10' of longitude. Although the biodiversity of most North American regions has declined because of anthropogenic influences, the perception remains that the biodiversity of the Rocky Mountains is intact. This view exists in part because the Rocky Mountains are remote from urban centers, in part because so much of the land comprises protected areas such as national parks and wilderness areas, and in part because of wishful thinking-that nothing bad could happen to the biodiversity that is so much a part of the history, national self-image, legends, nature films, and movies of the United States and Canada. Despite modern technology and the homogenization and globalization of their cities and towns, at heart North Americans still regard their land as the New World, with pristine nature and untamed landscapes epitomized by the Rockies. The reality is that the biodiversity of the Rocky Mountains has not been free of anthropogenic influences since the West was settled in the 1800s, and in fact it was altered by Native Americans for centuries prior to settlement. A number of escalating problems and consequences of management choices are currently changing Rocky Mountain ecological communities at a dizzying pace. In Order to maintain some

  16. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Research on Climate Change Policies and Rural Development in Latin America: Scope and Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Locatelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on climate change policies can contribute to policy development by building an understanding of the barriers faced in policy processes, and by providing knowledge needed throughout policy cycles. This paper explores the thematic coverage of research on climate change policies related to rural areas, rural development, and natural resource management in Latin America. A three-tier framework is proposed to analyse the selected literature. The results show that research studies have focussed on the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from forests, and adaptations to climate change in agriculture. There is little policy research on other vulnerable sectors (e.g., water and health and emitting sectors (e.g., energy and industry in the context of rural development. Our analysis highlights the various research gaps that deserve increased scientific attention, including: cross-sector approaches, multi-level governance, and the stages of policy adoption, implementation and evaluation. In addition, the selected literature has a limited contribution to theoretical discussions in policy sciences.

  18. Research Gaps in the Use of Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiRienzo, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Nutritional interventions to help prevent stunting, particularly in the first 1000 days from conception to 2 years of a child's life, are a major focus of numerous food aid organizations worldwide. Dairy ingredients can play an important role in enhancing the nutritional value and effectiveness of food products used in food aid. This article addresses gaps in research on malnutrition from both a broad perspective and specific to dairy ingredients. Narrative review. From a broad perspective, there is a need for gaining a consensus by the research community and funders of research on best practices for protocol development, outcomes measured, and reporting of study outcomes. Identification of biomarkers and rapid screening methods and consistent application of their use would expedite future research. A better understanding of nutritional requirements for malnourished populations, including the effects of energy deficits and disease on those requirements, is needed. More specific to dairy ingredients, a key research question is: Does dairy protein or the package of nutrients provided by dairy ingredients have a unique impact on growth, and if so, how? Also, data on the optimal levels of dairy ingredients based on the effective cost of treatment are needed, particularly in the treatment and prevention of moderate acute malnutrition and during pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Evidence & Gap Maps: A tool for promoting evidence informed policy and strategic research agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snilstveit, Birte; Vojtkova, Martina; Bhavsar, Ami; Stevenson, Jennifer; Gaarder, Marie

    2016-11-01

    A range of organizations are engaged in the production of evidence on the effects of health, social, and economic development programs on human welfare outcomes. However, evidence is often scattered around different databases, web sites, and the gray literature and is often presented in inaccessible formats. Lack of overview of the evidence in a specific field can be a barrier to the use of existing research and prevent efficient use of limited resources for new research. Evidence & Gap Maps (EGMs) aim to address these issues and complement existing synthesis and mapping approaches. EGMs are a new addition to the tools available to support evidence-informed policymaking. To provide an accessible resource for researchers, commissioners, and decision makers, EGMs provide thematic collections of evidence structured around a framework which schematically represents the types of interventions and outcomes of relevance to a particular sector. By mapping the existing evidence using this framework, EGMs provide a visual overview of what we know and do not know about the effects of different programs. They make existing evidence available, and by providing links to user-friendly summaries of relevant studies, EGMs can facilitate the use of existing evidence for decision making. They identify key "gaps" where little or no evidence from impact evaluations and systematic reviews is available and can be a valuable resource to inform a strategic approach to building the evidence base in a particular sector. The article will introduce readers to the concept and methods of EGMs and present a demonstration of the EGM tool using existing examples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Human Performance Optimization Metrics: Consensus Findings, Gaps, and Recommendations for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jaffin, Dianna P; Dretsch, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kent, Michael L; Grunberg, Neil E; Pierce, Joseph R; Barry, Erin S; Scott, Jonathan M; Young, Andrew J; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Human performance optimization (HPO) is defined as "the process of applying knowledge, skills and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, and organizations to execute essential tasks." The lack of consensus for operationally relevant and standardized metrics that meet joint military requirements has been identified as the single most important gap for research and application of HPO. In 2013, the Consortium for Health and Military Performance hosted a meeting to develop a toolkit of standardized HPO metrics for use in military and civilian research, and potentially for field applications by commanders, units, and organizations. Performance was considered from a holistic perspective as being influenced by various behaviors and barriers. To accomplish the goal of developing a standardized toolkit, key metrics were identified and evaluated across a spectrum of domains that contribute to HPO: physical performance, nutritional status, psychological status, cognitive performance, environmental challenges, sleep, and pain. These domains were chosen based on relevant data with regard to performance enhancers and degraders. The specific objectives at this meeting were to (a) identify and evaluate current metrics for assessing human performance within selected domains; (b) prioritize metrics within each domain to establish a human performance assessment toolkit; and (c) identify scientific gaps and the needed research to more effectively assess human performance across domains. This article provides of a summary of 150 total HPO metrics across multiple domains that can be used as a starting point-the beginning of an HPO toolkit: physical fitness (29 metrics), nutrition (24 metrics), psychological status (36 metrics), cognitive performance (35 metrics), environment (12 metrics), sleep (9 metrics), and pain (5 metrics). These metrics can be particularly valuable as the military emphasizes a renewed interest in Human Dimension efforts

  1. Setting Priorities for Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research and Identifying Evidence Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jimmy T; Hutfless, Susan; Li, Tianjing; Bressler, Neil M; Heyward, James; Bittner, Ava K; Glassman, Adam; Dickersin, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Prioritizing comparative effectiveness research may contribute to obtaining answers that clinicians perceive they need and may minimize research that could be considered wasteful. Our objective was to identify evidence gaps and set priorities for new systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials for managing diabetic retinopathy (DR), including diabetic macular edema (DME). Cross-sectional study. Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) investigators. We provided recommendations from the American Academy of Ophthalmology's 2012 Preferred Practice Patterns for Diabetic Retinopathy as 91 answerable clinical research questions about intervention effectiveness to 410 DRCR.net investigators to rate each question's importance from 0 (not important) to 10 (very important) using a 2-round Delphi survey and to suggest additional questions. We considered questions as high priority if at least 75% of respondents to both rounds assigned an importance rating of 5 or more in round 2. We also extracted outcome measures relevant to DR and asked respondents to identify those that must be measured in all studies. We mapped Cochrane reviews published up to March 2016 to high-priority clinical research questions. Ranking of importance of each clinical question. Thirty-two individuals completed rounds 1 and 2 and suggested 15 questions. Among the final list of 106 clinical research questions, 22 questions met our definition of high priority: 9 of 22 concerned the effectiveness of anti-VEGF therapy, and 13 of 22 focused on how often patients should be followed up (re-examination) and treatment effectiveness in patients with specific characteristics (e.g., DME). Outcomes that 75% or more of respondents marked as "must be measured in all studies" included visual acuity and visual loss, death of participants, and intraocular pressure. Only 1 prioritized question was associated with conclusive evidence from a Cochrane systematic review. A limited response rate among

  2. Critical research gaps and translational priorities for the successful prevention and treatment of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice. Methods More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and healthcare professionals collaborated to address nine thematic areas: genetics, epigenetics and epidemiology; molecular pathology and cell biology; hormonal influences and endocrine therapy; imaging, detection and screening; current/novel therapies and biomarkers; drug resistance; metastasis, angiogenesis, circulating tumour cells, cancer ‘stem’ cells; risk and prevention; living with and managing breast cancer and its treatment. The groups developed summary papers through an iterative process which, following further appraisal from experts and patients, were melded into this summary account. Results The 10 major gaps identified were: (1) understanding the functions and contextual interactions of genetic and epigenetic changes in normal breast development and during malignant transformation; (2) how to implement sustainable lifestyle changes (diet, exercise and weight) and chemopreventive strategies; (3) the need for tailored screening approaches including clinically actionable tests; (4) enhancing knowledge of molecular drivers behind breast cancer subtypes, progression and metastasis; (5) understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumour heterogeneity, dormancy, de novo or acquired resistance and how to target key nodes in these dynamic processes; (6) developing validated markers for chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity; (7) understanding the optimal duration, sequencing and rational combinations of treatment for improved personalised therapy; (8) validating multimodality imaging biomarkers for minimally invasive diagnosis and monitoring of responses in primary and metastatic disease

  3. Expanding the Acculturation Gap-Distress Model: An Integrative Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H.

    2010-01-01

    The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate to their new culture at a quicker pace than their parents, leading to family conflict and youth maladjustment. This article reviews literature on the acculturation gap-distress model, showing that acculturation gaps function in unique ways depending on many social…

  4. Mind the gap: implementation challenges break the link between HIV/AIDS research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah MacCarthy

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sampling strategies such as respondent-driven sampling (RDS and time-location sampling (TLS offer unique opportunities to access key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender women. Limited work has assessed implementation challenges of these methods. Overcoming implementation challenges can improve research quality and increase uptake of HIV services among key populations. Drawing from studies using RDS in Brazil and TLS in Peru, we summarize challenges encountered in the field and potential strategies to address them. In Brazil, study site selection, cash incentives, and seed selection challenged RDS implementation with MSM. In Peru, expansive geography, safety concerns, and time required for study participation complicated TLS implementation with MSM and transgender women. Formative research, meaningful participation of key populations across stages of research, and transparency in study design are needed to link HIV/AIDS research and practice. Addressing implementation challenges can close gaps in accessing services among those most burdened by the epidemic.

  5. Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: A Scoping Review to Identify Gaps in Service Delivery, Research, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Dana C; Choi, Kristen R; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Lori, Jody R

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on human trafficking in Ethiopia and identify gaps and recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy. A scoping literature review approach was used to systematically search nursing, medical, psychological, law, and international databases and synthesize information on a complex, understudied topic. The search yielded 826 articles, and 39 met the predetermined criteria for inclusion in the review. Trafficking in Ethiopia has occurred internally and externally in the form of adult and child labor and sex trafficking. There were also some reports of organ trafficking and other closely related human rights violations, such as child marriage, child soldiering, and exploitative intercountry adoption. Risk factors for trafficking included push factors (poverty, political instability, economic problems, and gender discrimination) and pull factors (demand for cheap labor). Trafficking was associated with poor health and economic outcomes for victims. Key recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy are identified, including establishing comprehensive services for survivor rehabilitation and reintegration, conducting quantitative health outcomes research, and reforming policy around migration and trafficking. Implementing the recommendations identified by this review will allow policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to take meaningful steps toward confronting human trafficking in Ethiopia.

  6. Research gaps and technology needs in development of PHM for passive AdvSMR components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Henagar, Chuck H. Jr. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Coble, Jamie B. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Department of Nuclear Engineering, 315 Pasqua Engineering Building, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Bond, Leonard J. [Iowa State University, Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, 1915 Scholl Rd., Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near-term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically because of losses in economy of scale; thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components.

  7. Gaps in Current Knowledge and Priorities for Future Research in Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Ian J; Dickersin, Kay; Hutfless, Susan T; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-12-01

    Dry eye, a common yet underrecognized and evolving field, has few recommended treatment algorithms, mostly based on expert consensus rather than robust research evidence. There are high costs associated with managing dry eye and conducting research to identify effective and safe long-term treatments. To support evidence-based management of dry eye, our purpose was to identify and prioritize important clinical research questions for future clinical research. We translated recommendations from the American Academy of Ophthalmology's 2013 Preferred Practice Patterns for dry eye into answerable clinical research questions about treatment effectiveness. Clinicians around the world who manage patients with dry eye rated each question's importance from 0 (not important) to 10 (very important) using a 2-round online Delphi survey. We considered questions as "important" if ≥75% of respondents assigned a rating of 6 or more in round 2. We mapped the identified important clinical research questions to reliable systematic reviews published up to March 2016. Seventy-five clinicians from at least 21 countries completed both Delphi rounds. Among the 58 questions, 24 met our definition of "important": 9/24 and 7/24 addressed topical and systemic treatments, respectively. All 4 questions with the highest 25th percentiles addressed topical treatments. Although 6/24 "important" questions were associated with 4 existing reliable systematic reviews, none of these reviews came to a definitive conclusion about treatment effectiveness. We identified gaps pertaining to treatment options for dry eye. Future clinical research on the management of dry eye should strongly consider these prioritized questions.

  8. Research on low-frequency band gap property of a hybrid phononic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yake; Yao, Hong; Du, Jun; Zhao, Jingbo; Chao, Ding; Wang, Benchi

    2018-05-01

    A hybrid phononic crystal has been investigated. The characteristic frequency of XY mode, transmission loss and displacement vector have been calculated by the finite element method. There are Bragg scattering band gap and local resonance band gap in the band structures. We studied the influence factors of band gap. There are many flat bands in the eigenfrequencies curve. There are many flat bands in the curve. The band gap covers a large range in low frequency. The band gaps cover more than 95% below 3000 Hz.

  9. Addressing the Research-to-Practice Gap in Autism Treatments: Applying an Effectiveness Research Model to the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Alissa L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite expansive improvements in both treatments and research, the majority of persons with autism use non-empirically supported interventions. One way to decrease the research-to-practice gap involves increasing the direct applicability of research findings to clinical settings. Effectiveness research achieves this goal by identifying treatments…

  10. Rocky desertification in Southwest China: Impacts, causes, and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongcheng; Lian, Yanqing; Qin, Xiaoqun

    2014-05-01

    Rocky desertification, which is relatively less well known than desertification, refers to the processes and human activities that transform a karst area covered by vegetation and soil into a rocky landscape. It has occurred in various countries and regions, including the European Mediterranean and Dinaric Karst regions of the Balkan Peninsula, Southwest China on a large scale, and alarmingly, even in tropical rainforests such as Haiti and Barbados, and has had tremendous negative impacts to the environment and social and economic conditions at local and regional scales. The goal of this paper is to provide a thorough review of the impacts, causes, and restoration measures of rocky desertification based on decades of studies in the southwest karst area of China and reviews of studies in Europe and other parts of the world. The low soil formation rate and high permeability of carbonate rocks create a fragile and vulnerable environment that is susceptible to deforestation and soil erosion. Other natural processes related to hydrology and ecology could exacerbate rocky desertification. However, disturbances from a wide variety of human activities are ultimately responsible for rocky desertification wherever it has occurred. This review shows that reforestation can be successful in Southwest China and even in the Dinaric Karst region when the land, people, water, and other resources are managed cohesively. However, new challenges may arise as more frequent droughts and extreme floods induced by global climate change and variability may slow the recovery process or even expand rocky desertification. This review is intended to bring attention to this challenging issue and provide information needed to advance research and engineering practices to combat rocky desertification and to aid in sustainable development.

  11. Bridging the gap between clinicians and systems biologists: from network biology to translational biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinawath, Natini; Bunbanjerdsuk, Sacarin; Chayanupatkul, Maneerat; Ngamphaiboon, Nuttapong; Asavapanumas, Nithi; Svasti, Jisnuson; Charoensawan, Varodom

    2016-11-22

    With the wealth of data accumulated from completely sequenced genomes and other high-throughput experiments, global studies of biological systems, by simultaneously investigating multiple biological entities (e.g. genes, transcripts, proteins), has become a routine. Network representation is frequently used to capture the presence of these molecules as well as their relationship. Network biology has been widely used in molecular biology and genetics, where several network properties have been shown to be functionally important. Here, we discuss how such methodology can be useful to translational biomedical research, where scientists traditionally focus on one or a small set of genes, diseases, and drug candidates at any one time. We first give an overview of network representation frequently used in biology: what nodes and edges represent, and review its application in preclinical research to date. Using cancer as an example, we review how network biology can facilitate system-wide approaches to identify targeted small molecule inhibitors. These types of inhibitors have the potential to be more specific, resulting in high efficacy treatments with less side effects, compared to the conventional treatments such as chemotherapy. Global analysis may provide better insight into the overall picture of human diseases, as well as identify previously overlooked problems, leading to rapid advances in medicine. From the clinicians' point of view, it is necessary to bridge the gap between theoretical network biology and practical biomedical research, in order to improve the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of the world's major diseases.

  12. Translating research into practice in nursing homes: can we close the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anna N; Applebaum, Robert A; Schnelle, John F; Simmons, Sandra F

    2012-10-01

    A gap between research and practice in many nursing home (NH) care areas persists despite efforts by researchers, policy makers, advocacy groups, and NHs themselves to close it. The reasons are many, but two factors that have received scant attention are the dissemination process itself and the work of the disseminators or change agents. This review article examines these two elements through the conceptual lens of Roger's innovation dissemination model. The application of general principles of innovation dissemination suggests that NHs are characteristically slow to innovate and thus may need more time as well as more contact with outside change agents to adopt improved practices. A review of the translation strategies used by NH change agents to promote adoption of evidence-based practice in NHs suggests that their strategies inconsistently reflect lessons learned from the broader dissemination literature. NH-related research, policy, and practice recommendations for improving dissemination strategies are presented. If we can make better use of the resources currently devoted to disseminating best practices to NHs, we may be able to speed NHs' adoption of these practices.

  13. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 7 - Pathogenesis and Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed research knowledge gaps in the fields of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) pathogenesis and molecular biology by performing a literature review (2011-15) and collecting research updates (2014) from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future research. There have been important advances in FMDV pathogenesis; FMDV remains in lymph nodes of many recovered animals that otherwise do not appear persistently infected, even in species previously not associated with the carrier state. Whether virus retention helps maintain host immunity and/or virus survival is not known. Studies of FMDV pathogenesis in wildlife have provided insights into disease epidemiology, in endemic and epidemic settings. Many aspects of FMDV infection and virus entry remain unknown; however, at the cellular level, we know that expression level and availability of integrins (that permit viral entry), rate of clearance of infected cells and strength of anti-viral type I IFN (interferon) response are key determinants of tissue tropism. Extending findings to improved understanding of transmission requires a standardized approach and adoption of natural routes of infection during experimental study. There has been recognition of the importance of autophagosomes for FMDV entry into the cytoplasm following cell surface receptor binding, and that distinct internal cellular membranes are exploited for viral replication and immune evasion. New roles for viral proteins in blocking type I IFN production and downstream signalling have been identified facilitating research in anti-viral therapeutics. We know more about how infection affects cell protein expression, and research into molecular determinants of capsid stability has aided the development of stable vaccines. We have an expanding knowledge of viral and host molecular determinates of virulence and infectiousness, and of how phylogenetics may be used to estimate vaccine match and strain

  14. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 5 - Biotherapeutics and Disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research. Findings are reported in a series of papers, and in this article, we consider biotherapeutics and disinfectants. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. While vaccines will remain the key immunological intervention used against FMD virus (FMDV) for the foreseeable future, it takes a few days for the immune system to respond to vaccination. In an outbreak situation, protection could potentially be provided during this period by the application of rapid, short-acting biotherapeutics, aiming either to stimulate a non-specific antiviral state in the animal or to specifically inhibit a part of the viral life cycle. Certain antiviral cytokines have been shown to promote rapid protection against FMD; however, the effects of different immune-modulators appear to vary across species in ways and for reasons that are not yet understood. Major barriers to the effective incorporation of biotherapeutics into control strategies are cost, limited understanding of their effect on subsequent immune responses to vaccines and uncertainty about their potential impact if used for disease containment. Recent research has highlighted the importance of environmental contamination in FMDV transmission. Effective disinfectants for FMDV have long been available, but research is being conducted to further develop methods for quantitatively evaluating their performance under field, or near-field, conditions. During outbreaks in South Korea in 2010 there was public concern about potential environmental contamination after the mass use of disinfectant and mass burial of culled stock; this should be considered during outbreak contingency planning. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 4 - Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research in the field of diagnostics. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from around the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. Molecular and genetic technologies, including sequencing, are developing at an increasing rate both in terms of capability and affordability. These advances potentiate progress in many other fields of research, from vaccine development to epidemiology. The development of RT-LAMP represents an important breakthrough allowing greater use and access to molecular diagnostics. It is now possible to determine virus serotype using PCR, although only for certain virus pools, continued progress is needed to cover the global spectrum of FMD viruses. Progress has also been made in the development of pen-side rapid diagnostics, some with the ability to determine serotype. However, further advances in pen-side serotype or strain determination would benefit both FMD-free countries and endemic countries with limited access to well-resourced laboratories. Novel sampling methods that show promise include air sampling and baited ropes, the latter may aid sampling in wildlife and swine. Studies of infrared thermography for the early detection of FMD have not been encouraging, although investigations are ongoing. Multiplex tests have been developed that are able to simultaneously screen for multiple pathogens with similar clinical signs. Crucial for assessing FMDV freedom, tests exist to detect animals that have been infected with FMDV regardless of vaccination status; however, limitations exist, particularly when testing previously vaccinated animals. Novel vaccines are being developed with complementary DIVA tests for this purpose. Research is also needed to improve the current imprecise approaches to FMD vaccine matching. The development of simple, affordable

  16. Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) prohibits the 'take' of these birds. The act defines take as to 'pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, destroy, molest or disturb.' The 2009 Eagle Permit Rule (74 FR 46836) authorizes the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to issue nonpurposeful (i.e., incidental) take permits, and the USFWS 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance provides a voluntary framework for issuing programmatic take permits to wind facilities that incorporate scientifically supportable advanced conservation practices (ACPs). Under these rules, the Service can issue permits that authorize individual instances of take of bald and golden eagles when the take is associated with, but not the purpose of, an otherwise lawful activity, and cannot practicably be avoided. To date, the USFWS has not approved any ACPs, citing the lack of evidence for 'scientifically supportable measures.' The Eagle Detection and Deterrents Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in December 2015 with a goal to comprehensively assess the current state of technologies to detect and deter eagles from wind energy sites and the key gaps concerning reducing eagle fatalities and facilitating permitting under the BGEPA. During the workshop, presentations and discussions focused primarily on existing knowledge (and limitations) about the biology of eagles as well as technologies and emerging or novel ideas, including innovative applications of tools developed for use in other sectors, such as the U.S. Department of Defense and aviation. The main activity of the workshop was the breakout sessions, which focused on the current state of detection and deterrent technologies and novel concepts/applications for detecting and minimizing eagle collisions with wind turbines. Following the breakout sessions, participants were asked about their individual impressions of the

  17. Military Suicide Research Consortium: Extension to New Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    such as toolkits , policy recommendations, or training plans. Subtask 4: Determine gaps in implementation science research and methods relevant to...Major Task 9: Continue pre-doctoral and postdoctoral training experiences at FSU and Rocky Mountain MIRECC Subtask 1: Establish career development...The following milestone was achieved in Year 1:  Career development and training experiences established. What opportunities for training

  18. What's new in Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luke F; Sexton, Daniel J

    2008-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) remains an important illness despite an effective therapy because it is difficult to diagnose and is capable of producing a fatal outcome. The pathogenesis of RMSF remains, in large part, an enigma. However, recent research has helped shed light on this mystery. Importantly, the diagnosis of RMSF must be considered in all febrile patients who have known or possible exposure to ticks, especially if they live in or have traveled to endemic regions during warmer months. Decisions about giving empiric therapy to such patients are difficult and require skill and careful judgement.

  19. 77 FR 40085 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Gap...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--American Gap Association Notice is hereby given that, on June 6, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq...

  20. 78 FR 55296 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Gap...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--American Gap Association Notice is hereby given that, on August 12, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq...

  1. Experimental research for vacuum gap breakdown in high voltage multi-pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ziping; He Jialong; Chen Sifu; Deng Jianjun; Wang Liping

    2008-01-01

    Base on the breakdown theory of vacuum gaps, experiments have been done to find out the breakdown electric field intensities in high voltage single-and triple-pulse for 26 vacuum gaps with different shapes. The experimental results match up to the theory and confirm the effect of the pulse-number increase on the breakdown electric field intensity. The key point to decide the macroscopical breakdown electric field intensity of a vacuum gap has been pointed out with some advises about the design of a multi-pulse linear inductive accelerator's accelerate gap. (authors)

  2. The skills gap in nursing management in South Africa: a sectoral analysis: a research paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Rubin

    2010-03-01

    To identify competencies important for effective nursing management and to assess managers' proficiency therein. A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to health delivery in South Africa. Despite nursing managers being central to overcoming the challenges facing health care, there has been a paucity of research that empirically evaluates their skill levels. A survey was conducted among 171 senior nursing managers in South Africa using a self-administered questionnaire. Public sector managers assessed themselves as being relatively less competent than private sector managers. The largest skill gaps for public sector managers were for 'ethico-legal', 'task-related' and 'controlling' skills whereas those for private sector managers were for 'ethico-legal', 'health-related ' and 'task-related' skills. This research confirmed the lack of management capacity within the health sector and identified areas in which the skills deficit was most significant for both the public and private sectors. These findings reflect the needs of nursing managers and will be useful in the conceptualization, design and delivery of health management programmes aimed at enhancing management and leadership capacity in the health sector in South Africa.

  3. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 3 - Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed research knowledge gaps in the field of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) vaccines. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD vaccine research. Vaccines play a vital role in FMD control, used both to limit the spread of the virus during epidemics in FMD-free countries and as the mainstay of disease management in endemic regions, particularly where sanitary controls are difficult to apply. Improvements in the performance or cost-effectiveness of FMD vaccines will allow more widespread and efficient disease control. FMD vaccines have changed little in recent decades, typically produced by inactivation of whole virus, the quantity and stability of the intact viral capsids in the final preparation being key for immunogenicity. However, these are exciting times and several promising novel FMD vaccine candidates have recently been developed. This includes the first FMD vaccine licensed for manufacture and use in the USA; this adenovirus-vectored FMD vaccine causes in vivo expression of viral capsids in vaccinated animals. Another promising vaccine candidate comprises stabilized empty FMDV capsids produced in vitro in a baculovirus expression system. Recombinant technologies are also being developed to improve otherwise conventionally produced inactivated vaccines, for example, by creating a chimeric vaccine virus to increase capsid stability and by inserting sequences into the vaccine virus for desired antigen expression. Other important areas of ongoing research include enhanced adjuvants, vaccine quality control procedures and predicting vaccine protection from immune correlates, thus reducing dependency on animal challenge studies. Globally, the degree of independent vaccine evaluation is highly variable, and this is essential for vaccine quality. Previously neglected, the

  4. Critical research gaps and recommendations to inform research prioritisation for more effective prevention and improved outcomes in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Mark; Alsina, Deborah; Adams, Richard A; Anderson, Annie S; Brown, Gina; Fearnhead, Nicola S; Fenwick, Stephen W; Hochhauser, Daniel; Koelzer, Viktor H; McNair, Angus G K; Norton, Christine; Novelli, Marco R; Steele, Robert J C; Thomas, Anne L; Wilde, Lisa M; Wilson, Richard H

    2018-01-01

    Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) leads to significant morbidity/mortality worldwide. Defining critical research gaps (RG), their prioritisation and resolution, could improve patient outcomes. Design RG analysis was conducted by a multidisciplinary panel of patients, clinicians and researchers (n=71). Eight working groups (WG) were constituted: discovery science; risk; prevention; early diagnosis and screening; pathology; curative treatment; stage IV disease; and living with and beyond CRC. A series of discussions led to development of draft papers by each WG, which were evaluated by a 20-strong patient panel. A final list of RGs and research recommendations (RR) was endorsed by all participants. Results Fifteen critical RGs are summarised below: RG1: Lack of realistic models that recapitulate tumour/tumour micro/macroenvironment; RG2: Insufficient evidence on precise contributions of genetic/environmental/lifestyle factors to CRC risk; RG3: Pressing need for prevention trials; RG4: Lack of integration of different prevention approaches; RG5: Lack of optimal strategies for CRC screening; RG6: Lack of effective triage systems for invasive investigations; RG7: Imprecise pathological assessment of CRC; RG8: Lack of qualified personnel in genomics, data sciences and digital pathology; RG9: Inadequate assessment/communication of risk, benefit and uncertainty of treatment choices; RG10: Need for novel technologies/interventions to improve curative outcomes; RG11: Lack of approaches that recognise molecular interplay between metastasising tumours and their microenvironment; RG12: Lack of reliable biomarkers to guide stage IV treatment; RG13: Need to increase understanding of health related quality of life (HRQOL) and promote residual symptom resolution; RG14: Lack of coordination of CRC research/funding; RG15: Lack of effective communication between relevant stakeholders. Conclusion Prioritising research activity and funding could have a significant impact on reducing CRC

  5. Critical research gaps and recommendations to inform research prioritisation for more effective prevention and improved outcomes in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Mark; Alsina, Deborah; Adams, Richard A; Anderson, Annie S; Brown, Gina; Fearnhead, Nicola S; Fenwick, Stephen W; Halloran, Stephen P; Hochhauser, Daniel; Hull, Mark A; Koelzer, Viktor H; McNair, Angus G K; Monahan, Kevin J; Näthke, Inke; Norton, Christine; Novelli, Marco R; Steele, Robert J C; Thomas, Anne L; Wilde, Lisa M; Wilson, Richard H; Tomlinson, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) leads to significant morbidity/mortality worldwide. Defining critical research gaps (RG), their prioritisation and resolution, could improve patient outcomes. RG analysis was conducted by a multidisciplinary panel of patients, clinicians and researchers (n=71). Eight working groups (WG) were constituted: discovery science; risk; prevention; early diagnosis and screening; pathology; curative treatment; stage IV disease; and living with and beyond CRC. A series of discussions led to development of draft papers by each WG, which were evaluated by a 20-strong patient panel. A final list of RGs and research recommendations (RR) was endorsed by all participants. Fifteen critical RGs are summarised below: RG1 : Lack of realistic models that recapitulate tumour/tumour micro/macroenvironment; RG2 : Insufficient evidence on precise contributions of genetic/environmental/lifestyle factors to CRC risk; RG3 : Pressing need for prevention trials; RG4 : Lack of integration of different prevention approaches; RG5 : Lack of optimal strategies for CRC screening; RG6 : Lack of effective triage systems for invasive investigations; RG7 : Imprecise pathological assessment of CRC; RG8 : Lack of qualified personnel in genomics, data sciences and digital pathology; RG9 : Inadequate assessment/communication of risk, benefit and uncertainty of treatment choices; RG10 : Need for novel technologies/interventions to improve curative outcomes; RG11 : Lack of approaches that recognise molecular interplay between metastasising tumours and their microenvironment; RG12 : Lack of reliable biomarkers to guide stage IV treatment; RG13 : Need to increase understanding of health related quality of life (HRQOL) and promote residual symptom resolution; RG14 : Lack of coordination of CRC research/funding; RG15 : Lack of effective communication between relevant stakeholders. Prioritising research activity and funding could have a significant impact on reducing CRC disease burden over

  6. Evidence-based medicine, the research-practice gap, and biases in medical and surgical decision making in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaglstein, William H

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this article are to promote a better understanding of a group of biases that influence therapeutic decision making by physicians/dermatologists and to raise the awareness that these biases contribute to a research-practice gap that has an impact on physicians and treatment solutions. The literature included a wide range of peer-reviewed articles dealing with biases in decision making, evidence-based medicine, randomized controlled clinical trials, and the research-practice gap. Bias against new therapies, bias in favor of indirect harm or omission, and bias against change when multiple new choices are offered may unconsciously affect therapeutic decision making. Although there is no comprehensive understanding or theory as to how choices are made by physicians, recognition of certain cognition patterns and their associated biases will help narrow the research-practice gap and optimize decision making regarding therapeutic choices.

  7. Soil decontamination at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.L.; Hayden, J.A.; Alford, C.E.; Kochen, R.L.; Stevens, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    A soils decontamination project was initiated, to remove actinides from soils at Rocky Flats. Wet screening, attrition scrubbing with Calgon at high pH, attrition scrubbing at low pH, and cationic flotation were investigated. Pilot plant studies were carried out. Conceptual designs have been generated for mounting the process in semi-trailers

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  9. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  10. Evidence gap maps -- a tool for promoting evidence-informed policy and prioritizing future research

    OpenAIRE

    Snilstveit, Birte; Vojtkova, Martina; Bhavsar, Ami; Gaarder, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-gap maps present a new addition to the tools available to support evidence-informed policy making. Evidence-gap maps are thematic evidence collections covering a range of issues such as maternal health, HIV/AIDS, and agriculture. They present a visual overview of existing systematic reviews or impact evaluations in a sector or subsector, schematically representing the types of int...

  11. The New Literacies of Online Research and Comprehension: Rethinking the Reading Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Donald J.; Forzani, Elena; Rhoads, Chris; Maykel, Cheryl; Kennedy, Clint; Timbrell, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Is there an achievement gap for online reading ability based on income inequality that is separate from the achievement gap in traditional, offline reading? This possibility was examined between students in two pseudonymous school districts: West Town (economically advantaged) and East Town (economically challenged; N = 256). Performance-based…

  12. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap AnalysisWhite Paper Summary of Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Ga...

  13. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 2 - Epidemiology, Wildlife and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research, and in this study, we consider (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) economics. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. During 2011-2015, modelling studies were dominant in the broad field of epidemiology; however, continued efforts are required to develop robust models for use during outbreaks in FMD-free countries, linking epidemiologic and economics models. More guidance is needed for both the evaluation and the setting of targets for vaccine coverage, population immunity and vaccine field efficacy. Similarly, methods for seroprevalence studies need to be improved to obtain more meaningful outputs that allow comparison across studies. To inform control programmes in endemic countries, field trials assessing the effectiveness of vaccination in extensive smallholder systems should be performed to determine whether FMD can be controlled with quality vaccines in settings where implementing effective biosecurity is challenging. Studies need to go beyond measuring only vaccine effects and should extend our knowledge of the impact of FMD and increase our understanding of how to maximize farmer participation in disease control. Where wildlife reservoirs of virus exist, particularly African Buffalo, we need to better understand when and under what circumstances transmission to domestic animals occurs in order to manage this risk appropriately, considering the impact of control measures on livelihoods and wildlife. For settings where FMD eradication is unfeasible, further ground testing of commodity-based trade is recommended. A thorough review of global FMD control programmes, covering successes and failures, would be extremely valuable and could be used to guide other control programmes. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Research on typical topologies of a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yiheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic levitation vibration isolators have attracted more and more attention in the field of high-precision measuring and machining equipment. In this paper, we describe a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator. Four typical topologies of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator are proposed. The analytical expression of magnetic force is derived. The relationship between levitation force, force density, force ripple and major structural parameters are analysed by finite element method, which is conductive to the design and optimization of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator. The force characteristics of different topologies of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator are compared and evaluated from the aspect of force density, force ripple and manufacturability. In comparison with conventional passive magnetic levitation vibration isolators, the proposed tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator shows advantage in higher force density.

