WorldWideScience

Sample records for research questions 1-3

  1. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    ? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic......As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena...... imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  2. When is a research question not a research question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nancy E; Asano, Miho; Barbic, Skye Pamela

    2013-06-01

    Research is undertaken to answer important questions yet often the question is poorly expressed and lacks information on the population, the exposure or intervention, the comparison, and the outcome. An optimal research question sets out what the investigator wants to know, not what the investigator might do, nor what the results of the study might ultimately contribute. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent to which rehabilitation scientists optimally define their research questions. A cross-sectional survey of the rehabilitation research articles published during 2008. Two raters independently rated each question according to pre-specified criteria; a third rater adjudicated all discrepant ratings. The proportion of the 258 articles with a question formulated as methods or expected contribution and not as what knowledge was being sought was 65%; 30% of questions required reworking. The designs which most often had poorly formulated research questions were randomized trials, cross-sectional and measurement studies. Formulating the research question is not purely a semantic concern. When the question is poorly formulated, the design, analysis, sample size calculations, and presentation of results may not be optimal. The gap between research and clinical practice could be bridged by a clear, complete, and informative research question.

  3. Questions for Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  4. Four Principles for Selecting HCI Research Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    In this position paper, I present and explain the position that what we should study in HCI depends on the objective of the research and its political, social, cultural, technological, and historical context. I outline four principles for selecting research questions and give a personal account...... of how I have selected research questions using these four principles. The aim with the paper is to generate discussion and advance the understanding of what to study in HCI....

  5. Learning How to Ask Research Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative research is a demanding endeavor, and for a group of undergraduate students tasked with identifying their own interdisciplinary research problem, the challenges are even greater. "It was scary--we didn't know what to ask the professors, and we couldn't decide on a research question," says Miran Park, a student at the University of…

  6. Fifty important research questions in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwis, Rachael E; Griffiths, Sarah M; Harrison, Xavier A; Aranega-Bou, Paz; Arce, Andres; Bettridge, Aimee S; Brailsford, Francesca L; de Menezes, Alexandre; Devaynes, Andrew; Forbes, Kristian M; Fry, Ellen L; Goodhead, Ian; Haskell, Erin; Heys, Chloe; James, Chloe; Johnston, Sarah R; Lewis, Gillian R; Lewis, Zenobia; Macey, Michael C; McCarthy, Alan; McDonald, James E; Mejia-Florez, Nasmille L; O'Brien, David; Orland, Chloé; Pautasso, Marco; Reid, William D K; Robinson, Heather A; Wilson, Kenneth; Sutherland, William J

    2017-05-01

    Microbial ecology provides insights into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities underpinning every ecosystem on Earth. Microbial communities can now be investigated in unprecedented detail, although there is still a wealth of open questions to be tackled. Here we identify 50 research questions of fundamental importance to the science or application of microbial ecology, with the intention of summarising the field and bringing focus to new research avenues. Questions are categorised into seven themes: host-microbiome interactions; health and infectious diseases; human health and food security; microbial ecology in a changing world; environmental processes; functional diversity; and evolutionary processes. Many questions recognise that microbes provide an extraordinary array of functional diversity that can be harnessed to solve real-world problems. Our limited knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in microbial diversity and function is also reflected, as is the need to integrate micro- and macro-ecological concepts, and knowledge derived from studies with humans and other diverse organisms. Although not exhaustive, the questions presented are intended to stimulate discussion and provide focus for researchers, funders and policy makers, informing the future research agenda in microbial ecology. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Frequently asked questions in hypoxia research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenger RH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roland H Wenger,1,2 Vartan Kurtcuoglu,1,2 Carsten C Scholz,1,2 Hugo H Marti,3 David Hoogewijs1,2,4 1Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Human Physiology (ZIHP, University of Zurich, 2National Center of Competence in Research “Kidney.CH”, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 4Institute of Physiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany Abstract: “What is the O2 concentration in a normoxic cell culture incubator?” This and other frequently asked questions in hypoxia research will be answered in this review. Our intention is to give a simple introduction to the physics of gases that would be helpful for newcomers to the field of hypoxia research. We will provide background knowledge about questions often asked, but without straightforward answers. What is O2 concentration, and what is O2 partial pressure? What is normoxia, and what is hypoxia? How much O2 is experienced by a cell residing in a culture dish in vitro vs in a tissue in vivo? By the way, the O2 concentration in a normoxic incubator is 18.6%, rather than 20.9% or 20%, as commonly stated in research publications. And this is strictly only valid for incubators at sea level. Keywords: gas laws, hypoxia-inducible factor, Krogh tissue cylinder, oxygen diffusion, partial pressure, tissue oxygen levels

  8. Good science, bad science: Questioning research practices in psychological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation we have questioned the current research practices in psychological science and thereby contributed to the current discussion about the credibility of psychological research. We specially focused on the problems with the reporting of statistical results and showed that reporting

  9. How to…write a good research question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattick, Karen; Johnston, Jenny; de la Croix, Anne

    This paper, on writing research questions, is the first in a series that aims to support novice researchers within clinical education, particularly those undertaking their first qualitative study. Put simply, a research question is a question that a research project sets out to answer. Most research

  10. Questioning the Federal Role in Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, David H.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the Reagan administration's proposed budget cuts for education, educational research, and social science research. Holds that examples used to bolster the administration's criticisms of social and behavioral research come from the late 1960s/early 1970s, and ignore federally funded work currently focusing on educational practice, policy,…

  11. Difficult Questions of Difficult Questions: The Role of The Researcher and Transcription Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Holly

    2018-01-01

    This paper refracts a comparison of three distinct transcription styles through questions of researcher reflexivity. It uses the data from a single question asked by the researcher in multiple interviews for a small empirical project. These data are transcribed in three ways, and the resulting transcripts are discussed in relation to the analysis…

  12. Frequently Asked Questions about Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  13. Research Questions: Women and Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Linda J.

    Typically, research concerning media presentations of women has involved six types of analysis: (1) content analysis (what is said), (2) cultural and social analysis (why it is said), (3) control or gatekeeper analysis (by whom it is said), (4) audience analysis (to whom it is said), (5) media analysis (in which channel), and (6) effects analysis…

  14. Psychotherapy Outcome Research: Issues and Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    Emphasis on identifying evidence-based therapies (EBTs) has increased markedly. Lists of EBTs are the rationale for recommendations for how psychotherapy provider training programs should be evaluated, professional competence assessed, and licensure and reimbursement policies structured. There are however methodological concerns that limit the external validity of EBTs. Among the most salient is the circularity inherent in randomized control trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy that constrains the manner in which the psychological problems are defined, psychotherapy can be practiced, and change evaluated. RCT studies favor therapies that focus of specific symptoms and can be described in a manual, administered reliably across patients, completed in relatively few sessions, and involve short-term evaluations of outcome. The epistemological assumptions of a natural science approach to psychotherapy research limit how studies are conducted and assessed in ways that that advantage symptom-focused approaches and disadvantage those approaches that seek to bring broad recovery-based changes. Research methods that are not limited to RCTs and include methodology to minimize the effects of "therapist allegiance" are necessary for valid evaluations of therapeutic approaches that seek to facilitate changes that are broader than symptom reduction. Recent proposals to adopt policies that dictate training, credentialing, and reimbursement based on lists of EBTs unduly limit how psychotherapy can be conceptualized and practiced, and are not in the best interests of the profession or of individuals seeking psychotherapy services.

  15. Priority water research questions for South Africa developed through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a collaborative process of identifying and prioritising current and future water research questions from a wide range of water specialists within South Africa. Over 1 600 questions were collected, reduced in number and prioritised by specialists working in water research and practice. A total of 59 ...

  16. Socratic Questioning: A Teaching Philosophy for the Student Research Consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Marie Robinson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief Socratic questioning, the act of asking questions in order to prompt critical thinking and reflection, expands the boundaries of librarianship by borrowing from the fields of philosophy, pedagogy, and psychology. When employed during the research consultation, Socratic questioning establishes a cooperative relationship between librarian and student that empowers the student to take agency over the interaction. Engaging learners not only academically but emotionally encourages them to become more deliberate and cognizant as they articulate their research need. This paper demonstrates how reference librarians can adjust interactions with students in order to encourage, empathize, and engage with these learners.

  17. Developing critical thinking through Socratic Questioning: An Action Research Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniah Sahamid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An action research study was conducted among 24 Form 4 level Malaysian students, aged 16. The duration of the study was five months and constituted 16 one-hour literature lessons (short stories from the secondary level Malaysian English Language Upper Secondary Level school syllabus. This paper describes my experience as a teacher-as-researcher to assist students to respond to teacher questions through Paul’s (1993 model of Socratic Questioning which claims to develop students’ critical thinking. Data was collected through researcher’s field notes, students’ writing tasks and student interviews which were analysed after each cycle of the action research study. Changes and adaptations were consequently made based on the data collected and upon teacher reflection to improve practice. The results of this study indicate that repeated practice of Socratic Questioning had a positive effect on student responses and writing tasks. Some of the factors affecting students’ performance included students’ language proficiency, weak reading ability and students’ anxiety towards the questioning method. These issues had to be addressed and dealt with, before Socratic Questioning could be properly implemented in the classroom. Keywords: Socratic questioning, teacher questioning, critical thinking, action research

  18. How Pollination Ecology research can help answer important questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalheiro, Luisa G.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollination Ecology is a dynamic field of scientific research constantly adopting novel methods and making progress in understanding the interactions between plants and their pollinators. A recent paper listed the main scientific questions in this field focussing on the ecological and biological system itself. Here, we follow up on that paper and present some ideas on how to broaden our perspective and explore the role that pollination research can play in answering both ecological and societal questions relevant to a range of different stakeholders. We hope this paper may be useful to researchers aiming at improving both the scientific and societal impact of their research.

  19. Questions That Won't Go Away in Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Heidi L. Ballard; Larry A. Fisher; Jill M. Belsky

    2016-01-01

    Ethical issues are intrinsic to conducting research regarding society and natural resources, but they often become poignant when engaging in Participatory Action Research. We compiled common and persistent challenges into a list of "Questions That Won't Go Away" or "QTWGAs" that are relevant to people interested in conducting participatory...

  20. FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions regarding the IDRC Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Questions. 1. If I am selected for a Research Award, do I need a work permit to ... Yes, you are responsible for obtaining a valid work permit and proper visa prior to ... is the deadline for awards starting in January of the following calendar year.

  1. Top 10 research questions related to children physical activity motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ang

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity motivation. The findings have informed researchers and practitioners about motivation sources for children and effective strategies to motivate children in given physical activity settings. Built on the extensive knowledge base and theoretical platforms formed by these research studies, the purpose of this article is to take a look at the current research landscape and provide subjective thoughts about what we still need to know about children's physical activity motivation. The product of this subjective thinking process rendered 10 potential questions for future research on children's physical activity motivation in both in-school and out-of-school settings. These topics encompass those focusing on children's physical activity motivation as a mental dispositional process, those conceptualizing the motivation as an outcome of person-environment interactions, and those attempting to dissect the motivation as an outcome of social-cultural influences and educational policies. It is hoped that the topics can serve researchers interested in children's physical activity motivation as starting blocks from which they can extend their conceptual thinking and identify research questions that are personally meaningful. It is also hoped that the list of potential questions can be helpful to researchers in accomplishing the imperative and significant mission to motivate children to be physically active in the 21st century and beyond.

  2. 100 key research questions for the post-2015 development agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Oldekop, J. A.; Fontana, L. B.; Grugel, J.; Roughton, N.; Adu-Ampong, E. A.; Bird, G. K.; Dorgan, A.; Vera Espinoza, M. A.; Wallin, S.; Hammett, D.; Agbarakwe, E.; Agrawal, A.; Asylbekova, N.; Azkoul, C.; Bardsley, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) herald a new phase for international development. This article presents the results of a consultative exercise to collaboratively identify 100 research questions of critical importance for the post-2015 international development agenda. The final shortlist is grouped into nine thematic areas and was selected by 21 representatives of international and non-governmental organisations and consultancies, and 14 academics with diverse disciplinary expertise ...

  3. Storytelling as an Instructional Method: Descriptions and Research Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    computational brain . Cambridge, MA: Bradford/ MIT Press. Cianciolo, A. T., Prevou, M., Cianciolo, D., & Morris, R. (2007). Using digital storytelling to...volume 3, no. 2 (Fall 2009) 6–23 Storytelling as an Instructional Method: Descriptions and Research Questions Dee H. Andrews, Thomas D. Hull, and...Jennifer A. Donahue Abstract This paper discusses the theoretical and empirical foundations of the use of storytelling in instruction. The defi nition

  4. Question-based inquiry. an experience in research education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Plata Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article introduces the central elements of the research and pedagogical innovation project entitled: “The Use of Questions as a Pedagogical Strategy in the Construction of Research Problems”, developed by the students of the ‘Rizoma’ research training group of the School of Psychopedagogy, which began in the year 2009, and which forms part of the “Educational Innovations” research line of the Masters sin Education Program at UPTC. The question as strategy, pedagogy or didactics, becomes an educational option for the development of thinking processes, and contributes to an education that embraces uncertainty, in order to develop flexible thinking, as well as critical and creative attitudes towards knowledge. These qualities constitute the basis of all research tasks, and are fundamental in the education of professionals in the midst of the current, fast-moving and uncertain postmodern condition. Emerging from the students’ and teacher’s own voices, this article offers an account of this experience and characterizes the findings of this education and research work.

  5. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research: part 2: context, research questions and designs

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Albine; Korstjens, Irene

    2017-01-01

    In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By ‘novice’ we mean Master’s students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research f...

  6. Unsaturated flow and transport research questions and priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chery, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    A little over two years ago, a similar meeting (Workshop IV - Flow and Transport through Unsaturated Fractured Rock; Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal) was held her in Tucson, Arizona, to discuss the same issues discussed here the past 4 days. This presentation revisits what was said 2 years ago, reviews research needs that have been articulated by the licensing staff of the Division of High-Level Waste Management, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and presents some of the thoughts on research needs resulting from the deliberations of a special committee of the National Research Council. After considering these aspects the questions of what has been accomplished in the past 2 years and where attention and energies should be focused in the coming few years, can be asked. 3 refs

  7. Developmental regression in autism: research and conceptual questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lampreia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of developmental regression in autism has gained importance and a growing number of studies have been conducted in recent years. It is a major issue indicating that there is not a unique form of autism onset. However the phenomenon itself and the concept of regression have been the subject of some debate: there is no consensus on the existence of regression, as there is no consensus on its definition. The aim of this paper is to review the research literature in this area and to introduce some conceptual questions about its existence and its definition.

  8. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research : part 2: context, research questions and designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albine Moser; Irene Korstjens

    2017-01-01

    In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting

  9. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 2: Context, research questions and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korstjens, Irene; Moser, Albine

    2017-12-01

    In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By 'novice' we mean Master's students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research for the first time. This series addresses their questions and provides researchers, readers, reviewers and editors with references to criteria and tools for judging the quality of qualitative research papers. This second article addresses FAQs about context, research questions and designs. Qualitative research takes into account the natural contexts in which individuals or groups function to provide an in-depth understanding of real-world problems. The research questions are generally broad and open to unexpected findings. The choice of a qualitative design primarily depends on the nature of the research problem, the research question(s) and the scientific knowledge one seeks. Ethnography, phenomenology and grounded theory are considered to represent the 'big three' qualitative approaches. Theory guides the researcher through the research process by providing a 'lens' to look at the phenomenon under study. Since qualitative researchers and the participants of their studies interact in a social process, researchers influence the research process. The first article described the key features of qualitative research, the third article will focus on sampling, data collection and analysis, while the last article focuses on trustworthiness and publishing.

  10. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, D.A.; Bartholow, J.M.; Jager, H.I.; Beschta, R.L.; Cheslak, E.F.; Deas, M.L.; Ebersole, J.L.; Foott, J.S.; Johnson, S.L.; Marine, K.R.; Mesa, M.G.; Petersen, J.H.; Souchon, Y.; Tiffan, K.F.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems, in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied, and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem. ?? Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  11. Improving the Development of Student's Research Questions and Hypotheses in an Introductory Business Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangman, Lauria; Knowles, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In an introductory research methods course, students often develop research questions and hypotheses that are vague or confusing, do not contain measurable concepts, and are too narrow in scope or vision. Because of this, the final research projects often fail to provide useful information or address the overall research problem. A Lesson Study…

  12. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the "teaching games for understanding" (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches' learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools.

  13. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the “teaching games for understanding” (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches’ learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools. PMID:26452580

  14. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Youth Aerobic Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Neil

    2017-06-01

    Peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text] 2 ) is internationally recognized as the criterion measure of youth aerobic fitness, but despite pediatric data being available for almost 80 years, its measurement and interpretation in relation to growth, maturation, and health remain controversial. The trainability of youth aerobic fitness continues to be hotly debated, and causal mechanisms of training-induced changes and their modulation by chronological age, biological maturation, and sex are still to be resolved. The daily physical activity of youth is characterized by intermittent bouts and rapid changes in intensity, but physical activity of the intensity and duration required to determine peak [Formula: see text] 2 is rarely (if ever) experienced by most youth. In this context, it may therefore be the transient kinetics of pulmonary [Formula: see text] 2 that best reflect youth aerobic fitness. There are remarkably few rigorous studies of youth pulmonary [Formula: see text] 2 kinetics at the onset of exercise in different intensity domains, and the influence of chronological age, biological maturation, and sex during step changes in exercise intensity are not confidently documented. Understanding the trainability of the parameters of youth pulmonary [Formula: see text] 2 kinetics is primarily based on a few comparative studies of athletes and nonathletes. The underlying mechanisms of changes due to training require further exploration. The aims of the present article are therefore to provide a brief overview of aerobic fitness during growth and maturation, increase awareness of current controversies in its assessment and interpretation, identify gaps in knowledge, raise 10 relevant research questions, and indicate potential areas for future research.

  15. Fire and Thermal Effects of HD 1.3 Accidents: History, Research, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    consisted of a 1.3 cm thick steel plate (representing the external case), two layers of NBR rubber (representing case lining and ablative...1.3 cm steel plate, 2 layers of NBR rubber , 2.5 cm PMMA • Nitrogen co-flow to prevent ignition of NBR layers • 1D HEATING for prediction 0 200 400...and 100 kW/m 2 . The NBR layers will pyrolyze at elevated temperatures. In a real motor, those gases would be contained by the pressure tight case

  16. The Theory Question in Research Capacity Building in Education: Towards an Agenda for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert; Allan, Julie; Edwards, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The question of capacity building in education has predominantly been approached with regard to the methods and methodologies of educational research. Far less attention has been given to capacity building in relation to theory. In many ways the latter is as pressing an issue as the former, given that good research depends on a combination of high…

  17. Examining Research Questions on Germination from the Perspective of Scientific Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir Kaçan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the participation of 31 pre-service science teachers. Participants were asked to develop various research questions on germination. The study aims to examine research questions on the subject germination from the perspective of scientific creativity. The research questions were examined using the fluency, science…

  18. Infectious disease research investments follow colonial ties: questionable ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Joseph R; Head, Michael G; Atun, Rifat

    2014-03-01

    International funding for global health research is not systematically documented. We have assessed the level of research funding awarded by UK funders of international research to low- and middle-income countries or research institutions in these countries. We analysed 6165 studies; from these we selected 522 that matched our criteria and used them to evaluate research funding by pathogen, disease, research and development value chain, funding organisation and country. Investment in infectious disease research in the countries studied totalled £264 million. Distribution of research investments closely mirrored that of the UK's former colonial territories; the top five countries, and eight of the top 10, have historical links with the UK, being current or former members of the Commonwealth of Nations. HIV, malaria and neglected tropical diseases attracted the greatest investment (£219 million; 82.8%), with most studies focussing on operational and epidemiological research (£109 million; 41.3%). International financing of infectious disease research by UK funding organisations follows former colonial ties. Funding institutions should review their funding policies to ensure that they also assist low- and middle-income countries without colonial ties to address their disease burden. A global investment surveillance system is needed to map and monitor funding for international research and guide the allocation of scarce resources to reduce the global disease burden.

  19. Research, climate, energy : Questions of destiny for the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastinen, A., email: aimo.kastinen@chemind.fi

    2010-07-01

    Registration for the first phase of Reach finishes at the end of November. Then we will see whether the standard of legislation has been set correctly in respect of the EU's operational ability. If it isn't, significant problems will result for the community's treatment of materials and the EU's competitiveness, and Reach's value as a global model will become questionable. Also, the CLP regulation concerning classification, labelling and packaging of chemicals will start to come into effect as from the beginning of December. In the first phase, the question is one of classification of substances, and gradually the requirements will be applied to mixtures too. At the same time, Safety Data Sheets shall be renewed in accordance with their own transition period. The current product legislation concerning chemicals shall be fully revised by the mid-point of the decade, but before then company safety officers will have to do lots of work to change the previous routines

  20. Research for the radiation therapist from question to culture

    CERN Document Server

    Gillan, Cailtin; Harnett, Nicole; Holden, Lori

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses a wide range of topics, from the principles of evidence-based practice to the process and dissemination of research to unique considerations such as clinical trials, patenting, and health services research. The case for evidence-based practice and a collaborative research culture is made first, followed by a series of chapters walking the reader through the research process by way of the scientific method. One of the more unique aspects of the scope of this book is the inclusion of chapters relating to the dissemination of knowledge, manuscript publication, and how to build an academic research program. Each chapter focuses on introducing the reader to foundational principles, methodology, and terminology, and highlight case studies of radiation therapist research or experience that is relevant to provide contextual examples and inspiration to the reader.

  1. On framing the research question and choosing the appropriate research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfrey, Patrick S; Ravani, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Clinical epidemiology is the science of human disease investigation with a focus on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. The generation of a reasonable question requires definition of patients, interventions, controls, and outcomes. The goal of research design is to minimize error, to ensure adequate samples, to measure input and output variables appropriately, to consider external and internal validities, to limit bias, and to address clinical as well as statistical relevance. The hierarchy of evidence for clinical decision-making places randomized controlled trials (RCT) or systematic review of good quality RCTs at the top of the evidence pyramid. Prognostic and etiologic questions are best addressed with longitudinal cohort studies.

  2. Questioning the observation of laser-assisted ionization in fast collisions of He(2 /sup 1,3/S) with He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, K.T.

    1989-01-01

    In four recent papers Pradel et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2600 (1985); Phys. Rev. A 35, 1062 (1987)] and Monchicourt et al. [Phys. Rev. A 33, 3515 (1986); Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 336 (1988)] give arguments claiming the observation of laser-assisted ionization of the short-lived collision complex formed during collisions of He/sup */(2 /sup 1,3/S) with He. However, estimates of the relative sizes of the assisted and unassisted ion signals observed make it very unlikely that laser-assisted ionization has been observed in those experiments. Collisional excitation to higher He/sup */ states, followed by (single-photon) ionization of the excited states, seems a more likely explanation at all energies considered

  3. High Level Thinking and Questioning Strategies. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Higher-order thinking is an instructional strategy supported by research. Often referred to as critical thinking skills, it is more than simple recall of facts or information. It is a function of the interaction between cognitive strategies, meta-cognition, and nonstrategic knowledge when solving problems. Higher-order thinking is based on the…

  4. Can Scientific Research Answer the "What" Question of Mathematics Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2005-01-01

    This paper problematizes the issue of how decisions about the content of mathematics education can be made. After starting with two examples where research in mathematics education resulted in different choices on the content of primary school teaching, I explore where and how, in the scientific enterprise within the domain of education, issues of…

  5. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  6. Developing Critical Thinking through Socratic Questioning: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahamid, Husniah

    2016-01-01

    An action research study was conducted among 24 Form 4 level Malaysian students, aged 16. The duration of the study was five months and constituted 16 one-hour literature lessons (short stories from the secondary level Malaysian English Language Upper Secondary Level school syllabus). This paper describes my experience as a teacher-as-researcher…

  7. Mapping research questions about translation to methods, measures, and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berninger, V.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Fayol, M.L.; Fayol, M.; Alamargot, D.; Berninger, V.W.

    2012-01-01

    About the book: Translation of cognitive representations into written language is one of the most important processes in writing. This volume provides a long-awaited updated overview of the field. The contributors discuss each of the commonly used research methods for studying translation; theorize

  8. Emancipatory Research and Disabled People: Some Observations and Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Len

    2005-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the oppression and discrimination of disabled people and to their exclusion from key decisions affecting the quality of their lives. In the last two decades in particular there has been an increasing interest in many societies over the role of research in relation to the empowerment and thus inclusion of disabled people.…

  9. Is the wrong question being asked in infertility research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Barbara; Stern, Judy E; Hornstein, Mark D; Kotelchuck, Milton; Diop, Hafsatou; Cabral, Howard; Declercq, Eugene R

    2016-01-01

    A persistent finding is that assisted reproductive technology (ART) is associated with compromised birth outcomes, including higher risks for prematurity, low birthweight, and congenital malformations, even among singletons. Over the past decade, our research group, the Massachusetts Outcome Study of Assisted Reproductive Technology (MOSART), has evaluated pregnancy and birth outcomes among three groups of women, those women treated with ART, those with indicators of subfertility but without ART treatment, and fertile women. We have also explored the influence of infertility-related diagnoses on outcomes for women and infants. Over the course of our research, we have changed our perspective from an original focus on ART treatment parameters as the primary cause of excess morbidity to one centered instead on the underlying infertility-related diagnoses. This paper summarizes the research findings from our group that support this change in focus for infertility-based research from a primary emphasis on ART treatment to greater attention to the contribution of preexisting pathology underlying the infertility and suggests directions for future analyses.

  10. Questions raised over future of UK research council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Five senior physicists have written to the UK science minister, Lord Drayson, about the "dismal future" for researchers in the country in the wake of a £40m shortfall in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The physicists, who chair the STFC's five advisory panels, have also called for structural reforms to be made to the council. They warn that unless the government takes action to reverse the situation, the UK will be "perceived as an untrustworthy partner in global projects" and predict that a brain drain of the best UK scientists to positions overseas will ensue.

  11. Vitamin D and the brain: key questions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoying; Gooch, Helen; Groves, Natalie J; Sah, Pankaj; Burne, Thomas H; Eyles, Darryl W; McGrath, John J

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade a convergent body of evidence has emerged from epidemiology, animal experiments and clinical trials which links low vitamin D status with a range of adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes. This research demonstrates that the timing of exposure to low vitamin D influences the nature of brain phenotypes, as exposures during gestation versus adulthood result in different phenotypes. With respect to early life exposures, there is robust evidence from rodent experiments indicating that transient developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is associated with changes in brain structure, neurochemistry, gene and protein expression and behavior. In particular, DVD deficiency is associated with alterations in the dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems. In contrast, recently published animal experiments indicate that adult vitamin D (AVD) deficiency is associated with more subtle neurochemical and behavioral phenotypes. This paper explores key issues that need to be addressed in future research. There is a need to define the timing and duration of the 'critical window' during which low vitamin D status is associated with differential and adverse brain outcomes. We discuss the role for 'two-hit hypotheses', which propose that adult vitamin D deficiency leaves the brain more vulnerable to secondary adverse exposures, and thus may exacerbate disease progression. Finally, we explore the evidence implicating a role for vitamin D in rapid, non-genomic mechanisms that may involve L-type calcium channels and brain function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Some questions on the research in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, D.

    1978-01-01

    Some new developments in elementary particle physics and interaction processes are reviewed. Recent advances in the field of particle physics including the observation of an anomalous behaviour of interaction cross section at high energy levels, the deep inelastic scattering of electrons from protons, the existence of neutral currents and the relative frequency of events with high transverse pulses are pointed out. A special development is the discovery and identification of a number of new particles and processes. New advances in understanding of the structure of subelementary particles, and the combination of electromagnetic and weak interactions are described. After a discussion of the technical and instrumental requirements and possibilities in the field of elementary particle research, the role and achievements of Hungarian scientists in high-energy facilities of the Soviet Union are emphasized. (P.J.)

  13. Emotion theory and research: highlights, unanswered questions, and emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Carroll E

    2009-01-01

    Emotion feeling is a phase of neurobiological activity, the key component of emotions and emotion-cognition interactions. Emotion schemas, the most frequently occurring emotion experiences, are dynamic emotion-cognition interactions that may consist of momentary/situational responding or enduring traits of personality that emerge over developmental time. Emotions play a critical role in the evolution of consciousness and the operations of all mental processes. Types of emotion relate differentially to types or levels of consciousness. Unbridled imagination and the ability for sympathetic regulation of empathy may represent both potential gains and losses from the evolution and ontogeny of emotion processes and consciousness. Unresolved issues include psychology's neglect of levels of consciousness that are distinct from access or reflective consciousness and use of the term "unconscious mind" as a dumpster for all mental processes that are considered unreportable. The relation of memes and the mirror neuron system to empathy, sympathy, and cultural influences on the development of socioemotional skills are unresolved issues destined to attract future research.

  14. Islam and tattooing: an old question, a new research topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Larsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Muslim theologians have argued on the basis of the ḥadīth-literature that tattooing is ḥarām (forbidden, but it is nonetheless possible to find both historical and contemporary examples indicating that, at different times and in different places, this art was practiced by certain Islamic groups. With specific reference to washm,or tattooing, it has been well documented that certain Muslim groups (e.g., the Berbers and the Bedouins in places such as Africa, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iran and West Pakistan have used tattoos for beautification, prophylaxis and the prevention of disease. Among Islam’s lay populations, tattooing has been considered significant as a healing practice for a very long time despite the formal opinions of Islamic scholars and theologians. And while in more recent times these Muslim groups appear to have abandoned past notions about the function of tattoos, which had caused a certain waning of the practice, of late it has had a resurgence—although for reasons that differ from those of distant times. The rise of interest in tattoos among Muslims has been directly observed by a handful of contemporary researchers, and is indirectly indicated by the fact that many contemporary Muslim authorities have expressed growing concern about the practice.This development has been further spurred on by the fact that many Muslims are actively seeking advice and clarification about where Islam stands on the matter of tattoos. The aim of of this article is to sketch the background of the more formal theological discussion on tattooing (especially in the ḥadīth-literature. It also aims to examine a number of contemporary religious texts that specifically deal with Muslim theological opinions about this practice: what is considered to be the problem; and what types of arguments are employed by the selected theologians in their attempts to provide answers. Is it possible to see the renewed interest in tattoos as an example of the

  15. Top 40 questions in coupled human and natural systems (CHANS research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boyd. Kramer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and managing coupled human and natural systems (CHANS is a central challenge of the 21st century, but more focus is needed to pursue the most important questions within this vast field given limited research capacity and funding. We present 40 important questions for CHANS research, identified through a two-part crowdsourcing exercise within the CHANS community. We solicited members of the International Network of Research on Coupled Human and Natural Systems (CHANS-Net to submit up to three questions that they considered transformative, receiving 540 questions from 207 respondents. After editing for clarity and consistency, we asked the network's members to each evaluate a random subset of 20 questions in importance on a scale from 1 (least important to 7 (extremely important. Questions on land use and agriculture topped the list, with a median importance ranking of 5.7, followed by questions of scale, climate change and energy, sustainability and development, adaptation and resilience, in addition to seven other categories. We identified 40 questions with a median importance of 6.0 or above, which we highlight as the current view of researchers active in the field as research questions to pursue in order to maximize impact on understanding and managing coupled human and natural systems for achieving sustainable development goals and addressing emerging global challenges.

  16. On the question of pure or applied research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, P.; Lodhi, A.S.; Payrovan, H.

    1977-01-01

    One particular approach to the question of pure versus applied research is discussed in this article. It is pointed out how a modest applied research project has been initiated in this laboratory and how this line of work has subsequently developed to include pure research in related areas

  17. Beyond Mere Debate: Research Questions Related to the Debate over the SED Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, David B.

    This paper addresses research implications of proposed modifications of the definition of "severe emotional disturbance" to include students with conduct disorders. Research questions focus on understanding the nature of antisocial, aggressive behavior in children and youth and identifying what services they need. Research is cited suggesting that…

  18. Have the Most Relevant and Answerable Research Questions Facing Librarians Changed Between 2001 and 2006?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lewis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ To examine the similarities and differences between research questions asked by librarians in 2001 to those posed in 2006, and to explore to what extent the published research supports the questions being asked.Methods ‐ Questions collected in 2001 by members of the Evidence‐Based Librarianship Implementation Committee (EBLIC of the MLA Research Section were compared with questions collected in 2006 at a cross‐sectoral seminar introducing evidence based library and information practice to Australian librarians. Questions from each list were categorized using the domains of librarianship proposed by Crumley and Koufogiannakis in 2001, and examined with reference to a content analysis of the library and information studies (LIS research published in 2001 by Koufogiannakis, Slater, and Crumley in 2004.Results ‐ In 2001 and 2006 the most commonly asked questions were in the domain of management (29%, 33%, followed by education (24%, 18.5%. In 2001 questions in the marketing/promotion category ranked lowest (1%, however representation was much greater in 2006 (18.5% ranking an equal second with education. Questions in the lowest ranked domain in 2006 (collections, 6% had been more common in 2001 where collections ranked third, representing 19% of the questions. Koufogiannakis, Slater, and Crumley’s content analysis of LIS research published in 2001 revealed that the most popular domain for research was information access and retrieval (38% followed by collections (24%. Only 1% of published LIS research (seven articles was in the domain of marketing/promotion. In contrast, 36 articles originally assigned to one of the six established domains could more appropriately have been included in a proposed new domain of professional issues.Conclusion ‐ The disparity between questions being asked by practitioners and the evidence being generated by researchers suggests that the research‐practice gap is still an issue. A content

  19. Toward sustainable environmental quality: Identifying priority research questions for Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Tatiana Heid; Brodeur, Julie; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Chagas, Katia R; Corrales, Jone; Denadai, Marina; Fuchs, Julio; Mascarenhas, Renata; Miglioranza, Karina SB; Miguez Caramés, Diana Margarita; Navas, José Maria; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Planes, Estela; Rodriguez‐Jorquera, Ignacio Alejandro; Orozco‐Medina, Martha; Boxall, Alistair BA; Rudd, Murray A

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Global Horizon Scanning Project (GHSP) is an innovative initiative that aims to identify important global environmental quality research needs. Here we report 20 key research questions from Latin America (LA). Members of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) LA and other scientists from LA were asked to submit research questions that would represent priority needs to address in the region. One hundred questions were received, then partitioned among categories, examined, and some rearranged during a workshop in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Twenty priority research questions were subsequently identified. These research questions included developing, improving, and harmonizing across LA countries methods for 1) identifying contaminants and degradation products in complex matrices (including biota); 2) advancing prediction of contaminant risks and effects in ecosystems, addressing lab‐to‐field extrapolation challenges, and understanding complexities of multiple stressors (including chemicals and climate change); and 3) improving management and regulatory tools toward achieving sustainable development. Whereas environmental contaminants frequently identified in these key questions were pesticides, pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors or modulators, plastics, and nanomaterials, commonly identified environmental challenges were related to agriculture, urban effluents, solid wastes, pulp and paper mills, and natural extraction activities. Several interesting research topics included assessing and preventing pollution impacts on conservation protected areas, integrating environment and health assessments, and developing strategies for identification, substitution, and design of less hazardous chemicals (e.g., green chemistry). Finally, a recurrent research need included developing an understanding of differential sensitivity of regional species and ecosystems to environmental contaminants and other stressors. Addressing these critical

  20. Closing the gap in travel medicine: reframing research questions for a new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Leder, Karin; Wilson, Mary E

    2017-07-01

    Travel medicine needs are changing. New patterns of travel, including greater travel by individuals from emerging economies with different values in costs, risks and benefits, must be considered. This review aims to (1) highlight selected studies that have been published that address previously identified gaps in knowledge; (2) propose possible ways to consider questions regarding travel medicine practice for travelers from emerging economies, underscoring priorities for research focusing on these important populations; (3) highlight potential deficiencies in relevance of current international guidelines as they pertain to travelers from emerging economies; (4) frame research questions for travelers from emerging economies and (5) consider roles for ISTM in closing the gap. We reviewed past travel medicine research priorities published in 2010 to identify publications that responded to some research questions posed. We also reviewed CDC and WHO recommendations and assessed their applicability to travelers from emerging economies. Recent publications have responded to some research questions, but gaps remain and new questions have emerged. Re-framing of several key research questions is needed for travelers from emerging economies. A new challenge looms for traditional travel medicine fields to identify and attend to knowledge and guideline gaps, particularly to rethink questions regarding travel medicine to make them relevant for travelers from emerging economies. The International Society of Travel Medicine is well positioned to assist emerging economies assess their resources and needs, formulate research priorities and tailor the development of travel medicine into a framework aligned to their requirements. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Animal Encounters in Environmental Education Research: Responding to the "Question of the Animal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Jan; Watson, Gavan P. L.; Russell, Constance L.; Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Fawcett, Leesa; Kuhl, Gail; Russell, Joshua; van der Waal, Marlon; Warkentin, Traci

    2010-01-01

    The "question of the animal" represents an area of emergent interest in the environmental education field, as researchers critically consider human-animal relations and animal advocacy in their work. Following a group discussion at the 10th Seminar in Health and Environmental Education Research, the authors of this paper share experiences,…

  2. Pollination ecology in the 21st century: Key Questions for future research

    OpenAIRE

    STOUT, JANE CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED To inspire new ideas in research on pollination ecology, we list the most important unanswered questions in the field. This list was drawn up by contacting 170 scientists from different areas of pollination ecology and asking them to contribute their opinion on the greatest knowledge gaps that need to be addressed. Almost 40% of them took part in our email poll and we received more than 650 questions and comments, which we classified into different categories repr...