  15. The removal of plutonium contaminants from Rocky Flats Plant soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunderland, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    This research was undertaken to determine if the TRUclean process could effectively remove radioactive elements from soils other than derived coral. This is an interim report prior to the project report and discusses the outcome of the tests of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) soil. The soil tested contained plutonium particulates in the micron and submicron range. Volume reduction and activity removal were accomplished with an overall efficiency of greater than 90%. The TRUclean process is a very practical and economical solution to soil contamination problems at the Rocky Flats Plant

  16. New horizons in the implementation and research of comprehensive geriatric assessment: knowing, doing and the 'know-do' gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, John R F; Conroy, Simon Paul; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen; Gordon, Adam Lee

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we outline the relationship between the need to put existing applied health research knowledge into practice (the 'know-do gap') and the need to improve the evidence base (the 'know gap') with respect to the healthcare process used for older people with frailty known as comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). We explore the reasons for the know-do gap and the principles of how these barriers to implementation might be overcome. We explore how these principles should affect the conduct of applied health research to close the know gap. We propose that impaired flow of knowledge is an important contributory factor in the failure to implement evidence-based practice in CGA; this could be addressed through specific knowledge mobilisation techniques. We describe that implementation failures are also produced by an inadequate evidence base that requires the co-production of research, addressing not only effectiveness but also the feasibility and acceptability of new services, the educational needs of practitioners, the organisational requirements of services, and the contribution made by policy. Only by tackling these issues in concert and appropriate proportion, will the know and know-do gaps for CGA be closed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Translational behavioral medicine for population and individual health: gaps, opportunities, and vision for practice-based translational behavior change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Lewis, Megan A; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-04-12

    In this commentary, we propose a vision for "practice-based translational behavior change research," which we define as clinical and public health practice-embedded research on the implementation, optimization, and fundamental mechanisms of behavioral interventions. This vision intends to be inclusive of important research elements for behavioral intervention development, testing, and implementation. We discuss important research gaps and conceptual and methodological advances in three key areas along the discovery (development) to delivery (implementation) continuum of evidence-based interventions to improve behavior and health that could help achieve our vision of practice-based translational behavior change research. We expect our proposed vision to be refined and evolve over time. Through highlighting critical gaps that can be addressed by integrating modern theoretical and methodological approaches across disciplines in behavioral medicine, we hope to inspire the development and funding of innovative research on more potent and implementable behavior change interventions for optimal population and individual health.

  18. Measuring benefits of protected area management: trends across realms and research gaps for freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Vanessa M; Setterfield, Samantha A; Douglas, Michael M; Kennard, Mark J; Ferdinands, Keith

    2015-11-05

    Protected areas remain a cornerstone for global conservation. However, their effectiveness at halting biodiversity decline is not fully understood. Studies of protected area benefits have largely focused on measuring their impact on halting deforestation and have neglected to measure the impacts of protected areas on other threats. Evaluations that measure the impact of protected area management require more complex evaluation designs and datasets. This is the case across realms (terrestrial, freshwater, marine), but measuring the impact of protected area management in freshwater systems may be even more difficult owing to the high level of connectivity and potential for threat propagation within systems (e.g. downstream flow of pollution). We review the potential barriers to conducting impact evaluation for protected area management in freshwater systems. We contrast the barriers identified for freshwater systems to terrestrial systems and discuss potential measurable outcomes and confounders associated with protected area management across the two realms. We identify key research gaps in conducting impact evaluation in freshwater systems that relate to three of their major characteristics: variability, connectivity and time lags in outcomes. Lastly, we use Kakadu National Park world heritage area, the largest national park in Australia, as a case study to illustrate the challenges of measuring impacts of protected area management programmes for environmental outcomes in freshwater systems. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Parenting Styles and Practices in Children's Obesogenic Behaviors: Scientific Gaps and Future Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute. PMID:23944926

  20. Research Report: Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and hyperbaric oxygen on GAP-43 in the rat carotid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhengwu; Fan, Juan; Liu, Ling; Kuang, Fang; Xue, Fen; Wang, Bairen

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive changes in the carotid body (CB) including the expression of the growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) have been studied in response to low, but not high, oxygen exposure. Expression of GAP-43 in the CB of rats under different atmospheric pressures and oxygen partial pressure (PO2) conditions was investigated. Mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH, 0, 1, 2 and 3 weeks), intermittent hyperbaric oxygen (IHBO2, 0, 1, 5 and 10 days, sacrificed six hours or 24 hours after the last HBO2 exposure), and intermittent hyperbaric normoxia (IHN, same treatment pattern as IHBO2). GAP-43 was highly expressed (mainly in type I cells) in the CB of normal rats. IHH u-regulated GAP-43 expression in the CB with significant differences (immunohistochemical staining [IHC]: F(3,15)=40.64, P GAP-43 expression in the CB was inhibited by IHBO2 (controls vs. IHBO2 groups, IHC: F(6,30) = 15.85, P GAP-43 expression were found for IHN. These findings indicated that different PO2 conditions, but not air pressures, played an important role in the plasticity of the CB, and that GAP-43 might be a viable factor for the plasticity of the CB.

  1. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, Camila de Toledo; Lortie, Christopher J; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or 'stressful' environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%). Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping the outcome of net

  2. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Toledo Castanho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or ‘stressful’ environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%. Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping

  3. Analysis and identification of gaps in the research for the production of second-generation liquid transportation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwietzke, S.; Ladisch, M.; Russo, L.; Kwant, K.; Maekinen, T.; Kavalov, B.; Maniatis, K.; Zwart, R.; Shahanan, G.; Sipila, K.; Grabowski, P.; Telenius, B.; White, M.

    2008-08-01

    Research gaps were found in cellulosic ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch liquids and green diesel, dimethyl ether and P-Series fuels. Lignocellulosic ethanol is derived from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation of the resulting sugars from cellulosic sources such as wood chips, agricultural residues, and grasses. Green diesel is a high boiling component, not derived from vegetable oil, obtained either from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or through pyrolysis of biomass. Dimethyl ether has potential as a high quality fuel for diesel engines and is produced by converting syngas into methanol followed by dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether. P-Series fuel is a mixture of ethanol, methyltetrahydrofuran, pentanes and higher alkanes, and butane. Methyltetrahydrofuran may be produced from dehydration of pentose and glucose sugars to form furfural and levulinic acid respectively, which when hydrogenated result in methyltetrahydrofuran. Common denominators in gaps for these different fuels and the biochemical or thermochemical processes used to produce them are given by three main areas. These are: catalysts and biocatalysts; feedstock preparation and bioprocessing; and systems integration. In the biocatalyst (or catalyst) area research is needed to achieve more robust, versatile, and cost-effective catalysts. The catalytic systems must be less subject to inhibition and more stable in the presence of chemically complex feedstocks derived from biomass materials. With bioprocessing, the gaps lie in economic enzyme production, reduction of enzyme inhibition, development of pentose utilising and cellulase producing micro-organisms, feedstock preparation (pre-treatment), and inhibitor removal. For thermochemical systems, the list is analogous except the term 'catalyst' replaces 'enzyme' or 'microorganism'. Gaps were identified in feedstock preparation, with this term being broadly defined. Feedstocks are defined as biomass materials entering the process, as well as gases derived

  4. Erratum: Vascular epiphyte vegetation in rocky savannas of southeastern Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alves, R. J. V.; Kolbek, Jiří; Becker, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2009), s. 351-352 ISSN 0107-055X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : epiphytes * Brazil * rocky savannas Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.868, year: 2009

  5. Human resource management in post-conflict health systems: review of research and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roome, Edward; Raven, Joanna; Martineau, Tim

    2014-01-01

    distribution, and workforce performance. However, this should apply a longer-term focus throughout the different post-conflict phases, while paying attention to key cross-cutting themes such as leadership and governance, gender equity, and task shifting. The research gaps identified should enable future studies to examine how HRM could be used to meet both short and long term objectives for rebuilding health workforces and thereby contribute to achieving more equitable and sustainable health systems outcomes after conflict.

  6. How Individual Scholars Can Reduce the Rigor-Relevance Gap in Management Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Joachim; Rosenberg, Timo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of avenues management scholars could follow to reduce the existing gap between scientific rigor and practical relevance without relativizing the importance of the first goal dimension. Such changes are necessary because many management studies do not fully exploit the possibilities to increase their practical relevance while maintaining scientific rigor. We argue that this rigor-relevance gap is not only the consequence of the currently prevailing institutional c...

  7. Exploring the Gap between Ecosystem Service Research and Management in Development Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Sitas; Heidi E. Prozesky; Karen J. Esler; Belinda Reyers

    2014-01-01

    The gap between science and practice has been highlighted in a number of scientific disciplines, including the newly developing domain of ecosystem service science, posing a challenge for the sustainable management of ecosystem services for human wellbeing. While methods to explore science-practice gaps are developing, testing and revisions of these methods are still needed so as to identify opportunities for mainstreaming ecosystem service science into development policies and practice. We d...

  8. Learning in context: identifying gaps in research on the transfer of medical communication skills to the clinical workplace.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertwegh, V. van den; Dulmen, S. van; Dalen, J. van; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In order to reduce the inconsistencies of findings and the apparent low transfer of communication skills from training to medical practice, this narrative review identifies some main gaps in research on medical communication skills training and presents insights from theories on learning

  9. Learning in context: identifying gaps in research on the transfer of medical communication skills to the clinical workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertwegh, V. van den; Dulmen, S. van; Dalen, J. Van; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In order to reduce the inconsistencies of findings and the apparent low transfer of communication skills from training to medical practice, this narrative review identifies some main gaps in research on medical communication skills training and presents insights from theories on learning

  10. A Collaborative Approach to Bridging the Research-Policy Gap through the Development of Policy Advice Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Barry John; Lay-Yee, Roy; McLay, Jessica; Tobias, Martin; Tuohy, Pat; Armstrong, Ann; Lynn, Robert; Pearson, Janet; Mannion, Oliver; Davis, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a software-based tool to support a dynamic micro-simulation model of life-course development (to age 13) as an aid to policy makers assessing the impact of policies affecting children. We demonstrate how this approach bridges the research-policy gap by creating: (1) an easy transfer of evidence in a form that policymakers can use…

  11. Gender Gaps in North American Research Productivity: Examining Faculty Publication Rates in Mexico, Canada, and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gonzalez, Laura; Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Galaz-Fontes, Jesus F.; Fisher, Donald; Snee, Iain

    2011-01-01

    The present study addresses gender gaps in North American research productivity, which may be influenced by personal and family variables, as well as professional and work-related variables. The study was conducted as part of the "Changing Academic Profession (CAP) International Survey", conducted in 2007-08. Using articles as indicator…

  12. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  13. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-01-01

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes

  14. The research gap in chronic paediatric pain: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulkedid, R; Abdou, A Y; Desselas, E; Monégat, M; de Leeuw, T G; Avez-Couturier, J; Dugue, S; Mareau, C; Charron, B; Alberti, C; Kaguelidou, F

    2018-02-01

    Chronic pain is associated with significant functional and social impairment. The objective of this review was to assess the characteristics and quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating pain management interventions in children and adolescents with chronic pain. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library up to July 2017. We included RCTs that involved children and adolescents (3 months-18 years) and evaluated the use of pharmacological or non-pharmacological intervention(s) in the context of pain persisting or re-occurring for more than 3 months. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) Tool. A total of 58 RCTs were identified and numbers steadily increased over time. The majority were conducted in single hospital institutions, with no information on study funding. Median sample size was 47.5 participants (Q1,Q3: 32, 70). Forty-five percent of RCTs included both adults and children and the median of the mean ages at inclusion was 12.9 years (Q1,Q3: 11, 15). Testing of non-pharmacological interventions was predominant and only 5 RCTs evaluated analgesics or co-analgesics. Abdominal pain, headache/migraine and musculoskeletal pain were the most common types of chronic pain among participants. Methodological quality was poor with 90% of RCTs presenting a high or unclear ROB. Evaluation of analgesics targeting chronic pain relief in children and adolescents through RCTs is marginal. Infants and children with long-lasting painful conditions are insufficiently represented in RCTs. We discuss possible research constraints and challenges as well as methodologies to circumvent them. There is a substantial research gap regarding analgesic interventions for children and adolescents with chronic pain. Most clinical trials in the field focus on the evaluation of non-pharmacological interventions and are of low methodological quality. There is also a specific lack of trials involving infants

  15. Including biodiversity in life cycle assessment – State of the art, gaps and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Lisa; Lehmann, Annekatrin; Finogenova, Natalia; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: For over 20 years the feasibility of including man-made impacts on biodiversity in the context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been explored. However, a comprehensive biodiversity impact assessment has so far not been performed. The aim of this study is to analyse how biodiversity is currently viewed in LCA, to highlight limitations and gaps and to provide recommendations for further research. Method: Firstly, biodiversity indicators are examined according to the level of biodiversity they assess (genetic, species, ecosystem) and to their usefulness for LCA. Secondly, relevant pressures on biodiversity that should be included in LCA are identified and available models (in and outside of an LCA context) for their assessment are discussed. Thirdly, existing impact assessment models are analysed in order to determine whether and how well pressures are already integrated into LCA. Finally, suggestions on how to include relevant pressures and impacts on biodiversity in LCA are provided and the necessary changes in each LCA phase that must follow are discussed. Results: The analysis of 119 indicators shows that 4% of indicators represent genetic diversity, 40% species diversity and 35% ecosystem diversity. 21% of the indicators consider further biodiversity-related topics. Out of the indicator sample, 42 indicators are deemed useful as impact indicators in LCA. Even though some identified pressures are already included in LCA with regard to their impacts on biodiversity (e.g. land use, carbon dioxide emissions etc.), other proven pressures on biodiversity have not yet been considered (e.g. noise, artificial light). Conclusion: Further research is required to devise new options (e.g. impact assessment models) for integrating biodiversity into LCA. The final goal is to cover all levels of biodiversity and include all missing pressures in LCA. Tentative approaches to achieve this goal are outlined. - Highlights: •Calculating man-made impacts highlights

  16. Narrowing the Insurance Protection Gap: The important role of Natural Hazards Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghnani, V.

    2016-12-01

    The Insurance industry is a key component of the economic engine. It allows businesses to reduce uncertainty in their operations, and individuals to rebound from unanticipated events. A thriving insurance industry efficiently transfers risk from individuals and businesses to the capital markets. It allows society to function smoothly and fosters growth. In areas where the private insurance is not a viable option, the outcome is suboptimal - the society ends up carrying the burden. Higher insurance penetration increases disaster resiliency. The long term viability of an insurance product depends on the ability of the insurance provider to accurately assess risks, which is critical to pricing insurance and risk monitoring. Insurance payouts are typically incurred during extreme events, therefore the industry is very interested in extreme events research. There are several examples where the insurance industry has stepped away from a market or severely limited its appetite because of lack of data or proper understanding of the underlying risks - such as, flood. Further, the insurance Industry has seen a rising trend of natural hazard related losses over the past few decades. The trends have been particularly strong in hydro meteorological hazards. While a good part of this increasing trend can been explained by increase in exposures, there is also concern that underlying hazard landscape may be evolving. The industry would really benefit from research that identifies secular and long term trends in hydro-meteorological hazards, particularly in the extremes. Insight into non-stationarity in the climate system at a regional level would be very informative of risk management decisions. One can envision a scenario where in the industry stops insuring certain risk (such as storm surge), because of a lack of understanding of the trends in the underlying risk and a consequent poor performance record. In sum, the ability of the industry to assess complex and emerging natural

  17. Research Ethics in the Context of Transition: Gaps in Policies and Programs on the Protection of Research Participants in the Selected Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famenka, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the ability of countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) to ensure appropriate protection of research participants in the field of increasingly globalizing biomedical research. By applying an analytical framework for identifying gaps in policies and programs for human subjects protection to four countries of CEE-Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, substantial gaps in the scope and content of relevant policies and major impediments to program performance have been revealed. In these countries, public policies on the protection of research participants lack consistency and reliable mechanisms for their implementation. Impediments to program performance most often relate to inadequacies in the national research ethics systems with regard to organizational structure, budgetary support, supervision, and training. The level of research ethics capacity varies from country to country and depends on socio-economic and political factors of post-communist transition. The breadth and depth of the problems identified suggest that the current level of protection for research participants in CEE might be inadequate to the challenges posed by the globalization of biomedical research. In CEE countries, there is a need for strengthening research ethics capacity through modification of relevant policies and improvement of program management. The differences among the countries call for further research on identifying the best approaches for filling the gaps in the policies and programs aimed at ensuring effective protection of research participants.

  18. The influence of organic production on food quality - research findings, gaps and future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Załęcka, Aneta; Bügel, Susanne Gjedsted; Paoletti, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    in order to identify research gaps and suggest future research challenges. Organic food is described according to a quality model already published. The influence of organic production on food quality is structured in primary production and processing. Furthermore, organic food authentication is discussed...... with so called 'conventional' food seems not to be appropriate, because 'conventional' is not defined. In organic food quality research a system approach is needed from which systemic markers can be selected. Research on the impact of processing technologies on the quality according to organic principles...

  19. Rapid development of image analysis research tools: Bridging the gap between researcher and clinician with pyOsiriX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackledge, Matthew D; Collins, David J; Koh, Dow-Mu; Leach, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    We present pyOsiriX, a plugin built for the already popular dicom viewer OsiriX that provides users the ability to extend the functionality of OsiriX through simple Python scripts. This approach allows users to integrate the many cutting-edge scientific/image-processing libraries created for Python into a powerful DICOM visualisation package that is intuitive to use and already familiar to many clinical researchers. Using pyOsiriX we hope to bridge the apparent gap between basic imaging scientists and clinical practice in a research setting and thus accelerate the development of advanced clinical image processing. We provide arguments for the use of Python as a robust scripting language for incorporation into larger software solutions, outline the structure of pyOsiriX and how it may be used to extend the functionality of OsiriX, and we provide three case studies that exemplify its utility. For our first case study we use pyOsiriX to provide a tool for smooth histogram display of voxel values within a user-defined region of interest (ROI) in OsiriX. We used a kernel density estimation (KDE) method available in Python using the scikit-learn library, where the total number of lines of Python code required to generate this tool was 22. Our second example presents a scheme for segmentation of the skeleton from CT datasets. We have demonstrated that good segmentation can be achieved for two example CT studies by using a combination of Python libraries including scikit-learn, scikit-image, SimpleITK and matplotlib. Furthermore, this segmentation method was incorporated into an automatic analysis of quantitative PET-CT in a patient with bone metastases from primary prostate cancer. This enabled repeatable statistical evaluation of PET uptake values for each lesion, before and after treatment, providing estaimes maximum and median standardised uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmed respectively). Following treatment we observed a reduction in lesion volume, SUVmax and SUVmed for

  20. Narrowing the Achievement Gap: A Review of Research, Policies, and Issues. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertert, Linda; Teague, Jackie

    Student achievement tests consistently show that certain groups of children score far below children in other groups. The data document a strong association between poverty and students' academic success. The achievement gap begins early in children's lives as the result of physical, social, and emotional deprivations. California is attempting to…

  1. Bridging the Research-to-Practice Gap: A Review of the Literature Focusing on Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima-Farrell, Christine R.; Bain, Alan; McDonagh, Sarah H.

    2011-01-01

    Despite advances in our knowledge of evidence-based inclusive educational practice, much of this knowledge does not reach routine classroom practice. There remains a significant gap between our accumulated knowledge about what can work in classrooms and the extent to which evidence-based practice is used in sustainable ways. This inability to…

  2. Closing the gap: a research agenda to accelerate the adoption and effective use of proven older adult fall prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Rita K; Sleet, David A; Stevens, Judy A

    2011-12-01

    To make an impact on the public's health, evidence-based interventions must be disseminated broadly, supported by training and technical assistance, adopted widely, and implemented as designed. Many effective older adult fall prevention interventions have been identified, but too few have gained wide community acceptance and little is known about the best ways to encourage their broader use. Therefore, as in many other fields, fall prevention suffers from a wide gap between scientific discoveries and their everyday use. This article articulates the key activities embedded in Step 4 of the public health model-specifically translation and dissemination to ensure widespread adoption and use-in order to illuminate critical research needs in older adult fall prevention. These needs, if addressed, will help close the gap between research and practice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Using Cyber-Insurance as a Risk Management Strategy: Knowledge Gaps and Recommendations for Further Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tøndel, Inger Anne; Meland, Per Håkon; Omerovic, Aida; Gjære, Erlend Andreas; Solhaug, Bjørnar

    2015-01-01

    - Risk transfer can be an economically favorable way of handling security and privacy issues, but choosing this option indiscriminately and without proper knowledge is a risk in itself. This report provides an overview of knowledge gaps related to cyber-insurance as a risk management strategy. These are grouped into three high-level topics; cyber-insurance products, understanding and measuring risk and estimation of consequences. The topics are further divided into 11 knowledge areas with ...

  4. [Gap between the use of and need for youth care: research in Rotterdam neighbourhoods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Wilma; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Anschutz, Justine; de Zwart, Onno

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relationship between the need for care and the use of care in the youth care system at neighbourhood level and the relationship with population characteristics, with consideration of the decentralisation of youth care. Descriptive, retrospective study. Data on youth care use, indicators of need for care and population characteristics were gathered from monitors and the records of the municipality, institutions and health insurance companies. Data were grouped on a neighbourhood level (n = 49). For the analyses we used univariate and multivariate regression. We used these to distinguish between neighbourhoods with large and small gaps between youth care use and need for youth care. Differences between these neighbourhoods were analysed with t-tests. A multivariate model showed that the percentage of youths with emotional problems and behavioural problems and the percentage of parents with self-reported need for care were not predictors of youth care use at a neighbourhood level. About two thirds of the variance in youth care use between neighbourhoods could be explained by the population characteristics of a neighbourhood, particularly the percentage of youths originally from non-western countries, the percentage of youths with a low level of education or special training and the percentage of people who received income support. The number of 12-18-year-olds in a neighbourhood was a predictor of youth mental health care, and the percentage of youths in a single-parent family was a predictor of out-patient youth and parenting support. Neighbourhoods with a large gap between the need for and use of youth care were socially more disadvantaged than neighbourhoods with a smaller gap. Population characteristics explain the rate of use of youth care better than the need for youth care in a neighbourhood as measured by municipal monitors. The possible gap between the use of and need for youth care on an individual level in neighbourhoods with many

  5. Bridging the gap between HRA research and HRA practice: A Bayesian network version of SPAR-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, Katrina M.; Swiler, Laura P.

    2013-01-01

    The shortcomings of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) have been a topic of discussion for over two decades. Repeated attempts to address these limitations have resulted in over 50 HRA methods, and the HRA research community continues to develop new methods. However, there remains a gap between the methods developed by HRA researchers and those actually used by HRA practitioners. Bayesian Networks (BNs) have become an increasingly popular part of the risk and reliability analysis framework over the past decade. BNs provide a framework for addressing many of the shortcomings of HRA from a researcher perspective and from a practitioner perspective. Several research groups have developed advanced HRA methods based on BNs, but none of these methods has been adopted by HRA practitioners in the U.S. nuclear power industry or at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In this paper we bridge the gap between HRA research and HRA practice by building a BN version of the widely used SPAR-H method. We demonstrate how the SPAR-H BN can be used by HRA practitioners, and we also demonstrate how it can be modified to incorporate data and information from research to advance HRA practice. The SPAR-H BN can be used as a starting point for translating HRA research efforts and advances in scientific understanding into real, timely benefits for HRA practitioners

  6. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Transmission Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis and Testing ...

  8. Radiation monitor training program at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, L.C.; Kittinger, W.D.; Vogel, R.M.

    The Rocky Flats Radiation Monitor Training Program is tailored to train new health physics personnel in the field of radiation monitoring. The purpose of the prescribed materials and media is to be consistent in training in all areas of Rocky Flats radiation monitoring job involvement

  9. DISCONTOOLS: a database to identify research gaps on vaccines, pharmaceuticals and diagnostics for the control of infectious diseases of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Declan; Scudamore, Jim; Charlier, Johannes; Delavergne, Morgane

    2017-01-03

    The public and private sector in the EU spend around €800 million per year on animal health and welfare related research. An objective process to identify critical gaps in knowledge and available control tools should aid the prioritisation of research in order to speed up the development of new or improved diagnostics, vaccines and pharmaceuticals and reduce the burden of animal diseases. Here, we describe the construction of a database based on expert consultation for 52 infectious diseases of animals. For each disease, an expert group produced a disease and product analysis document that formed the basis for gap analysis and prioritisation. The prioritisation model was based on a closed scoring system, employing identical weights for six evaluation criteria (disease knowledge; impact on animal health and welfare; impact on public health; impact on wider society; impact on trade; control tools). The diseases were classified into three groups: epizootic diseases, food-producing animal complexes or zoonotic diseases. The highly ranked diseases in the prioritisation model comprised mostly zoonotic and epizootic diseases with important gaps identified in vaccine development and pharmaceuticals, respectively. The most important outcome is the identification of key research needs by disease. The rankings and research needs by disease are provided on a public website ( www.discontools.eu ) which is currently being updated based on new expert consultations. As such, it can become a reference point for funders of research including the European Commission, member states, foundations, trusts along with private industry to prioritise research. This will deliver benefits in terms of animal health and welfare but also public health, societal benefits and a safe and secure food supply.

  10. A gender gap in the next generation of physician-scientists: medical student interest and participation in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelich, Jill M; Singer, Burton H; Castro, Marcia C; Rosenberg, Leon E

    2002-11-01

    For 2 decades, the number of physician-scientists has not kept pace with the overall growth of the medical research community. Concomitantly, the number of women entering medical schools has increased markedly. We have explored the effect of the changing gender composition of medical schools on the present and future pipeline of young physician-scientists. We analyzed data obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges, the National Institutes of Health, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute pertaining to the expressed research intentions or research participation of male and female medical students in the United States. A statistically significant decline in the percentage of matriculating and graduating medical students--both men and women-who expressed strong research career intentions occurred during the decade between 1987 and 1997. Moreover, matriculating and graduating women were significantly less likely than men to indicate strong research career intentions. Each of these trends has been observed for medical schools overall and for research-intensive ones. Cohort data obtained by tracking individuals from matriculation to graduation revealed that women who expressed strong research career intentions upon matriculation were more likely than men to decrease their research career intentions during medical school. Medical student participation in research supported the gender gap identified by assessing research intentions. Female medical student participation in the Medical Scientist Training Program and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute/National Institutes of Health-sponsored Cloisters Program has increased but lags far behind the growth in the female population in medical schools. Three worrisome trends in the research career intentions and participation of the nation's medical students (a decade-long decline for both men and women, a large and persistent gender gap, and a negative effect of the medical school experience for women) presage a

  11. Closing Rocky Flats by 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuor, N. R.; Schubert, A. L.

    2002-01-01

    Safely accelerating the closure of Rocky Flats to 2006 is a goal shared by many: the State of Colorado, the communities surrounding the site, the U.S. Congress, the Department of Energy, Kaiser-Hill and its team of subcontractors, the site's employees, and taxpayers across the country. On June 30, 2000, Kaiser-Hill (KH) submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE), KH's plan to achieve closure of Rocky Flats by December 15, 2006, for a remaining cost of $3.96 billion (February 1, 2000, to December 15, 2006). The Closure Project Baseline (CPB) is the detailed project plan for accomplishing this ambitious closure goal. This paper will provide a status report on the progress being made toward the closure goal. This paper will: provide a summary of the closure contract completion criteria; give the current cost and schedule variance of the project and the status of key activities; detail important accomplishments of the past year; and discuss the challenges ahead

  12. On the road to eliminate malaria in Sri Lanka: lessons from history, challenges, gaps in knowledge and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaweera, Nadira D; Galappaththy, Gawrie Nl; Wirth, Dyann F

    2014-02-18

    Malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases that has caused devastation throughout the history of mankind. Malaria eradication programmes in the past have had many positive effects but failed to wipe out malaria from most tropical countries, including Sri Lanka. Encouraged by the impressive levels of reduction in malaria case numbers during the past decade, Sri Lanka has launched a programme to eliminate malaria by year 2014. This article reviews the historical milestones associated with the malaria eradication programme that failed subsequently and the events that led to the launch of the ongoing malaria elimination plans at national-level and its strategies that are operational across the entire country. The existing gaps in knowledge are also discussed together with the priority areas for research to fill in these gaps that are posing as challenges to the envisaged goal of wiping out malaria from this island nation.

  13. Fire, fuels, and restoration of ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, W. L.; Veblen, T. T.; Sherriff, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Forest restoration in ponderosa pine and mixed ponderosa pine–Douglas fir forests in the US Rocky Mountains has been highly influenced by a historical model of frequent, low-severity surface fires developed for the ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern USA. A restoration model, based on this low-severity fire model, focuses on thinning and prescribed burning to restore historical forest structure. However, in the US Rocky Mountains, research on fire history and forest structure, and earl...

  14. GAP Analysis Program (GAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas. The database was generated using a two-stage hybrid classification...

  15. Bridging the Gap of Practice and Research: A Preliminary Investigation of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳寂絹 Chi-Chuan Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gap between practice and research is commonly found in disciplines with both ofprofessional practitioners and academic researchers. How to bridge the gap is also acontinuing concern in the field of Library and Information Studies. This article describes therecent development of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information ScienceResearch (EBLIP, and provides analysis of the journal EBLIP including its authors’backgrounds, methods, and topics. The results show that the United States and Canadaare the two major nations of contributors; more than 70% of first authors are librarians; 76%of the articles were contributed by one single institute, co-authorship by cross-nationinstitutes were rarely seen, and demonstrates local research interests; type of co-authoredagency is primarily among libraries; 60% methods employed include questionnaires,interviews and content analysis; the coverage of topics is rather broad, and the top threecategories of research topics include Information Literacy & Instruction, Information Needs& Seeking Behavior, and Reference Services / Digital Reference Services (15%, 10%, and8%; many datasets were obtained from real library practice, and 72% of articles provide specific implications for applications which highlight the value of implementation. Manylibrarians have the research capability, and this article serves as a purpose to introduce theevidence-based research and encourage more such research done in Taiwan. Hopefully itmay benefit and further enhance the quality of library decision-making and their professionalimage.

  16. Research on electrodischarge drilling of polycrystalline diamond with increased gap voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczypiec, Sebastian; Bizoń, Wojciech; Żyra, Agnieszka

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the machining characteristics of polycrystalline diamond (PCD). Machining of PCD by conventional technologies is not an effective solution. Due to presence of cobalt this material can be machined by application of electrical discharges. On the other side, electrical conductivity of PCD is on the limit of electrodischarge machining (EDM) possibilities. Proposed paper reports experimental investigation on electrodischarge drilling of PCD samples. The test were carried out with application on of high-voltage (up to 550 V) pulse power unit for two kinds of dielectrics: carbon based (Exxsol D80) and de-ionized water. As output parameters machining accuracy (side gap), material removal rate were selected. Also, based on SEM photographs and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, a qualitative evaluation of the obtained results was presented.

  17. Choosing Important Health Outcomes for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Updated Review and Identification of Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorst, Sarah L; Gargon, Elizabeth; Clarke, Mike; Smith, Valerie; Williamson, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    The COMET (Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials) Initiative promotes the development and application of core outcome sets (COS), including relevant studies in an online database. In order to keep the database current, an annual search of the literature is undertaken. This study aimed to update a previous systematic review, in order to identify any further studies where a COS has been developed. Furthermore, no prioritization for COS development has previously been undertaken, therefore this study also aimed to identify COS relevant to the world's most prevalent health conditions. The methods used in this updated review followed the same approach used in the original review and the previous update. A survey was also sent to the corresponding authors of COS identified for inclusion in this review, to ascertain what lessons they had learnt from developing their COS. Additionally, the COMET database was searched to identify COS that might be relevant to the conditions with the highest global prevalence. Twenty-five reports relating to 22 new studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Further improvements were identified in relation to the description of the scope of the COS, use of the Delphi technique, and the inclusion of patient participants within the development process. Additionally, 33 published and ongoing COS were identified for 13 of the world's most prevalent conditions. The development of a reporting guideline and minimum standards should contribute towards future improvements in development and reporting of COS. This study has also described a first approach to identifying gaps in existing COS, and to priority setting in this area. Important gaps have been identified, on the basis of global burden of disease, and the development and application of COS in these areas should be considered a priority.

  18. Research data management courses : An overview and gap analysis for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinski, L.; van Zeeland, Hilde; Fest, Ellen; Vanderfeesten, Maurice; Scholten, Jolien; van Bentum, Maarten; Schoots, Fieke

    2018-01-01

    UKB’s working group Research Data has created an overview of research data management course materials from universities across the Netherlands. All working group members, as well as members of the associated National Coordination Point of Research Data Management (LCRDM), were asked to provide

  19. Long-range Rocky Flats utilization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this Study was to provide information concerning the Rocky Flats Plant and its operations that will be useful to the Nation's decision-makers in determining the long-range future of the Plant. This Study was conducted under the premise that national defense policy must be supported and, accordingly, the capabilities at Rocky Flats must be maintained there or at some other location(s). The Study, therefore, makes no attempt to speculate on how possible future changes in national defense policy might affect decisions regarding the utilization of Rocky Flats. Factors pertinent to decisions regarding Rocky Flats, which are included in the Study, are: physical condition of the Plant and its vulnerabilities to natural phenomena; risks associated with plutonium to Plant workers and the public posed by postulated natural phenomena and operational accidents; identification of alternative actions regarding the future use of the Rocky Flats Plant with associated costs and time scales; local socioeconomic impacts if Rocky Flats operations were relocated; and potential for other uses if Rocky Flats facilities were vacated. The results of the tasks performed in support of this Study are summarized in the context of these five factors

  20. A knowledge transfer scheme to bridge the gap between science and practice: an integration of existing research frameworks into a tool for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Evert; Voogt, Nelly; Bruinsma, Anja; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-04-01

    Evidence of effectiveness does not equal successful implementation. To progress the field, practical tools are needed to bridge the gap between research and practice and to truly unite effectiveness and implementation evidence. This paper describes the Knowledge Transfer Scheme integrating existing implementation research frameworks into a tool which has been developed specifically to bridge the gap between knowledge derived from research on the one side and evidence-based usable information and tools for practice on the other.