  3. Pollination ecology in the 21st century:key questions for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Caroline; Adler, Lynn; Armbruster, W. Scott; Dafni, Amots; Eardley, Connal; Huang, Shuang-Quan; Kevan, Peter; Ollerton, Jeff; Packer, Laurence; Ssymank, Axel; Stout, Jane C.; Potts, Simon G.

    2011-01-01

    To inspire new ideas in research on pollination ecology, we list the most important unanswered questions in the field. This list was drawn up by contacting 170 scientists from different areas of pollination ecology and asking them to contribute their opinion on the greatest knowledge gaps that need to be addressed. Almost 40% of them took part in our email poll and we received more than 650 questions and comments, which we classified into different categories representing various aspects of p...

  4. Pollination ecology in the 21st Century: key questions for future research\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Carolin; Adler, Lynn; Armbruster, W Scott; Dafni, Amots; Eardley, Connal; Huang, Shuang-Quan; Kevan, Peter G; Ollerton, Jeff; Packer, Laurence; Ssymank, Axel; Stout, Jane C; Potts, Simon G

    2011-01-01

    To inspire new ideas in research on pollination ecology, we list the most important unanswered questions in the field. This list was drawn up by contacting 170 scientists from different areas of pollination ecology and asking them to contribute their opinion on the greatest knowledge gaps that need to be addressed. Almost 40% of them took part in our email poll and we received more than 650 questions and comments, which we classified into different categories representing various aspects of p...

  5. Predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students using an augmented Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior model, augmented by descriptive norms and justifications, for predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students. A convenience sample of 205 research active Western Australian university students (47 male, 158 female, ages 18–53 years, M = 22, SD = 4.78) completed an online survey. There was a low level of engagement in research misconduct, with approximately one in seven students reporting data fabrication and one in eight data falsification. Path analysis and model testing in LISREL supported a parsimonious two step mediation model, providing good fit to the data. After controlling for social desirability, the effect of attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms and perceived behavioral control on student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices was mediated by justifications and then intention. This revised augmented model accounted for a substantial 40.8% of the variance in student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices, demonstrating its predictive utility. The model can be used to target interventions aimed at reducing student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices. PMID:25983709

  6. Pollination ecology in the 21st Century: Key questions for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane C. Stout

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To inspire new ideas in research on pollination ecology, we list the most important unanswered questions in the field. This list was drawn up by contacting 170 scientists from different areas of pollination ecology and asking them to contribute their opinion on the greatest knowledge gaps that need to be addressed. Almost 40% of them took part in our email poll and we received more than 650 questions and comments, which we classified into different categories representing various aspects of pollination research. The original questions were merged and synthesised, and a final vote and ranking led to the resultant list. The categories cover plant sexual reproduction, pollen and stigma biology, abiotic pollination, evolution of animal-mediated pollination, interactions of pollinators and floral antagonists, pollinator behaviour, taxonomy, plant-pollinator assemblages, geographical trends in diversity, drivers of pollinator loss, ecosystem services, management of pollination, and conservation issues such as the implementation of pollinator conservation. We focused on questions that were of a broad scope rather than case-specific; thus, addressing some questions may not be feasible within single research projects but constitute a general guide for future directions. With this compilation we hope to raise awareness of pollination-related topics not only among researchers but also among non-specialists including policy makers, funding agencies and the public at large.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of fluoride and its in vivo importance: identification of research questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loveren, C

    2001-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the antimicrobial activity of fluoride and its in vivo importance in order to identify research questions. There is a lot of information on mechanisms by which fluoride may interfere with bacterial metabolism and dental plaque acidogenicity. The antimicrobial activity of fluoride products is enhanced when fluoride is associated with antimicrobial cations like Sn(2+) and amine. It is not clear whether the antimicrobial mechanisms of fluoride are operating in vivo or even to what extent antimicrobial activity can contribute to caries prevention. This latter question may be the most important one in research. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Research on simulation calculation method of biomechanical characteristics of C1-3 motion segment damage mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Ju-ying

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To develop the finite element model (FEM of cervical spinal C1-3 motion segment, and to make biomechanical finite element analysis (FEA on C1-3 motion segment and thus simulate the biomechanical characteristics of C1-3 motion segment in distraction violence, compression violence, hyperextension violence and hyperflexion violence. Methods According to CT radiological data of a healthy adult, the vertebrae and intervertebral discs of cervical spinal C1-3 motion segment were respectively reconstructed by Mimics 10.01 software and Geomagic 10.0 software. The FEM of C1-3 motion segment was reconstructed by attaching the corresponding material properties of cervical spine in Ansys software. The biomechanical characteristics of cervical spinal C1-3 motion segment model were simulated under the 4 loadings of distraction violence, compression violence, hyperextension violence and hyperflexion violence by finite element method. Results In the loading of longitudinal stretch, the stress was relatively concentrated in the anterior arch of atlas, atlantoaxial joint and C3 lamina and spinous process. In the longitudinal compressive loads, the maximum stress of the upper cervical spine was located in the anterior arch of atlas. In the loading of hyperextension moment, the stress was larger in the massa lateralis atlantis, the lateral and posterior arch junction of atlas, the posterior arch nodules of the atlas, superior articular surface of axis and C2 isthmus. In the loading of hyperflexion moment, the stress was relatively concentrated in the odontoid process of axis, the posterior arch of atlas, the posterior arch nodules of atlas, C2 isthmic and C2 inferior articular process. Conclusion Finite element biomechanical testing of C1-3 motion segment can predict the biomechanical mechanism of upper cervical spine injury.

  9. Using mixed methods to identify and answer clinically relevant research questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneerson, Catherine L; Gale, Nicola K

    2015-06-01

    The need for mixed methods research in answering health care questions is becoming increasingly recognized because of the complexity of factors that affect health outcomes. In this article, we argue for the value of using a qualitatively driven mixed method approach for identifying and answering clinically relevant research questions. This argument is illustrated by findings from a study on the self-management practices of cancer survivors and the exploration of one particular clinically relevant finding about higher uptake of self-management in cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy treatment compared with those who have not. A cross-sectional study generated findings that formed the basis for the qualitative study, by informing the purposive sampling strategy and generating new qualitative research questions. Using a quantitative research component to supplement a qualitative study can enhance the generalizability and clinical relevance of the findings and produce detailed, contextualized, and rich answers to research questions that would be unachievable through quantitative or qualitative methods alone. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Research Designs and Special Education Research: Different Designs Address Different Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Lysandra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide practitioners and other nonresearchers a basic understanding of research designs to aid in appropriately interpreting and applying research findings in special education. Research design provides the blueprint for conducting a research study and shapes what kind of knowledge is generated by the study. We…

  11. Toward sustainable environmental quality: Identifying priority research questions for Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Tatiana Heid; Brodeur, Julie; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Chagas, Katia R; Corrales, Jone; Denadai, Marina; Fuchs, Julio; Mascarenhas, Renata; Miglioranza, Karina Sb; Miguez Caramés, Diana Margarita; Navas, José Maria; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Planes, Estela; Rodriguez-Jorquera, Ignacio Alejandro; Orozco-Medina, Martha; Boxall, Alistair Ba; Rudd, Murray A; Brooks, Bryan W

    2018-05-01

    The Global Horizon Scanning Project (GHSP) is an innovative initiative that aims to identify important global environmental quality research needs. Here we report 20 key research questions from Latin America (LA). Members of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) LA and other scientists from LA were asked to submit research questions that would represent priority needs to address in the region. One hundred questions were received, then partitioned among categories, examined, and some rearranged during a workshop in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Twenty priority research questions were subsequently identified. These research questions included developing, improving, and harmonizing across LA countries methods for 1) identifying contaminants and degradation products in complex matrices (including biota); 2) advancing prediction of contaminant risks and effects in ecosystems, addressing lab-to-field extrapolation challenges, and understanding complexities of multiple stressors (including chemicals and climate change); and 3) improving management and regulatory tools toward achieving sustainable development. Whereas environmental contaminants frequently identified in these key questions were pesticides, pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors or modulators, plastics, and nanomaterials, commonly identified environmental challenges were related to agriculture, urban effluents, solid wastes, pulp and paper mills, and natural extraction activities. Several interesting research topics included assessing and preventing pollution impacts on conservation protected areas, integrating environment and health assessments, and developing strategies for identification, substitution, and design of less hazardous chemicals (e.g., green chemistry). Finally, a recurrent research need included developing an understanding of differential sensitivity of regional species and ecosystems to environmental contaminants and other stressors. Addressing these critical questions will

  12. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  13. European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - Establishing the key unanswered research questions within gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Colin J; Ngu, Wee Sing; Regula, Jaroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aim: Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a rapidly evolving research field. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) plays a key role in shaping opinion and endoscopy activity throughout Europe and further afield. Establishing key unanswered questions within the fi...

  14. Generation of priority research questions to inform conservation policy and management at a national level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Murray A; Beazley, Karen F; Cooke, Steven J; Fleishman, Erica; Lane, Daniel E; Mascia, Michael B; Roth, Robin; Tabor, Gary; Bakker, Jiselle A; Bellefontaine, Teresa; Berteaux, Dominique; Cantin, Bernard; Chaulk, Keith G; Cunningham, Kathryn; Dobell, Rod; Fast, Eleanor; Ferrara, Nadia; Findlay, C Scott; Hallstrom, Lars K; Hammond, Thomas; Hermanutz, Luise; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Lindsay, Kathryn E; Marta, Tim J; Nguyen, Vivian M; Northey, Greg; Prior, Kent; Ramirez-Sanchez, Saudiel; Rice, Jake; Sleep, Darren J H; Szabo, Nora D; Trottier, Geneviève; Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Veilleux, Jean-Philippe

    2011-06-01

    Integrating knowledge from across the natural and social sciences is necessary to effectively address societal tradeoffs between human use of biological diversity and its preservation. Collaborative processes can change the ways decision makers think about scientific evidence, enhance levels of mutual trust and credibility, and advance the conservation policy discourse. Canada has responsibility for a large fraction of some major ecosystems, such as boreal forests, Arctic tundra, wetlands, and temperate and Arctic oceans. Stressors to biological diversity within these ecosystems arise from activities of the country's resource-based economy, as well as external drivers of environmental change. Effective management is complicated by incongruence between ecological and political boundaries and conflicting perspectives on social and economic goals. Many knowledge gaps about stressors and their management might be reduced through targeted, timely research. We identify 40 questions that, if addressed or answered, would advance research that has a high probability of supporting development of effective policies and management strategies for species, ecosystems, and ecological processes in Canada. A total of 396 candidate questions drawn from natural and social science disciplines were contributed by individuals with diverse organizational affiliations. These were collaboratively winnowed to 40 by our team of collaborators. The questions emphasize understanding ecosystems, the effects and mitigation of climate change, coordinating governance and management efforts across multiple jurisdictions, and examining relations between conservation policy and the social and economic well-being of Aboriginal peoples. The questions we identified provide potential links between evidence from the conservation sciences and formulation of policies for conservation and resource management. Our collaborative process of communication and engagement between scientists and decision makers for

  15. Research in education and concepts of knowledge: the production of knowledge in question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida, Natalia Regina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field of knowledge in education, discussion about the treatment given to its definition as a field, investigative object and different possibilities theoretical-methodological, epistemological, was frequent in the last decades of the twentieth century. In this perspective, the aspects that relate to the process of construction and production of research in the field of education and knowledge of different theoretical and methodological possibilities deserve more theoretical and conceptual investment. Thus, this paper, from the literature, aims to present a brief discussion of the different conceptions of knowledge in the construction of research in the field of knowledge in education and two theoretical and methodological positions the practice of educational research. As a final consideration, the intention of this article is not to exhaust the issue in question, for there are many issues that permeate the practice of educational research.

  16. Backward Dependencies and in-Situ wh-Questions as Test Cases on How to Approach Experimental Linguistics Research That Pursues Theoretical Linguistics Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Leticia; Doetjes, Jenny; Cheng, Lisa L-S

    2017-01-01

    The empirical study of language is a young field in contemporary linguistics. This being the case, and following a natural development process, the field is currently at a stage where different research methods and experimental approaches are being put into question in terms of their validity. Without pretending to provide an answer with respect to the best way to conduct linguistics related experimental research, in this article we aim at examining the process that researchers follow in the design and implementation of experimental linguistics research with a goal to validate specific theoretical linguistic analyses. First, we discuss the general challenges that experimental work faces in finding a compromise between addressing theoretically relevant questions and being able to implement these questions in a specific controlled experimental paradigm. We discuss the Granularity Mismatch Problem (Poeppel and Embick, 2005) which addresses the challenges that research that is trying to bridge the representations and computations of language and their psycholinguistic/neurolinguistic evidence faces, and the basic assumptions that interdisciplinary research needs to consider due to the different conceptual granularity of the objects under study. To illustrate the practical implications of the points addressed, we compare two approaches to perform linguistic experimental research by reviewing a number of our own studies strongly grounded on theoretically informed questions. First, we show how linguistic phenomena similar at a conceptual level can be tested within the same language using measurement of event-related potentials (ERP) by discussing results from two ERP experiments on the processing of long-distance backward dependencies that involve coreference and negative polarity items respectively in Dutch. Second, we examine how the same linguistic phenomenon can be tested in different languages using reading time measures by discussing the outcome of four self

  17. Backward Dependencies and in-Situ wh-Questions as Test Cases on How to Approach Experimental Linguistics Research That Pursues Theoretical Linguistics Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Leticia; Doetjes, Jenny; Cheng, Lisa L.-S.

    2018-01-01

    The empirical study of language is a young field in contemporary linguistics. This being the case, and following a natural development process, the field is currently at a stage where different research methods and experimental approaches are being put into question in terms of their validity. Without pretending to provide an answer with respect to the best way to conduct linguistics related experimental research, in this article we aim at examining the process that researchers follow in the design and implementation of experimental linguistics research with a goal to validate specific theoretical linguistic analyses. First, we discuss the general challenges that experimental work faces in finding a compromise between addressing theoretically relevant questions and being able to implement these questions in a specific controlled experimental paradigm. We discuss the Granularity Mismatch Problem (Poeppel and Embick, 2005) which addresses the challenges that research that is trying to bridge the representations and computations of language and their psycholinguistic/neurolinguistic evidence faces, and the basic assumptions that interdisciplinary research needs to consider due to the different conceptual granularity of the objects under study. To illustrate the practical implications of the points addressed, we compare two approaches to perform linguistic experimental research by reviewing a number of our own studies strongly grounded on theoretically informed questions. First, we show how linguistic phenomena similar at a conceptual level can be tested within the same language using measurement of event-related potentials (ERP) by discussing results from two ERP experiments on the processing of long-distance backward dependencies that involve coreference and negative polarity items respectively in Dutch. Second, we examine how the same linguistic phenomenon can be tested in different languages using reading time measures by discussing the outcome of four self

  18. Backward Dependencies and in-Situ wh-Questions as Test Cases on How to Approach Experimental Linguistics Research That Pursues Theoretical Linguistics Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Pablos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The empirical study of language is a young field in contemporary linguistics. This being the case, and following a natural development process, the field is currently at a stage where different research methods and experimental approaches are being put into question in terms of their validity. Without pretending to provide an answer with respect to the best way to conduct linguistics related experimental research, in this article we aim at examining the process that researchers follow in the design and implementation of experimental linguistics research with a goal to validate specific theoretical linguistic analyses. First, we discuss the general challenges that experimental work faces in finding a compromise between addressing theoretically relevant questions and being able to implement these questions in a specific controlled experimental paradigm. We discuss the Granularity Mismatch Problem (Poeppel and Embick, 2005 which addresses the challenges that research that is trying to bridge the representations and computations of language and their psycholinguistic/neurolinguistic evidence faces, and the basic assumptions that interdisciplinary research needs to consider due to the different conceptual granularity of the objects under study. To illustrate the practical implications of the points addressed, we compare two approaches to perform linguistic experimental research by reviewing a number of our own studies strongly grounded on theoretically informed questions. First, we show how linguistic phenomena similar at a conceptual level can be tested within the same language using measurement of event-related potentials (ERP by discussing results from two ERP experiments on the processing of long-distance backward dependencies that involve coreference and negative polarity items respectively in Dutch. Second, we examine how the same linguistic phenomenon can be tested in different languages using reading time measures by discussing the outcome of

  19. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolome R. Celli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and resource use worldwide. The goal of this official American Thoracic Society (ATS/European Respiratory Society (ERS Research Statement is to describe evidence related to diagnosis, assessment, and management; identify gaps in knowledge; and make recommendations for future research. It is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on COPD diagnosis and management. Clinicians, researchers and patient advocates with expertise in COPD were invited to participate. A literature search of Medline was performed, and studies deemed relevant were selected. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Existing evidence was appraised and summarised, and then salient knowledge gaps were identified. Recommendations for research that addresses important gaps in the evidence in all areas of COPD were formulated via discussion and consensus. Great strides have been made in the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, as well as understanding its pathogenesis. Despite this, many important questions remain unanswered. This ATS/ERS research statement highlights the types of research that leading clinicians, researchers and patient advocates believe will have the greatest impact on patient-centred outcomes.

  20. Good questions require good answers. Critics on current climate research contradicted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellinga, P.; Van Dorland, R.; Kabat, P.

    2008-01-01

    In some of the previous issues of this magazine (Spil 2007, issue 4 and 5-6, and Spil 2008, issue 1) the authors Labohm, Roersch and Thoenes started a frontal attack of the greenhouse theory and the researchers who report on the state of science in the framework of the IPCC. The author of this article addresses two main questions arising from the above-mentioned authors: (1) Does the use of fossil fuels affect global climate?; and (2) Is the warming of the last 30 years related to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere? [mk] [nl

  1. 2014 Defects in Semiconductors Gordon Research Conference & Gordon Research Seminar. Research Area 1: Materials Science, 1.3 Physical Properties of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    invite leading experts from the full range of industry to academia to cover the topics of wide bandgap nitride and oxide semiconductors , the...Tsukuba University) " Positron Annihilation Studies in InGaN" 12:10 pm - 12:30 pm Discussion 9 12:30 pm Lunch 1:30 pm - 4:00 pm Free Time 4:00 pm...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The Gordon Research Conference on DEFECTS IN SEMICONDUCTORS was held at Bentley University in Waltham, Massachusetts

  2. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) in South Africa: engaging multiple constituents to shape the research question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Simon, Christian; van Stade, Debbie; Buchbinder, Mara

    2005-12-01

    Community engagement is an on-going, arduous, and necessary process for developing effective health promotion programs. The challenges are amplified when the particular health issue or research question is not prominent in the consciousness of the targeted community. In this paper, we explore the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model as a means to negotiate a mutual agenda between communities and researchers. The paper is focused on the (perceived) need for cervical cancer screening in an under-resourced community in Cape Town, South Africa. Cervical cancer is a significant health problem in this community and elsewhere in South Africa. Unlike HIV-AIDS, however, many Black South Africans have not been educated about cervical cancer and the importance of obtaining screening. Many may not consider screening a priority in their lives. Our research included extensive consultations and informal interviews with diverse community and regional stakeholders. Following these, we conducted 27 focus groups and 106 demographic surveys with randomly selected youth, parents, local health care personnel, educators and school staff. Focus group data were summarized and analyzed cross-sectionally. Community stakeholders were involved throughout this research. Our consultations, interviews, and focus group data were key in identifying the concerns and priorities of the community. By engaging community stakeholders, we developed a research framework that incorporated the community's concerns and priorities, and stressed the intersecting roles of poverty, violence, and other cultural forces in shaping community members' health and wellbeing. Community members helped to refocus our research from cervical cancer to 'cervical health,' a concept that acknowledged the impact on women's bodies and lives of HIV-AIDS and STDs, sexual violence, poverty, and multiple social problems. We conclude that the research agenda and questions in community-based health research should not be

  3. Proceedings of NUCLEAR 2016 the 9th annual international conference on sustainable development through nuclear research and education. Part 1/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschiv, Irina Maria

    2016-01-01

    The Proceedings of the NUCLEAR 2016 international conference on sustainable development through nuclear research and education held at INR-Pitesti on May, 18-20, contain 81 communications presented in two plenary sessions and three sections addressing the themes of Nuclear energy, Environmental protection and Sustainable development. This section (Part 1/3) are addressing the following items: Section 1.1 Nuclear safety and severe accidents (6 papers); Section 1.2 Nuclear reactors and gen. IV (7 papers); Section 1.3 Nuclear technology and materials (29 papers); These papers are presented as abstracts in 'Nuclear 2016 - Book of Abstracts', separately processed

  4. A diaper bank and home visiting partnership: Initial exploration of research and policy questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Lois S; Condon, Eileen M; Deng, Shirley Z; Ordway, Monica Roosa; Marchesseault, Crista; Miller, Andrea; Alfano, Janet Stolfi; Weir, Alison M

    2018-03-01

    The cost of diapering an infant can place a significant financial strain on families living in poverty. Partnerships between diaper banks and home visiting programs for young families may offer an innovative solution to expanding the reach and impact of diaper banks in low-income communities. The purpose of this pilot study was to uncover preliminary information about the functions of diaper distribution through home visiting programs, and to inform future research and policy questions regarding diaper distribution to families in need. In this descriptive qualitative pilot study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 home visitors from Minding the Baby ® (MTB), a home visiting intervention for young parents. MTB clinicians routinely distribute diapers in partnership with The Diaper Bank in Connecticut. We used directed content analysis to code and analyze interview transcripts. These preliminary findings indicate that partnerships between home visiting programs and diaper banks may benefit families by improving diaper access, reducing stigma, and fostering trusting relationships with home visitors. Home visiting program benefits including engagement or re-engagement with families may need to be balanced with potential effects on clinical and therapeutic relationships. Recommendations for next steps in research and related policy questions are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Preventing Sudden Death in Sport and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katch, Rachel K; Scarneo, Samantha E; Adams, William M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Belval, Luke N; Stamm, Julie M; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    Participation in organized sport and recreational activities presents an innate risk for serious morbidity and mortality. Although death during sport or physical activity has many causes, advancements in sports medicine and evidence-based standards of care have allowed clinicians to prevent, recognize, and treat potentially fatal injuries more effectively. With the continual progress of research and technology, current standards of care are evolving to enhance patient outcomes. In this article, we provided 10 key questions related to the leading causes and treatment of sudden death in sport and physical activity, where future research will support safer participation for athletes and recreational enthusiasts. The current evidence indicates that most deaths can be avoided when proper strategies are in place to prevent occurrence or provide optimal care.

  6. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  7. How Tom Moon's research highlighted the question of glucose tolerance in carnivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakof, S; Panserat, S

    2016-09-01

    Fifteen years ago, Tom Moon wrote a review on this journal in order to propose some explanations to the exacerbated glycaemic response after a glucose load or a carbohydrate meal intake observed in fish, the so-called intolerance to glucose. Before, but in most of cases after this paper, several laboratories worldwide started to make important efforts in order to better understand this strange phenotype observed in fish and that so far seemed to belong to diabetic humans only. Tom had been worked on fish metabolism for at least 30years when he proposed that mini-review and the paths opened by him in 2001 were followed by tens of fish researchers, making this paper a breaking point on the field. Fifteen years later, we propose not only to have a look to the answers given to the questions rose in that paper, but also to summarize how his career over all these years impacted the domain of glucose metabolism in fish. In the review, we will show how Tom Moon analysed at different levels (from genes up to the whole organism), using distinct experimental tools (cells, hormone or glucose injection, pumps, drugs) the questions of glucose metabolism, tolerance and nutrition in fish species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fifth research coordination meeting on the measurement and evaluation of transactinium isotope nuclear data. Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel, Belgium, 1-3 September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1982-12-01

    Proceedings of the fifth meeting of the participants in the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme to measure and evaluate the required nuclear decay data of heavy element radionuclides, convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section on 1-3 September 1982 at CBNM, Geel, Belgium. The meeting participants reviewed the data requirements, updated and extended the recommended list of half-lives, and continued to review the status of alpha and gamma radiation spectra emitted in the decay of transactinium isotopes. (author)

  9. ACT-CCREC Core Research Program: Study Questions and Design. ACT Working Paper Series. WP-2015-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruce, Ty M.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a non-technical overview of the guiding research questions and research design for the ACT-led core research program conducted on behalf of the GEAR UP College and Career Readiness Evaluation Consortium (CCREC). The core research program is a longitudinal study of the effectiveness of 14 GEAR UP state grants on the academic…

  10. Questioning the Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  11. The Neurobiology of Emotion-Cognition Interactions: Fundamental Questions and Strategies for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadas eOkon-Singer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the emergence of powerful new tools for assaying the brain and a remarkable acceleration of research focused on the interplay of emotion and cognition. This work has begun to yield new insights into fundamental questions about the nature of the mind and important clues about the origins of mental illness. In particular, this research demonstrates that stress, anxiety, and other kinds of emotion can profoundly influence key elements of cognition, including selective attention, working memory, and cognitive control. Often, this influence persists beyond the duration of transient emotional challenges, partially reflecting the slower molecular dynamics of catecholamine and hormonal neurochemistry. In turn, circuits involved in attention, executive control, and working memory contribute to the regulation of emotion. The distinction between the ‘emotional’ and the ‘cognitive’ brain is fuzzy and context-dependent. Indeed, there is compelling evidence that brain territories and psychological processes commonly associated with cognition, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and working memory, play a central role in emotion. Furthermore, putatively emotional and cognitive regions influence one another via a complex web of connections in ways that jointly contribute to adaptive and maladaptive behavior. This work demonstrates that emotion and cognition are deeply interwoven in the fabric of the brain, suggesting that widely held beliefs about the key constituents of ‘the emotional brain’ and ‘the cognitive brain’ are fundamentally flawed. We conclude by outlining several strategies for enhancing future research. Developing a deeper understanding of the emotional-cognitive brain is important, not just for understanding the mind but also for elucidating the root causes of its disorders.

  12. Reincarnation Revisited: Question format and the distribution of belief in reincarnation in survey research

    OpenAIRE

    Siegers, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Comparing frequency of belief in reincarnation from different international survey projects (RAMP, EVS, ISSP) reveals differences of about 15 to 20 percent depending on the specific question format. If single binary questions are used, then belief in reincarnation is more often reported than if a forced-choice question is used which offers respondents alternatives to belief in reincarnation (e.g. resurrection). One possible explanation for this result is that respondents confuse reincarnation...

  13. The Impact of Political Context on the Questions Asked and Answered: The Evolution of Education Research on Racial Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Amy Stuart; Roda, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines how the larger political context and policies enacted at different points in American history have affected the questions education researchers asked and answered. The authors argue that while education researchers are often quick to consider how their research should shape policy, they are less likely to contemplate the…

  14. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  15. The prime questions in authentic patient's consultations: a call for additional research on current and new paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hanh Thi

    2013-01-01

    Although the 3 prime questions ("What did your doctor tell you the medication is for?" "How did your doctor tell you to take the medication?," and "What did your doctor tell you to expect?") have been recommended as a way to implement an interactive approach to patient's counseling in pharmacy, research examining how these questions are actually used in practice is relatively sparse. Qualitative approaches might assist to inform pertinent questions that might challenge prevailing paradigms. This commentary calls for a close look at how novice pharmacists in training manage these questions in real-life patient's consultations. These examples are aimed to provide preliminary observations about (1) how the prime questions in their original and modified forms are treated by pharmacists in training and patients, and (2) the interactional functions that the prime questions and similar questions may serve. Preliminary observations based on a conversation analysis of these examples show that the open-ended nature of the original prime questions sometimes leads to interactional problems such as delays in patients' responses and pharmacists' revision of the questions. Modified question formats that involve the use of specific knowledge expected to be possessed by a pharmacist, such as declarative questions and Q-word questions with concrete information, may lead to smoother interaction. Finally, questions about the purpose of the therapy may also be used to create opportunities to express empathy toward the patient or to shift the zone of expertise to the doctor. These initial findings suggest a more context sensitive and adaptive approach to communication in pharmacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proceedings of NUCLEAR 2015 the 8th annual international conference on sustainable development through nuclear research and education. Part 1/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Marin; Turcu, Ilie

    2015-01-01

    The proceedings of the NUCLEAR 2015 the 8"t"h annual international conference on sustainable development through nuclear research and education. Part 1/3 held at INR-Pitesti on May, 27-29 contain 62 communications presented in two plenary sessions and three sections addressing the themes of Nuclear energy, Environmental protection and Sustainable development. In turn these sections are addressing the following items: Section 1.1 Nuclear safety and severe accidents (7 papers); Section 1.2 Nuclear reactors and gen. IV (5 papers); Section 1.3 Nuclear technology and materials (19 papers); Section 2.1 Radioprotection & air, water and soil protection (1 paper); Section 2.2 Radioactive waste management (9 papers); Section 3.1 policies and strategies in nuclear research (1 paper); Section 3.2 Education, training and knowledge management (16 papers); Section 3.3 International partnership for a sustainable development (4 papers). These papers are presented as abstracts in 'Nuclear 2015 - Book of Abstracts', separately processed

  17. [The mixed design in nursing sciences or when a question of research calls for qualitative and quantitative strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgault, Patricia; Gallagher, Frances; Michaud, Cécile; Saint-Cyr-Tribble, Denise

    2010-12-01

    The use of a mixed method research design raises many questions, especially regarding the paradigmatic position. With this paradigm, we may consider the mixed method design as the best way of answering a research question and the latter orients to one of the different subtypes of mixed method design. To illustrate the use of this kind of design, we propose a study such as conducted in nursing sciences. In this article, the challenges raised by the mixed method design, and the place of this type of research in nursing sciences is discussed.

  18. Scholar-Craftsmanship: Question-Type, Epistemology, Culture of Inquiry, and Personality-Type in Dissertation Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Thomas P.; Rogers, Katrina S.

    2013-01-01

    "Scholar-Craftsmanship" (SC) is a quadrant methodological framework created to help social science doctoral students construct first-time dissertation research. The framework brackets and predicts how epistemological domains, cultures of inquiries, personality indicators, and research question--types can be correlated in dissertation…

  19. Testing for Questionable Research Practices in a Meta-Analysis: An Example from Experimental Parapsychology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick J Bierman

    Full Text Available We describe a method of quantifying the effect of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs on the results of meta-analyses. As an example we simulated a meta-analysis of a controversial telepathy protocol to assess the extent to which these experimental results could be explained by QRPs. Our simulations used the same numbers of studies and trials as the original meta-analysis and the frequencies with which various QRPs were applied in the simulated experiments were based on surveys of experimental psychologists. Results of both the meta-analysis and simulations were characterized by 4 metrics, two describing the trial and mean experiment hit rates (HR of around 31%, where 25% is expected by chance, one the correlation between sample-size and hit-rate, and one the complete P-value distribution of the database. A genetic algorithm optimized the parameters describing the QRPs, and the fitness of the simulated meta-analysis was defined as the sum of the squares of Z-scores for the 4 metrics. Assuming no anomalous effect a good fit to the empirical meta-analysis was found only by using QRPs with unrealistic parameter-values. Restricting the parameter space to ranges observed in studies of QRP occurrence, under the untested assumption that parapsychologists use comparable QRPs, the fit to the published Ganzfeld meta-analysis with no anomalous effect was poor. We allowed for a real anomalous effect, be it unidentified QRPs or a paranormal effect, where the HR ranged from 25% (chance to 31%. With an anomalous HR of 27% the fitness became F = 1.8 (p = 0.47 where F = 0 is a perfect fit. We conclude that the very significant probability cited by the Ganzfeld meta-analysis is likely inflated by QRPs, though results are still significant (p = 0.003 with QRPs. Our study demonstrates that quantitative simulations of QRPs can assess their impact. Since meta-analyses in general might be polluted by QRPs, this method has wide applicability outside the domain of

  20. Testing for Questionable Research Practices in a Meta-Analysis: An Example from Experimental Parapsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Dick J; Spottiswoode, James P; Bijl, Aron

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method of quantifying the effect of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs) on the results of meta-analyses. As an example we simulated a meta-analysis of a controversial telepathy protocol to assess the extent to which these experimental results could be explained by QRPs. Our simulations used the same numbers of studies and trials as the original meta-analysis and the frequencies with which various QRPs were applied in the simulated experiments were based on surveys of experimental psychologists. Results of both the meta-analysis and simulations were characterized by 4 metrics, two describing the trial and mean experiment hit rates (HR) of around 31%, where 25% is expected by chance, one the correlation between sample-size and hit-rate, and one the complete P-value distribution of the database. A genetic algorithm optimized the parameters describing the QRPs, and the fitness of the simulated meta-analysis was defined as the sum of the squares of Z-scores for the 4 metrics. Assuming no anomalous effect a good fit to the empirical meta-analysis was found only by using QRPs with unrealistic parameter-values. Restricting the parameter space to ranges observed in studies of QRP occurrence, under the untested assumption that parapsychologists use comparable QRPs, the fit to the published Ganzfeld meta-analysis with no anomalous effect was poor. We allowed for a real anomalous effect, be it unidentified QRPs or a paranormal effect, where the HR ranged from 25% (chance) to 31%. With an anomalous HR of 27% the fitness became F = 1.8 (p = 0.47 where F = 0 is a perfect fit). We conclude that the very significant probability cited by the Ganzfeld meta-analysis is likely inflated by QRPs, though results are still significant (p = 0.003) with QRPs. Our study demonstrates that quantitative simulations of QRPs can assess their impact. Since meta-analyses in general might be polluted by QRPs, this method has wide applicability outside the domain of experimental

  1. Exploring Pre-Service Science Teacher Methods and Strategies for the Driving Questions in Research Inquiry: From Consulting an Instructor to Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Miraç

    2016-01-01

    An important stage in any research inquiry is the development of research questions that need to be answered. The strategies to develop research questions should be defined and described, but few studies have considered this process in greater detail. This study explores pre-service science teachers' research questions and the strategies they can…

  2. Young Children and E-Reading: Research to Date and Questions for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth B.; Warschauer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The practice of reading is rapidly moving from print to screen. Young children are not immune from this trend; indeed, many children's principal literacy experiences occur using iPads and other handheld digital devices. This transition raises important questions about how the emergence and development of literacy might change in these new…

  3. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  4. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  5. "While we are questioning we are progressing"—A Reply to the Ancestors of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Götsch

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available REICHERTZ' reflections on the development of qualitative research during the Berlin Meeting on Qualitative Research Methods in 2009 (http://www.berliner-methodentreffen.de/ have led to the following central questions: Are we facing the end of critical social research? Is this possible end correlated with an uncritical mass of young scientists? In their reply to the ancestors of qualitative research the present authors advocate the abolition of a bipolar thinking about the issues and support a hybrid turn, standing the test through a fundamentally open-minded, reflexive, and deconstructive researcher`s attitude. Using the example of ethnography and gender studies we show that there are indeed opportunities for the future of critical social research: This approach would take place beyond the slaves of market-controlled contract research and ahead of the characters of the eternal hall of fame of social research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0903306

  6. On the question of leadership: the postwar Department of Education and Research at the AIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avigail Sachs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1946 the American Institute of Architects established a Department of Education and Research (E&R, under architect Walter A. Taylor. The name given the new department signaled the importance of research for architecture, and the AIA’s intended leadership role in promoting research-based architectural practice. E&R developed research policies under an advisory board and in 1959 convened a conference on research for architecture, funded by the National Science Foundation. Butthe AIA never assumed full leadership in research for architecture: The scope of the project was beyond the means of either academia or the profession, and postwar research policies remained decentralized. Although E&R played a role in directing applied research, academic institutions provedmore able to assume leadership of basic research. This history illustrates the complexity of leadership in a field that bridges academia and professional practice, as well as the importance of multiple leadership roles.

  7. Proceedings of NUCLEAR 2013 the 6th annual international conference on sustainable development through nuclear research and education. Part 1/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Marin; Turcu, Ilie

    2013-01-01

    The proceedings of the NUCLEAR 2013 international conference on sustainable development through nuclear research and education held at INR-Pitesti on May, 2-24 2013 contain 79 communications presented in two plenary sessions (6 and 8 talks, respectively) and three sections addressing the themes of Nuclear energy, Environmental protection, and Sustainable development . In turn these sections are addressing the following items: Section 1.1 - Nuclear Technology and Materials (33 papers); Section 1.2 Nuclear Safety and Sever Accidents (16 papers); 1.3 Nuclear Reactors and Gen IV (20 papers); 2.1 Radioactive Waste Management (13 papers); 2.2 Radioprotection and 2.3 Air, Water, Soil Protection (17 papers); 3.1 Polices and Strategies in Nuclear Research (0 papers); 3.2 International Partnership for a Sustainable Development (2 papers); 3.3 Education, Continuous Formation and Knowledge Transfer (1 papers). These papers are presented as abstracts in 'Nuclear 2013 - Book of Abstracts', separately processed

  8. What Makes a Scientific Research Question Worth Investigating? Students' Epistemic Criteria and Considerations of Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Eric Bruckner

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation introduces the construct of "worthwhileness" as an important aspect of students' "practical" epistemologies of science (Sandoval, 2005). Specifically, it examines how students conceptualize what makes a scientific research question worthwhile, through a close analysis of the criteria they use for…

  9. Association between framing of the research question using the PICOT format and reporting quality of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabane Lehana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experts recommend formulating a structured research question to guide the research design. However, the basis for this recommendation has not been formally evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine if a structured research question using the PICOT (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome, Time-frame format is associated with a better reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Methods We evaluated 89 RCTs reports published in three endocrinology journals in 2005 and 2006, the quality of reporting of which was assessed in a previous study. We examined whether the reports stated each of the five elements of a structured research question: population, intervention, comparator, outcome and time-frame. A PICOT score was created with a possible score between 0 and 5. Outcomes were: 1 a 14-point overall reporting quality score (OQS based on the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials; and 2 a 3-point key score (KS, based on allocation concealment, blinding and use of intention-to-treat analysis. We conducted multivariable regression analyses using generalized estimating equations to determine if a higher PICOT score or the use of a structured research question were independently associated with a better reporting quality. Journal of publication, funding source and sample size were identified as factors associated with OQS in our previous report on this dataset, and therefore included in the model. Results A higher PICOT score was independently associated with OQS (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.021, 95% CI: 1.012 to 1.029 and KS (IRR = 1.142, 95% CI: 1.079 to 1.210. A structured research question was present in 33.7% of the reports and it was associated with a better OQS (IRR = 1.095, 95% CI 1.059-1.132 and KS (IRR = 1.530, 95% CI 1.311-1.786. Conclusions Better framing of the research question using the PICOT format is independently associated with better overall reporting quality - although the effect

  10. Beyond "on" or "with": Questioning Power Dynamics and Knowledge Production in "Child-Oriented" Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunleth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    By taking a reflexive approach to research methodology, this article contributes to discussions on power dynamics and knowledge production in the social studies of children. The author describes and analyzes three research methods that she used with children--drawing, child-led tape-recording and focus group discussions. These methods were carried…

  11. Theory and History, Questions and Methodology: Current and Future Issues in Research into ICT in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Anne; Jones, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Serious criticisms of research in information and communications technology (ICT) in education have been published recently in both the UK and the USA. This paper addresses several issues raised in these commentaries: a lack of sound theoretical underpinnings to our research, persistent neglect of the history of our sub-discipline, the choice of…

  12. Applications of Adaptive Quantum Control to Research Questions in Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damrauer, Niels [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This award supported a broad research effort at the University of Colorado at Boulder comprising synthesis, applications of computational chemistry, development of theory, exploration of material properties, and advancement of spectroscopic tools including femtosecond pulse shaping techniques. It funded six graduate students and two postdoctoral researchers.

  13. A Return to the Gold Standard? Questioning the Future of Narrative Construction as Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Narrative construction is an approach to social research in which data are configured into any of a variety of diachronic, or storied, formats. Having recently gained popularity, this approach is now in danger of marginalization (along with other qualitative and quantitative forms of social research) as a result of politically charged attempts to…

  14. Reactions to Participating in Dating Violence Research: Are Our Questions Distressing Participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Cornelius, Tara L.; Bell, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased research focus on dating violence, producing important information for reducing these violent relationships. Yet Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are often hesitant to approve research on dating violence, citing emotional distress of participants as a possible risk of participation. However, no known…

  15. Vercors: a 1/3 scaled mockup and an ambitious research program to better understand the different mechanisms of leakage and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, B.; Galenne, E.; Oukhemanou, E.; Aubry, C.; Laou-Sio-Hoi, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the new EDF research program on a NPP containment building. It is based on a very large mockup at scale 1/3 of a PWR reactor containment. The conception choices have been guided by the mockup objectives: representativeness (the mock-up has to be as close as possible to the real containment building in order to facilitate the transfer of the results from the test case to the NPP cases) and accelerated aging (the proposed solution is to construct the mock-up at a reduced scale (scale 1:3): the drying of the structure will be then faster, as the wall thickness will be reduced. This will result in a faster drying creep, which is supposed to be the main phenomena explaining the leak rate evolution. In addition, in order to enable visual inspections and monitoring, a metallic structure supporting various annular floors is erected inside the containment, and another one is anchored in the external wall. Materials of the model have been selected to be as much as possible similar than the ones used for the construction of full scale containments, in terms of mechanical and thermal behavior as well. Concrete class is 34/37 MPa. Nevertheless, the concrete mix microstructure cannot be perfectly scaled due to aggregates size. The prestressing tendons layout is exactly scaled, including any deviations around penetrations: tendons spacing is divided by 3, and the ducts diameter is scaled as much as reasonably possible for the contractor (50 mm). The mock-up will be finely instrumented so that its behavior is monitored from the beginning of the construction. More than 500 sensors and 2 km of fiber optic cables are to be positioned in the concrete, both on the rebars and on the prestressing cables. Lots of results can be of interest for the civil engineering community: scale effects on shrinkage, drying and creep, apparition and evolution of cracks, influence of the temperature on the creep velocity, on-field validation of new inspections techniques

  16. Security and Health Research Databases: The Stakeholders and Questions to Be Addressed

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Health research database security issues abound. Issues include subject confidentiality, data ownership, data integrity and data accessibility. There are also various stakeholders in database security. Each of these stakeholders has a different set of concerns and responsibilities when dealing with security issues. There is an obvious need for training in security issues, so that these issues may be addressed and health research will move on without added obstacles based on misunderstanding s...

  17. Security and health research databases: the stakeholders and questions to be addressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Health research database security issues abound. Issues include subject confidentiality, data ownership, data integrity and data accessibility. There are also various stakeholders in database security. Each of these stakeholders has a different set of concerns and responsibilities when dealing with security issues. There is an obvious need for training in security issues, so that these issues may be addressed and health research will move on without added obstacles based on misunderstanding security methods and technologies.

  18. Expanding the Frontiers of Population Nutrition Research: New Questions, New Methods, and New Approaches12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, David L.; Porter, Christine M.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Wuehler, Sara E.; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition research, ranging from molecular to population levels and all points along this spectrum, is exploring new frontiers as new technologies and societal changes create new possibilities and demands. This paper defines a set of frontiers at the population level that are being created by the increased societal recognition of the importance of nutrition; its connection to urgent health, social, and environmental problems; and the need for effective and sustainable solutions at the population level. The frontiers are defined in terms of why, what, who, and how we study at the population level and the disciplinary foundations for that research. The paper provides illustrations of research along some of these frontiers, an overarching framework for population nutrition research, and access to some of the literature from outside of nutrition that can enhance the intellectual coherence, practical utility, and societal benefit of population nutrition research. The frontiers defined in this paper build on earlier forward-looking efforts by the American Society for Nutrition and extend these efforts in significant ways. The American Society for Nutrition and its members can play pivotal roles in advancing these frontiers by addressing a number of well-recognized challenges associated with transdisciplinary and engaged research. PMID:23319128

  19. Persistent Offenders in the North West of England, 1880-1940: Some Critical Research Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Cox, Steve Farrall and Barry Godfrey

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the concept of the persistent offender as a group within society, and the presumed impact of that discrete group upon society via a case study of offending in Crewe between 1880 and 1940. The findings of persistent offending in Crewe challenge the assumptions and prejudices of the period, about the links between unemployment and crime and the extent to which crime was an enduring ‘career’. There were no ‘hardened’ persistent offenders in the sample of the type envisaged by contemporary comment, though the role of drink in offending was sustained; and there was no clear ‘type’ of offender either. Examination of the life histories of a selection of offenders is shown to raise a number of interdisciplinary questions, challenging the assumptions of criminologists and legal scholars in relation to the role of legislation in the management of criminality, including the concept (of interest also to historians that reformation of the criminal was more achievable in the past than it is in the over-regulated present.

  20. Counter-Stereotypes and Images: An Exploratory Research and Some Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Messabel, Christine; Ferrière, Séverine; Martinez, Frederic; Devif, Julie; Reeb, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the construction and perpetuation of gender stereotypes are classic research subjects in social psychology and in the field of educational guidelines in France. The most recent government decree aims to counter stereotypes in schools, by exposing pupils to counter-stereotypes. This study examines the effects of activating…

  1. Children's Media Use and Sleep Problems: Issues and Unanswered Questions. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J.

    2008-01-01

    Research shows that most children and adolescents do not get enough high-quality sleep, and that their sleep times appear to have declined over the last two decades. Coinciding with this trend has been the rise in popularity of new media forms including the Internet, video games, cell phones and DVDs. Because of the immediacy and interactivity of…

  2. Garbage in, Garbage out? Questioning Key Variable Face Validity in Contemporary Quantitative Crowdfunding Research

    OpenAIRE

    Grundy, David; Sloan, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Current Crowdfunding research, usually firmly rooted in quantitative analysis of backing progress towards a set funding goal, completely misses key business issues and makes substantial assumptions regarding the definition of success which are starkly naive and lacking in a understanding of how these systems are gamed by entrepreneurs to maximise both their commercial exposure and raised funds.

  3. Representing Refugee Youth in Qualitative Research: Questions of Ethics, Language and Authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstensson Dávila, Liv

    2014-01-01

    This article speaks conceptually and methodologically about the ethics and politics of doing research with newcomer refugee youth and issues of representation. Feminist poststructuralist paradigms across a variety of fields have critically examined notions of experience, agency, and identity to in order to encompass more fluid understandings of…

  4. Big data and data repurposing - using existing data to answer new questions in vascular dementia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubal, Fergus N; Ali, Myzoon; Batty, G David; Charidimou, Andreas; Eriksdotter, Maria; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Kim, Yun-Hee; Levine, Deborah A; Mead, Gillian; Mucke, Hermann A M; Ritchie, Craig W; Roberts, Charlotte J; Russ, Tom C; Stewart, Robert; Whiteley, William; Quinn, Terence J

    2017-04-17

    Traditional approaches to clinical research have, as yet, failed to provide effective treatments for vascular dementia (VaD). Novel approaches to collation and synthesis of data may allow for time and cost efficient hypothesis generating and testing. These approaches may have particular utility in helping us understand and treat a complex condition such as VaD. We present an overview of new uses for existing data to progress VaD research. The overview is the result of consultation with various stakeholders, focused literature review and learning from the group's experience of successful approaches to data repurposing. In particular, we benefitted from the expert discussion and input of delegates at the 9 th International Congress on Vascular Dementia (Ljubljana, 16-18 th October 2015). We agreed on key areas that could be of relevance to VaD research: systematic review of existing studies; individual patient level analyses of existing trials and cohorts and linking electronic health record data to other datasets. We illustrated each theme with a case-study of an existing project that has utilised this approach. There are many opportunities for the VaD research community to make better use of existing data. The volume of potentially available data is increasing and the opportunities for using these resources to progress the VaD research agenda are exciting. Of course, these approaches come with inherent limitations and biases, as bigger datasets are not necessarily better datasets and maintaining rigour and critical analysis will be key to optimising data use.

  5. [The legal question of the obtention of human stem cells for biomedical research. Legislation policy considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2006-01-01

    The future Law on Biomedical Research, whose draft bill has been approved by the Council of Ministers and that will soon begin its parliamentary process of approval, will regulate, among other matters, the research with embryos. Likewise, it will make a pronouncement on the so-called therapeutic cloning. This report makes a detailed analysis of different matters that must be borne in mind by the legislator in order to face the process of evaluation and approval of said Law in relation with the aforementioned matters. It makes a special analysis of the legal texts of an international nature to which Spain is unavoidably subjected to, in such a way that the legislative text that will finally be approved is not contrary to the dispositions that are within such.

  6. Caribou Co-Management Needs From Research: Simple questions - Tricky answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Urquhart

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, northern Canada has experienced a substantial increase in government reliance on advisory co-management organizations to manage caribou populations. Such groups, which are usually composed of government and local representatives, constantly require information about caribou upon which to base their recommendations. However, the standard 'scientific' approach to obtaining and presenting such information is in many cases no longer appropriate. In order to readjust the scientific focus on caribou research so that it is better attuned to co-management, this paper examines the role that research plays in the Canadian management of the Porcupine Caribou Herd as practiced by the Porcupine Caribou Management Board - a co-management advisory organization with a majority of native representatives.

  7. Neutrinos (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    In this course, the basic features of neutrino physics are reviewed, pointing to the very special characteristics of this elusive particle and to the related open questions. Emphasis is given to the neutrino oscillation mechanism and to the state of the art of the experimental studies, mostly in relation to the many interesting results obtained in the last years.

  8. Synthesizing models useful for ecohydrology and ecohydraulic approaches: An emphasis on integrating models to address complex research questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Shannon K.; Worthington, Thomas; Mollenhauer, Robert; Stewart, David; McManamay, Ryan; Guertault, Lucie; Moore, Desiree

    2018-01-01

    Ecohydrology combines empiricism, data analytics, and the integration of models to characterize linkages between ecological and hydrological processes. A challenge for practitioners is determining which models best generalizes heterogeneity in hydrological behaviour, including water fluxes across spatial and temporal scales, integrating environmental and socio‐economic activities to determine best watershed management practices and data requirements. We conducted a literature review and synthesis of hydrologic, hydraulic, water quality, and ecological models designed for solving interdisciplinary questions. We reviewed 1,275 papers and identified 178 models that have the capacity to answer an array of research questions about ecohydrology or ecohydraulics. Of these models, 43 were commonly applied due to their versatility, accessibility, user‐friendliness, and excellent user‐support. Forty‐one of 43 reviewed models were linked to at least 1 other model especially: Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (linked to 21 other models), Soil and Water Assessment Tool (19), and Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (15). However, model integration was still relatively infrequent. There was substantial variation in model applications, possibly an artefact of the regional focus of research questions, simplicity of use, quality of user‐support efforts, or a limited understanding of model applicability. Simply increasing the interoperability of model platforms, transformation of models to user‐friendly forms, increasing user‐support, defining the reliability and risk associated with model results, and increasing awareness of model applicability may promote increased use of models across subdisciplines. Nonetheless, the current availability of models allows an array of interdisciplinary questions to be addressed, and model choice relates to several factors including research objective, model complexity, ability to link to other models, and

  9. The question waiting to be asked: Innate immunity receptors in the perspective of zoological research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, Suppl. 1 (2009), s. 15-28 ISSN 0139-7893. [Central European Meeting on Mouse Epigenetics /1./. Nové Hrady, 14.08.2008-17.08.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA ČR GA206/08/1281; GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : animal immunogenetics * ecological and evolutionary immunology * immunity genes * parasites * wild-living populations * ecoimmunology * immunoecology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2009

  10. Defining the questions: a research agenda for nontraditional authentication in arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Danielle K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Morag K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thron, Jonathan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Many traditional authentication techniques have been based on hardware solutions. Thus authentication of measurement system hardware has been considered in terms of physical inspection and destructive analysis. Software authentication has implied hash function analysis or authentication tools such as Rose. Continuity of knowledge is maintained through TIDs and cameras. Although there is ongoing progress improving all of these authentication methods, there has been little discussion of the human factors involved in authentication. Issues of non-traditional authentication include sleight-of-hand substitutions, monitor perception vs. reality, and visual diversions. Since monitor confidence in a measurement system depends on the product of their confidences in each authentication element, it is important to investigate all authentication techniques, including the human factors. This paper will present an initial effort to identify the most important problems that traditional authentication approaches in safeguards have not addressed and are especially relevant to arms control verification. This will include a survey of the literature and direct engagement with nontraditional experts in areas like psychology and human factors. Based on the identification of problem areas, potential research areas will be identified and a possible research agenda will be developed.

  11. Flood Risk Management Policy in Scotland: Research Questions Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Hastings, Emily; MacDonald, Jannette

    2016-04-01

    Scotland's Centre of Expertise for Waters (CREW) delivers accessible research and expert opinion to support the Scottish Government and its delivery partners in the development and implementation of water policy. It was established in 2011 by the Scottish Government (Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services) in recognition of a gap in the provision of short term advice and research to policy (development and implementation). Key policy areas include the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Habitats Directive and Scotland's Hydro Nation Strategy. CREW is unique in its demand-driven and free service for policy makers and practitioners, managing the engagement between scientists, policy makers and practitioners to work effectively across this interface. The users of CREW are the Scottish Government, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Natural Heritage and Scottish Water. CREW has funded around 100 projects relating to water policy since its inception in 2011. Of these, a significant number relate to flood risk management policy. Based on a review of work to date, this poster will give an overview of these projects and a forward look at the challenges that remain. From learning from community led flood risk management to surface water flood forecasting for urban communities, links will be made between sustainable and traditional flood risk management while considering the perceptions of stakeholders to flood risk management. How can we deliver fully integrated flood risk management options? How policy makers, scientists and land managers can better work together will also be explored.

  12. Measuring sun exposure in epidemiological studies: Matching the method to the research question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura; Xiang, Fan; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Lucas, Robyn M

    2015-12-01

    Sun exposure has risks and benefits for health. Testing these associations requires tools for measuring sun exposure that are feasible and relevant to the time-course of the health outcome. Recent sun exposure, e.g. the last week, is best captured by dosimeters and sun diaries. These can also be used for medium-term sun exposure e.g. over several weeks, but incur a high participant burden. Self-reported data on "typical time outdoors" for working and non-working days, is less detailed and not influenced by day-to-day variation. Over a longer period, e.g. the lifetime, or for particular life stages, proxies of sun exposure, such as latitude of residence or ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels (from satellites or ground-level monitoring) can be used, with additional detail provided by lifetime sun exposure calendars that include locations of residence, usual time outdoors, and detail of sunburn episodes. Objective measures of lifetime sun exposure include microtopography of sun-exposed skin (e.g. using silicone casts) or conjunctival UV autofluorescence. Potential modifiers of the association between sun exposure and the health outcome, such as clothing coverage and skin colour, may also need to be measured. We provide a systematic approach to selecting sun exposure measures for use in epidemiological health research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. On the Question of Methodological Support of Research on Relationships of Interpersonal Significance in Kindergarten Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyn V.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the importance of in-depth research (in particular, employing an algorithm developed by M.Yu. Kondratyev for defining integral status of an individual on child-child interpersonal relationship in kindergarten groups. Although relationships with significant adults are by all means essential for preschool children, interpersonal relation- ships on the child-child level to a great extent shape the content of the social situation of development in general. Still, when it comes to revealing status and role position of the child in the structure of interpersonal relationships within the kindergarten group, there’s the challenge of defining informal intragroup structure of power in contact community (due to the age specifics. The paper suggests how this challenge may be addressed and provides a version of the technique suitable for preschoolers that helps overcome age restrictions implied by the original technique. Also, the paper reports on the outcomes of approbation of this version which proved its heuristic nature. For instance, the outcomes show a high degree of correlation between the results of kindergarten group members ranking in accordance with their influence upon peers carried out by teachers working in these groups.

  14. The Medical Anthropologist as the Patient: Developing Research Questions on Hospital Food in Japan through Auto-Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Runestad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available I was an inpatient at a small maternity clinic in Japan in 2012–13 and found it impossible to separate the way I experienced medical care and my training as a medical anthropologist. As I was encouraged to eat and monitor my weight so that I would “grow” a healthy baby, I recalled how interviewees from my HIV/AIDS project described nourishing their bodies so they could fight disease. Because of my experience in the healthcare system in Japan, I ended up reframing my data to add questions about the role of hospital food in patient care. Meanwhile, I developed the social networks necessary to execute a new project, which I would later undertake. In this essay I argue that medical anthropologists working from a phenomenological perspective may regard their own bodies as assets rather than hindrances in research, and that because bodies are gendered, focusing on this facet of habitus can be particularly informative. I also illustrate how systematic reflection on personal experience in the field (autoethnography aids in the development of research questions and reframing data. Finally, I discuss how highlighting these steps in research methods courses can demystify the research process for students.

  15. Collaborative Chat Reference Service Effectiveness Varies by Question Type for Public Library Patrons. A review of: Kwon, Nahyun. ʺPublic Library Patronsʹ Use of Collaborative Chat Reference Service: The Effectiveness of Question Answering by Question Type.ʺ Library & Information Science Research 29.1 (Mar. 2007: 70‐91.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hall

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess the effectiveness of a collaborative chat reference service in answering different types of question. Specifically, the study compares the degree of answer completion and the level of user satisfaction for simple factual questions vs. more in‐depth subject‐based reference questions, and for ‘local’ (pertaining to a particular library and non‐local questions.Design – Content analysis of 415 transcripts of reference transactions, which were also compared to corresponding user satisfaction survey results.Setting – An online collaborative reference service offered by a large public library system (33 branch and regional locations. This service is part of the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System: a virtual reference consortium of U.S. libraries (public, academic, special, and corporate that provides 24/7 service.Subjects – Reference librarians from around the U.S. (49 different libraries, and users logging into the service via the public library system’s portal (primarily patrons of the 49 libraries. Method – Content analysis was used to evaluate virtual reference transcripts recorded between January and June, 2004. Reliability was enhanced through triangulation, with researchers comparing the content analysis of each transcript against the results of a voluntary exit survey. Of 1,387 transactions that occurred during the period of study, 420 users completed the survey and these formed the basis of the study, apart from 5 transactions that were omitted because the questions were incomprehensible. Questions were examined and assigned to five categories: “simple, factual questions; subject‐based research questions; resource access questions; circulation‐related questions; and local library information inquiries” (80‐81. Answers were classed as either “completely answered, partially answered or unanswered, referred, and problematic endings” (82. Lastly, user satisfaction was surveyed on three

  16. Students as Researchers: What and Why Seventh-Grade Students Choose to Write When Investigating Their Own Research Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørkvold, Tuva; Blikstad-Balas, Marte

    2018-01-01

    All scientists depend on both reading and writing to do their scientific work. It is of paramount importance to ensure that students have a relevant repertoire of practices they can employ when facing scientific content inside and outside the school context. The present study reports on students in seventh grade acting as researchers. Over an…

  17. The SPARK Tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in health policy and systems research: development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Fadlallah, Racha; Ghandour, Lilian; Kdouh, Ola; Langlois, Etienne; Lavis, John N; Schünemann, Holger; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2017-09-04

    Groups or institutions funding or conducting systematic reviews in health policy and systems research (HPSR) should prioritise topics according to the needs of policymakers and stakeholders. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in HPSR. We developed the tool following a four-step approach consisting of (1) the definition of the purpose and scope of tool, (2) item generation and reduction, (3) testing for content and face validity, (4) and pilot testing of the tool. The research team involved international experts in HPSR, systematic review methodology and tool development, led by the Center for Systematic Reviews on Health Policy and Systems Research (SPARK). We followed an inclusive approach in determining the final selection of items to allow customisation to the user's needs. The purpose of the SPARK tool was to prioritise questions in HPSR in order to address them in systematic reviews. In the item generation and reduction phase, an extensive literature search yielded 40 relevant articles, which were reviewed by the research team to create a preliminary list of 19 candidate items for inclusion in the tool. As part of testing for content and face validity, input from international experts led to the refining, changing, merging and addition of new items, and to organisation of the tool into two modules. Following pilot testing, we finalised the tool, with 22 items organised in two modules - the first module including 13 items to be rated by policymakers and stakeholders, and the second including 9 items to be rated by systematic review teams. Users can customise the tool to their needs, by omitting items that may not be applicable to their settings. We also developed a user manual that provides guidance on how to use the SPARK tool, along with signaling questions. We have developed and conducted initial validation of the SPARK tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in HPSR, along with

  18. Asking the right questions: Scoping studies in the commissioning of research on the organisation and delivery of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peckham Stephen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scoping studies have been used across a range of disciplines for a wide variety of purposes. However, their value is increasingly limited by a lack of definition and clarity of purpose. The UK's Service Delivery and Organisation Research Programme (SDO has extensive experience of commissioning and using such studies; twenty four have now been completed. This review article has four objectives; to describe the nature of the scoping studies that have been commissioned by the SDO Programme; to consider the impact of and uses made of such studies; to provide definitions for the different elements that may constitute a scoping study; and to describe the lessons learnt by the SDO Programme in commissioning scoping studies. Scoping studies are imprecisely defined but usually consist of one or more discrete components; most commonly they are non-systematic reviews of the literature, but other important elements are literature mapping, conceptual mapping and policy mapping. Some scoping studies also involve consultations with stakeholders including the end users of research. Scoping studies have been used for a wide variety of purposes, although a common feature is to identify questions and topics for future research. The reports of scoping studies often have an impact that extends beyond informing research commissioners about future research areas; some have been published in peer reviewed journals, and others have been published in research summaries aimed at a broader audience of health service managers and policymakers. Key lessons from the SDO experience are the need to relate scoping studies to a particular health service context; the need for scoping teams to be multi-disciplinary and to be given enough time to integrate diverse findings; and the need for the research commissioners to be explicit not only about the aims of scoping studies but also about their intended uses. This necessitates regular contact between researchers and

  19. Neutrinos (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The neutrino, the lightest and most weakly interacting particle of the Standard Model has revealed itself as the messenger of very exciting news in particle physics: there is Physics Beyond the Standard Model. All this thanks to the quantum-mechanical phenomenon of flavour oscillations which is intrinsically connected to the question of neutrino mass and which has been observed in neutrinos produced in natural sources, like the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere, as well as with human made neutrino beams at accelerator and reactors. The purpose of these lectures is to overview some aspects of the phenomenology of massive neutrinos. I will present the simplest extensions for adding neutrino masses to the SM, and then I will describe the phenomenology associated with neutrino oscillations in vacuum and in matter and its present signatures.

  20. Can simply answering research questions change behaviour? Systematic review and meta analyses of brief alcohol intervention trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McCambridge

    Full Text Available Participant reports of their own behaviour are critical for the provision and evaluation of behavioural interventions. Recent developments in brief alcohol intervention trials provide an opportunity to evaluate longstanding concerns that answering questions on behaviour as part of research assessments may inadvertently influence it and produce bias. The study objective was to evaluate the size and nature of effects observed in randomized manipulations of the effects of answering questions on drinking behaviour in brief intervention trials.Multiple methods were used to identify primary studies. Between-group differences in total weekly alcohol consumption, quantity per drinking day and AUDIT scores were evaluated in random effects meta-analyses. Ten trials were included in this review, of which two did not provide findings for quantitative study, in which three outcomes were evaluated. Between-group differences were of the magnitude of 13.7 (-0.17 to 27.6 grams of alcohol per week (approximately 1.5 U.K. units or 1 standard U.S. drink and 1 point (0.1 to 1.9 in AUDIT score. There was no difference in quantity per drinking day.Answering questions on drinking in brief intervention trials appears to alter subsequent self-reported behaviour. This potentially generates bias by exposing non-intervention control groups to an integral component of the intervention. The effects of brief alcohol interventions may thus have been consistently under-estimated. These findings are relevant to evaluations of any interventions to alter behaviours which involve participant self-report.

  1. Four Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  2. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  3. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  4. The 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak - A Fifty year old dream Realized: Telescope Characteristics, Current Research and Education Progr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward; Gelderman, Richard; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Carini, Michael T.; McGruder, Charles, III; Campbell, Rachel; Walter, Donald K.; Davis, Donald R.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) on Kitt Peak has a rich history, including its role as a prototype for remotely controlled telescopes during the 1960s. As such, the RCT could be considered one of the first - Telescopes from Afar. The telescope, originally called the Remotely Controlled Telescope, has been renamed the Robotically Controlled Telescope to reflect the change in operational control and mode of use. The RCT was a conceptual precursor of today's robotic telescopes, but the actual operation of a remotely controlled telescope was technologically premature for its time, and was subsequently manually operated primarily to conduct optical and infrared observations as well being used as a test bed for new spectroscopic and photometric instruments. In 1995 budget constraints forced the closing of the telescope as part of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), following nearly 30 years of distinguished service to KPNO. A request for proposals to operate this telescope was issued to the science community. The RCT consortium, lead by Western Kentucky University, was the successful proposer for operation of the telescope. After several difficult years of retrofitting, refurbishing, and automating the telecope and observatory dome, the telescope has returned to routine science operations in November 2009. The RCT has operated smoothly since that time, with no major interruptions. Observations of objects of interest to the consortium partners (including: comets & asteroids, variable & binary stars, exoplanets, supernovae, quasars & blazars) are being routinely obtained and evaluated. One of the distinguishing features of the RCT is that it is an autonomous observatory designed to handle diverse optical imaging and photometry programs. These include being able to automatically deal with a wide range of observing parameters such as -integration time, sky conditions, repetitions, return visits, filters, air mass, non-sidereal objects, transients etc

  5. The expert group health research and care after disasters and environmental crises: an analysis of research questions formulated by Dutch health authorities for the expert group between 2006 and 2016.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alting, D.; Dückers, M.L.; Yzermans, J.

    2017-01-01

    Study/Objective: The aim of this study is (1) to examine developments in the research questions, submitted to the Expert Group Health Research and Care after Disasters and Environmental Crises between 2006 and 2016, and (2) to explore implications of the research questions for the nature of advice

  6. Curiosity Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  7. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  8. Phonological loop affects children's interpretations of explicit but not ambiguous questions: Research on links between working memory and referent assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianwei; Murakami, Taro; Hashiya, Kazuhide

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the referent of other's utterance by referring the contextual information helps in smooth communication. Although this pragmatic referential process can be observed even in infants, its underlying mechanism and relative abilities remain unclear. This study aimed to comprehend the background of the referential process by investigating whether the phonological loop affected the referent assignment. A total of 76 children (43 girls) aged 3-5 years participated in a reference assignment task in which an experimenter asked them to answer explicit (e.g., "What color is this?") and ambiguous (e.g., "What about this?") questions about colorful objects. The phonological loop capacity was measured by using the forward digit span task in which children were required to repeat the numbers as an experimenter uttered them. The results showed that the scores of the forward digit span task positively predicted correct response to explicit questions and part of the ambiguous questions. That is, the phonological loop capacity did not have effects on referent assignment in response to ambiguous questions that were asked after a topic shift of the explicit questions and thus required a backward reference to the preceding explicit questions to detect the intent of the current ambiguous questions. These results suggest that although the phonological loop capacity could overtly enhance the storage of verbal information, it does not seem to directly contribute to the pragmatic referential process, which might require further social cognitive processes.

  9. Phonological loop affects children's interpretations of explicit but not ambiguous questions: Research on links between working memory and referent assignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwei Meng

    Full Text Available Understanding the referent of other's utterance by referring the contextual information helps in smooth communication. Although this pragmatic referential process can be observed even in infants, its underlying mechanism and relative abilities remain unclear. This study aimed to comprehend the background of the referential process by investigating whether the phonological loop affected the referent assignment. A total of 76 children (43 girls aged 3-5 years participated in a reference assignment task in which an experimenter asked them to answer explicit (e.g., "What color is this?" and ambiguous (e.g., "What about this?" questions about colorful objects. The phonological loop capacity was measured by using the forward digit span task in which children were required to repeat the numbers as an experimenter uttered them. The results showed that the scores of the forward digit span task positively predicted correct response to explicit questions and part of the ambiguous questions. That is, the phonological loop capacity did not have effects on referent assignment in response to ambiguous questions that were asked after a topic shift of the explicit questions and thus required a backward reference to the preceding explicit questions to detect the intent of the current ambiguous questions. These results suggest that although the phonological loop capacity could overtly enhance the storage of verbal information, it does not seem to directly contribute to the pragmatic referential process, which might require further social cognitive processes.

  10. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  11. Research and Teaching: Correlations between Students' Written Responses to Lecture-Tutorial Questions and Their Understandings of Key Astrophysics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, Jeffrey; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the correlations between students' understandings of introductory astronomy concepts and the correctness and coherency of their written responses to targeted Lecture-Tutorial questions.

  12. A Question of Control? Examining the Role of Control Conditions in Experimental Psychopathology using the Example of Cognitive Bias Modification Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Simon E; Woud, Marcella L; MacLeod, Colin

    2017-10-26

    While control conditions are vitally important in research, selecting the optimal control condition can be challenging. Problems are likely to arise when the choice of control condition is not tightly guided by the specific question that a given study aims to address. Such problems have become increasingly apparent in experimental psychopathology research investigating the experimental modification of cognitive biases, particularly as the focus of this research has shifted from theoretical questions concerning mechanistic aspects of the association between cognitive bias and emotional vulnerability, to questions that instead concern the clinical efficacy of 'cognitive bias modification' (CBM) procedures. We discuss the kinds of control conditions that have typically been employed in CBM research, illustrating how difficulties can arise when changes in the types of research questions asked are not accompanied by changes in the control conditions employed. Crucially, claims made on the basis of comparing active and control conditions within CBM studies should be restricted to those conclusions allowed by the specific control condition employed. CBM studies aiming to establish clinical utility are likely to require quite different control conditions from CBM studies aiming to illuminate mechanisms. Further, conclusions concerning the clinical utility of CBM interventions cannot necessarily be drawn from studies in which the control condition has been chosen to answer questions concerning mechanisms. Appreciating the need to appropriately alter control conditions in the transition from basic mechanisms-focussed investigations to applied clinical research could greatly facilitate the translational process.