  1. "Narrowing the transmission gap: A synthesis of three decades of research on intergenerational transmission of attachment": Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Reports an error in "Narrowing the transmission gap: A synthesis of three decades of research on intergenerational transmission of attachment" by Marije L. Verhage, Carlo Schuengel, Sheri Madigan, R. M. Pasco Fearon, Mirjam Oosterman, Rosalinda Cassibba, Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg and Marinus H. van IJzendoorn ( Psychological Bulletin , 2016[Apr], Vol 142[4], 337-366). In the article, there are errors in Table 7. The percentages of the attachment classifications do not add up to 100%. The corrected version of Table 7 is provided in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-55801-001.) Twenty years ago, meta-analytic results (k = 19) confirmed the association between caregiver attachment representations and child-caregiver attachment (Van IJzendoorn, 1995). A test of caregiver sensitivity as the mechanism behind this intergenerational transmission showed an intriguing "transmission gap." Since then, the intergenerational transmission of attachment and the transmission gap have been studied extensively, and now extend to diverse populations from all over the globe. Two decades later, the current review revisited the effect sizes of intergenerational transmission, the heterogeneity of the transmission effects, and the size of the transmission gap. Analyses were carried out with a total of 95 samples (total N = 4,819). All analyses confirmed intergenerational transmission of attachment, with larger effect sizes for secure-autonomous transmission (r = .31) than for unresolved transmission (r = .21), albeit with significantly smaller effect sizes than 2 decades earlier (r = .47 and r = .31, respectively). Effect sizes were moderated by risk status of the sample, biological relatedness of child-caregiver dyads, and age of the children. Multivariate moderator analyses showed that unpublished and more recent studies had smaller effect sizes than published and older studies. Path analyses showed that the transmission could not

  2. Health Research and Millennium Development Goals: Identifying the Gap From Public Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Lawindi, Mona I; Galal, Yasmine S; Khairy, Walaa A

    2015-08-23

    Assessing the research output within the universities could provide an effective means for tracking the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) progress. This analytical database study was designed to assess the trend of research theses conducted by the Public Health Department (PHD), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University during the period 1990 to 2014 as related to the: MDGS, Faculty and department research priority plans and to identify the discrepancies between researchers' priorities versus national and international research priorities. A manual search of the theses was done at the Postgraduate Library using a specially designed checklist to chart adherence of each thesis to: MDGs, Faculty and department research plans (RPs). The theses' profile showed that the highest research output was for addressing the MDGS followed by the PHD and Faculty RPs. Compliance to MDGs 5 and 6 was obvious, whereas; MDGs 2, 3, and 7 were not represented at all after year 2000. No significant difference was found between PH theses addressing the Faculty RPs and those which were not before and after 2010. A significantly lower percent of PH theses was fulfilling the PHD research priorities compared to those which were not after 2010. This study showed a definite decline in research output tackling the MDGS and PHD research priorities, with a non-significant increase in the production of theses addressing the Faculty RPs. The present study is a practical model for policy makers within the universities to develop and implement a reliable monitoring and evaluation system for assessment of research output.

  3. Closing the mental health gap in low-income settings by building research capacity: perspectives from Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetland, Annika C; Oquendo, Maria A; Sidat, Mohsin; Santos, Palmira F; Vermund, Sten H; Duarte, Cristiane S; Arbuckle, Melissa; Wainberg, Milton L

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide, accounting for 22.7% of all years lived with disability. Despite this global burden, fewer than 25% of affected individuals ever access mental health treatment; in low-income settings, access is much lower, although nonallopathic interventions through traditional healers are common in many venues. Three main barriers to reducing the gap between individuals who need mental health treatment and those who have access to it include stigma and lack of awareness, limited material and human resources, and insufficient research capacity. We argue that investment in dissemination and implementation research is critical to face these barriers. Dissemination and implementation research can improve mental health care in low-income settings by facilitating the adaptation of effective treatment interventions to new settings, particularly when adapting specialist-led interventions developed in high-resource countries to settings with few, if any, mental health professionals. Emerging evidence from other low-income settings suggests that lay providers can be trained to detect mental disorders and deliver basic psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions when supervised by an expert. We describe a new North-South and South-South research partnership between Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (Mozambique), Columbia University (United States), Vanderbilt University (United States), and Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Brazil), to build research capacity in Mozambique and other Portuguese-speaking African countries. Mozambique has both the political commitment and available resources for mental health, but inadequate research capacity and workforce limits the country's ability to assess local needs, adapt and test interventions, and identify implementation strategies that can be used to effectively bring evidence-based mental health interventions to scale within the public sector. Global training and

  4. Health Policy and Systems Research in Twelve Eastern Mediterranean Countries: a stocktaking of production and gaps (2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Saja

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study are to: (1 profile the production of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR published between 2000 and 2008 in 12 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; (2 identify gaps; and (3 assess the extent to which existing HPSR produced in the region addresses regional priorities pertaining to Health Financing, Human Resources for Health and the Role of the Non-State Sector. This is the first stocktaking paper of HPSR production and gaps in the EMR. Methods Articles indexed on Medline between years 2000 and 2008 for the 12 study countries were selected. A MeSH term based search was conducted using country names. Articles were assessed using a coding sheet adapted for the region which included themes on: Governance Arrangements, Financial Arrangements, Delivery Arrangements, and Implementation Strategies. Identified articles were matched against regional research priorities to assess the extent to which research production aligns with priorities. Results A total of 1,487 articles (11.94% fit the criteria in the coding sheet. Results showed an increase in HPSR production which peaked after 2005. Most identified articles focused on Delivery Arrangements (68.1%, and Implementation Strategies (24.4%. Most HPSR addressed priorities in Human Resources for Health (39%, and some articles focused on Health Financing (12% and Role of the Non-State Sector (6.1%. Conclusions Despite global calls for producing and translating HPSR into policy, there are still significant gaps in the EMR. More efforts are needed to produce HPSR and align production and translation with the demand for evidence by policymakers. Findings can help inform and direct future plans and activities for the Evidence Informed Policy Network- EMR, World Health Organization- EMR, and the Middle East and North Africa Health Policy Forum

  5. Health Policy and Systems Research in Twelve Eastern Mediterranean Countries: a stocktaking of production and gaps (2000-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Ataya, Nour; Jaafar, Maha; Raouf, Saned; Matta, Claudia; Michael, Saja; Smith, Colette

    2011-10-07

    The objectives of this study are to: (1) profile the production of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR) published between 2000 and 2008 in 12 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR): Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; (2) identify gaps; and (3) assess the extent to which existing HPSR produced in the region addresses regional priorities pertaining to Health Financing, Human Resources for Health and the Role of the Non-State Sector. This is the first stocktaking paper of HPSR production and gaps in the EMR. Articles indexed on Medline between years 2000 and 2008 for the 12 study countries were selected. A MeSH term based search was conducted using country names. Articles were assessed using a coding sheet adapted for the region which included themes on: Governance Arrangements, Financial Arrangements, Delivery Arrangements, and Implementation Strategies. Identified articles were matched against regional research priorities to assess the extent to which research production aligns with priorities. A total of 1,487 articles (11.94%) fit the criteria in the coding sheet. Results showed an increase in HPSR production which peaked after 2005. Most identified articles focused on Delivery Arrangements (68.1%), and Implementation Strategies (24.4%). Most HPSR addressed priorities in Human Resources for Health (39%), and some articles focused on Health Financing (12%) and Role of the Non-State Sector (6.1%). Despite global calls for producing and translating HPSR into policy, there are still significant gaps in the EMR. More efforts are needed to produce HPSR and align production and translation with the demand for evidence by policymakers. Findings can help inform and direct future plans and activities for the Evidence Informed Policy Network- EMR, World Health Organization- EMR, and the Middle East and North Africa Health Policy Forum, in addition to being useful for countries that host or are

  6. New horizons in the implementation and research of comprehensive geriatric assessment: knowing, doing and the “know-do” gap

    OpenAIRE

    Gladman, John R.F.; Conroy, Simon P.; Ranhoff, Anette H.; Gordon, Adam L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we outline the relationship between the need to put existing applied health research knowledge into practice (the “know-do gap”) and the need to improve the evidence base (the “know gap”) with respect to the health care process used for older people with frailty known as comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA).\\ud We explore the reasons for the know-do gap and the principles of how these barriers to implementation might be overcome. We explore how these principles should affect...

  7. Towards prevention of vitamin D deficiency and beyond: knowledge gaps and research needs in vitamin D nutrition and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead

    2011-12-01

    The North American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently published their report on dietary reference intakes (DRI) for Ca and vitamin D. The DRI committee's deliberations underpinning this most comprehensive report on vitamin D nutrition to date benefited hugely from a much expanded knowledge base in vitamin D over the last decade or more. However, since their release, the vitamin D DRI have been the subject of intense controversy, which is largely due to the persistence of fundamental knowledge gaps in vitamin D. These can be identified at the levels of exposure, metabolism, storage, status, dose-response, function and beneficial or adverse health effects, as well as safe and effective application of intake recommendations at the population level through sustainable food-based approaches. The present review provides a brief overview of the approach used by the IOM committee to revise the DRI for vitamin D and to collate from a number of authoritative sources key knowledge gaps in vitamin D nutrition from the public health perspective. A number of research topics are outlined and data requirements within these are identified and mapped to the risk assessment framework used by the DRI committee. While not intended as an exhaustive list, it provides a basis for organising and prioritising research efforts in the area of vitamin D, which may offer a perspective on the major areas in need of attention. It is intended to be of use to researchers, national policy makers, the public health community, industry groups and other relevant stakeholders including funding institutions.

  8. Bridging the gap from research-to-high-technology ventures with experienced entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murdock, Karen; Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    2017-01-01

    the gap’ (BtG) is a model for combining the experiences, market insight and network connections of experienced entrepreneurs and the technical knowledge and capabilities of university researchers to create a stronger basis for spin-outs. Inserting market knowledge and competences in the research domain......The paper explores an alternative approach to the traditional transfer of university research output. This approach proposes a systematic search and matching of external experienced entrepreneurs with university researchers to stimulate spinning out university-developed technology. ‘Bridging...

  9. Addressing the Evidence Gap in Stroke Rehabilitation for Complex Patients: A Preliminary Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michelle L; McKellar, Kaileah A; Munce, Sarah; Kelloway, Linda; Hans, Parminder Kaur; Fortin, Martin; Lyons, Renee; Bayley, Mark

    2018-06-01

    Evidence suggests that a stroke occurs in isolation (no comorbid conditions) in less than 6% of patients. Multimorbidity, compounded by psychosocial issues, makes treatment and recovery for stroke increasingly complex. Recent research and health policy documents called for a better understanding of the needs of this patient population, and for the development and testing of models of care that meet their needs. A research agenda specific to complexity is required. The primary objective of the think tank was to identify and prioritize research questions that meet the information needs of stakeholders, and to develop a research agenda specific to stroke rehabilitation and patient complexity. A modified Delphi and World Café approach underpinned the think tank meeting, approaches well recognized to foster interaction, dialogue, and collaboration between stakeholders. Forty-three researchers, clinicians, and policymakers attended a 2-day meeting. Initial question-generating activities resulted in 120 potential research questions. Sixteen high-priority research questions were identified, focusing on predetermined complexity characteristics-multimorbidity, social determinants, patient characteristics, social supports, and system factors. The final questions are presented as a prioritized research framework. An emergent result of this activity is the development of a complexity and stroke rehabilitation research network. The research agenda reflects topics of importance to stakeholders working with stroke patients with increasingly complex care needs. This robust process resulted in a preliminary research agenda that could provide policymakers with the evidence needed to make improvements toward better-organized services, better coordination between settings, improved patient outcomes, and lower system costs. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. UO{sub 2} oxidation under dry storage conditions: From data gaps to research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L. E. [CIEMAT, Andalucia (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Dry interim storage is becoming a major activity of today's fuel cycle. The potential contact between no grossly damaged fuel rods (i.e., rods containing tiny defects like pinhole leaks and hairline cracks) and an oxidizing atmosphere during the cask water removal might lead to unacceptable consequences. One way to prevent it is to determine the time to propagation of a defect at given conditions. This paper compiles and critically reviews the existing database concerning time at temperature profile of fuel rods containing tiny defects that are exposed to oxidizing atmospheres. This review has pointed out significant drawbacks and limitations that would hinder its reliable application to assess the potential for defect propagation of current LWR fuels to be loaded in dry storage casks. Those weaknesses come essentially from data scarcity and lack of tests representativity. Based on this study, three main areas of work are recommended to fill the existing knowledge gaps: sound characterization of fuel rod responses in the low burnup range (<30 GWd/tU), extension of the database to high burnups characteristic of current discharged LWR fuels (<60GWd/tU), assessment of availability (i.e., amount and nature) of oxidizing agents. The result of the work suggested would result in a more complete and extensive database that would strongly support the potential use of 'time at temperature' curves.

  11. The central extended amygdala in fear and anxiety: Closing the gap between mechanistic and neuroimaging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew S; Shackman, Alexander J

    2017-11-30

    Anxiety disorders impose a staggering burden on public health, underscoring the need to develop a deeper understanding of the distributed neural circuits underlying extreme fear and anxiety. Recent work highlights the importance of the central extended amygdala, including the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and neighboring bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). Anatomical data indicate that the Ce and BST form a tightly interconnected unit, where different kinds of threat-relevant information can be integrated to assemble states of fear and anxiety. Neuroimaging studies show that the Ce and BST are engaged by a broad spectrum of potentially threat-relevant cues. Mechanistic work demonstrates that the Ce and BST are critically involved in organizing defensive responses to a wide range of threats. Studies in rodents have begun to reveal the specific molecules, cells, and microcircuits within the central extended amygdala that underlie signs of fear and anxiety, but the relevance of these tantalizing discoveries to human experience and disease remains unclear. Using a combination of focal perturbations and whole-brain imaging, a new generation of nonhuman primate studies is beginning to close this gap. This work opens the door to discovering the mechanisms underlying neuroimaging measures linked to pathological fear and anxiety, to understanding how the Ce and BST interact with one another and with distal brain regions to govern defensive responses to threat, and to developing improved intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Data gaps in evidence-based research on small water enterprises in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opryszko, Melissa C; Huang, Haiou; Soderlund, Kurt; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2009-12-01

    Small water enterprises (SWEs) are water delivery operations that predominantly provide water at the community level. SWEs operate beyond the reach of piped water systems, selling water to households throughout the world. Their ubiquity in the developing world and access to vulnerable populations suggests that these small-scale water vendors may prove valuable in improving potable water availability. This paper assesses the current literature on SWEs to evaluate previous studies and determine gaps in the evidence base. Piped systems and point-of-use products were not included in this assessment. Results indicate that SWES are active in urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Benefits of SWEs include: no upfront connection fees; demand-driven and flexible to local conditions; and service to large populations without high costs of utility infrastructure. Disadvantages of SWEs include: higher charges for water per unit of volume compared with infrastructure-based utilities; lack of regulation; operation often outside legal structures; no water quality monitoring; increased potential for conflict with local utilities; and potential for extortion by local officials. No rigorous, evidence-based, peer-reviewed scientific studies that control for confounders examining the effectiveness of SWEs in providing potable water were identified.

  13. Good Pharma? How Business Communication Research Can Help Bridge the Gap between Students and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyer, Tom; Jacobs, Geert; Vandendaele, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case-based exploration of the complex interactions between learning, research, and practice in the field of business and professional communication. It focuses on a student research project in the area of corporate social responsibility in the biopharmaceutical industry. Adopting an autoethnographic approach, we aim to…

  14. A University and District Partnership Closes the Research-to-Classroom Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Laura; Carranza, Richard; Stipek, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    For years, researchers have been working in school districts conducting studies that produce findings. Because educational research and the practice of education are centered in very different institutions with different expectations, incentives, and cultures, the connections have been tenuous at best. Meanwhile, there is increasing demand for…

  15. Bridging the Gap: The Case for Expanding Ethnographic Techniques in the Marketing Research Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Lynne; Spanjaard, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This article challenges the content of most marketing research courses whereby students are indoctrinated into the qualitative-then-quantitative archetype commonly found in scholarly research, under the assumption that it is both sufficient and appropriate when equipping students with the necessary skills for business. By following this standard…

  16. A New Kind of Research Paper: Bridging the Gap between Reader Response and Formal Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Johnson, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    Explores how two-year college students may be assisted in the transition from reader response criticism to literary analysis and research paper writing. Proposes a heuristic that requires student researchers to draw on previous student essays on their topic. (TB)

  17. Teachers and School Research Practices: The Gaps between the Values and Practices of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that improving education processes has become a priority for all governments. There have also been recent calls for the knowledge that is already in existence to be used more effectively to improve these education systems both internationally and nationally. For research evidence to be used more effectively, it is…

  18. Bridging the gap from university research to high-tech venture via experienced entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Murdock, Karen

    2015-01-01

    We report a new model for development of sustainable growth companies based on research from universities via systematic collaboration with experienced, external entrepreneurs having spin-out experience and market insight. The research has identified university structures that support the spinning...

  19. Bridging the Research-to-Practice Gap: The Role of the Nurse Scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Jeannine M

    2015-11-01

    To describe the emerging role of the nurse scientist in health care organizations. Historical perspectives of the role are explored along with the roles of the nurse scientist, facilitators, barriers, and future implications. Relevant literature on evidence-based practice and research in health care organizations; nurse scientist role; interview with University of Colorado nurse scientist. The nurse scientist role is integral for expanding evidence-based decisions and nursing research. A research mentor is considered the most important facilitator for a successful nursing research program. Organizations should consider including the nurse scientist role to facilitate evidence-based practice and expand opportunities for nursing research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Introduction to the special section on dissemination: dissemination research and research dissemination: how can we close the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Jon; Rimer, Barbara; Emmons, Karen

    2005-09-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing health promotion and disease prevention is translating research findings into evidence-based public health and clinical practices that are actively disseminated and widely adopted. Despite the tremendous strides made in developing effective disease prevention and control programs, there has been little study of effective dissemination of evidence-based programs to and adoption by community, public health, and clinical practice settings. This special section provides a venue in which to highlight exemplary dissemination research efforts while also identifying limitations in research to date and framing important future research questions. This issue establishes a resource for investigators interested in dissemination research, with relevance to health psychology. In this sense, it can serve as a benchmark by which to examine subsequent progress. The 6 articles reflect the state of the science in dissemination research for the promotion and adoption of health behavior change interventions. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Research Challenges and Gaps in Malaria Knowledge in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazura, James W.; Siba, Peter M.; Betuela, Inoni; Mueller, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Taking into consideration the relative number of people living in Papua New Guinea the burden of malaria in this country is among the highest in Asia and the Pacific region. This article summarizes the research questions and challenges being undertaken by the Southwest Pacific International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research in the context of the epidemiology, transmission and pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax at the present time and the recent past. It is hoped that the research accomplished and local infrastructure strengthened by this effort will help inform regional and national policy with regard to the control and ultimately elimination of malaria in this region of the world. PMID:21896268

  2. Ecotoxicity of silver nanomaterials in the aquatic environment: a review of literature and gaps in nano-toxicological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Chavon R; Pool, Edmund J; Somerset, Vernon S

    2014-01-01

    There has been extensive growth in nanoscale technology in the last few decades to such a degree that nanomaterials (NMs) have become a constituent in a wide range of commercial and domestic products. With NMs already in use in several consumer products, concerns have emerged regarding their potential adverse environmental impacts. Although research has been undertaken in order to minimise the gaps in our understanding of NMs in the environment, little is known about their bioavailability and toxicity in the aquatic environment. Nano-toxicology is defined as the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials. Nano-toxicology studies remain poorly and unevenly distributed. To date most of the research undertaken has been restricted to a narrow range of test species such as daphnids. Crabs are bio-indicators that can be used for toxicological research on NMs since they occupy a significant position in the aquatic food chain. In addition, they are often used in conventional ecotoxicological studies due to their high sensitivity to environmental stressors and are abundantly available. Because they are benthic organisms they are prone to contaminant uptake and bioaccumulation. To our knowledge the crab has never been used in nano-toxicological studies. In this context, an extensive review on published scientific literature on the ecotoxicity of silver NPs (AgNPs) on aquatic organisms was conducted. Some of the most common biomarkers used in ecotoxicological studies are described. Emphasis is placed on the use of biomarker responses in crabs as monitoring tools, as well as on its limitations. Additionally, the gaps in nano-toxicological research and recommendations for future research initiatives are addressed.

  3. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments...

  4. A Gap Analysis of Research Being Conducted on Naval Personnel Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    SPQR ) Research Project (14ar02-9) (NEW) HR Planning (Organizational Level) (14ar03) Assessing Establishment Requirements for Canada Command HQ...flow. 14ar02-9 SPQR Research Project New (1 Jun 10) G. Christopher (DGMPRA) To have DMPORA make a comparison of existing SPQRs associated with...Sonar Operator SPQR Special Personnel Qualification Requirements STISA Scientific, Technical and Intelligence Support and Advice SUBCA Submarine

  5. Understanding Gaps in Research Networks: Using "Spatial Reasoning" as a Window into the Importance of Networked Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Catherine D.; Davis, Brent; Sinclair, Nathalie; McGarvey, Lynn; Hallowell, David; Drefs, Michelle; Francis, Krista; Hawes, Zachary; Moss, Joan; Mulligan, Joanne; Okamoto, Yukari; Whiteley, Walter; Woolcott, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    This paper finds its origins in a multidisciplinary research group's efforts to assemble a review of research in order to better appreciate how "spatial reasoning" is understood and investigated across academic disciplines. We first collaborated to create a historical map of the development of spatial reasoning across key disciplines…

  6. Which research is needed to support clinical decision-making on integrative medicine?- Can comparative effectiveness research close the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Claudia M; Huang, Wen-jing; Lao, Lixing; Bm, Berman

    2012-10-01

    In clinical research on complementary and integrative medicine, experts and scientists have often pursued a research agenda in spite of an incomplete understanding of the needs of end users. Consequently, the majority of previous clinical trials have mainly assessed the efficacy of interventions. Scant data is available on their effectiveness. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) promises to support decision makers by generating evidence that compares the benefits and harms of the best care options. This evidence, more generalizable than the evidence generated by traditional randomized controlled trials (RCTs), is better suited to inform real-world care decisions. An emphasis on CER supports the development of the evidence base for clinical and policy decision-making. Whereas in most areas of complementary and integrative medicine data on comparative effectiveness is scarce, available acupuncture research already contributes to CER evidence. This paper will introduce CER and make suggestions for future research.

  7. [Which research is needed to support clinical decision-making on integrative medicine? Can comparative effectiveness research close the gap?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Claudia M; Huang, Wen-jing; Lao, Lixing; Berman, Brian M

    2013-08-01

    In clinical research on complementary and integrative medicine, experts and scientists have often pursued a research agenda in spite of an incomplete understanding of the needs of end users. Consequently, the majority of previous clinical trials have mainly assessed the efficacy of interventions. Scant data is available on their effectiveness. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) promises to support decision makers by generating evidence that compares the benefits and harms of best care options. This evidence, more generalizable than evidence generated by traditional randomized clinical trials (RCTs), is better suited to inform real-world care decisions. An emphasis on CER supports the development of the evidence base for clinical and policy decision-making. Whereas in most areas of complementary and integrative medicine data on CER is scarce, available acupuncture research already contributes to CER evidence. This paper will introduce CER and make suggestions for future research.

  8. Zika virus infection, transmission, associated neurological disorders and birth abnormalities: A review of progress in research, priorities and knowledge gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitades Gebre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared that the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders constitute public health emergency of international concern. Furthermore, few studies demonstrated that there was an increased evidence of causal relationship of Zika virus (ZIKAV infection and microcephaly, birth abnormalities and neurological disorders such as Guillain–Barré syndrome. ZIKAV transmission occurs mainly by the bite of infected mosquitos (Aedes species, but there are also reports that infections could occur via the placenta, breast milk, saliva, blood transfusion and sex. This article reviews the global efforts, progress in scientific research to understand the pathogenesis of ZIKAV infection & disease, clinical presentations, congenital transmission and autoimmune neurological disorders. The paper further explores the knowledge gaps, future priority research agenda for strategic response including vector control and prevention. We conducted a systematic literature review to synthesise available evidence on ZIKAV infection and its vector and host interaction from electronic databases.

  9. Refining Current Scientific Priorities and Identifying New Scientific Gaps in HIV-Related Heart, Lung, Blood, and Sleep Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Homer L; Crystal, Ronald; Currier, Judith; Ridker, Paul; Berliner, Nancy; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Rutherford, George; Zou, Shimian; Glynn, Simone; Wong, Renee; Peprah, Emmanuel; Engelgau, Michael; Creazzo, Tony; Colombini-Hatch, Sandra; Caler, Elisabet

    2017-09-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) AIDS Program's goal is to provide direction and support for research and training programs in areas of HIV-related heart, lung, blood, and sleep (HLBS) diseases. To better define NHLBI current HIV-related scientific priorities and with the goal of identifying new scientific priorities and gaps in HIV-related HLBS research, a wide group of investigators gathered for a scientific NHLBI HIV Working Group on December 14-15, 2015, in Bethesda, MD. The core objectives of the Working Group included discussions on: (1) HIV-related HLBS comorbidities in the antiretroviral era; (2) HIV cure; (3) HIV prevention; and (4) mechanisms to implement new scientific discoveries in an efficient and timely manner so as to have the most impact on people living with HIV. The 2015 Working Group represented an opportunity for the NHLBI to obtain expert advice on HIV/AIDS scientific priorities and approaches over the next decade.

  10. Zika virus infection, transmission, associated neurological disorders and birth abnormalities: A review of progress in research, priorities and knowledge gaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yitades Gebre; Nikkiah Forbes; Teshome Gebre

    2016-01-01

    On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared that the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders constitute public health emergency of international concern. Furthermore, few studies demonstrated that there was an increased evidence of causal relationship of Zika virus(ZIKAV) infection and microcephaly, birth abnormalities and neurological disorders such as Guillain–Barre′ syndrome.ZIKAV transmission occurs mainly by the bite of infected mosquitos(Aedes species), but there are also reports that infections could occur via the placenta, breast milk, saliva,blood transfusion and sex. This article reviews the global efforts, progress in scientific research to understand the pathogenesis of ZIKAV infection & disease, clinical presentations, congenital transmission and autoimmune neurological disorders. The paper further explores the knowledge gaps, future priority research agenda for strategic response including vector control and prevention. We conducted a systematic literature review to synthesise available evidence on ZIKAV infection and its vector and host interaction from electronic databases.

  11. Gaps of maritime health research in Latin America – a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Andrioti, Despena; Canals, M. Luisa

    for research in this part of the world. Materials and Methods PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online, Pan American Journal of Public Health, Medicina Maritima and other relevant journals in Latin America in the Spanish and English languages were searched. Results 57 peer......-reviewed articles on fishermen´s health and safety and none for the seafarers were included. Brazil counted for the main part n =39, while each of the other countries had 0-4 studies. The study objectives include occupational injuries, divers disease, skin diseases, hearing loss and other issues. The cross......Background So far the maritime health and safety research for seafarers and fishermen mainly comes from the industrial developed countries with sparse contributions from the developing countries. The aim was to give an overview of the peer reviewed research in Latin America to point out the needs...

  12. [Translation of knowledge on cervical cancer: is there a gap between research on causes and research on patient care?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Ochoa, Héctor; García, Luis; Castaño, Víctor

    2014-02-01

    This article constructs a map on the translation of knowledge concerning cervical cancer, based on citation networks analysis and the use of Gene Ontology terms and Medical Subject Headings. We identified two areas of research that are poorly interconnected and differ in structure, content, and evolution. One focuses on causes of cancer and the other on patient care. The first research area showed a knowledge translation process where basic research and clinical research are communicated through a set of articles that consolidate human papillomavirus infection as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. The first area aims to prevent HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer, while the second aims to stage and treat the disease.

  13. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 1 - Overview of Global Status and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    The Global Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) Research Alliance periodically reviews the state of FMD research to assess progress and to identify new priorities. In this supplement we provide an update of global FMD research, comprising (i) this overview paper, which includes background information with key findings, and papers covering (ii) epidemiology, wildlife and economics, (iii) vaccines, (iv) diagnostics, (v) biotherapeutics and disinfectants, (vi) immunology and (vii) pathogenesis and molecular biology. FMD research publications were reviewed (2011-2015) and activity updates were obtained from 33 FMD research institutes from around the world. Although a continual threat, FMD has been effectively controlled in much of the world using existing tools. However, control remains a challenge in most developing countries, where little has been done to understand the ongoing burden of FMD. More research is needed to support control in endemically infected countries, particularly robust field studies. Traditional FMD vaccines have several limitations including short duration and spectrum of protection, cold chain requirements, and the costs and biosecurity risks associated with vaccine production. Significant progress has been made in the development of novel vaccine candidates, particularly in the use of recombinant vaccines and virus-like particles as an alternative to traditional inactivated whole virus vaccines. Continued investment is needed to turn these developments into improved vaccines produced at scale. Increased knowledge of cellular and mucosal immunity would benefit vaccine development, as would further advances in our ability to enhance vaccine capsid stability. Developments in molecular biology and phylogenetics underlie many of the recent advances in FMD research, including improved vaccines and diagnostics, and improved understanding of FMD epidemiology. Tools for genetic analyses continue to become both more powerful and more affordable enabling them to

  14. Current research in risk-aware business process management - overview, comparison, and gap analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suriadi, S.; Weiss, B. (Burkhard); Winkelmann, A.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Adams, M.; Conforti, R.; Fidge, C.J.; La Rosa, Marcello; Ouyang, C.; Pika, A.; Rosemann, M.; Wynn, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The management of risks in business processes has been a subject of active research in the past few years. Many benefits can potentially be obtained by integrating the two traditionally-separated fields of risk management and business process management, including the ability to minimize risks in

  15. Scientifically Based Research in Educational Products: Vendors and Consumers on Filling the Certification Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruthers, Bill J.

    2009-01-01

    The 2002 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, or No Child Left Behind (NCLB) changed school law in the United States. Public schools can utilize federal funds to purchase only those educational products subject to scientifically based research. No dedicated certification intermediary (CI) exists to determine individual…

  16. Moral Development Research Designed to Make a Difference: Some Gaps Waiting to be Filled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhmerker, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    Encapsulates five brief reports on cutting edge issues in moral education research. Discusses strengths and weaknesses of different administrative approaches to creating a character education program. Addresses the inherent dichotomy between military service and democratic values. Considers issues of data verification and abuse of power. (MJP)

  17. The Statistical Knowledge Gap in Higher Degree by Research Students: The Supervisors' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglin, James; Hart, Claire; Stow, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to gain an understanding of the current statistical training and support needs for Australian Higher Degree by Research (HDR) students and their supervisors. The data reported herein are based on the survey responses of 191 (18.7%) eligible supervisors from a single Australian institution. The survey was composed of both…

  18. The Clinical Translation Gap in Child Health Exercise Research: A Call for Disruptive Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashish, N.; Bamman, M.M.; Cerny, F.J.; Cooper, D.M.; D'Hemecourt, P.; Eisenmann, J.C.; Ericson, D.; Fahey, J.; Falk, B.; Gabriel, D.; Kahn, M.G.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Leu, S.Y.; Liem, R.I.; McMurray, R.; Nixon, P.A.; Olin, J.T.; Pianosi, P.T.; Purucker, M.; Radom-Aizik, S.; Taylor, A.

    2015-01-01

    In children, levels of play, physical activity, and fitness are key indicators of health and disease and closely tied to optimal growth and development. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides clinicians with biomarkers of disease and effectiveness of therapy, and researchers with novel

  19. Mind the gap – towards complete and transparent reporting of animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tillmann, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Several initiatives have been taken to standardise the reporting of animal studies in peer-reviewed scientific journals, such as the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) and GSPC (Gold Standard Publication Checklist) guidelines. Surprisingly, many publications still lack key...

  20. Maternal health research outputs and gaps in Latin America: reflections from the mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Riaño, Emily; Becerril-Montekio, Víctor; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Tristán, Mario

    2017-09-18

    As part of the MASCOT/WOTRO multinational team conducting the maternal health literature mapping, four Latin American researchers were particularly interested in analysing information specific to their region. The mapping started with 45,959 papers uploaded from MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, LILACAS, PopLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Knowledge. From these, 4175 full texts were reviewed and 2295 papers were subsequently included. Latin America experienced an average maternal mortality decline of 40% between 1990 and 2013. Nevertheless, the region's performance was below the global average and short of the 75% reduction set in Millennium Development Goal 5 for 2015. The main outcomes show that research on maternal health in the countries where the most impoverished populations of the world are living is not always aligned with their compelling needs. From another perspective, the review made it possible to recognize that research funding as well as the amount of scientific literature produced concentrate on issues that are not necessarily among the main causes of maternal deaths. Even though research on maternal health in Latin America has grown from an average of 92.5 publications per year in 2000-2003 to 236.7 between 2008 and 2012, it's not satisfactorily keeping pace with other regions. In conclusion, it is critical to effectively orient research funding and production to respond to the health needs of the population. At the same time, there is a need for innovative mechanisms to strengthen the production and uptake of scientific evidence that can properly inform public health decision making.

  1. Gaps in tobacco control research in accordance with WHO FCTC guidelines: a systematic literature review in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarunya Benjakul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence-based policy is a term often applied in various field of public health including tobacco control policy. Strengthening evidence -based tobacco control policy development should also base on reliable evidence, in particular research approach. The coverage of tobacco control research under WHO FCTC guidelines is crucial issues. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted for identifying the gaps in tobacco control research. The search for relevant publications was done by the search engine. The key inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined, focusing on published original article conducting in Thai context, both English and Thai language in the past 5 years. The quality of articles was assessed. The text of articles was analyzed based on WHO FCTC articles, at totally 15 articles as well as the 2 nd National Strategic Plan for Tobacco Control 2015 - 2019. Results The initial search resulted in 1,048 abstracts. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria for two rounds, 176 original articles were selected for the review. In the article reviewed, the most of WHO FCTC articles applying into the research conceptual framework was article 20 (63.1% with the purpose of gain new knowledge on tobacco harms and effects on health and cross sectional survey design for surveillance tobacco use among various groups. The rest of articles were focused on research related WHO FCTC article 12 (31.0% and article 14 (19.3%. Three articles did not conducted as a research framework, articles 5.3, 9 - 10 and 19. However, those resulted were implemented in specific area, setting and target groups that's not applicable for scaling up. Conclusions The successful transformation of research results to effective tobacco control policy under WHO FCTC depends on various issuers, especially time-based for conducting the research that sufficient to prove the project outcome and appropriate budget for comprehensive research design, coverage

  2. Learning in context: identifying gaps in research on the transfer of medical communication skills to the clinical workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eertwegh, Valerie; van Dulmen, Sandra; van Dalen, Jan; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2013-02-01

    In order to reduce the inconsistencies of findings and the apparent low transfer of communication skills from training to medical practice, this narrative review identifies some main gaps in research on medical communication skills training and presents insights from theories on learning and transfer to broaden the view for future research. Relevant literature was identified using Pubmed, GoogleScholar, Cochrane database, and Web of Science; and analyzed using an iterative procedure. Research findings on the effectiveness of medical communication training still show inconsistencies and variability. Contemporary theories on learning based on a constructivist paradigm offer the following insights: acquisition of knowledge and skills should be viewed as an ongoing process of exchange between the learner and his environment, so called lifelong learning. This process can neither be atomized nor separated from the context in which it occurs. Four contemporary approaches are presented as examples. The following shift in focus for future research is proposed: beyond isolated single factor effectiveness studies toward constructivist, non-reductionistic studies integrating the context. Future research should investigate how constructivist approaches can be used in the medical context to increase effective learning and transition of communication skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bridging the gap between research-supported interventions and everyday social work practice: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Allen

    2014-07-01

    This article describes a rationale for a focus on case studies that would provide a database of single-group pre-post mean effect sizes that could be analyzed to identify which service provision characteristics are associated with more desirable outcomes when interventions supported by randomized clinical trials are adapted in everyday practice settings. In addition, meta-analyses are proposed that would provide benchmarks that agency practitioners could compare with their mean effect size to inform their decisions about whether to continue, modify, or replace existing efforts to adopt or adapt a specific research-supported treatment. Social workers should be at the forefront of the recommended studies in light of the profession's emphasis on applied research in real-world settings and the prominence of social work practitioners in such settings.

  4. Towards Practical Brain-Computer Interfaces Bridging the Gap from Research to Real-World Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dunne, Stephen; Leeb, Robert; Millán, José; Nijholt, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are devices that enable people to communicate via thought alone. Brain signals can be directly translated into messages or commands. Until recently, these devices were used primarily to help people who could not move. However, BCIs are now becoming practical tools for a wide variety of people, in many different situations. What will BCIs in the future be like? Who will use them, and why? This book, written by many of the top BCI researchers and developers, reviews the latest progress in the different components of BCIs. Chapters also discuss practical issues in an emerging BCI enabled community. The book is intended both for professionals and for interested laypeople who are not experts in BCI research.

  5. Embedded hardware for closing the gap between research and industry in the assistive powered wheelchair market

    OpenAIRE

    Canoz, V; Gillham, Michael; Oprea, P; Chaumont, P; Bodin, A; Laux, P; Lebigre, M; Howells, Gareth; Sirlantzis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Literature is abound with smart wheelchair platforms of various developments, yet to date there has been little technology find its way to the market place. Many trials and much research has taken place over the last few decades however the end user has benefited precious little. There exists two fundamental difficulties when developing a smart powered wheelchair assistive system, the first is need for the system to be fully compatible with all of the manufacturers, and the second is to produ...

  6. Gaps and strategies in developing health research capacity: experience from the Nigeria Implementation Science Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeanolue, Echezona E.; Menson, William Nii Ayitey; Patel, Dina; Aarons, Gregory; Olutola, Ayodotun; Obiefune, Michael; Dakum, Patrick; Okonkwo, Prosper; Gobir, Bola; Akinmurele, Timothy; Nwandu, Anthea; Khamofu, Hadiza; Oyeledun, Bolanle; Aina, Muyiwa; Eyo, Andy

    2018-01-01

    Background Despite being disproportionately burdened by preventable diseases than more advanced countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) continue to trail behind other parts of the world in the number, quality and impact of scholarly activities by their health researchers. Our strategy at the Nigerian Implementation Science Alliance (NISA) is to utilise innovative platforms that catalyse collaboration, enhance communication between different stakeholders, and promote the uptake of ...

  7. Leveraging Health Care Simulation Technology for Human Factors Research: Closing the Gap Between Lab and Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ellen S; Dong, Yue; Halamek, Louis P; Rosen, Michael A; Taekman, Jeffrey M; Rice, John

    2016-11-01

    We describe health care simulation, designed primarily for training, and provide examples of how human factors experts can collaborate with health care professionals and simulationists-experts in the design and implementation of simulation-to use contemporary simulation to improve health care delivery. The need-and the opportunity-to apply human factors expertise in efforts to achieve improved health outcomes has never been greater. Health care is a complex adaptive system, and simulation is an effective and flexible tool that can be used by human factors experts to better understand and improve individual, team, and system performance within health care. Expert opinion is presented, based on a panel delivered during the 2014 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Health Care Symposium. Diverse simulators, physically or virtually representing humans or human organs, and simulation applications in education, research, and systems analysis that may be of use to human factors experts are presented. Examples of simulation designed to improve individual, team, and system performance are provided, as are applications in computational modeling, research, and lifelong learning. The adoption or adaptation of current and future training and assessment simulation technologies and facilities provides opportunities for human factors research and engineering, with benefits for health care safety, quality, resilience, and efficiency. Human factors experts, health care providers, and simulationists can use contemporary simulation equipment and techniques to study and improve health care delivery. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  8. Bridging the Gap Between Research and Operations in the National Weather Service: The Huntsville Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, C.; Carroll, B.; Lapenta, W.; Jedlovec, G.; Goodman, S.; Bradshaw, T.; Gordon, J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The National Weather Service Office (WFO) in Huntsville, Alabama (HUN) is slated to begin full-time operations in early 2003. With the opening of the Huntsville WFO, a unique opportunity has arisen for close and productive collaboration with scientists at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH). As a part of the collaboration effort, NASA has developed the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center. The mission of the SPoRT center is to incorporate NASA earth science technology and research into the NWS operational environment. Emphasis will be on improving mesoscale and short-term forecasting in the first 24 hours of the forecast period. As part of the collaboration effort, the NWS and NASA will develop an implementation and evaluation plan to streamline the integration of the latest technologies and techniques into the operational forecasting environment. The desire of WFO HUN, NASA, and UAH is to provide a model for future collaborative activities between research and operational communities across the country.

  9. Topics in Current Science Research: Closing the Achievement Gap for Under Resourced Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya Villalpando, Alvaro; Daal, Miguel; Phipps, Arran; Speller, Danielle; Sadoulet, Bernard; Winheld, Rachel; Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Topics in Current Science Research (TCSR) is a five-week summer course offered at the University of California, Berkeley through a collaboration between the Level Playing Field Institute's Summer Math and Science Honors Academy (SMASH) Program and the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) group at UC Berkeley. SMASH is an academic enrichment program geared towards under-resourced, high school students of color. The goals of the course are to expand the students' conception of STEM, to teach the students that science is a method of inquiry and not just a collection of facts that are taught in school, and to expose the scholars to critical thinking within a scientific setting. The course's curriculum engages the scholars in hands-on scientific research, project proposal writing, and presentation of their scientific work to their peers as well as to a panel of UC Berkeley scientists. In this talk, we describe the course and the impact it has had on previous scholars, we discuss how the course's pedagogy has evolved over the past 10 years to enhance students' perception and understanding of science, and we present previous participants' reflections and feedback about the course and its success in providing high school students a genuine research experience at the university level.

  10. Bridging the Gap Between Policy and Research Infrastructure: Risk and Vulnerability Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim; Rogers, Annabelle

    2017-04-01

    Linking sound scientific data and conclusions to decision and policy support is not a trivial task, and the difficulty in achieving this has been highlighted more than a decade ago (Reid, 2004). There are several reasons why this is the case, inter alia: 1. The language, (vocabularies, framework, and heuristics) adopted by the research community in a specific discipline may not translate into meaningful implementation language (Preston et al., 2015); 2. The researchers may not be in a position of influence (which includes aspects such as writing policy briefs, undertaking personal initiatives, and building up public or industry concern and interest) (Fox and Sitkin, 2015); 3. The frequency, timing, and/or certainty associated with research output is at odds with decision and policy-making cycles. Research typically progresses until there is a defensible level of certainty in statistical assessment of a result, while policy decisions are often made within a regular cycle; 4. Scientists are not trained for, or measured by, the typical work required for decision and policy support: synthesis of scenarios and cost-benefits of such scenarios given sometimes significant uncertainty in the input data, and cross-disciplinary concerns that need to be balanced. There is a significant expectation that research output, being increasingly open, standardised, and managed in formal research data infrastructure, will be useful to policy and decision makers without much additional intervention and modification. We believe that this is unlikely to be feasible in the majority of cases. For most instances, it will be necessary to provide a framework for the translation of scientific output into decision and policy support metrics or indicators at a frequency, with spatial and temporal resolution, and thematic coverage that suits the decision to be made. Such frameworks exist, since the need has been identified - sometimes formally - such as the very detailed framework developed by

  11. Cancer research priorities and gaps in Iran: the influence of cancer burden on cancer research outputs between 1997 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, A; Salimzadeh, H; Beiki, O; Delavari, F; Majidi, S; Delavari, A; Malekzadeh, R

    2017-03-01

    As a developing country, Iran is experiencing the increasing burden of cancers, which are currently the third leading cause of mortality in Iran. This study aims to demonstrate that cancer research in Iran concentrates on the cancer research priorities based on the global burden of disease (GBD) reports. Descriptive evaluation of all cancers disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was performed using GBD data. Also a comprehensive search was conducted using cancer-associated keywords to obtain all cancer-related publications from Iran, indexed in Web of Science. Multiple regression analysis and correlation coefficients (R 2 ) were used to evaluate the possible associations between cancer research publications and GBD. During 1996-2014, the majority of cancer-related publications in Iran focused on breast cancer, leukaemia and stomach cancer, respectively. This study found hypothetical correlations between cancer publications in Iran in line with the burden of cancer as reported by GBD. Particularly, correlations between years lived with disability (YLD) and cancer-related publications were more obvious. This study introduces a new outline in setting cancer research priorities in the region. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wide Band-Gap Semiconductors. 1991 Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    ORIGIN OF POLYTYPES IN SiC AND ZnS 507 Volker Heine, C. Cheng, G.E. Engel, and R.I. Needs EPITAXIAL MONOCRYSTALLINE SiC FILMS GROWN ON Si BY LOW...carbon film component. INTRODUCTION One of the most challenging problems in diamond film research has been the growth of high quality, monocrystalline ...developing ZnS EL full color flat panel displays is that the insufficient intensity of blue light emission ( two orders of magnitude lower than that of red

  13. Computing Risk to West Coast Intertidal Rocky Habitat due to Sea Level Rise using LiDAR Topobathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to marshes, little information is available on the potential for rocky intertidal habitats to migrate upward in response to sea level rise (SLR). To address this gap, we utilized topobathy LiDAR digital elevation models (DEMs) downloaded from NOAA’s Digital Coast G...

  14. Bridging the Gap between Research and Clinical Practice in Asymptomatic Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, A M; Yaari, R; Ball, D E; Selzler, K J; Devous, M D

    2016-01-01

    Due to the growing global health impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a greater need for interventions that prevent or delay the onset of clinical symptoms of this debilitating disease. Clinical trials for disease-modifying compounds in AD have shifted towards earlier stages in the spectrum of illness, including the stage prior to cognitive symptoms. A population of specific interest for clinical research includes individuals with evidence of Alzheimer's disease pathology who are asymptomatic (ADPa). The challenges and barriers regarding medical treatment of ADPa must be identified and addressed prior to the completion of a positive clinical trial in order to accelerate the translation of research findings to clinical practice. This report applies an existing public health impact model from Spencer and colleagues (2013) to evaluate the readiness of the clinical practice environment to treat ADPa individuals if a disease-modifying agent achieves approval. We contrast the current clinical practice environment with a potential future state through investigating the effectiveness, reach, feasibility, sustainability, and transferability of the practice of treating ADPa individuals.

  15. Bridging the gap between research into biological and psychosocial models of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robin M; Sideli, Lucia; LA Cascia, Caterina; LA Barbera, Daniele

    2015-06-25

    Paul Bebbington's recent Special Article provides an excellent synthesis of recent advances in psychosocial research on psychosis. However, we doubt that a model based solely on social epidemiology and cognitive theory can totally describe psychosis, and to be fair, Bebbington does not suggest that it does. A complete model must also incorporate what we have learned from non-social epidemiology, neuroscience, and genetics. Evidence indicates that both the social risk factors that interest Bebbington and biological risk factors, such as abuse of stimulants and cannabis, can provoke psychotic symptoms by dysregulating striatal dopamine. The role of neurodevelopmental deviance also needs to be considered in the etiology of schizophrenia-like psychosis. Moreover, the striking advances in our understanding of the genetic architecture of psychosis open an exciting door into studies examining gene-environment correlation and gene-environment interaction. In short, Bebbington demonstrates the value of cognitive and social researchers talking to each other, but the occasional chat with the more biologically inclined could produce a more comprehensive model.

  16. Integrating chytrid fungal parasites into plankton ecology: research gaps and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Thijs; Alacid, Elisabet; Berger, Stella A; Bourne, Elizabeth C; Gerphagnon, Mélanie; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Gsell, Alena S; Ibelings, Bas W; Kagami, Maiko; Küpper, Frithjof C; Letcher, Peter M; Loyau, Adeline; Miki, Takeshi; Nejstgaard, Jens C; Rasconi, Serena; Reñé, Albert; Rohrlack, Thomas; Rojas-Jimenez, Keilor; Schmeller, Dirk S; Scholz, Bettina; Seto, Kensuke; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Sukenik, Assaf; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Van den Wyngaert, Silke; Van Donk, Ellen; Wolinska, Justyna; Wurzbacher, Christian; Agha, Ramsy

    2017-10-01

    Chytridiomycota, often referred to as chytrids, can be virulent parasites with the potential to inflict mass mortalities on hosts, causing e.g. changes in phytoplankton size distributions and succession, and the delay or suppression of bloom events. Molecular environmental surveys have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of chytrids across a wide range of aquatic ecosystems worldwide. As a result, scientific interest towards fungal parasites of phytoplankton has been gaining momentum in the past few years. Yet, we still know little about the ecology of chytrids, their life cycles, phylogeny, host specificity and range. Information on the contribution of chytrids to trophic interactions, as well as co-evolutionary feedbacks of fungal parasitism on host populations is also limited. This paper synthesizes ideas stressing the multifaceted biological relevance of phytoplankton chytridiomycosis, resulting from discussions among an international team of chytrid researchers. It presents our view on the most pressing research needs for promoting the integration of chytrid fungi into aquatic ecology. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The current status of ethnobiological research in Latin America: gaps and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Silva, Josivan Soares; Campos, Juliana Loureiro Almeida; Sousa, Rosemary Silva; Silva, Taline Cristina; Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega

    2013-10-16

    Recent reviews have demonstrated an increase in the number of papers on ethnobiology in Latin America. Among factors that have influenced this increase are the biological and cultural diversity of these countries and the general scientific situation in some countries. This study aims to assess the panorama of ethnobiological research in Latin America by analyzing its evolution, trends, and future prospects. To conduct this study, we searched for papers in the Scopus (http://www.scopus.com) and Web of Science (http://www.isiknowledge.com) databases. The search was performed using combinations of keywords and the name of each Latin American country. The following countries were included in this study: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela, and Uruguay. According to our inclusion criteria, 679 ethnobiological studies conducted in Latin America were found for the period between 1963 and 2012. Of these studies, 289 (41%) were conducted in Brazil, 153 in Mexico (22%), 61 in Peru (9%), 58 in Argentina (8%), 45 in Bolivia (6%), and 97 (14%) in other Latin American countries. The increased number of publications related to this area of knowledge in recent years demonstrates the remarkable growth of ethnobiology as a science. Ethnobiological research may be stimulated by an increase in the number of scientific events and journals for study dissemination and by the creation of undergraduate courses and graduate programs to train ethnoscientists who will produce high-quality studies, especially in certain countries.

  18. The influence of organic production on food quality - research findings, gaps and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Załęcka, Aneta; Bügel, Susanne; Paoletti, Flavio; Kahl, Johannes; Bonanno, Adriana; Dostalova, Anne; Rahmann, Gerold

    2014-10-01

    Although several meta-analysis studies have been published comparing the quality of food derived from organic and non-organic origin, it is still not clear if food from organic production per se can guarantee product-related added value to consumers. This paper aims to summarize the status quo in order to identify research gaps and suggest future research challenges. Organic food is described according to a quality model already published. The influence of organic production on food quality is structured in primary production and processing. Furthermore, organic food authentication is discussed. Organic food seems to contain fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health-related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products, but the health relevance for consumers is not clear yet. Comparing food from organic origin with so called 'conventional' food seems not to be appropriate, because 'conventional' is not defined. In organic food quality research a system approach is needed from which systemic markers can be selected. Research on the impact of processing technologies on the quality according to organic principles seems of high relevance, since most of the food is processed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Using Citizen Science to Close Gaps in Cabled Ocean Observatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, M. G.; Moran, K.; Riddell, D. J.; Hoeberechts, M.; Flagg, R.; Walsh, J.; Dobell, R.; Longo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories off the west coast of British Columbia, and a community observatory in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut. Continuous power and connectivity permit large volumes of data to be collected and made available to scientists and citizens alike over the Internet through a web-based interface. The Oceans 2.0 data management system contains over one quarter petabyte of data, including more than 20,000 hours of video from fixed seafloor cameras and a further 8,000 hours of video collected by remotely operated vehicles. Cabled observatory instrument deployments enable the collection of high-frequency, long-duration time series of data from a specific location. This enables the study of important questions such as whether effects of climate change—for instance, variations in temperature or sea-level—are seen over the long term. However, cabled observatory monitoring also presents challenges to scientific researchers: the overwhelming volume of data and the fixed spatial location can be barriers to addressing some big questions. Here we describe how Ocean Networks Canada is using Citizen Science to address these limitations and supplement cabled observatory research. Two applications are presented: Digital Fishers is a crowd-sourcing application in which participants watch short deep-sea video clips and make annotations based on scientific research questions. To date, 3,000 participants have contributed 140,000 scientific observations on topics including sablefish abundance, hydrothermal vent geology and deep-sea feeding behaviour. Community Fishers is a program in which ordinary citizens aboard vessels of opportunity collect ocean data including water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll. The program's focus is to directly address the typical quality concerns around data that are collected using a citizen science approach. This is done by providing high quality scientific

  20. Mind the gaps: increasing the impact of IS research on ISD performance improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh O Riordan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor performance has pervaded the last forty years of software development, evident across industry sectors, project size, budget, geographic location, system quality and functionality, and exacerbated by increased criticality of IT in organizational mission and strategy. A significant body of research has investigated the potential of emerging development methodologies to address these shortcomings but the effectiveness of these methods is largely supported by anecdotal evidence. At the same time, metrics and measurement are known to affect ISD performance but the existing literature on ISD metrics is misaligned with practitioners’ needs, leading to a lack of clarity about ISD metrics in practice. This paper presents an interdisciplinary literature review on ISD metrics to identify the underlying reasons for this misalignment and evaluate the extent to which existing literature can be used to better understand the impact of emerging software development methodologies on ISD performance.

  1. Impacts of petroleum activities for the Achuar people of the Peruvian Amazon: summary of existing evidence and research gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta Martínez, Martí; Napolitano, Dora A.; MacLennan, Gregor J.; O'Callaghan, Cristina; Ciborowski, Sylvia; Fabregas, Xavier

    2007-10-01

    Petrol has been extracted from Achuar territory in the Northern Peruvian Amazon since the 1970s. In spite of early identification of negative impacts on the environment and repeated attempts by the Achuar to improve conditions, very little research has been done on specific environmental and health impacts. Some recent governmental studies have shown extremely high blood lead and cadmium levels in Achuar communities. In this paper we apply an environmental justice framework to review the evidence of pollution and health status available in existing studies, as well as government and operating company actions over the last 30 years. We identify gaps in our knowledge which hamper efforts to respond to the environmental and health situation, as well as negligent actions on the part of the State and petrol companies.

  2. Impacts of petroleum activities for the Achuar people of the Peruvian Amazon: summary of existing evidence and research gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Marti Orta; Napolitano, Dora A; MacLennan, Gregor J; O'Callaghan, Cristina; Ciborowski, Sylvia; Fabregas, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Petrol has been extracted from Achuar territory in the Northern Peruvian Amazon since the 1970s. In spite of early identification of negative impacts on the environment and repeated attempts by the Achuar to improve conditions, very little research has been done on specific environmental and health impacts. Some recent governmental studies have shown extremely high blood lead and cadmium levels in Achuar communities. In this paper we apply an environmental justice framework to review the evidence of pollution and health status available in existing studies, as well as government and operating company actions over the last 30 years. We identify gaps in our knowledge which hamper efforts to respond to the environmental and health situation, as well as negligent actions on the part of the State and petrol companies

  3. Empowering adolescent girls in Sub-Saharan Africa to prevent unintended pregnancy and HIV: A critical research gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Sharon J; Mbizvo, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    The need to prevent early pregnancy and HIV among adolescent girls in Sub-Saharan Africa has been recognized increasingly over recent years. Although extensive work has been done to determine appropriate interventions for girls in high-income countries, very little evidence is available to guide programmatic interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa. The available evidence has been equivocal regarding improved outcomes. While knowledge and self-reported behaviors frequently change with interventions, including those performed at the community level, educational programs, and direct contraceptive provision, downstream outcomes rarely reflect a significant effect of the interventions; however, provision of financial or other interventions to incentivize continued school enrollment are a promising development. We suggest directions for future research to fill this critical gap in the literature. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring Infant and Young Child Complementary Feeding Practices: Indicators, Current Practice, and Research Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Marie T

    2017-01-01

    The publication of the WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators in 2008 equipped the nutrition and broader development community with an invaluable tool for measuring, documenting, and advocating for faster progress in improving these practices in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The indicators, with 5 of them focusing on complementary feeding (CF) practices, were originally designed for population level assessment, targeting, monitoring, and evaluation. This chapter takes stock of where we are with the existing CF indicators: it reviews how the indicators have been used, what we have learned, and what their strengths and limitations are, and it suggests a way forward. We find that the indicators have been used extensively for population level assessments and country comparisons, and to track progress. They have also been adopted by researchers in program impact evaluations and in research seeking to understand the determinants and consequences of poor CF practices for child growth and development outcomes. In addition to generating a wealth of knowledge and unveiling the severity of the global problem of poor CF practices in LMICs, the indicators have been an invaluable tool to raise awareness and call for urgent action on improving CF practices at scale. The indicators have strengths and limitations, which are summarized in this chapter. Although enormous progress has been achieved since the indicators were released in 2008, we feel it is time to reflect and revisit the CF indicators, improve them, develop new ones, and promote their appropriate use. Better indicators are critically important to stimulate action and investments in improving CF practices at scale. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Research on the Band Gap Characteristics of Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals Microcavity with Local Resonant Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new two-dimensional locally resonant phononic crystal with microcavity structure is proposed. The acoustic wave band gap characteristics of this new structure are studied using finite element method. At the same time, the corresponding displacement eigenmodes of the band edges of the lowest band gap and the transmission spectrum are calculated. The results proved that phononic crystals with microcavity structure exhibited complete band gaps in low-frequency range. The eigenfrequency of the lower edge of the first gap is lower than no microcavity structure. However, for no microcavity structure type of quadrilateral phononic crystal plate, the second band gap disappeared and the frequency range of the first band gap is relatively narrow. The main reason for appearing low-frequency band gaps is that the proposed phononic crystal introduced the local resonant microcavity structure. This study provides a good support for engineering application such as low-frequency vibration attenuation and noise control.

  6. A web of gaps: a discussion of research strands concerning Global South families with a disabled child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Xanthe; Watermeyer, Brian

    2017-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), limited access to a range of supports means that families often carry primary responsibility for the care of a disabled child. The impact of this responsibility is poorly understood. To present a selective review, critique, and comparison of the prominent areas of research aimed at understanding families with disabled children in the Global South. We compare and critically discuss prominent bodies of literature concerning the family-disability-poverty nexus in LMICs. Three prominent bodies of literature concerned with families with a disabled child in LMICs are reviewed. These were selected based on their relative prevalence in a large review of the literature, and comprise (1) work concerning quality of life (FQOL) of families with a disabled child; (2) interventions aimed at supporting families with a disabled child in LMICs; and (3) the ways in which culture mediates the families' experience of disability. FQOL research points to poverty as a primary source of family distress, and directs our focus towards families' own expertise in coping with their circumstances. Intervention literature from LMICs highlights the family as the unit of analysis and praxis concerning disabled children, and reminds us of the contextual factors which must be considered when working with their families. Culturally oriented research on poverty, disability, and the family nuances our understanding of the locally-determined priorities of families with a disabled child in LMICs. All three research strands carry benefits, limitations and gaps. The complexity of understanding families with a disabled child in LMICs comes to the fore, directing us away from narrow application of any single theoretical or research framework. Future researchers may draw on insights provided here in creating a more integrated approach.

  7. Bridging the Research to Practice Gap: A Case Study Approach to Understanding EIBI Supports and Barriers in Swedish Preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise ROLL-PETTERSSON

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined proximal and distal barriers and supports within the Swedish service system that may affect implementation of early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI for children with autism. A case study approach with roots in ethnography was chosen to explore this issue. Two preschools exemplifying ‘high quality practice’ were studied and information was collected through multiple sources during a 12 month period, this included participant observations, direct observations, semi-structured interviews with key informants; paraprofessionals, parents, special educators, habilitation specialists and a focus group interview. Interview transcripts and field notes were combined and analyzed using an abductive grounded theory approach. Findings highlight the relevance of researchers understanding and taking into consideration the effect that distal variables have on implementation within proximal settings. A theoretical model of factors affecting implementation was conceptualised to include: staff entry knowledge and competence, development through supervision, the role of the preschool administrator, as well as distal influences and inter-organizational tensions, values, and bridges. Findings are discussed within the context of implementation science. Implications for future research are discussed as well as areas in need of further development to bridge the gap between research and practice.

  8. Future Directions for Dissemination and Implementation Science: Aligning Ecological Theory and Public Health to Close the Research to Practice Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Marc S; Rusch, Dana; Mehta, Tara G; Lakind, Davielle

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation science (DI) has evolved as a major research model for children's mental health in response to a long-standing call to integrate science and practice and bridge the elusive research to practice gap. However, to address the complex and urgent needs of the most vulnerable children and families, future directions for DI require a new alignment of ecological theory and public health to provide effective, sustainable, and accessible mental health services. We present core principles of ecological theory to emphasize how contextual factors impact behavior and allow for the reciprocal impact individuals have on the settings they occupy, and an alignment of these principles with a public health model to ensure that services span the prevention to intervention continuum. We provide exemplars from our ongoing work in urban schools and a new direction for research to address the mental health needs of immigrant Latino families. Through these examples we illustrate how DI can expand its reach by embedding within natural settings to build on local capacity and indigenous resources, incorporating the local knowledge necessary to more substantively address long-standing mental health disparities. This paradigm shift for DI, away from an overemphasis on promoting program adoption, calls for fitting interventions within settings that matter most to children's healthy development and for utilizing and strengthening available community resources. In this way, we can meet the challenge of addressing our nation's mental health burden by supporting the needs and values of families and communities within their own unique social ecologies.

  9. Trauma hemostasis and oxygenation research position paper on remote damage control resuscitation: definitions, current practice, and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Donald H; Rappold, Joseph F; Badloe, John F; Berséus, Olle; Blackbourne, Lorne; Brohi, Karim H; Butler, Frank K; Cap, Andrew P; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Davenport, Ross; DePasquale, Marc; Doughty, Heidi; Glassberg, Elon; Hervig, Tor; Hooper, Timothy J; Kozar, Rosemary; Maegele, Marc; Moore, Ernest E; Murdock, Alan; Ness, Paul M; Pati, Shibani; Rasmussen, Todd; Sailliol, Anne; Schreiber, Martin A; Sunde, Geir Arne; van de Watering, Leo M G; Ward, Kevin R; Weiskopf, Richard B; White, Nathan J; Strandenes, Geir; Spinella, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network held its third annual Remote Damage Control Resuscitation Symposium in June 2013 in Bergen, Norway. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network is a multidisciplinary group of investigators with a common interest in improving outcomes and safety in patients with severe traumatic injury. The network's mission is to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality from traumatic hemorrhagic shock, in the prehospital phase of resuscitation through research, education, and training. The concept of remote damage control resuscitation is in its infancy, and there is a significant amount of work that needs to be done to improve outcomes for patients with life-threatening bleeding secondary to injury. The prehospital phase of resuscitation is critical in these patients. If shock and coagulopathy can be rapidly identified and minimized before hospital admission, this will very likely reduce morbidity and mortality. This position statement begins to standardize the terms used, provides an acceptable range of therapeutic options, and identifies the major knowledge gaps in the field.

  10. Patient-centered outcomes research in appendicitis in children: Bridging the knowledge gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Danielle B; Ciullo, Sean S; Watson-Smith, Debra; Chun, Thomas H; Kurkchubasche, Arlet G; Luks, Francois I

    2016-01-01

    Patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) aims to give patients a better understanding of the treatment options to enable optimal decision-making. As nonoperative alternatives are now being evaluated in children for acute appendicitis, we surveyed patients and their families regarding their knowledge of appendicitis and evaluated whether providing basic medical information would affect their perception of the disease and allow them to more rationally consider the treatment alternatives. Families of children aged 5-18 presenting to the Emergency Department with suspected appendicitis were recruited for a tablet-based interactive educational survey. One hundred subjects (caregivers and patients ≥ 15 years) were questioned before and after an education session about their understanding of appendicitis, including questions on three hypothetical treatment options: urgent appendectomy, antibiotics alone, or initial antibiotics followed by elective appendectomy. Subjects were clearly informed that urgent appendectomy is currently the standard of care. Only 14% of respondents correctly identified the mortality rate of appendicitis (17 deaths/year according to the 2010 US census) when compared with other extremely rare causes of death. Fifty-four and 31% thought it was more common than death from lightning (40/year) and hunting-associated deaths (44/year), respectively. Eighty-two percent of respondents believed it "likely" or "very likely" that the appendix would rupture if operation was at all delayed, and 81% believed that rupture of the appendix would rapidly lead to severe complications and death. In univariate analysis, this perception was significantly more prevalent for mothers (odds ratio, (OR) 5.19, confidence interval (CI) 1.33-21.15), and subjects who knew at least one friend or relative who had a negative experience with appendicitis (OR 5.53, CI 1.40-25.47). Following education, these perceptions changed significantly (53% still believed that immediate

  11. Predicting hydrological and erosional risks in fire-affected watersheds: recent advances and research gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2017-04-01

    illustrate these challenges with two examples: probabilistic approaches to simulate the impact of different vegetation regrowth and post-fire climate combinations on runoff and erosion; and model developments for post-fire soil water repellency with different levels of complexity. It will also present an inventory of the current state-of-the-art and propose future research directions, both on post-fire models themselves and on their integration with other models in large-scale water resource assessment management.

  12. Neonicotinoid Insecticides and Their Impacts on Bees: A Systematic Review of Research Approaches and Identification of Knowledge Gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Lundin

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides threatens bees, but research on this topic has been surrounded by controversy. In order to synthesize which research approaches have been used to examine the effect of neonicotinoids on bees and to identify knowledge gaps, we systematically reviewed research on this subject that was available on the Web of Science and PubMed in June 2015. Most of the 216 primary research studies were conducted in Europe or North America (82%, involved the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (78%, and concerned the western honey bee Apis mellifera (75%. Thus, little seems to be known about neonicotinoids and bees in areas outside Europe and North America. Furthermore, because there is considerable variation in ecological traits among bee taxa, studies on honey bees are not likely to fully predict impacts of neonicotinoids on other species. Studies on crops were dominated by seed-treated maize, oilseed rape (canola and sunflower, whereas less is known about potential side effects on bees from the use of other application methods on insect pollinated fruit and vegetable crops, or on lawns and ornamental plants. Laboratory approaches were most common, and we suggest that their capability to infer real-world consequences are improved when combined with information from field studies about realistic exposures to neonicotinoids. Studies using field approaches often examined only bee exposure to neonicotinoids and more field studies are needed that measure impacts of exposure. Most studies measured effects on individual bees. We suggest that effects on the individual bee should be linked to both mechanisms at the sub-individual level and also to the consequences for the colony and wider bee populations. As bees are increasingly facing multiple interacting pressures future research needs to clarify the role of neonicotinoids in relative to other drivers of bee declines.

  13. Neonicotinoid Insecticides and Their Impacts on Bees: A Systematic Review of Research Approaches and Identification of Knowledge Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Fries, Ingemar; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides threatens bees, but research on this topic has been surrounded by controversy. In order to synthesize which research approaches have been used to examine the effect of neonicotinoids on bees and to identify knowledge gaps, we systematically reviewed research on this subject that was available on the Web of Science and PubMed in June 2015. Most of the 216 primary research studies were conducted in Europe or North America (82%), involved the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (78%), and concerned the western honey bee Apis mellifera (75%). Thus, little seems to be known about neonicotinoids and bees in areas outside Europe and North America. Furthermore, because there is considerable variation in ecological traits among bee taxa, studies on honey bees are not likely to fully predict impacts of neonicotinoids on other species. Studies on crops were dominated by seed-treated maize, oilseed rape (canola) and sunflower, whereas less is known about potential side effects on bees from the use of other application methods on insect pollinated fruit and vegetable crops, or on lawns and ornamental plants. Laboratory approaches were most common, and we suggest that their capability to infer real-world consequences are improved when combined with information from field studies about realistic exposures to neonicotinoids. Studies using field approaches often examined only bee exposure to neonicotinoids and more field studies are needed that measure impacts of exposure. Most studies measured effects on individual bees. We suggest that effects on the individual bee should be linked to both mechanisms at the sub-individual level and also to the consequences for the colony and wider bee populations. As bees are increasingly facing multiple interacting pressures future research needs to clarify the role of neonicotinoids in relative to other drivers of bee declines.