  13. The Effect of Orthographic Complexity on Spanish Spelling in Grades 1-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Karen; Invernizzi, Marcia; Huang, Francis

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to identify a continuum of orthographic features that characterize Spanish spelling development in Grades 1-3. Two research questions guided this work: (1) Is there a hierarchy of orthographic features that affect students' spelling accuracy in Spanish over and above other school-level, student-level, and word-level…

  14. AFRREV IJAH, Vol.1 (3) July, 2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Abimbola

    society's support for the arts as a major field of research and experimentation. Nonetheless ..... become a political football. However, the question ... (as opposed to healthcare, or child welfare), they may respond very differently. Given this, it is ...

  15. On the Science of Embodied Cognition in the 2010s: Research Questions, Appropriate Reductionism, and Testable Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    "The Journal of the Learning Sciences" has devoted this special issue to the study of embodied cognition (as it applies to mathematics), a topic that for several decades has gained attention in the cognitive sciences and in mathematics education, in particular. In this commentary, the author aims to address crucial questions in embodied…

  16. Will the Real Author Come Forward? Questions of Ethics, Plagiarism, Theft and Collusion in Academic Research Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper raises some questions about academic authorial honesty under the headings of Plagiarism (including self-plagiarism), Theft, and Collusion. Compared with the medical sciences, the social sciences in general and education specifically, lag behind in terms of critical attention being paid to the problem of plagiarism, the peer review…

  17. Research perspectives on the public and fire management: a synthesis of current social science on eight essential questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. McCaffrey; Christine S. Olsen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a Joint Fire Science Program project, a team of social scientists reviewed existing fire social science literature to develop a targeted synthesis of scientific knowledge on the following questions: 1. What is the public's understanding of fire's role in the ecosystem? 2. Who are trusted sources of information about fire? 3. What are the public...

  18. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non-humans......In this work the network asks “If I wrote you a love letter would you write back?” Like the love letters which appeared mysteriously on the noticeboards of Manchester University’s Computer Department in the 1950s, thousands of texts circulate as computational processes perform the questions......, that circulates across networks. If I wrote you a love letter would you write back? (and thousands of other questions’ ) (封不回的情書?千言萬語無人回 was commissioned by the Microwave International New Media Festival 2012....

  19. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  20. 1-3 Composites Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabrielson, Thomas B

    2003-01-01

    ...) In a transducer in which the active material is sandwiched between mass elements, the filler in a 1-3 composite degrades performance with respect to an unfilled array of piezoelectric rods. (3...

  1. Translating Answers to Open-Ended Survey Questions in Cross-Cultural Research: A Case Study on the Interplay between Translation, Coding, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    Open-ended probing questions in cross-cultural surveys help uncover equivalence problems in cross-cultural survey research. For languages that a project team does not understand, probe answers need to be translated into a common project language. This article presents a case study on translating open-ended, that is, narrative answers. It describes…

  2. Internet Research: The Question of Method - A Keynote Address from the YouTube and the 2008 Election Cycle in the United States Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.

    2010-01-01

    Digital studies on culture may be distinguished from cultural studies of the digital, at least in terms of method. This lecture takes up the question of the distinctiveness of "digital methods" for researching Internet cultures. It asks, initially, should the methods of study change, however

  3. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (2nd, Cordoba, Spain, July 1-3, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tiffany, Ed.; Desmarais, Michel, Ed.; Romero, Cristobal, Ed.; Ventura, Sebastian, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The Second International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM2009) was held at the University of Cordoba, Spain, on July 1-3, 2009. EDM brings together researchers from computer science, education, psychology, psychometrics, and statistics to analyze large data sets to answer educational research questions. The increase in instrumented…

  4. Fostering the exchange of real world data across different countries to answer primary care research questions: an UNLOCK study from the IPCRG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Liza; Williams, Siân; van der Molen, Thys; Thomas, Mike; Correia de Sousa, Jaime; Chavannes, Niels H

    2018-03-08

    There is growing awareness amongst healthcare planners, providers and researchers of the need to make better use of routinely collected health data by translating it into actionable information that improves efficiency of healthcare and patient outcomes. There is also increased acceptance of the importance of real world research that recruits patients representative of primary care populations and evaluates interventions realistically delivered by primary care professionals. The UNLOCK Group is an international collaboration of primary care researchers and practitioners from 15 countries. It has coordinated and shared datasets of diagnostic and prognostic variables for COPD and asthma to answer research questions meaningful to professionals working in primary care over a 6-year period. Over this time the UNLOCK Group has undertaken several studies using data from unselected primary care populations from diverse contexts to evaluate the burden of disease, multiple morbidities, treatment and follow-up. However, practical and structural constraints have hampered the UNLOCK Group's ability to translate research ideas into studies. This study explored the constraints, challenges and successes experienced by the UNLOCK Group and its participants' learning as researchers and primary care practitioners collaborating to answer primary care research questions. The study identified lessons for future studies and collaborations that require data sharing across borders. It also explored specific challenges to fostering the exchange of primary care data in comparison to other datasets such as public health, prescribing or hospital data and mechanisms that may be used to overcome these.

  5. Assessing the Impact of De Novo Social Ties within Health Intervention Settings: New Questions for Health Behavior Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in the study of health and social networks have focused on linkages between health outcomes and naturally occurring social relations, such as friendship or kinship. Based on findings in this area, a new generation of health behavior intervention programs have been implemented that rely on the formation of new social relations among program participants. However, little is known about the qualities of these de novo social relations. We examined the social networks of 59 participants within a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. We employed exponential random graph modeling techniques to analyze supportive relationships formed between participants in the intervention arm, to detect unique effects of program participation on the likelihood of forming ties. Program participation had a positive effect on the likelihood of forming supportive social relations, however, in this particular timeframe we did not detect any additional effect of such relations on the health behaviors or outcomes of interest. Our findings raise two critical questions: do short-term group-level programs reliably lead to the formation of new social relations among participants; and do these relations have a unique effect on health outcomes relative to standard methods of health behavior intervention? © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Two decades of research on euthanasia from the Netherlands. What have we learnt and what questions remain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Rietjens (Judith); P.J. van der Maas (Paul); B.D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen (Bregje); J.J.M. van Delden (Hans); A. van der Heide (Agnes)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTwo decades of research on euthanasia in the Netherlands have resulted into clear insights in the frequency and characteristics of euthanasia and other medical end-of-life decisions in the Netherlands. These empirical studies have contributed to the quality of the public debate, and to

  7. Twenty years of research on fungal-plant interactions on Lyman Glacier forefront—lessons learned and questions yet unanswered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari Jumpponen; Shawn P. Brown; James M. Trappe; Efrén Cázares; Rauni. Strömmer

    2012-01-01

    Retreating glaciers and the periglacial areas that they vacate produce a harsh environment of extreme radiation, nutrient limitations and temperature oscillations. They provide a model system for studying mechanisms that drive the establishment and early assembly of communities. Here, we synthesize more than 20 years of research at the Lyman Glacier forefront in the...

  8. The Question of the Objective Basis of Whitehead's Theory of the Rhythm of Education: Homeostasis Research and Chronobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfe, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    Alfred North Whitehead's (1861-1947) theory of the rhythm of education has enjoyed much popularity and success in terms of providing a general model for conceptualizing learning, teaching, and research processes. However, in respect to the Whiteheadian notion that there is a rhythm belonging to such processes, of which educators ought to be aware,…

  9. Big Questions, Small Works, Lots of Layers: Documentary Video Production and the Teaching of Academic Research and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbritter, Bump; Blon, Noah; Creighton, Caron

    2011-01-01

    Documentary movie making is not academic writing. Nor is it traditional academic research. However, I have found it to be a remarkable vehicle for teaching both of these things...each semester I am amazed and humbled by the creativity and sincerity that my students bring to their work.

  10. Top 10 research questions to promote physical activity in bipolar disorders: A consensus statement from the International Organization of Physical Therapists in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Rosenbaum, Simon; Probst, Michel; Connaughton, Joanne; du Plessis, Christy; Yamamoto, Taisei; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-05-01

    Research has only recently started to consider the importance and applicability of physical activity (PA) for people with bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of the current study is to highlight 10 pertinent PA research questions in people with BD. The International Organization of Physical Therapy in Mental Health executed a consultation with all National organizations (n=13) to identify the most salient questions to guide future research on PA in BD. We identified the following 10 questions: (1) What are the benefits of PA for people with BD? (2) What are the most prominent safety issues for PA prescription in BD? (3) What is the optimal PA prescription for people with BD? (4) What are the key barriers to PA among people with BD? (5) What are the most effective motivational strategies for ensuring PA adoption and maintenance in BD? (6) How do we translate PA research into community practice? (7) If one treatment goal is increased physical activity, what type of professionals are needed as part of a multidisciplinary team? (8) How do we incorporate PA as a vital sign in clinical practice? (9) How can we prevent sedentary behavior in BD? (10) What is the most appropriate PA assessment method? We did not consult people with BD. Addressing these questions is critical for developing evidence-based approaches for promoting and sustaining an active lifestyle in BD. Ultimately, achieving this will reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and improve the quality of life of this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperactivity in anorexia nervosa: to warm or not to warm. That is the question (a translational research one).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Olaia; Gutiérrez, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    In the Editorial 'Is the neglect of exercise in anorexia nervosa research a case of "running out" of ideas or do we need to take a "LEAP" of faith into the future?' these authors express their doubts concerning the suitability of keeping patients warm as a beneficial treatment option in managing excessive activity in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients. The case for warming as an adjunctive treatment for AN patients is based on strong experimental evidence gathered from research on animals with Activity-Based Anorexia (ABA). We posit that the beneficial effect of heat results, at least in part, from heat blocking the vicious cycle that hyperactivity plays on AN. Hyperactivity decreases caloric intake by interfering with feeding and increases energy expenditure through excess motor activity which in turn increases emaciation that further strengthens anorexic thinking.

  12. Two decades of research on euthanasia from the Netherlands. What have we learnt and what questions remain?

    OpenAIRE

    Rietjens, Judith; Maas, Paul; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje; Delden, Hans; Heide, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTwo decades of research on euthanasia in the Netherlands have resulted into clear insights in the frequency and characteristics of euthanasia and other medical end-of-life decisions in the Netherlands. These empirical studies have contributed to the quality of the public debate, and to the regulating and public control of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. No slippery slope seems to have occurred. Physicians seem to adhere to the criteria for due care in the large majority...

  13. Climate experts. The IPCC in Four Questions. Behind-the-scene of Climate Research. Climate Change: evidences and Uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beriot, Nicolas; Jouzel, Jean; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Braconnot, Pascale; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Le Treut, Herve; Pachauri, Rajendra; Cazenave, Anny; Planton, Serge; Feral, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Scientists and government delegations from around the world gathered in Stockholm (Sweden) in September 2013 to approve the first volume of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This document reviews existing scientific knowledge on the Earth's climate. How was it prepared? How do scientists conduct research on climate change? What do they know for certain? What remains to be discovered?

  14. Tracking climate change. The IPCC in Four Questions. The Hidden Face of Climate Research. Climate Change: Facts and Uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beriot, Nicolas; Jouzel, Jean; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Braconnot, Pascale; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Le Treut, Herve; Pachauri, Rajendra; Cazenave, Anny; Planton, Serge; Feral, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Scientists and government delegations from around the world gathered in Stockholm (Sweden) in September 2013 to approve the first volume of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This document reviews existing scientific knowledge on the Earth's climate. How was it prepared? How do scientists conduct research on climate change? What do they know for certain? What remains to be discovered?

  15. Using routinely collected health data for surveillance, quality improvement and research: Framework and key questions to assess ethics, privacy and data access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lusignan, Simon; Liyanage, Harshana; Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Chan, Tom; Liaw, Siaw-Teng

    2016-01-19

    The use of health data for public health, surveillance, quality improvement and research is crucial to improve health systems and health care. However, bodies responsible for privacy and ethics often limit access to routinely collected health data. Ethical approvals, issues around protecting privacy and data access are often dealt with by different layers of regulations, making approval processes appear disjointed. To create a comprehensive framework for defining the ethical and privacy status of a project and for providing guidance on data access. The framework comprises principles and related questions. The core of the framework will be built using standard terminology definitions such as ethics-related controlled vocabularies and regional directives. It is built in this way to reduce ambiguity between different definitions. The framework is extensible: principles can be retired or added to, as can their related questions. Responses to these questions should allow data processors to define ethical issues, privacy risk and other unintended consequences. The framework contains three steps: (1) identifying possible ethical and privacy principles relevant to the project; (2) providing ethics and privacy guidance questions that inform the type of approval needed; and (3) assessing case-specific ethics and privacy issues. The outputs from this process should inform whether the balance between public interests and privacy breach and any ethical considerations are tipped in favour of societal benefits. If they are then this should be the basis on which data access is permitted. Tightly linking ethical principles to governance and data access may help maintain public trust.

  16. Questions of trust in health research on social capital: what aspects of personal network social capital do they measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpiano, Richard M; Fitterer, Lisa M

    2014-09-01

    Health research on personal social capital has often utilized measures of respondents' perceived trust of others as either a proxy for one's social capital in the absence of more focused measures or as a subjective component of social capital. Little empirical work has evaluated the validity of such practices. We test the construct validity of two trust measures used commonly in health research on social capital-generalized trust and trust of neighbors-with respect to measures of people's general network-, organization-, family-, friend-, and neighborhood-based social capital and the extent to which these two trust measures are associated with self-rated general health and mental health when social capital measures are included in the same models. Analyses of 2008 Canadian General Social Survey data (response rate 57.3%) indicate that generalized trust and trust of neighbors are both positively-yet modestly-associated with measures of several domains of network-based social capital. Both trust measures are positively associated with general and mental health, but these associations remain robust after adjusting for social capital measures. Our findings suggest that (a) trust is conceptually distinct from social capital, (b) trust measures are inadequate proxies for actual personal social networks, and (c) trust measures may only be capturing psychological aspects relevant to-but not indicative of-social capital. Though links between perceived trust and health deserve study, health research on social capital needs to utilize measures of respondents' actual social networks and their inherent resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The second answers and questions on the licence of the fabrication project for the nuclear fuel of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Dae; Kim, C. K.; Kim, K. H.

    2002-07-01

    KINS has examined the application for licensing of research reactor fuel fabrication for seven months, from May to Dec. 2000. The most hot issues during examination, in order to understand whether the design and facilities are fitted to the regulation criteria or not, were the availability of basic ground, design criteria on safety, availability and methodology of design, seismic criteria, availability of nuclear fuel fabrication, safety related criticality, safety related the process, availability of nuclear waste management, validity of organization and procedure for radioactivity management, and the validity of both selection and analysis about predicted accident. Moreover, another issues such as the radioactivity inspection plan for waste treatment, effect on both radioactive material and accidant, method of decrease of damage on environment, and environmental inspection plan of radioactivity, were severely examined

  18. Two Decades of Research on Euthanasia from the Netherlands. What Have We Learnt and What Questions Remain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Judith A C; van der Maas, Paul J; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; van Delden, Johannes J M; van der Heide, Agnes

    2009-09-01

    Two decades of research on euthanasia in the Netherlands have resulted into clear insights in the frequency and characteristics of euthanasia and other medical end-of-life decisions in the Netherlands. These empirical studies have contributed to the quality of the public debate, and to the regulating and public control of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. No slippery slope seems to have occurred. Physicians seem to adhere to the criteria for due care in the large majority of cases. Further, it has been shown that the majority of physicians think that the euthanasia Act has improved their legal certainty and contributes to the carefulness of life-terminating acts. In 2005, eighty percent of the euthanasia cases were reported to the review committees. Thus, the transparency envisaged by the Act still does not extend to all cases. Unreported cases almost all involve the use of opioids, and are not considered to be euthanasia by physicians. More education and debate is needed to disentangle in these situations which acts should be regarded as euthanasia and which should not. Medical end-of-life decision-making is a crucial part of end-of-life care. It should therefore be given continuous attention in health care policy and medical training. Systematic periodic research is crucial for enhancing our understanding of end-of-life care in modern medicine, in which the pursuit of a good quality of dying is nowadays widely recognized as an important goal, in addition to the traditional goals such as curing diseases and prolonging life.

  19. The research questions and methodological adequacy of clinical studies of the voice and larynx published in Brazilian and international journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Vanessa Pedrosa; De Biase, Noemi; Peccin, Maria Stella; Atallah, Alvaro Nagib

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the methodological adequacy of voice and laryngeal study designs published in speech-language pathology and otorhinolaryngology journals indexed for the ISI Web of Knowledge (ISI Web) and the MEDLINE database. A cross-sectional study conducted at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Federal University of São Paulo). Two Brazilian speech-language pathology and otorhinolaryngology journals (Pró-Fono and Revista Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia) and two international speech-language pathology and otorhinolaryngology journals (Journal of Voice, Laryngoscope), all dated between 2000 and 2004, were hand-searched by specialists. Subsequently, voice and larynx publications were separated, and a speech-language pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist classified 374 articles from the four journals according to objective and study design. The predominant objective contained in the articles was that of primary diagnostic evaluation (27%), and the most frequent study design was case series (33.7%). A mere 7.8% of the studies were designed adequately with respect to the stated objectives. There was no statistical difference in the methodological quality of studies indexed for the ISI Web and the MEDLINE database. The studies published in both national journals, indexed for the MEDLINE database, and international journals, indexed for the ISI Web, demonstrate weak methodology, with research poorly designed to meet the proposed objectives. There is much scientific work to be done in order to decrease uncertainty in the field analysed.

  20. Field-Based Teacher Research: How Teachers and Scientists Working Together Answers Questions about Turtle Nesting Ecology while Enhancing Teachers' Inquiry Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, J. M.; Jungblut, D.; Catena, A. N.; Rubenstein, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    Providing rigorous academic supplement to a professional development program for teachers, QUEST is a fusion of Drexel University's environmental science research department with Princeton University's Program in Teacher Preparation. Completed in the summers of 2012 (in partnership with Earthwatch) and 2013 in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, QUEST's terrapin field research program enhances K-12 teachers' ecological knowledge, develops inquiry-based thinking in the classroom, and builds citizen science engagement. With a focus on quality question development and data analysis to answer questions, teachers are coached in developing, implementing, and presenting independent research projects on diamondback terrapin nesting ecology. As a result, teachers participating in QUEST's week long program bring a realistic example of science in action into their classrooms, helping to develop their own students' critical thinking skills. For teachers, this program provides training towards educating students on how to do real and imaginative science - subsequently sending students to university better prepared to engage in their own independent research. An essential component of the collaboration through QUEST, in addition to the teacher's experience during and after the summer institute, is the research data collected which supplements that of the Principal Investigator. In 2012, by documenting terrapin nest site predators, teachers gained valuable scientific experience, while Drexel acquired important ecological data which would have not been able to be collected otherwise. In 2013, teachers helped answer important questions about terrapin nesting success post Superstorm Sandy. In fact, the 2013 QUEST teachers are the first to visualize the frighteningly increased erosion of a primary terrapin nesting site due to Sandy; showing how most terrapin nests now lie in the bay, instead of safe on shore. Teachers comment that interacting with scientists in the field, and contributing to

  1. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  2. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  3. To research (or not) that is the question: ethical issues in research when medical care is disrupted by political action: a case study from Eldoret, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Darlene R; Marete, Irene; Meslin, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    While considerable attention has been focused on understanding the myriad of ethical analysis in international research in low and middle income countries, new issues always arise that have not been anticipated in guidelines or studied extensively. The disruption of medical care arising as a direct result of political actions, including strikes, postelection violence and related activities, is one such issue that leaves physician-researchers struggling to manage often conflicting professional responsibilities. This paper discusses the ethical conflicts that arise for physician-researchers, particularly when disruption threatens the completion of a study or completion is possible but at the expense of not addressing unmet medical needs of patients. We review three pragmatic strategies and the ethical issues arising from each: not starting research, stopping research that has already started, and continuing research already initiated. We argue that during episodes of medical care disruption, research that has been started can be continued only if the ethical standards imposed at the beginning of the study can continue to be met; however, studies that have been approved but not yet started should not begin until the disruption has ended and ethical standards can again be assured. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Using routinely collected health data for surveillance, quality improvement and research: Framework and key questions to assess ethics, privacy and data access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of health data for public health, surveillance, quality improvement and research is crucial to improve health systems and health care. However, bodies responsible for privacy and ethics often limit access to routinely collected health data. Ethical approvals, issues around protecting privacy and data access are often dealt with by different layers of regulations, making approval processes appear disjointed.Objective To create a comprehensive framework for defining the ethical and privacy status of a project and for providing guidance on data access.Method The framework comprises principles and related questions. The core of the framework will be built using standard terminology definitions such as ethics-related controlled vocabularies and regional directives. It is built in this way to reduce ambiguity between different definitions. The framework is extensible: principles can be retired or added to, as can their related questions. Responses to these questions should allow data processors to define ethical issues, privacy risk and other unintended consequences.Results The framework contains three steps: (1 identifying possible ethical and privacy principles relevant to the project; (2 providing ethics and privacy guidance questions that inform the type of approval needed; and (3 assessing case-specific ethics and privacy issues. The outputs from this process should inform whether the balance between public interests and privacy breach and any ethical considerations are tipped in favour of societal benefits. If they are then this should be the basis on which data access is permitted. Tightly linking ethical principles to governance and data access may help maintain public trust.

  5. "We Don't See Things as They Are, We See Things as We Are": Questioning the "Outsider" in Polish Migration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Botterill

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a reflexive account of conducting research on Polish migration to Scotland from the perspective of the "outsider." The contribution argues for a revision to the insider/outsider dichotomy viewing it as inadequately nuanced in relation to the multiple intersectionalities performed through the research encounter. It is based on data collected from biographical-narrative interviews with Polish young people living in Edinburgh, Scotland. The article explores the interview encounter between an English researcher and Polish young people about the experience of EU mobility and argues that as migration narratives unfold the distinctions between the "researcher" and the "researched" blur. In particular, I focus on the intersections of gender, class and nationality to show how different positionalities are negotiated and confronted through reflexivity. The interview is a creative process involving co-construction of narratives through dialogue, embodied performances and non-cognitive associations that draw out the multiple intersectionalities of both parties. Through this process the binary of insider/outsider is called into question and this article examines the usefulness of this dichotomy as a framework for understanding the research relationship. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150249

  6. Teacher's Questions in Reading Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliati Rohmah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present paper discusses an English teacher's questions in Reading classes at MAN Malang III. Types of questions, functions of teacher's questions, question levels and the strategies applied by the teacher were put as the research problems. Non-participant observa­tion was applied to collect the data with the researcher as the main in­strument aided by field-notes and a tape recorder. It was found that the distribution of the questions did not allow the students to talk longer and to think more analytically. Meanwhile, the strategies applied by the teacher helped the students to respond to the questions previously unanswered. The teacher is suggested to produce more open and refer­ential question as well as inference and evaluation questions as to give more chances for the students to think aloud more.

  7. Virtualization of Research Universities: Raising the Right Questions to Address Key Functions of the Institution. Research & Occasional Paper Series. CSHE.6.03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the variety of information and communication technology (ICT) applications at traditional universities and to integrate them into a holistic picture of the institution. Using the distinction of three key elements of scholarly activity (research, publication, education), it suggests a functional…

  8. Future trials of endovascular mechanical recanalisation therapy in acute ischemic stroke patients: a position paper endorsed by ESMINT and ESNR. Pt. 1. Current situation and major research questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Soederman, Michael [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Turjman, Francis [Hopital Neurologique, Centre de Neurosciences Cognitives, Department of Neuroradiology, Lyon (France); White, Philip M. [Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bakke, Soeren Jacob [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Neuroradiology, Oslo (Norway); Mangiafico, Salvatore [University Hospital Careggi, Interventional Neuroradiology Unit, Florence (Italy); Kummer, Ruediger von [University of Dresden, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Muto, Mario [University of Naples, Department of Neuroradiology, Naples (Italy); Cognard, Christophe [Hopital Purpan, Service de Neuroradiologie, Toulouse (France); Gralla, Jan [Inselspital Bern, Department of Neuroradiology, Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    A new era of stroke treatment may have begun with mechanical thrombectomy (MT) by fully deployed closed-cell self-expanding stents (stent-triever). Multiple case series and the first randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have now been published. More studies are under way involving large numbers of patients, which in turn has resulted in less strict ''pragmatic'' study protocols. Problems with current trials include a lack of standardisation in the conduct of the recanalisation procedure, the definition of primary endpoints such as the grade of arterial recanalisation and tissue reperfusion, and the post-surgical care provided. In Part 1 of this two part series, we outline the current situation and the major research questions. (orig.)

  9. Double sampling with multiple imputation to answer large sample meta-research questions: Introduction and illustration by evaluating adherence to two simple CONSORT guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice L. Capers

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Meta-research can involve manual retrieval and evaluation of research, which is resource intensive. Creation of high throughput methods (e.g., search heuristics, crowdsourcing has improved feasibility of large meta-research questions, but possibly at the cost of accuracy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of double sampling combined with multiple imputation (DS+MI to address meta-research questions, using as an example adherence of PubMed entries to two simple Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT guidelines for titles and abstracts. METHODS: For the DS large sample, we retrieved all PubMed entries satisfying the filters: RCT; human; abstract available; and English language (n=322,107. For the DS subsample, we randomly sampled 500 entries from the large sample. The large sample was evaluated with a lower rigor, higher throughput (RLOTHI method using search heuristics, while the subsample was evaluated using a higher rigor, lower throughput (RHITLO human rating method. Multiple imputation of the missing-completely-at-random RHITLO data for the large sample was informed by: RHITLO data from the subsample; RLOTHI data from the large sample; whether a study was an RCT; and country and year of publication. RESULTS: The RHITLO and RLOTHI methods in the subsample largely agreed (phi coefficients: title=1.00, abstract=0.92. Compliance with abstract and title criteria has increased over time, with non-US countries improving more rapidly. DS+MI logistic regression estimates were more precise than subsample estimates (e.g., 95% CI for change in title and abstract compliance by Year: subsample RHITLO 1.050-1.174 vs. DS+MI 1.082-1.151. As evidence of improved accuracy, DS+MI coefficient estimates were closer to RHITLO than the large sample RLOTHI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our hypothesis that DS+MI would result in improved precision and accuracy. This method is flexible and may provide a practical way to examine large corpora of

  10. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  11. Conducting research in the middle of the ocean. Platforms FINO 1-3 supply planning data for utilising offshore wind energy in the North and Baltic Seas; Forschen mitten im Meer. Plattformen FINO 1-3 liefern Planungsdaten fuer die Offshore-Windenergienutzung in Nord- und Ostsee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milles, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    In the future, a large part of Germany's electricity requirement is intended to come from offshore wind farms in order to utilise the favourable wind conditions there. This represents unknown territory in both technical and ecological terms, and is taking place in sensitive biotopes. Three largely remote-controlled research platforms have therefore been constructed in the North and Baltic Seas (FINO). In particular it is being investigated into how the wind actually behaves above the sea and how much electricity can be generated. The data will be incorporated into the planning, design and certification of future farms. (orig.)

  12. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice...

  13. Establishing and prioritizing research questions for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hair loss (excluding alopecia areata): the Hair Loss Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, A; Tomlinson, J; Messenger, A; Moore-Millar, K; Michaelides, C; Shipman, A; Kassim, J; Brockley, J; Szczecinska, W; Farrant, P; Robinson, R; Rodgers, J; Chambers, J; Upadhyaya, S; Harries, M

    2018-02-01

    Hair and scalp problems are common. Unfortunately, many uncertainties exist around the most effective management and treatment strategies for these disorders. To identify uncertainties in hair-loss management, prevention, diagnosis and treatment that are important to both people with hair loss and healthcare professionals. A Hair Loss Priority Setting Partnership was established between patients, their carers and relatives, and healthcare professionals to identify the most important uncertainties in hair loss. The methodology of the James Lind Alliance was followed to ensure a balanced, inclusive and transparent process. In total, 2747 treatment uncertainties were submitted by 912 participants; following exclusions 884 uncertainties relating to hair loss (excluding alopecia areata) were analysed. Questions were combined into 'indicative uncertainties' following a structured format. A series of ranking exercises further reduced this list to a top 25 that was taken to a final prioritization workshop where the top 10 priorities were agreed. We present the top 10 research priorities for hair loss (excluding alopecia areata) to guide researchers and funding bodies to support studies important to both patients and clinicians. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  15. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  16. Answers to the questions about food irradiation. Concerning results of animal experiments in the specified integrated research. Data carrying a problem in human health were obtained?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Experts of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/ International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/ World Health Organization (WHO) committee obtained their conclusion in 1980 that food irradiated with <10 kGy of radiation is safe for human health, which is now globally approved. However, in Japan, there have been still opposite opinions based on the doubt in the title on the safety of irradiated food. In this paper, the author answers those questions as he was a member to arrange the Research in the title for food irradiation. Described are data presentation and explanation about results of toxicity studies of diets added with irradiated materials of: weight reductions in rat ovary by irradiated potato (ip) in chronic studies, and in mouse testicle and ovary of F3 generation from the ancestor mice kept on diet with irradiated onion (io); bone malformation in mice by io; and reduction of body weight gain in female rats by ip and increase of mortality of male rats by ip. These are analyzed on the aspects of radiation dose-response, sustained tendency of results throughout the living period or generation, and apparent abnormality by other factors; and normal variation due to individual difference is pointed out to contribute to these findings. The safety test of irradiated food has been conducted valid not only in animal experiments but also other tests like genotoxicity and analysis of radiation-degraded products. (R.T.)

  17. Good questions require good answers. Critics on current climate research contradicted; Goede vragen vereisen goede antwoorden. Kritiek op gangbaar klimaatonderzoek weersproken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellinga, P. [Milieuwetenschappen, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Dorland, R. [KNMI, De Bilt (Netherlands); Kabat, P. [Aardsystemen en Klimaatstudies, Wageningen Universiteit, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    In some of the previous issues of this magazine (Spil 2007, issue 4 and 5-6, and Spil 2008, issue 1) the authors Labohm, Roersch and Thoenes started a frontal attack of the greenhouse theory and the researchers who report on the state of science in the framework of the IPCC. The author of this article addresses two main questions arising from the above-mentioned authors: (1) Does the use of fossil fuels affect global climate?; and (2) Is the warming of the last 30 years related to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere? [mk]. [Dutch] In enkele vorige afleveringen van dit tijdschrift (Spil 2007, nummers 4 en 5-6, en Spil 2008, nummer 1) hebben de auteurs Labohm, Roersch en Thoenes een frontale aanval ingezet op de broeikastheorie en de onderzoekers die in IPCC-verband verslag doen van de stand van de wetenschap. De auteur van dit artikel gaat in op twee door voornoemde auteurs gestelde hoofdvragen: (1) Heeft het gebruik van fossiele brandstoffen invloed op het wereldklimaat?; en (2) Houdt de opwarming van de laatste dertig jaar verband met de gestegen concentraties van broeikasgassen in de atmosfeer?.

  18. Rhetorical questions or rhetorical uses of questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špago Džemal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore whether some rhetorical questions contain certain linguistic elements or forms which would differentiate them from answer-eliciting and action-eliciting questions, and thereby hint at their rhetorical nature even outside the context. Namely, despite the fact that the same questions can be rhetorical in one context, and answer-eliciting in another, some of them are more likely to be associated with rhetorical or non-rhetorical use. The analysis is based on extensive data (over 1200 examples of rhetorical questions taken from 30 plays by two British and two American writers, and the results are expected to give an insight into whether we can talk about rhetorical questions or just a rhetorical use of questions.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  20. Searching for ?_1_3 at Daya Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedt, Joel; Napolitano, James

    2015-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out by the Daya Bay Collaboration to measure the neutrino mixing angle θ_1_3. In addition, the grant has supported research into lattice field theory beyond the standard model.

  1. The Role of Information and Research in Educational Decision-Making: Some Questions. Le Role De L'Information Et De La Recherche Dans La Prise De Decisions En Matiere D'Education: Quelques Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This paper, one of a series of Unesco technical information reports, looks at the educational decision makers in developing nations and examines their access to and use of information and research results. Written in English and in French, the paper consists of five parts. Part one discusses problems encountered by educational policy-makers and…

  2. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  3. Nuclear questions; Le nucleaire en questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-02-15

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  4. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-02-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  5. Achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project in fiscal 1997. Part 1 of 3; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 1/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    This report is a collection of 101 achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project. The contents of the achievement reports are the results and generalization of the joint research with respect to the solar energy power generation field test project. As regards the locations of executing the joint research, the locations by areas and applications are stated. By areas, the joint research was carried out on gymnasiums, parks, recreation centers in the standard areas, universities, sports facilities, public halls, agricultural associations, aged persons' homes, primary, middle and high schools, prefectural office buildings and industrial technology centers in cold districts; prefectural office buildings, agricultural associations, universities, museums, industrial technology centers in good insolation districts; museums, primary, middle and high schools, parks in strong wind and salt polluted districts; and universities and police stations in snowy districts. By applications, the joint research was performed on life cooperative halls, factories, nursery schools, hospitals, clinics, local newspaper companies, indoor warm-water swimming pools, and mushroom fields. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project in fiscal 1997. Part 1 of 3; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 1/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    This report is a collection of 101 achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project. The contents of the achievement reports are the results and generalization of the joint research with respect to the solar energy power generation field test project. As regards the locations of executing the joint research, the locations by areas and applications are stated. By areas, the joint research was carried out on gymnasiums, parks, recreation centers in the standard areas, universities, sports facilities, public halls, agricultural associations, aged persons' homes, primary, middle and high schools, prefectural office buildings and industrial technology centers in cold districts; prefectural office buildings, agricultural associations, universities, museums, industrial technology centers in good insolation districts; museums, primary, middle and high schools, parks in strong wind and salt polluted districts; and universities and police stations in snowy districts. By applications, the joint research was performed on life cooperative halls, factories, nursery schools, hospitals, clinics, local newspaper companies, indoor warm-water swimming pools, and mushroom fields. (NEDO)

  7. Early versus delayed endocrine treatment of pN1-3 M0 prostate cancer without local treatment of the primary tumor: results of European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer 30846--a phase III study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, Fritz H.; Kurth, Karl Heinz; Fosså, Sophie D.; Hoekstra, Wytze; Karthaus, Peter P. M.; Debois, Muriel; Collette, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    The timing of endocrine treatment for prostate cancer remains controversial. The issue is addressed in protocol 30846 of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer for patients with lymph node positive cancer without local treatment of the primary tumor. A total of 302 patients

  8. What Children Learn from Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…

  9. New to Teaching: WebQuests as a Tool to Support Children in Carrying out Research Using Secondary Sources to Answer Their Scientific Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, James; Pope, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The "working scientifically" strand of the new primary science curriculum for England has re-emphasised the importance of children having opportunities to carry out different types of enquiries to answer their scientific questions. To promote this as an ongoing aim of primary science education, it is equally important for trainee primary…

  10. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  11. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  12. HANSF 1.3 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. It may be used for all phases of spent fuel disposition including cold vacuum drying, transportation, and storage. This manual reflects HANSF version 1.3, a revised version of version 1.2a. HANSF 1.3 was written to add new models for axial nodalization, add new features for ease of usage, and correct errors. HANSF 1.3 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under a DOS-type operating system. HANSF 1.3 is known to compile under Lahey TI and Digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments

  13. HANSF 1.3.2 User's Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. This manual reflects the HANSF version 1.3.2, a revised version of 1.3.1. HANSF 1.3.2 was written to correct minor errors and to allow modeling of condensate flow on the MCO inner surface. HANSF 1.3.2 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under Lahey TI or digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments

  14. HANSF 1.3 user's manual; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. It may be used for all phases of spent fuel disposition including cold vacuum drying, transportation, and storage. This manual reflects HANSF version 1.3, a revised version of version 1.2a. HANSF 1.3 was written to add new models for axial nodalization, add new features for ease of usage, and correct errors. HANSF 1.3 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under a DOS-type operating system. HANSF 1.3 is known to compile under Lahey TI and Digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments

  15. IDENTITIES AND CONCEPTIONS OF BORDER AREA POPULATIONS IN EAST-CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EAST EUROPE – THEMATIC ASPECTS AND QUESTIONS OF AN ACTUAL RESEARCH FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried HELLER

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article will be structured as follows: Firstly, it will be described what is to be understood by the term ‘identity’. After that, this article will explore the significance of the topic ‘identities of population’ regarding the political, social, economic and cultural developments in the border areas of East-Central and South-East Europe. Because identities are not essentially but constructed phenomena, the next chapter will deal with the role of conceptions of the border area populations for the building of identity. The then following remarks on categories of border areas shall suggest that a great variety of border areas needs to be considered if one is occupied with the subject of this article. From these explanations the article’s relation to application will be derived, and groups of questions as well as detailed questions will be developed.