  14. Observational Study Designs for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Alternative Approach to Close Evidence Gaps in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulart, Bernardo H.L., E-mail: bhg@uw.edu [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Public Health Sciences, Hutchinson Institute for Cancer Outcomes Research (HICOR), Seattle, Washington (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Ramsey, Scott D. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Public Health Sciences, Hutchinson Institute for Cancer Outcomes Research (HICOR), Seattle, Washington (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Parvathaneni, Upendra [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has emerged as an approach to improve quality of care and patient outcomes while reducing healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have represented the ideal study design to support treatment decisions in head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. In RCTs, formal chance (randomization) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the measure of treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in H and N RCTs, which limits the validity of their results to the broader H and N cancer patient population seen in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials often do not address other knowledge gaps in the management of H and N cancer, including treatment comparisons for rare types of H and N cancers, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events (eg, osteoradionecrosis), or in some instances an RCT is simply not feasible. Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomization, may address several of these gaps in knowledge, thereby complementing the role of RCTs. This critical review discusses how observational CER studies complement RCTs in generating the evidence to inform healthcare decisions and improve the quality of care and outcomes of H and N cancer patients. Review topics include a balanced discussion about the strengths and limitations of both RCT and observational CER study designs; a brief description of design and analytic techniques to handle selection bias in observational studies; examples of observational studies that inform current clinical practices and management of H and N cancers; and suggestions for relevant CER questions that could be addressed by an observational study design.

  15. Observational Study Designs for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Alternative Approach to Close Evidence Gaps in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulart, Bernardo H.L.; Ramsey, Scott D.; Parvathaneni, Upendra

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has emerged as an approach to improve quality of care and patient outcomes while reducing healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have represented the ideal study design to support treatment decisions in head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. In RCTs, formal chance (randomization) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the measure of treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in H and N RCTs, which limits the validity of their results to the broader H and N cancer patient population seen in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials often do not address other knowledge gaps in the management of H and N cancer, including treatment comparisons for rare types of H and N cancers, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events (eg, osteoradionecrosis), or in some instances an RCT is simply not feasible. Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomization, may address several of these gaps in knowledge, thereby complementing the role of RCTs. This critical review discusses how observational CER studies complement RCTs in generating the evidence to inform healthcare decisions and improve the quality of care and outcomes of H and N cancer patients. Review topics include a balanced discussion about the strengths and limitations of both RCT and observational CER study designs; a brief description of design and analytic techniques to handle selection bias in observational studies; examples of observational studies that inform current clinical practices and management of H and N cancers; and suggestions for relevant CER questions that could be addressed by an observational study design

  16. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  17. Bullying and Harassment in Secondary Schools: A Critical Feminist Analysis of the Gaps, Overlaps, and Implications from a Decade of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Elizabeth J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the past decade (1997-2007) of research conducted in the areas of bullying and harassment in secondary schools. The author presents trends in the research as well as addresses the significant gaps left in a field that is heavily influenced by one school thought. By applying a critical feminist lens to this body…

  18. Issues evaluation process at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the issues evaluation process for Rocky Flats Plant as established in July 1990. The issues evaluation process was initiated February 27, 1990 with a Charter and Process Overview for short-term implementation. The purpose of the process was to determine the projects required for completion before the Phased Resumption of Plutonium Operations. To determine which projects were required, the issues evaluation process and emphasized risk mitigation, based on a ranking system. The purpose of this report is to document the early design of the issues evaluation process to record the methodologies used that continue as the basis for the ongoing Issues Management Program at Rocky Flats Plant

  19. Beware of Data Gaps in Home Care Research: The Streetlight Effect and Its Implications for Policy Making on Long-Term Services and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Deborah D.; DeLiema, Marguerite; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Policy initiatives increasingly seek greater use of home- and community-based services for older persons and those with chronic care needs, yet large gaps persist in our knowledge of home care, an indispensable component of long-term services and supports. Unrecognized data gaps, including the scope of home care provided by private hire and nonmedical providers, can distort knowledge and poorly inform long-term services and supports policy. The purpose of this article is to examine these gaps by describing the universe of formal home care services and provider types in relationship to major national sources. Findings reveal four distinct home care sectors and that the majority of formal home care is provided in the sectors that are understudied. We discuss the policy implications of data gaps and conclude with recommendations on where to expand and refine home care research. PMID:26062611

  20. Beware of Data Gaps in Home Care Research: The Streetlight Effect and Its Implications for Policy Making on Long-Term Services and Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Deborah D; DeLiema, Marguerite; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2015-10-01

    Policy initiatives increasingly seek greater use of home- and community-based services for older persons and those with chronic care needs, yet large gaps persist in our knowledge of home care, an indispensable component of long-term services and supports. Unrecognized data gaps, including the scope of home care provided by private hire and nonmedical providers, can distort knowledge and poorly inform long-term services and supports policy. The purpose of this article is to examine these gaps by describing the universe of formal home care services and provider types in relationship to major national sources. Findings reveal four distinct home care sectors and that the majority of formal home care is provided in the sectors that are understudied. We discuss the policy implications of data gaps and conclude with recommendations on where to expand and refine home care research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Equal Pay for Working Families. National and State Data on the Pay Gap and Its Costs. A Joint Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Heidi; Allen, Katherine; Owens, Christine

    A national study, including state-by-state breakouts, analyzed Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics data to explore the wage gap. Median weekly earnings of men and women and of minorities and nonminorities were analyzed. Gender-based earnings differences and gender wage gaps were large for all women--and especially large for minority…

  2. Limber pine health in the Canadian Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyndi M. Smith; David Langor; Colin Myrholm; Jim Weber; Cameron Gillies; Jon Stuart-Smith

    2011-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) reaches the northern limit of its range at about 52 degrees latitude in Alberta (AB) and 51 degrees latitude in British Columbia (BC). Most populations are found on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, with a few disjunct populations west of the Continental Divide in southeastern BC.

  3. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C

    2009-03-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  4. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mognet, S.A.I., E-mail: mognet@astro.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aramaki, T. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bando, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Boggs, S.E.; Doetinchem, P. von [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fuke, H. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Gahbauer, F.H.; Hailey, C.J.; Koglin, J.E.; Madden, N. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Mori, K.; Okazaki, S. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ong, R.A. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Perez, K.M.; Tajiri, G. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Yoshida, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Zweerink, J. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (∼33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded.

  5. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mognet, S.A.I.; Aramaki, T.; Bando, N.; Boggs, S.E.; Doetinchem, P. von; Fuke, H.; Gahbauer, F.H.; Hailey, C.J.; Koglin, J.E.; Madden, N.; Mori, K.; Okazaki, S.; Ong, R.A.; Perez, K.M.; Tajiri, G.; Yoshida, T.; Zweerink, J.

    2014-01-01

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (∼33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded

  6. Methods, metrics and research gaps around minimum data sets for nursing practice and fundamental care: A scoping literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntlin Athlin, Åsa

    2018-06-01

    To examine and map research on minimum data sets linked to nursing practice and the fundamentals of care. Another aim was to identify gaps in the evidence to suggest future research questions to highlight the need for standardisation of terminology around nursing practice and fundamental care. Addressing fundamental care has been highlighted internationally as a response to missed nursing care. Systematic performance measurements are needed to capture nursing practice outcomes. Overview of the literature framed by the scoping study methodology. PubMed and CINAHL were searched using the following inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed empirical quantitative and qualitative studies related to minimum data sets and nursing practice published in English. No time restrictions were set. Exclusion criteria were as follows: no available full text, reviews and methodological and discursive studies. Data were categorised into one of the fundamentals of care elements. The review included 20 studies published in 1999-2016. Settings were mainly nursing homes or hospitals. Of 14 elements of the fundamentals of care, 11 were identified as measures in the included studies, but their frequency varied. The most commonly identified elements concerned safety, prevention and medication (n = 11), comfort (n = 6) and eating and drinking (n = 5). Studies have used minimum data sets and included variables linked to nursing practices and fundamentals of care. However, the relations of these variables to nursing practice were not always clearly described and the main purpose of the studies was seldom to measure the outcomes of nursing interventions. More robust studies focusing on nursing practice and patient outcomes are warranted. Using minimum data sets can highlight the nurses' work and what impact it has on direct patient care. Appropriate models, systems and standardised terminology are needed to facilitate the documentation of nursing activities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Research on the effects of geometrical and material uncertainties on the band gap of the undulated beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanlong

    2017-09-01

    Considering uncertain geometrical and material parameters, the lower and upper bounds of the band gap of an undulated beam with periodically arched shape are studied by the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) and interval analysis based on the Taylor series. Given the random variations of the overall uncertain variables, scatter plots from the MCS are used to analyze the qualitative sensitivities of the band gap respect to these uncertainties. We find that the influence of uncertainty of the geometrical parameter on the band gap of the undulated beam is stronger than that of the material parameter. And this conclusion is also proved by the interval analysis based on the Taylor series. Our methodology can give a strategy to reduce the errors between the design and practical values of the band gaps by improving the accuracy of the specially selected uncertain design variables of the periodical structures.

  8. Model Testing of an Oval Shaped Seal for Sealing of Large Gaps Between Mating Surfaces (The National Shipbuilding Research Program)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eutizzi, Nick F

    1988-01-01

    A pressure chamber was designed and manufactured in two parts which were clamped together at their flanges using a clamping ring and an "0" ring seal was used for sealing he gap between the mating surfaces...

  9. Research on the psychological gap, personality and achievement of in-school youth based on regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although our society is in rapid development, the psychological problems among in-school university students are increasingly obvious. According to this problem, this thesis applied the Psychological Gap Scale made by Caixia Ma with EPQ and AMS, and made random questionnaire survey among 400 students in a comprehensive university. The survey found out that the average scores of all psychological gap dimensions exceeded the critical value 3, showing most students in that university have psychological gap. Their personality stability, introversion and extroversion are all above the national norm level while their stubbornness is lower than it. Besides, the students’ motivation in pursuing success is stronger than their motivation in avoiding failure. In the last part, this thesis reached the conclusion that personality leaves a great impact in the students’ psychology through regression analysis model and study of the quantitative relations among personality, achievement and psychological gap.

  10. Trends in Achievement Gaps in First-Year College Courses for Racial/Ethnic, Income, and Gender Subgroups: A 12-Year Study. ACT Research Report Series 2013 (8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Julie; Ndum, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated gaps in the academic success of college student subgroups defined by race/ethnicity, income, and gender. We studied trends over time in the success of students in these subgroups in particular first-year college courses: English Composition I, College Algebra, social science courses, and Biology. The study is based…

  11. First-Time Knowledge Brokers in Health Care: The Experiences of Nurses and Allied Health Professionals of Bridging the Research-Practice Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the experiences of nurses and allied health professionals as first-time knowledge brokers, attempting to bridge the research-practice gap within health care. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews and documentary analysis was conducted. The data was analysed using a thematic analysis strategy. Participants were 17…

  12. On-going collaborative priority-setting for research activity: a method of capacity building to reduce the research-practice translational gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jo; Ariss, Steven; Smith, Christine; Read, Jennifer

    2015-05-07

    International policy suggests that collaborative priority setting (CPS) between researchers and end users of research should shape the research agenda, and can increase capacity to address the research-practice translational gap. There is limited research evidence to guide how this should be done to meet the needs of dynamic healthcare systems. One-off priority setting events and time-lag between decision and action prove problematic. This study illustrates the use of CPS in a UK research collaboration called Collaboration and Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC). Data were collected from a north of England CLAHRC through semi-structured interviews with 28 interviewees and a workshop of key stakeholders (n = 21) including academics, NHS clinicians, and managers. Documentary analysis of internal reports and CLAHRC annual reports for the first two and half years was also undertaken. These data were thematically coded. Methods of CPS linked to the developmental phase of the CLAHRC. Early methods included pre-existing historical partnerships with on-going dialogue. Later, new platforms for on-going discussions were formed. Consensus techniques with staged project development were also used. All methods demonstrated actual or potential change in practice and services. Impact was enabled through the flexibility of research and implementation work streams; 'matched' funding arrangements to support alignment of priorities in partner organisations; the size of the collaboration offering a resource to meet project needs; and the length of the programme providing stability and long term relationships. Difficulties included tensions between being responsive to priorities and the possibility of 'drift' within project work, between academics and practice, and between service providers and commissioners in the health services. Providing protected 'matched' time proved difficult for some NHS managers, which put increasing work pressure on them. CPS is more time

  13. Determining the ’Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Army training doctrine, and by adjusting the curriculum of the officer core in order to close the knowledge gap . The author closes by concluding...fight. The research to find these gaps begins with a process trace of doctrine from 1976 to the present, starting with the advent of Active Defense...discovering the one gap , three were found. Upon further examination below, even these initially perceived gaps dissipate under close scrutiny. Gap

  14. Bridging the Transition Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    period and provide recommendations to guide future research and policy development. 4 DEFINING THE TRANSITIONAL SECURITY GAP There have been...BRIDGING THE TRANSITION GAP A Monograph by MAJ J.D. Hansen United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army...suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704

  15. Release fractions for Rocky Flats specific accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    As Rocky Flats and other DOE facilities begin the transition process towards decommissioning, the nature of the scenarios to be studied in safety analysis will change. Whereas the previous emphasis in safety accidents related to production, now the emphasis is shifting to accidents related tc decommissioning and waste management. Accident scenarios of concern at Rocky Flats now include situations of a different nature and different scale than are represented by most of the existing experimental accident data. This presentation will discuss approaches at sign to use for applying the existing body of release fraction data to this new emphasis. Mention will also be made of ongoing efforts to produce new data and improve the understanding of physical mechanisms involved

  16. History of Rocky Flats waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckett, L.L.; Dickman, A.A.; Wells, C.R.; Vickery, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the waste streams at Rocky Flats was done to provide information for the Waste Certification program. This program has involved studying the types and amounts of retrievable transuranic (TRU) waste from Rocky Flats that is stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The information can be used to estimate the types and amounts of waste that will need to be permanently stored in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The study covered mostly the eight-year period from June 1971 to June 1979. The types, amounts, and plutonium content of TRU waste and the areas or operations responsible for generating the waste are summarized in this waste stream history report. From the period studied, a total of 24,546,153 lbs of waste containing 211,148 g of plutonium currently occupies 709,497 cu ft of storage space at INEL

  17. Rocky Flats cleanup receives new deadline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats nuclear weapon plant near Denver narrowly missed a court-ordered shutdown of virtually all cleanup activities when it failed to meet an Aug. 22 deadline for a state permit to store mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes on site. US District Court Judge Lewis Babcock granted a 90-day stay of contempt charges against the US Dept. of Energy, but left open the possibility of civil penalties under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. DOE's problems stem from a lawsuit the Sierra Club won two years ago in which Babcock gave Rocky Flats until Aug. 22 to obtain a RCRA permit or interim status from Colorado to store 600 cu yd of mixed wastes. If DOE failed to do so, the court said it could not generate further hazardous wastes at the site

  18. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a clinician's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Edwin J; Olson, Gary S; Weiner, Scott J; Paddock, Christopher D

    2003-04-14

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is still the most lethal tick-vectored illness in the United States. We examine the dilemmas facing the clinician who is evaluating the patient with possible Rocky Mountain spotted fever, with particular attention to the following 8 pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment: (1) waiting for a petechial rash to develop before diagnosis; (2) misdiagnosing as gastroenteritis; (3) discounting a diagnosis when there is no history of a tick bite; (4) using an inappropriate geographic exclusion; (5) using an inappropriate seasonal exclusion; (6) failing to treat on clinical suspicion; (7) failing to elicit an appropriate history; and (8) failing to treat with doxycycline. Early diagnosis and proper treatment save lives.

  19. Whole-community facilitation regulates biodiversity on Patagonian rocky shores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Silliman

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that generate and maintain biodiversity is a central goal in ecology. While positive species interactions (i.e., facilitation have historically been underemphasized in ecological research, they are increasingly recognized as playing important roles in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Dominant habitat-forming species (foundation species buffer environmental conditions and can therefore facilitate myriad associated species. Theory predicts that facilitation will be the dominant community-structuring force under harsh environmental conditions, where organisms depend on shelter for survival and predation is diminished. Wind-swept, arid Patagonian rocky shores are one of the most desiccating intertidal rocky shores ever studied, providing an opportunity to test this theory and elucidate the context-dependency of facilitation.Surveys across 2100 km of southern Argentinean coastline and experimental manipulations both supported theoretical predictions, with 43 out of 46 species in the animal assemblage obligated to living within the matrices of mussels for protection from potentially lethal desiccation stress and predators having no detectable impact on diversity.These results provide the first experimental support of long-standing theoretical predictions and reveal that in extreme climates, maintenance of whole-community diversity can be maintained by positive interactions that ameliorate physical stress. These findings have important conservation implications and emphasize that preserving foundation species should be a priority in remediating the biodiversity consequences of global climate change.

  20. THERMODYNAMIC LIMITS ON MAGNETODYNAMOS IN ROCKY EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, Eric; Conrad, Clinton P.; Manga, Michael; Hernlund, John

    2010-01-01

    To ascertain whether magnetic dynamos operate in rocky exoplanets more massive or hotter than the Earth, we developed a parametric model of a differentiated rocky planet and its thermal evolution. Our model reproduces the established properties of Earth's interior and magnetic field at the present time. When applied to Venus, assuming that planet lacks plate tectonics and has a dehydrated mantle with an elevated viscosity, the model shows that the dynamo shuts down or never operated. Our model predicts that at a fixed planet mass, dynamo history is sensitive to core size, but not to the initial inventory of long-lived, heat-producing radionuclides. It predicts that rocky planets larger than 2.5 Earth masses will not develop inner cores because the temperature-pressure slope of the iron solidus becomes flatter than that of the core adiabat. Instead, iron 'snow' will condense near or at the top of these cores, and the net transfer of latent heat upward will suppress convection and a dynamo. More massive planets can have anemic dynamos due to core cooling, but only if they have mobile lids (plate tectonics). The lifetime of these dynamos is shorter with increasing planet mass but longer with higher surface temperature. Massive Venus-like planets with stagnant lids and more viscous mantles will lack dynamos altogether. We identify two alternative sources of magnetic fields on rocky planets: eddy currents induced in the hot or molten upper layers of planets on very short-period orbits, and dynamos in the ionic conducting layers of 'ocean' planets with ∼10% mass in an upper mantle of water (ice).

  1. Basic TRUEX process for Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Dow, J.A.; Farley, S.E.; Nunez, L.; Regalbuto, M.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-08-01

    The Generic TRUEX Model was used to develop a TRUEX process flowsheet for recovering the transuranics (Pu, Am) from a nitrate waste stream at Rocky Flats Plant. The process was designed so that it is relatively insensitive to changes in process feed concentrations and flow rates. Related issues are considered, including solvent losses, feed analysis requirements, safety, and interaction with an evaporator system for nitric acid recycle

  2. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology.

  3. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V.

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology

  4. Microplastics in freshwater systems: a review of the emerging threats, identification of knowledge gaps and prioritisation of research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerkes-Medrano, Dafne; Thompson, Richard C; Aldridge, David C

    2015-05-15

    Plastic contamination is an increasing environmental problem in marine systems where it has spread globally to even the most remote habitats. Plastic pieces in smaller size scales, microplastics (particles microplastic presence and interactions are equally as far reaching as are being observed in marine systems. Microplastics are being detected in freshwaters of Europe, North America, and Asia, and the first organismal studies are finding that freshwater fauna across a range of feeding guilds ingest microplastics. Drawing from the marine literature and these initial freshwater studies, we review the issue of microplastics in freshwater systems to summarise current understanding, identify knowledge gaps and suggest future research priorities. Evidence suggests that freshwater systems may share similarities to marine systems in the types of forces that transport microplastics (e.g. surface currents); the prevalence of microplastics (e.g. numerically abundant and ubiquitous); the approaches used for detection, identification and quantification (e.g. density separation, filtration, sieving and infrared spectroscopy); and the potential impacts (e.g. physical damage to organisms that ingest them, chemical transfer of toxicants). Differences between freshwater and marine systems include the closer proximity to point sources in freshwaters, the typically smaller sizes of freshwater systems, and spatial and temporal differences in the mixing/transport of particles by physical forces. These differences between marine and freshwater systems may lead to differences in the type of microplastics present. For example, rivers may show a predictable pattern in microplastic characteristics (size, shape, relative abundance) based on waste sources (e.g. household vs. industrial) adjacent to the river, and distance downstream from a point source. Given that the study of microplastics in freshwaters has only arisen in the last few years, we are still limited in our understanding of 1

  5. Gap Analysis Bulletin No. 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    we would like to web developer; gather comments from GAP researchers and data users. We are * facilitate collaboration among GAP projects by...N.Y. Research Grant #012/01 A. 42 Gap Analysis Bulletin No. 13, December 2005 Ga pAnalysis Smith, S. D., W. A. Brown, C. R. Smith, and M. E. Richmond... GAP will be focusing activities have greatly reduced the habitat available to support on the enduring features of the Great Lakes basin. Influences

  6. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  7. CIEEM Skills Gap Project

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the research conducted for the Chartered Institute for Ecology and Environmental Management to identify skills gaps within the profession. It involved surveys of professionals, conference workshops and an investigation into the views of employers regarding graduate recruitment.

  8. Symposium 9: Rocky Mountain futures: preserving, utilizing, and sustaining Rocky Mountain ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Seastedt, Timothy; Fagre, Daniel B.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Tomback, Diana; Garcia, Elizabeth; Bowen, Zachary H.; Logan, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2002 we published Rocky Mountain Futures, an Ecological Perspective (Island Press) to examine the cumulative ecological effects of human activity in the Rocky Mountains. We concluded that multiple local activities concerning land use, hydrologic manipulation, and resource extraction have altered ecosystems, although there were examples where the “tyranny of small decisions” worked in a positive way toward more sustainable coupled human/environment interactions. Superimposed on local change was climate change, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and other pollutants, regional population growth, and some national management policies such as fire suppression.

  9. Measuring health gaps between the rich and the poor: a review of the literature and its implications for health research in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amson Sibanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Measuring variations and gaps in health and wellbeing across individuals, social groups and societies is a critical issue confronting social scientists in their quest to explain why gaps in health between the rich and the poor persist within and across societies. This article provides a systematic review of the measurement of inequalities and their implications on rural and remote health. A comprehensive literature review was conducted using online databases and other collections of published research on measuring health gaps between the rich and the poor in order to trace the development of this field of inquiry. Despite the enormous information on the subject area, it is not always easy to disentangle the independent effects of social class or socio-economic status (SES on health inequalities from genetic or biological differences when analyzing racial/ethnic, gender or age gaps in mortality and morbidity. The meaning of SES or social class also varies from one culture to the other. Despite decades of work in this field, it is not clear what it is about SES or social class that is associated with inequalities in health. Is it simply a question of access to resources? And on the issue of measurement, studies from various disciplines have shown that it is important to employ a raft of measures in order to measure and present the distributions fully from various angles and value judgments. In the rural African context, tackling vertical and horizontal inequalities in health requires tackling the root causes of poverty and promoting social policies that empower individuals and communities. Hence, the review discusses recent methodological developments that hold promise for addressing the knowledge gap that remain. We hope that researchers will reflect on the dynamics in measures of inequalities discussed in this paper as they continue to assess the status of health in Africa’s contemporary and largely dominated rural population.

  10. Measuring Health Gaps between the Rich and the Poor: A Review of the Literature and its Implications for Health Research in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Amson; Doctor, Henry V

    2013-06-25

    Measuring variations and gaps in health and wellbeing across individuals, social groups and societies is a critical issue confronting social scientists in their quest to explain why gaps in health between the rich and the poor persist within and across societies. This article provides a systematic review of the measurement of inequalities and their implications on rural and remote health. A comprehensive literature review was conducted using online databases and other collections of published research on measuring health gaps between the rich and the poor in order to trace the development of this field of inquiry. Despite the enormous information on the subject area, it is not always easy to disentangle the independent effects of social class or socio-economic status (SES) on health inequalities from genetic or biological differences when analyzing racial/ethnic, gender or age gaps in mortality and morbidity. The meaning of SES or social class also varies from one culture to the other. Despite decades of work in this field, it is not clear what it is about SES or social class that is associated with inequalities in health. Is it simply a question of access to resources? And on the issue of measurement, studies from various disciplines have shown that it is important to employ a raft of measures in order to measure and present the distributions fully from various angles and value judgments. In the rural African context, tackling vertical and horizontal inequalities in health requires tackling the root causes of poverty and promoting social policies that empower individuals and communities. Hence, the review discusses recent methodological developments that hold promise for addressing the knowledge gap that remain. We hope that researchers will reflect on the dynamics in measures of inequalities discussed in this paper as they continue to assess the status of health in Africa's contemporary and largely dominated rural population.

  11. Criteria impacting shipments of Rocky Flats Plant radioactive mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clawson, R.L.; Eide, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company, Transportation and Packaging Division, under contract for the Los Alamos Technology Office-Rocky Flats Plant, has developed this synopsis report to be used as a reference in the development of the Rocky Flats Plant Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan and the Rocky Flats Plant Residue Elimination Plan. This report represents the criteria for packaging, shipping, and transporting Rocky Flats Plant radioactive mixed wastes. It is a compilation of state and federal regulations, US Department of Energy orders, and acceptance criteria specific to US Department of Energy radioactive mixed waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities

  12. Gap Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  13. 2009 Climate Change Research Strategy: Rocky Mountain Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    2010-01-01

    Climate change and shifting demographics influence the landscape and the social and economic systems of the Interior West. Climate change impacts are already evident, as seen in declining snowpacks, changes in runoff timing and intensity, increasing fire frequency and severity, increasing drought frequency and severity, and rising temperatures.

  14. Measurements of the gap/displacement and development of the ultrasonic temperature measuring system applied to severe accidents research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kang, Kyung Ho; Cho, Young Ro; Park, Rae Jun; Kim, Sang Baik; Sim, Chul Moo

    2001-02-01

    This report, in order to measure quantitative LAVA experimental results, focuses on measuring the gap formed on the lower head vessel using a ultrasonic pulse echo method and neutron radiography, measuring displacement of the lower head vessel using capacitance method, building a measuring system and developing high temperature measurement system using ultrasonic method. The scope of gap measurement and system development using the ultrasonic method is 2-dimensional image processing using tomographical B scan method and 2- and 3-dimensional image processing using C scan methods based on the one dimensional time domain A scan signal. For some test specimen, the gap size is quantitative represented apply C scan methods. The important ultrasonic image processing technique is on the development of accurate position control system. The requirements of the position control system are a contact technique on the test specimen and a fine moving technique. Since the specimen is hemispherical, the contact technique is very difficult. Therefore, the gap measurement using the ultrasonic pulse echo method was applied developing the position controlling scanner system. Along with the ultrasonic method, neutron radiography method using KAERI's neutron source was attempted 4 times and the results are compared. The fine displacement of the hemispherical specimen was measured using a capacitive displacement sensor. The requirements for this measuring technique are fixing of the capacitance sensor to the experimental facilities and a remote control position varying system. This remote control position varying system was manufactured with a electrical motor. The development of a high temperature measuring system using a ultrasonic method the second year plan, is performed with developing a sensor which can measure up to 2300 deg C

  15. Mythic gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of omissions sometimes occur, or are perceived to occur, in traditional narratives and in tradition-inspired literature. A familiar instance is when a narrator realizes that he or she does not fully remember the story that he or she has begun to tell, and so leaves out part of it, which for listeners may possibly result in an unintelligible narrative. But many instances of narrative gap are not so obvious. From straightforward, objective gaps one can distinguish less-obvious subjective gaps: in many cases narrators do not leave out anything crucial or truly relevant from their exposition, and yet readers perceive gaps and take steps to fill them. The present paper considers four examples of subjective gaps drawn from ancient Greek literature (the Pandora myth, ancient Roman literature (the Pygmalion legend, ancient Hebrew literature (the Joseph legend, and early Christian literature (the Jesus legend. I consider the quite varied ways in which interpreters expand the inherited texts of these stories, such as by devising names, manufacturing motives, creating backstories, and in general filling in biographical ellipses. Finally, I suggest an explanation for the phenomenon of subjective gaps, arguing that, despite their variety, they have a single cause.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  17. A Gap Analysis Needs Assessment Tool to Drive a Care Delivery and Research Agenda for Integration of Care and Sharing of Best Practices Across a Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Hager, Daniel; Gould, Lois J; Mathioudakis, Nestoras; Pronovost, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    In a complex health system, it is important to establish a systematic and data-driven approach to identifying needs. The Diabetes Clinical Community (DCC) of Johns Hopkins Medicine's Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality developed a gap analysis tool and process to establish the system's current state of inpatient diabetes care. The collectively developed tool assessed the following areas: program infrastructure; protocols, policies, and order sets; patient and health care professional education; and automated data access. For the purposes of this analysis, gaps were defined as those instances in which local resources, infrastructure, or processes demonstrated a variance against the current national evidence base or institutionally defined best practices. Following the gap analysis, members of the DCC, in collaboration with health system leadership, met to identify priority areas in order to integrate and synergize diabetes care resources and efforts to enhance quality and reduce disparities in care across the system. Key gaps in care identified included lack of standardized glucose management policies, lack of standardized training of health care professionals in inpatient diabetes management, and lack of access to automated data collection and analysis. These results were used to gain resources to support collaborative diabetes health system initiatives and to successfully obtain federal research funding to develop and pilot a pragmatic diabetes educational intervention. At a health system level, the summary format of this gap analysis tool is an effective method to clearly identify disparities in care to focus efforts and resources to improve care delivery. Copyright © 2016 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tinjauan Kebutuhan Aktualisasi Diri Karyawan Operasional di Hotel Grand Rocky Bukittinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Mauliddy, Yozi; Chair, Ira Meirina; Kasmita, Kasmita

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to describe about self actualitation needs operational employees in Grand Rocky Hotel Bukittinggi which in term of three indicators : achievement needs, safety needs and status needs. The type of this research is descriptive with qualitative data. Data collection techniques by using observation, interview and documentation. Based on the reseach about (1) achievement needs to do something better than the competitor, obtaining or passing through a dificult target, to develop...

  19. The Politics of Achievement Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valant, J.; Newark, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    on achievement gaps have received little attention from researchers, despite playing an important role in shaping policymakers’ behaviors. Drawing on randomized experiments with a nationally representative sample of adults, we explore the public’s beliefs about test score gaps and its support for gap...

  20. The Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Manning

    2006-01-01

    Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment ...

  1. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes

  2. Risk, media, and stigma at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.; Peters, E.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

    1998-01-01

    Public responses to nuclear technologies are often strongly negative. Events, such as accidents or evidence of unsafe conditions at nuclear facilities, receive extensive and dramatic coverage by the news media. These news stories affect public perceptions of nuclear risks and the geographic areas near nuclear facilities. One result of these perceptions, avoidance behavior, is a form of technological stigma that leads to losses in property values near nuclear facilities. The social amplification of risk is a conceptual framework that attempts to explain how stigma is created through media transmission of information about hazardous places and public perceptions and decisions. This paper examines stigma associated with the US Department of energy's Rocky Flats facility, a major production plant in the nation's nuclear weapons complex, located near Denver, Colorado. This study, based upon newspaper analyses and a survey of Denver area residents, finds that the social amplification theory provides a reasonable framework for understanding the events and public responses that took place in regard to Rocky Flats during a 6-year period, beginning with an FBI raid of the facility in 1989

  3. Building a bridge for nursing education and clinical care in Taiwan--using action research and Confucian tradition to close the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan-Ping; Chao, Co-Shi Chantal; Lai, Wei-Shu; Chen, Ching-Huey; Shih, Ya Lan; Chiu, Ge-Lin

    2013-03-01

    Nursing workplaces in Taiwan are unable to retain talent. An examination of this problem has revealed that the causes of this phenomenon are that nursing education fails to cultivate the skills that meet workplace requirements and that there are gap between nursing education and clinical practice. This paper is an action research that aims is to design educational programs that can close the gap between nursing education and clinical practice in Taiwan. In this action research project, 4 action cycles were used to design educational programs including concept mapping and focused discussion strategies. Participants were invited to join the research in three teaching hospitals and one university. Two groups of participants, student nurses (SN) and nursing staff personnel (NS), were sampled and invited to participate in the research. Participant observation, focus groups, and qualitative interviews were used to collect data. Qualitative data were not only profiled by content analysis, but they were also compared continuously between the two groups as well as between the 4 cycles. The qualitative data collected for the 135 participants were analysed. The themes of an effective nursing program were summarized. Many fundamental values of traditional Chinese education have gradually faded due to the Westernization of education. In this study, we discovered that Western educational models may play a critical role in improving traditionally taught nursing education programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Decision analysis to complete diagnostic research by closing the gap between test characteristics and cost-effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Joanna D.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Buskens, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The lack of a standard methodology in diagnostic research impedes adequate evaluation before implementation of constantly developing diagnostic techniques. We discuss the methodology of diagnostic research and underscore the relevance of decision analysis in the process of evaluation of

  5. Bridging the gap: Cognitive and social approaches to research in second language learning and teaching. Editor's introduction & Editor's closing thoughts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.; Young, R.F.; Ortega, L.

    2014-01-01

    For some, research in learning and teaching of a second language (L2) runs the risk of disintegrating into irreconcilable approaches to L2 learning and use. On the one side, we find researchers investigating linguistic-cognitive issues, often using quantitative research methods including inferential

  6. Restoring rocky intertidal communities: Lessons from a benthic macroalgal ecosystem engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellgrove, Alecia; McKenzie, Prudence F; Cameron, Hayley; Pocklington, Jacqueline B

    2017-04-15

    As coastal population growth increases globally, effective waste management practices are required to protect biodiversity. Water authorities are under increasing pressure to reduce the impact of sewage effluent discharged into the coastal environment and restore disturbed ecosystems. We review the role of benthic macroalgae as ecosystem engineers and focus particularly on the temperate Australasian fucoid Hormosira banksii as a case study for rocky intertidal restoration efforts. Research focussing on the roles of ecosystem engineers is lagging behind restoration research of ecosystem engineers. As such, management decisions are being made without a sound understanding of the ecology of ecosystem engineers. For successful restoration of rocky intertidal shores it is important that we assess the thresholds of engineering traits (discussed herein) and the environmental conditions under which they are important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994–2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  8. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hartmann

    Full Text Available The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader

  9. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  10. Equality of opportunities for next generation researchers: bridging the gap between theory and practice in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žagar, Nedjeljka; Alkauskas, Audrius; Gyürky, György; Heiri, Oliver; Robinson, Nathaniel D.; Schäfer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Twenty-five years after the fall of the Berlin wall and the historical opening of the European Union to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, there is still a striking difference in the success of European countries in attracting research funds and talented researchers. A number of indicators document the differences in research success and research opportunities between Eastern and Western European countries, and even between Northern and Southern Europe. Differences, as described for example by a number of secured ERC grants, apply to all research fields and to researchers at all stages of their careers. While statistical analysis document large gradients in research performance across the continent, the underlying issues that young researchers struggle with are common across Europe, although they impact research environment to a different extent. These issues are presently being discussed within Sci-Generation, a COST Targeted Network that aims to enhance the European research environment for the next generation of young researchers. The major goal of the network is to contribute ideas towards overcoming these differences in opportunities across Europe. Targeting researchers in the early stage of their independent carrier or in the transition to independence, Sci-Generation is devoted to inclusiveness in order to represent a diversity of issues in science policy in Europe. In particular, the network's Working Group 1 focuses on the countries of Eastern and Southern Europe with less success in attracting European research funding. Among other issues, we considered the involvement of young researchers in decision-making processes at all levels important in order to increase the systems' transparency. As shown by an ongoing study of how language affects the evaluation of research applications, the use of the local language serves, in some cases, as one of the last stands of "science-managing elites" that grew up in systems before 1990. We discuss how a lack

  11. Knowledge Brokers in Education: How Intermediary Organizations Are Bridging the Gap between Research, Policy and Practice Internationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Amanda; Shewchuk, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Interest in how to better connect research to policy and practice is gaining momentum globally. Also gaining widespread agreement is the view that intermediary organizations have an important role to play in facilitating multi-stakeholder partnerships between researchers, practitioners and policymakers in order to increase the mobilization of…

  12. The gap between research and practice: a replication study on the HR professionals' beliefs about effective human resource practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Karin; van Riemsdijk, Maarten; Groen, B.A.C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002 Rynes, Colbert and Brown asked human resource (HR) professionals to what extent they agreed with various HR research findings. Responses from 959 American participants showed that there are large discrepancies between research findings and practitioners' beliefs about effective human

  13. NEPA/CERCLA integration at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schassburger, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Integration of two laws, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was mandated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) with issuance of DOE Order 5400.4 in October 6, 1989. NEPA documentation is required for all federal actions to thereby consider the impacts of such actions prior to the action taking place. On the other hand, CERCLA actions taken by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) at non-federal and federal sites do not normally take NEPA into consideration, although it is not exempted at federal sites. EPA claims that CERCLA is functionally equivalent to N-EPA and therefore NEPA is not required. Although EPA maintains the functional equivalency of the two laws and formerly resisted to recognize NEPA even in Inter-Agency Agreements (IAGs), Rocky Flats has been integrating the two laws within documents to avoid duplication of information and effort

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

    2008-04-01

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses.

  15. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    The study explores what factors influence the reduction of managers' perceivedknowledge gaps in the context of the environments of foreign markets. Potentialdeterminants are derived from traditional internationalization theory as well asorganizational learning theory, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building onthese literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primarydata of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggeststhat the factors that pertain to the absorptive capacity concept - capabilities ofrecognizing......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words...

  16. Bridging the Gap: establishing the necessary infrastructure and knowledge for teaching and research in neuroscience in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Sadiq; Baden, Tom; Prieto-Godino, Lucia L

    2014-06-01

    Advances in neuroscience research over the last few decades have increased our understanding of how individual neurons acquire their specific properties and assemble into complex circuits, and how these circuits are affected in disease. One of the important motives driving neuroscience research is the development of new scientific techniques and interdisciplinary cooperation. Compared to developed countries, many countries on the African continent are confronted with poor facilities, lack of funding or career development programs for neuroscientists, all of which deter young scientists from taking up neuroscience as a career choice. This article highlights some steps that are being taken to promote neuroscience education and research in Africa.

  17. Integrating themes, evidence gaps, and research needs identified by workshop on iron screening and supplementation in iron-replete pregnant women and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Patsy M; Stover, Patrick J; Taylor, Christine L

    2017-12-01

    This report addresses the evidence and the uncertainties, knowledge gaps, and research needs identified by participants at the NIH workshop related to iron screening and routine iron supplementation of largely iron-replete pregnant women and young children (6-24 mo) in developed countries. The workshop presentations and panel discussions focused on current understanding and knowledge gaps related to iron homeostasis, measurement of and evidence for iron status, and emerging concerns about supplementing iron-replete members of these vulnerable populations. Four integrating themes emerged across workshop presentations and discussion and centered on 1 ) physiologic or developmental adaptations of iron homeostasis to pregnancy and early infancy, respectively, and their implications, 2 ) improvement of the assessment of iron status across the full continuum from iron deficiency anemia to iron deficiency to iron replete to iron excess, 3 ) the linkage of iron status with health outcomes beyond hematologic outcomes, and 4 ) the balance of benefit and harm of iron supplementation of iron-replete pregnant women and young children. Research that addresses these themes in the context of the full continuum of iron status is needed to inform approaches to the balancing of benefits and harms of screening and routine supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Bridging the Gap: Racial concordance as a strategy to increase African American participation in breast cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Georita M; Pinto, Bernardine M; Denman, Deanna C; Leon, Pierre A; Jaffe, Alex D

    2017-11-01

    Lack of African American females in breast cancer research has been receiving substantial attention. This study seeks to identify research perceptions and motivating factors needed to increase racial/ethnic minority participation in breast cancer research. A total of 57 African American women (Σ = 47.8 years), from Rhode Island and Texas, completed a questionnaire and focus group. While many participants were not breast cancer survivors, they reported knowledge of their racial group's risk for breast cancer. One major finding that could be seen as both a facilitator and barrier is racial concordance between participant and researcher. Cultural sensitivity and trust building is recommended to increase minority participation.

  19. Decision analysis to complete diagnostic research by closing the gap between test characteristics and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Joanna D; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Buskens, Erik

    2009-12-01

    The lack of a standard methodology in diagnostic research impedes adequate evaluation before implementation of constantly developing diagnostic techniques. We discuss the methodology of diagnostic research and underscore the relevance of decision analysis in the process of evaluation of diagnostic tests. Overview and conceptual discussion. Diagnostic research requires a stepwise approach comprising assessment of test characteristics followed by evaluation of added value, clinical outcome, and cost-effectiveness. These multiple goals are generally incompatible with a randomized design. Decision-analytic models provide an important alternative through integration of the best available evidence. Thus, critical assessment of clinical value and efficient use of resources can be achieved. Decision-analytic models should be considered part of the standard methodology in diagnostic research. They can serve as a valid alternative to diagnostic randomized clinical trials (RCTs).

  20. Identifying Obstacles and Research Gaps of Telemedicine Projects: Approach for a State-of-the-Art Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harst, Lorenz; Timpel, Patrick; Otto, Lena; Wollschlaeger, Bastian; Richter, Peggy; Schlieter, Hannes

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for an evaluation of finished telemedicine projects using qualitative methods. Telemedicine applications are said to improve the performance of health care systems. While there are countless telemedicine projects, the vast majority never makes the threshold from testing to implementation and diffusion. Projects were collected from German project databases in the area of telemedicine following systematically developed criteria. In a testing phase, ten projects were subject to a qualitative content analysis to identify limitations, need for further research, and lessons learned. Using Mayring's method of inductive category development, six categories of possible future research were derived. Thus, the proposed method is an important contribution to diffusion and translation research regarding telemedicine, as it is applicable to a systematic research of databases.

  1. Are rocky shore ecosystems affected by nutrient-enriched seawater? Some preliminary results from a mesocosm experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokn, T.L.; Moy, F.E.; Christie, H.; Engelbert, S.; Karez, R.; Kersting, K.; Kraufvelin, P.; Lindblad, C.; Marba, N.; Pedersen, M.F.; Sorensen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The response of rocky shore ecosystems to increased nutrient availability was examined in eight land-based mesocosms designed for hard-bottom littoral communities built at Marine Research Station Solbergstrand (Norway). The average seawater volume in each basin was 9 m3 with an average water

  2. Fundamental challenges for autism research: the science-practice gap, demarcating autism and the unsuccessful search for the neurobiological basis of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2015-08-01

    One of the central aims of autism research is to identify specific neurodevelopmental mechanisms that cause and explain the visible autistic signs and symptoms. In this short paper, I argue that the persistent search for autism-specific pathophysiologies has two fundamental difficulties. The first regards the growing gap between basic autism science and clinical practice. The second regards the difficulties with demarcating autism as a psychiatric condition. Instead of the unremitting search for the neurobiological basis of autism, I suggest that basic autism research should focus on experiences of impairment and distress, and on how these experiences relate to particular (autistic) behaviors in particular circumstances, regardless of whether we are dealing with an autism diagnosis or not.

  3. Zika virus infection, transmission, associated neurological disorders and birth abnormalities:A review of progress in research, priorities and knowledge gaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yitades Gebre; Nikkiah Forbes; Teshome Gebre

    2016-01-01

    On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared that the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders constitute public health emergency of international concern. Furthermore, few studies demonstrated that there was an increased evidence of causal relationship of Zika virus (ZIKAV) infection and micro-cephaly, birth abnormalities and neurological disorders such as Guillain–Barr ´e syndrome. ZIKAV transmission occurs mainly by the bite of infected mosquitos (Aedes species), but there are also reports that infections could occur via the placenta, breast milk, saliva, blood transfusion and sex. This article reviews the global efforts, progress in scientific research to understand the pathogenesis of ZIKAV infection & disease, clinical pre-sentations, congenital transmission and autoimmune neurological disorders. The paper further explores the knowledge gaps, future priority research agenda for strategic response including vector control and prevention. We conducted a systematic literature review to synthesise available evidence on ZIKAV infection and its vector and host interaction from electronic databases.

  4. Use of empirically supported interventions for psychopathology: can the participatory approach move us beyond the research-to-practice gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Woda, Susan

    2009-04-01

    Dissemination, or distribution, of empirically supported interventions (ESIs) for psychopathology remains a significant challenge. This paper reviews the principles of community-partnership research (CPR) and explores why CPR might improve distribution of psychological ESIs. Benefits of CPR include building trust, pooling resources and knowledge, and better serving a community by directly involving its members in the design and implementation of research. In addition, after establishing a community's trust using CPR, researchers are likely to be better positioned to partner with communities in the further distribution of ESIs via community networks. This paper reviews the case of dissonance-based eating disorder prevention interventions to provide an example of how CPR can facilitate the adoption and distribution of an ESI by a community, in this case, sororities. CPR also presents a number of challenges, however, because it is time consuming and does not always align with funding mechanisms and research designs used in randomized controlled trials. Further, CPR does not necessarily solve the challenge of training providers, though it may help with problem solving. Ultimately, we suggest that the benefits of CPR far outweigh the challenges, and hope that more researchers will adopt these practices so that more individuals can benefit from empirically supported psychological interventions.

  5. Model-based evidence for persistent species zonation shifts in the southern Rocky Mountains under a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, A.; Shuman, J. K.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Dwire, K. A.; Fornwalt, P.; Sibold, J.; Negrón, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Forests in the Rocky Mountains are a crucial part of the North American carbon budget, but increases in disturbances such as insect outbreaks and fire, in conjunction with climate change, threaten their vitality. Mean annual temperatures in the western United States have increased by 2°C since 1950 and the higher elevations are warming faster than the rest of the landscape. It is predicted that this warming trend will continue, and that by the end of this century, nearly 50% of the western US landscape will have climate profiles with no current analog within that region. Individual tree-based modeling allows various climate change scenarios and their effects on forest dynamics to be tested. We use an updated individual-based gap model, the University of Virginia Forest Model Enhanced (UVAFME) at a subalpine site in the southern Rocky Mountains. UVAFME has been quantitatively and qualitatively validated in the southern Rocky Mountains, and results show that UVAFME-output on size structure, biomass, and species composition compares reasonably to inventory data and descriptions of vegetation zonation and successional dynamics for the region. We perform a climate sensitivity test in which temperature is first increased linearly by 2°C over 100 years, stabilized for 200 years, cooled back to present climate values over 100 years, and again stabilized for 200 years. This test is conducted to determine what effect elevated temperatures may have on vegetation zonation, and how persistent the changes may be if the climate is brought back to its current state. Results show that elevated temperatures within the southern Rocky Mountains may lead to decreases in biomass and changes in species composition as species migrate upslope. These changes are also likely to be fairly persistent for at least one- to two-hundred years. The results from this study suggest that UVAFME and other individual-based gap models can be used to inform forest management and climate mitigation

  6. Restoring rocky intertidal communities: Lessons from a benthic macroalgal ecosystem engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellgrove, Alecia; McKenzie, Prudence F.; Cameron, Hayley; Pocklington, Jacqueline B.

    2017-01-01

    As coastal population growth increases globally, effective waste management practices are required to protect biodiversity. Water authorities are under increasing pressure to reduce the impact of sewage effluent discharged into the coastal environment and restore disturbed ecosystems. We review the role of benthic macroalgae as ecosystem engineers and focus particularly on the temperate Australasian fucoid Hormosira banksii as a case study for rocky intertidal restoration efforts. Research focussing on the roles of ecosystem engineers is lagging behind restoration research of ecosystem engineers. As such, management decisions are being made without a sound understanding of the ecology of ecosystem engineers. For successful restoration of rocky intertidal shores it is important that we assess the thresholds of engineering traits (discussed herein) and the environmental conditions under which they are important. - Highlights: • Fucoid algae can be important ecosystem engineers in rocky reef ecosystems • Sewage-effluent disposal negatively affects fucoids and associated communities • Restoring fucoid populations can improve biodiversity of degraded systems • Clarifying the roles of fucoids in ecosystem function can improve restoration efforts • Thresholds of engineering traits and associated environmental conditions important

  7. Mentoring perception, scientific collaboration and research performance: is there a 'gender gap' in academic medicine? An Academic Health Science Centre perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Thanos; Patel, Vanash; Garas, George; Ashrafian, Hutan; Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick; Harding, Sian; Darzi, Ara; Paroutis, Sotirios

    2016-10-01

    The 'gender gap' in academic medicine remains significant and predominantly favours males. This study investigates gender disparities in research performance in an Academic Health Science Centre, while considering factors such as mentoring and scientific collaboration. Professorial registry-based electronic survey (n=215) using bibliometric data, a mentoring perception survey and social network analysis. Survey outcomes were aggregated with measures of research performance (publications, citations and h-index) and measures of scientific collaboration (authorship position, centrality and social capital). Univariate and multivariate regression models were constructed to evaluate inter-relationships and identify gender differences. One hundred and four professors responded (48% response rate). Males had a significantly higher number of previous publications than females (mean 131.07 (111.13) vs 79.60 (66.52), p=0.049). The distribution of mentoring survey scores between males and females was similar for the quality and frequency of shared core, mentor-specific and mentee-specific skills. In multivariate analysis including gender as a variable, the quality of managing the relationship, frequency of providing corrective feedback and frequency of building trust had a statistically significant positive influence on number of publications (all presearch to investigate the relationship between mentoring perception, scientific collaboration and research performance in the context of gender. It presents a series of initiatives that proved effective in marginalising the gender gap. These include the Athena Scientific Women's Academic Network charter, new recruitment and advertisement strategies, setting up a 'Research and Family Life' forum, establishing mentoring circles for women and projecting female role models. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Ethics in Community-University-Artist Partnered Research: Tensions, Contradictions and Gaps Identified in an 'Arts for Social Change' Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassi, Annalee; Spiegel, Jennifer Beth; Lockhart, Karen; Fels, Lynn; Boydell, Katherine; Marcuse, Judith

    Academics from diverse disciplines are recognizing not only the procedural ethical issues involved in research, but also the complexity of everyday "micro" ethical issues that arise. While ethical guidelines are being developed for research in aboriginal populations and low-and-middle-income countries, multi-partnered research initiatives examining arts-based interventions to promote social change pose a unique set of ethical dilemmas not yet fully explored. Our research team, comprising health, education, and social scientists, critical theorists, artists and community-activists launched a five-year research partnership on arts-for-social change. Funded by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council in Canada and based in six universities, including over 40 community-based collaborators, and informed by five main field projects (circus with street youth, theatre by people with disabilities, dance for people with Parkinson's disease, participatory theatre with refugees and artsinfused dialogue), we set out to synthesize existing knowledge and lessons we learned. We summarized these learnings into 12 key points for reflection, grouped into three categories: community-university partnership concerns ( n  = 3), dilemmas related to the arts ( n  = 5), and team issues ( n  = 4). In addition to addressing previous concerns outlined in the literature (e.g., related to consent, anonymity, dangerous emotional terrain, etc.), we identified power dynamics (visible and hidden) hindering meaningful participation of community partners and university-based teams that need to be addressed within a reflective critical framework of ethical practice. We present how our team has been addressing these issues, as examples of how such concerns could be approached in community-university partnerships in arts for social change.

  9. The Gap between Professional and Research Agenda: A Content Analysis of "Public Relations Journal" and "Public Relations Review."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Glen M.; And Others

    A content analysis compared the professional and research agendas of "Public Relations Journal" and "Public Relations Review" for the years 1975-81. A sample of 121 articles from the former and 111 articles from the latter were analyzed, and the content of each was assigned to one of 10 categories related to the context,…

  10. Advances in Stereotype Threat Research on African Americans: Continuing Challenges to the Validity of Its Role in the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there have been significant advances in stereotype threat research on African Americans. The current article reviews general issues of internal validity and external validity (or generalizability) beyond college laboratories in stereotype threat studies, and as they are revealed specifically in the context of advances in…

  11. A Better Measure of Skills Gaps: Utilizing ACT Skill Profile and Assessment Data for Strategic Skill Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACT, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    It is no secret that global markets and innovations in technology are driving rapid change in the U.S. economy. While much has been said over the years about the employment shift from goods-producing to service-providing industries, new research suggests that the shift is not due to sectoral employment change but rather a shift in the mix of jobs…

  12. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes how stakeholder involvement processes led to the successful resolution of a dispute over radionuclide soil action levels at the Rocky Flats Site near Denver, Colorado. During the Cold War Era, Rocky Flats, a plutonium fabrication plant, was part of the American government's multi-site nuclear weapons production facilities. Although the Rocky Flats plant had significant positive effects on the local economy, it became a target of public protest due to concerns over both public safety in the area surrounding the site and global nuclear proliferation. In the late 1980's, local safety concerns led to investigations by state and federal agencies. In 1992, with the Cold War ended, the Department of Energy decided to decommission the Rocky Flats site and to begin the long process of decontamination. (author)

  13. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  14. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-02-18

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  15. Ongoing Cerebral Vasculitis During Treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lisa R; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Yeshokumar, Anusha K; Johnston, Michael V

    2015-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tickborne infection that produces a systemic small-vessel vasculitis; its prognosis is excellent if appropriate treatment is initiated early. Because the advent of effective antirickettsial therapies predates the widespread use of brain magnetic resonance imaging, there are limited data on the effect of untreated Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection on neuroimaging studies. We describe a 7-year-old girl with delayed treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever who suffered severe neurological impairment. Serial brain magnetic resonance images revealed a progressive "starry sky appearance," which is proposed to result from the same small vessel vasculitis that causes the characteristic skin rash of this infection. Neurological injury can continue to occur despite specific antirickettsial therapy in Rocky Mountain spotted fever. This child's clinical features raise questions about the optimal management of this infection, particularly the utility of immune modulating therapies in cases of delayed treatment and neurological involvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Training cardiovascular outcomes researchers: A survey of mentees and mentors to identify critical training gaps and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanie, Prateeti; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Wang, Tracy Y; Crowley, Matthew J; Kressin, Nancy R; Krumholz, Harlan M; Kiefe, Catarina I; Wells, Barbara L; O'Brien, Sean M; Peterson, Eric D; Sanders, Gillian D

    2018-02-01

    Many young investigators are interested in cardiovascular (CV) outcomes research; however, the current training experience of early investigators across the United States is uncertain. From April to November 2014, we surveyed mentees and mentors of early-stage CV outcomes investigators across the United States. We contacted successful grantees of government agencies, members of professional organizations, and trainees in CV outcomes training programs. A total of 185 (of 662) mentees and 76 (of 541) mentors completed the survey. Mentees were equally split by sex; most had completed training >3 years before completing the survey and were clinicians. Mentors were more likely women, mostly ≥20 years posttraining, and at an associate/full professor rank. Mentors reported devoting more time currently to clinical work than when they were early in their career and mentoring 2-4 people simultaneously. More than 80% of mentees started training to become academicians and completed training with the same goal. More than 70% of mentees desired at least 50% research time in future jobs. More than 80% of mentors believed that future investigators would need more than 50% time dedicated to research. Most mentees (80%) were satisfied with their relationship with their mentor and reported having had opportunities to develop independently. Mentors more frequently than mentees reported that funding cutbacks had negatively affected mentees' ability to succeed (84% vs 58%). Across funding mechanisms, mentees were more optimistic than mentors about securing funding. Both mentees and mentors reported greatest preparedness for job/career satisfaction (79% for both) and publications (84% vs 92%) and least preparedness for future financial stability (48% vs 46%) and work-life balance (47% vs 42%). Survey findings may stimulate future discourse and research on how best to attract, train, and retain young investigators in CV outcomes research. Insights may help improve existing training

  17. Benchmarking and performance improvement at Rocky Flats Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, C.; Doyle, G.; Featherman, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes

  18. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

  19. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  20. The implementation, represented and mental models of business software in the context of bridging the gap between research and design

    OpenAIRE

    Sakal, Marton; Pantelić, Darko; Raković, Lazar

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide omnipresence and significant impact of digital products on a substantial number of complex variables of business community and everyday life by no means render the software development projects less risky endeavour. Starting from the significance of the behavioural dimension of software products for corporate purposes, based substantially on the research conducted by Cooper and Reimann, this article adopts a theoretical aspect in considering the relation between the implementati...

  1. Emerging issue of e-waste in Pakistan: A review of status, research needs and data gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mehreen; Breivik, Knut; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2015-12-01

    This review article focuses on the current situation of e-waste in Pakistan with the emphasis on defining the major e-waste recycling sites, current and future domestic generation of e-waste, hidden flows or import of e-waste and discusses various challenges for e-waste management. Needed policy interventions and possible measures to be taken at governmental level are discussed to avoid the increasing problem of e-waste in the country. Our findings highlight that there is still a general lack of reliable data, inventories and research studies addressing e-waste related issues in the context of environmental and human health in Pakistan. There is therefore a critical need to improve the current knowledge base, which should build upon the research experience from other countries which have experienced similar situations in the past. Further research into these issues in Pakistan is considered vital to help inform future policies/control strategies as already successfully implemented in other countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emerging issue of e-waste in Pakistan: A review of status, research needs and data gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Mehreen; Breivik, Knut; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    This review article focuses on the current situation of e-waste in Pakistan with the emphasis on defining the major e-waste recycling sites, current and future domestic generation of e-waste, hidden flows or import of e-waste and discusses various challenges for e-waste management. Needed policy interventions and possible measures to be taken at governmental level are discussed to avoid the increasing problem of e-waste in the country. Our findings highlight that there is still a general lack of reliable data, inventories and research studies addressing e-waste related issues in the context of environmental and human health in Pakistan. There is therefore a critical need to improve the current knowledge base, which should build upon the research experience from other countries which have experienced similar situations in the past. Further research into these issues in Pakistan is considered vital to help inform future policies/control strategies as already successfully implemented in other countries. - We present a baseline study on e-waste in Pakistan which could guide or facilitate more detailed studies in the future and ultimately lead to improve control strategies.

  3. Analysis of Stakeholder-Defined Needs in Northeast U.S. Coastal Communities to Determine Gaps in Research Informing Coastal Resilience Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, G. D.; Kenney, M. A.; Sutton-Grier, A.; Penn, K.

    2017-12-01

    The impacts of climate change on our coastlines are increasing pressure on communities, ecosystems, infrastructure, and state-to-local economies in the northeastern United States (U.S.). As a result of current or imminent risk of acute and chronic hazards, local, state and regional entities have taken steps to identify and address vulnerabilities to climate change. Decisions to increase coastal infrastructure resilience and grey, green, and cultural infrastructure solutions requires physical, natural, and social science that is useful for decision-making and effective science translation mechanisms. Despite the desire to conduct or fund science that meets the needs of communities, there has been no comprehensive analysis to determine stakeholder-defined research needs. To address this gap, this study conducts a stakeholder needs analysis in northeast U.S. coastal communities to determine gaps in information and translation processes supporting coastal resilience planning. Documents were sourced from local, state, and regional organizations in both the public and private sectors, using the northeast region defined by the third National Climate Assessment. Modeled after Dilling et al. (2015), a deductive coding schema was developed that categorized documents using specific search terms such as "Location and condition of infrastructure" and "Proactive planning". A qualitative document analysis was then executed using NVivo to formally identify patterns and themes present in stakeholder surveys, workshop proceedings, and reports. Initial stakeholder priorities centered around incorporation of climate science into planning and decision making regarding vulnerabilities of infrastructure, enhanced emergency planning and response, and communication of key information.

  4. Research gaps in routine health information system design barriers to data quality and use in low- and middle-income countries: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Gotz, David; Nutley, Tara; Smith, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Despite the potential impact of health information system (HIS) design barriers on health data quality and use and, ultimately, health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), no comprehensive literature review has been conducted to study them in this context. We therefore conducted a formal literature review to understand system design barriers to data quality and use in LMICs and to identify any major research gaps related understanding how system design affects data use. We conducted an electronic search across 4 scientific databases-PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Global Health-and consulted a data use expert. Following a systematic inclusion and exclusion process, 316 publications (316 abstracts and 18 full papers) were included in the review. We found a paucity of scientific publications that explicitly describe system design factors that hamper data quality or data use for decision making. Although user involvement, work flow, human-computer interactions, and user experience are critical aspects of system design, our findings suggest that these issues are not discussed or conceptualized in the literature. Findings also showed that individual training efforts focus primarily on imparting data analysis skills. The adverse impact of HIS design barriers on data integrity and health system performance may be even bigger in LMICs than elsewhere, leading to errors in population health management and clinical care. We argue for integrating systems thinking into HIS strengthening efforts to reduce the HIS design-user reality gap. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. KEPLER'S FIRST ROCKY PLANET: KEPLER-10b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Haas, Michael R.; Koch, David G.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Fressin, Francois; Latham, David W.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Kjeldsen, Hans; Ciardi, David; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N. III; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Howell, Steve B.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Kepler Mission uses transit photometry to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets in or near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The mission reached a milestone toward meeting that goal: the discovery of its first rocky planet, Kepler-10b. Two distinct sets of transit events were detected: (1) a 152 ± 4 ppm dimming lasting 1.811 ± 0.024 hr with ephemeris T [BJD] =2454964.57375 +0.00060 -0.00082 + N*0.837495 +0.000004 -0.000005 days and (2) a 376 ± 9 ppm dimming lasting 6.86 ± 0.07 hr with ephemeris T [BJD] =2454971.6761 +0.0020 -0.0023 + N*45.29485 +0.00065 -0.00076 days. Statistical tests on the photometric and pixel flux time series established the viability of the planet candidates triggering ground-based follow-up observations. Forty precision Doppler measurements were used to confirm that the short-period transit event is due to a planetary companion. The parent star is bright enough for asteroseismic analysis. Photometry was collected at 1 minute cadence for >4 months from which we detected 19 distinct pulsation frequencies. Modeling the frequencies resulted in precise knowledge of the fundamental stellar properties. Kepler-10 is a relatively old (11.9 ± 4.5 Gyr) but otherwise Sun-like main-sequence star with T eff = 5627 ± 44 K, M * = 0.895 ± 0.060 M sun , and R * = 1.056 ± 0.021 R sun . Physical models simultaneously fit to the transit light curves and the precision Doppler measurements yielded tight constraints on the properties of Kepler-10b that speak to its rocky composition: M P = 4.56 +1.17 -1.29 M + , R P = 1.416 +0.033 -0.036 R + , and ρ P = 8.8 +2.1 -2.9 g cm -3 . Kepler-10b is the smallest transiting exoplanet discovered to date.

  6. Establishing the role of honest broker: bridging the gap between protecting personal health data and clinical research efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Joung Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objective of this study is to propose the four conditions for the roles of honest brokers through a review of literature published by ten institutions that are successfully utilizing honest brokers. Furthermore, the study aims to examine whether the Asan Medical Center’s (AMC honest brokers satisfy the four conditions, and examine the need to enhance their roles.Methods. We analyzed the roles, tasks, and types of honest brokers at 10 organizations by reviewing the literature. We also established a Task Force (TF in our institution for setting the roles and processes of the honest broker system and the honest brokers. The findings of the literature search were compared with the existing systems at AMC—which introduced the honest broker system for the first time in Korea.Results. Only one organization employed an honest broker for validating anonymized clinical data and monitoring the anonymity verifications of the honest broker system. Six organizations complied with HIPAA privacy regulations, while four organizations did not disclose compliance. By comparing functions with those of the AMC, the following four main characteristics of honest brokers were determined: (1 de-identification of clinical data; (2 independence; (3 checking that the data are used only for purposes approved by the IRB; and (4 provision of de-identified data to researchers. These roles were then compared with those of honest brokers at the AMC.Discussion. First, guidelines that regulate the definitions, purposes, roles, and requirements for honest brokers are needed, since there are no currently existing regulations. Second, Korean clinical research institutions and national regulatory departments need to reach a consensus on a Korean version of Limited Data Sets (LDS, since there are no lists that describe the use of personal identification information. Lastly, satisfaction surveys on honest brokers by researchers are necessary to improve the quality of

  7. Gender and Minority Achievement Gaps in Science in Eighth Grade: Item Analyses of Nationally Representative Data. Research Report. ETS RR-17-36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoyu; Nandakumar, Ratna; Glutting, Joseoph; Ford, Danielle; Fifield, Steve

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated gender and minority achievement gaps on 8th-grade science items employing a multilevel item response methodology. Both gaps were wider on physics and earth science items than on biology and chemistry items. Larger gender gaps were found on items with specific topics favoring male students than other items, for…

  8. The Responsible Inclusion of Students Receiving Special Education Services for Emotional Disturbance: Unraveling the Practice to Research Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, John William; Solis, Michael; Brigham, Frederick; Adamson, Reesha

    2018-03-01

    The majority of students receiving special education services for emotional disturbance (ED) receive a significant amount of instruction in general education classrooms, which emphasizes curriculums based on college and career readiness standards. In turn, those teachers who provide instruction to students with ED in inclusive settings are responsible for using evidence-based practices (EBPs) for those teaching situations in which they exist to meet free appropriate public education (FAPE) mandates. However, the identification of EBPs is a necessary pre-condition to eventual school adoption and teacher use of such practices. In this investigation, we completed a synthesis of syntheses to (a) determine the degree to which academic intervention research has focused on students with ED in general education classrooms and (b) identify practices that are effective at improving the academic performance of students with ED in these settings. Overall, few studies were identified. Of those studies identified, half did not disaggregate outcomes for students with ED. A quality indicator coding based on the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) design standards revealed that no studies with disaggregated outcomes permitted causal inferences. Implications for school practice and areas for future research are discussed.

  9. Predictive biomarkers for type 2 of diabetes mellitus: Bridging the gap between systems research and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraniotou, Christina; Karadima, Vasiliki; Bellos, George; Tsangaris, George Th

    2018-03-05

    The global incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) has assumed epidemic proportions, leading to adverse health and socio-economic impacts. It is therefore of critical importance the early diagnosis of DM2 patients and the detection of those at increased risk of disease. In this respect, Precision Medicine (PM) is an emerging approach that includes practices, tests, decisions and treatments adapted to the characteristics of each patient. With regard to DM2, PM manages a wealth of "omics" data (genomic, metabolic, proteomic, environmental, clinical and paraclinical) to increase the number of clinically validated biomarkers in order to identify patients in early stage even before the prediabetic phase. In this paper, we discuss the epidemic dimension of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and the urgent demand for novel biomarkers to reduce the incidence or even delay the onset of DM2. Recent research data produced by "multi-omics" technologies (genomics/epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics), suggest that many potential biomarkers might be helpful in the prediction and early diagnosis of DM2. Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine (PPPM) manages and integrates these data to apply personalized, preventive, and therapeutic approaches. This is significant because there is an emerging need for establishing channels for communication and personalized consultation between systems research and precision medicine, as the medicine of the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal Patterns of Dry Deposition at a High-Elevation Site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Kaley M.; Mladenov, Natalie; Williams, Mark W.; Campbell, Cari M.; Lipson, David A.

    2017-10-01

    In the Colorado Rocky Mountains, high-elevation barren soils are deficient in carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) and enriched in nitrogen (N). The seasonal variability of dry deposition and its contributions to alpine elemental budgets is critical to understanding how dry deposition influences biogeochemical cycling in high-elevation environments. In this 2 year study, we evaluated dry and wet deposition inputs to the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research (NWT LTER) site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The total organic C flux in wet + dry (including soluble and particulate C) deposition was >30 kg C ha-1 yr-1 and represents a substantial input for this C-limited environment. Our side-by-side comparison of dry deposition collectors with and without marble insert indicated that the insert improved retention of dry deposition by 28%. Annual average dry deposition fluxes of water-soluble organic carbon (4.25 kg C ha-1 yr-1) and other water-soluble constituents, including ammonium (0.16 kg NH4+ha-1 yr-1), nitrate (1.99 kg NO3- ha-1 yr-1), phosphate (0.08 kg PO43- ha-1 yr-1), and sulfate (1.20 kg SO42- ha-1 yr-1), were comparable to those in wet deposition, with highest values measured in the summer. Backward trajectory analyses implicate air masses passing through the arid west and Four Corners, USA, as dominant source areas for dry deposition, especially in spring months. Synchronous temporal patterns of deposition observed at the NWT LTER site and a distant Rocky Mountain National Park Clean Air Status and Trends Network site indicate that seasonal dry deposition patterns are regional phenomena with important implications for the larger Rocky Mountain region.

  11. The Relationship of Financial Development, Urbanization and Urban-Rural Income Gap: An Empirical Research Based on Provincial Panel Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial development and the urbanization are important influence factors of the urban-rural income gap, and financial development can be measured by three main indexes which are financial scale, financial activities and financial efficiency. The financial development scale of China has obviously widened the urban-rural income gap. But rural financial activities have obvious effect on increasing farmers’ income, and the improvement of financial efficiency is helpful for narrowing the urban-rural income gap. The Kuznets effect between economic development and the urban-rural income gap has regional diversity. Besides that, the improvement of urbanization is also helpful for shorting the urban-rural income gap.