  16. Valid screening questions useful to diagnose hand and forearm eczema are available in the Spanish language, a new tool for global research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Margarit, Anna; Manresa, Josep M; Herdman, Mike; Pujol, Ramon; Serra, Consol; Flyvholm, Mary-Ann; Giménez-Arnau, Ana M

    2015-04-01

    Hand eczema is an impacting cutaneous disease. Globally valid tools that help to diagnose hand and forearm eczema are required. To validate the questions to detect hand and/or forearm eczema included in the "Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire" (NOSQ-2002) in the Spanish language. A prospective pilot study was conducted with 80 employees of a cleaning company and a retrospective one involving 2,546 individuals. The responses were analysed for sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values. The final diagnosis according to the patients' hospital records, the specialty care records and the physical examination was taken as gold standard. The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was also evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity, in a worst case scenario (WC) combining both questions, were 96.5% and 66.7%, respectively, and in a per protocol (PP) analysis, were 96.5% and 75.2%. The questions validated detected eczema effectively, making this tool suitable for use e.g. in multicentre epidemiological studies or clinical trials.

  17. Don’t Be Afraid to Ask the Question: A Simple Guide for Veterinary Nurses to Conducting Evidence-Based Research in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Badger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of veterinary nursing over the past fifty years combined with the introduction of the RCVS Register and Code of Conduct means that RVN's are now accountable for their actions and as a result must develop the ability to critically appraise, both their own practice and the protocols of the organisation in which they work, as part of clinical governance. It is therefore important that they develop the tools which enable them to confidently question all aspects of their clinical practice, but especially patient care and welfare, where necessary.This is a podcast of Sue and Andrea's talk at the Veterinary Evidence Today conference, Edinburgh November 1, 2016.

  18. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Live your questions now

    OpenAIRE

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  20. 'But is it a question worth asking?' A reflective case study describing how public involvement can lead to researchers' ideas being abandoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Jonathan D; Dalgleish, Mary; Freeman, Janet; Jones, Zena; Miles, Marianne; Rodgers, Helen

    2014-06-01

    It is good practice for the public to be involved in developing research ideas into grant applications. Some positive accounts of this process have been published, but little is known about when their reactions are negative and when researchers' ideas are abandoned. To present a case study account of when an academic-led idea for funding was not supported by stroke survivors and carers who were asked to contribute to its development, together with a reflection on the implications of the case from all the stakeholders involved. A reflective case study of a research idea, developed by an academic researcher, on which stakeholders were consulted. University researchers, clinicians, public involvement managers, and stroke survivors and carers from the NIHR's Stroke Research Network. Although the idea met with the approval of health professionals, who were keen to develop it into a funding bid, the stroke survivors and carers did not think the idea worth pursuing. This lack of patient and carer support led to the idea being abandoned. Reflecting on this, those involved in the consultation believed that the savings accrued from abandoning the idea, in terms of ensuring that public money is not wasted, should be seen as an important benefit of public involvement in the research process. Little is known about the role of the public in the abandonment of research ideas. We recommend that further research is undertaken into this important contribution that patients and the public can make to health research. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. On D=2 (1/3,1/3) supersymmetric theories 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidi, E.H.; Zerouaoui, J.; Sedra, M.B.

    1994-06-01

    Denoting by D=2 (1/3,1/3) superalgebra; the off critical symmetry of the Φ 5/7,5/7 perturbation of the C=6/7 conformal theory, we build a new superspace solution of the (1/3,1/3) - subalgebra generated by spin ±1/3 charge operators extending the usual (1/2,1/2) supersymmetry generated by spin ±1/2 charges. This solution is based on the use of two Grassmann variables instead of one parafermionic variable θ ±1/3 satisfying the cubic nilpotency condition (θ ±1/3 ) 3 =0. Known results on the C=6/7 tricritical Potts model are recovered as special features. A relation with N=2 Landau-Ginzburg models is also discussed. (author). 17 refs, 1 tab

  2. Bis(1,3-dithiole) Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Engler, E. M.; Green, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    There is described the preparation of bis-1,3-dithiole compounds (I) which are key synthetic precursors for the preparation of new polymeric metal bis(dithiolene) (i.e., II) and tetrathiafulvalene compounds (i.e., III): (Image Omitted)...

  3. 1,3-Butadiene: Biomarkers and application to risk assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swenberg, J. A.; Bordeerat, N. K.; Boysen, G.; Carro, S.; Georgieva, N. I.; Troutman, J. M.; Upton, P. B.; Albertini, R. J.; Vacek, P. M.; Walker, V. E.; Šrám, Radim; Goggin, M.; Tretyakova, N.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 192, 1-2 (2011), s. 150-154 ISSN 0009-2797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : risk assessment * 1,3-butadiene * occupational exposure Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.865, year: 2011

  4. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  5. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  6. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field...

  7. Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in probability and statistics. We hear their views on the fields, aims, scopes, the future direction of research and how their work fits...... in these respects. Interviews with Nick Bingham, Luc Bovens, Terrence L. Fine, Haim Gaifman, Donald Gillies, James Hawthorne, Carl Hoefer, James M. Joyce, Joseph B. Kadane Isaac Levi, D.H. Mellor, Patrick Suppes, Jan von Plato, Carl Wagner, Sandy Zabell...

  8. Study text and sets of questions for the training and examination of selected personnel of nuclear research facilities. Issue 2. Experimental teaching methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischhans, J.; Hejzlar, R.; Hermansky, B.

    2004-01-01

    The VR-1 teaching reactor is described, 14 experimental exercises are given (e.g. Starting up and running the VR-1 reactor; Neutron detection and detectors; Measuring delayed neutrons ; Reactivity measurement; Control rod calibration; ...) and practical training at the existing Czech research reactors (LVR-15; LR-0; VR-1) is briefly highlighted. (P.A.)

  9. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady-State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeant, Margot; Prince, Michael; Nottis, Katharyn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of inquiry-based instruction to promote the understanding of critical concepts in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Significant research shows that students frequently enter our courses with tightly held misconceptions about the physical world that are not effectively addressed through traditional instruction. Students'…

  10. "My Brother Likes Meeting New People, but Don't Ask Him Any Direct Questions": Involving Adults with Autism plus Learning Disability in a Qualitative Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl; Wenham, Aniela

    2014-01-01

    Adult siblings of people with autism and a learning disability have hitherto been largely overlooked by research, policy and practice in the UK. As part of a qualitative study focussing on adult siblings, we met twelve people with autism plus severe learning disability with their brother or sister. Individually tailored resources were used to make…

  11. A Microscope or a Mirror?: A Question of Study Validity Regarding the Use of Dissertation Citation Analysis for Evaluating Research Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beile, Penny M.; Boote, David N.; Killingsworth, Elizabeth K.

    2004-01-01

    Use of dissertation citation analysis for collection evaluation was investigated. Analysis of 1842 education dissertation citations from three institutions suggests the assumption of doctoral student expertise in their use of the scholarly literature may be overstated. For purposes of developing research collections, dependence on dissertation…

  12. Pooling Time Series Based on Slightly Different Questions About the Same Topic Forty Years of Survey Research on Happiness and Life Satisfaction in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. DeJonge (Tineke); R. Veenhoven (Ruut); W.M. Kalmijn (Wim); L.R. Arends (Lidia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSurvey research on subjective wellbeing in The Netherlands started in the early 1970s. The time series happiness and life satisfaction that have emerged since then are unfortunately based on slightly different survey items of which one part uses verbal response scales and another part

  13. Can Archival Tissue Reveal Answers to Modern Research Questions?: Computer-Aided Histological Assessment of Neuroblastoma Tumours Collected over 60 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Chetcuti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite neuroblastoma being the most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood, it is still a rare disease. Consequently, the unavailability of tissue for research limits the statistical power of studies. Pathology archives are possible sources of rare tissue, which, if proven to remain consistent over time, could prove useful to research of rare disease types. We applied immunohistochemistry to investigate whether long term storage caused any changes to antigens used diagnostically for neuroblastoma. We constructed and quantitatively assessed a tissue microarray containing neuroblastoma archival material dating between 1950 and 2007. A total of 119 neuroblastoma tissue cores were included spanning 6 decades. Fourteen antibodies were screened across the tissue microarray (TMA. These included seven positive neuroblastoma diagnosis markers (NB84, Chromogranin A, NSE, Ki-67, INI1, Neurofilament Protein, Synaptophysin, two anticipated to be negative (S100A, CD99, and five research antibodies (IL-7, IL-7R, JAK1, JAK3, STAT5. The staining of these antibodies was evaluated using Aperio ImageScope software along with novel pattern recognition and quantification algorithms. This analysis demonstrated that marker signal intensity did not decrease over time and that storage for 60 years had little effect on antigenicity. The construction and assessment of this neuroblastoma TMA has demonstrated the feasibility of using archival samples for research.

  14. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  15. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  16. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  17. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  18. How do we determine the impact of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking cessation or reduction? Review and recommendations for answering the research question with scientific rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Feirman, Shari P; Niaura, Raymond S; Pearson, Jennifer L; Glasser, Allison M; Collins, Lauren K; Abrams, David B

    2018-03-01

    To propose a hierarchy of methodological criteria to consider when determining whether a study provides sufficient information to answer the question of whether e-cigarettes can facilitate cigarette smoking cessation or reduction. A PubMed search to 1 February 2017 was conducted of all studies related to e-cigarettes and smoking cessation or reduction. Australia, Europe, Iran, Korea, New Zealand and the United States. 91 articles. Coders organized studies according to six proposed methodological criteria: (1) examines outcome of interest (cigarette abstinence or reduction), (2) assesses e-cigarette use for cessation as exposure of interest, (3) employs appropriate control/comparison groups, (4) ensures that measurement of exposure precedes the outcome, (5) evaluates dose and duration of the exposure and (6) evaluates the type and quality of the e-cigarette used. Twenty-four papers did not examine the outcomes of interest. Forty did not assess the specific reason for e-cigarette use as an exposure of interest. Twenty papers did not employ prospective study designs with appropriate comparison groups. The few observational studies meeting some of the criteria (duration, type, use for cessation) triangulated with findings from three randomized trials to suggest that e-cigarettes can help adult smokers quit or reduce cigarette smoking. Only a small proportion of studies seeking to address the effect of e-cigarettes on smoking cessation or reduction meet a set of proposed quality standards. Those that do are consistent with randomized controlled trial evidence in suggesting that e-cigarettes can help with smoking cessation or reduction. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  20. Synthesis 1, 3-bis (4-bromophenyl-5-isopropyl-1, 3, 5-triazacyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. LEFRADA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of an isopropylamine and an 4-bromoaniline with formaline in basic solution to give 1, 3-bis (4-bromophenyl-5- (isopropyl- 1, 3, 5- triazicyaclohexane. Through the interaction of rapid Schiff base, Structures of this compound have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods; IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR. Their purities were confirmed by elemental analyses.

  1. When the Research Design Matters in EFL Context: A Case of Different Responses to Open-response and Closed-response Questions on Motivational Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma‘ssoumeh Bemani Naeini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating and exploring the degree of motivational orientation (i.e. instrumental and integrative motivation among sixty Iranian TEFL students. A survey research design was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data, using a Likert-scale questionnaire containing six open-response items. Inferential analysis of quantitative data identified the subjects of the study with integrative orientation. However, descriptive analysis of open responses in terms of coded recurrent themes indicated contradictory results. In sum, the findings suggest a gap between Iranian TEFL students’ “desirable motivation” and “desired motivation”. The researcher attributes the contradictory results not only to the social context, but also to the type of questionnaire and the psychological status of respondents. Also, the findings provide support for other components of motivation other than just instrumentality and integrativeness, mainly “personal” aspects as proposed by Benson’s model of motivation.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.

  4. Asymmetric oxidation of 1,3-dithianes to 1,3-dithiane 1-oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihiko, Watanabe; Yojiro, Ono; Yoshio, Ueno; Takeshi, Toru

    1998-01-01

    Oxidation of 2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-1,3-dithiane with the Sharpless reagent has been examined under various reaction conditions. Oxidation of 2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-1,3-dithiane with Ti(OPri)4-diethyl L-(+)-tartrate-tert-butyl hydroperoxide (1:2:1.5) in CH2Cl2 in the presence of 4 A molecular sieves gives (1S,2S)-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-1,3-dithiane 1-oxide with high trans selectivity and with moderate enantioselectivity. The enantioselectivity depends upon the substituent at t...

  5. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  6. 1-3-7 minute intravenous urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Yoon, Sei Chul; Lee, Myung Hee

    1980-01-01

    Intravenous urography (IVU) as it is used widely today was probably started in early 1950's after the introduction of triiodobenzoic acid compounds as contrast media. This long cherished traditional method consists of taking radiograms at 5, 15 and 25 minutes after the injection of contrast medium. There are a few modifications of this standard urographic examination such as five minute IVU (Woodruff, 1959), minute-sequence pyelogram (Maxwell et al., 1964), drip infusion pyelography (Schencker, 1964) and nephrotomography (Evans et al., 1955). The present study has been undertaken to test if the conventional standard IVU can be more rapidly performed without losing essential informational contents of urograms. In this new clinical trial, urograms were taken at the end of 1, 3 and 7 minutes instead of 5, 15 and 25 minutes after the intravenous injection of contrast medium. We injected 40 ml of meglumine diatrizoate solution within 30 seconds using an 18G iv needle. (The amount of injected contrast medium has been reduced recently to ordinary single dose of 20 ml for subjects weighing less than 8 kg). Upon viewing the 7 minute film in front of an automatic processor, the examination was terminated after obtaining an upright view unless any further radiogram was indicated. As shown in Tables and Figures, our new 1-3-7 minute method has been proven to provide us with as much essential and useful information as conventional 5-15-25 minute urography. Thus, we were able to finish one examination within 10 minutes without losing any necessary diagnostic information. In some of patients with obstructive uropathy such as stone the examination was extended as long as it was desired. Side reactions were occasional nausea, flushing and rare mild vomiting which never prevented the examination

  7. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...

  8. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  9. AFRREV IJAH, Vol.1 (3) July, 2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Abimbola

    Abstract. This is a paper proposing the recognition of English for Examination. Purposes (EEP). It is a report of an' unscheduled' quasi experimental research over 278 college students in Nigeria getting prepared to sit for. Senior School Certificate English. The researcher was consulted to bring in a palliative measure as an ...

  10. How useful is resilience as a concept for guiding sustainability in a changing environment? Emerging research questions, opportunities and smart practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    from experiences, including the science, entrepreneurship, and policy coherence, that have led to green infrastructure development, improved water resources management, and disaster risk reduction, to outline new research directions, services, and practices that inform an integrated and acceptable approach to resilience.

  11. Performance comparison of 2-1-3, 1-3 and 1-3-2 piezoelectric composite transducers by finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 1-3 type, 1-3-2 type and 2-1-3 type piezoelectric composites are three proper smart materials for the design and manufacture of ultrasonic transducers. They have been proposed in different stages but possess similar properties. Compared with the initial 1-3 type composite, 1-3-2 composite is of higher mechanical stability. Compared with 1-3-2 composite, 2-1-3 composite has lower manufacturing difficulty. In this paper, a comparative study on these three composites in terms of receiving transducer material properties is presented. Finite element method (FEM has been adopted to calculate longitudinal velocity, thickness electromechanical coupling coefficient and voltage receiving sensitivity. It is concluded that for a large aspect ratio α=1, the performance of 2-1-3 composite transducer is much better than that of 1-3 and 1-3-2 composite transducers. The thickness electromechanical coupling coefficient of 2-1-3 composite transducer is about 5.58 times that of 1-3 composite transducer and 7.42 times that of 1-3-2 composite transducer. The voltage receiving sensitivity at 2 kHz of 2-1-3 composite transducer is 13.1 dB higher than that of 1-3-2 composite transducer and 12.3 dB higher than that of 1-3 composite transducer.

  12. Beginning EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Quality Questions and Their Questioning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the impact of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality questions and their questioning behaviours in terms of questioning purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax. Thirteen…

  13. AFRREV IJAH, Vol.1 (3) July, 2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Abimbola

    effects of these influences, Nigeria is heading to a state of great linguistic confusion in ... psychologists, linguists, sociolinguists and researchers from various disciplines ..... necessitates international politics, trade, sports, diplomacy, technology.

  14. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  15. Ten Questions about Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Fromm, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are many open questions about emergence and self-organization, ranging from a clear ...

  16. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  17. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  18. 5-Isopropylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d][1,3]dithiole-2-thione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Yamashita

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H6S5, contains a 5-ylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d][1,3]dithiole-2-thione framework, which is an important synthetic precursor of multi-dimensional organic superconductors and conductors. The molecular framework is planar with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.012 Å for the non-H atoms. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by short intermolecular S...S interactions [3.501 (5 and 3.581 (4 Å], constructing a zigzag molecular tape network along the c axis.

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the RDX assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for RDX. The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for RDX that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  20. Mechanism and regioselectivity of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition; sulphur-centred 1,3-dipoles; regioselectivity; DFT reactivity indices;. FMO theory. 1. Introduction. Five-membered heterocyclic compounds can be gene- rated by addition of a 1,3-dipole to a dipolarophile under a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (1,3-DC) reaction which is well known as pericyclic reaction.

  1. The most intriguing question in synesthesia research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, R.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    This discussion paper forms an insightful addition to the synesthesia literature. Accompanying a steep increase in recent publications on synesthesia, it helps remedy the conspicuous paucity of mechanistic process models explaining the condition. The paper furthermore addresses what is arguably

  2. Michaelis' hundred Questions and the Royal Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  3. Michaelis' Hundred Questions and the Royal Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  4. ESTUDIO CONFORMACIONAL EN ALGUNAS 1,3-OXAZINAS Y 1,3-BENZOXAZINAS EMPLEANDO METODOS TEORICOS.

    OpenAIRE

    HURTADO OCAMPO, SANDRA MARCELA; HURTADO OCAMPO, SANDRA MARCELA

    2007-01-01

    En la década del cincuenta, resultados experimentales entregados por Urbanski y colaboradores [1] pusieron en evidencia propiedades antituberculósicas y antitumorales en compuestos del tipo 5-nitro-R-N-1 ,3- oxazínicos. Como resultado de un proceso relati 187p.

  5. The question about paleoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartic, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The author is treating questions about development of informatics in ancient Dacia during Y-th Century B.C. - 2-nd Century A.C. He is introducing a new terminology (paleoinformatics) in view of defining the interests of Daces in numbering, the elementary numbers theory and various aspects of numbers representation. A relation between elementary numbers theory and informatisation has been discussed. A particular interest has been given to calculation of the Circle length/Diameter ratio (number Pi), its calculation by Daces.

  6. Question of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Senjanovic, G.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the question of neutrino mass in theories in which neutrinos are four-component Dirac particles. Our analysis is done in the framework of left-right--symmetric theories. The requirement of calculability and natural smallness of neutrino mass leads to the following constraints: (i) left and right charged weak currents must be ''orthogonal'' to each other, and (ii) there should be no W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing at the three level. Finally, we exhibit a model in which, due to the existence of an unbroken symmetry of the total Lagrangian, the electron and muon neutrinos remain massless to all orders in perturbation theory

  7. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  8. Quantum theory from questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Philipp [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wever, Christopher [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to relativity, quantum theory has evaded a commonly accepted apprehension, in part because of the lack of physical statements that fully characterize it. In an attempt to remedy the situation, we summarize a novel reconstruction of the explicit formalism of quantum theory (for arbitrarily many qubits) from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S's state as O's ''catalogue of knowledge'' about S; no ontic assumptions are necessary. From the rules, one can derive, among other things, the state spaces, the unitary group, the von Neumann evolution and show that the binary questions correspond to Pauli operators. The reconstruction also offers new structural insights in the form of novel informational charges and informational complementarity relations which define the state spaces and the unitary group. This reconstruction permits a new perspective on quantum theory.

  9. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  10. Cryosurgery in Cancer Treatment: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  11. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  12. Synthesis of [1,3 - 15 N2] uracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiriac, M.; Axente, D.

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of 15 N labelled uracil, using CO( 15 NH 2 ) 2 as starting material, is presented. The experimental procedure is an adaptation of the synthesis methods for the corresponding unlabelled compounds. Urea- 15 N 2 used as starting material was obtained from H 15 NO 3 (99 at.% 15 N) produced at National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca.The uracil structure was determined using the mass spectrometry method and the isotopic labelling was determined by the same method on the molecular compound. The synthesis scheme of (1,3- 15 N 2 ) uracil is presented. (authors)

  13. Processing of water-based LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 pastes for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results show that a substitution of the conventional organic solvent-based manufacturing route for LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes by water-based processing exhibits a promising way to realise Li-ion batteries with comparable electrochemical behaviour, while avoiding toxic processing aids and reducing overall ...

  14. GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized by citric acid assisted high-energy ball milling ... The State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science; The Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, P. R. ...

  15. GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li diffusion; LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2; lithium ion batteries; layered structure. 1. Introduction ... The coin-type cell CR2012 consisting of a metallic- lithium foil anode ... and the polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) binder with a mass ratio of 4:1:1 in NMP ...

  16. Layered oxides-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as anode electrode for symmetric rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Feng, Zimin; Yang, Shi-Ze; Gagnon, Catherine; Gariépy, Vincent; Laul, Dharminder; Zhu, Wen; Veillette, René; Trudeau, Michel L.; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Zaghib, Karim

    2018-02-01

    High-performance and long-cycling rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been in steadily increasing demand for the past decades. Nevertheless, the two dominant anodes at the moment, graphite and L4T5O12, suffer from a safety issue of lithium plating (operating voltage at ∼ 0.1 V vs. Li+/Li) and low capacity (175 mAh/g), respectively. Here, we report LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as an alternative anode material which has a working voltage of ∼1.1 V and a capacity as high as 330 mAh/g at the current rate of C/15. Symmetric cells with both electrodes containing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can deliver average discharge voltage of 2.2 V. In-situ XRD, HRTEM and first principles calculations indicate that the reaction mechanism of a LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 anode is comprised mainly of conversion. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is a promising negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  17. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  18. The Coding Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  20. A question of emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    of pharmaceuticals? Seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in May, August and October 1997. Widespread ignorance about the legislation was observed. Pharmacy customers preferred to discuss the role of physicians in 'irrational drug use' to discussing community...... pharmacies. A definite split was observed between urban and rural pharmacy customers; whereas definite changes were reported in the urban setting (lower prices and increased access), the rural population's perception is that it is being left out. Although the study design is not generalisable, it is clear......The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs...

  1. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  2. Structural and thermal stabilities of layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials in 18650 high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Bing; Ning, Feng; Yang, Quan-Hong; Song, Quan-Sheng; Li, Baohua; Su, Fangyuan; Du, Hongda; Tang, Zhi-Yuan; Kang, Feiyu

    The structural and thermal stabilities of the layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode materials under high rate cycling and abusive conditions are investigated using the commercial 18650 Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2/graphite high power batteries. The Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials maintain their layered structure even when the power batteries are subjected to 200 cycles with 10 C discharge rate at temperatures of 25 and 50 °C, whereas their microstructure undergoes obvious distortion, which leads to the relatively poor cycling performance of power batteries at high charge/discharge rates and working temperature. Under abusive conditions, the increase in the battery temperature during overcharge is attributed to both the reactions of electrolyte solvents with overcharged graphite anode and Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode and the Joule heat that results from the great increase in the total resistance (R cell) of batteries. The reactions of fully charged Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathodes and graphite anodes with electrolyte cannot be activated during short current test in the fully charged batteries. However, these reactions occur at around 140 °C in the fully charged batteries during oven test, which is much lower than the temperature of about 240 °C required for the reactions outside batteries.

  3. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  4. Semantic annotation of consumer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Ben Abacha, Asma; Mrabet, Yassine; Shooshan, Sonya E; Rodriguez, Laritza; Masterton, Kate; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2018-02-06

    useful in estimating annotation confidence. To our knowledge, our corpus is the first focusing on annotation of uncurated consumer health questions. It is currently used to develop machine learning-based methods for question understanding. We make the corpus publicly available to stimulate further research on consumer health QA.

  5. Thermochemistry of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine and 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorino, Joana; Agapito, Filipe; Piedade, M. Fátima M.; Bernardes, Carlos E.S.; Diogo, Hermínio P.; Leal, João P.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The enthalpy of formation of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate was determined by combustion calorimetry. • The cohesive energy of liquid 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate was evaluated. • The crystal structure of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. • Δ f H m o (l/g) of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (tmg) were obtained by solution and Calvet calorimetry. • Δ f H m o (g) calculated by the W1-F12 procedure was in excellent agreement with the corresponding experimental value. - Abstract: Considerable efforts have recently been made to investigate how the structure of protic ionic liquids determines some of their most important properties for technological applications (e.g. low vapour pressure, conductivity). In contrast, the assessment of cohesive energies (which are also linked to those properties) based on thermodynamic results is still practically unexplored. This problem is addressed here for 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate, [Htmg][NO 3 ], through a combination of experimental and computational chemistry results at the reference temperature of 298.15 K. The standard molar enthalpies of formation, Δ f H m o ([Htmg][NO 3 ],cr)=-(311.8±2.3)kJ·mol -1 , and fusion, Δ fus H m o ([Htmg][NO 3 ])=16.2±3.8kJ·mol -1 , of solid 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate (form I polymorph) were obtained by combustion and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. From these results Δ f H m o ([Htmg][NO 3 ],l)=-(295.6±4.4)kJ·mol -1 could be derived. Also determined were the standard molar enthalpies of formation, Δ f H m o (tmg, l)=7.7±2.8kJ·mol -1 , and vaporisation, Δ vap H m o (tmg,l)=50.0±1.2kJ·mol -1 , of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine, by reaction solution and Calvet-drop microcalorimetry, respectively, leading to Δ f H m o (tmg,g)=57.7±3.0kJ·mol -1 . This result is in excellent agreement with Δ f H m o (tmg,g)=58.4±4.0kJ·mol -1

  6. Future Computing Technology (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Computing of the future will be affected by a number of fundamental technologies in development today, many of which are already on the way to becoming commercialized. In this series of lectures, we will discuss hardware and software development that will become mainstream in the timeframe of a few years and how they will shape or change the computing landscape - commercial and personal alike. Topics range from processor and memory aspects, programming models and the limits of artificial intelligence, up to end-user interaction with wearables or e-textiles. We discuss the impact of these technologies on the art of programming, the data centres of the future and daily life. Lecturer's short bio: Andrzej Nowak has 10 years of experience in computing technologies, primarily from CERN openlab and Intel. At CERN, he managed a research lab collaborating with Intel and was part of the openlab Chief Technology Office. Andrzej also worked closely and initiated projects with the private sector (e.g. HP and Go...

  7. After sympathy, a question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Anne Line

    2018-01-01

    Within a discussion of fieldwork, friendship and ethics Dalsgård describes how a piece of fictional writing worked as a sympathetic experiment and both changed her understanding of a young woman's situation and deepened her relationship to her. She employs Adam Smith’s concept of sympathy as the ...... of research and shows us that fiction can be real (including the fiction of anthropological field research identified by Clifford Geertz) because it has real consequences....

  8. Une question interdite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legendre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Is legal history a left-over or is it waiting for a takeover bid (just like a company in serious trouble which would allow the expression of new analyses and outlines for a better understanding of the contemporary western world? Its propositions of erudition, are they just interesting for small academic circles, or could they open a new pathway for fundamental reflections on the phenomenon of norms in general and the structure of its evolution in the special case of norm-production coming from Roman Christianity? And what is the significance of the idea of »legal tradition«, an idea forged in Western Europe, within the framework of a presumed global westernization without any counter-balance? The essay discusses the illegibility of legal history in today’s culture. Under the well reflected motto »The Forbidden Question« it concludes firmly: To renovate itself, this discipline has to perform its work in a new way, guided by a very precise and distinct vision on theory. The author examines the conditions for this.

  9. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  10. 101 questions about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  11. 2,4,6-Triamino-1,3,5-triazine-1,3-diium aquapentafluoridoaluminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maisonneuve

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (C3H8N6[AlF5(H2O], was obtained by solvothermal synthesis from the reaction of aluminium hydroxide, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (melamine, aqueous HF and water at 323 K for 48 h. The structure consists of [AlF5(H2O]2− octahedra and diprotonated melaminium cations. Cohesion is ensured by a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds.

  12. Preparation of layered oxide Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 via the sol-gel process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen; LIU Hanxing; HU Chen; ZHU Xianjun; LI Yanxi

    2008-01-01

    To obtain homogenous layered oxide Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material,the sol-gel process using citric acid as a chelating agent was applied.The material Li(Co1/3,Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 was synthesized at different calcination temperatures.XRD experiment indicated that the hyered Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2material could he synthesized at a lower temperature of 800℃,and the oxidation state of Co,Ni,and Mn in the cathode confirmed by XPS were +3,+2,and +4,respectively.SEM observations showed that the synthesized material could form homogenous particle morphology with the particle size of about 200nm In spite of different calcination temperatures,the charge-discharge curves of all the samples for the initial cycle were similar,and the cathode synthesized at 900℃ showed a small irreversible capacity loss of 11.24% and a high discharge capacity of 212.2 mAh.g-1 in the voltage range of 2.9-4.6 V.

  13. A freedom to question...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    I was born into a middle-class family which was well trav- elled and broad- minded ... did benefit greatly from exposure to both an excellent curriculum and peers. ... Research Institute, Bangalore, where I now work on the causal set approach to ...

  14. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  15. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of layered Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 as positive electrode material for lithium secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Lee, Myung-Hun; Komaba, Shinichi; Kumagai, Naoaki; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2005-01-01

    In attempts to prepare layered Li[Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 ]O 2 , hydrothermal method was employed. The hydrothermal precursor, [Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 ](OH) 2 , was synthesized via a coprecipitation route. The sphere-shaped powder precursor was hydrothermally reacted with LiOH aqueous solution at 170 deg. C for 4 days in autoclave. From X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic studies, it was found that the as-hydrothermally prepared powders were crystallized to layered α-NaFeO 2 structure and the particles had spherical shape. The as-prepared Li[Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 ]O 2 delivered an initial discharge of about 110 mA h g -1 due to lower crystallinity. Heat treatment of the hydrothermal product at 800 deg. C was significantly effective to improve the structural integrity, which consequently affected the increase in the discharge capacity to 157 (4.3 V cut-off) and 182 mA h g -1 (4.6 V cut-off) at 25 deg. C with good reversibility

  17. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  18. A question of trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Trust lies at the heart of modern science. As scientists, we trust that the papers we read are honest and correct as far as the data, results, techniques and theories in them are concerned. We trust that our colleagues and collaborators are acting properly and ethically - and not being devious, secretive or sloppy. But perhaps even more important is the public's trust in science. After all, much research is funded by taxpayers, who, quite rightly, want to know that the work will not harm them and, preferably, do them some good.

  19. Six questions about translational due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Evan

    2010-04-28

    To maintain stable respect and support, translational research must be guided by appropriate ethical, social, legal, and political concerns and carry out culturally competent practices. Considering six key questions concerning due diligence will enable the translational research community to examine critically how it approaches these endeavors.

  20. Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after eachstep. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 15-20

  1. [Archives of "comprehensive approach on asbestos-related diseases" supported by the "special coordination funds for promoting science and technology (H18-1-3-3-1)"-- overview of group research project, care and specimen registration, cellular characteristics of mesothelioma and immunological effects of asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Takemi; Nakano, Takashi; Hasegawa, Seiki; Okada, Morihito; Tsujimura, Tohru; Sekido, Yoshitaka; Toyokuni, Shinya; Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Kumagai, Naoko; Maeda, Megumi; Nishimura, Yasumitsu

    2011-05-01

    The research project entitled "Comprehensive approach on asbestos-related diseases" supported by the "Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology (H18-1-3-3-1)" began in 2006 and was completed at the end of the Japanese fiscal year of 2010. This project included four parts; (1) malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases and specimen registration, (2) development of procedures for the early diagnosis of MM, (3) commencement of clinical investigations including multimodal approaches, and (4) basic research comprising three components; (i) cellular and molecular characterization of mesothelioma cells, (ii) immunological effects of asbestos, and (iii) elucidation of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis using animal models. In this special issue of the Japanese Journal of Hygiene, we briefly introduce the achievements of our project. The second and third parts and the third component of the fourth part are described in other manuscripts written by Professors Fukuoka, Hasegawa, and Toyokuni. In this manuscript, we introduce a brief summary of the first part "MM cases and specimen registration", the first component of the fourth part "Cellular and molecular characterization of mesothelioma cells" and the second component of the fourth part "Immunological effects of asbestos". In addition, a previous special issue presented by the Study Group of Fibrous and Particulate Substances (SGFPS) (chaired by Professor Otsuki, Kawasaki Medical School, Japan) for the Japanese Society of Hygiene and published in Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine Volume 13, 2008, included reviews of the aforementioned first component of the fourth part of the project. Taken together, our project led medical investigations regarding asbestos and MM progress and contributed towards the care and examination of patients with asbestos-related diseases during these five years. Further investigations are required to facilitate the development of preventive measures and the cure of asbestos

  2. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  3. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  4. San Diego, California 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second San Diego, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  5. Newport, Oregon 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Newport, Oregon Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  6. Hilo, Hawaii 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Hilo, Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly...

  7. Four experimental stimulants found in sports and weight loss supplements: 2-amino-6-methylheptane (octodrine), 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA), 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (1,3-DMBA).

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Pieter A; Travis, John C; Keizers, Peter H J; Deuster, Patricia; Venhuis, Bastiaan J

    2017-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration banned the stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) from dietary supplements and warned consumers that the stimulant can pose cardiovascular risks ranging from high blood pressure to heart attacks.

  8. Southwestern Washington 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Southwest Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  9. Seaside, Oregon 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Seaside Oregon Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  10. Nawiliwili, Hawaii 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Nawiliwili Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  11. Guam 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Guam Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  12. Direct, Regioselective N-Alkylation of 1,3-Azoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; Graceffa, Russell F; Boezio, Alessandro A

    2016-01-04

    Regioselective N-alkylation of 1,3-azoles is a valuable transformation. Organomagnesium reagents were discovered to be competent bases to affect regioselective alkylation of various 1,3-azoles. Counterintuitively, substitution selectively occurred at the more sterically hindered nitrogen atom. Numerous examples are provided, on varying 1,3-azole scaffolds, with yields ranging from 25 to 95%.