  12. Dysfunctions of decision-making and cognitive control as transdiagnostic mechanisms of mental disorders: advances, gaps, and needs in current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschke, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Disadvantageous decision-making and impaired volitional control over actions, thoughts, and emotions are characteristics of a wide range of mental disorders such as addiction, eating disorders, depression, and anxiety disorders and may reflect transdiagnostic core mechanisms and possibly vulnerability factors. Elucidating the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms is a precondition for moving from symptom-based to mechanism-based disorder classifications and ultimately mechanism-targeted interventions. However, despite substantial advances in basic research on decision-making and cognitive control, there are still profound gaps in our current understanding of dysfunctions of these processes in mental disorders. Central unresolved questions are: (i) to which degree such dysfunctions reflect transdiagnostic mechanisms or disorder-specific patterns of impairment; (ii) how phenotypical features of mental disorders relate to dysfunctional control parameter settings and aberrant interactions between large-scale brain systems involved in habit and reward-based learning, performance monitoring, emotion regulation, and cognitive control; (iii) whether cognitive control impairments are consequences or antecedent vulnerability factors of mental disorders; (iv) whether they reflect generalized competence impairments or context-specific performance failures; (v) whether not only impaired but also chronic over-control contributes to mental disorders. In the light of these gaps, needs for future research are: (i) an increased focus on basic cognitive-affective mechanisms underlying decision and control dysfunctions across disorders; (ii) longitudinal-prospective studies systematically incorporating theory-driven behavioural tasks and neuroimaging protocols to assess decision-making and control dysfunctions and aberrant interactions between underlying large-scale brain systems; (iii) use of latent-variable models of cognitive control rather than single tasks; (iv) increased focus on

  13. LHC Report: Rocky re-start

    CERN Multimedia

    Barbara Holzer for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    A rocky re-start with beam followed a successful machine development period and the first technical stop of 2012. Today, Friday 11 May, the machine began running again with 1380 bunches.   A short, two-day machine development period was successfully completed on 21-22 April. It focused on topics relevant for the 2012 physics beam operation. This was then followed by a five-day technical stop, the first of the year. The technical stop finished on time on Friday 26 April. The re-start with beam was somewhat tortuous and hampered by an unlucky succession of technical faults leading to extended periods of downtime. The planned intensity increase was put on hold for three days with the machine operating with 1092 bunches and a moderate bunch intensity of 1.3x1011 protons. This delivered a reasonable peak luminosity of 3.6x1033 cm-2s-1 to ATLAS and CMS. Higher than usual beam losses were observed in the ramp and squeeze, and time was required to investigate the causes and to implement mitigati...

  14. Elemental compositions of two extrasolar rocky planetesimals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.; Jura, M.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Koester, D., E-mail: sxu@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: kleinb@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: koester@astrophysik.uni-kiel.de [Institut fur Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, University of Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2014-03-10

    We report Keck/HIRES and Hubble Space Telescope/COS spectroscopic studies of extrasolar rocky planetesimals accreted onto two hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs, G29-38 and GD 133. In G29-38, eight elements are detected, including C, O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, and Fe while in GD 133, O, Si, Ca, and marginally Mg are seen. These two extrasolar planetesimals show a pattern of refractory enhancement and volatile depletion. For G29-38, the observed composition can be best interpreted as a blend of a chondritic object with some refractory-rich material, a result from post-nebular processing. Water is very depleted in the parent body accreted onto G29-38, based on the derived oxygen abundance. The inferred total mass accretion rate in GD 133 is the lowest of all known dusty white dwarfs, possibly due to non-steady state accretion. We continue to find that a variety of extrasolar planetesimals all resemble to zeroth order the elemental composition of bulk Earth.

  15. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.; Johnson, A.J.; Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of a fluidized-bed incineration process for radioactive wastes led to the installation of an 82-kg/hr demonstration unit at Rocky Flats Plant in 1978. Design philosophy and criteria were formulated to fulfill the needs and objectives of an improved radwaste-incineration system. Unique process concepts include low-temperature (550 0 C), flameless, fluidized-bed combustion and catalytic afterburning; in-situ neutralization of acid gases; and dry off-gas cleanup. Detailed descriptions of the process and equipment are presented along with a summary of the equipment and process performance during a 2-1/2 year operational-testing period. Equipment modifications made during the test period are described. Operating personnel requirements for solid-waste burning are shown to be greater than those required for liquid-waste incineration; differences are discussed. Process-utility and raw-materials consumption rates for full-capacity operation are presented and explained. Improvements in equipment and operating procedures are recommended for any future installations. Process flow diagrams, an area floor plan, a process-control-system schematic, and equipment sketches are included

  16. The HARPS-N Rocky Planet Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motalebi, F.; Udry, S.; Gillon, M.

    2015-01-01

    We know now from radial velocity surveys and transit space missions that planets only a few times more massive than our Earth are frequent around solar-type stars. Fundamental questions about their formation history, physical properties, internal structure, and atmosphere composition are, however......, still to be solved. We present here the detection of a system of four low-mass planets around the bright (V = 5.5) and close-by (6.5 pc) star HD 219134. This is the first result of the Rocky Planet Search programme with HARPS-N on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo in La Palma. The inner planet orbits...... on a close-in, quasi-circular orbit with a period of 6.767 ± 0.004 days. The third planet in the system has a period of 46.66 ± 0.08 days and a minimum-mass of 8.94 ± 1.13 M⊕, at 0.233 ± 0.002 AU from the star. Its eccentricity is 0.46 ± 0.11. The period of this planet is close to the rotational period...

  17. Rocky Planet Formation: Quick and Neat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Najita, Joan R.; Bromley, Benjamin C.

    2016-11-01

    We reconsider the commonly held assumption that warm debris disks are tracers of terrestrial planet formation. The high occurrence rate inferred for Earth-mass planets around mature solar-type stars based on exoplanet surveys (˜20%) stands in stark contrast to the low incidence rate (≤2%-3%) of warm dusty debris around solar-type stars during the expected epoch of terrestrial planet assembly (˜10 Myr). If Earth-mass planets at au distances are a common outcome of the planet formation process, this discrepancy suggests that rocky planet formation occurs more quickly and/or is much neater than traditionally believed, leaving behind little in the way of a dust signature. Alternatively, the incidence rate of terrestrial planets has been overestimated, or some previously unrecognized physical mechanism removes warm dust efficiently from the terrestrial planet region. A promising removal mechanism is gas drag in a residual gaseous disk with a surface density ≳10-5 of the minimum-mass solar nebula.

  18. Commercial Decommissioning at DOE's Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiboth, C.; Sandlin, N.; Schubert, A.; Hansen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Due in large part to the number of nuclear facilities that make up the DOE complex, DOE-EM work has historically been paperwork intensive and driven by extensive regulations. Requirements for non-nuclear facilities are often grouped with those of nuclear facilities, driving up costs. Kaiser-Hill was interested in applying a commercial model to demolition of these facilities and wanted to apply necessary and sufficient standards to the work activities, but avoid applying unnecessary requirements. Faced with demolishing hundreds of uncontaminated or non-radiologically contaminated facilities, Kaiser-Hill has developed a subcontracting strategy to drastically reduce the cost of demolishing these facilities at Rocky Flats. Aiming to tailor the demolition approach of such facilities to more closely follow commercial practices, Kaiser-Hill recently released a Request for Proposals (RFP) for the demolition of the site's former central administration facility. The RFP significantly reduced requirements for compliance with specific DOE directives. Instead, the RFP required subcontractors to comply with health and safety requirements commonly found in the demolition of similar facilities in a commercial setting. This resulted in a number of bids from companies who have normally not bid on DOE work previously and at a reduced cost over previous approaches. This paper will discuss the details of this subcontracting strategy

  19. Bridging the research to practice gap: A case study approach to understanding eıbı supports and barriers in Swedish preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Roll-Petterson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined proximal and distal barriers and supports within the Swedish service system that may affect implementation of early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI for children with autism. A case study approach with roots in ethnography was chosen to explore this issue. Two preschools exemplifying ‘high quality practice’ were studied and information was collected through multiple sources during a 12 month period, this included participant observations, direct observations, semi-structured interviews with key informants; paraprofessionals, parents, special educators, habilitation specialists and a focus group interview. Interview transcripts and field notes were combined and analyzed using an abductive grounded theory approach. Findings highlight the relevance of researchers understanding and taking into consideration the effect that distal variables have on implementation within proximal settings. A theoretical model of factors affecting implementation was conceptualised to include: staff entry knowledge and competence, development through supervision, the role of the preschool administrator, as well as distal influences and inter-organizational tensions, values, and bridges. Findings are discussed within the context of implementation science. Implications for future research are discussed as well as areas in need of further development to bridge the gap between research and practice.

  20. Human resources for health planning and management in the Eastern Mediterranean region: facts, gaps and forward thinking for research and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ahmad

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early decades of the 21st century are considered to be the era of human resources for health (HRH. The World Health Report (WHR 2006 launched the Health Workforce Decade (2006–2015, with high priority given for countries to develop effective workforce policies and strategies. In many countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR, particularly those classified as Low and Low-Middle Income Countries (LMICs, the limited knowledge about the nature, scope, composition and needs of HRH is hindering health sector reform. This highlights an urgent need to understand the current reality of HRH in several EMR countries. The objectives of this paper are to: (1 lay out the facts on what we know about the HRH for EMR countries; (2 generate and interpret evidence on the relationship between HRH and health status indicators for LMICs and middle and high income countries (MHICs in the context of EMR; (3 identify and analyze the information gaps (i.e. what we do not know and (4 provide forward thinking by identifying priorities for research and policy. Methods The variables used in the analysis were: nurse and physician density, gross national income, poverty, female literacy, health expenditure, Infant Mortality Rate (IMR, Under 5 Mortality Rate (U5MR, Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR and Life Expectancy (LE. Univariate (charts, bivariate (Pearson correlation and multivariate analysis (linear regression was conducted using SPSS 14.0, besides a synthesis of HRH literature. Results Results demonstrate the significant disparities in physician and nurse densities within the EMR, particularly between LMICs and MHICs. Besides this, significant differences exist in health status indicators within the EMR. Results of the Pearson correlation revealed that physician and nurse density, as well as female literacy in EMR countries were significantly correlated with lower mortality rates and higher life expectancy. Results of the regression

  1. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Lo Porto, Antonio; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60% by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  2. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M.; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A.; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Porto, Antonio Lo; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J.; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60 % by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  3. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  4. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S., E-mail: cristinasrocha@gmail.com; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta, E-mail: marta.ferreira@usp.ac.fj; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-15

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  5. Fatal Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the United States, 1999–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, F. Scott; Holman, Robert C.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Callinan, Laura S.; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Death from Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is preventable with prompt, appropriate treatment. Data from two independent sources were analyzed to estimate the burden of fatal RMSF and identify risk factors for fatal RMSF in the United States during 1999–2007. Despite increased reporting of RMSF cases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, no significant changes in the estimated number of annual fatal RMSF cases were found. American Indians were at higher risk of fatal RMSF relative to whites (relative risk [RR] = 3.9), and children 5–9 years of age (RR = 6.0) and adults ≥ 70 years of age (RR = 3.0) were also at increased risk relative to other ages. Persons with cases of RMSF with an immunosuppressive condition were at increased risk of death (RR = 4.4). Delaying treatment of RMSF was also associated with increased deaths. These results may indicate a gap between recommendations and practice. PMID:22492159

  6. Fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States, 1999-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, F Scott; Holman, Robert C; Paddock, Christopher D; Callinan, Laura S; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2012-04-01

    Death from Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is preventable with prompt, appropriate treatment. Data from two independent sources were analyzed to estimate the burden of fatal RMSF and identify risk factors for fatal RMSF in the United States during 1999-2007. Despite increased reporting of RMSF cases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, no significant changes in the estimated number of annual fatal RMSF cases were found. American Indians were at higher risk of fatal RMSF relative to whites (relative risk [RR] = 3.9), and children less than 10 years of age (RR=5.1) [corrected] and adults ≥ 70 years of age (RR = 3.0) were also at increased risk relative to other ages. Persons with cases of RMSF with an immunosuppressive condition were at increased risk of death (RR = 4.4). Delaying treatment of RMSF was also associated with increased deaths. These results may indicate a gap between recommendations and practice.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding Rocky Mountain spotted fever among healthcare providers, Tennessee, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily; Carpenter, L Rand; McElroy, Kristina; Lancaster, Mary J; Ngo, Tue H; McQuiston, Jennifer; Wiedeman, Caleb; Dunn, John R

    2013-01-01

    Tennessee has a high incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), the most severe tick-borne rickettsial illness in the United States. Some regions in Tennessee have reported increased illness severity and death. Healthcare providers in all regions of Tennessee were surveyed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions regarding RMSF. Providers were sent a questionnaire regarding knowledge of treatment, diagnosis, and public health reporting awareness. Responses were compared by region of practice within the state, specialty, and degree. A high proportion of respondents were unaware that doxycycline is the treatment of choice in children ≤ 8 years of age. Physicians practicing in emergency medicine, internal medicine, and family medicine; and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and providers practicing for < 20 years demonstrated less knowledge regarding RMSF. The gaps in knowledge identified between specialties, designations, and years of experience can help target education regarding RMSF.

  8. Researching the Gap between Foodstuff’s Attractiveness and Real Nutritional Profile – Prerequisite for Strengthening Nutrition Education and Consumer Rights Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristian Onete

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumer`s health protection has become a major concern of global public policies, given that overweight and obesity have alarmingly increased, particularly among children and teens. The paper addresses one of the current problems caused by globalization, namely the obvious tendency of young people to choose food products based on organoleptic features and to disregard nutritional quality, with negative consequences on health. An exploratory marketing research was conducted among students for identifying the perceived importance of the sensorial dimension of food products and understanding key dimensions of buying decision process among youth. SAIN–LIM method was used to determine the nutritional profile of foodstuffs with special organoleptic features. Research results clearly show that in industrial foodstuff there is a gap between product attractiveness, which is based on exceptional sensorial properties, perceived by young consumers and real nutritional value of foods, which frequently translates into unbalanced nutritional profiles. To have a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle, young consumers need to be informed that a tasty and good looking foodstuff is not necessarily healthy. Youth need to be properly educated in order to understand the close relationship between diet, weight and health and to develop a responsible food consumption behavior.

  9. ROCKY PLANETESIMAL FORMATION VIA FLUFFY AGGREGATES OF NANOGRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Sota; Nakamoto, Taishi, E-mail: arakawa.s.ac@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that silicate grains in primitive meteorites are not interstellar grains but condensates formed in the early solar system. Moreover, the size distribution of matrix grains in chondrites implies that these condensates might be formed as nanometer-sized grains. Therefore, we propose a novel scenario for rocky planetesimal formation in which nanometer-sized silicate grains are produced by evaporation and recondensation events in early solar nebula, and rocky planetesimals are formed via aggregation of these nanograins. We reveal that silicate nanograins can grow into rocky planetesimals via direct aggregation without catastrophic fragmentation and serious radial drift, and our results provide a suitable condition for protoplanet formation in our solar system.

  10. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy as a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, the post-Cold War era, and the transition between the two. This provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified. (author)

  11. Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Aswine K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Kawasaki disease is an idiopathic acute systemic vasculitis of childhood. Although it simulates the clinical features of many infectious diseases, an infectious etiology has not been established. This is the first reported case of Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Case presentation We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with fever and petechial rash. Serology confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever. While being treated with intravenous doxycycline, she developed swelling of her hands and feet. She had the clinical features of Kawasaki disease which resolved after therapy with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG and aspirin. Conclusion This case report suggests that Kawasaki disease can occur concurrently or immediately after a rickettsial illness such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, hypothesizing an antigen-driven immune response to a rickettsial antigen.

  12. Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Aswine K; Kairys, Steven W

    2009-07-06

    Kawasaki disease is an idiopathic acute systemic vasculitis of childhood. Although it simulates the clinical features of many infectious diseases, an infectious etiology has not been established. This is the first reported case of Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever. We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with fever and petechial rash. Serology confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever. While being treated with intravenous doxycycline, she developed swelling of her hands and feet. She had the clinical features of Kawasaki disease which resolved after therapy with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and aspirin. This case report suggests that Kawasaki disease can occur concurrently or immediately after a rickettsial illness such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, hypothesizing an antigen-driven immune response to a rickettsial antigen.

  13. [Resources and their meaning for caregivers--a gap in research? Health sociological and empirical approach to a hitherto neglected field of research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    Family caregiving changes everyday life. Caregivers deal with the new situation in different ways and they feel more or less stressful. Actually there is little knowledge about possible causes of this situation. But there is an assumption that using varied resources and coping strategies lead to differences in health outcomes and well-being. As caregiving is a phase of life with special stressors, the caregiver needs specific resources to cope with these requirements. According to Antonovsky (1997) and Hobfoll (1989), this research asks which resources caregivers poses and use to deal with the unusual situation. On the basis of a salutogenetic and resource-orientated theoretical approach and additional qualitative analysis of interviews important resources for caregivers will be identified. The results lead on the one hand to the construction of an assessment instrument and on the other hand facilitate nurses to get to know more about the individual approach of resources and their specific meaning for caregivers.

  14. [Leaf nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry of shrubland plants in the rocky desertification area of Southwestern Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yi Ran; Deng, Xiang Wen; Wei, Hui; Li, Yan Qiong; Deng, Dong Hua; Liu, Hao Jian; Xiang, Wen Hua

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we took the leaves of shrubland plants in rocky desertification area in Southwestern Hunan as the research object to analyze the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry characteristics for different functional groups and different grades of rocky desertification, i.e., light rocky desertification (LRD), moderate rocky desertification (MRD) and intense rocky desertification (IRD). The results showed that the average contents of N and P were 12.89 and 1.19 g·kg -1 , respectively, and N/P was 11.24 in common shrubland plants in the study area, which indicated that the growth of most plants were mainly limited by N. The content of N was declined in order of deciduous shrubs > evergreen shrubs > annual herbs > perennial herbs. The content of P and N/P were higher in deciduous shrubs than in perennial herbs. Significant differences were found among the main families of plants in terms of the contents of N, P and N/P in the study sites. The plants of Gramineae had the lowest contents of N and P, andtheir growth was mostly restricted by N, while Leguminosae had the highest content of N and N/P, and their productivity was majorly controlled by P. The contents of N and P in the leaves were significantly higher in dicotyledon plants and C3 plants than in monocotyledon plants and C4 plants, but the N/P was not significantly diffe-rent between these two plant categories. The nitrogen-fixing plants had higher content of N and N/P than the non-nitrogen-fixing plants, but the P content was not significantly different between these two plant groups. There were significant correlations between contents of N and P, N/P and N in all study plots. No significant correlation was found between N/P and P content in the examined rocky desertification sites, except for that in MRD. There were no significant differences of the contents of N, P and N/P under different grades of rocky desertification.

  15. Cool Science Explains a Warming World: Using Ice Core Science to Bridge the Gap Between Researchers and the K-12 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, L. T.

    2017-12-01

    Changing ice has urgent implications for people around the world. The Ice Drilling Program Office (IDPO) provides scientific leadership and oversight of ice coring and drilling activities funded by the US National Science Foundation and also has goals to enhance education and communication of current research information. In a time when misinformation is rampant and climate change science is suspect, it is essential that students receive accurate scientific information and engage in learning activities that model complex ideas through engaging and age appropriate ways, while also learning to validate and recognize reliable sources. The IDPO Education and Outreach (EO) office works to create resources, activities and professional development that bridge the gap between ice core science research and educators and their students. Ice core science is on the cutting edge of new discoveries about climate change and understanding better the past to predict the future. Hands-on inquiry activities based on ice core data allow teachers to lead their students to new discoveries about climate secrets hidden deep in the ice. Capitalizing on the inherent interest in the extremes of the Polar Regions, IDPO materials engage students in activities aligned with NGSS standards. Ice drilling technologies make an ideal platform for intertwining engineering concepts and practices with science research to meet the SEP (Science and Engineering Practices) in the NGSS. This session will highlight how the IDPO EO office has built a community of ice core scientists willing to take part in education and outreach projects and events and share some of the resources available to K-12 educators. We will highlight some of the successes and lessons learned as we continually evolve our work toward more effective science education and communication highlighting ice core and climate change science.

  16. [Impact of Rocky Desertification Treatment on Underground Water Chemistry and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Isotope in Karst Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shi-zhen; Xiong, Kang-ning; Lan, Jia-cheng; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Long

    2015-05-01

    Five springs representing different land-use types and different karst rocky desertification treatment models were chosen at the Huajiang Karst Rocky Desertification Treatment Demonstration Site in Guanling-Zhenfeng Counties in Guizhou, to analyze the features of underground water chemistry and dissolved inorganic carbon isotopes (δ13C(DIC)) and reveal the effect of rocky desertification treatment on karstification and water quality. It was found that, the underground water type of the research area was HCO3-Ca; the water quality of the springs which were relatively less affected by human activities including Shuijingwan Spring (SJW) , Gebei Spring (GB), and Maojiawan Spring (MJW) was better than those relatively more affected by human activities including Diaojing Spring (DJ) and Tanjiazhai Spring (TJZ) , the main ion concentrations and electrical conductivity of which were higher; pH, SIc and pCO2 were sensitive to land-use types and rocky desertification treatment, which could be shown by the higher pH and SIc and lower pCO2 in MJW than those in the other four springs; (Ca(2+) + Mg2+)/HCO(3-) of SJW, MJW and GB were nearly 1:1, dominated by carbonate rock weathering by carbon acid, while the (Ca(2+) + Mg2+) of DJ and TJZ was much higher than HCO3-, suggesting that sulfate and nitrate might also dissolve carbonate rock because of the agricultural activities; δ13C(DIC) was lighter in wet season because of the higher biological activities; the average δ13C(DIC) was in the order of DJ (-12.79 per thousand) desertification and lighter after the rocky desertification are treated and controlled.

  17. Benchmarking and Performance Improvement at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. [Kaiser-Hill Co., LLC, Golden, CO (United States)], Doyle, D. [USDOE Rocky Flats Office, Golden, CO (United States)], Featherman, W.D. [Project Performance Corp., Sterline, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes.

  18. Identifying and Prioritizing Gaps in Neuroendocrine Tumor Research: A Modified Delphi Process With Patients and Health Care Providers to Set the Research Action Plan for the Newly Formed Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelov, Eva; Chan, David; Lawrence, Ben; Pavlakis, Nick; Kennecke, Hagen F; Jackson, Christopher; Law, Calvin; Singh, Simron

    2017-08-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a diverse group of malignancies that pose challenges common to all rare tumors. The Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration (CommNETS) was established in 2015 to enhance outcomes for patients with NETs in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A modified Delphi process was undertaken involving patients, clinicians, and researchers to identify gaps in NETs research to produce a comprehensive and defensible research action plan. A three-round modified Delphi process was undertaken with larger representation than usual for medical consensus processes. Patient/advocate and health care provider/researcher expert panels undertook Round 1, which canvassed 17 research priorities and 42 potential topics; in Round 2, these priorities were ranked. Round 3 comprised a face-to-face meeting to generate final consensus rankings and formulate the research action plan. The Delphi groups consisted of 203 participants in Round 1 (64% health care providers/researchers, 36% patient/advocates; 52% Canadian, 32% Australian, and 17% New Zealander), of whom 132 participated in Round 2. The top eight priorities were biomarker development; peptide receptor radionuclide therapy optimization; trials of new agents in advanced NETs; functional imaging; sequencing therapies for metastatic NETs, including development of validated surrogate end points for studies; pathologic classification; early diagnosis; interventional therapeutics; and curative surgery. Two major areas were ranked significantly higher by patients/advocates: early diagnosis and curative surgery. Six CommNETS working parties were established. This modified Delphi process resulted in a well-founded set of research priorities for the newly formed CommNETS collaboration by involving a large, diverse group of stakeholders. This approach to setting a research agenda for a new collaborative group should be adopted to ensure that research plans reflect unmet needs and priorities in the field.

  19. Identifying and Prioritizing Gaps in Neuroendocrine Tumor Research: A Modified Delphi Process With Patients and Health Care Providers to Set the Research Action Plan for the Newly Formed Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segelov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are a diverse group of malignancies that pose challenges common to all rare tumors. The Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration (CommNETS was established in 2015 to enhance outcomes for patients with NETs in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A modified Delphi process was undertaken involving patients, clinicians, and researchers to identify gaps in NETs research to produce a comprehensive and defensible research action plan. Methods: A three-round modified Delphi process was undertaken with larger representation than usual for medical consensus processes. Patient/advocate and health care provider/researcher expert panels undertook Round 1, which canvassed 17 research priorities and 42 potential topics; in Round 2, these priorities were ranked. Round 3 comprised a face-to-face meeting to generate final consensus rankings and formulate the research action plan. Results: The Delphi groups consisted of 203 participants in Round 1 (64% health care providers/researchers, 36% patient/advocates; 52% Canadian, 32% Australian, and 17% New Zealander, of whom 132 participated in Round 2. The top eight priorities were biomarker development; peptide receptor radionuclide therapy optimization; trials of new agents in advanced NETs; functional imaging; sequencing therapies for metastatic NETs, including development of validated surrogate end points for studies; pathologic classification; early diagnosis; interventional therapeutics; and curative surgery. Two major areas were ranked significantly higher by patients/advocates: early diagnosis and curative surgery. Six CommNETS working parties were established. Conclusion: This modified Delphi process resulted in a well-founded set of research priorities for the newly formed CommNETS collaboration by involving a large, diverse group of stakeholders. This approach to setting a research agenda for a new collaborative group should be adopted to ensure that research plans

  20. GAP-REACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Raggio, Greer A.; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Duan, Naihua; Marcus, Sue; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Humensky, Jennifer; Becker, Anne E.; Alarcón, Renato D.; Oquendo, María A.; Hansen, Helena; Like, Robert C.; Weiss, Mitchell; Desai, Prakash N.; Jacobsen, Frederick M.; Foulks, Edward F.; Primm, Annelle; Lu, Francis; Kopelowicz, Alex; Hinton, Ladson; Hinton, Devon E.

    2015-01-01

    Growing awareness of health and health care disparities highlights the importance of including information about race, ethnicity, and culture (REC) in health research. Reporting of REC factors in research publications, however, is notoriously imprecise and unsystematic. This article describes the development of a checklist to assess the comprehensiveness and the applicability of REC factor reporting in psychiatric research publications. The 16-itemGAP-REACH© checklist was developed through a rigorous process of expert consensus, empirical content analysis in a sample of publications (N = 1205), and interrater reliability (IRR) assessment (N = 30). The items assess each section in the conventional structure of a health research article. Data from the assessment may be considered on an item-by-item basis or as a total score ranging from 0% to 100%. The final checklist has excellent IRR (κ = 0.91). The GAP-REACH may be used by multiple research stakeholders to assess the scope of REC reporting in a research article. PMID:24080673

  1. Pre-Practicum Training in Professional Psychology to Close the Research-Practice Gap: Changing Attitudes Towards Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Wadkins, Melanie; Bailin, Abby; Doctoroff, Greta

    2015-02-01

    Despite the rapid proliferation of mental health interventions with proven benefit for youth, empirically supported interventions (ESIs) are underutilized in most service settings. Treatment outcome studies in these community-based settings suggest that the majority of youth do not show improvement, underscoring the importance of addressing the gap between research and practice. Clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice (EBP) may limit the use of ESIs, and efforts to address these attitudes with post-graduate training pose significant challenges. Pre-practicum training in EBP may address these challenges by familiarizing students with the framework of EBP as well as with the current youth treatment evidence base and the theories and strategies of well-supported interventions. We describe a required EBP course within a professional psychology doctoral program. Forty-two students in two class cohorts completed a measure of attitudes toward EBP prior to the first class and after the final class lecture. Students were predominantly Caucasian women with bachelor's degrees. As expected, over the course of the class, student attitudes became significantly more favorable toward EBP. Students who had previously received a master's degree had more favorable attitudes prior to the class, and students with a prior bachelor's degree showed the greatest change in attitude. The results support the use of pre-practicum training in EBP to improve attitudes toward EBP, which may lead to use of effective practices with clients following training.

  2. The Gap in the Current Research on the Link between Health Locus of Control and Multiple Sclerosis: Lessons and Insights from a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Luigi Bragazzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic neurological disease whose etiology has not been fully understood yet in detail. Empirical findings show how psychosocial symptoms are very important features of the clinical presentation of MS, having a deep impact on patient's quality of life, and thus psychological coping strategies may play a central role in reducing the burden of the disease and improving patient's satisfaction of life. MS progression and relapses/exacerbations are unpredictable and may depend on factors such as stressor chronicity, frequency, severity, type, and individual patient characteristics such as depression, personality, locus of control (LOC, optimism, and perceived social support. Due to its importance for health-care delivery, rehabilitation, and nursing, here, we make a systematic review on the current state-of-the-art studies concerning the relationship between LOC and MS, according to the PRISMA guidelines, and we assess the quality and the completeness of the studies using the CONSORT instrument, underpinning their limitations, and suggesting how to fill the gap in this research field.

  3. Mind the Gap!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld; Simone, Carla

    2000-01-01

    CSCW at large seems to be pursuing two diverging strategies: on one hand a strategy aiming at coordination technologies that reduce the complexity of coordinating cooperative activities by regulating the coordinative interactions, and on the other hand a strategy that aims at radically flexible m...... and blended in the course of real world cooperative activities. On the basis of this discussion the paper outlines an approach which may help CSCW research to bridge this gap....... means of interaction which do not regulate interaction but rather leave it to the users to cope with the complexity of coordinating their activities. As both strategies reflect genuine requirements, we need to address the issue of how the gap can be bridged, that is, how the two strategies can...

  4. Technical safety appraisal: Buildings 776/777 Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, H C

    1988-03-01

    Buildings 776/777 at the Rocky Flats Plant are major components of the production complex at the plant site. They have been in operation since 1957. The operations taking place in the buildings are nuclear weapons production support, processing of weapons assemblies returned from Pantex, waste processing, research and development in support of production, special projects, and those generated by support groups, such as maintenance. The appraisal team identified nine deficiencies that it believed required prompt attention. DOE management for EH, the program office (Defense Programs), and the field office analyzed the information provided by the appraisal team and instituted compensatory measures for closer monitoring of contractor activities by knowledgeable DOE staff and staff from other sites. Concurrently, the contractor was requested to address both short-term and long-term remedial measures to correct the identified issues as well as the underlying problems. The contractor has provided his action plan, which is included. This plan was under evaluation by EH and the DOE program office at the time this report was prepared. In addressing the major areas of concern identified above, a well as the specific deficiencies identified by the appraisal team, the contractor and the field office are cautioned to search for the root causes for the problems and to direct corrective actions to those root causes rather than solely to the symptoms to assure the sustainability of the improvements being made. The results of prior TSAs led DOE to conclude that previous corrective actions were not sufficient in that a large number of the individual findings are recurrent. Pending completion of remedial actions over the next few months, enhanced DOE oversight of the contractor is warranted.

  5. Plutonium in the aquatic environment around the Rocky Flats facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration has been fabricating and chemically recovering plutonium for over 20 years. During that time, small amounts of plutonium have been released with liquid process and sanitary waste discharges. The liquid waste flows through a series of holding ponds from which it is discharged into a creek that is part of a municipal drinking water supply. The water flows for about 1.5 km between the last holding pond and the municipal drinking water reservoir. In addition, liquid wastes containing high levels of chemical contaminants and plutonium concentrations less than allowable drinking water standards have been discharged to large evaporation ponds. The fate of the plutonium in both the surface and subsurface aquatic environment has been extensively monitored and studied. It has been found that plutonium does not move very far or very rapidly through subsurface water. The majority of the plutonium released through surface water has been contained in the sediments of the plant holding ponds. Small amounts of plutonium have also been found in the sediments of the draining creek and in the sediments of the receiving reservoir. Higher than normal amounts of plutonium were released from the waste treatment plants during times when suspended solids were high. Various biological species have been examined and plutonium concentration factors determined. Considerably less than 1% of the 210 mCi of plutonium released has been detected in biological systems including man. After more than 20 years of large scale operations, no health or environmental hazard has been identified due to the release of small amounts of plutonium. (author)

  6. Technical safety appraisal: Buildings 776/777 Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, H.C.

    1988-03-01

    Buildings 776/777 at the Rocky Flats Plant are major components of the production complex at the plant site. They have been in operation since 1957. The operations taking place in the buildings are nuclear weapons production support, processing of weapons assemblies returned from Pantex, waste processing, research and development in support of production, special projects, and those generated by support groups, such as maintenance. The appraisal team identified nine deficiencies that it believed required prompt attention. DOE management for EH, the program office (Defense Programs), and the field office analyzed the information provided by the appraisal team and instituted compensatory measures for closer monitoring of contractor activities by knowledgeable DOE staff and staff from other sites. Concurrently, the contractor was requested to address both short-term and long-term remedial measures to correct the identified issues as well as the underlying problems. The contractor has provided his action plan, which is included. This plan was under evaluation by EH and the DOE program office at the time this report was prepared. In addressing the major areas of concern identified above, a well as the specific deficiencies identified by the appraisal team, the contractor and the field office are cautioned to search for the root causes for the problems and to direct corrective actions to those root causes rather than solely to the symptoms to assure the sustainability of the improvements being made. The results of prior TSAs led DOE to conclude that previous corrective actions were not sufficient in that a large number of the individual findings are recurrent. Pending completion of remedial actions over the next few months, enhanced DOE oversight of the contractor is warranted

  7. Mind the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Terry; Savage, Erica; Adams, Katie; Wittie, Michael; Boone, Edna; Hayden, Andrew; Barnes, Janey; Hettinger, Zach; Gettinger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Decisions made during electronic health record (EHR) implementations profoundly affect usability and safety. This study aims to identify gaps between the current literature and key stakeholders’ perceptions of usability and safety practices and the challenges encountered during the implementation of EHRs. Materials and Methods Two approaches were used: a literature review and interviews with key stakeholders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify usability and safety challenges and best practices during implementation. A total of 55 articles were reviewed through searches of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. We used a qualitative approach to identify key stakeholders’ perceptions; semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse set of health IT stakeholders to understand their current practices and challenges related to usability during implementation. We used a grounded theory approach: data were coded, sorted, and emerging themes were identified. Conclusions from both sources of data were compared to identify areas of misalignment. Results We identified six emerging themes from the literature and stakeholder interviews: cost and resources, risk assessment, governance and consensus building, customization, clinical work-flow and usability testing, and training. Across these themes, there were misalignments between the literature and stakeholder perspectives, indicating major gaps. Discussion Major gaps identified from each of six emerging themes are discussed as critical areas for future research, opportunities for new stakeholder initiatives, and opportunities to better disseminate resources to improve the implementation of EHRs. Conclusion Our analysis identified practices and challenges across six different emerging themes, illustrated important gaps, and results suggest critical areas for future research and dissemination to improve EHR implementation. PMID:27847961

  8. Protocol for a qualitative study exploring the roles of 'Diffusion Fellows' in bridging the research to practice gap in the Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Lincolnshire Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC-NDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Evidence produced by researchers is not comprehensibly used in practice. National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Lincolnshire's strategy for closing the research to practice gap relies on the use of 'Diffusion Fellows' (DFs). DFs are seconded from the local healthcare economy to act as champions for change, translating and disseminating knowledge from practice into the research studies and vice versa, taking the knowledge developed by academics back into their own practice environments. This paper outlines the rationale and design of a qualitative evaluation study of the DF role. Methods and analysis The evaluation responds to the research question: what are the barriers and facilitators to DFs acting as knowledge brokers and boundary spanners? Interviews will be carried out annually with DFs, the research team they work with and their line managers in the employing organisations. Interviews with DFs will be supplemented with a creative mapping component, offering them the opportunity to construct a 3D model to creatively illustrate some of the barriers precluding them from successfully carrying out their role. This method is popular for problem solving and is valuable for both introducing an issue that might be difficult to initially verbalise and to reflect upon experiences. Ethics and dissemination DFs have an important role within the CLAHRC and are central to our implementation and knowledge mobilisation strategies. It is important to understand as much about their activities as possible in order for the CLAHRC to support the DFs in the most appropriate way. Dissemination will occur through presentations and publications in order that learning from the use of DFs can be shared as widely as possible. The study has received ethical approval from Nottingham 2 Research Ethics Committee and has all appropriate NHS governance clearances.