  13. The Priority of the Question: Focus Questions for Sustained Reasoning in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, David

    2010-08-01

    Science education standards place a high priority on promoting the skills and dispositions associated with inquiry at all levels of learning. Yet, the questions teachers employ to foster sustained reasoning are most likely borrowed from a textbook, lab manual, or worksheet. Such generic questions generated for a mass audience, lack authenticity and contextual cues that allow learners to immediately appreciate a question’s relevance. Teacher queries intended to motivate, guide, and foster learning through inquiry are known as focus questions. This theoretical article draws upon science education research to present a typology and conceptual framework intended to support science teacher educators as they identify, develop, and evaluate focus questions with their students.

  14. Human Decompression Trial With 1.3 ATA Oxygen in Helium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) was tasked to develop helium-oxygen decompression tables for a proposed closed circuit breathing apparatus which Will deliver a constant oxygen partial pressure of 1.3 atmospheres (ATA...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of "1"3C_3-tristearin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hangyu; Lin Lin; Li Lei; Chen Dazhou

    2011-01-01

    A highly efficient synthesis of "1"3C_3 labeled triglycerides of stearic acids from "1"3C_3-glycerol and stearic acids, by immobilized lipase-catalyzed in solvent-free medium was described. The structure of the product were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectra (MS). The results showed that triglycerides of stearic acids contained three "1"3C atoms. The isotope abundance of "1"3C_3-tristearin was more than 99% and the yield was 80% of "1"3C_3-tristearin through calculation. Chemical purity (> 98%) was obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). (authors)

  16. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method used in cognitive therapy is guided discovery. There are various methods of guided discovery in cognitive therapy. The form of verbal exchange between the therapist and client which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as “socratic questioning”. In this method the goal is to make the client rediscover, with a series of questions, a piece of knowledge which he could otherwise know but is not presently conscious of. The Socratic Questioning consists of several steps, including: identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly rediscovered information and questioning the old distorted belief, and reaching a new conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are: questions for collecting information, questions revealing meanings, questions revealing beliefs, questions about behaviours during similar past experiences, analytic questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood, it is important to be empathetic and summarize the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues provided for each step. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 47-53

  17. Novel 1,3-dioxanes from apple juice and cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, D; Beuerle, T; Wein, M; Boss, B; König, T; Schwab, W

    1999-12-01

    Extracts obtained by XAD solid-phase extraction of apple juice and cider were separated by liquid chromatography on silica gel. Several new 1,3-dioxanes including the known 2-methyl-4-pentyl-1,3-dioxane and 2-methyl-4-[2'(Z)-pentenyl]-1,3-dioxane, were identified in the nonpolar fractions by GC/MS analysis and confirmed by chemical synthesis. The enantioselective synthesis of the stereoisomers of the 1,3-dioxanes was performed using (R)- and (R,S)-octane-1,3-diol and (R)- and (R,S)-5(Z)-octene-1,3-diol as starting material. Comparison with the isolated products indicated that the natural products consisted of a mixture of (2S,4R) and (2R,4R) stereoisomers in the ratio of approximately 10:1, except for 1,3-dioxanes generated from acetone and 2-butanone. It is assumed that the 1, 3-dioxanes are chemically formed in the apples and cider from the natural apple ingredients (R)-octane-1,3-diol, (R)-5(Z)-octene-1, 3-diol, (3R,7R)- and (3R,7S)-octane-1,3,7-triol, and the appropriate aldehydes and ketones, which are produced either by the apples or by yeast during fermentation of the apple juice.

  18. Hydrogenolysis of 2-tosyloxy-1,3-propanediol into 1,3-propanediol over Raney Ni catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi, Zheng; Jianli, Wang; Zhen, Lu; Min, Luo; Miao, Zhang; Lixin, Xu; Jianbing [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Biofuel, The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry-Synthesis Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China)

    2013-03-15

    2-Tosyloxy-1,3-propanediol (TPD), a potential precursor for 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production, is produced by the tosylation of glycerol with the help of protecting group techniques. In this work, the hydrogenolysis of TPD into 1,3-PD over Raney Ni catalyst is discussed at different reaction parameters to optimize the reaction conditions for selective formation of 1,3-PD. The mechanisms of the hydrogenolysis of TPD and the side reactions were also confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique (author)

  19. Local atomic characterization of LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedoseykina, Tatiana; Kim, Sung-Soo; Nitta, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    Co, Ni and Mn K-edge XAFS investigation of LiCo 1/3 Ni 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 as alternative cathode material to commercially used LiCoO 2 in lithium rechargeable battery has been performed. Parameters of a local atomic structure such as radii of metal-oxygen and metal-metal coordination shells and disorder in those shells have been determined. It has been found that the radius of the first coordination shell (metal-oxygen) as well as a local disorder in the second shell (metal-metal) around each of the 3d-metals are in a good agreement with obtained for superlattice model of √3 x √3] R30 o type in triangular lattice of sites by first principle calculation. Other parameters of the local atomic structure around Co, Ni and Mn atoms do not provide evidence for presence of superstructure in LiCo 1/3 Ni 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2

  20. Autoria e autorização: questões éticas na pesquisa com crianças To be an author and to authorize: ethical questions concerning research on children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Kramer

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O texto analisa questões éticas enfrentadas na pesquisa com crianças de diferentes idades, grupos e contextos. Trata da concepção de infância subjacente às pesquisas em debate e analisa três questões. A primeira focaliza os nomes (verdadeiros ou fictícios de crianças observadas ou entrevistadas e analisa se devem ou não ser explicitados na apresentação da pesquisa. A segunda discute a utilização de imagens de crianças - seus rostos - em especial a autorização do uso de imagens (em fotografias, vídeos ou filmes. A terceira trata das implicações ou do impacto social de resultados de trabalhos científicos e pergunta se é possível contribuir e devolver os achados, evitando que as crianças ou jovens sofram com as repercussões desse retorno, no interior das instituições educacionais que freqüentam e que foram estudadas na pesquisa. Tais questões emergiram na orientação de monografias, dissertações e teses.This paper analyses ethical questions faced in research developed with children of various ages, groups and contexts. It discusses the childhood conception that underlines research presented in monographs, dissertations and thesis that are presented or commented along the text. The article refers to three issues. The first issue focuses on names (true or fictional of children observed or interviewed. The second issue discusses the use made of children's images (in photographs, videos and films. The third issue deals with the implications or the social impact of scientific texts and it asks if it is possible to contribute with data or results, preventing children and young people from suffering the consequences of the institutional situations which are revealed by the research.

  1. Four experimental stimulants found in sports and weight loss supplements: 2-amino-6-methylheptane (octodrine), 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA), 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (1,3-DMBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Pieter A; Travis, John C; Keizers, Peter H J; Deuster, Patricia; Venhuis, Bastiaan J

    2017-11-08

    The United States Food and Drug Administration banned the stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) from dietary supplements and warned consumers that the stimulant can pose cardiovascular risks ranging from high blood pressure to heart attacks. We designed our study to determine if a new stimulant similar in structure to 1,3-DMAA has been introduced as an ingredient in supplements sold in the United States (US). We analyzed six brands of supplements that listed an ingredient on the label (e.g., Aconitum kusnezoffii, DMHA or 2-amino-isoheptane) that might refer to an analog of 1,3-DMAA. Supplements were analyzed by two separate laboratories using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and reference standards. Two previously unidentified 1,3-DMAA analogs (2-amino-6-methylheptane [octodrine] and 1,4-dimethylamylamine [1,4-DMAA]) and two banned stimulants (1,3-DMAA and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine [1,3-DMBA]) were identified. Octodrine was found at a dose (±95% CI) of 72 ± 7.5 mg per serving. In Europe, octodrine was previously sold as a pharmaceutical in multi-ingredient medications at dosages from 8 to 33 mg. The quantity of octodrine found in our study was more than twice the largest pharmaceutical dose. The other new stimulant, 1,4-DMAA, has not previously been approved for human consumption, and its safety in humans is unknown. 1,4-DMAA was found at dosages between 21 ± 11 mg to 94 ± 48 mg per serving. In addition, two banned stimulants - 1,3-DMAA and 1,3-DMBA - were also identified: 24 ± 7.6 mg to 35 ± 11 mg of 1,3-DMAA and 51 ± 16 mg of 1,3-DMBA. In one product, 24 ± 7.6 mg of 1,3-DMAA was combined with 21 ± 11 mg of 1,4-DMAA. 1,3-DMAA has been investigated as potentially contributing to hemorrhagic strokes and sudden death, whereas the safety of 1,3-DMBA in humans is unknown. Two banned stimulants (1,3-DMAA and 1,3-DMBA) and two previously unidentified stimulants (1,4-DMAA and

  2. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  3. New 4-phosphino-1,3,2-dioxaborinanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musina, Eh.I.; Nikonov, G.N.; Balueva, A.S.; Litvinov, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Molecular and crystal structure of bis[(5,6-benzo-2-phenyl-1,3,2-dioxaborinane-4)phenylphosphino]methane are ascertained by the method of X-ray diffraction analysis. Interaction of methyl (phenyl) phosphine and salicyl aldehyde with phenylboric acid ester gives rise to preparation of its monoheterocyclic analog - 4-methyl(phenyl) phosphino-2-phenyl-5,6-benzo-1,3,2-dioxaborinane and its sulfide. It is shown that in the series 4-aryl(alkyl)phosphino 1,3,2-dioxaborinanes no stacking-conformations realized for 4-diarylphosphino-1,3,2-dioxaboraphosphorinanes are observed [ru

  4. HOW TO ANSWER CHILDREN QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Brenifier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclose the possible philosophicalconversation with the child.Methods. The author uses general scientific research methods, including observation and interviews, philosophical analysis.Results and scientific novelty. The author reveals the essence of philosophical conversations with the child, calls the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity, illustrating examples of incorrect behavior of adults to communicate with children. It is recommended how to be responsible for children’s issues. The article discusses the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity by illustrating examples of an erroneous behaviour of adults in dealing with children. It is shown that if the teacher does not find a systematic way to engage children in the essential discussion, the children most likely will not learn how to contemplate seriously. The author gives detailed guidance how to answer children’s questions.Practical significance. The article may be of interest to parents, teachers, experts in the field of psychology of creativity, post-graduates and organizers of independent activity of students of higher education institutions.

  5. Thinking through Quality Questioning: Deepening Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jackie Acree; Sattes, Beth Dankert

    2011-01-01

    This groundbreaking book provides teachers with an accessible, research-based blueprint for developing student metacognitive skills and ensuring that students take responsibility for their own learning. The authors use the findings of cognitive scientists to highlight quality questioning behaviors and explain how to apply them for improved student…

  6. Phenomenology of the innovative question when based on wonderment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herholdt-Lomholdt, Sine Maria; Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    This paper questions, how we, from a phenomenological point of view, can describe and understand the phenomenology of innovative questions and processes of questioning when based in a wonderdriven approach to innovation and entrepreneurship. Approach: In our research we take on a phenomenological...

  7. Questioning care at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruopp, Patricia; Good, Mary-Jo Delvecchio; Lakoma, Matthew; Gadmer, Nina M; Arnold, Robert M; Block, Susan D

    2005-06-01

    The goal of the larger study was to explore physicians' emotional responses to the death of their patients; this study analyzed a subset of physician transcripts to elucidate the construct of questioning care, which emerged from the larger study. To analyzes how physicians question care-expressing concern, unease, or uncertainty about treatment decisions and practices, errors, or adverse events-as they attend dying patients. Retrospective interview study of physicians caring for randomly selected deaths on the medical service of a major academic teaching hospital, using qualitative and quantitative measures. SETTING, SUBJECTS: 188 attendings, residents, and interns on the internal medical services of two academic medical centers were part of the larger study. A subsample of 75 physician narratives was selected for qualitative data analysis for this study. Qualitative measures included open-ended questions eliciting physicians' stories of the most recent and a most emotionally powerful patient death they have experienced. Grounded theory was used to analyze physician narratives. Quantitative instruments measured physician attitudes toward end-of-life care and responses to the most recent and most emotional patient death. Physicians question care more frequently in most emotional deaths (42%) than in most recent deaths (34%). Physicians question communication with patients and families and within medical teams, medical judgment and technique, standards of practice, and high-risk treatments, often assigning responsibility for medical management they perceive as inappropriate, futile, overly aggressive, or mistakes in judgment and technique. Responsibility ranges from the distal (the culture of medicine) to the proximal (personal). Frustration, guilt, and anger are more frequently expressed in these narratives when care is questioned. A typology of questioning care emerged from these physicians' narratives that parallels and reflects recent and classic research on

  8. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  9. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  10. D-linking or set-restriction? Processing Which-questions in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, Jantien; Hoeks, John C. J.; Stowe, Laurie A.

    2013-01-01

    Research on Wh-questions suggests that Which questions are harder to process than Who questions (e.g., Who/Which athlete won the competition?). According to the Discourse (D)-linking Hypothesis, Which-questions differ from Who-questions in that Which questions need a link to a preceding discourse,

  11. Lithium Diffusion and Magnetism in Battery Cathode Material LixNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Månsson, M; Prša, K; Nozaki, H; Sugiyama, J; Wikberg, J M; Sassa, Y; Dahbi, M; Kamazawa, K; Sedlak, K; Watanabe, I

    2014-01-01

    We have studied low-temperature magnetic properties as well as high-temperature lithium ion diffusion in the battery cathode materials Li x Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 by the use of muon spin rotation/relaxation. Our data reveal that the samples enter into a 2D spin-glass state below T SG ≈ 12 K. We further show that lithium diffusion channels become active for T ≥ T diff ∼ 125 K where the Li-ion hopping-rate [v(T)] starts to increase exponentially. Further, v(T) is found to fit very well to an Arrhenius type equation and the activation energy for the diffusion process is extracted as E a ≈ 100 meV

  12. Carcinoid Tumor: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatic enzyme replacement varies from 1-3 Viokase tablets with each meal and at bedtime, or 1- ... of choice in addition to CT scan and MRI. In appropriate cases, Neotect Scan, FDG PET scan ...

  13. 26 CFR 1.3-1 - Application of optional tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., appropriate to his number of exemptions, provided for cases in which a joint return is filed. (c) Use of tax... in the case of a joint return (including the return of a surviving spouse) and lesser income... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Application of optional tax. 1.3-1 Section 1.3-1...

  14. Solar wind oscillations with a 1.3 year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John D.; Paularena, Karolen I.; Belcher, John W.; Lazarus, Alan J.

    1994-01-01

    The Interplanetary Monitoring Platform 8 (IMP-8) and Voyager 2 spacecraft have recently detected a very strong modulation in the solar wind speed with an approximately 1.3 year period. Combined with evidence from long-term auroral and magnetometer studies, this suggests that fundamental changes in the Sun occur on a roughly 1.3 year time scale.

  15. 21 CFR 172.712 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.712 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (CAS...

  16. 1,3- and 1,4-Substituted tetrazolium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Gaponik, Pavel N; Ivashkevich, Oleg A

    2002-01-01

    The published data on the synthesis, physicochemical properties, structures and reactions of 1,3-(1,3,5)- and 1,4-(1,4,5)-substituted tetrazolium salts are systematised and generalised. Their applications as starting compounds in the preparative chemistry of heterocyclic derivatives and some other branches of science and technology are reviewed. The bibliography includes 122 references.

  17. Efficient question answering with question decomposition and multiple answer streams

    OpenAIRE

    Hartrumpf, Sven; Glöckner, Ingo; Leveling, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The German question answering (QA) system IRSAW (formerly: InSicht) participated in QA@CLEF for the fth time. IRSAW was introduced in 2007 by integrating the deep answer producer InSicht, several shallow answer producers, and a logical validator. InSicht builds on a deep QA approach: it transforms documents to semantic representations using a parser, draws inferences on semantic representations with rules, and matches semantic representations derived from questions and documents. InS...

  18. Characterization of methacetin-methoxy-"1"3C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weijing; Lu Hao; Yang Weicheng; Liu Weixia; Li Shuai; Xu Zhongjie; Guan Liang; Zhu Chengmo; Chen Suyun; Jiang Lei

    2010-01-01

    Methacetin-methoxy-"1"3C was synthesized by using methanol-"1"3C with a novel method, and the characterization of it was performed using HPLC, LC-MS and "1HMNR. The results indicated that the synthetic was right. And the yield of methacetin-methoxy-"1"3C was 70.0% with 99% "1"3C abundance and 99.8% purity. Compared with the classical method, there was more benefit. The methacetin "1"3C-breath test was performed with the synthetic on the live mice, which showed a precise reflection of alteration of liver function in liver injury and functional recovery. (authors)

  19. Analysis of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Various Foodstuffs Using GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Wooseok; Jeong, Yun A; On, Jiwon; Choi, Ari; Lee, Jee-yeon; Lee, Joon Goo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Pyo, Heesoo

    2015-01-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) are not only produced in the manufacturing process of foodstuffs such as hydrolyzed vegetable proteins and soy sauce but are also formed by heat processing in the presence of fat and low water activity. 3-MCPD exists both in free and ester forms, and the ester form has been also detected in various foods. Free 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP are classified as Group 2B by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Although th...

  20. The question of caution in professional medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godard, O.

    2006-01-01

    Contrived in Europe to tackle the environment protection policies and management of natural resources, the principle of caution has seen since 1990 its interest developed towards the fields of food safety and public health. The importance and the relevance of questions have lead the national institute of research and safety to constitute a working group to explore the problems and the potentialities that could be linked to the explicit introduction of this principle and this in the field of the prevention of professional risks. This work tackles several aspects of the question of caution in professional medium such history, concepts, evolution...as well as cases judged exemplary ones. (N.C.)

  1. KEMAMPUAN MAHASISWA DALAM MEMBUAT COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudiyono Pudiyono

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to find out (a the level of the students’ ability in making comprehension questions, (b the students’ map of problems in making comprehension questions. The population of the research was all students joining Reading 4 academic year 2016, totaling to 30 students, while the sample was taken from all students. The result of data analysis showed that the average ability of the students, with score more than 70 reached 66.66%. In details, only 4 of the samples (13.33% got no wrong answers or an A. Those who got good achievement (B, considered as majority, amounted to 16 students (53.33%. The participants achieving enough grades (C reached 7 students or 23.33%. The last level achieved in this research was D with the number reaching 3 (10%. The map of problems laid on their inability in identifying between yes/no and WH questions, inverted sentence, choosing the right auxiliary and verbs and their spelling ability. Keyword: comprehension, questions, inversion, problem map, ability

  2. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) (Public Comment Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis suppor...

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  6. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  7. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  8. RESULTS OF THE QUALITATIVE QUESTIONS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adam Graham

    In April of 2005, Governance, Equity and Health (GEH) held an all-partners' ... data collected – six respondents left a blank response for the question addressing level of ... Meeting participants were organized into five thematic working groups:.

  9. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    cluster-based query expan- sion, learning answering strategies, machine learning in NLP To my wife Monica Abstract During recent years, question...process is typically tedious and involves expertise in crafting and implement- ing these models (e.g. rule-based), utilizing NLP resources, and...questions. For languages that use capitalization (e.g. not Chinese or Arabic ) for named entities, IBQA can make use of NE classing (e.g. “Bob Marley

  10. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  11. Thermochemistry of 1,3-diethylbarbituric and 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acids: Experimental and computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notario, Rafael; Roux, María Victoria; Ros, Francisco; Emel’yanenko, Vladimir N.; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H.; Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Enthalpies of formation in condensed phase have been obtained. • Enthalpy of vaporization of 1,3-diethylbarbituric acid has been determined. • Enthalpy of sublimation of 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid has been determined. • Gas-phase enthalpies of formation have been obtained. • Gas-phase enthalpies of formation have been calculated at G3 and G4 levels. - Abstract: This paper reports an experimental and computational thermochemical study on two barbituric acid derivatives, viz. 1,3-diethylbarbituric acid and 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid. Values of standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gas phase at T = 298.15 K have been derived from experiment. Energies of combustion were measured by the static bomb combustion calorimetry in the case of 1,3-diethylbarbituric acid, and the rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry in the case of 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid. From the combustion energies, standard molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline state at T = 298.15 K were calculated. The enthalpy of vaporization of 1,3-diethylbarbituric acid and enthalpy of sublimation of 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid were determined using the transpiration method. Combining calorimetric and transpiration results, values of −(611.9 ± 2.0) kJ · mol −1 and −(343.8 ± 2.2) kJ · mol −1 for the gas-phase enthalpies of formation at T = 298.15 K of 1,3-diethylbarbituric and 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acids, respectively, were derived. Theoretical calculations at the G3 and G4 levels were performed, and a study of the molecular structure of the compounds has been carried out. Calculated enthalpies of formation were in very good agreement with the experimental values

  12. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  13. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    To this effect, two basic research with these research ... In this area, Ho conducted a research on a topic “Effectiveness o .... questioning, making a list, clustering, preparing a scratch .... three data collection instruments by using quantitative and.

  14. In vitro antioxidant activity of thiazolidinone derivatives of 1,3-thiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Mirjana; Fesatidou, Mara; Xenikakis, Iakovos; Geronikaki, Athina; Angelova, Violina T; Savic, Vladimir; Pasic, Marta; Krilovic, Branislav; Djukic, Dusan; Gobeljic, Borko; Pavlica, Marina; Djuric, Ana; Stanojevic, Ivan; Vojvodic, Danilo; Saso, Luciano

    2018-04-25

    The initial steps in preclinical drug developing research concern the synthesis of new compounds for specific therapeutic use which needs to be confirmed by in vitro and then in vivo testing. Nine thiazolidinone derivatives (numerically labeled 1-9) classified as follows: 1,3-thiazole-based compounds (1 and 2); 1,3,4-thiadiazole based compounds (3 and 4); substituted 5-benzylideno-2-adamantylthiazol[3,2-b][1,2,4]triazol-6(5H)ones (5-8); and an ethylaminothiazole-based chalcone (9), were tested for antioxidant activity (AOA) by using three in vitro assays: DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging capacity test); FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power test); and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test). Compounds 1-4 and 9 in particular are newly synthesized compounds. Also, traditional antioxidants Vitamins E and C and α-lipoic acid (α-LA) were tested. The results of DPPH testing: Vitamin C 94.35%, Vitamin E 2.99% and α-LA 1.57%; compounds: 4 33.98%; 2 18.73%; 1 15.62%; 5 6.59%; 3 4.99%; 6-9 demonstrated almost no AOA. The results of TBARS testing (% of LPO inhibition): Vitamin C 62.32%; Vitamin E 36.29%; α-LA 51.36%; compounds: 1 62.11%; 5 66.71%; 9 60.93%; 4, 6 and 7 demonstrated ∼50%; 3 and 8 displayed ∼38%; 2 23.51%. By FRAP method, Vitamins E and C showed equal AOA, ∼100%, unlike α-LA (no AOA), and AOA of the tested compounds (expressed as a fraction of the AOA of Vitamin C) were: 2 and 4-75%; 8, 3 and 1-45%; 5-7 and 9-27%. Different red-ox reaction principles between these assays dictate different AOA outcomes for a single compound. Vitamin C appeared to be the superior antioxidant out of the traditional antioxidants; and compound 4 was superior to other tested thiazolidinone derivatives. Vitamin C appeared to be the superior antioxidant out of the traditional antioxidants; and compound 4 was superior to other tested thiazolidinone derivatives. Phenyl-functionalized benzylidene, amino-carbonyl functional domains and chelating

  15. Analysis of the Possibilities for Discussing Questions of Global Justice in Geography Classes on the Use of Methods of Empirical Social Research When Analyzing the Teaching of Geography in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applis, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' orientations with regard to questions on the implementation of justice in production structures of the global textile industry. The students worked with the Mystery Method from the Thinking Through Geography approach by David Leat and with Lawrence Kohlberg's Method of Dilemma Discussion. During this process, the…

  16. 1.3 GHz superconducting RF cavity program at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsburg, C.M.; Arkan, T.; Barbanotti, S.; Carter, H.; Champion, M.; Cooley, L.; Cooper, C.; Foley, M.; Ge, M.; Grimm, C.; Harms, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    At Fermilab, 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are prepared, qualified, and assembled into cryomodules (CMs) for Project X, an International Linear Collider (ILC), or other future projects. The 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program includes targeted R&D on 1-cell 1.3 GHz cavities for cavity performance improvement. Production cavity qualification includes cavity inspection, surface processing, clean assembly, and one or more cryogenic low-power CW qualification tests which typically include performance diagnostics. Qualified cavities are welded into helium vessels and are cryogenically tested with pulsed high-power. Well performing cavities are assembled into cryomodules for pulsed high-power testing in a cryomodule test facility, and possible installation into a beamline. The overall goals of the 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program, supporting facilities, and accomplishments are described.

  17. HANSF 1.3 user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-05-21

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. It may be used for all phases of spent fuel disposition including cold vacuum drying, transportation, and storage. This manual reflects HANSF version 1.3, a revised version of version 1.2a. HANSF 1.3 was written to add new models for axial nodalization, add new features for ease of usage, and correct errors. HANSF 1.3 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under a DOS-type operating system. HANSF 1.3 is known to compile under Lahey TI and Digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments.

  18. Eesti Post investeerib Kasahstani 1,3 miljonit / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Post investeerib tütarettevõtte Eesti Elektronpost vahendusel Kasahstani postiturule 1,3 miljonit krooni, et pakkuda koostöös sealse riikliku postifirmaga digitaalselt saadetud andmete printimise ning adressaatidele saatmise kompleksteenust

  19. 1-(3-Iodopropyl-4-methylquinolin-1-ium Iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Deligeorgiev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A solvent-free “one-pot” synthetic approach to 1-(3-iodopropyl-4-methylquinolin-1-ium iodide is reported in the present work. The title compound is derived from N-alkylation of 4-methylquinoline with 1,3-diiodopropane proceeded at room temperature. The target quinolinium salt is obtained in a highly pure form. It’s structure was evaluated by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and DEPT135 spectra.

  20. Spin glass transition in the rhombohedral LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bie, Xiaofei; Yang, Xu; Han, Bing; Chen, Nan; Liu, Lina; Wei, Yingjin; Wang, Chunzhong; Chen, Hong; Du, Fei; Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The Rietveld analysis of XRD data reveals a single phase with rhombohedral structure. •Dc susceptibility data suggest a spin glass behavior at low T in the 333 compound. •The ac susceptibility measurements have been observed in the typical SG system. •Three models have been employed to study the behavior of the spin glass state. •Both geometrical frustration and disorder play important role in the formation of SG. -- Abstract: Layered LiNi 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 has been synthesized by co-precipitation method, and the magnetic properties were comprehensively studied by dc and ac susceptibilities. The dc magnetization curves show the irreversibility and spin freezing behavior at 109 K and 9 K. The evolution of real and imaginary part of ac susceptibility under different frequencies indicates a spin glass transition at low temperature. Three models (the Néel–Arrhenius law, the Vogel–Fulcher law, and the power law) have been employed to study the relaxation behavior of the spin glass state. Both frustration and disorder play important role in the formation of spin glass

  1. Impact of morphological changes of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 on lithium-ion cathode performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Etienne, Cabelguen; David, Peralta; Mikael, Cugnet; Pascal, Maillet

    2017-04-01

    Major advances in Li-ion battery technology rely on the nanostructuration of active materials to overcome the severe kinetics limitations of new - cheaper and safer - chemistries. However, opening porosities results in the decrease of volumetric performances, closing the door to significant applications such as portable electronics, electromobility, and grid storage. In this study, we analyze the link between morphologies and performances of model LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 materials. By quantifying exhaustively their microstructures using nitrogen adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and helium pycnometry, we can discuss how porosities and surface areas are linked to the electrochemical behavior. There is no geometrical parameters that can predict the performances of all our materials. The shape of agglomeration dictates the electrochemical behavior. A huge drop in volumetric performances is measured when microstructure is considered. We show that gravimetric and volumetric power performances are contrary to each other. Highly dense materials exhibit, by far, the best power performances in terms of volumetric figures, so that opening porosities might not be the best strategy, even in non-nanosized materials, for Li-ion battery technology.

  2. Lewis base catalyzed 1,3-dithiane addition to carbonyl and imino compounds using 2-trimethylsilyl-1,3-dithiane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michida, Makoto; Mukaiyama, Teruaki

    2008-09-01

    Lewis base-catalyzed 1,3-dithiane addition to electrophiles such as carbonyl compounds and N-substituted aldimines with 2-trimethylsilyl-1,3-dithiane (TMS-dithiane) is described. By the activation of the carbon-silicon bond in the presence of a Lewis base catalyst such as tetrabutylammonium phenoxide (PhONnBu(4)), a 1,3-dithiane addition reaction proceeded smoothly to afford the corresponding adducts in good to high yields under mild conditions. This synthesis is also applied to the reactions of ketones having alpha-protons, and of N-substituted aldimines.

  3. Questioning context: a set of interdisciplinary questions for investigating contextual factors affecting health decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charise, Andrea; Witteman, Holly; Whyte, Sarah; Sutton, Erica J.; Bender, Jacqueline L.; Massimi, Michael; Stephens, Lindsay; Evans, Joshua; Logie, Carmen; Mirza, Raza M.; Elf, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To combine insights from multiple disciplines into a set of questions that can be used to investigate contextual factors affecting health decision making. Background  Decision‐making processes and outcomes may be shaped by a range of non‐medical or ‘contextual’ factors particular to an individual including social, economic, political, geographical and institutional conditions. Research concerning contextual factors occurs across many disciplines and theoretical domains, but few conceptual tools have attempted to integrate and translate this wide‐ranging research for health decision‐making purposes. Methods  To formulate this tool we employed an iterative, collaborative process of scenario development and question generation. Five hypothetical health decision‐making scenarios (preventative, screening, curative, supportive and palliative) were developed and used to generate a set of exploratory questions that aim to highlight potential contextual factors across a range of health decisions. Findings  We present an exploratory tool consisting of questions organized into four thematic domains – Bodies, Technologies, Place and Work (BTPW) – articulating wide‐ranging contextual factors relevant to health decision making. The BTPW tool encompasses health‐related scholarship and research from a range of disciplines pertinent to health decision making, and identifies concrete points of intersection between its four thematic domains. Examples of the practical application of the questions are also provided. Conclusions  These exploratory questions provide an interdisciplinary toolkit for identifying the complex contextual factors affecting decision making. The set of questions comprised by the BTPW tool may be applied wholly or partially in the context of clinical practice, policy development and health‐related research. PMID:21029277

  4. Positive, negative, and bipolar questions: The effect of question polarity on ratings of text readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Kamoen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For decades, survey researchers have known that respondents give different answers to attitude questions worded positively (X is good. Agree-Disagree, negatively (X is bad. Agree-Disagree or on a bipolar scale (X is bad-good. This makes survey answers hard to interpret, especially since findings on exactly how the answers are affected are conflicting. In the current paper, we present twelve studies in which the effect of question polarity was measured for a set of thirteen contrastive adjectives. In each study, the same adjectives were used so the generalizability of wording effects across studies could be examined for each word pair. Results show that for five of the word pairs an effect of question wording can be generalized. The direction of these effects are largely consistent: respondents generally give the same answers to positive and bipolar questions, but they are more likely to disagree with negative questions than to agree with positive questions or to choose the positive side of the bipolar scale. In other words, respondents express their opinions more positively when the question is worded negatively. Even though answers to the three wording alternatives sometimes differ, results also show that reliable answers can be obtained with all three wording alternatives. So, for survey practice, these results suggest that all three wording alternatives may be used for attitude measurement.

  5. Questioning Strategies of Literature Teachers among Grade 8 Filipino Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M. Ocbian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Questioning is a useful and relevant tool to facilitate classroom discussion in a literature class. This study identified the levels of questions teachers use in their literature class, determined the different question strategies they utilized and proposed activities to enhance the questioning strategies of literature teachers. Video analysis was the main instrument used. These videos were provided during the conduct of class observations by the researchers. There were eight respondents in the study selected through total enumeration. They are teachers from Gubat Cluster of secondary schools of Sorsogon Province. To identify the levels of questions and questioning strategies, question tally form and percentage were used. Results revealed that knowledge was the most used level of questions followed by comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. The most used question technique is the participation, followed by proving, sequencing, wait time, balance and student questions. It was recommended that literature teachers vary their level of questions when discussing literary pieces. They may utilize different question techniques to develop critical thinking skills of their students. The use of the proposed activities may enhance the questioning strategies of literature teachers. Likewise, school heads and program supervisors may utilize video analysis technique as a mode for classroom observation.

  6. Effect of methyl substitution on optoelectronic properties of 1,3,6,8-tetraphenyl pyrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yanling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Geometric structures of the ground states and excited states,frontier molecular orbitals,ionization potentials,electron affinities,reorganization energies,and absorption and emission spectra of three novel methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes were studied theoretically by quantum-chemical methods,such as density functional theory (DFT.The results show that the position of methyl substituent on benzene ring has much effect on the optoelectronic properties of methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes.Interestingly,the geometric structures and optoelectronic properties of the designed compound 1,3,6,8-tetra-p-tolylpyrene (TPPy are similar to those of 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(3,5-dimethylphenylpyrene (TDMPPy,which is worthy of being further researched.

  7. Determination of "1"3"5Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, C.M.; Charles, C.R.J.; Zhao, X.-L.; Kieser, W.E.; Cornett, R.J.; Litherland, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    The ratio of anthropogenic "1"3"5Cs and "1"3"7Cs isotopes is characteristic of a uranium fission source. This research evaluates the technique of isotope dilution (yield tracing) for the purpose of quantifying "1"3"5Cs by accelerator mass spectrometry with on-line isobar separation. Interferences from Ba, Zn_2, and isotopes of equal mass to charge ratios were successfully suppressed. However, some sample crosstalk from source contamination remains. The transmission and di-fluoride ionization efficiencies of Cs isotopes were found to be 8 × 10"−"3 and 1.7 × 10"−"7 respectively. This quantification of "1"3"5Cs using yield tracing by accelerator mass spectrometry shows promise for future environmental sample analysis once the issues of sample crosstalk and low efficiency can be resolved.

  8. β-1,3-glucan in developing cotton fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltby, D.; Carpita, N.C.; Montezinos, D.; Kulow, C.; Delmer, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the existence of a noncellulosic β-1,3-glucan in cotton fibers. The glucan can be isolated as distinct fractions of varying solubility. When fibers are homogenized rigorously in aqueous buffer, part of the total β-1,3-glucan is found as a soluble polymer in homogenates freed of cell walls. The proportion of total β-1,3-glucan which is found as the soluble polymer varies somewhat as a function of fiber age. The insoluble fraction of the BETA-1,3-glucan remains associated with the cell wall fraction. The glucan fraction which can be isolated as a soluble polymer in homogenates freed of cell walls is not associated with membranous material, and we propose that it represents glucan which is also extracellular but not tightly associated with the cell wall. Enzyme digestion studies indicate that all of the cotton fiber glucan is β-linked, and methylation analyses and enzyme studies both show that the predominant linkage in the glucan is 1 → 3. The possibility of some minor branching at C-6 can also be deduced from the methylation analyses. The timing of deposition of the β-1,3-glucan during fiber development coincides closely with the onset of secondary wall cellulose synthesis. Kinetic studies performed with ovules and fibers cultured in vitro show that incorporation of radioactivity from [ 14 C/glucose into β-1,3-glucan is linear with respect to time almost from the start of the labeling period; however, a lag is observed before incorporation into cellulose becomes linear with time, suggesting that these two different glucans are not polymerized directly from the same substrate pool. Pulse-chase experiments indicate that neither the β-1,3-glucan nor cellulose exhibits significant turnover after synthesis

  9. Husserl e la questione uomo/animale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Di Martino

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a phenomenological agenda there is no room for the man-animal question. However, in the last period of his researches, Husserl addressed repeatedly the issue, in the context of a transcendental-phenomenological analysis of the constitution of the human world. Husserl’s phenomenology proofs itself to be a non-ideological way to enquire about man and animal, rethinking their differences and their continuity, by moving from the experience of life and world.