  9. Results of convective heating tests of a longitudinal gap on the Rockwell flat plate model (15-0, insert 7) in the NASA/Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, M.; Lockman, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented which were obtained from tests in a hypersonic wind tunnel to determine aerodynamic heating rates in a gap running parallel or slightly askew to the flow direction. The model used was a flat plate instrumented in thin-skin sections with chromelconstantan thermocouples. Heating rate profiles lengthwise along and down into the gap were obtained, and additional data were obtained from a total temperature probe and rake fabricated during the test to investigate an apparent aerodynamic cooling trend in the gap. Model variables were width, depth, length, and orientation of the gap relative to the flow direction. The tests were conducted at Mach 5.1 and Reynolds numbers per foot of 500,000, 1,000,000, and 2,000,000.

  10. Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement implementation successes and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    On July 19, 1996 the US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Colorado (CDPHE), and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into an agreement called the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) for the cleanup and closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or Rocky Flats). Major elements of the agreement include: an Integrated Site-Wide Baseline; up to twelve significant enforceable milestones per year; agreed upon soil and water action levels and standards for cleanup; open space as the likely foreseeable land use; the plutonium and TRU waste removed by 2015; streamlined regulatory process; agreement with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) to coordinate activities; and a risk reduction focus. Successful implementation of RFCA requires a substantial effort by the parties to change their way of thinking about RFETS and meet the deliverables and commitments. Substantial progress toward Site closure through the implementation of RFCA has been accomplished in the short time since the signing, yet much remains to be done. Much can be learned from the Rocky Flats experience by other facilities in similar situations

  11. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirrincione, D.A.; Erdmann, N.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Rocky Rats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant's environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1992. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population

  12. Public involvement in cleanup - the Rocky Flats experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paukert, J.; Pennock, S.; Schassburger, R.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant recently completed and implemented the Rocky Flats Plant Community Relations Plan for public involvement in environmental restoration of the site. The plan was developed in cooperation with the plant's regulators, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Colorado Department of Health. In addition, citizens near the plant played a significant role in shaping the document through extensive community interviews and public comment. The result of these cooperative efforts is a plan that meets and exceeds the applicable federal and state community relations requirements for a cleanup program. In fact, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has used the Rocky Flats Plant Community Relations Plants a model for similar plans at other federal facilities. Plan development, however, is only the starting point for an effective community relations effort. The Rocky Flats Plant and the public will face many challenges together as we implement the plan and build a partnership for addressing environmental cleanup issues. (author)

  13. Progress towards a lightning ignition model for the Northern Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Sopko; Don Latham

    2010-01-01

    We are in the process of constructing a lightning ignition model specific to the Northern Rockies using fire occurrence, lightning strike, ecoregion, and historical weather, NFDRS (National Fire Danger Rating System), lightning efficiency and lightning "possibility" data. Daily grids for each of these categories were reconstructed for the 2003 fire season (...

  14. Biological impacts of oil pollution: rocky shores. V. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Most people with access to the sea have at one time enjoyed looking into rockpools and searching for crabs under boulders. Rocky shores have a great deal of fascination for people and they are the closest that many of them will get to the mysteries below the low tide mark. They are found, in some form, on most of the world's coasts and their ecology has been the subject of many books, reports and scientific papers. Rocky shores encompass a variety of intertidal habitats and have a range of vulnerabilities to oil. While some areas are quickly and easily cleaned by natural forces others can trap oil in sensitive sub-habitats which may then be damaged and take many years to recover. Furthermore, rocky shores have an importance in the wider context of marine ecosystems and some provide important local fisheries resources, tourism and amenities. This report describes the factors that make some rocky shores more sensitive to oil spills than others and considers the most appropriate methods of clean-up. Case histories are used to illustrate the effects of spills and spill clean-up, as well as typical recovery rates. (UK)

  15. Adsorption study for uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.; Rupert, M.C.; Harris, M.J.; Duran, A.

    1995-01-01

    Six adsorbents were studied to determine their effectiveness in removing uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater. The bench column and batch (Kd) tests showed that uranium can be removed (>99.9%) by four adsorbents. Bone Charcoal (R1O22); F-1 Alumina (granular activated alumina); BIOFIX (immobilized biological agent); SOPBPLUS (mixed metal oxide); Filtrasorb 300 (granular activated carbon); and Zeolite (clinoptilolite)

  16. Field guide to diseases & insects of the Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Health Protection. Rocky Mountain Region

    2010-01-01

    This field guide is a forest management tool for field identification of biotic and abiotic agents that damage native trees in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming, which constitute the USDA Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Region. The guide focuses only on tree diseases and forest insects that have significant economic, ecological, and/ or...

  17. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report for 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrincione, D.A.; Erdmann, N.L. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    The Rocky Rats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant`s environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1992. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population.

  18. Immune Thrombocytopenia as a Consequence of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeo, Cherisse; Seegobin, Karan; Zuberi, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) - also called idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura or immune thrombocytopenic purpura - is an acquired thrombocytopenia caused by autoantibodies against platelet antigens. It is one of the more common causes of thrombocytopenia in otherwise asymptomatic adults. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a potentially lethal, but curable, tick-borne disease. We present a case of ITP that was triggered by RMSF.

  19. Natural phenomena risk assessment at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foppe, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    A realistic approach is currently being used at the Rocky Flats Plant to assess the risks of natural phenomena events. The methodology addresses frequency of occurrence estimates, damage stress on the facility and vital equipment, material-at-risk, release fractions and source terms, leakpath, dispersion and dosimetric models, risk curves, and an uncertainty analysis. 28 references, 1 figure

  20. Aquatic Resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal Adams County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Consequently, temperatures rise and oxygen levels fall. Primary producers in these stretches shift from periphyton to phytoplankton (suspended algae ...trees and have rocky substrates. Primary production in these cold- water and coolwater reaches is generally limited to periphyton (attached algae ...Adams County. Biotic components investigated included phytoplankton , zooplankton, aquatic macrophytes, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish eggs and

  1. Rocky Planetary Debris Around Young WDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, B.

    2014-04-01

    , the low C/Si ratio demonstrates that the planetary material is of rocky nature. * None of the 9 systems where we measure the C/O ratio shows evidence for carbon-dominated chemistry, implying that "carbon planets" are not common. * In the most polluted white dwarfs, we measure the debris abundances of up to 11 elements, enabling a detailed comparison between the chemistry of exo-planetary material with that of solar system meteorites. We find that the exo-planetary debris shares many characteristics of solar-system material, i.e. a wide spread in the relative abundances of Mg, Fe, Si, and O, a constant Al/Ca ratio, and evidence for differentiation in the form of Fe over-abundances All of the above is suggestive that thermal and collisional processing of planetary material in those systems might have been similar to that in the solar system.

  2. Bridging the Measurement Gap Between Research and Clinical Care in Schizophrenia: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-6 (PANSS-6) and Other Assessments Based on the Simplified Negative and Positive Symptoms Interview (SNAPSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Opler, Mark G A; Correll, Christoph U

    2017-12-01

    There is currently a "measurement gap" between research and clinical care in schizophrenia. The main reason behind this gap is that the most widely used rating scale in schizophrenia research, the 30-item Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), takes so long to administer that it is rarely used in clinical practice. This compromises the translation of research findings into clinical care and vice versa. The aim of this paper is to discuss how this measurement gap can be closed. Specifically, the main points of discussion are 1) the practical problems associated with using the full 30-item PANSS in clinical practice; 2) how the brief, six-item version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-6) was derived empirically from the full 30-item PANSS and what the initial results obtained with PANSS-6 entail; and 3) how PANSS-6 ratings, guided by the newly developed, 15-25-minute, stand-alone Simplified Negative and Positive Symptoms Interview (SNAPSI), might help bridge the measurement gap between research and clinical care in schizophrenia. The full 30-item PANSS is often used in research studies, but is too time consuming to allow for routine clinical use. Recent studies suggest that the much briefer PANSS-6 is a psychometrically valid measure of core positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and that the scale is sensitive to symptom improvement following pharmacological treatment. SNAPSI is a brief interview that yields the information needed to rate PANSS-6 (and other brief rating scales). We believe that PANSS-6 ratings guided by SNAPSI will help bridge the measurement gap between research and clinical care in schizophrenia.

  3. Study on comprehensive planning of rocky desertification in karst area of Chongqing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yajun

    2017-11-01

    Chongqing is a key area for comprehensive treatment of rocky desertification in karst areas of china. Strengthening the comprehensive management of karst rocky desertification area, for the maintenance of ecological safety of Three Gorges Reservoir area, expanding the karst rocky desertification area people survival and development space, and improving the regional ecological conditions, have important practical significance to the construction of ecological civilization and building a harmonious society. Based on the investigation, analysis and arrangement of the data in the rocky desertification area, the paper puts forward the corresponding measures and phased targets for the treatment of the Rocky Desertification in the karst areas of Chongqing.

  4. Gap Analysis: Rethinking the Conceptual Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    there could exist a basis for gap in capability and, therefore, a desire to close the capability gap . What one desires versus what one has is, in...Analysis is not intended to close the space between the most distant extremes or the rarest occurrences. Rather, Gap Analysis is centered on the larger...åÖÉ=======- 13 - = = Research Objectives The process of identifying needs and unsatisfied desires, or gaps in capability—in essence, the goal—is

  5. Clarifying socio-economic impacts and mitigation measures related to potential changes in missions at the Rocky Flats Plant. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Research conducted to clarify the socioeconomic impacts on the Denver-Boulder area of potential changes in missions at the Rocky Flats Plant and the mitigation measures taken to contain these impacts are described. Two primary alternatives have been examined, including the relocation of certain activities associated with radioactive materials, as well as a total phase out of the plant over the next decade. These perspectives include an assessment of alternative uses for Rocky Flats by both governmental agencies and private sector developers. Major findings address location, employment, public involvement, private enterprises, community attitudes, employee relocation; land use; and environment

  6. Bridging the Gap (BRIEFING CHARTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-05

    1 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency “Bridging the Gap ” Dr. Robert F. Leheny Deputy Director Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bridging the Gap 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  7. Overcoming the research-to-practice gap: A randomized trial with two brief homework and organization interventions for students with ADHD as implemented by school mental health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Molitor, Stephen J; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Smith, Zoe R; Oddo, Lauren E; Eadeh, Hana-May

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of 2 brief school-based interventions targeting the homework problems of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention and the Completing Homework by Improving Efficiency and Focus (CHIEF) intervention, as implemented by school mental health providers during the school day. A secondary goal was to use moderator analyses to identify student characteristics that may differentially predict intervention response. Two-hundred and eighty middle school students with ADHD were randomized to the HOPS or CHIEF interventions or to waitlist, and parent and teacher ratings were collected pre, post, and at a 6-month follow-up. Both interventions were implemented with fidelity by school mental health providers. Participants were pulled from elective periods and sessions averaged less than 20 min. Participants in HOPS and CHIEF demonstrated significantly greater improvements in comparison with waitlist on parent ratings of homework problems and organizational skills and effect sizes were large. HOPS participants also demonstrated moderate effect size improvements on materials management and organized action behaviors according to teachers. HOPS participants made significantly greater improvements in parent- and teacher-rated use of organized actions in comparison with CHIEF, but not on measures of homework problems. Moderation analyses revealed that participants with more severe psychopathology and behavioral dysregulation did significantly better with the HOPS intervention as compared to the CHIEF intervention. Brief school-based interventions implemented by school providers can be effective. This type of service delivery model may facilitate overcoming the oft cited research-to-practice gap. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The USGS Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Stephen Corn; Suzanna C. Soileau

    2014-01-01

    The Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute (ALWRI) was conceived as an interagency partnership, and its founding in 1993 coincided with the creation of the National Biological Service (NBS), from the biological research programs and staff in the Department of the Interior. NBS research zoologist Steve Corn moved to Missoula to join the staff at ALWRI in 1996, at...

  9. Numerical Modeling of Large-Scale Rocky Coastline Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limber, P.; Murray, A. B.; Littlewood, R.; Valvo, L.

    2008-12-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's ocean coastline is rocky. On large scales (i.e. greater than a kilometer), many intertwined processes drive rocky coastline evolution, including coastal erosion and sediment transport, tectonics, antecedent topography, and variations in sea cliff lithology. In areas such as California, an additional aspect of rocky coastline evolution involves submarine canyons that cut across the continental shelf and extend into the nearshore zone. These types of canyons intercept alongshore sediment transport and flush sand to abyssal depths during periodic turbidity currents, thereby delineating coastal sediment transport pathways and affecting shoreline evolution over large spatial and time scales. How tectonic, sediment transport, and canyon processes interact with inherited topographic and lithologic settings to shape rocky coastlines remains an unanswered, and largely unexplored, question. We will present numerical model results of rocky coastline evolution that starts with an immature fractal coastline. The initial shape is modified by headland erosion, wave-driven alongshore sediment transport, and submarine canyon placement. Our previous model results have shown that, as expected, an initial sediment-free irregularly shaped rocky coastline with homogeneous lithology will undergo smoothing in response to wave attack; headlands erode and mobile sediment is swept into bays, forming isolated pocket beaches. As this diffusive process continues, pocket beaches coalesce, and a continuous sediment transport pathway results. However, when a randomly placed submarine canyon is introduced to the system as a sediment sink, the end results are wholly different: sediment cover is reduced, which in turn increases weathering and erosion rates and causes the entire shoreline to move landward more rapidly. The canyon's alongshore position also affects coastline morphology. When placed offshore of a headland, the submarine canyon captures local sediment

  10. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  11. Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucette, A.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Lucerna, J.J.; Yudnich, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date using both surrogate and actual wastes indicate that polyethylene microencapsulation is a viable treatment option for several mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant, including nitrate salts, sludges, and secondary wastes such as ash. Treatability studies conducted on actual salt waste demonstrated that the process is capable of producing waste forms that comply with all applicable regulatory criteria, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Tests have also been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of macroencapsulating certain debris wastes in polymers. Several methods and plastics have been tested for macroencapsulation, including post-consumer recycle and regrind polyethylene

  12. Implementing DOE guidance for hazards assessments at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Hazards Assessments are performed for a variety of activities and facilities at Rocky Flats Plant. Prior to 1991, there was no guidance for performing Hazards Assessments. Each organization that performed Hazards Assessments used its own methodology with no attempt at standardization. In 1991, DOE published guidelines for the performance of Hazards Assessments for Emergency Planning (DOE-EPG-5500.1, ''Guidance for a Hazards Assessment Methodology''). Subsequently, in 1992, DOE published a standard for the performance of Hazards Assessments (DOE-STD-1027-92, ''Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis, Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports''). Although these documents are a step in the direction of standardization, there remains a great deal of interpretation and subjective implementation in the performance of Hazards Assessments. Rocky Flats Plant has initiated efforts to develop a uniform and standard process to be used for Hazards Assessments

  13. Actinide solution processing at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1039, for radioactive solution removal and processing at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for solution removal and processing is in response to independent safety assessments and an agreement with the State of Colorado to remove mixed residues at Rocky Flats and reduce the risk of future accidents. Monthly public meetings were held during the scoping and preparation of the EA. The scope of the EA included evaluations of alternative methods and locations of solution processing. A comment period from February 20, 1995 through March 21, 1995 was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to offer written comment on the EA. Comments were received from the State of Colorado and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A response to the agency comments is included in the Final EA

  14. Facility overview for commercial application of selected Rocky Flats facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this Facility Overview is to support the Rocky Flats Local Impacts Initiative's Request for Interest, to solicit interest from commercial corporations for utilizing buildings 865 and 883, and the equipment contained within each building, for a commercial venture. In the following sections, this document describes the Rocky Flats Site, the buildings available for lease, the equipment within these buildings, the site services available to a tenant, the human resources available to support operations in buildings 865 and 883, and the environmental condition of the buildings and property. In addition, a brief description is provided of the work performed to date to explore the potential products that might be manufactured in Buildings 865 and 883, and the markets for these products

  15. Hydrology of a nuclear-processing plant site, Rocky Flats, Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurr, R. Theodore

    1976-01-01

    Accidental releases of contaminants resulting from the operation of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration's nuclear-processing and recovery plant located on Rocky Flats will move at different rates through -different parts of the hydrologic system. Rates of movement are dependent upon the magnitude of the accidental release and the hydrologic conditions at the time of the release. For example, during wet periods, a contaminant resulting from a 5,000-gallon (19,000-1itre) release on the land surface would enter the ground-water system in about 2 to 12 hours. Ground-water flow in the Rocky Flats Alluvium might move the contaminant eastward at a rate of about 3 to 11 feet (0.9 to 3.4 metres) per day, if it remains dissolved. Maximum time to a point of discharge would be about 3 years; minimum time could be a few days. A contaminant entering a stream would then move at a rate of about 60 feet (18 metres) per minute under pool-and-riffle conditions. The rate of movement might be about 420 feet (128 metres) per minute under open-channel-flow conditions following intense thunderstorms.

  16. Botanical inventory of the Rocky Flats AEC site. Final report, April 29, 1976--July 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, P.J.

    1979-04-01

    The present plant life of the Rocky Flats site and surrounding area was documented. This documentation is intended as a base-line description which may be used by researchers and managers. The analysis of natural vegetation, including plant species inventory, vegetation composition study, and identification of major environmental control factors at the Rocky Flats site provides a data base on which future environmental decisions concerning, for example, future construction and handling of disturbance on this site can be made. The establishment of morphological norms for potential plant indicators of mutagenic hazards serves as a start for development of a vegetation-based system for detection of possible changes in plant life induced by accidental plutonium release around the plant. This study is not directed towards assessing any past or present industrial impacts of plutonium processing. The principal products from the contract are a list of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens, a 1:12,000 color vegetation map, five large scale (1:500) maps of special study and experimental areas, and a description of the morphological norms of two common vascular plant species.

  17. Modeling one-dimensional unsaturated flow at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Golden, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.S.; Zeiler, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    A field investigation characterizing contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site) near Golden, Colorado revealed unexpectedly high moisture contents in the unsaturated soil column (vadose zone) beneath several of the Plant's Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) sludge drying beds. Because these beds were seldom in use, researchers had hypothesized that the water required to maintain the saturated conditions observed beneath several of the sludge drying beds was coming from sources other than the beds themselves. In an effort to substantiate this hypothesis, a one-dimensional physically-based unsaturated flow model was utilized to simulate the vertical movement of moisture from the sludge drying beds into the unsaturated soil column below. The model was run to simulate vertical flow over a two-year period and results indicated that no significant changes from initial conditions were apparent. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the high moisture contents found beneath the sludge drying beds are being fed by sources other than infiltration of sludge applied to the beds themselves. This paper presents the details of the simulation and provides further evidence of the hypothesized flow regime

  18. Quantitative respirator man-testing at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, J.D.

    The dioctyl phthalate quantitative respirator man-testing method used at Rocky Flats is outlined. Using this method, 93 persons trained to use self contained breathing equipment were tested with eight respiratory protective devices. Test results obtained with the seven devices using high efficiency particulate filters are compared to the results obtained with the self contained breathing equipment. Also comparison is made for these results to test results for 1667 other employees

  19. Restoration of genetic connectivity among Northern Rockies wolf populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebblewhite, Mark; Musiani, Marco; Mills, L Scott

    2010-10-01

    Probably no conservation genetics issue is currently more controversial than the question of whether grey wolves (Canis lupus) in the Northern Rockies have recovered to genetically effective levels. Following the dispersal-based recolonization of Northwestern Montana from Canada, and reintroductions to Yellowstone and Central Idaho, wolves have vastly exceeded population recovery goals of 300 wolves distributed in at least 10 breeding pairs in each of Wyoming, Idaho and Montana. With >1700 wolves currently, efforts to delist wolves from endangered status have become mired in legal battles over the distinct population segment (DPS) clause of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and whether subpopulations within the DPS were genetically isolated. An earlier study by vonHoldt et al. (2008) suggested Yellowstone National Park wolves were indeed isolated and was used against delisting in 2008. Since then, wolves were temporarily delisted, and a first controversial hunting season occurred in fall of 2009. Yet, concerns over the genetic recovery of wolves in the Northern Rockies remain, and upcoming District court rulings in the summer of 2010 will probably include consideration of gene flow between subpopulations. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, vonHoldt et al. (2010) conduct the largest analysis of gene flow and population structure of the Northern Rockies wolves to date. Using an impressive sampling design and novel analytic methods, vonHoldt et al. (2010) show substantial levels of gene flow between three identified subpopulations of wolves within the Northern Rockies, clarifying previous analyses and convincingly showing genetic recovery. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report: 1993 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant`s environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1993. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population. This section provides an overview of these topics and summarizes more comprehensive discussions found in the main text of this annual report.

  1. Properties of vitrified rocky flats TRUW with different waste loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Miley, D.V.; Erickson, A.W.; Farnsworth, R.N.; Larsen, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Leach rates, phase structures, and mechanical properties of simulated Rocky Flats Plant 1st and 2nd slate sludge vitrified in an arc melter are described as a function of waste to soil fraction and method of devitrification to produce the glass-ceramic waste form. Volatile, hazardous, and transuranic (TRU) surrogate metals were added to assess dissolution effects. Zirconia and titania were also added to confirm their ability as transuranic-surrogate getters

  2. Impacts and effects of ocean warming on intertidal rocky habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Stephen J.; Evans, A J; Firth, L B; Genner, Martin J; Herbert, R J H; Adams, L C; Moore, P J; Mieszkowska, N; Thompson, R.C.; Burrows, M.T.; Fenberg, P.B.

    2016-01-01

    • Intertidal rocky habitats comprise over 50% of the shorelines of the world, supporting a diversity of marine life and providing extensive ecosystem services worth in the region of US$ 5-10 trillion per year. • They are valuable indicators of the impacts of climate change on the wider marine environment and ecosystems. • Changes in species distributions, abundance and phenology have already been observed around the world in response to recent rapid climate change. • Species-level responses w...

  3. Reseeding of mussels on denuded rocky shores: preliminary studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method is developed to establish clumps of mussels Perna perna in denuded areas on high-energy rocky shores on the south-east coast of South Africa. A total of 20 small (20–30 mm total length) mussels is placed under a 30 cm half-section of perforated PVC drainage pipe bolted to the rock surface. The pipe is left in ...

  4. Quantitative respirator man-testing at Rocky Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The dioctyl phthalate quantitative respirator man-testing method used at Rocky Flats is outlined. Using this method, 93 persons trained to use self contained breathing equipment were tested with eight respiratory protective devices. Test results obtained with the seven devices using high efficiency particulate filters are compared to the results obtained with the self contained breathing equipment. Also comparison is made for these results to test results for 1667 other employees.

  5. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report: 1993 Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant's environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1993. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population. This section provides an overview of these topics and summarizes more comprehensive discussions found in the main text of this annual report

  6. Immune Thrombocytopenia as a Consequence of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Baldeo, Cherisse; Seegobin, Karan; Zuberi, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) – also called idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura or immune thrombocytopenic purpura – is an acquired thrombocytopenia caused by autoantibodies against platelet antigens. It is one of the more common causes of thrombocytopenia in otherwise asymptomatic adults. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a potentially lethal, but curable, tick-borne disease. We present a case of ITP that was triggered by RMSF.

  7. Immune Thrombocytopenia as a Consequence of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherisse Baldeo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP – also called idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura or immune thrombocytopenic purpura – is an acquired thrombocytopenia caused by autoantibodies against platelet antigens. It is one of the more common causes of thrombocytopenia in otherwise asymptomatic adults. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF is a potentially lethal, but curable, tick-borne disease. We present a case of ITP that was triggered by RMSF.

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever acquired in Florida, 1973-83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, J J; Janowski, H T

    1985-01-01

    From 1973 to 1983, 49 Florida residents were reported with confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), 25 of whom were considered to have had Florida-acquired disease. Although there was no history of tick exposure for six of these 25 persons, all had contact with dogs or outdoor activities during the incubation period. The tick vectors of RMSF are widely distributed throughout Florida. We conclude that RMSF, although rare in Florida, can be acquired in the state. PMID:4061716

  9. DOE awards first economic conversion project at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1993-01-01

    In the first economic conversion project at an Energy Department weapons facility, a Colorado company this week was given permission to refurbish four buildings at DOE's Rocky Flats plant to recycle slightly radioactive scrap metal. DOE, acting in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency and Colorado authorities, announced Tuesday it had given the go-ahead to Manufacturing Sciences Corp. of Golden, Colorado, to proceed with planning for the project

  10. Treatment of pond sludge at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienand, J.; Tyler, R.; Baldwin, C.

    1992-01-01

    The treatment of low-level radioactive/hazardous materials sludges from five inactive solar evaporation settling ponds at the Rocky Flats Plant is discussed. The paper presents information on the following topics: history of the ponds; previous pond cleanout activities; current approach to the problem with respect to water management, sludge management, regulatory actions, and disposal; and future processing technology needs in the areas of polymer solidification, microwave solidification, joule-heated glass melters, and advanced technology incineration

  11. Litigation Technical Support and Services, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    34 d V) W C > - d) 4- -~ 0 - - .4 ..- di L *..L 3~1 3-~ v mi a- a t - --- w- Vdi 4 - ý 0 -4 0 m~ -j m0 m’ .- us 0 Ill i to -v .4 I 4 1 t A ~ 3Ul t -4...2060. Marlow, D. J. 1979g, November 8. Pest control report, October 1979. Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Microfilm RMA182, Franes 2048 -2053 Marlow, D. J

  12. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    An account of the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy is presented as: a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, which was characterised by secrecy and distrust, the post-Cold War era, in which trust and co-operation between risk managers and the public began to develop. This contrast between these two historical periods provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified: (1) without a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement in the management of radiological hazards is not possible; (2) given a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement can lead to improved solutions to the management of radiological hazards; and (3) risk managers should therefore seek to understand the values of public stakeholders and to identify ways, through stakeholder involvement, that those values can be incorporated in management practice. (author)

  13. Mortality among plutonium and other workers at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, G.S.; Acquavella, J.F.; Reyes, M.; Tietjen, G.L.; Wiggs, L.d.; Voelz, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed study of mortality and radiation exposure for Rocky Flats workers was reported at the Sixteenth Mid-Year Topical Symposium of the Health Physics Society in January 1983. Significantly fewer deaths were found than were expected due to all causes, all malignant neoplasms, lung cancer, and cancer of the digestive organs. No bone cancers were observed and cancers commonly associated with radiation exposure were not more frequent than expected. Significantly more deaths than expected were observed for two causes, cancer of the prostate and benign and unspecified neoplasms. Further investigation revealed that the deaths from benign and unspecified neoplasms all involved intracranial tumors. A case control study found no association between these brain tumors and exposure to radiation, including plutonium depositions or type of occupation. The excess deaths from intracranial tumors remain unexplained but do not appear to be associated with employment at Rocky Flats. Relative risks among Rocky Flats workers with cumulative plutonium depositions of 2 nCi or more did not indicate a significantly greater risk of death among workers exposed to plutonium than among unexposed workers. Similar results were found for workers with cumulative radiation exposure of at least 1 rem. 2 references, 3 tables

  14. Rocky flats closure project - lessons learned in worker stakeholder engagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Laura [Des Moines Area Community College, Ankeny, Iowa (United States); Mazur, Robert E. [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States); Edelson, Martin [Ames Laboratory-USDOE (Retired), Ames, Iowa (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (EPA Superfund site near Denver, Colorado) produced plutonium components for nuclear weapons for the U.S. defense program. The facility shut down in 1989 and clean up began in 1992. To ensure safe remediation of inactive nuclear sites, site owners have begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. The closure of Rocky Flats aimed to set the standard for stakeholder involvement in doing the work safely, complying with regulations/standards, in a cost-effective manner. We have studied, using ethnographic methods, the extent to which workers at Rocky Flats were involved in communication and decision making strategies. Our results point out that workers can have perceptions of the site remediation process that differ from management and even other workers and that a significant number of workers questioned the commitment by management to engage the worker as stakeholder. The most effective remediation efforts should involve careful consideration of the insights and observations of all workers, particularly those who face immediate and high-level health and safety risks. (authors)

  15. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever in an American tourist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pender, A M G; Bauer, A G C; van Genderen, P J J

    2005-04-02

    In a 28-year-old male American tourist who presented in the hospital with fever, cold shivers, headache, nausea, myalgia and arthralgia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever was suspected, partly because he came from an endemic region (the state of Georgia). The patient was treated with doxycycline, 100 mg b.i.d.; 9 days after the first appearance of the symptoms, the diagnosis was confirmed by the report of a positive antibody titre against Rickettsia rickettsii. The patient did not have exanthema. He was discharged in good general condition after two weeks of treatment. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium R. rickettsii, is a serious rickettsiosis. The disease is seen only sporadically in the Netherlands because the ticks in the Netherlands do not carry the bacterium. The travel history is still not a standard component of the anamnesis and is therefore often forgotten. This can lead to under-diagnosis and delayed treatment of diseases that were formerly limited to the continent. The early recognition and treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever is important since delayed treatment is associated with a clear increase in both morbidity and mortality.

  16. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Hernández, Gerardo; Roldán, Jesús Felipe González; Milan, Néstor Saúl Hernández; Lash, R Ryan; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Paddock, Christopher D

    2017-06-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is among the most lethal of all infectious diseases in the Americas. In Mexico, the disease was first described during the early 1940s by scientists who carefully documented specific environmental determinants responsible for devastating outbreaks in several communities in the states of Sinaloa, Sonora, Durango, and Coahuila. These investigators also described the pivotal roles of domesticated dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (brown dog ticks) as drivers of epidemic levels of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. After several decades of quiescence, the disease re-emerged in Sonora and Baja California during the early 21st century, driven by the same environmental circumstances that perpetuated outbreaks in Mexico during the 1940s. This Review explores the history of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico, current epidemiology, and the multiple clinical, economic, and social challenges that must be considered in the control and prevention of this life-threatening illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rocky flats closure project - lessons learned in worker stakeholder engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, Laura; Mazur, Robert E.; Edelson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (EPA Superfund site near Denver, Colorado) produced plutonium components for nuclear weapons for the U.S. defense program. The facility shut down in 1989 and clean up began in 1992. To ensure safe remediation of inactive nuclear sites, site owners have begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. The closure of Rocky Flats aimed to set the standard for stakeholder involvement in doing the work safely, complying with regulations/standards, in a cost-effective manner. We have studied, using ethnographic methods, the extent to which workers at Rocky Flats were involved in communication and decision making strategies. Our results point out that workers can have perceptions of the site remediation process that differ from management and even other workers and that a significant number of workers questioned the commitment by management to engage the worker as stakeholder. The most effective remediation efforts should involve careful consideration of the insights and observations of all workers, particularly those who face immediate and high-level health and safety risks. (authors)

  18. Map of mixed prairie grassland vegetation, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S J.V.; Webber, P J; Komarkova, V; Weber, W A

    1980-01-01

    A color vegetation map at the scale of 1:12,000 of the area surrounding the Rocky Flats, Rockwell International Plant near Boulder, Colorado, provides a permanent record of baseline data which can be used to monitor changes in both vegetation and environment and thus to contribute to future land management and land-use policies. Sixteen mapping units based on species composition were identified, and characterized by two 10-m/sup 2/ vegetation stands each. These were grouped into prairie, pasture, and valley side on the basis of their species composition. Both the mapping units and these major groups were later confirmed by agglomerative clustering analysis of the 32 vegetation stands on the basis of species composition. A modified Bray and Curtis ordination was used to determine the environmental factor complexes controlling the distribution of vegetation at Rocky flats. Recommendations are made for future policies of environmental management and predictions of the response to environmental change of the present vegetation at the Rocky Flats site.

  19. The reasons for the epilepsy treatment gap in Kilifi, Kenya: using formative research to identify interventions to improve adherence to antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Julie A; Molyneux, Catherine S; Mbuba, Caroline K; Jenkins, Jo; Newton, Charles R J C; Hartley, Sally D

    2012-12-01

    Many people with epilepsy (PWE) in resource-poor countries do not receive appropriate treatment, a phenomenon referred to as the epilepsy treatment gap (ETG). We conducted a qualitative study to explore the reasons for this gap and to identify possible interventions in Kilifi, Kenya. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were carried out of PWE and their caregivers. Individual interviews were conducted of PWE, their caregivers, traditional healers, community health workers and leaders, nurses and doctors. In addition, a series of workshops was conducted, and four factors contributing to the ETG were identified: 1) lack of knowledge about the causes, treatment and prognosis of epilepsy; 2) inaccessibility to antiepileptic drugs; 3) misconceptions about epilepsy derived from superstitions about its origin; 4) and dissatisfaction with the communication skills of health providers. These data indicated possible interventions: 1) education and support for PWE and their caregivers; 2) communication skills training for health providers; 3) and improved drug provision. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Abbreviated bibliography on energy development—A focus on the Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Jessica M.; Willis, Carolyn J.; Glavin, Levi W.

    2011-01-01

    Energy development of all types continues to grow in the Rocky Mountain Region of the western United States. Federal resource managers increasingly need to balance energy demands, effects on the natural landscape and public perceptions towards these issues. To assist in efficient access to valuable information, this abbreviated bibliography provides citations to relevant information for myriad of issues for which resource managers must contend. The bibliography is organized by seven large topics with various sup-topics: broad energy topics (energy crisis, conservation, supply and demand, etc.); energy sources (fossil fuel, nuclear, renewable, etc.); natural landscape effects (climate change, ecosystem, mitigation, restoration, and reclamation, wildlife, water, etc.); human landscape effects (attitudes and perceptions, economics, community effects, health, Native Americans, etc.); research and technology; international research; and, methods and modeling. A large emphasis is placed on the natural and human landscape effects.