  10. Importance of questionnaire context for a physical activity question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, M E; Sørensen, M R; Ekholm, O; Rasmussen, N K

    2013-10-01

    Adequate information about physical activity habits is essential for surveillance, implementing, and evaluating public health initiatives in this area. Previous studies have shown that question order and differences in wording result in systematic differences in people's responses to questionnaires; however, this has never been shown for physical activity questions. The aim was to study the influence of different formulations and question order on self-report physical activity in a population-based health interview survey. Four samples of each 1000 adults were drawn at random from the National Person Register. A new question about physical activity was included with minor differences in formulations in samples 1-3. Furthermore, the question in sample 2 was included in sample 4 but was placed in the end of the questionnaire. The mean time spent on moderate physical activity varied between the four samples from 57 to 100 min/day. Question order was associated with the reported number of minutes spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and with prevalence of meeting the recommendation, whereas physical inactivity was associated with the differences in formulation of the question. Questionnaire context influences the way people respond to questions about physical activity significantly and should be tested systematically in validation studies of physical activity questionnaires. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.; Ferreira, Luciana C.; Sequeira, Ana M.M.; Meekan, Mark G.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W. Don; Caley, M. Julian; Costa, Daniel P.; Eguí luz, Victor M.; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S.; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C.; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L.; Lowe, Christopher G.; Madsen, Peter T.; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A.; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Sims, David W.; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N.; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N.; Thums, Michele

    2016-01-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. On the collective mode spectrum for composite fermions at 1/3 filling factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martinez, A.; Guerra, V.

    1995-09-01

    The collective mode spectrum of the composite fermion state at 1/3 filling factor is evaluated. At zero momentum, the result coincides with the cyclotron energy at the external magnetic field value, and not at the effective field, in spite of the fact that only the former enter in the equations, thus, the Kohn theorem is satisfied. Unexpectedly, in place of the magneto-roton minimum, the collective mode gets a threshold indicating the instability of the mean field composite fermion state under the formation of crystalline structures. However, the question about if this outcome only appears within the mean field approximation should be further considered. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    through collaborative learning and diverse fieldwork experiences, to ... brought together; creating a hospitable space that encourages trust; exploring questions that are ..... on mental health. Social Work Educ ... Patient Safety and Quality: An.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-03-25

    Mar 25, 2016 ... Key words: Health insurance, antenatal care, insurance uptake ... Information generated from this study if utilized will bring a better understanding ..... the questions were prone to recall bias. ... cleared picture of the situation.

  16. The science and art of asking questions in cognitive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ian Andrew; Morse, Rachel; Howarth, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Questions underpin all aspects of therapeutic assessment and intervention and are a vital component of the clinical process. Over recent years frameworks have started to be applied to obtain a greater understanding of questioning formats and processes. This paper examines the use of questions in cognitive therapy (CT). An overview of the main types of questions identified in the literature is presented. In addition, we examine a range of client and therapist characteristics that may impact on the questioning process. Asking questions in therapy is a complex, yet under-taught, skill. This paper provides a set of frameworks to assist in identifying helpful and unhelpful questioning skills. Thus the article has implications for further training and research.

  17. ASUPAN SUPLEMEN BUKAN DETERMINAN KEJADIAN STUNTING ANAK BALITA (1-3 TAHUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Hariyadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Supplement Intake Not Determinants Stunting Events Children (1-3 Years. This study aims relationship supplement intake with the incidence of stunting among Children aged 1-3 years who live in urban areas Kubu Raya. An observational study with the cross-sectional design. The research was conducted in Kubu Raya in August to November 2014. Measurement of nutritional status using indicators PB/U. Supplement intake asked to interview. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test.The results showed the percentage of stunting in Children aged 1-3 years in the amount of 39.51%.The most consumed form of supplements which are of the type syrup as much as 34.6% of 82.7% respondents toddler supplements. No significant relationship exists between supplement intake with the incidence of stunting in Children aged 1-3 years in the urban area of Kubu Raya. Abstrak: Asupan Suplemen Bukan Determinan Kejadian Stunting Anak balita (1-3 Tahun. Penelitian ini bertujuan hubungan asupan suplemen dengan kejadian stunting pada anak balita usia 1-3 tahun yang tinggal di daerah urbanKubu Raya. Penelitian ini bersifat observasional dengan rancangan cross sectional. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kabupaten Kubu Raya pada bulan Agustus sampai November 2014. Pengukuran status gizi menggunakan indikator PB/U. Asupan suplemen ditanyakan dengan wawancara. Analisis statistik dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji Chi square.Hasil penelitian menunjukan persentase kejadian stunting pada balita umur 1-3 tahun yaitu sebesar 39,51%. Sebanyak 82.7% balita responden mengonsumsi suplemen, dengan bentuk suplemen yang terbanyak dikonsumsi adalah dari jenis sirup sebanyak 34.6%.Tidak ada hubungan yang bemakna antara asupan suplemen dengan kejadian stunting pada balita umur 1-3 tahun di daerah urban Kubu Raya.

  18. Analysis of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Various Foodstuffs Using GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooseok; Jeong, Yun A; On, Jiwon; Choi, Ari; Lee, Jee-yeon; Lee, Joon Goo; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2015-01-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) are not only produced in the manufacturing process of foodstuffs such as hydrolyzed vegetable proteins and soy sauce but are also formed by heat processing in the presence of fat and low water activity. 3-MCPD exists both in free and ester forms, and the ester form has been also detected in various foods. Free 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP are classified as Group 2B by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Although there is no data confirming the toxicity of either compound in humans, their toxicity was evidenced in animal experimentation or in vitro. Although few studies have been conducted, free 3-MCPD has been shown to have neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenicity. In contrast, 1,3-DCP only has mutagenic activity. The purpose of this study was to analyze 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in various foods using gas chromatography -mass spectrometry. 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP were analyzed using phenyl boronic acid derivatization and the liquid–liquid extraction method, respectively. The analytical method for 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation, accuracy and precision. Consequently, the LODs of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in various matrices were identified to be in the ranges of 4.18~10.56 ng/g and 1.06~3.15 ng/g, respectively. PMID:26483891

  19. Approaches to answering critical CER questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnier, Christine V; Chung, Jeanette W; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2015-01-01

    While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for research, many research questions cannot be ethically and practically answered using an RCT. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) techniques are often better suited than RCTs to address the effects of an intervention under routine care conditions, an outcome otherwise known as effectiveness. CER research techniques covered in this section include: effectiveness-oriented experimental studies such as pragmatic trials and cluster randomized trials, treatment response heterogeneity, observational and database studies including adjustment techniques such as sensitivity analysis and propensity score analysis, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, decision analysis, and cost effectiveness analysis. Each section describes the technique and covers the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

  20. 1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran: a Model Chromophore for Singlet Fission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Johnson, J. C.; Michl, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 375, č. 5 (2017), č. článku 80. ISSN 2365-0869 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19143S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran * photophysics * solar energy * singlet fission * covalent dimers Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.033, year: 2016

  1. Environmentally benign synthesis of sydnone containing 1,3,4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    lop benign synthetic methods for sydnone deriva- tives,. 9 we report here a new series of sydnone containing 1,3,4-thiadiazines by microwave irradia- tion under solvent-free conditions. 2. Experimental. 2.1 General remarks. Melting points were determined by open capillary method and are uncorrected. All compounds were.

  2. 48 CFR 970.2201-1-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.2201... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201-1-3 Contract clause. In addition to the clause at 48 CFR 52.222-1, Notice to the Government of Labor Disputes...

  3. 48 CFR 970.0407-1-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0407... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Administrative Matters 970.0407-1-3 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 970.5204-3, Access to and Ownership of Records...

  4. Variation of β-1,3-Glucanase, Chitinase and Polyphenoloxidase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) clones that differ in susceptibility to black pod disease were analysed for response to stress induced by pod inoculation with the fungus Phytophthora megakarya Braz. Et Griff. Fungal inoculation significantly stimulated β-1,3-glucanase activity in both soluble and ionically-bound fractions of the ...

  5. Irony and Aequabilitas : Horace, Satires 1.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Kemp

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Satire 1.3 Horace upholds ‘Stoic’ aequabilitas, ironically aligning it with Epicurean moderation to attack Stoic inflexibility. His connection between friendship and justice shows an awareness of this link in Hellenistic thought. His ironic use of philosophical material serves a serious, anti-Stoic purpose (pace some recent scholarship.

  6. Functionalization of Graphene via 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintana, Mildred; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Grzelczak, Marek; Browne, Wesley R.; Rudolf, Petra; Prato, Maurizio

    Few-layer graphenes (FLG) produced by dispersion and exfoliation of graphite in N-methylpyrrolidone were successfully functionalized using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides. The amino functional groups attached to graphene sheets were quantified by the Kaiser test. These amino

  7. O interactions in 1,3-diphenyl-urea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The synthesis, X-ray structure and role of intermolecular interactions have been studied in case of 1,3-diphenyl-urea, owing to its medicinal importance. The compound crystallizes in orthorhombic crystal system (space group, 21) with unit cell parameters, = 9.118(3), = 10.558(2), = 11.780(3) Å and = 4.

  8. The glory of the Son of Man in Revelation 1-3. Reflections on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the mystical nature of the Christophany in Revelation 1-3 in order to illuminate the present research on mysticism in the New Testament. It firstly introduces the relevant text and outlines the extraordinary, exalted nature of the Christophany in Revelation 1. The second part then explains the vision in ...

  9. Vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, S Y; Lee, H

    1999-12-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems were measured at 60, 160, 300, and 760 mmHg at temperatures ranging from 315 to 488 K. The apparatus used in this work is a modified still especially designed for the measurement of low-pressure VLE, in which both liquid and vapor are continuously recirculated. For the analysis of salt-containing solutions, a method incorporating refractometry and gravimetry was used. From the experimental measurements, the effect of lithium bromide on the VLE behavior of water + 1,3-propanediol was investigated. The experimental data of the salt-free system were successfully correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. In addition, the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. was applied to the VLE calculation of salt-containing mixtures.

  10. Three questions on Lorentz violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Alfredo [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Charles University of Prague - V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Physics ' E. R. Caianiello' , University of Salerno and I.N.F.N. Naples, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno - Via Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    We review the basics of the two most widely used approaches to Lorentz violation - the Standard Model Extension and Noncommutative Field Theory - and discuss in some detail the example of the modified spectrum of the synchrotron radiation. Motivated by touching upon such a fundamental issue as Lorentz symmetry, we ask three questions: What is behind the search for Lorentz violation? Is String Theory a physical theory? Is there an alternative to Supersymmetry?.

  11. MPL in Context: Some Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adail Sobral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian translation (2015 of Patrick Sériot's Preface to the French translation (2010 of Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (MPL provides a good opportunity to discuss this work and its relevance for the field of Human Sciences, considering different possible interpretations. In this sense, this work presents a discussion on questions that deserve, in our opinion, to be addressed both in Sériot's work (taken as an example of MPL's interpretation and in Voloshinov's.

  12. Asking questions: a management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, J E; Price, M

    1995-05-01

    The occupational health nurse manager does not have all the answers. In using a democratic style of leadership with well qualified professionals, the technique of questioning can be invaluable in clarifying the issue, brainstorming solutions, developing a course of action, and monitoring success. The personal rewards to the occupational health nurse manager will include a reputation for being an effective listener, a problem solver, and a valued member of the company's management team.

  13. 222 questions about the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina Gomez, M.; Cerrolaza Asenjo, J.A.; Garcia Alonso, J.M.; Iranzo Martin, J.E.; Lopez Perez, B.; Minguez Perres, E.; Minguez Torres, E.; Pascualena Cambra, M.T.; Poza Galiano, A. de la; Secades Ariz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The book presents with an easy language, questions about energy. The main topics are: - Energy and energy sources - Energy and society - The energy in the world - Basic concepts of Nuclear Physics - Basic concepts of radiological protection - Electric power - Nuclear Fuel cycle - Environmental impact - Radioactive wastes management - The risk in the electricity production - Standardization of Nuclear Safety - Economic aspects of electricity generation - Energy and Spanish economy

  14. Problem Definition Study on 1,3-Dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene and Di-n-Propyl Adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    are significantly higher than the levels observed for * 1,3,5-tr it~be-zeve. 9Both corounds hav teen sh...r to exhibit c e-re:,onse mutagenicity in the...returned to work. However, cyanosis, general malaise and anorexia *0 appeared within two days after returning to work and she was admitted to the hospital...secondary anemia, anorexia , weight loss, insomnia, moderate cvanosis and yellow-brown discoloration of the skin. After removal from 1,3-dinitro- benzene

  15. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Question Word in the Mandarin Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yunyu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In an interrogative sentence in Mandarin language, a question word can be placed in the beginning, middle or end of a sentence. Because of the different nation and culture, when a foreign student learns Mandarin, they find it difficult to understand the question words and the position of the question words in that language. Because of that, the writer proposes to explain such problems. This research aims to find out what are the types of question words in Mandarin, and also to explain the function and usage of question words in the Mandarin interrogative sentence. An interrogative sentence is a very important sentence. In Mandarin, the following question words: 谁(shuí “Who”,在哪里(zài nǎli “where”, 在哪儿(zài nǎ’er “where”,为什么(wèi shénme “why”, 怎么(zěnme “why”,多少(duō shǎo) “how many”,多久(duō jiǔ “how long”,什么时候 (shénme shíhòu “when”,什么(shénme “what”,做什么(zuò shénme “why”,干 什么(gàn shénme “why”,干嘛(gànma “why” and so on are used to ask “who”, “where”, “what”, “how much”, “when”, “what time”, and “why”. Those words have different functions and usage. Each sentence has a certain structure and word order. A question word can be placed in the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence. When the place is changed, there is a possibility of miscommunication.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2013.160106

  17. Robustness Analysis of Visual QA Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-09-14

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  18. Robustness Analysis of Visual QA Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  19. Question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira A. Baranova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Children’s questions are an indicator of active cognitive perception of reality. Questions but not answers are relevant in revealing a child’s mental life, consciousness and thinking. The lack of question-asking skills can hinder learning, searching and exploration in children. To determine in 7- and 8-year-old school children the common and variable peculiarities of designing a search process for necessary information concerning an unknown object by volitionally formulated questions, as well as the dynamics of the questioning process throughout a school year. The study was based on an experimental methodology, codenamed Guess what there is in the box, and was conducted in four schools in Cheboksary. The sample comprised 158 primary school first-graders who took part in a confirmatory experiment twice, once in September and once in May. The research showed that 96.3% of the questions asked were search questions. Only 30% of the first-graders initiated their searching activities of their own will without having to resort to the given search algorithm, while 70% did not begin asking questions without outside stimulation. The analysis of the dynamics of children’s question-asking behavior exhibited a tendency to decrease in a number of questions asked over the course of the school year. Primary school children need psychological and pedagogical scaffolding aimed at developing a question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity to achieve a possible age potential in development.

  20. "I didn't write the questions!" - Negotiating telephone-survey questions on birth timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian May

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines interviewer-respondent interaction in the collection of demographic data. Conversation analysis (CA makes transparent the interaction between an interviewer and 25 respondents on a question about pregnancy and birth timing in an Australian telephone survey, Negotiating the Life Course. The analysis focuses on the troubles that occur and the work interviewers do to fit respondents' answers to the survey researcher's categories. Interviewers are shown to act as mediators in difficult interaction, with responses often distorted by question format, the imperative of achieving an allowed response, and the need to keep the respondent in the survey.

  1. Hydrogen peroxide assisted synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chaohong; Zhang, Yongzhi; Chen, Li; Lei, Ying; Ou, Junke; Guo, Yong; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan

    2015-04-01

    LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) is a promising cathode material for lithium-ion battery. In this research, a facile co-precipitation process is employed, during which the mixed solution of NH3·H2O, H2O2 (30% aqueous solution) and LiOH·H2O is added into the nitrate solution. Notably, H2O2 is introduced as the oxidant and dispersant during the co-precipitation process to oxidize the metal ions and decrease the agglomeration of the precursor by giving out O2, and then improves the specific capacity, stability and energy density of NCM. Additionally, O3 is employed to further oxidize NCM to enhance the stability during the calcination process. The obtained NCM material with single crystal structure exhibits a high initial discharge specific capacity of 208.9 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C (1 C = 280 mA g-1), an excellent cycle stability with high retained capacity of 176.3 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, and a high initial discharge specific capacities of 150.6 mAh g-1 at 5 C even at a high cutoff potential (4.6 V).

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-05-10

    May 10, 2016 ... 34.5%) and resection and stoma (1, 3.4%). The median duration of stay was 6 days (range 1-25). Ascariasis was the most common cause of IO in .... intussusceptions at a tertiary care hospital in northwestern. Tanzania: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in resource- limited setting. Ital. J. Pediatr. 2014;.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-11-18

    Nov 18, 2015 ... Abstract. Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide public health problem with 8.6 millions of new cases and 1.3 millions of death annually. Despite the progress recorded in fighting against this disease in the recent years, Africa is still not on the track to achieve the objective to reduce by half the ...

  4. Open Questions Limiting the Practice of Interorganizational Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, John R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes the open questions that must be answered by researchers if practioners of interorganizational development are to have adequate planning-and-action guidelines. Suggests the questions should help practitioners become more sensitive to potential action considerations that may require special thought and attention until a firmer knowledge…

  5. Reflective questioning in management education : lessons from supervising thesis projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seggelen-Damen, van I.C.M.; Romme, A.G.L.

    2014-01-01

    Reflective questioning is a critical activity in management learning and education. This article describes research on the nature of reflective questioning in groups of management students working on final MSc projects. Drawing on content analysis of recorded meetings, we identify the following key

  6. The Effect of Accounting Question Response Formats on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonick, Christine; Schneider, Jennifer; Boylan, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of different response formats on student performance on introductory accounting exam questions. The study analyzes 1104 accounting students' responses to quantitative questions presented in two formats: multiple-choice and fill-in. Findings indicate that response format impacts student…

  7. Questions about Brain Development = Preguntas sobre el desarrollo del cerebro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    Noting that new research shows that a baby's earliest years shape how he or she grows later in life, this brochure, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides brief answers to some important questions parents may have about their baby's brain. The questions answered are: (1) "Why is brain development a popular subject lately?; (2)…

  8. Subchronic toxicity studies on 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene and tetryl in rats. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, T.V.; Daniel, F.B.

    1994-09-01

    Toxic effects of 1,3-Dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB) in male and female F344 rats were evaluated by feeding powdered certified laboratory chow diet supplemented with varied concentrations of 1,3-DNB (0, 2.5, 10, 25, 75 and 150 mg/kg diet) for fourteen days. The average daily 1 ,3-DNB doses consumed were 0.21, 0.87, 2.02, 6.28 and 11.82 mg/kg b.w. for females and 0.21, 0.80, 1.98, 5.77 and 10.56 for males. Food consumption was significantly decreased in high dose animals of both sexes. Final body weights were not altered but relative organ weights were significantly changed in the 150 and 75 mg dose groups involving the spleen (males and females) and testes (males). Hematology and clinical chemistry studies indicated significantly increased values in both sexes relating to reticulocytes and methemoglobin in the 150 and 75 mg/kg dose groups while the red blood cell count, hemoglobin level and % hematocrit were decreased in these same groups. In addition, the levels of bilirubin, protein and albumin were increased in high dose males, Histopathological evaluations suggested that the susceptible organs for 1,3-DNB toxicity were kidneys (hyaline droplets), spleen (erythroid cell hyperplasia), brain (malacia and microgliosis), testes (seminiferous tubular degeneration). These changes were noted mainly in the 150 and 75 mg/kg dose groups except those changes involving the brain (150 mg/kg group only).

  9. Synthesis of Spiroisoxazolines by 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ertl

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The cycloaddition of the chiral nitrile oxide 1 to 1-R-substituted 3,3-methylene-5,5-dimethyl-2-pyrrolidinones 2 (where R is H, n-butyl-, 1,1-dimethylethoxycarbonyl-, 1-methylethenyl- and acetyl- proceeds regioselectively under the formation of spiroisoxazolines, namely 7-R-substituted-6-oxo-8,8-dimethyl-1-oxa-2,7-diazaspiro[4,4]non-2-enes 5 and 6. The asymmetric induction expected by the a-chiral centre of the nitrile oxide 1 was not very effective, diastereoisomers 5 and 6 were formed in an approximate 50:50 ratio. The stereoselectivity of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of the arylnitrile oxide 7 with the chiral lactam 3 and the achiral lactone 4 are investigated. The attack of the 1,3-dipole occurred from the less hindered face of the dipolarophile 3 and 4, giving the major isomer 8 and 10, respectively.

  10. Spin texture and magnetoroton excitations at nu=1/3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshaus, Javier G; Dujovne, Irene; Gallais, Yann; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F; Pinczuk, Aron; Tan, Yan-Wen; Stormer, Horst; Dennis, Brian S; Pfeiffer, Loren N; West, Ken W

    2008-02-01

    Neutral spin texture (ST) excitations at nu=1/3 are directly observed for the first time by resonant inelastic light scattering. They are determined to involve two simultaneous spin flips. At low magnetic fields, the ST energy is below that of the magnetoroton minimum. With increasing in-plane magnetic field these mode energies cross at a critical ratio of the Zeeman and Coulomb energies of eta(c)=0.020+/-0.001. Surprisingly, the intensity of the ST mode grows with temperature in the range in which the magnetoroton modes collapse. The temperature dependence is interpreted in terms of a competition between coexisting phases supporting different excitations. We consider the role of the ST excitations in activated transport at nu=1/3.

  11. Purification and characterization of a novel 1,3- propanediol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase (YqhD-1) found in Klebsiella oxytoca M5al was purified to homogeneity with a his-tag on a Ni-NTA column. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the purified protein showed a molecular weight of 42 kDa. When YqhD-1 was tested as a ...

  12. 2-Phenylimidazolium hemi(benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C9H9N2+·0.5C8H4O4−·H2O, contains one 2-phenylimidazolium cation, half a benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate anion and one water molecule. In the crystal, components are connected by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions into a three-dimensional network.

  13. Seven essential questions on G-quadruplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Sebastian L B; Evans, Amanda C; Huppert, Julian L

    2010-08-01

    The helical duplex architecture of DNA was discovered by Francis Crick and James Watson in 1951 and is well known and understood. However, nucleic acids can also adopt alternative structural conformations that are less familiar, although no less biologically relevant, such as the G-quadruplex. G-quadruplexes continue to be the subject of a rapidly expanding area of research, owing to their significant potential as therapeutic targets and their unique biophysical properties. This review begins by focusing on G-quadruplex structure, elucidating the intermolecular and intramolecular interactions underlying its formation and highlighting several substructural variants. A variety of methods used to characterize these structures are also outlined. The current state of G-quadruplex research is then addressed by proffering seven pertinent questions for discussion. This review concludes with an overview of possible directions for future research trajectories in this exciting and relevant field.

  14. Open forum: Question and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program? Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation)

  15. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  16. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  17. Nuclear power: Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Uranium Institute, a London-based international association of industrial enterprises in the nuclear industry, published a report entitled The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Based on an assessment by an international group of senior nuclear experts from eight countries, the report provides an authoritative explanation, for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application, and their implications. Some questions and answers are selected from that report; they address only a few of the subjects that the report itself examines in greater detail

  18. Questions, pictures, answers: introducing pictures in question-answering systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariet; van Schooten, B.W.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Bosma, W.E.; Hofs, D.H.W.; Nijholt, Antinus; Krahmer, E.J.; van Hooijdonk, C.M.J.; Marsi, E.C.; Ruiz Miyarez, L.; Munoz Alvarado, A.; Alvarez Moreno, C.

    We present the Dutch IMIX research programme on multimodal interaction, speech and language technology. We discuss our contributions to this programme in the form of two research projects, IMOGEN and VIDIAM, and the technical integration of the various modules developed by IMIX subprojects to build

  19. Formation of public opinion on the question of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asp, K.; Hedberg, P.

    1988-06-01

    The aim of the report is double. Firstly will bases and issues behind the media studies within the research project be presented. Secondly will the empirical investigations which are included in this part of the project be shown. Headings: - The question of nuclear waste - a controversial question. - The mass media as intermediaries of information and opinion. - The information merit of the mass media. The bias of the mass media. - The decision merit of the mass media. - Empirical investigations. * The question of nuclear waste in the news-distribution. * The question of nuclear waste in the public debate. (O.S.)

  20. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  1. Investor Outlook: The Unanswered Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2017-06-01

    The year 2016 was an exciting one for the field, with several notable successes outweighing a few setbacks. As the number of patients treated successfully (and safely) with gene therapy grows, the totality of evidence points to a robust platform with utility in orphan/ultra-orphan diseases as well as broader indications, and with hopefully increasing predictability of results. This year promises to feature more patients treated, more clinical data, and more gene therapy products in registration-enabling studies. For the field to continue to advance and mature into the next great drug delivery platform, a few unsolved and remaining questions need to be addressed, including the business model for cures, a broader safety/efficacy profile once more patients are treated, optimization of delivery (including next-generation approaches), and greater understanding of the impact of competitive dynamics. In this report, we detail the success and setbacks of 2016 and highlight the unanswered questions-and how the answers may shape the field in the years ahead.

  2. Are Quantum Theory Questions Epistemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How to displace-move quantum theory [Ǭ] questions-problems to philosophy? Seeing the collapse of our society’s cultural-intellectual-morals, the philosophy of the 21st century has to contribute to the formation of new principles-formalisms: the big task of the contemporary philosophy ©] is to innovate, to transform the building of the knowledge! Which is the role of the contemporary philosopher? (Noam Chomsky. Building science so that it is more human, out of the scientific mercantilism so that it does not continue transgressing that which is most precious: the thought-life. The ideas that I propose demand a deep cultural-epistemiologicscientific-philosophical-ethical rethinking that goes from quantum entities up to life in society. The starting idea is «the quantum [Ǭ], the paradigm of the contemporary science ©]» (Bernard D’Espagnat. I propose to displace-move questions of the quantum theory [Ǭ]: spin, measure, layering to the field of philosophy (φ to build generic symbols. Can the contemporary episteme model the collapse of the ? For a philosopher, can understanding the importance and the behaviour of the spin bring something new to philosophy ? Can information of the states of the spin be used to observe in a holographic way the pattern energy-information contained in the quantum entities? Is quantum [Ǭ] physics mechanical?

  3. Les questions de migrations internationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  4. Effect of sequential surface irrigations on field-scale emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S R; Knuteson, J; Ernst, F F; Zheng, W; Wang, Q

    2008-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted to measure subsurface movement and volatilization of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) after shank injection to an agricultural soil. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of sprinkler irrigation on the emissions of 1,3-D to the atmosphere and is based on recent research that has shown that saturating the soil pore space reduces gas-phase diffusion and leads to reduced volatilization rates. Aerodynamic, integrated horizontal flux, and theoretical profile shape methods were used to estimate fumigant volatilization rates and total emission losses. These methods provide estimates of the volatilization rate based on measurements of wind speed, temperature, and 1,3-D concentration in the atmosphere. The volatilization rate was measured continuously for 16 days, and the daily peak volatilization rates for the three methods ranged from 18 to 60 microg m(-2) s(-1). The total 13-D mass entering the atmosphere was approximately 44-68 kg ha(-1), or 10-15% of the applied active ingredient This represents approximately 30-50% reduction in the total emission losses compared to conventional fumigant applications in field and field-plot studies. Significant reduction in volatilization of 1,3-D was observed when five surface irrigations were applied to the field, one immediately after fumigation followed by daily irrigations.

  5. Disability Discrimination and Obesity: The Big Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Stuart W; Snook, Jeremé

    2015-12-01

    Obesity discrimination in employment and recruitment has become a topic of focus for research examination with increasing reports of discrimination by colleagues and managers. Whilst a limited number of legal cases have emerged, disability law is consulted in line with the expectation of anti-discriminatory practices at work. In line with disability law, whether obesity is defined as a disability or not has an impact on the outcome of a court ruling. Ambiguity when defining obesity through either the medical or social model means there are many questions that remain unanswered which might lead to inconsistency in court rulings.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to be a formalised assessment of performance, with a corrective plan of action to address ... art of self-reflection (which should be a component of feedback) has been .... able by 64.8% of registrars, while 59.4% perceived that the effect of feedback ... in the honing of clinical skills, how to answer written examination questions.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-09-09

    Sep 9, 2015 ... stage systematic sampling design from the three provinces. Instrument ... It was based on a question-and-answer information brochure derived from the ... grade 12 education and 11.9% had a post-secondary school education ... to enable South African citizens to receive good quality healthcare at any time ...

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were obtained from Seo et al.'s[12] study. The focal areas included questions exploring patients' awareness and perceptions of the role of Mekelle University Hospital as a medical training facility; their perceptions of the discussions during bedside teaching about their illness and the presence of students around them; their ...

  9. Improved cycling and high rate performance of core-shell LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/carbon nanocomposites for lithium-ion batteries: Effect of the carbon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Yi; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Hongbo; Li, Guochun; Li, Yunxing; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report a fast microwave heating way to prepare LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /C. • The effects of different carbon sources were discussed in detail. • LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP2000 shows a discharge capacity of 160 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C. • LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP2000 elucidates excellent cyclic stability. • LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP2000 exhibits attractive rate capability. - Abstract: Core-shell type olivine solid solutions, LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /C, are synthesized via a very simple and rapid microwave heating route with different carbon sources. The obatined LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /C materials are characterized thoroughly by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy instrument. The particle sizes and distribution of the carbon layer of BP2000 carbon black coated LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 (LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP) are more uniform than that obtained from acetylene black (LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /AB) and Super P (LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /SP). Moreover, the LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP nanocomposite shows superior electrochemical properties such as high discharge capacity of 160 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C, excellent cyclic stability (143 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C after 30 cycles) and rate capability (76 mAh g −1 at 20 C), which are better than other two samples. Cyclic voltammetric and electrical tests disclose that the Li-ion diffusion, the reversibility of lithium extraction/insertion and electrical conductivity are significantly improved in LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP composite. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy illustrates that LiFe 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 PO 4 /BP composite electrode possesses low contact and charge-transfer impedances, which can lead to rapid electron transport during the electrochemical lithium insertion/extraction reaction. It is believed that olivine solid

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... Overall, dental students were willing to do impression casting (1.9±0.9) and willing or undecided to perform scaling and polishing procedures. (2.6±1.2).They were mostly undecided about performing tooth extractions (2.9±1.1) and root canal therapy (3.2±1.2) and in assisting during operations (3.1±1.3).

  11. 1,3Do and 1,3Pe states of two electron atoms under Debye plasma screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Jayanta K.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Mukherjee, T.K.; Mukherjee, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Extensive non-relativistic variational calculations for estimating the energy values of 2pnd( 1,3 D o ) states [n=3-6] of two electron atoms (He, Li + ,Be 2+ ) and 2pnp( 1 P e )[n=3-8] and 2pnp( 3 P e ) states [n=2-7] of Be 2+ under weakly coupled plasma screening have been performed using explicitly correlated Hylleraas type basis. The modified energy eigenvalues of 1,3 P e states arising from two p electrons of Be 2+ ion and 1,3 D o states due to 2pnd configuration of Li + and Be 2+ ion in the Debye plasma environment are being reported for the first time. The effect of plasma has been incorporated through the Debye screening model. The system tends towards gradual instability and the number of bound states reduces with increasing plasma coupling strength. The wavelengths for 2pn ' p( 1 P e )[n ' =3-8]→2pnd( 1 D o )[n=3-6] and 2pn ' p( 3 P e )[n ' =2-8]→2pnd( 3 D o )[n=3-6] transitions in plasma embedded two electron atoms have also been reported.

  12. Immigration and Competitiveness – Some Methodological Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Patay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants can contribute significantly to the economic and social development of regions or urban areas. Some key figures on migration are thus traditionally used in studies on local development. Beyond the usual description of migratory movements, two research fields are often in the centre of controversies, namely the labour market and the inclusion of immigrants. Comparing the European regions, the phases of urban development as well as the relevant internal and external factors present a mixed picture in Europe. At the same time, the dynamics of migratory movements and the reactions of national and subnational policies also vary. The Member States of the European Union aim to harmonise their definitions and data on migration issues, however, the daily practice leads us to the questions of reliability and comparability of migration statistics; and the interdisciplinary character of migration research offers the use of variable research methods. The aim of this study, as a part of a presentation at a conference on urban development, is to describe some key methodological issues of migration research exploring the typical questions. The first part of the paper calls attention to the importance of data quality, processing and interpretation, describing the research methods mainly used in studies on immigration. The second part summarizes the significance of immigration in regional competitiveness, pointing out the possible “stumbling stones” in the relevant migration studies. Some of these factors, the areas that are mainly in the centre of scientific and political debates, are discussed in this paper, namely the labour market challenges and issues relating to the different aspects of segregation.

  13. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  14. Appearance questions can be misleading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel; Markman, Ellen M.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' success on the appearance-reality task is a milestone in theory-of-mind development. On the standard task children see a deceptive object, such as a sponge that looks like a rock, and are asked, "What is this really?" and "What does this look like?" Children below 4 1/2 years of age...... fail saying that the object not only is a sponge but also looks like a sponge. We propose that young children's difficulty stems from ambiguity in the meaning of "looks like." This locution can refer to outward appearance ("Peter looks like Paul") but in fact often refers to likely reality ("That looks...... like Jim"). We propose that "looks like" is taken to refer to likely reality unless the reality is already part of the common ground of the conversation. Because this joint knowledge is unclear to young children on the appearance-reality task, they mistakenly think the appearance question is about...

  15. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zask, G.; Rome, M.; Delpech, M.

    1998-01-01

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  16. Polymers Containing 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole Rings for Advanced Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Dana Damaceanu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis, properties and potential applications of new polymers containing 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole rings, tacking into account the requirements of the modern technologies. Two classes of polymers containing oxadiazole rings were approached: polyamides and polyimides. All the polymers were characterized with respect to the identification of their chemical structure, solubility, molecular weights, film forming ability, thermal, dielectric and optical properties, and the behaviour of polyoxadiazole films upon irradiation with pulsed KrF laser. All the properties were discussed in correlation with their chemical structure and compared with those of related polymers.

  17. 5-Methylbenzo[d][2,1,3]selenadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Ouahine

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal of the title compound, C7H6N2Se, the molecules are arranged in rods along the b-axis direction and form dimeric units due to intermolecular Se...N contacts of 2.982 (2 Å. The molecules are further linked by weak π–π stacking interactions between the 2,1,3-selenadiazole and six-membered aromatic rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.8509 (11 Å and ring slippage = 1.539 (3 Å].

  18. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.3 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement

  19. APS beamline standard components handbook, Version 1.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, U.; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-02-01

    This Handbook in its current version (1.3) contains descriptions, specifications, and preliminary engineering design drawings for many of the standard components. The design status and schedules have been provided wherever possible. In the near future, the APS plans to update engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components and complete the Handbook. The completed version of this Handbook will become available to both the CATs and potential vendors. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  20. l-2-Nitrimino-1,3-diazepane-4-carboxylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutyun A. Karapetyan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic form of l-nitroarginine, C6H10N4O4, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. According to the geometrical parameters, similar in both molecules, the structure corresponds to that of l-2-nitrimino-1,3-diazepane-4-carboxylic acid; there are, however, conformational differences between the independent molecules, one of them being close to a twisted chair while the other might be described as a rather flattened boat. All six active H atoms in the two molecules are involved in hydrogen bonds, two of which are intramolecular and four intermolecular, forming an infinite chain of molecules along the b axis.

  1. Spin Caloritronic Transport of 1,3,5-Triphenylverdazyl Radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiu-Hua; Zhao Peng; Liu De-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin caloritronic transport properties of a stable 1,3,5-triphenylverdazyl (TPV) radical sandwiched between Au electrodes through different connection fashions. Obvious spin Seebeck effect can be observed in the para-connection fashion. Furthermore, a pure spin current and a completely spin-polarized current can be realized by tuning the gate voltage. Furthermore, a 100% spin polarization without the need of gate voltage can be obtained in the meta-connection fashion. These results demonstrate that TPV radical is a promising material for spin caloritronic and spintronic applications. (paper)

  2. Ten questions about radiant heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Kyu-Nam; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kim, Kwang Woo

    2017-01-01

    to extend the applicability of the RHC system are providing the continuous impetus for research on RHC systems. This paper summarizes the important issues involved in the research on RHC system, whereby ten questions and answers concerning the RHC system are discussed, which will help researchers to conduct...

  3. Interpretation of Genomic Data Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Using a question and answer format we describe important aspects of using genomic technologies in cancer research. The main challenges are not managing the mass of data, but rather the design, analysis and accurate reporting of studies that result in increased biological knowledge and medical utility. Many analysis issues address the use of expression microarrays but are also applicable to other whole genome assays. Microarray based clinical investigations have generated both unrealistic hyperbole and excessive skepticism. Genomic technologies are tremendously powerful and will play instrumental roles in elucidating the mechanisms of oncogenesis and in devlopingan era of predictive medicine in which treatments are tailored to individual tumors. Achieving these goals involves challenges in re-thinking many paradigms for the conduct of basic and clinical cancer research and for the organization of interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:18582627

  4. Transcriptional activation of Mina by Sp1/3 factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Shangli; Potula, Hari Hara S K; Pillai, Meenu R; Van Stry, Melanie; Koyanagi, Madoka; Chung, Linda; Watanabe, Makiko; Bix, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Mina is an epigenetic gene regulatory protein known to function in multiple physiological and pathological contexts, including pulmonary inflammation, cell proliferation, cancer and immunity. We showed previously that the level of Mina gene expression is subject to natural genetic variation linked to 21 SNPs occurring in the Mina 5' region. In order to explore the mechanisms regulating Mina gene expression, we set out to molecularly characterize the Mina promoter in the region encompassing these SNPs. We used three kinds of assays--reporter, gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation--to analyze a 2 kb genomic fragment spanning the upstream and intron 1 regions flanking exon 1. Here we discovered a pair of Mina promoters (P1 and P2) and a P1-specific enhancer element (E1). Pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA knockdown experiments suggested that Sp1/3 transcription factors trigger Mina expression through additive activity targeted to a cluster of four Sp1/3 binding sites forming the P1 promoter. These results set the stage for comprehensive analysis of Mina gene regulation from the context of tissue specificity, the impact of inherited genetic variation and the nature of upstream signaling pathways.

  5. Fukushima. The accident sequence and important causes. Pt. 1/3; Fukushima. Unfallablauf und wesentliche Ursachen. T. 1/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistner, Christoph [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany). Bereich Nukleartechnik und Anlagensicherheit

    2013-07-01

    On March 11, 2011 a strong earthquake at the east coast of Japan and a subsequent tsunami caused severe damage at the NPP site of Fukushima Daiichi. The article covers the fundamental safety aspects of the accident progress according to the state of knowledge. The principles of nuclear technology and reactor safety are summarized in order to allow the understanding of the accidental sequence. Even two years after the disaster many questions on the sequence of accident events are still open.

  6. Frequently Asked Questions about Chiropractic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketing Patient Fact Sheets Contact the ACA State Licensing Boards Research JMPT Abstracts Latest Issue Evidence in ... Chiropractic Posture Backpack Safety Spinal Health Winter Activities Kids and Sports Exercising Outdoors with Baby Gardening Chronic ...

  7. Frequently Asked Questions about Pharmacogenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  8. Frequently Asked Questions - GHRI Calls

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Genevieve Prud'homme

    2014-05-16

    May 16, 2014 ... 3) Co-principal application: a relevant local, district, or national level .... Should the research project be set within an existing intervention or strategy? .... are considered to be those that have legal corporate registration in an.

  9. More with thermal energy storage. Report 2. Literature survey. Overview of knowledge and research questions with regard to thermal energy storage. Final report; Meer met bodemenergie. Rapport 2. Literatuuronderzoek. Overzicht van kennis en onderzoeksvragen rondom bodemenergie. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieten, S.; De Vries, E. [Bioclear, Groningen (Netherlands); Van Baaren, E.; Bakr, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Hartog, N.; Meinderstma, W.; Van Nieuwkerk, E.; Van Oostrom, N.; Woning, M. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands); Drijver, B.; Krajenbrink, H.; Mathijssen, H.; Wennekes, R. [IF Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-03-30

    The project More With Thermal Energy Storage (MMB, abbreviated in Dutch) focuses on knowledge gaps and potential opportunities regarding open systems. The main questions to be answered are: (1) What effects (hydrological, thermal, microbiological and chemical) occur in the soil system by application of thermal energy storage; (2) Which technical options are available for a sustainable integration of thermal energy storage in the water and energy chain?; (3) Is it possible to achieve multiple objectives by using smart combinations? The project is organized in different work packages. In work package 2, the effects of individual and collective thermal energy storage storage systems on subsoils and the environment are determined. In work package 3 the opportunities for thermal energy storage and soil remediation are examined, while in work package 4 the focus is on new sustainable combinations of heat and cold storage. Work package 1 is the umbrella part where communication and policy of and participation in MMB are the main subjects. The aim of this literature survey is to search for knowledge that is available worldwide on the effects of heat and cold storage and the possibilities to combine this technology with controlling contaminants in soil and groundwater [Dutch] Het project Meer Met Bodemenergie (MMB) richt zich op het invullen van kennisleemtes en mogelijke kansen ten aanzien van open systemen. De belangrijkste vragen waarop het onderzoeksprogramma MMB antwoord geeft zijn: (1) Welke effecten (hydrologisch, thermisch, microbiologisch en chemisch) treden op in het bodemsysteem bij toepassing van bodemenergie?; (2) Welke technische mogelijkheden zijn er voor het duurzaam inpassen van bodem-energie in de water- en energieketen?; (3) Is het mogelijk om meerdere doelstellingen tegelijk te verwezenlijken door slimme combinaties te maken? Het project is ingericht met verschillende werkpakketten. In werkpakket 2 worden de effecten van individuele en collectieve

  10. Pressure induced Amorphization of Ln1/3(Nb,Ta)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchior, A.; Noked, O.; Sterer, E.; Shuker, R.

    2014-01-01

    The research focuses on the phenomenon of pressure induced amorphization (PIA) in Ln1/3MO3, Ln - La,Pr,Nd and M-Nb,Ta. In most pressure induced phase transitions the material changes from a crystalline phase to another crystalline phase. However, if this transition is kinetically hindered, the increased free energy due to the applied pressure will result in a structural collapse to an amorphous intermediate phase. This phenomenon is known as pressure induced amorphization

  11. Areva: questions about a champion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottois, P.

    2009-01-01

    Siemens announced in January 26, 2009 its decision to leave Areva NP, i.e. the Areva/Siemens common daughter company for reactors. This news re-launches the questions about the long-term financing strategy of the Areva group, of its capitalistic partnerships and of its position in the world nuclear market. Siemens on its side wishes to preserve its position in this market and a possible cooperation with the Russian AtomEnergoProm is under discussion. Areva, the world leader of nuclear industry, integrates a mining activity as well and is the world number 3 of uranium exploitation (15% of the world offer). It wishes to double its production by 2012 thanks to big investments in Niger, Namibia and Canada. Areva is developing its enrichment capacities as well thanks to the future Georges-Besse II ultracentrifugation facility which is under construction at Tricastin (Drome, France) and which should be put into service in 2009. And finally, a second EPR (European pressurized reactor), the new generation of Areva reactors, is to be built at Penly (Haute Normandie, France) between 2012 and 2017 and will generate 1400 employments in the region. (J.S.)

  12. Frequently Asked Questions: The Higgs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? How does the Higgs mechanism work? What is the difference in physics between strong evidence and a discovery? Why do physicists speak in terms of "sigmas"? Find out here!   Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? Because it could be the answer to the question: how does Nature decide whether or not to assign mass to particles? All the fundamental particles making up matter – the electron, the quarks, etc. – have masses. Moreover, quantum physics requires that forces are also carried by particles. The W and Z particles that carry the weak force responsible for radioactivity must also have masses, whereas the photon, the carrier of the electromagnetic force, has no mass at all. This is the root of the “Higgs problem”: how to give masses to the fundamental particles and break the symmetry between the massive W and Z and the massless photon? Just assigning masses by hand...

  13. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  14. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  15. Oxidation of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine by hypochlorite ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheidorov, V. P.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Chalyi, G. Yu.; Titorovich, O. V.

    2011-08-01

    The kinetics of the oxidative conversion of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine upon treatment with hypochlorite ions (OCl-) in aqueous medium at 283-298 K and pH 8.2 was studied. The reaction order with respect to each component was determined and proved to be 1. It was established that the temperature dependence of the reaction rate follows the Arrhenius equation. The activation parameters of the reaction were measured: E a = 33.58 kJ/mol, Δ H ≠ = 31.12 kJ/mol, Δ S ≠ = -170.02 J/(K mol), Δ G ≠ = 81.45 kJ/mol. The stoichiometry of the reaction was studied, and the chemistry of the oxidative conversion of caffeine treated with OCl- is discussed.

  16. 2-Ureido-1,3-thiazol-3-ium dihydrogen phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Gubina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C4H6N3OS+·H2PO4−, (I, was obtained as a result of hydrolysis of [(1,3-thiazol-2-ylaminocarbonyl]phosphoramidic acid, (II, in water. X-ray analysis has shown that the N—P bond in (II breaks, leading to the formation of the substituted carbamide (I. This compound exists as an internal salt. The unit cell consists of a urea cation and an anion of H2PO4−. Protonation of the N atom of the heterocyclic ring was confirmed by the location of the H atom in a difference Fourier map. The molecules of substituted urea are connected by O...O hydrogen bonds into unlimited planes. In turn, those planes are connected to each other via N—H...O hydrogen bonds with molecules of phosphoric acid, forming a three-dimensional polymer.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  18. Toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in three vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark S; McFarland, Craig A; Bazar, Matthew A; Quinn, Michael J; LaFiandra, Emily May; Talent, Larry G

    2010-04-01

    The explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine or high-melting explosive (HMX), has been found in soils in areas used for testing and training by the military. Many of these areas contain habitat for valued wildlife species. In an effort to better understand the environmental consequences from exposure, a reptilian (western fence lizard [Sceloporus occidentalis]), an amphibian (red-backed salamander [Plethodon cinereus]), and a mammalian species (rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus]) were exposed to HMX under controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards and rabbits were exposed to HMX by way of corn oil through gavage, and salamanders were exposed to HMX in soil. Two deaths occurred from acute oral exposures to lizards to 5000 mg HMX/kg BW. Histological and gross pathologic assessment suggested gut impaction as a possible cause of death. Salamanders exposed to concentrations of HMX in soil 24 h after oral exposures. An LD(50) for rabbits was calculated as 93 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 76-117). A subacute 14-day testing regime found a lowest observed effect level of 10 mg/kg-d and a no observed adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg-d based on hyperkinesia and seizure incidence, although changes suggesting functional hepatic alterations were also found. These data suggest that physiologic differences between species, particularly in gastrointestinal structure and function, can affect the absorption of HMX and hence lead to marked differences in toxicity from exposure to the same compound.

  19. Categorization of questions posed before and after inquiry-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Milena García González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Posing research questions is the central ability of the scientific thought. This article examines the ability of sixth grade children to pose researchable questions before and after a three months’ work on a didactic sequence based on the inquiry school model. According to their purpose, the questions asked by children, after reading a text, were classified into researchable questions -susceptible to be empirically explored-, questions about a cause, and questions on a piece of data. The results show that the amount and the type of questions the students were able to pose during the intervention changed, from most of questions on data or information, to most of researchable questions, subsequently, the importance of designing teaching approaches to foster this ability was proved.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  1. A Hermenêutica no Campo Organizacional: duas possibilidades interpretativistas de pesquisaHermeneutic Questions in Organizational Studies: two interpretative possibilities for researchHermenéutica en el Campo Organizacional: dos posibilidades interpretativas en la investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIEIRA, Almir Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar considerações teóricas sobre dois tipos de estratégia de pesquisa: fenomenologia e etnografia. Com base na perspectiva hermenêutica, são apresentadas proposições conceituais das duas vertentes, sendo que a primeira é tratada no contexto sociológico e a segunda é apresentada em bases antropológicas. Seus usos similares no contexto organizacional – como também suas diferenças – são evidenciados de acordo com as contribuições teóricas de autores pertencentes ao universo qualitativo da pesquisa organizacional. Destaca-se, pela apresentação dos pressupostos teóricos relatados, a adequação da proposta interpretativa para consecução de pesquisas que tomam a organização como objeto de estudo, em busca da identificação das formas de construção da realidade social resultante da análise de significados e experiências vividas por seus participantes, ressaltando-se a importância do envolvimento entre pesquisador e pesquisado. A discussão teórica a respeito das duas vertentes permitiu notar a adequação da prática de pesquisas fenomenológicas e etnográficas no campo de estudos organizacionais, manifestando-se como possibilidades metodológicas para identificar dinâmicas que se atrelam à experiência de vida, favorecendo a análise do ser humano na condição de fenômeno de interpretação.ABSTRACTThe present text has the objective of presenting theoretical considerations regarding two types of strategy of research: phenomenology and ethnography. Based on a hermeneutic approach, the two conceptual propositions are presented, the first being dealt with in the sociological context, and the second presented as an anthropological basis. Their similar uses in an organizational context - as well as their differences – are highligthed according to the theoretical contributions of authors belonging to the qualitative universe of organizational research. The text reveals

  2. How do 5-year-olds understand questions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes; Teresa Guasti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    developing children across 19 European countries, 18 different languages, and 7 language (sub-)families. The study investigated the effects of two factors on question formation: (a) whether the question contains a simple interrogative word like ‘who’ or a complex one like ‘which princess’, and (b) whether......The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically...... the question word was related to the sentential subject or object position of the verb. The findings show that there is considerable variation among languages, but the two factors mentioned consistently affect children’s performance. The cross-linguistic variation shows that three linguistic factors facilitate...

  3. Student questions in urban middle school science communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groome, Meghan

    This dissertation examines student questions within three Communities of Practice (CoP), all urban middle school science environments. The study analyzed student questions from a sociocultural perspective and used ethnographic research techniques to detail how the CoP's shaped questions in the classroom. In the first study, two case study girls attempted to navigate questioning events that required them to negotiation participation. Their access to participation was blocked by participation frameworks that elevated some students as "gatekeepers" while suppressing the participation of others. The next two studies detail the introduction of written questioning opportunities, one into a public middle school classroom and the other into an informal classroom. In both studies, students responded to the interventions differently, most notable the adoption of the opportunity by female students who do not participate orally. Dissertation-wide findings indicate all students were able to ask questions, but varied in level of cognitive complexity, and the diagnostic interventions were able to identify students who were not known to be "target students", students who asked a high number of questions and were considered "interested in science". Some students' roles were as "gatekeepers" to participation of their peers. Two out of three teachers in the studies reported major shifts in their teaching practice due to the focus on questions and the methods used here have been found to be effective in producing educational research as well as supporting high-need classrooms in prior research. In conclusion, these studies indicate that social factors, including participation frameworks, gender dynamics, and the availability of alternative participation methods, play an important role in how students ask science-related questions. It is recommended that researchers continue to examine social factors that reduce student questions and modify their teaching strategies to facilitate

  4. LINAG phase I. A technical report, Version: 1.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittig, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    . General remarks; II.2. Production of accelerated ISOL - RIBs from fission and comparison with photoinduced fission; III. High intensity multi-charge ion sources for LINAG I; III.1. Constraints; III.2. Multi-charged ion sources; IV. The linear accelerator; IV.1. General layout of the linear accelerator; IV.2. Source and low energy beam transport line; IV.3. The RFQ injector; IV.4. The superconducting linear accelerator; IV.5. Layout of the driver; IV.6. Review of the driver cost evaluation; V. The target and ion source; V.1. The production and fission fragments; V.1.1. The rotating target/converter; V.1.2. The target and ion source production system; V.1.3. Production rates; V.2. Radioprotection and target handling; VI. Security and radioprotection; VI.1.1. Ion source; VI.1.2.The RFQ; VI.1.3. The liner accelerator; VI.2.1. Ion source; VI.2.2. RFQ; VI.2.3. LINAC; VI.2.4. The high energy beam transport line; VI.2.5. Beam accidents; VI.2.6. Shielding for the target/ion - source; VI.2.7. The authorization procedures; VII. Siting, post-acceleration and coupling to experimental areas; VII.1. Post acceleration option; VII.1.1. Post acceleration in using the CIME cyclotron; VII.1.2. Re-injection of the CIME beams into CSS2; VII.1.3. Post acceleration with C0 + CSS1 + CSS2; VIII. Possible links between LINAG and EURISOL; VIII.1. Background to EURISOL; VIII.2. Synergies; IX. Summary of costs and general schedule; X. Conclusion

  5. Crystal structure of 4,4-dibromo-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-2-azabuta-1,3-diene-1-carbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Chaabene

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H10Br2N2O2, represents an example of a planar π-conjugated 2-azabutadiene molecule, which is both an interesting starting material for further organic transformations and a potential ligand in organometallic coordination chemistry. Its metric molecular parameters are typical for the family of 2-azabuta-1,3-dienes not substituted at the (CH 3-position. In the crystal, the almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0658 Å azadiene molecules form one-dimensional double-wide ribbons through intermolecular halogen bonds (C—Br...O and C—Br...Br—C, which then stack in a slipped manner through weak C—H...Br and π–π interactions to generate a three-dimensional network.

  6. 2-(1,3-Dithiolan-2-ylidene)-5-(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6- tetrathiapentalene(DHDA-TTP), a hybrid of BDH-TTP and BDA-TTP, and its metallic cation-radical salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Maki; Toita, Takashi; Akutsu, Hiroki; Nakatsuji, Shin'ichi; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Ikemoto, Isao; Kikuchi, Koichi

    2002-05-21

    The synthesis and electrochemical properties of the DHDA-TTP donor, a hybrid of 2,5-bis(1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDH-TTP) and 2,5-bis(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene (BDA-TTP), has been investigated, and its ability to form metallic cation-radical salts is elucidated.

  7. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. From Pre-Revolutionary Study of Religion to Soviet Religious Studies: a Transformation of Scientific Method and Research Techniques and the Formation of the Soviet Way of Dealing with Religious Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Antonov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts a step by step analysis of the way religion was studied during the Soviet period. Discussing the way Soviet techniques differed from those of the Tsarist period, the author insists that any idea of a normal progression of ideas must be rejected and that instead we are dealing with a transformation of basic principles and a definitive break with the past. In the first part of his article, the author reviews the transformation of the way religion was dealt with from 1910 until the beginning of the 1930's with the aid of some key concepts put forth by Michel Foucault in his Archeology of Knowledge. Following the suggestions of Imre Lakatos regarding a research programs, the author describes the contributions of the main directives of religious thought during this period: the programs dealing with the spiritual-academic, religious-philosophical, and anthropological sectors. The author concludes by describing the main phases of development, the characteristic aspects, and the particularities of the Soviet approach to religion. The forgoing analysis permits the author to conclude that the Soviet approach to religion represents in no way a development but rather a complete break with pre-revolutionary ways of looking at religion and must be treated as a specific phenomenon. Neither can the Soviet approach, judging by its basic principles, be considered to have anything in common with a normal scientific method of studying religion as this term is generally accepted today. Rather, it was a system conditioned by external factors which clearly took precedence over internal ones to the detriment of any objective study of religion.

  9. An electron spin resonance study on the gamma-irradiation of urea, urea- d4, 1-3-dimethylurea, 1-3-diethylurea and 1,1',3,3'-tetramthylurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.S.; McManus, H.J.D.; Kevan, L.

    1994-01-01

    Urea, urea-d 4 , 1,3-dimethylurea, 1,3-diethylurea powder and 1,1',3,3'-tetramethylurea, and their solutions in D 2 O were γ-irradiated with 0.0882 kGy both at room temperature and at 77 K. The product radicals were identified with X-band electron spin resonance, based on the g-factor and hyperfine coupling constants. The radicals formed from urea and urea-d 4 were identified as nitrogen-centered and resulted from N-H bond dissociation. The radicals produced from 1,3-dimethylurea, 1,3-diethylurea and 1,1',3,3'-tetramethylurea were identified as carbon-centered and resulted from C-H bond cleavage. The electron spin resonance signals of 1,3-dimethylurea, 1,3-diethylurea and 1,1',3,3'-tetramethylurea are similar in both the powder and D 2 O solution. The radicals observed from 1,3-dimethylurea, 1,3-diethylurea and 1,1',3,3'-tetramethylurea were identified as . NH-CH 2 , . NH-CHCH 3 and . (CH 3 )(CH 2 ), respectively. (author)

  10. Photoluminescence of 1,3-dimethyl pyrazoloquinoline derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koscien, E. [1st Liceum, Sobieskiego 22, 42-700 Lubliniec (Poland); Gondek, E.; Pokladko, M. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Krakow, Podhorazych 1, 30-084 Krakow (Poland); Jarosz, B. [Department of Chemistry, Hugon Kollotaj Agricultural University, Al. Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Vlokh, R.O. [Institute of Physical Optics, Dragomanova 23, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Kityk, A.V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 17, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)], E-mail: kityk@ap.univie.ac.at

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents absorption and photoluminescence of 6-F, 6-Br, 6-Cl, 7-TFM and 6-COOEt derivatives of 1,3-dimethyl-1H-Pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline (DMPQ). The measured absorption and emission spectra are compared with the quantum chemical calculations performed by means of the semi-empirical methods (AM1 or PM3) that are applied either to the equilibrium conformations in vacuo (T = 0 K) or combined with the molecular dynamics simulations (T = 300 K). The spectra calculated by the AM1 method appear to be for all dyes in practically excellent agreement with the measured ones. In particular, the position of the first absorption band is obtained with the accuracy up to a few nanometers, whereas the calculated photoluminescence spectra predict the positions of the emission maxima for a gas phase with the accuracy up to 10-18 nm. The photoemission spectra of DMPQ dyes are considerably less solvatochromic comparing to phenyl-containing pyrazoloquinoline derivatives. According to the quantum chemical analysis the reason for such behaviour lies in a local character of the electronic transitions of DMPQ dyes which are characterized by a relatively small difference between the excited state and ground state dipole moments. Importantly that the rotational dynamics of both methyl subunits does not change this situation.

  11. Human postprandial gastric emptying of 1-3-millimeter spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.H.; Elashoff, J.; Porter-Fink, V.; Dressman, J.; Amidon, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Microspheres of pancreatin should empty from the stomachs of patients with pancreatic insufficiency as fast as food. The present study was undertaken in 26 healthy subjects to identify the size of spheres that would empty from the stomach with food and to determine whether different meals alter this size. Spheres of predefined sizes were labeled with /sup 113m/In or /sup 99m/Tc. Using a gamma-camera, we studied the concurrent gastric emptying of spheres labeled with /sup 113m/In and of chicken liver labeled with /sup 99m/Tc in 100-g, 154-kcal or 420-g, 919-kcal meals, or the concurrent emptying of 1-mm vs. larger spheres. One-millimeter spheres emptied consistently (p less than 0.01, paired t-test) faster than 2.4- or 3.2-mm spheres when ingested together with either the 420- or 100-g meals. Thus, in the 1-3-mm range of diameters, sphere size was a more important determinant of sphere emptying than meal size. Statistical analyses indicated that spheres 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm in diameter with a density of 1 empty at the same rate as /sup 99m/Tc-liver. Our data indicate some commercially marketed microspheres of pancreatin will empty too slowly to be effective in digestion of food

  12. Human postprandial gastric emptying of 1-3-millimeter spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J.H.; Elashoff, J.; Porter-Fink, V.; Dressman, J.; Amidon, G.L.

    1988-06-01

    Microspheres of pancreatin should empty from the stomachs of patients with pancreatic insufficiency as fast as food. The present study was undertaken in 26 healthy subjects to identify the size of spheres that would empty from the stomach with food and to determine whether different meals alter this size. Spheres of predefined sizes were labeled with /sup 113m/In or /sup 99m/Tc. Using a gamma-camera, we studied the concurrent gastric emptying of spheres labeled with /sup 113m/In and of chicken liver labeled with /sup 99m/Tc in 100-g, 154-kcal or 420-g, 919-kcal meals, or the concurrent emptying of 1-mm vs. larger spheres. One-millimeter spheres emptied consistently (p less than 0.01, paired t-test) faster than 2.4- or 3.2-mm spheres when ingested together with either the 420- or 100-g meals. Thus, in the 1-3-mm range of diameters, sphere size was a more important determinant of sphere emptying than meal size. Statistical analyses indicated that spheres 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm in diameter with a density of 1 empty at the same rate as /sup 99m/Tc-liver. Our data indicate some commercially marketed microspheres of pancreatin will empty too slowly to be effective in digestion of food.

  13. Oceanic hydrates: more questions than answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Methane hydrates create problems by blocking pipelines and casing; they are also accused of contributing to environmental problems (e.g. global warming). Methane hydrates are also found in permafrost areas and in oceanic sediments where the necessary temperature and pressure for stability occur. Claims for the widespread occurrence in thick oceanic deposits are unfounded: apparently indirect evidence from seismic reflectors, seismic hydrocarbon indicators, logs and free samples is unreliable. At one time, hydrate was seen as a static, biogenic, continuous, huge resource but that view is changing to one of a dynamic, overpressurised, discontinuous and unreliable resource. Only Japan and India are currently showing any serious interest in hydrates. Academic research has raised more questions than answers. It is suggested that more hard exploratory evidence rather than theoretical study is required

  14. A question of intention in motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cordova, Alberto; Lee, Sunghan

    2009-03-01

    We examined the question-is the intention of completing a simulated motor action the same as the intention used in processing overt actions? Participants used motor imagery to estimate distance reachability in two conditions: Imagery-Only (IO) and Imagery-Execution (IE). With IO (red target) only a verbal estimate using imagery was given. With IE (green target) participants knew that they would actually reach after giving a verbal estimate and be judged on accuracy. After measuring actual maximum reach, used for the comparison, imagery targets were randomly presented across peripersonal- (within reach) and extrapersonal (beyond reach) space. Results indicated no difference in overall accuracy by condition, however, there was a significant distinction by space; participants were more accurate in peripersonal space. Although more research is needed, these findings support an increasing body of evidence suggesting that the neurocognitive processes (in this case, intention) driving motor imagery and overt actions are similar.

  15. Ontologies and adaptivity in dialogue for question answering

    CERN Document Server

    Sonntag, D

    2010-01-01

    Question answering (QA) has become one of the fastest growing topics in computational linguistics and information access. To advance research in the area of dialogue-based question answering, we propose a combination of methods from different scientific fields (i.e., Information Retrieval, Dialogue Systems, Semantic Web, and Machine Learning). This book sheds light on adaptable dialogue-based question answering. We demonstrate the technical and computational feasibility of the proposed ideas, the introspective methods in particular, by beginning with an extensive introduction to the dialogical

  16. A Technique Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after each step

  17. Emerging Model of Questioning through the Process of Teaching and Learning Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iksan, Zanaton Haji; Daniel, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Verbal questioning is a technique used by teachers in the teaching and learning process. Research in Malaysia related to teachers' questioning in the chemistry teaching and learning process is more focused on the level of the questions asked rather than the content to ensure that students understand. Thus, the research discussed in this paper is…

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  1. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISTIC OF 2-HYDROXYPROPYLENE- 1,3-DIAMINETETRAACETOGERMANATES OF SOME s-METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Marzinko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Differentmetal complexes of germanium (IV and s-metals (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba with 2-hydroxypropylene-1,3-diamino-N,N,NI,NI-tetraacetic acid (Н5 Hpdta are obtained for the first time and characterized by methods of elementary and X-Ray powder diffraction analysis, thermogravimetry, IR-specroscopy. By results of research by set of physical and chemical methods it is established, that obtained 2-hydroxypropylene-1,3-diaminetetraacetogermanates are complexes of cationic-anionic type: M[Ge(Hpdta(ОН(Н2О]·nH2O, where M = Mg, n=9 (I; Ca, n=7 (II, Sr, n=7 (III; Ba, n=8 (IV. The scheme of structure of compounds I-IV is offered.

  2. Symbiont-derived beta-1,3-glucanases in a social insect: mutualism beyond nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca B Rosengaus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Termites have had a long co-evolutionary history with prokaryotic and eukaryotic gut microbes. Historically, the role of these anaerobic obligate symbionts has been attributed to the nutritional welfare of the host. We provide evidence that protozoa (and/or their associated bacteria colonizing the hindgut of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis, synthesize multiple functional beta-1,3-glucanases, enzymes known for breaking down beta-1,3-glucans, the main component of fungal cell walls. These enzymes, we propose, may help in both digestion of ingested fungal hyphae and protection against invasion by fungal pathogens. This research points to an additional novel role for the mutualistic hindgut microbial consortia of termites, an association that may extend beyond ligno-cellulolytic activity and nitrogen fixation to include a reduction in the risks of mycosis at both the individual- and colony-levels while nesting in and feeding on microbial-rich decayed wood.

  3. Frequently Asked Questions about Bunion Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A | Print | Share Frequently Asked Questions About Bunion Surgery Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) and ... best for you. 5. How can I avoid surgery? Sometimes observation of the bunion is all that ...

  4. Action Research and Interactive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, lennart; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2006-01-01

    The authors present trends in Nordic action research. They ask critical questions in the development towards mode 2 and points out alternative roads for a scientific consolidation of action research and interactive research.......The authors present trends in Nordic action research. They ask critical questions in the development towards mode 2 and points out alternative roads for a scientific consolidation of action research and interactive research....

  5. Platinum(0-1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane Complex as a Pt Source for Pt/SnO2 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Martyla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new preparation method of Pt/SnO2, an important catalytic system. Besides of its application as a heterogenic industrial catalyst, it is also used as a catalyst in electrochemical processes, especially in fuel cells. Platinum is commonly used as an anode catalyst in low temperature fuel cells, fuelled with alcohols of low molecular weight such as methanol. Platinum(0-1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane complex was used as a precursor of metallic phase. The aim of the research was to obtain a highly active in electrochemical system Pt/SnO2 catalyst with low metal load. Considering small size of Pt crystallites, it should result in high activity of Pt/SnO2 system. The presented method of SnO2 synthesis allows for obtaining support consisting of nanoparticles. The effect of the thermal treatment on activity of Pt/SnO2 gel was demonstrated. The system properties were investigated using TEM, FTIR (ATR, and XRD techniques to describe its thermal structural evolution. The results showed two electrocatalytical activity peaks for drying at a temperature of 430 K and above 650 K.

  6. Supplementary study of possible risks and consequences of the exploration and exploitation of shale and coal gas in the Netherlands. Final report of the research questions A and B; Aanvullend onderzoek naar mogelijke risico's en gevolgen van de opsporing en winning van schalie- en steenkoolgas in Nederland. Eindrapport onderzoeksvragen A en B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs has given the consortium consisting of Witteveen and Bos, Arcadis and Fugro an assignment to investigate the possible risks and effects of exploration and exploitation of shale gas and coal bed methane in The Netherlands. The main questions of the research have been outlined in 55 research question that have been answered in the shape of technical notes. This summary contains the most important findings of this research. Attention is paid to Conventional versus unconventional gas, Footprint and nuisance, Methane emissions and climate footprint, Earthquakes and subsidence, Water usage, Fraccing fluid, Safety, Ground water, Relation with current legislation [Dutch] Het Ministerie van Economische Zaken heeft het consortium Witteveen+Bos, Arcadis en Fugro opdracht gegeven voor een onderzoek naar mogelijke risico's en gevolgen van opsporen en winnen van schaliegas (en steenkoolgas) in Nederland. De hoofdvragen van het onderzoek zijn uitgewerkt in 55 onderzoeksvragen, die in achtergrondnotities zijn beantwoord. Aandacht is besteed aan Conventioneel versus onconventioneel gas, Ruimtebeslag en hinder, Methaanemissies en klimaatvoetafdruk, Bodembewegingen, Watergebruik, Frac-vloeistof, Veiligheid, Grondwater, en de Relatie met huidige mijnbouwwetgeving.

  7. Question Answering for Dutch : Simple does it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van der Vet, P.E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves; Vanhoof, Wim; Schwanen, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    When people pose questions in natural language to search for information on the web, the role of question answering (QA) systems becomes important. In this paper the QAsystem simpleQA, capable of answering Dutch questions on which the answer is a person or a location, is described. The system's

  8. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  9. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification

  10. The Socratic Method and Levels of Questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Karilee

    1980-01-01

    Determines if instruction in the Socratic method would increase higher level questioning during peer teaching experiences in teacher education programs. Raters, using the higher order questioning strategy, evaluated 14 students. A significant increase in higher level questions being asked suggests the Socratic Method may be useful. (Author)

  11. Two-Year-Old Children Differentiate Test Questions from Genuine Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Gerlind; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Children are frequently confronted with so-called "test questions". While genuine questions are requests for missing information, test questions ask for information obviously already known to the questioner. In this study we explored whether two-year-old children respond differentially to one and the same question used as either a genuine question…

  12. Zn-Doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Composite as Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Battery: Preparation, Characterization, and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn-doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 composite, Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/31–xZnxO2 (x = 0.02; 0.05; 0.08, is synthesized by the sol-gel method. The crystal structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance are investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV, and constant current charge/discharge experiment. The result reveals that Zn-doping cathode material can reach the initial charge/discharge capacity of 188.8/162.9 mAh·g−1 for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.98Zn0.02O2 and 179.0/154.1 mAh·g−1 for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.95Zn0.05O2 with the high voltage of 4.4 V at 0.1 C. Furthermore, the capacity retention of Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.98Zn0.02O2 is 95.1% at 0.5 C after 50 cycles at room temperature. The improved electrochemical properties of Zn-doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are attributed to reduced electrode polarization, enhanced capacity reversibility, and excellent cyclic performance.

  13. Global questions, local answers: soil management and sustainable intensification in diverse socioeconomic contexts of Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCune, N.; Ruiz Gonzalez, Y.; Alcantara, E.A.; Fernandez Martinez, O.; Onelio Fundaro, C.; Castillo Arzola, N.; Cairo Cairo, P.; Haese, D' M.; Neve, De S.; Guevara Hernandez, F.

    2011-01-01

    In the complex context of global food and agricultural systems, research in agriculture must respond to multidisciplinary questions of economic development, ecological sustainability and food justice. With the objective of responding to several of the most important questions facing agriculture

  14. "What's the difference?" women's wheelchair basketball, reverse integration, and the question(ing) of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Peers, Danielle

    2011-10-01

    The inclusion of able-bodied athletes within disability sport, a phenomenon known as reverse integration, has sparked significant debate within adapted physical activity. Although researchers and practitioners have taken up positions for or against reverse integration, there is a lack of supporting research on the experiences of athletes who already play in such settings. In this study, we explore how competitive female athletes who have a disability experience reverse integration in Canadian wheelchair basketball. Athletic identity was used as the initial conceptual framework to guide semistructured interviews with nine participants. The results suggest that participation in this context contributed to positive athletic identities. Interviews also pointed to the unexpected theme of "what's the difference?" that this sporting context provided a space for the questioning and creative negotiation of the categories of disability and able-bodiedness. Methodologically, this paper also explores the possibilities and challenges of inter- worldview and insider-outsider research collaboration.

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    2015-10-02

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    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance