WorldWideScience

Sample records for research problem areas

  1. Countermeasure Research on Problems Impeding Farmers’ Successful Entrepreneurship in Minority Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xiao-jin; Xu, Cong-wei

    2011-01-01

    By investigating the problem of farmers’ entrepreneurship in Gongcheng Yaozu Autonomous County, lying in Guilin, Guangxi, the thesis expounds the existing problems impacting farmers’ successful entrepreneurship in minority areas as follows: firstly, the musty idea of local cadre is obstacle to farmers’ successful entrepreneurship; secondly, the problems of scattered farmers’ entrepreneurship resources, waste and shortage of resources impact good effect of entrepreneurship; thirdly, fa...

  2. [Pollution-ecological problems of old industrial and mining areas and future research prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qixing

    2005-06-01

    Environmental pollution and its solicitation in ecological problems of old industrial and mining areas have become a worldwide technological puzzle restricting sustainable economic and social development. But, the definition and category of old industrial and mining areas is still disputed as an important concept. In this paper, the concept of old industrial and mining area was discussed in theory, and, proceeded with analyzing the complexity of current situation and environmental pollution problems of old industrial and mining areas in China, more keystone attention was paid to the secondary pollution problems from old industrial and mining areas as an important frontier of science. On the basis of expounding the complexity and characters of environmental pollution in old industrial and mining areas, it was suggested that as two key scientific problems in environmental sciences and ecology, the formation mechanisms and control technology of secondary pollution in old industrial and mining areas and the responses of new-type diseases to environmental pollution based on molecular ecotoxicology should be systematically studied on the national scale, and be an important component of environmental protection strategy in China in the future.

  3. Islamic Education Research Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muthalib

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss Islamic educational studies that is reviewing how to find, limit and define problems and problem-solving concepts. The central question of this paper is to describe how to solve the problem in Islamic educational research. A researcher or educator who has the knowledge, expertise, or special interest on education for example is usually having a sensitivity to issues relating to educational research. In the research dimension of religious education, there are three types of problems, namely: Problems foundation, structural problems and operational issues. In doing research in Islamic education someone should understand research problem, limiting and formulating the problem, how to solve the problem, other problem relating to the point of research, and research approach.

  4. The area-of-interest problem in eyetracking research: A noise-robust solution for face and sparse stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, Roy S; Kemner, Chantal; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Hooge, Ignace T C

    2016-12-01

    A problem in eyetracking research is choosing areas of interest (AOIs): Researchers in the same field often use widely varying AOIs for similar stimuli, making cross-study comparisons difficult or even impossible. Subjective choices while choosing AOIs cause differences in AOI shape, size, and location. On the other hand, not many guidelines for constructing AOIs, or comparisons between AOI-production methods, are available. In the present study, we addressed this gap by comparing AOI-production methods in face stimuli, using data collected with infants and adults (with autism spectrum disorder [ASD] and matched controls). Specifically, we report that the attention-attracting and attention-maintaining capacities of AOIs differ between AOI-production methods, and that this matters for statistical comparisons in one of three groups investigated (the ASD group). In addition, we investigated the relation between AOI size and an AOI's attention-attracting and attention-maintaining capacities, as well as the consequences for statistical analyses, and report that adopting large AOIs solves the problem of statistical differences between the AOI methods. Finally, we tested AOI-production methods for their robustness to noise, and report that large AOIs-using the Voronoi tessellation method or the limited-radius Voronoi tessellation method with large radii-are most robust to noise. We conclude that large AOIs are a noise-robust solution in face stimuli and, when implemented using the Voronoi method, are the most objective of the researcher-defined AOIs. Adopting Voronoi AOIs in face-scanning research should allow better between-group and cross-study comparisons.

  5. Problems of research politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luest, R.

    1977-01-01

    The development in the FRG is portrayed. Illustrated by a particular example, the problems of basic research and of the scientists are presented looking back, looking at the present, and into the future. (WB) [de

  6. Sediment problems in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    A recognition of and solution to sediment problems in urban areas is necessary if society is to have an acceptable living environment. Soil erosion and sediment deposition in urban areas are as much an environmental blight as badly paved and littered streets, dilapidated buildings, billboard clutter, inept land use, and air, water, and noise pollution. In addition, sediment has many direct and indirect effects on streams that may be either part of or very remote from the urban environment. Sediment, for example, is widely recognized as a pollutant of streams and other water bodies.

  7. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  8. Research, Research Gap and the Research Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dissanayake, D.M.N.S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Mainly, due to new scientific inquiries and technological advancements Knowledge becomes obsolete. So it creates a dilemma where the applicability of so called theories and models which we learnt in class can still be applied to solve problems? Thus, the scholars bring the notion of RESEARCH as a definite solution which enriches the existing understanding of a phenomenon. This can be either a theory testing or a theory extension (theory building) approach. In fact, gap identification and form...

  9. Statistical problems in medical research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... medical research, there are some common problems in using statistical methodology which may result ... optimal combination of diagnostic tests for osteoporosis .... randomization used include stratification and minimize-.

  10. A European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a summary of the presentation of the European Commissioner, Philippe Busquen, to the European Parliament (beginning of year 2000) with the proposal and method for a revival of the Research and Development in this wider sense in the European Union. The starting point of his thesis is that Europe performs less, and more disorderly, activities in this field that her main competitors. USA and Japan. His basic proposal is a larger coordination among the european research projects, with a previous phase of informatics intoxicator among the european research centres and the cross-linked participation, real of virtual in the experiments and projects. (Author)

  11. Research Areas - Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about NCI programs and initiatives that sponsor, conduct, develop, or support clinical trials, including NCI’s Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) initiatives.

  12. Research Areas: Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s prevention research has a broad focus, from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and studying ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  13. Research Areas: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate information derived from diagnostic tools is critical for making decisions at all stages of cancer care. NCI supports research on the development of tests and imaging technologies that can provide specific information about an individual’s cancer.

  14. Computational problems in Arctic Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, I

    2016-01-01

    This article is to inform about main problems in the area of Arctic shelf seismic prospecting and exploitation of the Northern Sea Route: simulation of the interaction of different ice formations (icebergs, hummocks, and drifting ice floes) with fixed ice-resistant platforms; simulation of the interaction of icebreakers and ice- class vessels with ice formations; modeling of the impact of the ice formations on the underground pipelines; neutralization of damage for fixed and mobile offshore industrial structures from ice formations; calculation of the strength of the ground pipelines; transportation of hydrocarbons by pipeline; the problem of migration of large ice formations; modeling of the formation of ice hummocks on ice-resistant stationary platform; calculation the stability of fixed platforms; calculation dynamic processes in the water and air of the Arctic with the processing of data and its use to predict the dynamics of ice conditions; simulation of the formation of large icebergs, hummocks, large ice platforms; calculation of ridging in the dynamics of sea ice; direct and inverse problems of seismic prospecting in the Arctic; direct and inverse problems of electromagnetic prospecting of the Arctic. All these problems could be solved by up-to-date numerical methods, for example, using grid-characteristic method. (paper)

  15. Hydrogen problems in reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, H.

    1984-01-01

    The BMFT and BMI have initiated a workshop 'Hydrogen Problems in Reactor Safety Research' that took place October 3./4., 1983. The objective of this workshop was to present the state of the art in the main areas - Hydrogen-Production - Hydrogen-Distribution - Hydrogen-Ignition - Hydrogen-Burning and Containment Behaviour - Mitigation Measures. The lectures on the different areas are compiled. The most important results of the final discussion are summarized as well. (orig.) [de

  16. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 2: RNAV/MLS transition problems for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems in navigation and guidance encountered by aircraft in the initial transition period in changing from distance measuring equipment, VORTAC, and barometric instruments to the more precise microwave landing system data type navaids in the terminal area are investigated. The effects of the resulting discontinuities on the estimates of position and velocity for both optimal (Kalman type navigation schemes) and fixed gain (complementary type) navigation filters, and the effects of the errors in cross track, track angle, and altitude on the guidance equation and control commands during the critical landing phase are discussed. A method is presented to remove the discontinuities from the navigation loop and to reconstruct an RNAV path designed to land the aircraft with minimal turns and altitude changes.

  17. Advanced Research Workshop on Nonlinear Hyperbolic Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Serre, Denis; Raviart, Pierre-Arnaud

    1987-01-01

    The field of nonlinear hyperbolic problems has been expanding very fast over the past few years, and has applications - actual and potential - in aerodynamics, multifluid flows, combustion, detonics amongst other. The difficulties that arise in application are of theoretical as well as numerical nature. In fact, the papers in this volume of proceedings deal to a greater extent with theoretical problems emerging in the resolution of nonlinear hyperbolic systems than with numerical methods. The volume provides an excellent up-to-date review of the current research trends in this area.

  18. PROBLEMS AND CLASSIFICATION OF FORMER MILITARY AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirezhev C.A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the Russian Federation in the international community, to find the most effective ways to implement the military and land reforms require a comprehensive study. The paper identifies the main problems that hinder the effective implementation of the reform of the conversion, the ways of their solutions, including use of the experience of the advanced countries of the European Union. Identified military objects to be conversion, shown combining them into groups according to various criteria. Proposed a typology of ex-military territories. Notes the role of the organization of effective land use conversion in the areas of land use planning, identifies the main documents required for the implementation of planned activities. The problems of land use planning conversion ex-military territories.

  19. No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ornelas Marques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language, but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the need to find or solve problems? The problem is to recognize the problem; the next step is to equate the problem; finally we have to feel the need to solve it. No need? No invention. Recognizing a problem is probably the biggest problem of everyday life, because we are permanently faced with problems (many ill-defined problems, which we need to identify, equate and solve.

  20. A research for environmental problems in the vicinity of mining area. Investigation into the impact of metallic mining on the environment and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jeong Sik; Cheong, Young Wook; Lee, Hyun Joo; Song, Duk Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study is focused on the impacts of metalliferous mines on the environment in the vicinity of the abandoned and active mines and establishment of abatements of mining environmental problems. Total number of metalliferous mines surveyed were 40 in which samples of waters, mine wastes and soil were taken. Water parameters such as the pH, Eh, TDS, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured in the field. Elements such as As, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Al, Mn, sulfate and cyanide were analyzed. Significant concentrations of heavy metals, mainly Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Al, were found in mine waters from adit and in leachates extracted from mine wastes. The mine waters flowing out from the Dalsung and Ilgwang mines were the typical acid mine drainage(AMD) contaminated by the heavy metals. Passive biological systems(Anoxic wetland) to treat AMD for metals were designed and monitored for effluents from the reactors with 4 types of composts, cow manure and limestones, Results showed that the mushroom compost with cow manure and limestone was the best substrates in metal removing efficiencies. Results from leaching of mine wastes showed that As, Cd and Cu were extracted from some of mine wastes. AMD from the mine waste dump of the Daduk mine was found. These mean that mine wastes can contaminate the soil, surface water and ground waters in vicinity of mines. Therefore cover systems or liner system for containments of mine wastes were suggested to preserve the environment. Cu and As concentrations in soils surveyed were below the heavy metal concentrations in soils of Korean standard preventing plant of the crops. However, most of the acid mine waters are drained untreated, and mine wastes with heavy metals are distributed near soil environment. Therefore efforts to reduce possibilities of soil contamination in the vicinity of mining areas is required. (author). 33 refs.

  1. Brief report : ethical problems in research practice

    OpenAIRE

    Colnerud, Gunnel

    2013-01-01

    Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees, and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts, and problems in research. They were all researchers at the postdoctoral ...

  2. Polio roundup. Grappling with the "problem" areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    As the war against poliomyelitis continues, eradication efforts must now succeed in some countries which have been subjected to natural disasters and in others which are enduring manmade disasters. Subnational immunization days (SNIDs) were most recently conducted in northern Somalia in two 5-day rounds last November and December amid widespread popular and political support. While villages in the arid, drought-plagued country are often inaccessible, flooding from heavy rains was the only real problem encountered by the vaccination campaign. More than 90% of the estimated 375,000 children under age 5 years in the target area were vaccinated and given vitamin A. Careful advance preparations contributed to the campaign's success. A 7-day campaign in mid-February got oral polio vaccine to more than 330,000 children in southern Sudan. Maintaining the vaccine cold chain was the major operational challenge in this setting. To that end, all available means were used, including placing vaccines into running streams to keep them cool. The program in Sudan was coordinated by the UN's Operation Lifeline Sudan. Heat, armed conflict, lack of infrastructure, the need to reach more than 80% of the population by air, infectious diseases, drought, and hungry packs of hyenas were some of the obstacles to overcome. A second round of vaccination is planned for southern Sudan in mid March.

  3. Cognitive styles: Controversial issues and research problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Volkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analytical review of cognitive styles research, considering the problems of its theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. Issues concerning the prospects, as well as theoretical and practical relevance of cognitive styles research, are discussed. We examine the main causes leading to researchers’ declining interest to study of cognitive styles, related to theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. The main problems discussed relate to lack of clear definition and common theoretical framework. Moreover, the number of empirical studies prevails over the one aimed at theoretical generalization of empirical results and findings, and therefore the primacy of empirics appears. We analyze the possible ways of advancing the field, suggested research programs and potential perspectives for future research. We pose questions of the relationship between cognitive styles and other psychological constructs, such as abilities and cognitive strategies. We emphasize the need to develop integrative models of cognitive styles in order to systematize and organize a large number of existing cognitive styles dimensions. The main controversial issues concerning cognitive styles’ stability and value are considered. We suggest that cognitive style is a psychological mean of cognitive tasks solving, based on both situation circumstances and subject’s current cognitive resources. Issues concerning cognitive styles may answer the question on the nature of individual differences and clarify psychological mechanisms of personality-situation interaction. Furthermore, it may serve as a basis for integrated studies at the areas of personality and cognitive psychology.

  4. EARTHQUAKE RESEARCH PROBLEMS OF NUCLEAR POWER GENERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Housner, G. W.; Hudson, D. E.

    1963-10-15

    Earthquake problems associated with the construction of nuclear power generators require a more extensive and a more precise knowledge of earthquake characteristics and the dynamic behavior of structures than was considered necessary for ordinary buildings. Economic considerations indicate the desirability of additional research on the problems of earthquakes and nuclear reactors. The nature of these earthquake-resistant design problems is discussed and programs of research are recommended. (auth)

  5. Operations research problems statements and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Poler, Raúl; Díaz-Madroñero, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this book is to provide a valuable compendium of problems as a reference for undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, researchers and practitioners of operations research and management science. These problems can serve as a basis for the development or study of assignments and exams. Also, they can be useful as a guide for the first stage of the model formulation, i.e. the definition of a problem. The book is divided into 11 chapters that address the following topics: Linear programming, integer programming, non linear programming, network modeling, inventory theory, queue theory, tree decision, game theory, dynamic programming and markov processes. Readers are going to find a considerable number of statements of operations research applications for management decision-making. The solutions of these problems are provided in a concise way although all topics start with a more developed resolution. The proposed problems are based on the research experience of the authors in real-world com...

  6. The problem with areas: Asia and Area studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor T. King

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Goh Beng Lan (ed., Decentring & diversifying Southeast Asian Studies: Perspectives from the region. Singapore: ISEAS, 2011, xiii + 304 pp. ISBN 9789814311564, price: USD 34.90 (paperback; 9789814311571, USD 45.90 (hardback.Terence Wesley-Smith and Jon Goss (eds, Remaking Area studies: Teaching and learning across Asia and the Pacific. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2010, xxvii + 243 pp. ISBN 9780824833213. Price: USD 45.00 (hardback.Jacob Edmond, Henry Johnson and Jacqueline Leckie (eds, Recentring Asia: Histories, encounters, identities, xv + 339 pp. Leiden/Boston: Brill, Global Oriental: 2011. ISBN 9781906876258. Price: EUR 80.00 (hardback.

  7. Problems of scientific research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vose, P.B.; Cervellini, A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper gives a general consideration of the problems encountered in the scientific research by the developing countries. Possible optimizations in the long term as well as short term strategies are pointed out

  8. ARC Research Areas and Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    studying realistic engine-in-vehicle operation, thermal management, component matching, advanced powertrain maximize the vehicle's performance. The vision of Thrust Area 1 is to create adaptive vehicles for maximum , victor.j.paul2.civ@mail.mil The safety and performance of human occupants and operators are paramount in the

  9. VIOLENCE AND CHILD ABUSE: MAIN AREAS OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Volkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In article investigated the problem of violence and child abuse as a phenomenon of social life, considered the most popular practice areas of scientific research in the problem of violence and child abuse. Based on the conclusion that the problem of violence and child abuse is a complex problem whose solution is the most effective systemic cross-disciplinary approach, based on the interaction of specialists of different professional affiliation.

  10. Proposal for Land Consolidation Project Solutions for Selected Problem Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik-Len, Justyna; Strek, Zanna

    2017-12-01

    One of the economic tools for supporting agricultural policy are the activities implemented under the Rural Development Program (RDP). By encouraging agricultural activities and creating equal opportunities for development of farms, among others in areas with unfavourable environmental conditions characterized by low productivity of soils exposed to degradation, decision makers can contribute to improving the spatial structure of rural areas. In Poland, one of the major concerns are agricultural problem areas (regions). In view of this situation, the aim of this article was to characterize the problem areas in question and propose land consolidation project solutions for selected fragments of those areas. This paper presents the results of a review of literature and an analysis of geodetic and cartographic data regarding the problem areas. The process of land consolidation, which is one of the technical and legal instruments supporting the development of rural areas, was characterized. The study allowed the present authors to establish criteria for selecting agricultural problem areas for land consolidation. To develop a proposal for rational management of the problem areas, key general criteria (location, topography, soil quality and usefulness) and specific criteria were defined and assigned weights. A conception of alternative development of the agricultural problem areas was created as part of a land consolidation project. The results were used to create a methodology for the development of agricultural problem areas to be employed during land consolidation in rural areas. Every agricultural space includes areas with unfavourable environmental and soil conditions determined by natural or anthropogenic factors. Development of agricultural problem areas through land consolidation should take into account the specific functions assigned to these areas in land use plans, as well as to comply with legal regulations.

  11. The Problem of Being in Metaphysics | Kanu | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is being? This was and still is one of the fundamental questions within the area of metaphysics. The researcher in this piece studies the dynamics of the problem of being in metaphysics. A historical approach is adopted to this study. The researcher goes through the Ancient, Medieval, Modern and Contemporary ...

  12. Engaged Problem Formulation in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby

    2016-01-01

    “Is this the problem?”: the question that haunts many information systems (IS) researchers when they pursue work relevant to both practice and research. Nevertheless, a deliberate answer to this question requires more than simply asking the involved IS practitioners. Deliberately formulating...

  13. Medical Students' Perception of Problem Areas in Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ranges of problems were extensive; neuro-anatomy in gross anatomy, slide review in histology, and cardiovascular embryology were amongst the most highlighted areas of concern. Most students attributed the problems in gross anatomy to difficulty with accessing the area during dissection and inability to grasp the ...

  14. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  15. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report

  16. The problem of appraising qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon-Woods, M; Shaw, R; Agarwal, S; Smith, J

    2004-01-01

    

 Qualitative research can make a valuable contribution to the study of quality and safety in health care. Sound ways of appraising qualitative research are needed, but currently there are many different proposals with few signs of an emerging consensus. One problem has been the tendency to treat qualitative research as a unified field. We distinguish universal features of quality from those specific to methodology and offer a set of minimally prescriptive prompts to assist with the assessme...

  17. Problems of finding production losses in smoke areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vins, B

    1971-01-01

    The world-wide research results obtained up to now give evidence that the injurious effects of emissions in forest stands occur in the form of the decrease of diameter increment leading to premature die-back of trees. The effects of emissions are different both in individual tree species and in stand components. The occurrence and size of increment losses are also influenced by the interaction of climate conditions and concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere. Combining original methodical procedures and laboratory equipment for production ecology with computer processing techniques bring about favorable conditions for the solution of problems concerning the emission effects on the production of forest stands. No solution has been found as yet for the problem of diameter increment decrease differentiation based on age and social position of trees. Research work should provide data necessary for the economic evaluation of losses in the main smoke areas and for the choice of suitable economic measures aimed at the mitigation of injuries. This study indicates that it is the modified increment boring method which becomes an efficient method for the control of production processes and for the evaluation of increment changes both in research work and in practice.

  18. Problems of irrigated agriculture in saline groundwater areas: farmers' perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Yasin, M.; Ahmad, M.M.; Hussain, Z.; Khan, Z.; Akbar, G.

    2005-01-01

    A research study was conducted using participatory interactive dialogue in the brackish groundwater area of Mona SCARP-II, Bhalwal district Sargodha, Pakistan. The Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was conducted in thirteen villages to identify macro- and micro-level issues related to irrigated agriculture in saline groundwater areas. SCARP tube wells have been abandoned or few have been handed over to farmers' organizations. Groundwater in the Indus basin contributes around 35% to the total water available for agriculture. Water quality of 60% area of the Indus basin is marginal to brackish. Minimum land holding of cultivated land in the elected villages varied from 0.10 to 4 ha. The maximum land holding of cultivated area in selected villages varied for 6 to 50 ha. However, the average size of farm was around 4 ha. The average salt-affected area per household was 17% of the total cultivated area. The salt-affected lands in 8 villages out of 13 were barren, where mainly rice crop is grown during kharif season. About 67% farms had access to conjunctive use of water, as water from both canal and private tube wells is available. In addition, 10% farms were having tube well water only. Therefore, 77% farms are having access to the groundwater. According to the farmers' perceptions, 100% villages have fresh groundwater to a depth of 7.5 m and 62% villages had depth ranging from 15-30 m. Furthermore, in all thirteen selected villages, groundwater quality beyond 30 m depth was brackish. Laboratory analysis confirmed the farmer's perception that groundwater quality is a function of depth. About 92% farmers groups indicated that non-availability and high price of inputs was a major problem. The second major issue was related to the shortage of canal water supplies and 77% villages are facing this problem. Moreover, 31% farmers' groups of selected villages indicated that water logging and salinity are the major concerns affecting agricultural productivity. This figure is

  19. Landmine research: technology solutions looking for problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevelyan, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The global landmine problem came to the attention of researchers in the mid 1990's and by 1997 several advanced and expensive sensor research programs had started. Yet, by the end of 2003, there is little sign of a major advance in the technology available to humanitarian demining programs. Given the motivation and dedication of researchers, public goodwill to support such programs, and substantial research resources devoted to the problem, it is worth asking why these programs do not seem to have had an impact on demining costs or casualty rates. Perhaps there are factors that have been overlooked. This paper reviews several research programs to gain a deeper understanding of the problem. A possible explanation is that researchers have accepted mistaken ideas on the nature of the landmine problems that need to be solved. The paper provides several examples where the realities of minefield conditions are quite different to what researchers have been led to believe. Another explanation may lie in the political and economic realities that drive the worldwide effort to eliminate landmines. Most of the resources devoted to landmine clearance programs come from humanitarian aid budgets: landmine affected countries often contribute only a small proportion because they have different priorities based on realistic risk-based assessment of needs and political views of local people. Some aid projects have been driven by the need to find a market for demining technologies rather than by user needs. Finally, there is a common misperception that costs in less developed countries are intrinsically low, reflecting low rates paid for almost all classes of skilled labour. When actual productivity is taken into account, real costs can be higher than industrialized countries. The costs of implementing technological solutions (even using simple technologies) are often significantly under-estimated. Some political decisions may have discouraged thorough investigation of cost

  20. Income and managing problems of the protected areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    n 2000, the authors collected a great quantity of relevant data by investigating more than 50 nature reserves. Based on the analysis of development and management situation of the protected areas in China, the main problems were put forward, such as, no unified management for income and managing activities, lack of special guideline and effective supervision, lack of income and investment, investing financial difference in different provinces. All these problems caused the lack of funds for construction, as well as the damage of resources and environment. Furthermore the conserving activities have to transmit to the profits in many protected areas. Combined with these problems, the primary solution programmers also were put forward.

  1. Safety of superconducting fusion magnets: twelve problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve problem areas of superconducting magnets for fusion reaction are described. These are: quench detection and energy dump, stationary normal region of conductor, current leads, electrical arcing, electrical shorts, conductor joints, forces from unequal currents, eddy current effects, cryostat rupture, vacuum failure, fringing field and instrumentation for safety. Priorities among these areas are suggested

  2. Safety of superconducting fusion magnets: twelve problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve problem areas of superconducting magnets for fusion reaction are described. These are: Quench Detection and Energy Dump, Stationary Normal Region of Conductor, Current Leads, Electrical Arcing, Electrical Shorts, Conductor Joints, Forces from Unequal Currents, Eddy Current Effects, Cryostat Rupture, Vacuum Failure, Fringing Field and Instrumentation for Safety. Priorities among these areas are suggested

  3. Military Operational Research: the Sensor Coverage Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, A.I.; Koopmans, J.

    1999-01-01

    Military Operations Research is a field that has been growing since the Second World War, and in particular in the last decades. Within this vast area, Air Defence, the protection of the air space against an airborne threat, has become a hot topic. ln order to successfully protect a given zone

  4. Researching older lesbians: problems and partial solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Sue

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of research about older lesbians, who can be considered not only a "hidden population" but also a population in hiding. Yet older lesbians hold vital historical and cultural narratives that are, in turn, the heritage of younger lesbians. They also have much to contribute to understandings about gender, sexuality and aging, and to their currently unmet needs in terms of age-related housing, health, and social care provision. This article reflects on some of the issues that make it difficult to access older lesbians for research purposes. It identifies four problematic areas in researching older lesbians: definitions, access, representative sampling, and ethical issues. It suggests that participative action research might offer a means of widening access and engaging with older lesbians in a more collaborative way.

  5. Brazil research in selected scientific areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2009-01-01

      The paper analyses the general development of research in Brazil, 1981-2005 and compares to Mexico, Republic of South Africa (RSA) and the world. Publications from 15 research areas and their citations are analyzed for the three countries covering two five-year periods 1996-2005. The paper appl...

  6. Radiation analysis in the major areas of marine fisheries research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, A.V.S.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation analysis has been a proven technique to solve, relatively easily and quickly, some of the pressing problems in marine fisheries to the utmost satisfaction. Major areas of marine fisheries research - namely, the determination of sea water characteristics, the productivity studies, the pollution effects, the population dynamics and the preservation of sea foods - wherein the radiation treatment is fully helpful are discussed in detail. The problems encountered in the marine fisheries in India in this context are also outlined. (author)

  7. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  8. Safety of superconducting fusion magnets: twelve problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1979-05-01

    Twelve problem areas of superconducting magnets for fusion reaction are described. These are: Quench Detection and Energy Dump, Stationary Normal Region of Conductor, Current Leads, Electrical Arcing, Electrical Shorts, Conductor Joints, Forces from Unequal Currents, Eddy Current Effects, Cryostat Rupture, Vacuum Failure, Fringing Field and Instrumentation for Safety. Each is described under the five categories: Identification and Definition, Possible Safety Effects, Current Practice, Adequacy of Current Practice for Fusion Magnets and Areas Requiring Further Analytical and Experimental Study. Priorities among these areas are suggested; application is made to the Large Coil Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  9. Green tribology: principles, research areas and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosonovsky, Michael; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-10-28

    In this introductory paper for the Theme Issue on green tribology, we discuss the concept of green tribology and its relation to other areas of tribology as well as other 'green' disciplines, namely, green engineering and green chemistry. We formulate the 12 principles of green tribology: the minimization of (i) friction and (ii) wear, (iii) the reduction or complete elimination of lubrication, including self-lubrication, (iv) natural and (v) biodegradable lubrication, (vi) using sustainable chemistry and engineering principles, (vii) biomimetic approaches, (viii) surface texturing, (ix) environmental implications of coatings, (x) real-time monitoring, (xi) design for degradation, and (xii) sustainable energy applications. We further define three areas of green tribology: (i) biomimetics for tribological applications, (ii) environment-friendly lubrication, and (iii) the tribology of renewable-energy application. The integration of these areas remains a primary challenge for this novel area of research. We also discuss the challenges of green tribology and future directions of research.

  10. Research reactors fuel cycle problems and dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, R.

    2004-01-01

    During last 10 years, some problems appeared in different steps of research reactors fuel cycle. Actually the majority of these reactors have been built in the 60s and these reactors were operated during all this long period in a cycle with steps which were dedicated to this activity. Progressively and for reasons often economical, certain steps of the cycle became more and more difficult to manage due to closing of some specialised workshops in the activities of scraps recycling, irradiated fuel reprocessing, even fuel fabrication. Other steps of the cycle meet or will meet difficulties, in particular supplying of fissile raw material LEU or HEU because this material was mostly produced in enrichment units existing mainly for military reason. Rarefaction of fissile material lead to use more and more enriched uraniums said 'of technical quality', that is to say which come from mixing of varied qualities of enriched material, containing products resulting from reprocessing. Actually, problems of end of fuel cycle are increased, either consisting of intermediary storage on the site of reactor or on specialised sites, or consisting of reprocessing. This brief summary shows most difficulties which are met today by a major part of industrials of the fuel cycle in the exercise of their activities

  11. Artificial intelligence and design: Opportunities, research problems and directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarel, Saul

    1990-01-01

    The issues of industrial productivity and economic competitiveness are of major significance in the U.S. at present. By advancing the science of design, and by creating a broad computer-based methodology for automating the design of artifacts and of industrial processes, we can attain dramatic improvements in productivity. It is our thesis that developments in computer science, especially in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and in related areas of advanced computing, provide us with a unique opportunity to push beyond the present level of computer aided automation technology and to attain substantial advances in the understanding and mechanization of design processes. To attain these goals, we need to build on top of the present state of AI, and to accelerate research and development in areas that are especially relevant to design problems of realistic complexity. We propose an approach to the special challenges in this area, which combines 'core work' in AI with the development of systems for handling significant design tasks. We discuss the general nature of design problems, the scientific issues involved in studying them with the help of AI approaches, and the methodological/technical issues that one must face in developing AI systems for handling advanced design tasks. Looking at basic work in AI from the perspective of design automation, we identify a number of research problems that need special attention. These include finding solution methods for handling multiple interacting goals, formation problems, problem decompositions, and redesign problems; choosing representations for design problems with emphasis on the concept of a design record; and developing approaches for the acquisition and structuring of domain knowledge with emphasis on finding useful approximations to domain theories. Progress in handling these research problems will have major impact both on our understanding of design processes and their automation, and also on several fundamental questions

  12. Coconut Program Area Research Planning and Prioritization

    OpenAIRE

    Aragon, Corazon

    2000-01-01

    The coconut industry is one of the country's major pillars in employment generation and foreign exchange earnings. However, local production problems, the expansion in coconut hectarage of neighboring countries, and recent developments in biotechnology research on other competing crops that have high lauric oil content might affect its long-term sustainability and viability. In a highly liberalized global trade environment, innovation and creativity in the country's coconut industry are neede...

  13. Optical properties of amorphous silicon: Some problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, N.M.; Chelle, F. de; Ance, C.; Ferraton, J.P.; Berger, J.M.; Coulibaly, S.P.

    1983-08-01

    In this presentation we essentially attempt to throw light on some problem areas concerning the various optical properties of amorphous silicon. The problems seem to emerge from the classical methods employed to determine the optical properties like the optical gap, urbach tail parameter and other related characteristics. Additional problems have emerged in recent years by virtue of many attempts to generalize the property-behaviour relationships for amorphous silicon without attributing any importance to the method of preparation of the films. It should be noted here that although many authors believe disorder to be the controlling parameter, we are of the opinion that at least for films containing fairly large concentrations of hydrogen, the hydrogen concentration has an equally important role to play. The present study has been carried out for films prepared by glow-discharge and chemical vapour deposition. (author)

  14. Engaged Problem Formulation in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby

    2016-01-01

    problems requires a more substantial engagement with the different stakeholders, especially when their problems are ill structured and situated in complex organizational settings. On this basis, we present an engaged approach to formulating IS problems with, not for, IS practitioners. We have come...

  15. Research Mathematicians' Practices in Selecting Mathematical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Johansen, Mikkel Willum

    2015-01-01

    Developing abilities to create, inquire into, qualify, and choose among mathematical problems is an important educational goal. In this paper, we elucidate how mathematicians work with mathematical problems in order to understand this mathematical process. More specifically, we investigate how mathematicians select and pose problems and discuss to…

  16. Problems of information support in scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaev, V. G.; Gorshkov, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports on the creation of the open access Akustika portal (AKDATA.RU) designed to provide Russian-language easy-to-read and search information on acoustics and related topics. The absence of a Russian-language publication in foreign databases means that it is effectively lost for much of the scientific community. The portal has three interrelated sections: the Akustika information search system (ISS) (Acoustics), full-text archive of the Akusticheskii Zhurnal (Acoustic Journal), and 'Signal'naya informatsiya' ('Signaling information') on acoustics. The paper presents a description of the Akustika ISS, including its structure, content, interface, and information search capabilities for basic and applied research in diverse areas of science, engineering, biology, medicine, etc. The intended users of the portal are physicists, engineers, and engineering technologists interested in expanding their research activities and seeking to increase their knowledge base. Those studying current trends in the Russian-language contribution to international science may also find the portal useful.

  17. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  18. Research mathematicians’ practices in selecting mathematical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Johansen, Mikkel Willum

    2015-01-01

    mathematicians select and pose problems and discuss to what extent our results can be used to inform, criticize, and develop educational practice at various levels. Selecting and posing problems is far from simple. In fact, it is considered hard, complex, and of crucial importance. A number of criteria...

  19. [Problem areas and examples of best practice in intersectoral medication treatment--a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrmann, Lena; Ollenschläger, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Transitions between the outpatient and inpatient sector are a critical phase in medication treatment. This article provides an overview of published problem areas and examples of best practice in the intersectoral medication treatment. Data with regard to related problem areas and examples of best practice was collected in August 2011 by a systematic literature research. The relevant literature was identified using the following databases and search engines: MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google, and Google Scholar. Additionally, a hand search was done on the websites of SpringerLink and Thieme Connect. The initial search yielded a total of 4,409 records which were further selected in two screening steps and analysed according to their relevance. Of the remaining 63 records, 3 exclusively described problem areas, 11 of them examples of best practice, and 49 provided information on both problem areas and examples of best practice with regard to intersectoral medication treatment. Among other things, problem areas include varying legal regulations in inpatient and outpatient medication treatment, drug therapy interruptions after hospital discharge, or deficits in communication and continuity of care. Examples of best practice are projects, programmes, initiatives, recommendations, and points to consider with respect to medication reconciliation, pharmaceutical support, or transitions of care. Problem areas as well as examples of best practice are mainly focused on the transition from inpatient to outpatient care. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Students’ understanding and application of the area under the curve concept in physics problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hai Nguyen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how students understand and apply the area under the curve concept and the integral-area relation in solving introductory physics problems. We interviewed 20 students in the first semester and 15 students from the same cohort in the second semester of a calculus-based physics course sequence on several problems involving the area under the curve concept. We found that only a few students could recognize that the concept of area under the curve was applicable in physics problems. Even when students could invoke the area under the curve concept, they did not necessarily understand the relationship between the process of accumulation and the area under a curve, so they failed to apply it to novel situations. We also found that when presented with several graphs, students had difficulty in selecting the graph such that the area under the graph corresponded to a given integral, although all of them could state that “the integral equaled the area under the curve.” The findings in this study are consistent with those in previous mathematics education research and research in physics education on students’ use of the area under the curve.

  1. Mineral development prospects of the Indochina area: Potential exceeds problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, A L; Dorian, J P; Hudders, W A [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Reform is under way in several nations within the Indochina area to stimulate economic growth and foreign investment. Though once forbidden, participation by foreign companies in mining exploration and development activities in Myanmar, Kampuchea, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam is now being solicited by the respective governments. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of mineral and energy resources in the region and outlines possible development scenarios based on economic policies, financial and infrastructural constraints and industry interest. The investment climates for resource-related projects are assessed qualitatively by country. Clearly, the long-term development potential of mineral and energy resources in the Indochina area is large, and the potential gains outweigh any of today's problems. (author). 34 refs, 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  2. Problems emerging from practicing research methodologies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The on-going debates and conflicts between defenders of the quantitative research approach and advocates of the qualitative approach to research tends to leave the post graduate students in a dilemma and disillusioned as to which approach to use in their research process. However, the advent of mixed method as the ...

  3. Internet Marketing Research: Opportunities and Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furrer, O.F.G.; Sudharshan, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Internet is promised a brilliant future among the favorite tools of marketing researchers. Develops a typology of Internet marketing surveys showing the existence of eight different designs that can be used by marketers. However, researchers who plan to develop research using the Internet need

  4. THE PROBLEM FIELD OF NEOSHAMANISM CULTURE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Yanina A. Yelinskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at considering the problems of cultural studies of neoshamanism and at defining the specificity of this phenomenon. The problem of the content and scope of the concept of «neoshamanism» is focused on; the basic types of neoshamanism are defined. The issues of religious nature of neoshamanism, shamanic ecstasy and the shamanic universe representation are analyzed in the article. The issues of neoshamanism functioning within the framework of contemporary culture and interaction with external cultural institutions are raised.

  5. Chinese Family Problems: Research and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangling, Wei

    1983-01-01

    Discusses family life in China, which has undergone several dramatic changes including raising of the legal marriage age, less restrictions on divorce, and official promotion of family planning. Because these policies and practices conflict with Chinese traditions, inevitable problems have arisen. (JAC)

  6. Methodical Problems in Organic Farming Research

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Winfried

    2002-01-01

    Workshop presentation with particular focus on values, transferability and praxis relevance of organic farming research. Examples from agricultural engineering lead to the conclusion, that prototype farming, goal oriented project management, participative decision making and funding, coaching of co-operation, and coaching of conflict management may enhance long term, holistic and interdisciplinary research.

  7. The Factors Affecting Definition of Research Problems in Educational Technology Researches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahçekapili, Ekrem; Bahçekapili, Tugba; Fis Erümit, Semra; Göktas, Yüksel; Sözbilir, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Research problems in a scientific research are formed after a certain process. This process starts with defining a research topic and transforms into a specific research problem or hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the way educational technology researchers identify their research problems. To this end, sources that educational…

  8. Researching wicked problems in a construction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter Holm

    (Lave, 1988) and critical psychology (Axel, 2002; Dreier, 2008; Højholt & Kousholt, 2011). Situated learning theories have developed some valuable methodologies that can be used to study learning as an aspect of social practices and critical psychology have expanded theories of situated learning...... be elaborated more upon (Pink et. al., 2010). Getting access, formulating strategies for analyses, finding concepts and selecting methods such as participant observations and interviews are often problematic aspects, that influences the knowledge that researchers produces in a number of ways that relates...... to empirical research. I will argue that uncertainty is an important aspect of doing empirical research because the empirical research is a part of a situated learning process and that uncertain situations are a central part of conducting empirical research. I will use an example from my study of the early...

  9. Unveiling Research Agendas: a study of the influences on research problem selection among academic researchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, M.; Sutz, J.

    2016-07-01

    Research problem selection is central to the dynamics of scientific knowledge production. Research agendas result from the selection of research problems and the formulation of individual and/or collective academic strategies to address them. But, why researchers study what they study? This paper presents incipient research focused on the way different factors influence the construction of academic research agendas. It takes a researcher-oriented approach relying on opinions and perspectives of a wide range of researchers in all fields of knowledge. The empirical work is carried out in Uruguay, a country in the periphery of mainstream science, whose academic community struggles in search of a balance between the requirements of the world community of scholars and the demands from different national stakeholders. The methodology and research results from this study may be relevant to other countries, at different peripheries. Further, understanding the interplay of influences that shape research agendas is an important tool for policy analysis and planning everywhere. (Author)

  10. Facilitating students' application of the integral and the area under the curve concepts in physics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai

    This research project investigates the difficulties students encounter when solving physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the strategies to facilitate students learning to solve those types of problems. The research contexts of this project are calculus-based physics courses covering mechanics and electromagnetism. In phase I of the project, individual teaching/learning interviews were conducted with 20 students in mechanics and 15 students from the same cohort in electromagnetism. The students were asked to solve problems on several topics of mechanics and electromagnetism. These problems involved calculating physical quantities (e.g. velocity, acceleration, work, electric field, electric resistance, electric current) by integrating or finding the area under the curve of functions of related quantities (e.g. position, velocity, force, charge density, resistivity, current density). Verbal hints were provided when students made an error or were unable to proceed. A total number of 140 one-hour interviews were conducted in this phase, which provided insights into students' difficulties when solving the problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the hints to help students overcome those difficulties. In phase II of the project, tutorials were created to facilitate students' learning to solve physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts. Each tutorial consisted of a set of exercises and a protocol that incorporated the helpful hints to target the difficulties that students expressed in phase I of the project. Focus group learning interviews were conducted to test the effectiveness of the tutorials in comparison with standard learning materials (i.e. textbook problems and solutions). Overall results indicated that students learning with our tutorials outperformed students learning with standard materials in applying the integral and the area under the curve

  11. Vaal River catchment: problems and research needs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braune, E

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available , the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging (PWV) complex. Although the catchment only produces eight per cent of the mean annual runoff of the country it has the highest concentration of urban, industrial, mining and power generation development in South Africa... of the Vaal River. The purpose of the workshop and preceding symposium was to examine the ever increasing complexity of the Vaal River system, the much enlarged spectrum of user water quality needs and problems, and those activities in the catchment which...

  12. Academic Freedom: Problems in Conceptualization and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Academic freedom is of central importance to higher education and it affects all aspects of work at universities. It symbolizes academics' acceptance of the need for openness and flexibility (Balyer, 2011) and it protects the conditions leading to the creation of good teaching and learning, sound research, and scholarship (Atkinson, 2004).…

  13. Problems Portraying Migrants in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…

  14. The Problems of Digestive Diseases in Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out an analysis of the 46 theses defended in the subject 14.01.36 «gastroenterology». Of these, 40 % of doctorate theses deals with problems of bowel disease, 40 % — peptic ulcer disease, and 20 % — chronic pancreatitis. In the structure of the thesis for the degree of candidate of sciences 29.5 % defended on the subject of peptic ulcer disease, 22.7 % — intestinal diseases, 18.2 % — gastroesophageal reflux disease, 13.6 % — biliary pathology, 6.8 % — gastritis diseases, and 9.1 % — liver diseases. Most of the theses deals with questions of conservative management of patients with digestive pathology, their rehabilitation, achievement of compliance to therapy. Along with the theses highlighted the issues on pathophysiology of the digestive organs, and the impact of diseases of other organs on the digestive system.

  15. Chemoradiotherapy: successes and problems in translational research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, S.

    2003-01-01

    The development of mechanistic-based clinical regimens which combine radiation and chemotherapy to improve local control and cure in solid malignancies has proven to be a difficult problem. Studies with human and animal cell lines in culture provide valuable data on the effects and mechanisms of action of radiation and anticancer drugs. They can also suggest mechanisms of interaction between drugs and radiation that might be used to obtain therapeutic gain. Studies with syngeneic rodent tumors or human tumor cell lines xenografted into immune-deficient rodents can be used to test the effects of combined modality regimens on tumors in vivo. Studies of normal tissues in rodents can be used to evaluate potential toxicities. However, at each step in this process of preclinical evaluation there are limitations of the model systems and gaps in the knowledge obtainable from the models. There are also gaps in our understanding of the biology of malignancies in human patients both before treatment and to an even greater extent during protracted therapeutic regimens. Our knowledge of the mechanisms producing dose-limiting injuries in patients is also limited, as is our understanding of the factors which influence the risk to individual patients and the interactions of drug and radiation injury in patients. The limitations of our models and our knowledge generally preclude the direct translation of preclinical findings into rationally designed, effective clinical trials, and can lead to either unexpectedly positive or disappointing results when clinical trials are developed, performed and analyzed. Successes and problems in the translation of preclinical studies of radiation/drug combinations into effective clinical regimens will be discussed and will be illustrated using our laboratory and clinical experience with agents designed to modulate tumor oxygenation and with regimens combining radiation therapy with radiosensitizers or with the mitomycins

  16. The problem of creative activity in of social work research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilka L.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Current Latvian research in the area of social work is not characteristic of a creative and innovative methodological approach. The methodological conservatism derived from general sociology is particularly affecting students in doctoral studies. This proposes a question: should, in the name of scientific novelty, we support research in which the PhD student aims to get rid of his personality behind the shield of authority, sometimes even general sociology textbook truths? Or should we encourage bold challenges to methodological schematism, in which the researcher takes a pose of truly creative research and avoids becoming a representative of scientific marginality lacking one’s personality? The subject of creative activity – the researcher in social work – can best express oneself in the level of philosophic wisdom, identifying only the main guidelines of his creative processes and allowing a large headspace for one’s creative quests. A scientist, also one interested in the problems of social work, can ascertain his/her uniqueness by relying on the concept that any researcher has embarked on an individual journey, circulating on different orbits around one central idea. If the distance between such central idea and the researcher’s activities is increasing, this signifies of either a creatively productive reevaluation of the researcher’s position, or the death of the research process in having lost the original idea. On the other hand, continuous approach towards the central idea either means that the researcher is consistent and determined in his creative research, or there is complete lack of scientific novelty in cases when borrowed foreign ideas are worshipped.

  17. Nanoinformatics: a new area of research in nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maojo, Victor; Fritts, Martin; de la Iglesia, Diana; Cachau, Raul E; Garcia-Remesal, Miguel; Mitchell, Joyce A; Kulikowski, Casimir

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade ago, nanotechnologists began research on applications of nanomaterials for medicine. This research has revealed a wide range of different challenges, as well as many opportunities. Some of these challenges are strongly related to informatics issues, dealing, for instance, with the management and integration of heterogeneous information, defining nomenclatures, taxonomies and classifications for various types of nanomaterials, and research on new modeling and simulation techniques for nanoparticles. Nanoinformatics has recently emerged in the USA and Europe to address these issues. In this paper, we present a review of nanoinformatics, describing its origins, the problems it addresses, areas of interest, and examples of current research initiatives and informatics resources. We suggest that nanoinformatics could accelerate research and development in nanomedicine, as has occurred in the past in other fields. For instance, biomedical informatics served as a fundamental catalyst for the Human Genome Project, and other genomic and –omics projects, as well as the translational efforts that link resulting molecular-level research to clinical problems and findings. PMID:22866003

  18. Thermohydrogeological modelling of the Whiteshell research area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Nakka, B.W.; O'Connor, P.A.; Uphori, D.U.; Reid, J.A.K.; Scheier, N.W.; Stanchell, F.W.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents details of the modelling that was done to support the development of the simplified geosphere model (GEONET), which was used in the assessment that was presented in the Environmental Impact Statement on the proposed concept for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. Detailed modelling of groundwater flow, heat transport and contaminant transport through the geosphere was performed using the MOTIF finite-element computer code and the particle-tracking code TRACK3D. The GEONET model was developed using data from the Whiteshell Research Area, with a hypothetical disposal vault located at a depth of 500 m. This report first briefly describes the conceptual model and summarises the two-dimensional (2-D) simulations that were used initially to define an adequate 3-D representation of the system. The analysis showed that the configuration of major fracture zones could have a large influence on the groundwater flow patterns. These major fracture zones can have high velocities and large flows. The proximity of the radionuclide source to a major fracture zone may strongly influence the time for a radionuclide to be transported from the disposal vault to the surface. Groundwater flow was then simulated and advective/convective particle tracking was conducted in the selected 3-D representation of the system, to aid in selecting a suitable form for the simplified model to be used in the overall systems assessment with the SYVAC3-CC3 computer code. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the effects of (a) different natural geometries of part of the model domain, (b) different hydraulic properties, (c) construction, operation and closure of the vault, (d) the presence of a water supply well and (e) the presence of an open borehole. These analyses indicated that the shape of the topography and the presence of a major low-dipping fracture zone focuses groundwater passing through the vault into a discharge area that is much smaller than the area of the

  19. Research program with no ''measurement problem''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is met by recognizing that the physicist participates when constructing and when applying the theory consisting of the formulated formal and measurement criteria (the expressions and rules) providing the necessary conditions which allow him to compute and measure facts, yet retains objectivity by requiring that these criteria, rules and facts be in corroborative equilibrium. We construct the particulate states of quantum physics by a recursive program which incorporates the non-determinism born of communication between asynchronous processes over a shared memory. Their quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar, and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact

  20. ADDRESSING RESEARCH DESIGN PROBLEM IN MIXED METHODS RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed ALAVI; Patrycja HĄBEK

    2016-01-01

    Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be...

  1. Addressing Research Design Problem in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamed; Hąbek, Patrycja

    2016-03-01

    Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be theoretically related to it. Second is that concurrent approach of mixed research method to inductive and deductive research logic provides researchers with opportunity to generate theory and test hypothesis in one study simultaneously. In addition, it provides a better justification for chosen method of investigation and higher validity for obtained answers to research questions. Despite increasing popularity of mixed research methods among management scholars, there is still need for a comprehensive approach to research design typology and process in mixed research method from the perspective of management science. The authors in this paper try to explain fundamental principles of mixed research method, its typology and different steps in its design process.

  2. Software problems in magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, R.

    1982-01-01

    The main world effort in magnetic fusion research involves studying the plasma in a Tokamak device. Four large Tokamaks are under construction (TFTR in USA, JET in Europe, T15 in USSR and JT60 in Japan). To understand the physical phenomena that occur in these costly devices, it is generally necessary to carry out extensive numerical calculations. These computer simulations make use of sophisticated numerical methods and demand high power computers. As a consequence they represent a substantial investment. To reduce software costs, the computer codes are more and more often exhanged among scientists. Standardization (STANDARD FORTRAN, OLYMPUS system) and good documentation (CPC program library) are proposed to make codes exportable. Centralized computing centers would also help in the exchange of codes and ease communication between the staff at different laboratories. (orig.)

  3. Recent Research Trends in Genetic Algorithm Based Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Amjad, Muhammad Kamal; Butt, Shahid Ikramullah; Kousar, Rubeena; Ahmad, Riaz; Agha, Mujtaba Hassan; Faping, Zhang; Anjum, Naveed; Asgher, Umer

    2018-01-01

    Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP) is an extension of the classical Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP). The FJSSP is known to be NP-hard problem with regard to optimization and it is very difficult to find reasonably accurate solutions of the problem instances in a rational time. Extensive research has been carried out in this area especially over the span of the last 20 years in which the hybrid approaches involving Genetic Algorithm (GA) have gained the most popularity. Keeping in...

  4. Area Deprivation Affects Behavioral Problems of Young Adolescents in Mixed Urban and Rural Areas : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Veenstra, R.; De Winter, A.F.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; de Meer, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Behavioral problems occur more frequently among adolescents in deprived areas, but most evidence concerns urbanized areas. Our aim was to assess the impact of area deprivation and urbanization on the occurrence and development of behavioral problems among adolescents in a mixed urban and

  5. Gambling in Taiwan: problems, research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Harry Yi-Jui

    2013-03-01

    This study provides a systematic review of existing research that has evaluated unique gambling experiences in Taiwan. A comprehensive review of electronic databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Chinese Electronic Periodical Services and the Index to Taiwan Periodical Literature System, was conducted to identify evaluations of gambling experiences in Taiwan. Studies that met inclusion criteria were synthesized and assessed. Various types of gambling are prevalent in Taiwan, even though the laws of Taiwan forbid illegal gambling. Both traditional and novel types of gambling have brought adverse impacts to Taiwanese people in multiple aspects of everyday life. The strategies and attitudes of the government towards gambling have been forced to change as gambling has flourished. Various types of gambling have developed in Taiwan in response to social, economic and cultural changes over time. The psychological aspects of gambling, however, need further study to provide fundamental information for developing intervention models for pathological gambling. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. LIVED EXPERIENCES OF HEALTH PROBLEMS OF ELDERLY RESIDING IN URBAN AREAS, KATHMANDU: PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bista Archana, Joshi Sarala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, number of old age population is increasing with advancement of biomedical technology. Old age is the time associated with biological, psychological and social changes which situate elderly to acquire different health related problems. Objectives: To find out lived experiences of elderly regarding their health problems residing in homes of Kathmandu city. Methods: Qualitative hermeneutic phenomenology approach was adopted. Researcher selected purposively four elderly residing in an urban area of Kathmandu Valley as the study participants. In-depth interview was conducted by using in-depth interview guideline, as well as medical records, field notes and observation clues were recorded. Interview was conducted in Nepali Language and was audio taped. The recording was transcribed by the researcher herself, and the data were analyzed thematically. Finally, different sources of data were triangulated. Results: The four main themes identified were physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, psychological and social problems. Experienced physical health problems were joint pain, hearing and vision deficit, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, gastritis and fall injury. Impaired Functional abilities in performing activities of daily living was commonly experienced problems. Loneliness and decreased recent memory power were the psychological problems. Being neglected by family members, financial constraints for treatment and improper care during illness were the discerned social problems. Conclusion: Elderly are suffering from different physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, as well as various psycho-social problems. Thus, health promotional activities need to be promoted for decreasing morbidity of elderly. Family members need to be focused in the care of elderly through national policy.

  7. Clinical Epidemiology Unit - overview of research areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical Epidemiology Unit (CEU) conducts etiologic research with potential clinical and public health applications, and leads studies evaluating population-based early detection and cancer prevention strategies

  8. Interpersonal Problem Areas and Alexithymia in Adolescent Girls with Loss of Control Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sarah Shafer; Elliott, Camden; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E.; Young, Jami F.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Wilfley, Denise E.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the links among interpersonal problem areas, depression, and alexithymia in adolescent girls at high-risk for excessive weight gain and binge eating disorder. Participants were 56 girls (Mage = 14.30, SD = 1.56; 53% non-Hispanic White) with a body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) between the 75th and 97th percentiles (MBMI-z = 1.57, SD = 0.32). By design, all participants reported loss of control eating patterns in the past month. Adolescents were individually interviewed prior to participating in a group interpersonal psychotherapy obesity and eating disorder prevention program, termed IPT for the prevention of excessive weight gain (IPT-WG). Participants’ interpersonal problem areas were coded by trained raters. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing depression and alexithymia. Primary interpersonal problem areas were categorized as interpersonal deficits (as defined in the eating disorders (ED) literature) (n = 29), role disputes (n = 22), or role transitions (n = 5). Girls with interpersonal deficits-ED had greater depressive symptoms and alexithymia than girls with role disputes (ps ≤ 0.01). However, girls with role transitions did not differ from girls with interpersonal deficits-ED or role disputes. Interpersonal problem area had an indirect association with depression via alexithymia; interpersonal deficits-ED were related to greater alexithymia, which in turn, was related to greater depressive symptoms (p = 0.01). Among girls at-risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders, those with interpersonal deficits-ED appear to have greater distress as compared to girls with role disputes or role transitions. Future research is required to elucidate the impact of interpersonal problem areas on psychotherapy outcomes. PMID:24139852

  9. Nanoinformatics: a new area of research in nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maojo V

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Victor Maojo,1 Martin Fritts,2,3 Diana de la Iglesia,1 Raul E Cachau,4 Miguel Garcia-Remesal,1 Joyce A Mitchell,5 Casimir Kulikowski61Biomedical Informatics Group, Departamento de Inteligencia Artificial, Facultad de Informática, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain; 2SAIC-Frederick Inc, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, 3National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 4Advanced Biomedical Computing Center, National Cancer Institute, SAIC-Frederick Inc, Frederick, Maryland, 5Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Utah, Utah, 6Department of Computer Science, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Jersey, USAAbstract: Over a decade ago, nanotechnologists began research on applications of nanomaterials for medicine. This research has revealed a wide range of different challenges, as well as many opportunities. Some of these challenges are strongly related to informatics issues, dealing, for instance, with the management and integration of heterogeneous information, defining nomenclatures, taxonomies and classifications for various types of nanomaterials, and research on new modeling and simulation techniques for nanoparticles. Nanoinformatics has recently emerged in the USA and Europe to address these issues. In this paper, we present a review of nanoinformatics, describing its origins, the problems it addresses, areas of interest, and examples of current research initiatives and informatics resources. We suggest that nanoinformatics could accelerate research and development in nanomedicine, as has occurred in the past in other fields. For instance, biomedical informatics served as a fundamental catalyst for the Human Genome Project, and other genomic and –omics projects, as well as the translational efforts that link resulting molecular-level research to clinical problems and findings.Keywords: biomedical informatics, nanomedicine, nanotoxicology, ontologies

  10. Tuberculosis Lymphadenitis, A Diagnostic Problem in Areas of High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Malawi has high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rates. In 1993, 32% of mothers visiting the antenatal cI inic in an urban area, and 12% in rural areas, were sero-positive for HIV (1). The HIV epidemic is associated with a marked increase in the number of cases of tuberculosis in general (2) and ...

  11. RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Leader's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Charles; And Others

    This manual is to be used by leaders of RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops for school or district administrators. The workshop's goal is for administrators to develop problem solving skills by using the RUPS simulation situations in a teamwork setting. Although workshop leaders should be familiar with the RUPS materials and…

  12. Esperanto and International Language Problems: A Research Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey R.

    This bibliography is intended both for the researcher and for the occasional student of international language problems, particularly as these relate to the international language Esperanto. The book is divided into two main sections: Part One deals with problems arising from communication across national boundaries and the search for a solution…

  13. Statistical Problems In Medical Research | Okeh | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the main role of a general practitioner as a biostatistician, I thought it would be of interest to enumerate statistical problems in assessing methods of medical diagnosis in general terms. In conducting and reporting of medical research, there are some common problems in using statistical methodology which may result ...

  14. A Methodological Problem Associated with Researching Women Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice E. Avolio

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights one of the most significant methodological problems of researching women entrepreneurs and understanding the female entrepreneurial experience, which is related to the definition of what is a women entrepreneur. The article outlines the state of research on women entrepreneurs, presents the diverse definitions used in research, conceptualizes the different aspects related to the definition of a woman entrepreneur, and proposes future directions for developing research ...

  15. Research in high speed fiber optics local area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobagi, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: the network medium and its topology, the medium access control, and the network interface. Considerable progress was already made in the first two areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given.

  16. A survey of low-level radioactive waste treatment methods and problem areas associated with commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    A survey was made (June 1985) of technologies that were currently being used, those that had been discontinued, and those that were under consideration for treatment of low-level radioactive waste from the commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The survey results included information concerning problems areas, areas needing research and development, and the use of mobile treatment facilities

  17. Scientific research in urban areas air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, I.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of consistent amounts of polluting agents in the urban atmosphere is a fact widely confirmed which poses serious problems to the people responsible for the environment management. It is well known that the majority of the polluting agents are produced by the intense traffic or vehicles which introduces in the atmosphere a large quantity of compounds. The toxic effect of some of these (primary polluters) is direct; others (secondary polluters) are the result of chemical reactions occurring within the atmosphere. Consequently, the management of the atmospheric environment requires the knowledge of a great number of processes, which begin with the emission of the polluting agents, and continue with their diffusion in the air, their transformation, the way they move, and how they are deposited or removed [it

  18. Some problem areas in capture cross-section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, M.C.; Gayther, D.B.; Sowerby, M.G.

    1975-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the problems that have been encountered and are envisaged in the measurement and evaluation of capture cross-sections. Particular emphasis is placed on the cross-sections of the structural materials (Fe, Ni, Cr) used in fast reactors. The topics considered are the influence of scattered neutrons in capture detectors, the determination of background, sample thickness corrections, and the theoretical representation of resonance parameters. (author)

  19. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems. Workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  20. QPS - analysis of main problems, areas to target, possible improvements

    CERN Document Server

    Denz, R

    2012-01-01

    The fault statistics of the LHC Quench Protection System QPS for the LHC run 2011 will be presented and the various fault types explained. Starting with teething and EMC related problems, the tune feedback compatibility, hardware faults of the quench heater power supplies and spurious openings of electrical circuit breakers will be described in more details. Hereby as well the necessary and potential consolidation measures will be discussed. The role of the MPE standby service for the system availability will be addressed. Finally radiation induced faults and the respective mitigation and consolidation measures will be treated as separate subject.

  1. Small UAS Test Area at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jeffrey T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the areas that Dryden Flight Research Center has set up for testing small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). It also reviews the requirements and process to use an area for UAS test.

  2. Problem area descriptions : motor vehicle crashes - data analysis and IVI program analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In general, the IVI program focuses on the more significant safety problem categories as : indicated by statistical analyses of crash data. However, other factors were considered in setting : program priorities and schedules. For some problem areas, ...

  3. Problems of growing forests in estrangement and population relocation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudolij, V.N.; Podkur, P.N.; Davydov, N.N.; Mikhalkov, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    It has been concluded that the process of growth and normal development of single-stratum pine tress at the age from 20 to 40 depends on their density. Under conditions of thick forest interspecific competition and fight for space sharpen. Within the estrangement area unfavorable trends in growth and evolution have been disclosed at the age above 30. Growing of pines without care results in suppression of growth; some morphological changes in the trunk form have been observed. Such an uncontrolled mode of growing can lead to physiological weakening of the tress. 8 refs.; 4 tabs

  4. Communication. Problem learning in the communication across expert areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz Sjoeberg, B. M.

    2001-05-01

    The report presents results from a project on communication involving nuclear safety personnel and members of the safety council and personnel in administrative positions within the community of Oskarshamn. Data were collected in discussions and by questionnaires. Totally 42 persons participated in the study. The aim of the project was to pinpoint problems in communication about safety issues and thus to facilitate a development of communication between groups and in the work on nuclear safety within the local community. A number of open ended questions were included in the questionnaire together with large number of rating tasks. The participants rated items, developed primarily in the group discussions, regarding information transmission, handling of difficult situations and what could be done to improve the communication situation. The results showed e.g. that communicative ability was best predicted by the index of 'context uncertainty' in both groups, but that the groups differed with respect to the salience of other predictors. Thus, an index named 'ability to synthesize' was a good predictor in the group of nuclear personnel, whereas human and structural aspects of information transmission, as well as the ability to reach across boundaries, were additional predictors in the group of Oskarshamn community personnel. The results thus showed that the participants viewed communication problems and solutions from the perspective of their own work perspective rather than as issues to be dealt with across different expert groups. The report underlines the necessity to regard contents of communicated messages as well as the framework to which they are related within the same context for an optimal adjustment to expectations, attitudes and requirements. Suggestions for future work included clarifications of which groups that are relevant for information and their specific interests, increased clarity regarding specific roles and information paths with respect to

  5. The Social and Ecological Problems of Urbanized Areas in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Gunin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies on the formation of urbanized territories and metropolitan areas in Mongolia, and the in fl uences of the industrial complex on the pollution level in urban landscapes, as well as on population health. The capital city, Ulaanbaatar, is one of the most highly polluted cities in the Central Asian region. The data on spatial distribution and the contents of toxic elements in the soils, snow cover, plants and human hair are given, according to the main ecological zones of the city. The statistical data on the dynamics of birthrate, rates of sickness and death of the population by the main groups of diseases are analyzed in accordance with the classi fi cation of the World Health Organization.

  6. Researching consumers' attitudes: Some difficulties, problems and dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutić Dragutin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers' attitudes have always had a central place in marketing theory and practice. There is a great number of different problems, difficulties and dilemmas, which come from different sources and have different content, and which very often arise as a stumbling block in researching consumers' attitudes. Part of them is already contained in different views on term attitudes itself. The second part lies in an unsolved puzzle of consumers' attitudes and behaviour relation. The third part is of methodological nature in research. The fourth is in usage of different, numerous techniques that researchers have at their disposal when researching attitudes. It might sound unbelievable, but since the 1960s till today, very few researchers have understood, and knew real nature of the term, essence and meaning of attitudes in marketing. There is even less of them who know how to examine attitudes and generally use adequately and productively. Attitudes belong to the most complex psychical processes. The complexity of attitudes is manifesting during the research. It is not a rarity to become convinced that important contents, such as: determining dimensions, components, sources of emerging and stability of researched attitudes are not present in attitudes' examination and research. In most cases, research results of consumers' attitudes are actually nothing more than statements about the existence of positive and negative attitudes. There is still no complex method that can be used in research. Different, essentially partial methods are being used instead, usually to investigate particular components and dimensions of consumers' attitudes. There are more groups of problems that appear in consumers' attitudes examination. For this occasion, we point out three: problems that result from lack of knowledge and not adequate understanding of attitudes; problems related to level of examinee's (consumer's consciousness of his attitude; problems emerging from

  7. Recent Research Trends in Genetic Algorithm Based Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamal Amjad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP is an extension of the classical Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP. The FJSSP is known to be NP-hard problem with regard to optimization and it is very difficult to find reasonably accurate solutions of the problem instances in a rational time. Extensive research has been carried out in this area especially over the span of the last 20 years in which the hybrid approaches involving Genetic Algorithm (GA have gained the most popularity. Keeping in view this aspect, this article presents a comprehensive literature review of the FJSSPs solved using the GA. The survey is further extended by the inclusion of the hybrid GA (hGA techniques used in the solution of the problem. This review will give readers an insight into use of certain parameters in their future research along with future research directions.

  8. Development of parallel GPU based algorithms for problems in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Adino Americo Heimlich

    2009-01-01

    Graphics Processing Units (GPU) are high performance co-processors intended, originally, to improve the use and quality of computer graphics applications. Since researchers and practitioners realized the potential of using GPU for general purpose, their application has been extended to other fields out of computer graphics scope. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of using GPU in two typical problems of Nuclear area. The neutron transport simulation using Monte Carlo method and solve heat equation in a bi-dimensional domain by finite differences method. To achieve this, we develop parallel algorithms for GPU and CPU in the two problems described above. The comparison showed that the GPU-based approach is faster than the CPU in a computer with two quad core processors, without precision loss. (author)

  9. Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Mishra

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach – one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods – is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.

  10. RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Participant Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Charles; And Others

    These materials are the handouts for school administrators participating in RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops. The purposes of the workshops are to develop skills for improving schools and to increase teamwork skills. The handouts correspond to the 16 subsets that make up the five-day workshop: (1) orientation; (2) identifying…

  11. RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Classroom Version. Leader's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Charles; And Others

    This training manual is for teachers participating in the Research Utilizing Problem Solving (RUPS) workshops. The workshops last for four and one-half days and are designed to improve the school setting and to increase teamwork skills. The teachers participate in simulation exercises in which they help a fictitious teacher or principal solve a…

  12. APPLICATIONS OF RESEARCH TO THE PROBLEM OF INSTRUCTIONAL FLEXIBILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARTAIN, HARRY W.

    SELECTED RESEARCH ON THE PROBLEM OF INSTRUCTIONAL FLEXIBILITY IS SURVEYED AND DISCUSSED. BROAD TOPICS OF DISCUSSION ARE DEPARTMENTALIZATION, HOMOGENEOUS SECTIONING, INTERCLASS ABILITY SECTIONING, THE EXTENT OF VARIABILITY IN READING DEVELOPMENT, AND PRACTICES THAT MAY INCREASE FLEXIBILITY. AMONG THOSE PRACTICES TO INCREASE FLEXIBILITY ARE TEAM…

  13. Importance, problems, and reform of agricultural research in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Importance, problems, and reform of agricultural research in Africa. ... Sustainable agricultural intensification itself means producing more food and agricultural products from the same overall resources (such as land, labour and water), while reducing the negative environmental impacts and at the same time increasing ...

  14. Radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits. Associated research problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the research associated problems for radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits such granites, clays or salt deposits. After a brief description of the underground disposal, the author studies the rheology of sedimentary media and proposes rheological models applied to radioactive wastes repositories. Waste-rock interactions, particularly thermal effects and temperature distribution versus time. 17 refs., 14 figs

  15. Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kueffer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing knowledge to solve societal problems face three particular challenges: the complexity of real-world sustainability problems, maintaining impartiality when expert knowledge is used in decision making, and ensuring the salience of the scientific knowledge for decision makers. We discuss three strategies to meet these challenges: conducting research in interdisciplinary teams, forming research partnerships with actors and experts from outside academia, and framing research questions with the aim of solving specific problems (problem orientation. However, we argue that implementing these strategies within academia will require both cultural and institutional change. We then use concepts from transition management to suggest how academic institutions can make the necessary changes. At the level of system optimization, we call for: quality criteria, career incentives, and funding schemes that reward not only disciplinary excellence but also achievements in inter-/transdisciplinary work; professional services and training through specialized centers that facilitate problem-oriented research and reciprocal knowledge exchange with society; and the integration of sustainability and inter

  16. Forest Creeks Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Ron Halvorson

    2010-01-01

    This guidebook describes Forest Creeks Research Natural Area, a 164-ha (405-ac) area comprising two geographically distinct canyons and associated drainages. The two units have been established as examples of first- to third-order streams originating within a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) zone. The two riparian areas also represent examples of...

  17. Cherry Creek Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Jennie Sperling; Tim Rodenkirk

    2011-01-01

    This guidebook describes Cherry Creek Research Natural Area, a 239-ha (590-ac) area that supports old-growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock (Pseudotsuga menziesii- Tsuga heterophylla) forest occurring on sedimentary materials in the southern Oregon Coast Range. Major plant associations present within the area include the western hemlock/Oregon oxalis...

  18. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects.

  19. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects

  20. General problems specific to hot nuclear materials research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, G.

    1996-01-01

    During the sixties, governments have installed hot nuclear materials research facilities to characterize highly radioactive materials, to describe their in-pile behaviour, to develop and test new reactor core components, and to provide the industry with radioisotopes. Since then, the attitude towards the nuclear option has drastically changed and resources have become very tight. Within the changed political environment, the national research centres have defined new objectives. Given budgetary constraints, nuclear facilities have to co-operate internationally and to look for third party research assignments. The paper discusses the problems and needs within experimental nuclear research facilities as well as industrial requirements. Special emphasis is on cultural topics (definition of the scope of nuclear research facilities, the search for competitive advantages, and operational requirements), social aspects (overageing of personnel, recruitment, and training of new staff), safety related administrative and technical issues, and research needs for expertise and state of the art analytical infrastructure

  1. Micronutrient problems in Thailand - extent, past and present research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snitwongse, P.

    1975-01-01

    Micronutrient problems in Thailand are briefly discussed, particularly with reference to rice. At present, the relative amounts of zinc in rice-growing areas (soils) are being analyzed for total and available zinc. Fertilizer (N, P, K) uptake by rice is being studied in the field by means of zinc-65. Observations on the relative uptake of P by rice associated with different zinc levels are made on pot cultures, using phosphorus-32

  2. Radioactive wastes in the areas adjacent to Finland. The improvement of the problem is slow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, T.

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive waste problem in the area of Murmansk located in Northwestern Russia is analysed in the article. The radioactive wastes have accumulated from e.g. the military ships, ice-breakers and the Kola nuclear power plant. The problem is also a concern of neighboring countries and the international cooperation efforts to mitigate the problem are also described

  3. A problem with inclusion in learning disability research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimens, Alex; Allmark, Peter

    2011-09-01

    People with severe learning disability are particularly difficult to include in the research process. As a result, researchers may be tempted to focus on those with learning disability who can be included. The problem is exacerbated in this field as the political agenda of inclusion and involvement is driven by those people with learning disability who are the higher functioning. To overcome this we should first detach the notion of consent from ideas about autonomy and think instead of it as a way to avoid wronging others; this fits the original historical use of consent in research. This allows us to think in terms of including participants to the best of their abilities rather than in terms of a threshold of autonomy. Researchers could then use imaginative ways to include the least able and to ensure they are not wronged in research or by exclusion from it.

  4. Research on Building Urban Sustainability along the Coastal Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Jiaojiao; Fu Jiayan

    2015-01-01

    At present, in China, the research about the urban sustainability construction is still in the exploratory stage. The ecological problems of the coastal area are more sensitive and complicated. In the background of global warming with serious ecological damage, this paper deeply researches on the main characteristics of urban sustainability and measures how to build urban sustainability. Through combining regional environmental with economic ability along the coastal area...

  5. Students’ Problems in Writing Paraphrases in Research Paper Writing Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdiansari Hayuningrum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraphrase is one of the techniques of incorporating sources in which every writer is allowed to borrow the author’s ideas and restate them into their own words. Based on the previous study, it was found that English Language Education Study Program (ELESP students, Sanata Dharma University, were unable to paraphrase properly since they tended to copy the author’s words directly. If this problem was continuously ignored, it would be dangerous for the students because they could be charged with inadvertent plagiarism. This study was intended to investigate ELESP students’ problems in writing paraphrases and the reasons why they produce unacceptable paraphrases by conducting document analysis and interview in Research Paper Writing class. From the findings, it could be identified that the most frequent type of problem encountered by the students was word-for-word plagiarism.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2012.150101

  6. The Formalization of the Problem area, Implementation and Maintenance of Business process by a group of unmanned vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Kuandykov A.A; Kassenkhan A.M; Mukazhanov N.K; Kozhamzharova D.K; Kalpeeva Zh.B; Sholpanbaev A.T

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the formalization of the problem domain in which there is a business process that is similar in structure.For research and formalization selected a specific type of subject area in which at random time occurs the business processes that are close on the abstract structure.

  7. Design Research on Personalized Problem Posing in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkington, Candace

    2017-01-01

    Algebra is an area of pressing national concern around issues of equity and access in education. Recent theories and research suggest that personalization of instruction can allow students to activate their funds of knowledge and can elicit interest in the content to be learned. This paper examines the results of a large-scale teaching experiment…

  8. Supplier Development Literature Review and Key Future Research Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddassir Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a Supplier Development (SD literature framework and identify the main focus areas in SD research. To this end, a comprehensive review of the existing SD academic literature has been undertaken, which includes 62 research papers. These papers are classified according to their research content and the research methodology employed. A comprehensive list of future research areas is also presented. Thus, this paper will also briefly explore proposed future research. The review of the SD literature presented here identifies the following main areas of focus: Supplier Development Activities, Practices and Success Factors; Direct or Indirect Supplier Development; Supplier Development as a Reactive or Strategic Process; Supplier Development in a Lean Six Sigma & SME context.

  9. Computer codes for problems of isotope and radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remer, M.

    1986-12-01

    A survey is given of computer codes for problems in isotope and radiation research. Altogether 44 codes are described as titles with abstracts. 17 of them are in the INIS scope and are processed individually. The subjects are indicated in the chapter headings: 1) analysis of tracer experiments, 2) spectrum calculations, 3) calculations of ion and electron trajectories, 4) evaluation of gamma irradiation plants, and 5) general software

  10. The waste management at research laboratories - problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Vicente, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive management in radioactive installations must be planned and controlled. However, in the case of research laboratories, that management is compromised due to the common use of materials and installations, the lack of trained personnel and the nonexistence of clear and objective orientations by the regulator organism. Such failures cause an increasing of generated radioactive wastes and the imprecision or nonexistence of record of radioactive substances, occasioning a financial wastage, and the cancelling of licences for use of radioactive substances. This paper discusses and proposes solutions for the problems found at radioactive waste management in research laboratories

  11. Trouble in Paradise: Problems in Academic Research Co-authoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; Youtie, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Scholars and policy-makers have expressed concerns about the crediting of coauthors in research publications. Most such problems fall into one of two categories, excluding deserving contributors or including undeserving ones. But our research shows that there is no consensus on "deserving" or on what type of contribution suffices for co-authorship award. Our study uses qualitative data, including interviews with 60 US academic science or engineering researchers in 14 disciplines in a set of geographically distributed research-intensive universities. We also employ data from 161 website posts provided by 93 study participants, again US academic scientists. We examine a variety of factors related to perceived unwarranted exclusion from co-author credit and unwarranted inclusion, providing an empirically-informed conceptual model to explain co-author crediting outcomes. Determinants of outcomes include characteristics of disciplines and fields, institutional work culture, power dynamics and team-specific norms and decision processes.

  12. Research briefing on contemporary problems in plasma science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the broad perspective of all plasma science. Detailed discussions are given of scientific opportunities in various subdisciplines of plasma science. The first subdiscipline to be discussed is the area where the contemporary applications of plasma science are the most widespread, low temperature plasma science. Opportunities for new research and technology development that have emerged as byproducts of research in magnetic and inertial fusion are then highlighted. Then follows a discussion of new opportunities in ultrafast plasma science opened up by recent developments in laser and particle beam technology. Next, research that uses smaller scale facilities is discussed, first discussing non-neutral plasmas, and then the area of basic plasma experiments. Discussions of analytic theory and computational plasma physics and of space and astrophysical plasma physics are then presented

  13. Horse Rock Ridge Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan B. Curtis

    2003-01-01

    Horse Rock Ridge Research Natural Area (HRR RNA) was established in June 1995 to protect the best remaining example of a grassy “bald” (treeless area) on the western margin of the Cascade Range and its associated botanical, wildlife, and scenic values. This bald is surrounded by old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii/Tsuga heterophylla...

  14. Priority research directions in the area of qualitative methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Melnikova, Olga; Khoroshilov, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    The basic directions of modern theoretical and practical research in the area of qualitative methodology in Russia are discussed in the article. The complexity of research is considered from three points of view: the development of methodology of qualitative analysis, qualitative methods, and verbal and nonverbal projective techniques. The authors present an integrative model of the qualitative analysis, the research on specificity of the use of discourse-analysis method and projective techni...

  15. Comparative analysis as a basic research orientation: Key methodological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Narbut

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, the Sociological Laboratory of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia has accumulated a vast experience in the field of cross-cultural studies reflected in the publications based on the results of mass surveys conducted in Moscow, Maikop, Beijing, Guangzhou, Prague, Belgrade, and Pristina. However, these publications mainly focus on the comparisons of the empirical data rather than methodological and technical issues, that is why the aim of this article is to identify key problems of the comparative analysis in cross-cultural studies that become evident only if you conduct an empirical research yourself - from the first step of setting the problem and approving it by all the sides (countries involved to the last step of interpreting and comparing the data obtained. The authors are sure that no sociologist would ever doubt the necessity and importance of comparative analysis in the broadest sense of the word, but at the same time very few are ready to discuss its key methodological challenges and prefer to ignore them completely. We summarize problems of the comparative analysis in sociology as follows: (1 applying research techniques to the sample in another country - both in translating and adapting them to different social realities and worldview (in particular, the problematic status of standardization and qualitative approach; (2 choosing “right” respondents to question and relevant cases (cultures to study; (3 designing the research scheme, i.e. justifying the sequence of steps (what should go first - methodology or techniques; (4 accepting the procedures that are correct within one country for cross-cultural work (whether or not that is an appropriate choice.

  16. Problem-centric Process for Research-based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Shaban

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research-based Learning (RbL extends Inquiry and Project-based Learning by facilitating an early stage exposure and training for future scientists through authentic research activities. In this paper, an iterative problem-centric RbL process is introduced, and its activities and management aspects are described. The process helps implement course-integrated research systematically and practically. Furthermore, the novel process follows constructivist methods in incorporating inquiry, scaffolding, open-ended projects, as well as a goal oriented learning approach. The RbL process is adopted in two advanced computing courses, at two different universities: a leading comprehensive Western university and a new university in a developing country. The paper summarizes new lessons learned in these rewarding experiences. In particular, the instructor should help students start their projects, by providing them with previous work or data and pre-approving the papers to review by students. He should also maintain a continuous feedback to and from students to keep the students motivated and help the instructor refine and adapt the RBL process. We note that research collaborators can help students in identifying the research topics early. The paper also shows how to alleviate difficulties that may be encountered by students who find the novel approach demanding, and consequently it also helps the instructors better manage the course contents.

  17. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF UNIVERSITY DEVELOPMENT: THE SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Dorozhkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals the sociological research findings reflecting the development problems and prospects of theRussianStateVocationalPedagogicalUniversity. A survey, conducted in March 2013, demonstrates positive dynamics of the university prestige, rank and popularity index compared to the year 2003. The academic staff tends to recognize the unique competitive advantages of the given university: status of the Russian higher school and leading vocational pedagogical institution; professional quality of human resources, variety of prestigious specializations, existence of the Educational Methodology Association, Dissertation Board, etc. Although the respondents point out some factors adversely affecting the university image and public opinion, the criticism helps to identify the problematic units and corresponding contradictions of the university development. The research outcomes can provide the background for strategic development programs ofRussianStateVocationalPedagogicalUniversityfor the nearest future; and help to promote the university brand as the leading, dynamic and competitive educational centre at the regional, federal and international levels.

  18. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF UNIVERSITY DEVELOPMENT: THE SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Dorozhkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals the sociological research findings reflecting the development problems and prospects of theRussianStateVocationalPedagogicalUniversity. A survey, conducted in March 2013, demonstrates positive dynamics of the university prestige, rank and popularity index compared to the year 2003. The academic staff tends to recognize the unique competitive advantages of the given university: status of the Russian higher school and leading vocational pedagogical institution; professional quality of human resources, variety of prestigious specializations, existence of the Educational Methodology Association, Dissertation Board, etc. Although the respondents point out some factors adversely affecting the university image and public opinion, the criticism helps to identify the problematic units and corresponding contradictions of the university development. The research outcomes can provide the background for strategic development programs ofRussianStateVocationalPedagogicalUniversityfor the nearest future; and help to promote the university brand as the leading, dynamic and competitive educational centre at the regional, federal and international levels.

  19. Gathering Stones: The Problems of Modern Cultural and Activity Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultural-Historical Psychology 2017. Vol. 13, no. 1, 4–22 doi:10.17759/chp.2017130101 ISSN: 1816-5435 / 2224-8935 (online Gathering Stones: The Problems of Modern Cultural and Activity Research 28 Reed M., Ph.D., Senior Lecturer in Education, University of Bristol, Graduate School of Education, Bristol, Great Britain , Malcolm.Reed@bristol.ac.uk Download PDF-fulltext (306 kbFull Text in Russian (PDF, 306 kbPrintRUIn Russian Abstract This paper explores the verbal image of ‘gathering stones’ in order to appreciate the continuing relevance of Vygotsky to the tradition of inquiry that has been inspired by his example and his work. It considers how our tradition is built on the ancient and critical activity of problematization. The meaning and inner value of tradition is explored in relation to problems we address now and have addressed historically, in particular in relation to the problem of an ascendant version of enculturation. The argument ends with a reflection on the difficulties we still face in addressing educational needs.

  20. THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM AND ITS DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pasek de Pinto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Language has different functions. One of them, the communication, is fundamental for the investigation, because the textualization of its process and results is the base of the diffusion of the advance and increase of the scientific knowledge. However, most students - and those who are not already so - present difficulties in using references, in breaks in cohesion, or in logical and argumentative coherence. Such difficulties limit the generation of texts, as they constitute an obstacle to translate written ideas into an argumentative discourse, typical of science and research. The latter requires the argued presentation of an idea, whose perception, description and obvious reasons make up the problem that is wanted to know, to explain, to verify, to understand or to interpret. Therefore, this short space / time has the purpose of reflecting on the discursive construction of the problem of an inquiry. Its importance lies precisely in the disadvantages of its configuration. In this sense, the reflection is developed from a vision of language and communication; The argumentative discourse and the types of reasoning involved in order to fulfill certain guidelines that underlie the construction of the problem of inquiry and its approach in terms of a positivist-quantitative and / or qualitative study.

  1. An Analysis of the Problems of Developing Environmental Education in Brazilian Federal Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Cristina A. R.; Filho, Walter Leal; Hale, William H. G.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the problems encountered in developing environmental education in federally protected areas in Brazil. Suggests that the development of environmental education in those protected areas has several limitations including financial resources, lack of training, material resources, and lack of policy on environmental education. (Author/CCM)

  2. Trends and problems in marital and family therapy research: Possible use of action research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cvetek

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Although research in marital and family therapy (MFT is becoming increasingly important, it continues to encounter several major problems. Studies have shown that research has very little influence on the practice of the majority of MFT practitioners. Practitioners see research as unrelated to their concerns. The practice of the majority of MFT practitioners is very individualized, as are the clinical problems and circumstances. Some have therefore started to emphasize the transferability of results instead of generalizability, and studying the practitioner's own practice instead of general concepts. Action research in the field of psychotherapy, as well as in the field of MFT, has been mainly overlooked as a potential method for solving these problems in MFT research. The paper addresses one of many possible ways to use the repeating cycles of the four basic steps in action research (observing and gathering information, reflecting, planning, and acting. The use of these four steps in action research enables therapists to study and improve their own practice in a more systematic, structured, and valid manner. This kind of research connects research and therapy. It is very individualized and oriented towards actions that create therapeutic changes.

  3. Problems of the Murmansk Region and adjacent areas. Problemy energetiki Murmanskoy oblasti i sosednykh rayonov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, I.R.

    1980-01-01

    The anthology contains articles devoted to complex energy problems in the Murmansk region and neighboring areas belonging to the European USSR. The first group of problems includes centralized heating of industrial centers on the basis of atomic energy sources, study of the feasibility of improving the management of atomic power stations with VVER-440 reactors, as well as the use of thorium as a nuclear fuel. The second group of articles deals with problems of operating power installations in the Murmansk region until 2000. Five articles discuss actual problems of hydroelectric power and one -- designing the Lumbovsk Bay Power Station.

  4. Engineering research, development and technology: Thrust area report FY 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence, Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff and the technology needed to support current and future LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) to identify key technologies and (2) conduct high quality work to enhance our capabilities in these key technologies. To help focus our efforts, we identify technology thrust areas and select technical leaders for each area. The thrust areas are integrated engineering activities and, rather than being based on individual disciplines, they are staffed by personnel from Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and other LLNL organizations, as appropriate. The thrust area leaders are expected to establish strong links to LLNL program leaders and to industry; to use outside and inside experts to review the quality and direction of the work; to use university contacts to supplement and complement their efforts; and to be certain that we are not duplicating the work of others. The thrust area leader is also responsible for carrying out the work that follows from the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program so that the results can be applied as early as possible to the needs of LLNL programs. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes activities conducted within the Program for the fiscal year, 1991. Its intent is to provide timely summaries of objectives, theories, methods, and results

  5. Reflections on foreign language study for students with language learning problems: research, issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganschow, L; Sparks, R L

    2000-01-01

    The study of foreign language (FL) learning for individuals who have found learning to read and write in their first language extremely problematic has been an under-researched area throughout the world. Since the 1980s, Leonore Ganschow and Richard Sparks have conducted pioneering research into the nature of difficulties, why they are encountered and how they can be minimized. In this paper the authors trace the development of their research on foreign language difficulties for students with language learning problems. They provide a summary of their findings and suggest new questions and directions for the field.

  6. Challenges in Education Research in Taiwan: Research Institutes and Organizations, Research Policies, and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, many education researchers and policy makers worldwide have reviewed education research to attempt to provide strategies to improve the quality of such research in their countries. Taiwan’s government has launched policies and funded support to set the benchmark for Taiwan’s leading universities in international academic competition. The external environment of global competition based on research policy influences the ecosystem of social science research production. To assure the quality of education policy, peer review from within the education community is one approach to supplementing the government’s governance, including the establishment of research institutes, promotion, rewards, and research value. This study tracked the mode of academic research and provides an overview of the status of academic education research in Taiwan. Because education research is part of the humanities and social sciences fields, this study identified the challenges in educational research by examining the trend of social science research and by analyzing research organizations, policy, and the evaluation of research performance. Due to the environment of education research in Taiwan is not friendly to education researcher to accumulate papers in SSCI or international journal, additional concerns entail how education research communities can develop and agree on its quality.

  7. Energy secretary's priorities include San Francisco area research projects

    CERN Multimedia

    Widener, A

    2003-01-01

    "Bay Area research labs got a big boost Monday when the Secretary of Energy unveiled his priorities for major research projects his agency hopes to fund over the next two decades. Among the agency's 28 top priorities are a major computer expansion and an experiment examining the expanding universe that could be housed at Lawrence Berkeley Lab and a powerful X-ray laser planned for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center" (1 page).

  8. United States Crystalline Repository Project - key research areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patera, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Crystalline Repository Project is responsible for siting the second high-level nuclear waste repository in crystalline rock for the US Department of Energy. A methodology is being developed to define data and information needs and a way to evaluate that information. The areas of research the Crystalline Repository Project is involved in include fluid flow in a fractured network, coupled thermal, chemical and flow processes and cooperation in other nations and OECD research programs

  9. Engineering Research, Development and Technology, FY95: Thrust area report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through their collaboration with US industry in pursuit of the most cost-effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where they can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance their capabilities and establish themselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts, technology thrust areas are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1995. The report provides timely summaries of objectives methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: computational electronics and electromagnetics; computational mechanics; microtechnology; manufacturing technology; materials science and engineering; power conversion technologies; nondestructive evaluation; and information engineering.

  10. Fish Creek Rim Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Ian Grinter

    2016-01-01

    This guidebook describes major biological and physical attributes of the 3531-ha (8,725-ac) Fish Creek Rim Research Natural Area located within the Northern Basin and Range ecoregion and managed by the Bureau of Land Management, Lakeview District (USDI BLM 2003).

  11. Changing perceptions of protected area benefits and problems around Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Catrina A; Salerno, Jonathan; Hartter, Joel; Chapman, Colin A; Reyna, Rafael; Tumusiime, David Mwesigye; Drake, Michael

    2017-09-15

    Local residents' changing perceptions of benefits and problems from living next to a protected area in western Uganda are assessed by comparing household survey data from 2006, 2009, and 2012. Findings are contextualized and supported by long-term data sources for tourism, protected area-based employment, tourism revenue sharing, resource access agreements, and problem animal abundance. We found decreasing perceived benefit and increasing perceived problems associated with the protected area over time, with both trends dominated by increased human-wildlife conflict due to recovering elephant numbers. Proportions of households claiming benefit from specific conservation strategies were increasing, but not enough to offset crop raiding. Ecosystem services mitigated perceptions of problems. As human and animal populations rise, wildlife authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa will be challenged to balance perceptions and adapt policies to ensure the continued existence of protected areas. Understanding the dynamic nature of local people's perceptions provides a tool to adapt protected area management plans, prioritize conservation resources, and engage local communities to support protected areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Supporting research in area studies a guide for academic libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Pitman, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Supporting Research in Area Studies: A Guide for Academic Libraries focuses on the study of other countries or regions of the world, crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in the humanities and social sciences. The book provides a comprehensive guide for academic libraries supporting communities of researchers, exploring the specialist requirements of these researchers in information resources, resource discovery tools, information skills, and the challenges of working with materials in multiple languages. The book makes the case that adapting systems and procedures to meet these needs will help academic libraries be better placed to support their institutions' international agenda. Early chapters cover the academic landscape, its history, area studies, librarianship, and acquisitions. Subsequent chapters discuss collections management, digital products, and the digital humanities, and their role in academic projects, with final sections exploring information skills and the various disciplinary skills t...

  13. A Slicing Tree Representation and QCP-Model-Based Heuristic Algorithm for the Unequal-Area Block Facility Layout Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Shiang Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The facility layout problem is a typical combinational optimization problem. In this research, a slicing tree representation and a quadratically constrained program model are combined with harmony search to develop a heuristic method for solving the unequal-area block layout problem. Because of characteristics of slicing tree structure, we propose a regional structure of harmony memory to memorize facility layout solutions and two kinds of harmony improvisation to enhance global search ability of the proposed heuristic method. The proposed harmony search based heuristic is tested on 10 well-known unequal-area facility layout problems from the literature. The results are compared with the previously best-known solutions obtained by genetic algorithm, tabu search, and ant system as well as exact methods. For problems O7, O9, vC10Ra, M11*, and Nug12, new best solutions are found. For other problems, the proposed approach can find solutions that are very similar to previous best-known solutions.

  14. Research Problems in Data Curation: Outcomes from the Data Curation Education in Research Centers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C. L.; Mayernik, M. S.; Weber, N.; Baker, K. S.; Kelly, K.; Marlino, M. R.; Thompson, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The need for data curation is being recognized in numerous institutional settings as national research funding agencies extend data archiving mandates to cover more types of research grants. Data curation, however, is not only a practical challenge. It presents many conceptual and theoretical challenges that must be investigated to design appropriate technical systems, social practices and institutions, policies, and services. This presentation reports on outcomes from an investigation of research problems in data curation conducted as part of the Data Curation Education in Research Centers (DCERC) program. DCERC is developing a new model for educating data professionals to contribute to scientific research. The program is organized around foundational courses and field experiences in research and data centers for both master's and doctoral students. The initiative is led by the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in collaboration with the School of Information Sciences at the University of Tennessee, and library and data professionals at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). At the doctoral level DCERC is educating future faculty and researchers in data curation and establishing a research agenda to advance the field. The doctoral seminar, Research Problems in Data Curation, was developed and taught in 2012 by the DCERC principal investigator and two doctoral fellows at the University of Illinois. It was designed to define the problem space of data curation, examine relevant concepts and theories related to both technical and social perspectives, and articulate research questions that are either unexplored or under theorized in the current literature. There was a particular emphasis on the Earth and environmental sciences, with guest speakers brought in from NCAR, National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Through the assignments, students

  15. Problems caused by the Concentration of Nuclear Power Plants in Border Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billman, C.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of nuclear power plants in border areas raises the problem of protection of the population and the environment in border lands. The author recalls the fundamental legal principle according to which no country may cause a prejudice to a neighbouring country due to installations harmful to the environment which are located in its own territory. Several legal systems are reviewed which provide for participation by neighbouring states in nuclear plant projects and licensing; the recourse procedure against such plants is also discussed. Finally, consideration is given to problems to be solved in order to coordinate legal and administrative measures in case of construction of nuclear plants in border areas. (NEA) [fr

  16. Thrust Area Report, Engineering Research, Development and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langland, R. T.

    1997-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through our collaboration with U.S. industry in pursuit of the most cost- effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where we can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance our capabilities and establish ourselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts technology {ital thrust areas} are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1996. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Microtechnology; Manufacturing Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; and Information Engineering. Readers desiring more information are encouraged to contact the individual thrust area leaders or authors. 198 refs., 206 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Aviation safety and operation problems research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, J. H.; Strickle, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft operating problems are described for aviation safety. It is shown that as aircraft technology improves, the knowledge and understanding of operating problems must also improve for economics, reliability and safety.

  18. Engineering research, development and technology. Thrust area report, FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff, tools, and facilities needed to support current and future LLNL programs. The efforts are guided by a dual-benefit research and development strategy that supports Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence and economic competitiveness through partnerships with U.S. industry. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes the activities for the fiscal year 1993. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and results from nine thrust areas for this fiscal year: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering; and Emerging Technologies. Separate abstracts were prepared for 47 papers in this report.

  19. Disentangling neighbourhood problems: Area-based interventions in Western European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, W.P.C.; Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.

    2009-01-01

    Urban policies in Western Europe have increasingly taken a territorial focus in addressing social problems through area-based initiatives (ABIs). Policy discourses emphasise the role of the residential environment in the social economic deprivation. However, a territorial focus that tackles both

  20. Researching and Working for Transgender Youth: Contexts, Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Jones

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In May 2016, two events epitomized the complexities of working for global transgender youth rights. First, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO hosted a ministerial event in which education ministers from around the world released a call to action for protection of students on the basis of their gender identity and expression in schools. Second, the United Nations (UN hosted an event celebrating the family, attended by conservative ministers and activists who mobilized family protectionist discourse against transgender students. This article contemplates, in light of transgender activist Raewyn Connell’s Southern Theory contributions, the complexity of global research and work for transgender youth. It considers key informant interviews with 50 stakeholders in the global push for transgender student rights in education, including members of government and non-government organisations, and academics from Northern and Southern countries. Problems in aiding transgender youth at the global level included safety concerns, the impacts of conservative advocates and media backlash (within family and national protectionist discourses, cultural complexities hampering engagement and translation, dissemination hindrances pertaining to established publishing biases, and financial and collaboration barriers. Solutions including virtual work; multi-level leadership; alliance-building; representation; visibility of transgender youth citizenship and family membership; and legal, financial and capacity-building aid are considered.

  1. Genesis of scientific research of legal problems of reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Олександрович Пономаренко

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the legal status of nature reserves as objects of ecological and legal commandment are considered. One of the main directions of the modern strategy of Ukraine’s environmental policy should be the implementation of international standards in the organization and protection of nature reserves as objects of the state natural reserve fund, the improvement of legislation on the nature reserve fund in accordance with the recommendations of the Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy (1995 on the formation of the Pan-European Ecological Network as a single spatial system of territories of European countries with the EU or partially altered landscape. All this allowed to formulate the definition of a natural reserve as a state research institution with the status of a legal entity of national importance and performs the functions of preserving in a natural state typical or unique for the given landscape zone of natural complexes with all components of their components, the study of natural processes and phenomena, the developments in them, the development of scientific principles of environmental protection, the effective use of natural resources and environmental safety, the implementation of ecological education and education of the population in the conditions of full restriction of economic activity not connected with its functioning.

  2. Excursions in classical analysis pathways to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    Excursions in Classical Analysis introduces undergraduate students to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research in two ways. Firstly, it provides a colourful tour of classical analysis which places a wide variety of problems in their historical context. Secondly, it helps students gain an understanding of mathematical discovery and proof. In demonstrating a variety of possible solutions to the same sample exercise, the reader will come to see how the connections between apparently inapplicable areas of mathematics can be exploited in problem-solving. This book will serve as excellent preparation for participation in mathematics competitions, as a valuable resource for undergraduate mathematics reading courses and seminars and as a supplement text in a course on analysis. It can also be used in independent study, since the chapters are free-standing.

  3. Applications of systems thinking and soft operations research in managing complexity from problem framing to problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book captures current trends and developments in the field of systems thinking and soft operations research which can be applied to solve today's problems of dynamic complexity and interdependency. Such ‘wicked problems’ and messes are seemingly intractable problems characterized as value-laden, ambiguous, and unstable, that resist being tamed by classical problem solving. Actions and interventions associated with this complex problem space can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Examples of such complex problems include health care reform, global climate change, transnational serious and organized crime, terrorism, homeland security, human security, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Moving towards the development of solutions to these complex problem spaces depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. It will be shown that systems thinking and soft operations research has had great success in contributing to the management of complexity. .

  4. Brazilian pediatric research groups, lines of research, and main areas of activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila H.A. Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Brazilian scientific production in the pediatrics field has been increasing significantly. It is important to identify the distribution and activity of these groups in the country and the main study areas, contributing with data for better resource allocation by institutions. METHODS: An active research was conducted in the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico [CNPq] website, using as filters the macro area of the research group (Health Sciences, the area (Medicine, and descriptors related to pediatrics. Research lines and main area of pediatric research groups were classified according to the subject predominantly studied by each group. The scientific production of the leader of the pediatric research group between 2011 and 2014 was also analyzed. RESULTS: Most pediatric research groups in Brazil have more than five years of activity and are concentrated in the Southeast and South regions of the country; São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, and Minas Gerais are the states with most groups. Of the 132 specific pediatric research groups analyzed, 14.4% have lines of research in multiple areas and 11.4% in child and adolescent health. Among the 585 lines of research of these groups, the most prevalent areas were: oncology, infectious diseases, epidemiology, and gastroenterology. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatric research groups in Brazil have relevant scientific production, including works published in international publications, and are concentrated in regions with higher socioeconomic index. Most groups registered in CNPq started their activity in the last five years (46%, reflecting the recent growth of scientific production in this area.

  5. A systematic literature review of resilience engineering: Research areas and a research agenda proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, Angela Weber; Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu; Wachs, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Resilience engineering (RE) has been advocated as a new safety management paradigm, compatible with the nature of complex socio-technical systems. This study aims to identify the research areas and to propose a research agenda for RE, based on a systematic literature review that encompasses 237 studies from 2006 to 2014. Six research areas are identified: theory of RE; identification and classification of resilience; safety management tools; analysis of accidents; risk assessment; and training. The area “theory of RE” accounted for 52% of the studies, and it indicates that research has emphasized the description of how resilient performance occurs. The proposal for a research agenda is focused on: refining key constructs; positioning RE in relation to other theories; exploring other research strategies in addition to case-based studies; investigating barriers for implementing RE; and balancing the importance on describing and understanding resilience with the emphasis on the design of resilient systems, and the evaluation of these designs. - Highlights: • Six research areas on RE are identified. • A research agenda for RE is proposed. • RE research is mostly descriptive and based on case studies. • Design science is suggested as a research strategy for RE. • Five domains account for 75% of the reviewed studies

  6. Fitting Irregular Shape Figures into Irregular Shape Areas for the Nesting Problem in the Leather Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara-Palma Luis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nesting problem of irregular shapes within irregular areas has been studied from several approaches due to their application in different industries. The particular case of cutting leather involves several restrictions that add complexity to this problem, it is necessary to generate products that comply with the quality required by customers This paper presents a methodology for the accommodation of irregular shapes in an irregular area (leather considering the constraints set by the footwear industry, and the results of this methodology when applied by a computer system. The scope of the system is to develop a working prototype that operates under the guidelines of a commercial production line of a sponsor company. Preliminary results got a reduction of 70% of processing time and improvement of 5% to 7% of the area usage when compared with manual accommodation.

  7. Ontology-Based Identification of Research Gaps and Immature Research Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Beckers , Kristian; Eicker , Stefan; Faßbender , Stephan; Heisel , Maritta; Schmidt , Holger; Schwittek , Widura

    2012-01-01

    Part 1: Conference; International audience; Researchers often have to understand new knowledge areas, and identify research gaps and immature areas in them. They have to understand and link numerous publications to achieve this goal. This is difficult, because natural language has to be analyzed in the publications, and implicit relations between them have to be discovered. We propose to utilize the structuring possibilities of ontologies to make the relations between publications, knowledge ...

  8. Fire Process Research Natural Areas: Managing research and restoration of dynamic ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Ingalsbee

    2001-01-01

    Since 1992 a collaborative group of fire scientists, forest conservationists, and Federal resource specialists have been developing proposals for a Research Natural Area (RNA) in the Warner Creek Fire area on the Willamette National Forest in Oregon. Inspired by these proposals, the Oregon Natural Heritage Plan created the new category of "Fire Process RNAs"...

  9. A Research On Perceptions About Management Problems of Professional Accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin İBRAHİMOĞLU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of administrative problems of professional accountants and to bring some solutions to their problems. The study was attended by 304 members of the accounting profession (N=304. The sample of this study was generated from the professional accountants registered to the Chamber of Gaziantep Public Accountants and Financial Advisers in Gaziantep region. Literature sources related to this problem was overviewed and some broad information about the sample and study was presented. We employed factor analysis to analyze the data. The perception of administrative problems of the accounting professionals are discussed by three factors which can be classified as follow; occupational problems, health problems, and training – communication problems. The hypotheses of this study was divided to groups and was tested by Mann - Whitney U test which is a non-parametric method alternative to t-test. According to findings of this study the most important problems of the professional accountants is classified as follow; the costumer, customer (taxpayers relationship problems, unethical request of the customers, stressful working conditions and it also found that the professional accountants with in this sample does not meet all demands of the customers

  10. Development of parallel GPU based algorithms for problems in nuclear area; Desenvolvimento de algoritmos paralelos baseados em GPU para solucao de problemas na area nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Adino Americo Heimlich

    2009-07-01

    Graphics Processing Units (GPU) are high performance co-processors intended, originally, to improve the use and quality of computer graphics applications. Since researchers and practitioners realized the potential of using GPU for general purpose, their application has been extended to other fields out of computer graphics scope. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of using GPU in two typical problems of Nuclear area. The neutron transport simulation using Monte Carlo method and solve heat equation in a bi-dimensional domain by finite differences method. To achieve this, we develop parallel algorithms for GPU and CPU in the two problems described above. The comparison showed that the GPU-based approach is faster than the CPU in a computer with two quad core processors, without precision loss. (author)

  11. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.; Brebbia, C.A.; Martin-Duque, J.F.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  12. Instructional Design-Based Research on Problem Solving Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre-Akdogan, Elçin; Argün, Ziya

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to find out the effect of the instructional design method on the enhancement of problem solving abilities of students. Teaching sessions were applied to ten students who are in 11th grade, to teach them problem solving strategies which are working backwards, finding pattern, adopting a different point of view,…

  13. On two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) with strict limits on sulfur emissions. For ships crossing in and out of ECAs, such as deep-sea vessels, one of the common options for complying with these limits is to burn heavy...... fuel oil (HFO) outside the ECA and switch to low-sulfur fuel such as marine gas oil (MGO) inside the ECA. As the prices of these two fuels are generally very different, so may be the speeds that the ship will sail at outside and inside the ECA. The first optimization problem examined by the paper...

  14. Problems of restoration disturbed areas in the conduction uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakin, V.S.; Konev, G.V.

    1996-01-01

    State-holding company Tselinnyj Mining Chemical Company (TMCC) is headed enterprise for mining and milling uranium ore in North Kazakstan was at five main areas (ore's direction). Mining was a traditional forms. Currently, the main problems of restoration disturbed areas in the conditions of uranium mining and milling are: economic insolvency of conversion enterprises, with has not own means for exude restoration and decontamination. TMCC has urgent need of State Programme, that provides finance of restoration work. Problem of radioactive contamination shall be insolvable, if company will go bankrupt. This programme should contained an item for elaboration regulative, normative and methodological documents if low level radioactive waste in Kazakstan. Program must take into consideration progressive domestic and foreign experience

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF TRAFFIC RELATED SHORT TEXTS TO ANALYSE ROAD PROBLEMS IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. M. Saldana-Perez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI can be used to understand the urban dynamics. In the classification of traffic related short texts to analyze road problems in urban areas, a VGI data analysis is done over a social media’s publications, in order to classify traffic events at big cities that modify the movement of vehicles and people through the roads, such as car accidents, traffic and closures. The classification of traffic events described in short texts is done by applying a supervised machine learning algorithm. In the approach users are considered as sensors which describe their surroundings and provide their geographic position at the social network. The posts are treated by a text mining process and classified into five groups. Finally, the classified events are grouped in a data corpus and geo-visualized in the study area, to detect the places with more vehicular problems.

  16. Classification of Traffic Related Short Texts to Analyse Road Problems in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana-Perez, A. M. M.; Moreno-Ibarra, M.; Tores-Ruiz, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI) can be used to understand the urban dynamics. In the classification of traffic related short texts to analyze road problems in urban areas, a VGI data analysis is done over a social media's publications, in order to classify traffic events at big cities that modify the movement of vehicles and people through the roads, such as car accidents, traffic and closures. The classification of traffic events described in short texts is done by applying a supervised machine learning algorithm. In the approach users are considered as sensors which describe their surroundings and provide their geographic position at the social network. The posts are treated by a text mining process and classified into five groups. Finally, the classified events are grouped in a data corpus and geo-visualized in the study area, to detect the places with more vehicular problems.

  17. TRANSLATION, VALIDATION AND PSYCHOMETRIC EVALUATION OF PROBLEM AREAS IN DIABETES QUESTIONNAIRE: THE URDU VERSION

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad Haider, Marvi Baloch, Qaiser Iqbal and Fahad Saleem

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The study aims to translate and examine the psychometric properties of the Urdu version of Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) questionnaire among Type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) in Quetta, Pakistan. Method: A standard ‘‘forward–backward’’ procedure of translation was used to translate the English version of PAID into Urdu (official language of Pakistan). The translated version was then validated on a convenience sample of 120 T2DM patients attending a public hospital in Quetta, Pakis...

  18. Resolution on the problems and prospects of common research policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The European Parliament sets priorities for future research policy; it supports e.g.: the Europeanization of large-scale research because it shall facilitate the combination of the research and financing potential. It also secures a wide adaptation of the knowledge achieved by the joint financial efforts of all member states. The demander made for a joint research project are: that the next programme for several years of the joint research project may launch its position and special qualification as a safety research centre for industrial activities of high risks (nuclear energy sector, chemistry, biology) and that the joint research project may be organized as independently as possible. Moreover, the European Parliament demands that the member states increase their research budgets to at least 2.5% of the gross national product. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Fundamental study on interfacial area transport model (I) (contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Nakamura, Hideo

    2001-03-01

    Recently, improvement in the best-estimate (BE) code predictive capability is attempted by incorporating the interfacial area transport model (IATM) into a one-dimensional two-fluid model to represent gas-liquid two-phase flows in detail with less uncertainty in the flow predictions. Internationally, the nuclear regulatory commission (NRC) and Purdue University in the U.S.A. and CEA in France have promoted the renewal of their BE codes such as TRAC, RELAP5 and CATHARE, by introducing the IATM in cooperative manner. In Japan, JAERI is underway to develop a one-dimensional code based primarily on the IATM against the licensing procedures of next-generation nuclear reactors. The IATM has a possibility to correctly predict flow transient along flow path for such flows as developing flows, multi-dimensional flows, transitional flows, boiling flows, which are difficult to accurately predict by the two-fluid models employed in the current BE codes. The newly developed code with the IATM would dramatically improve the accuracy in the flow prediction. The model, however, is under development and needs great effort to overcome many difficulties with plenty of theoretical considerations based on much of data bases to be acquired further. This study attempts to measure interfacial area in air-water two-phase flows in a large-diameter tube to understand the characteristic of multi-dimensional flows that usually appear in large-diameter tube flows, and provide data bases, to contribute the development of the IATM. The results obtained by such institutes as Purdue University and CEA France were reviewed first. Clarified are the current status and problems of the IATM, basics and practical methods to measure the interfacial area using multi-sensor miniature local probes; metal needle electro-resistance probe and fiber-optic probe. It was found that the applicability of the IATM is limited mostly to a one-dimensional bubbly flow, and is far from satisfactory for multi

  20. The Ethical Problems of Reserach : An empirical study of ethics in research practice

    OpenAIRE

    Colnerud, Gunnel

    2013-01-01

    Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts and problems in research. They were all researchers at the post-doctoral l...

  1. Applications of behavioural research on spatial problems I: cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golledge, R.G.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1990-01-01

    In this, the first of a two-part sequence, we have first discussed some critical features of early behavioural research in geography, then traced developments following from this early research to the current period. We emphasized the early applied nature of much of this research. We have also shown

  2. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation. IV. Research in radioactive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire-Maia, A [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    1974-01-01

    A review is made on researches performed in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. Some considerations are made on the importance and difficulties involved in projects of this kind. Although there is no doubt that natural radioactivity is one of the causes of the so-called spontaneous mutations, the practical demonstration of this assertion is extremely complex. Projects trying to correlate high levels of natural radioactivity with the occurrence of cancer (in general, or specific), leukemia, congenital malformations (in general or specific), neuro-vegetative disturbs, sex ratio, mortality, and physical development, as well as other characteristics. Some researches with animals are also mentioned, and references are given for plant studies. A critical analysis is made of some works relating to human populations.

  3. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation.IV. Research in radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Maia, A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is made on researches performed in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. Some considerations are made on the importance and difficulties involved in projects of this kind. Although there is no doubt that natural radioactivity is one of the causes of the so-called spontaneous mutations, the practical demonstration of this assertion is extremely complex. Projects trying to correlate high levels of natural radioactivity with the occurrence of cancer (in general, or specific), leukemia, congenital malformations (in general or specific), neuro-vegetative disturbs, sex ratio, mortality, and physical development, as well as other characteristics. Some researches with animals are also mentioned, and references are given for plant studies. A critical analysis is made of some works relating to human populations [pt

  4. EP BASED PSO METHOD FOR SOLVING PROFIT BASED MULTI AREA UNIT COMMITMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. VENKATESAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to solve the profit based multi area unit commitment problem (PBMAUCP using an evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization (EPPSO method. The objective of this paper is to maximize the profit of generation companies (GENCOs with considering system social benefit. The proposed method helps GENCOs to make a decision, how much power and reserve should be sold in markets, and how to schedule generators in order to receive the maximum profit. Joint operation of generation resources can result in significant operational cost savings. Power transfer between the areas through the tie lines depends upon the operating cost of generation at each hour and tie line transfer limits. The tie line transfer limits were considered as a set of constraints during optimization process to ensure the system security and reliability. The overall algorithm can be implemented on an IBM PC, which can process a fairly large system in a reasonable period of time. Case study of four areas with different load pattern each containing 7 units (NTPS and 26 units connected via tie lines have been taken for analysis. Numerical results showed comparing the profit of evolutionary programming-based particle swarm optimization method (EPPSO with conventional dynamic programming (DP, evolutionary programming (EP, and particle swarm optimization (PSO method. Experimental results shows that the application of this evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization method have the potential to solve profit based multi area unit commitment problem with lesser computation time.

  5. On the Problem of Validity of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Reichertz

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Whether the research results put forth by (social scientists on behalf of their professional vocation and on behalf of their professional standards they adhere to, can be regarded as valid, shall be examined from the perspective of the sociology of knowledge. By means of applying the sociology of knowledge to its own research results, it shall be shown that research and research results are inevitably bound to perspective (in fact, not a surprising insight. Therefore—so the underlying thesis of the argument—, research must be aimed at the systematic production of doubt in order to facilitate maximum extinction of fault. Suggestions are advanced of how qualitative research projects can be defended despite the increasing competition regarding research grants and despite the problematic epistemological position. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002324

  6. REUSE OF TREATED WASTEWATER IN AGRICULTURE: SOLVING WATER DEFICIT PROBLEMS IN ARID AREAS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal AZIZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid areas, the availability and the management of irrigation water have become priorities of great importance. The successive years of drought, induced by climate change and population growth, increasingly reduced the amount of water reserved for agriculture. Consequently, many countries have included wastewater reuse as an important dimension of water resources planning. In the more arid areas wastewater is used in agriculture, releasing high resource of water supplies. In this context, the present work is a review focusing the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture as an important strategy for solving water deficit problems in arid areas. Much information concerning the wastewater reuse in different regions of the world and in Morocco, the different wastewater treatment technologies existing in Morocco were discussed. The review focused also the fertilizing potential of wastewater in agriculture, the role of nutrients and their concentrations in wastewater and their advantages effects on plant growth and yield.

  7. Research Problems in Developing Giftedness: A Worldwide Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, A. Harry; Schiff, Jacob H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes world perspectives on gifted education, focusing on definitions, identification procedures, and attitudes. It then examines key areas in gifted education that require further clarification and rigorous examination. (Author/JDD)

  8. Research Advances of Social Security Problems in China —Visualization Research based on Bibliometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琳

    2016-01-01

    This article summarized the research progress and characteristics of Chinese social security issues from 2000 papers, which record in CNKI. We find that, the topic in the field of social security is board and dispersion. Due to the huge system and complex problem of social security, there is no central theme. Through cluster analysis, multi dimensional scaling analysis and social network analysis, we got the high frequency keywords atlas. Then, we summarized the research topic to six parts. They are rural social security, urban and rural social security co-ordination, vulnerable group social security, social security fund management, the social insurance system, and social security system and government responsibility. It summed up the theme of the module, meanwhile, combined the practice analysis.

  9. An exploration of knowledge integration problems in interdisciplinary research teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayerl, P.S.; Steinheider, B.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of function-specific expertise into a shared knowledge base is a crucial, but complex process for success in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents an empirically derived typology of knowledge integration problems and links their occurrence to degree of heterogeneity and

  10. Research activity on thermohydraulic problems of PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabados, L.

    1976-06-01

    The general review of the experimental and theoretical research works on thermohydraulic investigation of pressurized water type reactors being done in the Central Research Institute for Physics is given. The main results of the theoretical and theoretical-numerical research are summarized. The most important result of the past years is the construction of the High Pressure Water Cooled Loop (NVH) thermohydraulic loop. Another significant achievement was the development of the reactor thermohydraulic program system. (Sz.N.Z.)

  11. Problems Encountered during the Scientific Research Process in Graduate Education: The Institute of Educational Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyürek, Erkan; Afacan, Özlem

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the problems faced by graduate students when conducting scientific research and to make suggestions for solving these problems. The research model was a case study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants in the study with questions about the problems encountered during scientific research…

  12. Problems of Conducting Research in Organizations: The Case of Police Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Joel

    This paper presents a description of police research problems in such fashion that it could be generalized to other types of organizations. A two-dimensional taxonomy of problems in conducting psychological research in police departments is discussed. The first dimension concerns generality-uniqueness of the problem, relative to formal…

  13. 34 CFR 356.11 - What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of problems may be researched under the... (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND... Program? § 356.11 What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program? Problems...

  14. Problems of teaching students to use the featured technologies in the area of semantic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, V. V.; Chernyshov, A. A.; Balandina, A. I.; Kostkina, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    The following paper contains the description of up-to-date technologies in the area of web-services development, service-oriented architecture and the Semantic Web. The paper contains the analysis of the most popular and widespread technologies and methods in the semantic web area which are used in the developed educational course. In the paper, we also describe the problem of teaching students to use these technologies and specify conditions for the creation of the learning and development course. We also describe the main exercise for personal work and skills, which all the students learning this course have to gain. Moreover, in the paper we specify the problem with software which students are going to use while learning this course. In order to solve this problem, we introduce the developing system which will be used to support the laboratory works. For this moment this system supports only the fourth work execution, but our following plans contain the expansion of the system in order to support the leftover works.

  15. Practices of Legitimacy and the Problem of Artistic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcham, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the positioning of art practice as a mode of research through various legitimising practices. While frequently fruitful, the imperative to make art justify itself as a form of research in order to achieve legitimacy allows that in art which does not engage in negative dialectics to slip from view. The possibility of the kind of…

  16. The problem of defining the limits of protected areas in Ukraine regarding to the sustainable land management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б. В. Даниленко

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays all over the world new protected areas are being created. In Ukraine this process is developed within European programs. During the years of independence many new protected areas were created. Large amount of them were included in so called Ukrainian ecological network that ought to be built in 2015. This network is connected with the European ecological network. The governmental reports show high level of the execution of the programs of developing of the protected areas. But in reality we can see that many of new protected areas do not have the determined limits. This results in dangerous human occupation of such lands. Businessmen understand that occupation will be impossible soon. And they think that such protected areas are proclaimed but yet not really exist. And most of Ukrainian courts agree with this. Recent research and publications analyses. Research of management of protected areas through legal means in Ukraine was made by many Ukrainian scientists (V.I. Andreytsev, A.P. Hetman, M.V. Shulga, P.F. Kulynich, A.M. Myroshnychenko and others. At the same time the scientists have not paid enough attention to the problem of defining the limits of protected areas which is now really a great legal problem in Ukraine. Paper objective is the legal problem of defining the limits of protected areas in Ukraine regarding to the sustainable land management. Paper main body. Generally, protected areas are understood to be those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. The definition that has been widely accepted across regional and global frameworks has been provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN in its categorization guidelines for protected areas. The definition is as follows: "A clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services

  17. International Conflict Studies as a Research and Teaching Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Viktorovna Khudaykulova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes international conflict studies as a science and an educational discipline. The analysis of the subject field and professional terminology adopted in this area both in Russian and in English is provided. Formation of international conflict studies as a distinct field of study in the United States and Western Europe is described. The results of analysis of 10 leading foreign schools on international conflict studies are presented. The main factors that were taken into account in identifying the leading centers were the existence of a separate research (educational analysis units of international conflicts, the world's leading scientific journals on conflict resolution, as well as databases for the analysis of international conflicts. The role of professional associations, education consortia and international organizations (UNESCO in the study of international conflicts is described. An analysis of the leading think tanks on defense and national security (as rated by Philadelphia think tank ranking is also provided. Particular attention is given to interdisciplinary research methodology of international conflicts and the structure of educational programs at leading schools in the world in international relations. The author summarizes the recommendations of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs (APSIA to create educational programs of this kind.

  18. Fossil fuel power generation within the European Research Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-10

    The report is the first in a series of three produced by the PowerClean Thematic Network that looks at and defines future requirements for research and development of fossil fuel power generation in the European Union. It makes the case for fossil fuel R & D with emphasis on the need for clean coal technologies (to increased efficiency and other CO{sub 2} capture and storage) For satisfying future energy demands of the enlarged European Union between now and 2030. The report concludes that affirmative R, D and D action is needed to support the EU power industry, working together on a Europe-wide basis, to establish the use of coal and other fossil fuels in near-zero emissions power plant. The role model would be the European Research Area, as in the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6), but with a more comprehensive range of technical objectives recognising the importance of fossil fuels. Section headings are: introduction; current energy use; future needs and requirements; the future for clean fossil fuel energy in Europe; comparison with approaches adopted elsewhere (USA Vision 21 and FutureGen programmes, Japan); and responsibilities for EU coal R, D & D. 14 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Radon in the Gulf Coast area: Potential problem or exaggerated risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duex, T.W.

    1994-01-01

    Indoor air pollution from radon has been identified by the EPA as a serious health problem; estimates indicate that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer (after smoking) and that high levels of radon may cause as many as 20,000 to 40,000 lung cancer deaths per year in the United States. Studies of the potential risk in the Gulf Coast have been sparse. This report summarizes over 7000 previously unreported radon analyses and relates them to geological information to identify possible problem areas for the Gulf Coast region of Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. High levels of indoor radon are generally associated with older open-quotes crystallineclose quotes igneous and metamorphic bedrock; thus, most areas of the Gulf Coast are of relatively low risk because they are underlain by Cenozoic sedimentary rocks and unconsolidated deposits. However, some types of sedimentary deposits, such as open-quotes black shaleclose quotes and phosphate-rich rocks, can underlie areas of high risk. According to EPA indoor radon survey results the percentage of houses with screening levels greater than 4 pCi/1 (picocuries per liter) for given states is as follows: Alabama = 0.6%, Louisiana = 0.8%, Mississippi = 2.0%, and Texas = 4.0% (no data available for Florida). The data presented here for the percentage of houses with greater than 4 pCi/1 for given states is as follows: Alabama = 6.1 %, Louisiana = 0.6%, Mississippi = 2.0%, Texas = 1.6%, and Florida = 4.5%. The areas that appear to have the greatest risk are parts of northern Alabama and Mississippi, central Texas, and some areas in Florida

  20. Research Projects in Physics: A Mechanism for Teaching Ill-Structured Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourne, Jeff; Bennett, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    Physics education research has a tradition of studying problem solving, exploring themes such as physical intuition and differences between expert and novice problem solvers. However, most of this work has focused on traditional, or well-structured, problems, similar to what might appear in a textbook. Less work has been done with open-ended, or ill-structured, problems, similar to the types of problems students might face in their professional lives. Given the national discourse on educational system reform aligned with 21st century skills, including problem solving, it is critical to provide educational experiences that help students learn to solve all types of problems, including ill-structured problems.

  1. Problems of teaching organisation in combined (Split classes in rural areas of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leščešen Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to negative demographic trends that primarily took hold of rural areas in the Republic of Serbia as early as at the end of the twentieth century - a decline in birth-rate and migrations from rural to urban areas, the question of ever growing number of combined classes and their organisation is being raised. Combined classes in schools do not represent a desirable model that should be aspired to in the organising of educational work in primary education. In fact it is a necessity and practical need in certain social rural areas. Combined classes are increasingly becoming a reality. Village schools make 60 percent of the total number of schools and are attended by only 8 percent of pupils. The larger number of grades a classroom teacher works with in a classroom, the more numerous teaching organisation problems there are. The Educational Strategy of the Republic of Serbia 2011-2120 says that small village schools should be saved since their number will increase in the coming years considering demographic trends. This paper depicts main didactic problems that occur in the process of simultaneous work with students of different ages, in the same room, by one class teacher, as well as the possibility of their solution. Methods used in this paper include theoretical analysis of the existing literature as well as conversations with primary school teachers who teach combined classes.

  2. Brazilian pediatric research groups, lines of research, and main areas of activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila H.A. Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: The pediatric research groups in Brazil have relevant scientific production, including works published in international publications, and are concentrated in regions with higher socioeconomic index. Most groups registered in CNPq started their activity in the last five years (46%, reflecting the recent growth of scientific production in this area.

  3. Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Jain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19 years old selected using multistage random sampling technique. The subjects were interviewed & detailed information was collected on a structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking consent from the subject/ parents. The clinical diagnosis was generated as per the criteria laid down in ICD-10. The data was entered in Epi Info statistical software package Version 3.4.3 and suitable statistical methods were applied. Results: The overall prevalence of psychosocial problems amongst adolescent was found to be 41.43%. Most of them had conduct disorder (40.51% males & 35.88% females followed by depression (30.38% males & 26.72% females. Conclusions: There are significant psychosocial problems amongst the adolescents. So, enough emphasis should be given to this component of adolescent health and thus it is recommended that a holistic approach to the underlying causes of psychosocial problems of adolescents should be undertaken.

  4. Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Jain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19 years old selected using multistage random sampling technique. The subjects were interviewed & detailed information was collected on a structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking consent from the subject/ parents. The clinical diagnosis was generated as per the criteria laid down in ICD-10. The data was entered in Epi Info statistical software package Version 3.4.3 and suitable statistical methods were applied. Results: The overall prevalence of psychosocial problems amongst adolescent was found to be 41.43%. Most of them had conduct disorder (40.51% males & 35.88% females followed by depression (30.38% males & 26.72% females. Conclusions: There are significant psychosocial problems amongst the adolescents. So, enough emphasis should be given to this component of adolescent health and thus it is recommended that a holistic approach to the underlying causes of psychosocial problems of adolescents should be undertaken.

  5. The problems of over exploitation of aquifers in semi-arid areas: characteristics and proposals for mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Estrella, T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a general analysis of the problems arising from overexploited aquifers in semi-arid areas, based on research carried out in the Region of Murcia (one of the most over-exploited areas in Europe). Among the negative impacts of this over exploitation are: the drying up of springs, the continuous drawdown of water levels (up to 10 m/y), piezo metric drops (over 30 m in one year if it is a karstic aquifer), an increase in pumping costs (elevating water from a depth of more than 450 m), abandonment of wells, diminishing groundwater reserves, deteriorating water quality, presence of CO 2 , compartmentalizing of aquifers, etc. A series of internal measures is proposed to alleviate the over exploitation of the region. (Author)

  6. The problems of over exploitation of aquifers in semi-arid areas: characteristics and proposals for mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Estrella, T.

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a general analysis of the problems arising from overexploited aquifers in semi-arid areas, based on research carried out in the Region of Murcia (one of the most over-exploited areas in Europe). Among the negative impacts of this over exploitation are: the drying up of springs, the continuous drawdown of water levels (up to 10 m/y), piezo metric drops (over 30 m in one year if it is a karstic aquifer), an increase in pumping costs (elevating water from a depth of more than 450 m), abandonment of wells, diminishing groundwater reserves, deteriorating water quality, presence of CO{sub 2}, compartmentalizing of aquifers, etc. A series of internal measures is proposed to alleviate the over exploitation of the region. (Author)

  7. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahari Saeid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion

  8. English Language Teaching in Rural Areas: A Scenario and Problems and Prospects in Context of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Mahroof Hossain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Language is one of the medium of expressing our ideas, feelings and emotions. And if we think about language in present world then English is one of the most used languages in the world and English is used as a second language in Bangladesh. English is introduced here at the primary level and its inclusion continues till the tertiary level of education. Most of the students of the primary schools in rural areas are weak in English language due to lack of skilled and trained teachers who are familiar to the modern methods and approaches of teaching and lack of materials for teaching in the classroom. Primary level English curriculum implementation is essential in Bangladesh to achieve the set English language competency in the rural areas. Students in the rural areas are performing poorly in English compared to their urban counterparts. Statistics showed that there was a gulf of difference between the facilities enjoyed by rural schools and urban schools. The study explores the challenges of teaching English language in rural areas in context of Bangladesh. This study investigated the factors affecting student’s performance in English language in rural areas. Data were collected using interviews, classroom observation and questionnaire. Result of the study reveals that students were highly motivated to learn English for future expectations such as local and international communication, academic advancement and employment prospects. It also provide a scenario of English teaching system in rural areas of Bangladesh as well as the problems and prospects of English language in perspective of Bangladesh. Keywords: English language, rural areas, education, learning and teaching, competency

  9. [Problems resulting from the absorption of small towns into urban areas in major Third World cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, D L

    1985-01-01

    The tendency toward hypertrophy of large metropolitan areas in the Third World has been a subject of concern to economists and other social scientists for some time. Inability to absorb vast waves of migrants into the organized labor force or to provide adequate infrastructure and services are serious problems in many growing cities of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A different phenomenon created by perpetual urban expansion has been relatively neglected: the problems caused when preexisting urban areas are absorbed into the metropolis. The tendency of squatter settlements to constrict normal urban growth and expansion and to impede rational provision of services has been recognized, but the absorption of small cities does not necessarily produce identical problems. Small cities absorbed into a metropolis lose their identity in the successive waves of suburban proliferation. Los Angeles in the US may be considered the prototype of the phenomenon in which multiple preexisting urban zones are absorbed into the same metropolis without formation of any visible center of gravity. In some cases, small cities may be completely engulfed by the encroaching metropolis, if transit routes or availability of land makes them interesting to developers. The livelihood of residents may be threatened if they are no longer able to cultivate gardens or raise small animals. Local services may deteriorate. The youngest and most able residents are likely to abandon such places for the greater opportunities of the city, leaving the aged and less qualified to fend for themselves. Jobs may disappear and traditional commercial relations may be destroyed without being replaced. The future wellbeing of residents depends on their ability to maneuver in the new metropolitan environment, but many will be unable to adjust for lack of training, the weight of immovable property, or diverse personal considerations. Planning could help to reduce the problems that occasional survival of some small

  10. The problems of hygienic classification of radioactive waste under restoration of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savkin, M.; Shandala, N.; Novikova, N.; Petukhova, E.; Shishkin, V.; Egorov, B.; Ziborov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Experience on restoration of contaminated areas in the past ten years reveals a specific problem in the general problem of solid radioactive waste management as a result of decontamination of the settlements. That specific problem concerns conventionally radioactive waste (CRW), which might be to some extent dangerous for human being. In the documents of IAEA and ICRP the approaches aimed at exemption or exclusion insignificant amount of radioactive wastes from regulatory control are actively being developed. In turn, Russia does not have so far either methodic or regulatory documents on management of very low level radioactive waste. Two approaches are considered in the paper under development of derived levels for CRW in case of restoration of contaminated areas. The first one is based on restriction of individual risk at level about 10 -6 per year (negligible level). The second one accounts for global man-made background and uses acceptable factor of excess of that background as a criterion.Under the first approach (restriction of individual risk) the lowest boundary of CRW is estimated to be equal to 3 Bq kg -1 for 239 Pu; 30 Bq kg -1 for 90 Sr; and 300 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs, respectively. Those levels of specific activity approximately correspond to the areas contaminated by the above mentioned radionuclides 0.3 kBq m -2 , 3 kBq m -2 , and 30 kBq m -2 , respectively. Under the second approach if one accepts factor of 3 of excess of global man-made background, than the levels of specific activity will be 0.05 kBq m -2 for 239 Pu; 2.5 kBq m -2 for 90 Sr, and 7.2 kBq m -2 for 137 Cs. Comparison of the levels obtained according to the second approach shows that they will be several times lower than that according to the first approach. (author)

  11. French research program on the physiological problems caused by weightlessness. Use of the primate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquies, P. C.; Milhaud, C.; Nogues, C.; Klein, M.; Cailler, B.; Bost, R.

    The need to acquire a better knowledge of the main biological problems induced by microgravity implies—in addition to human experimentation—the use of animal models, and primates seem to be particularly well adapted to this type of research. The major areas of investigation to be considered are the phospho-calcium metabolism and the metabolism of supporting tissues, the hydroelectrolytic metabolism, the cardiovascular function, awakeness, sleep-awakeness cycles, the physiology of equilibrium and the pathophysiology of space sickness. Considering this program, the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches de Medecine Aerospatiale, under the sponsorship of the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, developed both a program of research on restrained primates for the French-U.S. space cooperation (Spacelab program) and for the French-Soviet space cooperation (Bio-cosmos program), and simulation of the effects of microgravity by head-down bedrest. Its major characteristics are discussed in the study.

  12. Problem Areas in Data Warehousing and Data Mining in a Surgical Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusch, Guenter; Mueller, Margarete; Rohwer-Mensching, Katrin; Heiringhoff, Karlheinz; Klempnauer, Juergen

    2001-01-01

    Hospitals and clinics have taken advantage of information systems to streamline many clinical and administrative processes. However, the potential of health care information technology as a source of data for clinical and administrative decision support has not been fully explored. In response to pressure for timely information, many hospitals are developing clinical data warehouses. This paper attempts to identify problem areas in the process of developing a data warehouse to support data mining in surgery. Based on the experience from a data warehouse in surgery several solutions are discussed.

  13. Corrosion problem in the CRENK Triga Mark II research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalenga, M.

    1990-01-01

    In August 1987, a routine underwater optical inspection of the aluminum tank housing the core of the CRENK Triga Mark II reactor, carried out to update safety condition of the reactor, revealed pitting corrosion attacks on the 8 mm thick aluminum tank bottom. The paper discuss the work carried out by the reactor staff to dismantle the reactor in order to allow a more precise investigation of the corrosion problem, to repair the aluminum tank bottom, and to enhance the reactor overall safety condition

  14. Examining problem solving in physics-intensive Ph.D. research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Anne E.; Rothwell, Susan L.; Olivera, Javier; Zwickl, Benjamin; Vosburg, Jarrett; Martin, Kelly Norris

    2017-12-01

    Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically learned in undergraduate coursework. This paper expands the notion of problem solving by characterizing the breadth of problems and problem-solving processes carried out by graduate students in physics-intensive research. We conducted semi-structured interviews with ten graduate students to determine the routine, difficult, and important problems they engage in and problem-solving strategies they found useful in their research. A qualitative typological analysis resulted in the creation of a three-dimensional framework: context, activity, and feature (that made the problem challenging). Problem contexts extended beyond theory and mathematics to include interactions with lab equipment, data, software, and people. Important and difficult contexts blended social and technical skills. Routine problem activities were typically well defined (e.g., troubleshooting), while difficult and important ones were more open ended and had multiple solution paths (e.g., evaluating options). In addition to broadening our understanding of problems faced by graduate students, our findings explore problem-solving strategies (e.g., breaking down problems, evaluating options, using test cases or approximations) and characteristics of successful problem solvers (e.g., initiative, persistence, and motivation). Our research provides evidence of the influence that problems students are exposed to have on the strategies they use and learn. Using this evidence, we have developed a preliminary framework for exploring problems from the solver's perspective. This framework will be examined and refined in future work. Understanding problems graduate students

  15. Examining problem solving in physics-intensive Ph.D. research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Leak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically learned in undergraduate coursework. This paper expands the notion of problem solving by characterizing the breadth of problems and problem-solving processes carried out by graduate students in physics-intensive research. We conducted semi-structured interviews with ten graduate students to determine the routine, difficult, and important problems they engage in and problem-solving strategies they found useful in their research. A qualitative typological analysis resulted in the creation of a three-dimensional framework: context, activity, and feature (that made the problem challenging. Problem contexts extended beyond theory and mathematics to include interactions with lab equipment, data, software, and people. Important and difficult contexts blended social and technical skills. Routine problem activities were typically well defined (e.g., troubleshooting, while difficult and important ones were more open ended and had multiple solution paths (e.g., evaluating options. In addition to broadening our understanding of problems faced by graduate students, our findings explore problem-solving strategies (e.g., breaking down problems, evaluating options, using test cases or approximations and characteristics of successful problem solvers (e.g., initiative, persistence, and motivation. Our research provides evidence of the influence that problems students are exposed to have on the strategies they use and learn. Using this evidence, we have developed a preliminary framework for exploring problems from the solver’s perspective. This framework will be examined and refined in future work. Understanding problems

  16. A review of research on ecosystem of arid area using RS-GIS in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongling

    2007-06-01

    Arid area is classical mountain-oasis-desert ecosystem in North-west China. As the ecosystem has its nature geography character obviously, it has superior to research with remote-sensing and geography information system. The study on arid ecosystem in RS-GIS' way is focused on that the landscape spatial pattern of complex MODS ecosystem, the dynamic development of Land use/land cover, the security of ecological environment of eco-tone and so on. At the same time, the research on the single system is more and more, which has provided more ways and deeper fields of arid area using RS-GIS. Through the use of RS-GIS, desertification, oasis' development, urbanization etc. can be known, which would provide precaution for human-being and suitable ways to adjust the problems.

  17. Renewable Energy in Urban Areas: Worldwide Research Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel-Angel Perea-Moreno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the contribution made by different international institutions in the field of urban generation of renewable energy, as a key element to achieve sustainability. This has been possible through the use of the Scopus Elsevier database, and the application of bibliometric techniques through which the articles content published from 1977 to 2017 has been analysed. The results shown by Scopus (e.g., journal articles and conferences proceedings have been taken into account for further analysis by using the following search pattern (TITLE-ABS-KEY ({Renewable energy} AND ({urban} OR ({cit*}. In order to carry out this study, key features of the publications have been taken into consideration, such as type of document, language, thematic area, type of publication, and keywords. As far as keywords are concerned, renewable energy, sustainability, sustainable development, urban areas, city, and energy efficiency, have been the most frequently used. The results found have been broken down both geographically and by institution, showing that China, the United States, the United Kingdom, Italy, Germany and India are the main research countries and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Education China and Tsinghua University the major contributing institutes. With regard to the categories, Energy, Environmental Sciences, and Engineering are positioned as the most active categories. The scientific community agrees that the study of the renewable energy generation in cities is of vital importance to achieve more sustainable cities, and for the welfare of a growing urban population. Moreover, this is in line with the energy policies adopted by most of developed countries in order to mitigate climate change effects.

  18. Problems of breast cancer survivors living in an urban area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abja Sapkota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study was to identify the problems of Nepalese breast cancer survivors living in an urban area who had completed their treatment for at least 6 months. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to assess the problems of breast cancer survivors who were registered at the Nepal Cancer Support Group. Fifty-one women who were diagnosed with breast cancer (Stage 0 to III and were currently disease-free were enrolled in the study. They were interviewed using structured interview schedule using the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial Symptom Scale. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS (version 16. Results: The mean age of the women at the time of enrollment was 47.3 years. The most common modality of treatment they received was the combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy (84%. Top five symptoms experienced by the survivors on the basis of frequency and severity were tiredness (61%, lack of energy (57%, forgetfulness (57%, lack of interest in sex (52%, general body aches (49%, and feeling of worrisome and anxiousness about future (49%. Women with age <45 years at diagnosis had higher mean rank score in psychological (24.7 and social problems (23.9 in comparison to women aged ≥45 years. There was a significant relationship between severe psychological (34.9 vs. 19.6; P = 0.001 and social problems (29.1 vs. 21.2; P = 0.03, with the time since primary treatment completion of <1 year. Conclusions: Nepalese breast cancer survivors were found to have multiple physical, psychological, and social problems and might require special attention during follow-up visits.

  19. RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS: ETHICAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    RESNIK, DAVID B.; ZELDIN, DARRYL C.; SHARP, RICHARD R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a variety of ethical issues one must consider when conducting research on environmental health interventions on human subjects. The paper uses the Kennedy Krieger Institute lead abatement study as well as a hypothetical asthma study to discuss questions concerning benefits and risks, risk minimization, safety monitoring, the duty to warn, the duty to report, the use of control groups, informed consent, equitable subject selection, privacy, conflicts of interest, and community consultation. Research on environmental health interventions can make an important contribution to our understanding of human health and disease prevention, provided it is conducted in a manner that meets prevailing scientific, ethical, and legal standards for research on human subjects. PMID:16220621

  20. NOT LOCAL PROBLEM OF TYPE OF THE PROBLEM BITSADZE – SAMARSKY FOR THE EQUATION THE MIXED TYPE IN UNLIMITED AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunnunov R.T.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the nonlocal boundary value problem for the mixed type equation in unbounded domain are proved.In this paper the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the non-local boundary value problem for the mixed type equation in unbounded domain are proved.

  1. Economical solution for the industrial waste problem of Karachi industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubin, S.

    2005-01-01

    The increased rate of industrialization coupled with rapid urbanization in Pakistan has given rise to serious water pollution and environmental problems. A vast range of industries has been established in the country during the last twenty five years, including tanneries, fertilizers, textiles, refineries, chemicals, vegetable oils, paper am pulp, sugar and food. Little attention was paid towards a large scale release of wastewater from these industries. Presently wastewater produced from these industries has been considered a serious problem and research in being conducted to solve its associated problems. Recently, it has been realized that there is a significant threat of water borne diseases, degradation of fresh water quality, environmental depletion and soil deterioration from the effluent and toxic emission of industries. Being a developing country and having limited resources, it is hard to install treatment plants on the industrial effluent with every industry before discharging them into streams which are also creating disturbance in natural ecosystem. An effort has been made to solve wastewater problem by implementing statistical tools on data of Karachi industrial state, obtained from EPA JICA and PCRWR, Islamabad. (author)

  2. Nutrition Research Agenda in the Context of Nutrition Problems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-04-02

    Apr 2, 2010 ... health metrics are used to assess overall food. Nutrition Research ... or dietary planning although use of a diet quality ...... Jiang, Y., Jolly, P.E., Preko, P., Wang, J.S.,. Ellis, W.O. ... Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Article.

  3. Higher Education Research in Uganda: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, J. S.; Oyebade, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Research is regarded as essential for development and the application of new knowledge for the benefit of society. Higher education in Uganda has expanded rapidly in the last 20 years. Universities have become the most important institutions in the achievement of national and international goals in enhancing the quality of life, wealth creation,…

  4. Inhaled actinides: some safety issues and some research problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: limited research funds; risk coefficients for inhaled particles; the hot particle hypothesis; the Gofman-Martell contention; critical tissues for inhaled actinides inhalation hazards associated with future nuclear fuel cycles; and approach to be used by the inhalation panel

  5. Problems with a False Recognition Paradigm for Developmental Memory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Barbara K.; Paris, Scott G.

    1976-01-01

    Developmental changes in memory organization based on synonym and antonym relationships were examined in three experiments. Subjects were 64 second graders and 64 sixth graders. Some inadequacies of a false recognition paradigm for developmental research are identified and some alternative analyses are proposed. (Author/JH)

  6. Problems Concerning Dose Assessments in Epidemiology of High Background Radiation Areas of Yangjiang, China (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.X.; Yuan, Y.L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study on radiation levels and dose assessments in the epidemiology of a high background radiation area (HBRA) and the control area (CA) is to respond to the needs of epidemiology in these areas, where the inhabitants are continuously exposed to low dose, low dose rate ionising radiation. A brief description is given of how the research group evaluated the feasibility of the investigation by analysing the population size and the radiation levels, how simple reliable methods were used to get the individual annual dose for every cohort member, and how the cohort members were classified into various dose groups for dose-effect relationship analysis. Finally, the use of dose group classification for cancer mortality studies is described. (author)

  7. Multiperiod Hierarchical Location Problem of Transit Hub in Urban Agglomeration Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid urbanization in developing countries, urban agglomeration area (UAA forms. Also, transportation demand in UAA grows rapidly and presents hierarchical feature. Therefore, it is imperative to develop models for transit hubs to guide the development of UAA and better meet the time-varying and hierarchical transportation demand. In this paper, the multiperiod hierarchical location problem of transit hub in urban agglomeration area (THUAA is studied. A hierarchical service network of THUAA with a multiflow, nested, and noncoherent structure is described. Then a multiperiod hierarchical mathematical programming model is proposed, aiming at minimizing the total demand weighted travel time. Moreover, an improved adaptive clonal selection algorithm is presented to solve the model. Both the model and algorithm are verified by the application to a real-life problem of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in China. The results of different scenarios in the case show that urban population migration has a great impact on the THUAA location scheme. Sustained and appropriate urban population migration helps to reduce travel time for urban residents.

  8. Position paper on main areas of nuclear chemistry research and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear chemistry, with its specialized areas of nuclear chemistry, radiochemistry, and radiation chemistry, mainly covers these fields: basic research in nuclear chemistry; actinide chemistry; radioanalysis; nuclear chemistry in the life sciences, geosciences, and cosmic chemistry; radiotracers in technology; nuclear power technology; nuclear waste management; tritium chemistry in fusion technology, and radiation protection and radioecology. In the more than one hundred years of history of this branch of science and technology, which was opened up by the discovery of radioactivity and of the radioelements, pioneering discoveries and developments have been made in many sectors. Far beyond the confines of this area of work, they have achieved overriding importance in applications in many fields of technology and industry and in the life sciences. Research and application in nuclear chemistry continue to be highly relevant to society, ecology, and the economy, and the potential of science and technology in this field in Germany is acknowledged internationally. In the light of this vast area of activity, and against the need to maintain competence in nuclear chemistry for the use of nuclear power, irrespective of the status of this continued use in Germany, nuclear chemistry is indispensable to the solution of future problems. The Nuclear Chemistry Group of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker therefore uses this position paper to draw attention to the urgent need to keep up and further advance nuclear chemistry applications in a variety of areas of science and technology, also as a public duty of thorough education and research. (orig.) [de

  9. ENSAR, a Nuclear Science Project for European Research Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turzó, Ketel; Lewitowicz, Marek; Harakeh, Muhsin N.

    2015-01-01

    During the period from September 2010 to December 2014, the European project European Nuclear Science and Applications Research (ENSAR) coordinated research activities of the Nuclear Physics community performing research in three major subfields: Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Astrophysics, and Nuclear

  10. Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

  11. Marine sampling in Malaysia coastal area: the challenge, problems and solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norfaizal Mohamed; Khairul Nizam Razali; Mohd Rafaie Mohd Murtadza; Muhammad Amin Abdul Ghani; Zaharudin Ahmad; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2005-01-01

    Malaysia Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project is one of the five research contracts that was signed between MINT and AELB. Three marine sampling expeditions had been carried out using K.L. PAUS vessel owned by Malaysian Fisheries Institute, Chendering, Terengganu. The first marine sampling expedition was taken place at East Coast Peninsular Malaysia waters on August 2003, followed on February 2004 at West Coast Peninsular Malaysia waters, and lastly at Sarawak-Sabah waters on July 2004. Many challenges and problems were faced when collecting sediment, water, biota and plankton sample during this marine sampling. (Author)

  12. REFRIGERANT/LUBRICANT MIXTURES: PROBLEMS OF APPLICATION AND PROPERTY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Semenyuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results and generalizations of thermophysical property research for the refrigerant/lubricant mixtures are summarized. The methodological aspects of the experimental studies of the thermal properties of real working media for vapor compression refrigeration machines and the general principles of the thermodynamic properties simulation for such solutions are analyzed. It is shown that the admixtures of compressor oil in the refrigerant make the efficiency parameters of compressor systems much lower. The question of a selective solubility of the multicomponent refrigerants in compressor oils is discussed.

  13. Securing Canada’s Information-Technology Infrastructure: Context, Principles, and Focus Areas of Cybersecurity Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Craigen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the challenges of cybersecurity and ultimately the provision of a stable and resilient information-technology infrastructure for Canada and, more broadly, the world. We describe the context of current cybersecurity challenges by synthesizing key source material whose importance was informed by our own real-world experiences. Furthermore, we present a checklist of guiding principles to a unified response, complete with a set of action-oriented research topics that are linked to known operational limitations. The focus areas are used to drive the formulation of a unified and relevant research and experimental development program, thereby moving us towards a stable and resilient cyberinfrastructure. When cybersecurity is viewed as an inherently interdisciplinary problem of societal concern, we expect that fundamentally new research perspectives will emerge in direct response to domain-specific protection requirements for information-technology infrastructure. Purely technical responses to cybersecurity challenges will be inadequate because human factors are an inherent aspect of the problem. This article will interest managers and entrepreneurs. Senior management teams can assess new technical developments and product releases to fortify their current security solutions, while entrepreneurs can harness new opportunities to commercialize novel technology to solve a high-impact cybersecurity problem..

  14. Texts of the New Nature: Problems of Interdisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakova E.I.,

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores a new research direction unfolding at the junction of modern textual criticism and modernization challenges in education. It outlines the theoretical basis for constructing a model of the «new literacy» representative of the 21st century. The paper contains an attempt to describe the main trends in the changes of text: rejection of linearity, shrinkage of text volume, orientation to «small text structures», duplicative character of different sign systems in the content reflection, increase of interactivity, feedback forms development, emergence of «new forms of authorship» and a number of other trends. Examples are given of new literature, created in the form of comics, presentations, infographics, drawn notes. The author reveals the scope of «the texts of the new nature» through the provision of its characteristics; describes two main technologies of formation of such texts; provides experimental data that characterize the process of perception of this kind of texts; and, finally, formulates priority research issues.

  15. Problems of Overcoming Market Failures in the Context of Economic Crisis in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Y. Pluiko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the manifestations of a market failure problem revealed during the economic crisis in the euro area, namely business cycles, market inability to ensure money circulation and avoid inflation. It is shown that the cyclicity of economic development has revealed in various degrees of economic contraction and different rates of its recovery. These differences have been exacerbated by the new procyclical factors emerged from the transition to a single currency. As for money circulation the crisis has almost no impact on the single currency functioning: the euro has maintained its position on the world market and properly performed money functions in the domestic. The goal to achieve economic development without inflation in the euro area generally has been solved successfully by the European Central Bank (ECB. However, due to the fact that the ECB in its monetary policy does not pay sufficient attention to the increased inflation in small and relatively poor countries, the crisis has been more acute in them than in large countries with low inflation. The goals of ensuring money circulation and avoiding inflation can be settled more effectively in the euro area in case of more tight coherence in economic policy and strengthening of supranational mechanisms of economic governance.

  16. International gastroenterology research : subject areas, impact, and funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewison, G; Grant, J; Jansen, P

    Aims - To examine the volume and potential impact of gastroenterology research outputs from 1985 to 1998 from 14 developed countries; the overlap with research in cancer, infectious diseases, and genetics; and the funding sources for this research. To determine if countries' research outputs

  17. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  18. Optimization Techniques for Design Problems in Selected Areas in WSNs: A Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Alfa, Attahiru

    2017-08-01

    This paper is intended to serve as an overview of, and mostly a tutorial to illustrate, the optimization techniques used in several different key design aspects that have been considered in the literature of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It targets the researchers who are new to the mathematical optimization tool, and wish to apply it to WSN design problems. We hence divide the paper into two main parts. One part is dedicated to introduce optimization theory and an overview on some of its techniques that could be helpful in design problem in WSNs. In the second part, we present a number of design aspects that we came across in the WSN literature in which mathematical optimization methods have been used in the design. For each design aspect, a key paper is selected, and for each we explain the formulation techniques and the solution methods implemented. We also provide in-depth analyses and assessments of the problem formulations, the corresponding solution techniques and experimental procedures in some of these papers. The analyses and assessments, which are provided in the form of comments, are meant to reflect the points that we believe should be taken into account when using optimization as a tool for design purposes.

  19. Research Projects in Physics: A Mechanism for Teaching Ill-Structured Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbourne, Jeff; Bennett, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Physics education research has a tradition of studying problem solving, exploring themes such as physical intuition and differences between expert and novice problem solvers. However, most of this work has focused on traditional, or well-structured, problems, similar to what might appear in a textbook. Less work has been done with open-ended, or…

  20. Vessel-related problems in severe accidents, International Research Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes those most relevant aspects of research programmes and projects, on the behavior of vessel during severe accidents with partial or total reactor core fusion, performed during the last twenty years or still on-going projects, by countries or international organizations in the nuclear community, presenting the most important technical aspects, in particular the results achieved, as well as the financial and organisational aspects. The paper concludes that, throughout a joint effort of the international nuclear community, in which Spain has been present via private and public organizations, actually exist a reasonable technical and experimental knowledge of the vessel in case of severe accidents, but still there are aspects not fully solved which are the basis for continuing some programmes and for proposal of new ones. (Author)

  1. Mathematical models of physics problems (physics research and technology)

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is intended to provide a foundation for a one-semester introductory course on the advanced mathematical methods that form the cornerstones of the hard sciences and engineering. The work is suitable for first year graduate or advanced undergraduate students in the fields of Physics, Astronomy and Engineering. This text therefore employs a condensed narrative sufficient to prepare graduate and advanced undergraduate students for the level of mathematics expected in more advanced graduate physics courses, without too much exposition on related but non-essential material. In contrast to the two semesters traditionally devoted to mathematical methods for physicists, the material in this book has been quite distilled, making it a suitable guide for a one-semester course. The assumption is that the student, once versed in the fundamentals, can master more esoteric aspects of these topics on his or her own if and when the need arises during the course of conducting research. The book focuses on two cor...

  2. Mixed Methods Research: The "Thing-ness" Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary mixed methods research (MMR) veers away from a "loosely bounded" to a "bounded" concept that has important negative implications for how qualitatively driven mixed methods approaches are positioned in the field of mixed methods and overall innovation in the praxis of MMR. I deploy the concept of reification defined as taking an object/abstraction and treating it as if it were real such that it takes on the quality of "thing-ness," having a concrete independent existence. I argue that the contemporary reification of mixed methods as a "thing" is fueled by three interrelated factors: (a) the growing formalization of mixed methods as design, (b) the unexamined belief in the "synergy" of mixed methods and, (c) the deployment of a "practical pragmatism" as the "philosophical partner" for mixed methods inquiry. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Topical problems of corrosion research for nuclear power purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremias, B.

    1978-01-01

    Currently, research is focused on stress corrosion, intergranular corrosion, corrosion in water and steam, hydrogen-induced corrosion and corrosion in liquid sodium. The effort to limit stress corrosion resulted in the application of high nickel content austenitic steels. In these steels, the susceptibility to stress corrosion is mainly affected by previous heat treatment and the presence of chloride ions. Attention is also paid to medium and high-alloy chromium steels and susceptibility is studied to intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion. Of low-alloy steels the 21/4Cr-1Mo type steels stabilized with Nb or nonstabilized are studied with respect to decarburization kinetics and changes in mechanical properties in the presence of hydrogen. Of nonferrous metals zirconium alloys are studied used as cladding materials for fuel elements, mainly Zircaloy 2 and 4, with regard to their resistance to high-temperature oxidation, high-pressure steam action, etc. (J.F.)

  4. Migration: The Present State, Problems and Perspectives of Research Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Mežnarić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Two prevailing paradigms in contemporary international migration research – migration as unpredictable explosion and migration as mainly predictable long cycles movement – are put into question. Both paradigms are not valid in explaining latest development in international migration field. They are too robust for reality which is satiated with novel developments in the field of volume, directions, labour markets and structure of migration flows, both voluntary and involuntary. Individual independent migrant as decision maker is coming to the fore. Therefore the reassessment of theoretical and conceptual apparatus of migration is imminent. As to the methods, mathematically supported sociological models of contemporary migration could be needed. On the basis of “new intuition”, the principles of simplicity, parsimony, and universality could lead to a theoretical innovation.

  5. Transportation Problems in Special Education Programs in Rural Areas - A Specific Solution and Some Suggestions for Delivery System Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Z. H.

    The paper describes transportation problems encountered and solutions employed in delivering systems of comprehensive services to handicapped children in Anderson County, Tennessee, a predominantly rural area with considerable mountain area. Detailed are methods of transportation utilized in the four different program areas of the county special…

  6. Developing Information Technology for Vocational Education in Contiguous Destitute Areas Significance, Problems, and Countermeasures: The Case of the Wuling Mountain Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Xu, Fenghua

    2014-01-01

    Using the Wuling Mountain area as a case study, the authors discuss the significance as well as five problems of developing information technology for vocational education in contiguous destitute areas. Recommendations are provided at the end of the article. [Translated by Michelle LeSourd.

  7. Outline for Remediation of Problem Areas for Children with Learning Disabilities. Revised. = Bosquejo para la Correccion de Areas Problematicas para Ninos con Impedimientos del Aprendizaje.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Joan L.

    The booklet outlines ways to help children with learning disabilities in specific subject areas. Characteristic behavior and remedial exercises are listed for seven areas of auditory problems: auditory reception, auditory association, auditory discrimination, auditory figure ground, auditory closure and sound blending, auditory memory, and grammar…

  8. Introducing problem-based learning into research methods teaching: student and facilitator evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Caroline; Ibbotson, Tracy

    2005-10-01

    The evidence base for the effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) has never been substantively established, although PBL is a generally accepted approach to learning in health care curricula. PBL is believed to encourage transferable skills, including problem-solving and team-working. PBL was used to deliver a postgraduate research methods module and a small evaluation study to explore its efficacy was conducted amongst the students (n = 51) and facilitators (n = 6). The study comprised of an evaluation questionnaire, distributed after each themed group of PBL sessions, and a group discussion conducted 4 weeks after the conclusion of the module, which was attended by student representatives and the facilitators. Questionnaire data was analysed using SPSS, and a transcript of the interview was subjected to content analysis. The results indicated that students felt that a PBL approach helped to make the subject matter more interesting to them and they believed that they would retain knowledge for a longer period than if their learning had used a more traditional lecture format. Students also perceived that PBL was effective in its ability to enhance students' understanding of the group process. All those involved in the PBL process reinforced the pivotal role of the facilitator. This study indicates that there is potential for PBL to be used beyond the more usual clinical scenarios constructed for health care professional education and further exploration of its use in areas such as building research capability should be undertaken.

  9. Lingua-Pedagogy as the Interdisciplinary Research Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Yakovleva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper is devoted to lingua-pedagogy – one of the modern branches of pedagogy dealing with personal socialization in the process of foreign language learning. This interdisciplinary field of knowledge is related to linguistics, pedagogic psychology, development psychology and acmeology. Lingua-pedagogy undergoes the formation process; therefore, there still are a number of open questions concerning its place among the other sciences, and the final definitions of the main concepts and terms. The author recommends the systematic approach to developing the theoretical foundation of lingua- pedagogy. The paper outlines the subject and aims of the lingua-pedagogic research, its content and affecting means. The system in question is poly- functional, its main functions being the integral pedagogic effect in foreign language teaching, stimulating self-dependent learning, and arranging the in- tercultural integration. The linguistic faculties at universities can be taken as the key elements of the lingua-pedagogic system – the development centers, nurturing the value-oriented respectful attitude to the native and foreign cul- ture, providing intercultural competence acquisition, and training pedagogic staff capable of fulfilling the poly-cultural development tasks. Identification of the conformities of intercultural socialization makes it possible to organize the system of pedagogic facilitation for students learning foreign languages; and develop the perspective methods and technologies of language competence acquisition and consolidation. 

  10. Validation of the Turkish version of the problem areas in diabetes scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huis In 't Veld, Elisabeth M J; Makine, Ceylan; Nouwen, Arie

    2011-01-01

    was conducted among 154 patients with insulin-naïve type 2 diabetes. Participants completed the PAID, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale (ITAS), and World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) questionnaires. Exploratory factor analyses...... yielded a 2-factor structure, identifying a 15-item "diabetes distress" factor and a 5-item "support-related issues" factor. The total PAID-score and the two dimensions were associated with higher levels of depression and poor emotional well-being. In the present study, the Turkish version of the PAID had......The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale is a widely used self-report measure that can facilitate detection of diabetes-specific emotional distress in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure and validity of the Turkish version of the PAID. A validation study...

  11. WAP Based An Alternative Solution for Traffic Transportation Problem in Sidoarjo Surrounding Area Using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arna Fariza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In line with the increasing interest on Lapindo mud disaster which causes several roadway covered by mud, there is a need to give an alternative solution for traffic transportation problem in surrounding area. The possible criteria for the solution of this road way are length, surface, traffic, and width of the road. Types of vehicle across the road also give a contribution to the criteria. By using Geography Information System (GIS, it is easy to all drivers to take decision which way has to be chosen based on the real condition. GIS is used to visualize the alternative road, which is possible to take. Analytic Hierarchy Processing (AHP is a decision method which is based on many criteria and alternatives. The input of AHP can be a preference or real value. Applied AHP to decide value of each alternative is based on application of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP assessment.

  12. Data Linkage: A powerful research tool with potential problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers, clinicians and researchers are demonstrating increasing interest in using data linked from multiple sources to support measurement of clinical performance and patient health outcomes. However, the utility of data linkage may be compromised by sub-optimal or incomplete linkage, leading to systematic bias. In this study, we synthesize the evidence identifying participant or population characteristics that can influence the validity and completeness of data linkage and may be associated with systematic bias in reported outcomes. Methods A narrative review, using structured search methods was undertaken. Key words "data linkage" and Mesh term "medical record linkage" were applied to Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases between 1991 and 2007. Abstract inclusion criteria were; the article attempted an empirical evaluation of methodological issues relating to data linkage and reported on patient characteristics, the study design included analysis of matched versus unmatched records, and the report was in English. Included articles were grouped thematically according to patient characteristics that were compared between matched and unmatched records. Results The search identified 1810 articles of which 33 (1.8% met inclusion criteria. There was marked heterogeneity in study methods and factors investigated. Characteristics that were unevenly distributed among matched and unmatched records were; age (72% of studies, sex (50% of studies, race (64% of studies, geographical/hospital site (93% of studies, socio-economic status (82% of studies and health status (72% of studies. Conclusion A number of relevant patient or population factors may be associated with incomplete data linkage resulting in systematic bias in reported clinical outcomes. Readers should consider these factors in interpreting the reported results of data linkage studies.

  13. Bioarcheology has a "health" problem: conceptualizing "stress" and "health" in bioarcheological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Daniel H; Goodman, Alan H

    2014-10-01

    This article provides a critical historical overview of the stress concept in bioarcheological research and critically evaluates the term "health" in reference to skeletal samples. Stress has a considerable history in 20th century physiological research, and the term has reached a critical capacity of meaning. Stress was operationalized around a series of generalized physiological responses that were associated with a deviation from homeostasis. The term was incorporated into anthropological research during the mid-20th century, and further defined in bioarcheological context around a series of skeletal indicators of physiological disruption and disease. Emphases on stress became a predominate area of research in bioarcheology, and eventually, many studies utilized the terms "health" and "stress" interchangeably as part of a broader, problem-oriented approach to evaluating prehistoric population dynamics. Use of the term "health" in relation to skeletal samples is associated with the intellectual history of bioarcheological research, specifically influences from cultural ecology and processualist archeology and remains problematic for two reasons. First, health represents a comprehensive state of well-being that includes physiological status and individual perception, factors that cannot be readily observed in skeletal samples. Second, the categorization of populations into relative levels of health represents a typological approach, however unintentional. This article advocates for the integration of methodological and theoretical advances from human biology and primatology, while simultaneously incorporating the theoretical constructs associated with social epidemiology into bioarcheological research. Such an approach will significantly increase the applicability of bioarcheological findings to anthropological and evolutionary research, and help realize the goal of a truly relevant bioarcheological paradigm. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Very Large Area Network (VLAN) knowledge-base applied to space communication problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Carol S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper first describes a hierarchical model for very large area networks (VLAN). Space communication problems whose solution could profit by the model are discussed and then an enhanced version of this model incorporating the knowledge needed for the missile detection-destruction problem is presented. A satellite network or VLAN is a network which includes at least one satellite. Due to the complexity, a compromise between fully centralized and fully distributed network management has been adopted. Network nodes are assigned to a physically localized group, called a partition. Partitions consist of groups of cell nodes with one cell node acting as the organizer or master, called the Group Master (GM). Coordinating the group masters is a Partition Master (PM). Knowledge is also distributed hierarchically existing in at least two nodes. Each satellite node has a back-up earth node. Knowledge must be distributed in such a way so as to minimize information loss when a node fails. Thus the model is hierarchical both physically and informationally.

  15. Neonatal Platelet Transfusions and Future Areas of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Visner, Martha; Bercovitz, Rachel S

    2016-10-01

    thrombocytopenia is common. Their unique physiology and associated complications make the risks and benefits of platelet transfusions difficult to understand. The goal of this review was to highlight research areas that need to be addressed to better understand the risks and benefits of platelet transfusions in neonates. Specifically, it will be important to identify neonates at risk of bleeding who would benefit from a platelet transfusion and to determine whether platelet transfusions either abrogate or exacerbate common neonatal complications such as sepsis, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Research on energy transmission calculation problem on laser detecting submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Li, Yingchao; Zhang, Lizhong; Wang, Chao; An, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The laser detection and identification is based on the method of using laser as the source of signal to scan the surface of ocean. If the laser detection equipment finds out the target, it will immediately reflect the returning signal, and then through receiving and disposing the returning signal by the receiving system, to realize the function of detection and identification. Two mediums channels should be though in the process of laser detection transmission, which are the atmosphere and the seawater. The energy loss in the process of water transport, mainly considering the surface reflection and scattering attenuation and internal attenuation factors such as seawater. The energy consumption though atmospheric transmission, mainly considering the absorption of atmospheric and the attenuation causing by scattering, the energy consumption though seawater transmission, mainly considering the element such as surface reflection, the attenuation of scattering and internal attenuation of seawater. On the basis of the analysis and research, through the mode of establishment of atmospheric scattering, the model of sea surface reflection and the model of internal attenuation of seawater, determine the power dissipation of emitting lasers system, calculates the signal strength that reaches the receiver. Under certain conditions, the total attenuation of -98.92 dB by calculation, and put forward the related experiment scheme by the use of Atmospheric analog channel, seawater analog channel. In the experiment of the theory, we use the simulation pool of the atmosphere and the sea to replace the real environment where the laser detection system works in this kind of situation. To start with, we need to put the target in the simulating seawater pool of 10 meters large and then control the depth of the target in the sea level. We, putting the laser detection system in position where it is 2 kilometers far from one side, secondly use the equipment to aim at the target in some

  17. Fundamentos, Orientaciones, Areas Basicas y Procedimientos para la Investigacion Educativa (Bases, Guidelines, Basic Areas, and Procedures for Educational Research).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Instituto Colombiano de Pedagogia.

    This document establishes the bases, general guidelines, basic areas, and procedures for educational research conducted in Colombia. The philosophy underlying research objectives is explained. There is special interest in social research concerning the condition of man and of the social groups that will be the targets of education, and in research…

  18. Public and private in the post-soviet area: the problem of demarcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Zaidel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problem of determination of public and private in the post­soviet area. Formation of these spheres should be a logical conclusion of successful transformation and modernization process in ex­soviet republics and getting all spheres of civil life out of the state control. Historical specific is underlined; it is given the determination and main characteristics of public and private. It is given two main approaches’ ways of interpretation the phenomena and formation of public sphere according to H. Arendt and Ju. Hubermas. The specific of formation and demarcation of public and private spheres in the post­soviet area is analyzed. The boundaries between public and private spheres were deformed by the soviet state and communist society. As a result it was built hierarchical relations among the state, society and ruler; it is typical for power centralized societies. The determining factor of institutional heritage in the processes of state­making is underlined. The deformation of division of state, public and private spheres is caused by combining of traditional and modern institutes and practices; as a result social practices that are against of logic of modern society slow down the development of market­oriented economy and modernization of institutions.

  19. Comparative Research on Human Settlements in Asian Rural Areas Based on Collaborative Construction Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Sui; Chaoyang, Sun; Mo, Li

    2018-02-01

    Rural planning is perceived as a spatial planning centered on the human settlements and there are many activities for rural reconstruction and researches conducted from the perspective of active intervention, with fewer studies regarding the village as the main body for the establishment of self-built system. And the other-organization built by the rural areas is strongly oriented. In Asian countries like China, South Korea and Japan, there are farming traditions, in which the familial and small-scale farmland holding and agricultural production mode are deep-rooted. Traditional agriculture and rural areas are not fundamentally changed by industrialization and modernization process. And the small-scale peasant in the East is marked by the decentralized possession of farmland and management in the rural areas and a large number of farmers to be remained. But the rural population keeps decreasing. After analyzing the status quo of human settlements in China, Korea and Japan, the paper makes an analysis from the different ways of thinking and professional perspective and focuses on putting forward the solutions to the problems on macro level, with the feasibility of the practical significance and the landing researches still staying in the testing stage. In the context of increasingly missing regional and contextual features, the launching and researches of “co-constructed community” as the folk protection way to emerging rural heritage are just started, and the researches on rural construction in Northeast China from the perspective of catalyst are absent. The contact agent with the catalytic action mechanism of seeing big things through small ones fits the rural areas marked by vast territory and diversified aspect, which is applicable to the bottom-up operation mechanism autonomously built by the villagers.

  20. Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -solving. This has prompted institutions of higher education to implement new pedagogical methods such as problem-based and case-based education. The Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education is an essential, comprehensive collection of the newest research in higher...... education, creativity, problem solving, and pedagogical design. It provides the framework for further research opportunities in these dynamic, necessary fields. Featuring work regarding problem-oriented curriculum and its applications and challenges, this book is essential for policy makers, teachers......Developing students’ creative problem-solving skills is paramount to today’s teachers, due to the exponentially growing demand for cognitive plasticity and critical thinking in the workforce. In today’s knowledge economy, workers must be able to participate in creative dialogue and complex problem...

  1. Freight distribution problems in congested urban areas : fast and effective solution procedures to time-dependent vehicle routing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Congestion is a common phenomenon in all medium to large cities of the world. Reliability of freight movement in urban areas is an important : issue to manufacturing or service companies whose operation is based in just-in-time approaches. These comp...

  2. Expanding the research area of behavior change support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Langrial, Sitwat; Ploderer, Bernd; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Freyne, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The First International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems attracted a great research interest. The selected papers focused on abstraction, implementation and evaluation of Behavior Change Support Systems. The workshop is an evidence of how researchers from around the globe have their own

  3. Problem-based learning in pre-clinical medical education: 22 years of outcome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartling, Lisa; Spooner, Carol; Tjosvold, Lisa; Oswald, Anna

    2010-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of problem-based learning (PBL) in undergraduate, pre-clinical medical education. A research librarian developed comprehensive search strategies for MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, and ERIC (1985-2007). Two reviewers independently screened search results and applied inclusion criteria. Studies were included if they had a comparison group and reported primary data for evaluative outcomes. One reviewer extracted data and a second reviewer checked data for accuracy. Two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality. Quantitative synthesis was not performed due to heterogeneity. A qualitative review with detailed evidence tables is provided. Thirty unique studies were included. Knowledge acquisition measured by exam scores was the most frequent outcome reported; 12 of 15 studies found no significant differences. Individual studies demonstrated either improved clerkship (N = 3) or residency (N = 1) performance, or benefits on some clinical competencies during internships for PBL (N = 1). Three of four studies found some benefits for PBL when evaluating diagnostic accuracy. Three studies found few differences of clinical (or practical) importance on the impact of PBL on practicing physicians. Twenty-two years of research shows that PBL does not impact knowledge acquisition; evidence for other outcomes does not provide unequivocal support for enhanced learning. Work is needed to determine the most appropriate outcome measures to capture and quantify the effects of PBL. General conclusions are limited by methodological weaknesses and heterogeneity across studies. The critical appraisal of previous studies, conducted as part of this review, provides direction for future research in this area.

  4. Broadening participation in community problem solving: a multidisciplinary model to support collaborative practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Roz D; Weiss, Elisa S

    2003-03-01

    Over the last 40 years, thousands of communities-in the United States and internationally-have been working to broaden the involvement of people and organizations in addressing community-level problems related to health and other areas. Yet, in spite of this experience, many communities are having substantial difficulty achieving their collaborative objective, and many funders of community partnerships and participation initiatives are looking for ways to get more out of their investment. One of the reasons we are in this predicament is that the practitioners and researchers who are interested in community collaboration come from a variety of contexts, initiatives, and academic disciplines, and few of them have integrated their work with experiences or literatures beyond their own domain. In this article, we seek to overcome some of this fragmentation of effort by presenting a multidisciplinary model that lays out the pathways by which broadly participatory processes lead to more effective community problem solving and to improvements in community health. The model, which builds on a broad array of practical experience as well as conceptual and empirical work in multiple fields, is an outgrowth of a joint-learning work group that was organized to support nine communities in the Turning Point initiative. Following a detailed explication of the model, the article focuses on the implications of the model for research, practice, and policy. It describes how the model can help researchers answer the fundamental effectiveness and "how-to" questions related to community collaboration. In addition, the article explores differences between the model and current practice, suggesting strategies that can help the participants in, and funders of, community collaborations strengthen their efforts.

  5. Area deprivation and child psychosocial problems - A national cross-sectional study among school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    Background We examined the association of area deprivation with the occurrence of psychosocial problems among children aged 4-16 in a representative national sample of children based on standardised measures of parent-reported problems and diagnoses made by doctors and nurses working in child

  6. Definition and coding of surface catchment areas: problems and solutions; Ausgrenzung und Verschluesselung oberirdischer Einzugsgebiete: Probleme und Loesungsansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, A.; Mehl, D. [biota - Institut fuer Oekologische Forschung und Planung GmbH, Guestrow (Germany); Klitzsch, S. [Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Geologie Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guestrow (Germany). Abt. Wasser und Boden

    2000-12-01

    Due to certain hydrographic situations there are some difficulties in application of the LAWA-directive 'Coding of catchment areas and streams'. In this paper, solutions are shown by means of examples from the federal state of Mecklenburg-Pomerania. Priorities of streams influenced by lakes and the Baltic Sea, branched and linked streams, urban streams and catchment areas without surface run-off were discussed. (orig.) [German] Die Anwendung der LAWA-Richtlinie zur Gebietsbezeichnung und Verschluesselung von Fliessgewaessern stoesst bei Vorliegen bestimmter hydrographischer Konstellationen auf Schwierigkeiten. Anhand von Fallbeispielen aus Mecklenburg-Vorpommern werden Loesungswege zur entsprechenden Problembehandlung aufgezeigt. Wesentliche Schwerpunkte sind daher durchflossene Seen, verzweigte und vernetzte Fliessgewaesser, Fliessgewaesser im staedtischen Bereich, die Problematik der Binnenentwaesserungsgebiete sowie Gewaesser im Ostseerueckstau. (orig.)

  7. Integrated Cancer Research in Five Thematic Areas of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Pulsar I LC/MS/MS instrument acquired in year 01 of the CDMRP award has logged over 8,000 sample hours since its commissioning. Newly acquired...previous confocal techniques which have been funded via the CDMRP. Left alone the TIRF technology is a powerful tool of discovery for cellular activity...Research Grade MALDI-ToF mass analysis via an ABI Voyager DE Star • Research Grade LC/MS/MS mass analysis via an ABI Q-Star Pulsar I • Research Grade

  8. Developing Critical Thinking of Middle School Students using Problem Based Learning 4 Core Areas (PBL4C) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridza, R.; E Irving, K.

    2017-02-01

    Traditional methods such as rote learning and memorization in teaching science create passive students in science classrooms. The impact of this continuous action for many decades is inactive learners who cannot develop higher order thinking skills. Based on the performance test, students’ critical thinking skill in Public Middle School 3 Pontianak was in low level although their achievement score were higher than school standards. The purpose of this study is to develop critical thinking skills of middle school students using Problem Based Learning 4 Core Areas (PBL4C). The design of this research is classroom action research with two cycles. Data has been collected using observation checklist, rating scale, self and peer assessment. Research findings reveal that students experience development from 11.11% to 88.45% in identifying the problem correctly, 37.03% to 76.92% for sub skills distinguish knowledge and opinion, 18.51% to 65.38% for sub skills providing possible solution, 22.22% to 69.23% for sub skills making decision, and 11.11% to 69.23% for sub skills identifying the impact of the implementation of their solution. In conclusion, the findings indicate that development of students’ critical thinking skills occurs when PBL4C model applied in science classroom. These findings suggest that teachers should act as facilitator in a classroom as well as should provide meaningful learning resources that can benefit students’ critical thinking skills. On the other hand, students should practice constantly to offer a sharp, accurate and appropriate solution.

  9. Ecological research in conserved areas in the Orange Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a need for the protection and scientific management of representative samples of each ecological area of the Orange Free State. Considerable progress has been made with the establishment of a large number of nature reserves by various authorities. Various ecological investigations have been undertaken in ...

  10. Report on research in progress in the reaction mechanism area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, A.S. de; Canto, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    Research on reaction mechanisms which are being done by several groups in Brazil are reported. They are grouped in four types, namely, reactions induced by heavy and light ions, induced by electrons and finally by photons. (L.C.) [pt

  11. Report on research in progress in the reaction mechanism area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, A.S. de; Canto, L F [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1982-09-01

    Research on reaction mechanisms which are being done by several groups in Brazil are reported. They are grouped in four types, namely, reactions induced by heavy and light ions, induced by electrons and finally by photons.

  12. French high level nuclear waste program: key research areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, G.

    1985-09-01

    The most important aspects of this research program concern disposal safety: the long-term behavior and sensitivity of the materials to the variability inherent in industrial processes, and the characterization of the final product. This research requires different investigations involving various scientific fields, and implements radioactive and non-radioactive glass samples as well as industrial scale glass blocks. Certain studies have now been completed; others are still in progress

  13. The Synergy of applying virtual collaboration tools and problem-based approach for development of knowledge sharing skills : empirical research

    OpenAIRE

    Schoop, Eric; Kriaučiūnienė, Roma; Brundzaitė, Rasa

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses the needs and possibilities to educate new type of virtual collaboration skills for the university students, who are currently studying in business and information systems area. We investigate the possibility to incorporate problem-based group learning and computer supported tools into university curricula. The empirical research results are presented, which summarize experiences of using the virtual collaborative learning (VCL) environment, provided by Business informat...

  14. Ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Dyhrberg, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with certain ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information. Section 1 contains an analysis of research on Internet debates. In particular, it takes into account a famous example of deception for psychology research...... purposes. In section 2, the focus is on research on personal data in texts published on the Internet. Section 3 includes an attempt to formulate some ethical principles and guidelines, which should be regarded as fundamental in research on stored information....

  15. RESEARCH PROBLEM DESCRIPTION AND DEFINITION: FROM MENTAL MAP TO CONNECTION CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildeová, Stanislava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the research problem (question as one of the first methodological steps that has to be accurately and clearly defined. The necessity of modern scientific work is to understand and analyse problems holistically, to see it as a network of interconnected parts. In this sense we show that combination of mental mapping and connection circle may be a way that will be beneficial defining the research problem. There is some evidence from interviews held with PhD students, who were participated in the course Research Methods for Managers at the University of Economics in Prague from 2012-2013.

  16. Key Problems in Organizing and Structuring University Research in Vietnam: The Lack of an Effective Research "Behaviour Formalization" System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Lan; Meek, Vincent Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Structure and organization seems to be at the root of many of the questions raised about institutional behaviour; however, with respect to research on university capacity building, few studies have examined research organizational problems, particularly in developing countries. This study investigates academic reactions to the structure and…

  17. Alaska communities and forest environments: a problem analysis and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda E. Kruger; Rhonda L. Mazza

    2006-01-01

    This problem analysis describes a variety of human-resource interaction issues and identifies related social science research and development needs that serve as the foundation for the Alaska Communities and Forest Environments Team within the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The document lays out a research agenda that focuses on understanding relations between...

  18. A study on the environmental and safety problems and their remediation around mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jeong Sik; Cheong, Young Wook; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Dong Nam [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the problems such as mine drainage, mine wastes, subsidence and existence of facilities at the abandoned metallic mines and to evaluate the reactor system for acid mine drainage treatment in the field. According to the field investigation, the remediation was necessary for abandoned mines such as the Taechang, the Imcheon, the Kubong, the Cheongyang, the Cheonbo(Jungyang), the Seojeom, the Kuryong and the Ilkwang mines. Comparing analytical data with soil environmental reservation law, main components to contaminate soil environment in the vicinity of the abandoned mining areas, were As, Cd, Pb and cyanide. Results of chemical analysis for mine drainage showed that As Cd, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr{sup 6+}, Fe and pH were major pollutants to the water environment and over level of discharge, water quality environment reservation law. The reactor with cow manure removed the metals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Al by 100%. It was evaluated that the metal removal in the reactor was due to sulfate reduction and hydrolysis. In addition, acid mine drainage was neutralized to over pH 5 during 100 days. (author). 12 refs., 25 tabs., 23 figs.

  19. Solving a problem of establishing a connection between post offices in the area of a city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana GRGUROVIC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to The General Plan of Post Network and in accordance with the criteria for opening branches of postal services for customers numerous postal offices which perform delivery services are located on the territory of every large city area. In case of using the system for combined decentralization one of the offices is assigned the role of the central deliverance post office. If the central office cannot be connected to some other unit directly, their connection is realized through one or more other units which are located in between them. Aside from the idea of the most economical management, the organization of postal offices is limited by some other actors, from the number of available vehicles, their capacity, to the question of the place and time of realizing a transaction. This paper provides information about how the money-saving algorithm for solving the problem of time interval routing can be used in a suitable way in these situations as well.

  20. Introduction to littoral erosion problem in Uraba (Arboletes-Turbo area) Colombian Caribbean Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa; Ivan D; Vernette, Georges

    2004-01-01

    Shoreline retreat has been the net dominant historical trend along the 145 km-length littoral between Arboletes and Turbo (southern Caribbean of Colombia). For the last four decades, there were identified in this littoral shoreline retreat of about 50-100 m in several places (Uveros, Damaquiel, Zapata, Turbo) and a maximum of 1.6 km in the Punta Rey-Arboletes area, where land losses were of 4.5 km 2 , at exceptional rates of 40 rn/year. The synthesis of the available information suggest that the general susceptibility to erosion between Arboletes and turbo could be related primarily to relative sea level rise, associated to tectonic movements as well as to the effects of mud diapirism and hydroisostacy. In the more critical areas (Arboletes, Turbo), the natural erosive trends were accelerated by anthropic actions, including river diversion (Turbo), beach mining and inadequate (or total absence) practices for controlling residual and natural waters. Up to august 2000, there were invested about $ Col 10.000 billions in 155 engineering defenses (groins, sea walls and rip-rap which totalize 6.2 km of total length and a volume of materials of 37.000 m 3 ). With few exceptions, groins have not been successful and are now part of the problem, accelerating shore erosion along the adjacent sectors. In the short term, the littoral erosion between Arboletes and turbo is caused both by marine and by sub aerial factors. it is facilitated by the poor lithological strengths of cliffs and marine terraces, mainly composed of highly fractured and weathered claystones and mudstones (with stratification and weakness planes dipping toward sea) and non-consolidated, easily liquefacted, fine sediments; both conditions facilitate the occurrence of rocks falls, slides and mud flows that result in high figures of cliff retreat (3 to 4 m), specially during the first 15 days of the summer-winter transition (April) and in high waves periods. The case of the littoral erosion between Arboletes

  1. Requirements Engineering as Creative Problem Solving: A Research Agenda for Idea Finding

    OpenAIRE

    Maiden, N.; Jones, S.; Karlsen, I. K.; Neill, R.; Zachos, K.; Milne, A.

    2010-01-01

    This vision paper frames requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. Its purpose is to enable requirements researchers and practitioners to recruit relevant theories, models, techniques and tools from creative problem solving to understand and support requirements processes more effectively. It uses 4 drivers to motivate the case for requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. It then maps established requirements activities onto one of the longest-esta...

  2. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanca, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  3. Research Utilizing Problem Solving (RUPS) - Classroom Version. Description of Teacher Inservice Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Project on Utilization of Inservice Education R & D Outcomes.

    The workshop instructional materials described here are designed to try out a systematic problem solving process as a way of working toward improvements in the school setting. Topics include diagnosis using force field technique, small group dynamics, planning for action, and planning a RUPS (Research Using Problem Solving) project. This…

  4. The Legacy of Hobbs and Gray: Research on the Development and Prevention of Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes research on the development of chronic conduct problems in childhood and adolescence, examining a multiple risk-factor model that includes biological predispositions, ecological context, family processes, peer influences, academic performance, and social information processing as factors leading to conduct problems. The paper describes a…

  5. Triage: Making a Political Decision to Solve an Environmental Science Problem Through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Thomas

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of a class project concerned with examining a population problem and making some political decisions to solve it. A list of topics for the students to research as a basis for their decisions is provided. (DT)

  6. Assistant professor Andrea Wittenborn, research team conduct clinical trial to treat couples' depression, marital problems

    OpenAIRE

    Micale, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Andrea Wittenborn, assistant professor, human development, is heading a research team conducting the Strengthening Bonds Couples Therapy Study to treat depression and marital problems (dyadic distress) in married/committed couple relationships.

  7. Competitive Benchmarking: An IS Research Approach to Address Wicked Problems with Big Data and Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); M. Peters (Markus); J. Collins (John); A. Gupta (Alok)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWicked problems like sustainable energy and financial market stability are societal challenges that arise from complex socio-technical systems in which numerous social, economic, political, and technical factors interact. Understanding and mitigating them requires research methods that

  8. [Research on blood distribution of Tibetan population in Ali area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X X; Li, D D; Li, H L; Hou, L A; Liu, Z J; Yang, H Y; Qiu, L

    2017-12-12

    Objective: To explore the distribution of ABO blood group in the healthy population in the Ali area of Tibet, and to analyze the difference of blood group distribution between the Tibetan population in Ali and the Tibet Tibetan population. Methods: The blood distribution of 509 apparent healthy volunteers of Tueti County and Gal County, Tibet, which were randomly selected from September to November in 2016; 137 Tibetan blood donors, from 2016 September to2017 July and 84 Tibetan blood donors from 2015 August to 2017 July was analyzed retrospectively. The blood type was tested by the slide method. By reviewing the Chinese and foreign language database, seven articles on Tibetan blood group distribution were obtained. And the data of the blood distribution of the Ali area population and the Tibet Tibetan population were compared. Results: The ABO phenotype frequencies of 507 apparent healthy people, 137 blood donors and 84 recipients were B>O>A>AB. The composition ratio were 36.1%, 34.5%, 21.5 %, 7.9%; 40.1%, 35.0%, 17.5%, 7.3%; 39.3%, 34.5%, 20.2%, 6.0%.There was no statistically significant difference in blood group distribution between the donors and the recipients ( P >0.05). And there was no significant difference in the blood group distribution between Ali and Shigatse, Nagqu, Lhasa, Shannan. However, the differences between Ali and Qamdo, Nyingchi areas were statistically significant. Conclusion: The geographical position of the blood from the west to east, B type shows a downward trend, O type blood composition ratio shows an upward trend.

  9. Survey of editors and reviewers of high-impact psychology journals: statistical and research design problems in submitted manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alex; Reeder, Rachelle; Hyun, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The authors surveyed 21 editors and reviewers from major psychology journals to identify and describe the statistical and design errors they encounter most often and to get their advice regarding prevention of these problems. Content analysis of the text responses revealed themes in 3 major areas: (a) problems with research design and reporting (e.g., lack of an a priori power analysis, lack of congruence between research questions and study design/analysis, failure to adequately describe statistical procedures); (b) inappropriate data analysis (e.g., improper use of analysis of variance, too many statistical tests without adjustments, inadequate strategy for addressing missing data); and (c) misinterpretation of results. If researchers attended to these common methodological and analytic issues, the scientific quality of manuscripts submitted to high-impact psychology journals might be significantly improved.

  10. Does India perform medical research in areas where it is most needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, S

    1998-01-01

    This paper attempts to map medical research in India and answer an important policy question by literature analysis. I match the disease pattern on the basis of mortality and morbidity statistics with journals used by Indian medical researchers to publish their work as shown by the Science Citation Index (SCI). The former reflects the needs while the latter reflects the areas in which research is being done. The limited statistics available from both the Government of India and the World Health Organization point to diarrhoeal diseases, diseases of children, respiratory diseases, circulatory system diseases, infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis as the major medical problems faced by India. The journals used often by Indian medical researchers to publish their work, as seen from the SCI (1981-85), show that in terms of number of publications, they are mainly active in general medicine, pharmacology, tropical medicine, neurosciences, radiology, oncology and pathology. In terms of the share of the world's literature in different subfields, India is second only to USA in andrology, third in tropical medicine after the USA and the UK, tenth in hygiene and public health, and eleventh in general and internal medicine, and radiology and nuclear medicine. Overall, India's share in the medical journal literature is not only much less than that of many other countries, both advanced and middle level, but also much less than that of India's share of the literature in physics, chemistry, mathematics and engineering. Data on the observed citation impact of Indian research in different subfields of medicine show that the work done in India in general is not integrated well into international research. India could be much more purposive in her research priorities and probably should invest much more in medical research.

  11. Qualitative Research? Quantitative Research? What's the Problem? Resolving the Dilemma via a Postconstructivist Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Gary

    It is argued that the debate between qualitative and quantitative research for educational researchers is actually an argument between constructivism and positivism. Positivism has been the basis for most quantitative research in education. Two different things are actually meant when constructivism is discussed (constructivism and…

  12. Research on tuberculosis in tribal areas in India: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V G; Muniyandi, M; Bhat, J; Yadav, R; Sharma, R

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem in resource-poor countries including India. Scientific knowledge is used to guide policy and practice. There is however, a limited, systematically collected data required for guiding the scale-up of interventions particularly amongst vulnerable populations including tribal groups in the country. In view of this, a systematic review of the TB research studies carried out in tribal areas of different parts of the country was undertaken. To undertake a systematic review of the TB research studies carried out in tribal areas of India between 1996 and 2016. A systematic review of English articles published between 1996 and 2016 on any aspect of TB was done through internet searches using Literature search EndNote programme. The words used for searching were tuberculosis, India, tribal, indigenous, disadvantaged, adivasi. The most common topics classified as annual risk of tuberculosis infection (ARTI), prevalence of TB, laboratory studies, clinical symptoms of TB, risk factors for TB, knowledge attitude practice, community Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) providers, performance of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), and drug resistant TB. Classification was also done on the basis of the type of tribe studied and place of study conducted. A total of 47 studies identified through the search were included in the review. Of the 47 studies reviewed, 12 were on TB prevalence, 7 were laboratory studies, four on ARTI and 5 on performance of RNTCP in tribal areas. Among these, majority (23 studies) of the tribal studies did not mention the type of tribe. Ten studies were conducted among Saharia, a particularly vulnerable tribal group in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh mainly by the National Institute for Research on Tribal Health, five were among the mixed tribes and very few on other tribes. The systematic review indicates that the research studies on TB among tribal population are very few. There

  13. Internet research: an opportunity to revisit classic ethical problems in behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, David J

    2003-01-01

    The Internet offers many new opportunities for behavioral researchers to conduct quantitative and qualitative research. Although the ethical guidelines of the American Psychological Association generalize, in part, to research conducted through the Internet, several matters related to Internet research require further analysis. This article reviews several fundamental ethical issues related to Internet research, namely the preservation of privacy, the issuance of informed consent, the use of deception and false feedback, and research methods. In essence, the Internet offers unique challenges to behavioral researchers. Among these are the need to better define the distinction between private and public behavior performed through the Internet, ensure mechanisms for obtaining valid informed consent from participants and performing debriefing exercises, and verify the validity of data collected through the Internet.

  14. Livestock Production - Future Directions and Priority Research Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P.H., E-mail: phrobinson@ucdavis.edu [Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    While specific issues facing ruminant production differ in detail between developed and developing countries, the general constraints and challenges suggest that common research interests will continue to exist. The need to increase outputs of ruminant meat and milk products differ sharply between the developed and developing world, although a need to increase animal productivity is evident in both, albeit primarily to increase product output in the developing world but to decrease environmental impacts of food producing ruminants in the developed world. The largest single limitation to increasing productivity of ruminants in the low digestibility of the structural carbohydrates which comprise a large proportion of their diets. Research on actions of secondary compounds in ruminal metabolism is required to avoid their negative effects and harvest the benefits of their positive effects. Domesticated ruminants have historically provided a substantial portion of the world's supplies. However if that is to continue, ways must be found to increase digestibility of their primary feedstocks, increase the 'healthfulness' of their products to humans, and decrease the environmental impact of their production systems.

  15. Livestock Production - Future Directions and Priority Research Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    While specific issues facing ruminant production differ in detail between developed and developing countries, the general constraints and challenges suggest that common research interests will continue to exist. The need to increase outputs of ruminant meat and milk products differ sharply between the developed and developing world, although a need to increase animal productivity is evident in both, albeit primarily to increase product output in the developing world but to decrease environmental impacts of food producing ruminants in the developed world. The largest single limitation to increasing productivity of ruminants in the low digestibility of the structural carbohydrates which comprise a large proportion of their diets. Research on actions of secondary compounds in ruminal metabolism is required to avoid their negative effects and harvest the benefits of their positive effects. Domesticated ruminants have historically provided a substantial portion of the world's supplies. However if that is to continue, ways must be found to increase digestibility of their primary feedstocks, increase the 'healthfulness' of their products to humans, and decrease the environmental impact of their production systems

  16. Main research areas and methods in social entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadad Shahrazad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main specific objective of this paper is to explore the content of research as well as methodological issues on social entrepreneurship in the context of corporate social economics and entrepreneurship. Therefore, in order to obtain an overview of the research done on this theme, we conducted a literature review using the exploratory analysis as methodology. We focused on the studies and articles which were published in the most important academic periodicals that cover subjects as management, economics and business. The articles were identified based on the presence of selected keywords in their title, abstract and body of the article: ‘social entrepreneur’, ‘social enterprise’, ‘social entrepreneurship’, ‘corporate social entrepreneurship’ and ‘social economy’. Using this method, there were selected articles and studies published starting from the last decade of the 1990s up to 2015. We were also interested in international publications on the topic and also in books that approached social entrepreneurship.

  17. Means-end chains and laddering: An inventory of problems and an agenda for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Sørensen, Elin

    2001-01-01

    and unconscious (or, at least, semiconscious) factors. It is intuitively appealing to the practitioner but has, likewise, attracted academic research. Increased acceptance and use of a new approach inevitably leads to the detection of unresolved issues and problems. Many of these unresolved issues are related...... to the collection and analysis of laddering data. However, many of these also point at problems of a more theoretical nature. In this chapter presented are some of the issues regarded as unresolved and suggested research that could help in solving these problems. The mayor part of this chapter deals...... with methodological problems of the interview technique called laddering, og coding laddering data, and of analysing the coded data. However, also shown, methodological and theoretical issues are partly interlinked: resolutions of methodological problems may require theoretical progress or at least a clarification...

  18. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: the problem of helminthiases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lustigman

    Full Text Available A disproportionate burden of helminthiases in human populations occurs in marginalised, low-income, and resource-constrained regions of the world, with over 1 billion people in developing areas of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas infected with one or more helminth species. The morbidity caused by such infections imposes a substantial burden of disease, contributing to a vicious circle of infection, poverty, decreased productivity, and inadequate socioeconomic development. Furthermore, helminth infection accentuates the morbidity of malaria and HIV/AIDS, and impairs vaccine efficacy. Polyparasitism is the norm in these populations, and infections tend to be persistent. Hence, there is a great need to reduce morbidity caused by helminth infections. However, major deficiencies exist in diagnostics and interventions, including vector control, drugs, and vaccines. Overcoming these deficiencies is hampered by major gaps in knowledge of helminth biology and transmission dynamics, platforms from which to help develop such tools. The Disease Reference Group on Helminths Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. In this review, we provide an overview of the forces driving the persistence of helminthiases as a public health problem despite the many control initiatives that have been put in place; identify the main obstacles that impede progress towards their control and elimination; and discuss recent advances, opportunities, and challenges for the understanding of the biology, epidemiology, and control of these infections. The helminth infections that will be discussed include: onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis.

  19. New paradigms for old problems: some (small) advances in laser resonator research at the CSIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we outline new approaches to old problems, namely understanding the transverse modes in Porro prism resonators, and creating methods to select Gaussian beams by phase-only intra-cavity elements. In the process we outline some of the recent research that has taken place within the Mathematical Optics research group.

  20. Scientific Paradigms and Falsification: Kuhn, Popper, and Problems in Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery James

    2010-01-01

    By examining the respective contributions of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn to the philosophy of science, the author highlights some prevailing problems in this article with the methods of so-called scientific research in education. The author enumerates a number of reasons why such research, in spite of its limited tangible return, continues to gain…

  1. Mixed-Method Nursing Research: "A Public and Its Problems?" A Commentary on French Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, Cécile Marie; Debout, Christophe; Rothan-Tondeur, Monique

    2014-02-01

    Nursing in France is undergoing a transition. In 2009, the preregistration nursing education program was reformed in line with the European Bologna Process, bringing nursing education to the universities. In 2010, the French Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Infirmière, the first national French nursing research funding program, was launched by the French Health Ministry. Of the 149 French research proposals submitted by registered nurses in 2010 and 2011, 13 were mixed-method proposals. The registered nurse principal investigator argued for a complementary use of qualitative and quantitative methods. These trends highlight major issues regarding mixed-method and nursing research. We can reasonably assume that mixed-method research has a broad appeal for nurse scholars, particularly for the exploration of complex phenomena related to nursing. Moreover, the recent movement in the domain of nursing education and research experienced in France highlights the need for dedicated research education in the development of nursing research capacity. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, R.

    2014-07-01

    Today there is a great consensus that water resource research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specializations of hydrology with a different focus yet similar theory, concepts, and methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focuses on the regional scale (areas of approximately 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically where the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualization of integration schemes. The fact that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with the social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and society in general, is also discussed. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to the integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings

  3. Lacking quality in research: Is behavioral neuroscience affected more than other areas of biomedical science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, Anton; Steckler, Thomas

    2018-04-15

    There are many reasons why novel therapeutics fail in clinical trials but these failures are often attributed to lacking quality of preclinical data. These problems are not limited to any specific therapeutic area, academic or industrial research and are due in large part to several generic factors influencing research quality (e.g., related to definition of pre-specified endpoints, principles of study design and analysis, biased reporting, and lack of proper training). Yet, neuroscience drug discovery is often said to be affected more than the other fields. Within neuroscience, behavioral studies are the most blamed for being poorly designed, underpowered and mis-reported and there are indeed several factors that may be rather unique for behavioral research, such as a multitude of environmental conditions that are difficult to control and that are often not reported, ethical concerns about in vivo research and the pressure to reduce animal numbers, contributing to under-powered studies, and the complexity of study design and analysis, creating too much room for post hoc data massaging and selective reporting. Also, the blood-brain barrier as a frequently neglected complicating factor has to be considered in CNS research. The importance of these factors is increasingly recognized and urgent efforts are needed to demonstrate that behavioral methods of preclinical neuroscience research deliver results that can be as robust as with the non-behavioral methods Until this goal is achieved, behavioral neuroscience and neuroscience in general may be losing young talent, CNS drug discovery may lack the needed investment and this field may indeed be amongst the most affected by the current preclinical data quality crisis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Increase in Population Density and Aggravation of Social and Psychological Problems in Areas with High-Rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Elena

    2018-03-01

    High-rise apartment houses have technical and economic advantages in areas with dense population. Their placement in the central part of the city allows increasing the number of living space in the limited territory, to bring population to the place of employment and reduce pendular migration. But increase in population density leads to psychological problems: level of a stress, fatigue increases, the number of phobias grows, infectious diseases extend quicker. These problems can be solved at resettlement of inhabitants to the suburb. However such decision leads to aggravation of a transport problem and the pulsing increase in population density in the downtown and on its suburb. To solve a transport problem, it is necessary not to increase the square of the cities. Therefore in the suburbs is also used high-rise construction. But high-rise residential districts on the suburb of the city get own social problems which are capable to destroy all advantages of high-rise construction.

  5. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of trail resources associated with expanding recreation and tourism visitation is a growing management problem in protected areas worldwide. In order to make judicious trail and visitor management decisions, protected area managers need objective and timely information on trail resource conditions. This paper introduces a trail survey method that efficiently characterizes the lineal extent of common trail problems. The method was applied to a large sample of trails within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, a highuse protected area in the USA. The Trail ProblemAssessment Method (TPAM) employs a continuous search for multiple indicators of predefined tread problems, yielding census data documenting the location, occurrence and extent of each problem. The present application employed 23 different indicators in three categories to gather inventory, resource condition, and design and maintenance data of each surveyed trail. Seventy-two backcountry hiking trails (528 km), or 35% of the Park's total trail length, were surveyed. Soil erosion and wet soil were found to be the two most common impacts on a lineal extent basis. Trails with serious tread problems were well distributed throughout the Park, although wet muddy treads tended to be concentrated in areas where horse use was high. The effectiveness of maintenance features installed to divert water from trail treads was also evaluated. Water bars were found to be more effective than drainage dips. The TPAM was able to provide Park managers with objective and quantitative information for use in trail planning, management and maintenance decisions, and is applicable to other protected areas elsewhere with different environmental and impact characteristics.

  6. Research on the Placement of the Ecological Shelter Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam is built on the middle reaches of Yangtze River (Changjiang) in south-central China, which is the world's third longest river. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), including the entire inundated area and 19 administrative units (counties and cities) on both sides of the river, is regarded as an environmentally sensitive area. The total area of the TGRR is approximately 58000 km2. As the Three Gorges Dam fully operated, for the flood control, the water level should be kept in the range between 145 m and 175 m and the reservoir surface water area(over 1080 km2)at a water level of 175 m, with a length of 600 km. Many of cities, villages and farms have been submerged. Moreover, as a result of reservoir operation, the water-level alternation of the reservoir is opposite to the nature, which is low water level (145m) in summer and high water level (175m) in winter. The Hydro-Fluctuation Belt, with a height of 30m, will become a new pollution source due to the riparian being flooded and the submerged areas may still contain trace amounts of toxic or radioactive materials. The environmental impacts associated with large scale reservoir area often have significant negative impacts on the environment. It affects forest cover, species in the area, some endangered, water quality, increase the likelihood of earthquakes and mudslides in the area. To solve these problems, it is necessarily to construct the Ecological Shelter Zone (ESZ) along with the edge of the reservoir area. The function of the ESZ is similar to the riparian zone in reducing flood damage, improving water quality, decreasing the levels of the nonpoint source pollution load and soil erosion and rebuilding the migration routes of plant and wildlife. However, the research of the ESZ is mainly focused on rivers at field scale by now, lack of research method on reservoir at the watershed scale. As the special nature of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the construction of the ESZ in the TGRA is

  7. Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Connell, Janice; Brazier, John; O?Cathain, Alicia; Lloyd-Jones, Myfanwy; Paisley, Suzy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe m...

  8. A Belief-Space Approach to Integrated Intelligence - Research Area 10.3: Intelligent Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    A Belief-Space Approach to Integrated Intelligence- Research Area 10.3: Intelligent Networks The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this...Technology (MIT) Title: A Belief-Space Approach to Integrated Intelligence- Research Area 10.3: Intelligent Networks Report Term: 0-Other Email: tlp...students presented progress and received feedback from the research group . o wrote papers on their research and submitted them to leading conferences

  9. Intermodal safety research needs report of the sixth workshop on national transportation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warshawer, A.J. (ed.)

    1976-04-01

    This conference brought together DOT policymakers, university principal investigators and other professionals to consider the intermodal safety research requirements of the Department of Transportation. The objectives of the conference were: (1) to highlight safety problems and needed transportation safety research identified by DOT modal safety managers and to stimulate university or university/industry teams to respond with research proposals which emphasize multi-modal applicability and a system view; and (2) to provide a forum for university research groups to inform DOT safety managers of promising new directions in transportation safety research and new tools with which to address safety related problems. The conference addressed the research requirements for safety as identified by the Statement of National Transportation Policy and by the modal safety managers in three principal contexts, each a workshop panel: I, Inter-Institutional Problems of Transportation Safety. Problems were described as: Federal-State, local; Federal-Industry; Federal-Public, Consumer groups. II, Goal Setting and Planning for Transportation Safety Programs. Issues were: modifying risk behavior, safety as a social value, and involving citizens in development of standards as a way of increasing probability of achieving program objectives. III, DOT Information, Management, and Evaluation Systems Requirements. Needs were: data requirements and analytic tools for management of safety programs.

  10. Analysis of an Interactive Technology Supported Problem-Based Learning STEM Project Using Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…

  11. An optimization approach to selecting research natural areas in National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Lucy E. Tyrrell; Robert G. Haight

    1999-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service has a long-established program to identify areas in national forests for designation as protected Research Natural Areas (RNAs). One of the goals is to protect high quality examples of regional ecosystems for the purposes of maintaining biological diversity, conducting nonmanipulative research and monitoring, and fostering education. When RNA...

  12. 76 FR 63824 - Research Area Within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    .... 070726412-1300-02] RIN 0648-AV88 Research Area Within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... Administration (NOAA) is creating a research area within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (GRNMS, or...

  13. 76 FR 77670 - Research Area Within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary; Notice of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    .... 070726412-1300-02] RIN 0648-AV88 Research Area Within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary; Notice of Effective Date AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... final rule for the establishment of a research area within the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary on...

  14. Federal research natural areas in Oregon and Washington: a guidebook for scientists and educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry F. Franklin; Fredrick C. Hall; C. T. Dyrness; Chris. Maser

    1972-01-01

    A guide to the use of natural scientific preserves, Research Natural Areas, on Federal lands in Oregon and Washington. Detailed descriptions of physical and biological features, maps and photographs are provided for each of the 45 tracts presently reserved. Indices to Research Natural Areas by vegetation type and plant and mammalian species are included.

  15. Lp-dual affine surface area forms of Busemann–Petty type problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associated with the notion of Lp-intersection body which was defined ... Lp-dual affine surface area; Lp-intersection body; Busemann–Petty ..... [11] Schneider R, Convex Bodies: The Brunn–Minkowski Theory (1993) (Cambridge: Cam-.

  16. Psychological Help-Seeking Intention among College Students across Three Problem Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Timothy R.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to understand psychological help-seeking intention for 3 common concerns: anxiety or depression, career choice concerns, and alcohol or drug use. Eight hundred eighty-nine university students completed surveys for the TPB variables plus belief in personal efficacy and control to solve the problems.…

  17. Socioeconomic analysis and problems of maize seed production in mid hill area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Sapkota

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize is considered as staple food and is a way of life for the hilly region of Nepal. The production and yield of maize crop is very low which is unable to meet the current demand and is mostly affected by various insect/pests and diseases. For such a backdrop, 182 cross sectional data were collected using simple random techniques in Palpa in June, 2016. Forced scaling technique was used to rank problems based on index value. The total average landholding was 0.91 hectare with 0.32 ha under maize seed cultivation. About 90.7 and 69.8% farmers were access to extension service and had received training respectively. Infestation of insect/pests ranked at first as a major problem in maize seed production with 0.79 index value followed by infrastructure/credit, storage, unavailability of inputs and marketing problems. Similarly poor bargaining power ranked as a 1st major marketing problem. Better access to extension service as well as frequent training service to farmers should be provided to increase production and yield of maize seed. Government and other stakeholder organizations should focus to develop irrigation infrastructure for the overall development of maize sector.

  18. MULTICRITERIA HYBRID FLOW SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEM: LITERATURE REVIEW, ANALYSIS, AND FUTURE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Fatima Morais

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem, which is one of the most difficult problems to solve. The literature points to several studies that focus the Hybrid Flow Shop scheduling problem with monocriteria functions. Despite of the fact that, many real world problems involve several objective functions, they can often compete and conflict, leading researchers to concentrate direct their efforts on the development of methods that take consider this variant into consideration. The goal of the study is to review and analyze the methods in order to solve the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem with multicriteria functions in the literature. The analyses were performed using several papers that have been published over the years, also the parallel machines types, the approach used to develop solution methods, the type of method develop, the objective function, the performance criterion adopted, and the additional constraints considered. The results of the reviewing and analysis of 46 papers showed opportunities for future research on this topic, including the following: (i use uniform and dedicated parallel machines, (ii use exact and metaheuristics approaches, (iv develop lower and uppers bounds, relations of dominance and different search strategies to improve the computational time of the exact methods,  (v develop  other types of metaheuristic, (vi work with anticipatory setups, and (vii add constraints faced by the production systems itself.

  19. Symposium Connects Government Problems with State of the Art Network Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-16

    Symposium Connects Government Problems with State-of-the- Art Network Science Research By Rajmonda S. Caceres and Benjamin A. Miller Network...the US Gov- ernment, and match these with the state-of-the- art models and techniques developed in the network science research community. Since its... science has grown significantly in the last several years as a field at the intersec- tion of mathematics, computer science , social science , and engineering

  20. Research problems and trends of the pharmaceutical market Sudan as social oriented structure of the country

    OpenAIRE

    Олена Миколаївна Євтушенко; Осама Абузаїд Мохамед Нур Ахмед

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The research object was the definition of problems and tendencies of pharmaceutical market development of Sudan as the country which in recent years tries to pull through the consequence of political and economic crisis and to build the socially oriented model of the state.Methods: In the researches it has been used the marketing and economic analysis methods as well as the historical, logical, comparative and graphic methods.Results: The authors represented the marketing analysis result...

  1. Research Paper: Effectiveness of Social Skills Training on Behavioral Problems in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Nesayan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This research showed that social skills training were not significantly effective on behavioral problems in adolescents with intellectual disability. Although our results were not effective, research evidence shows that people with cognitive delays (such as intellectual disability require social skill training programs that include all of their academic, career, daily life, and social skills. As social skills learning plays a role in personal and social adjustment, it is necessary to pay more attention to these skills.

  2. A decade of research in Inuit children, youth, and maternal health in Canada: areas of concentrations and scarcities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Amanda J.; Hetherington, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Inuit Canadians are on average about 20 years younger and have a 10-year lower life expectancy than other Canadians. While there have been improvements in Inuit health status over time, significant health disparities still remain. This paper will review the peer-reviewed literature related to Inuit child, youth, and maternal health between 2000 and 2010, investigate which thematic areas were examined, and determine what proportion of the research is related to each group. Establishing areas of research concentrations and scarcities may help direct future research where it is needed. We followed a systematic literature review and employed peer-reviewed research literature on child, youth, and maternal health which were selected from 3 sources, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database. The resulting references were read, and summarized according to population group and thematic area. The thematic areas that emerged by frequency were: infectious disease; environment/environmental exposures; nutrition; birth outcomes; tobacco; chronic disease; health care; policy, human resources; interventions/programming; social determinants of health; mental health and wellbeing; genetics; injury; and dental health. The 72 papers that met the inclusion criteria were not mutually exclusive with respect to group studied. Fifty-nine papers (82%) concerned child health, 24 papers (33%) youth health, and 58 papers (81%) maternal health. The review documented high incidences of illness and significant public health problems; however, in the context of these issues, opportunities to develop research that could directly enhance health outcomes are explored. PMID:22868191

  3. An Exploratory Research on Deviant Behaviors of Problem Patrons in Taiwan’s Public Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-May Sheih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Patrons of public libraries are more diverse and complex than those of other types of libraries, implying potentially more unexpected and difficult situations. Negative emotions such as frustration and anxiety are generated among librarians when they must handle problem patrons, an effort that may influence the work efficiency of librarians and their physical and mental health. This study conducted a semi-structured in-depth interview, using public service librarians in Taiwan as subjects, to explore the categories of problem patrons and their behavioral characteristics. According to the results, the behavioral characteristics of problem patrons can be divided into 6 categories: interfering with others, violating library regulations, influencing library works, improperly using resources and facilities, breaking laws, and exhibiting a psychological disorder as well as violating social norms. On the basis of the research results, this study offers suggestions for future reference when public libraries must handle problem patrons.

  4. Study of a methodology of identifying important research problems by the PIRT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Urayama, Ryoichi; Komura, Ichiro; Furukawa, Takashi; Yusa, Noritaka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new methodology of identifying important research problems to be solved to improve the performance of some specific scientific technologies by the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process which has been used as a methodology for demonstrating the validity of the best estimate simulation codes in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) licensing of nuclear power plants. The new methodology makes it possible to identify important factors affecting the performance of the technologies from the viewpoint of the figure of merit and problems associated with them while it keeps the fundamental concepts of the original PIRT process. Also in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology by applying it to a task of extracting research problems for improving an inspection accuracy of ultrasonic testing or eddy current testing in the inspection of objects having cracks due to fatigue or stress corrosion cracking. (author)

  5. Using Analytics to Transform a Problem-Based Case Library: An Educational Design Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Matthew; Tawfik, Andrew A.

    2018-01-01

    This article describes the iterative design, development, and evaluation of a case-based learning environment focusing on an ill-structured sales management problem. We discuss our processes and situate them within the broader framework of educational design research. The learning environment evolved over the course of three design phases. A…

  6. Comorbidity of Anxiety and Conduct Problems in Children: Implications for Clinical Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Given the relative lack of research on the comorbidity of anxiety disorders (ADs) and conduct problems (oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder) in youth, we examine this comorbidity from both basic and applied perspectives. First, we review the concept of comorbidity and provide a framework for understanding issues pertaining to…

  7. Prevalence of Adolescent Problem Gambling: A Systematic Review of Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Filipa; Alexandre, Joana; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-06-01

    Previous research has shown that gambling is a popular activity among adolescents. Following a rapid expansion of legalized gambling opportunities and the emergence of new forms of gambling, many researchers have carried out studies on adolescent gambling and problem gambling. The present paper reviews studies that have been conducted worldwide since 2000, and then presents a more detailed picture of adolescent gambling research in Europe, by providing a country-by country analysis. After an extensive search on academic databases and following an exclusion process, 44 studies were identified. The findings showed that 0.2-12.3 % of youth meet criteria for problem gambling, notwithstanding differences among assessment instruments, cut-offs, and timeframes. However, despite this variability, several demographic characteristics were associated with adolescent gambling involvement and problem gambling. It is concluded that a small but significant minority of adolescents have gambling-related problems. Such findings will hopefully encourage more research into youth gambling to further understand the determinants of this phenomenon.

  8. Scaffolding the Science: Problem Based Strategies for Teaching Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keebaugh, Alaine; Darrow, Lyndsey; Tan, David; Jamerson, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has highlighted the effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in multiple disciplinary settings, including medicine, teacher education, business, allied health, and the social sciences. Yet interdisciplinary educators have very little information about how to implement PBL in classrooms where multiple disciplines are…

  9. Research on the Problem of Spur Gear Teeth Contact in the Car Gear Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Skrickij

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on the problem of two gear contact in the car gearbox. Contact stiffness is evaluated for the whole period of mesh. Also, contact stresses are evaluated in the contact place. The presented method can be used for calculating spur gear.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Ten-Year Research Update Review: Psychiatric Problems in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plioplys, Sigita; Dunn, David W.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    The research on epilepsy, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by seizures, psychopathology, cognitive, and linguistic problems among children in the age group of 0 to 18 years is reported. Early identification of children with epilepsy (CWE) and the development of multidisciplinary management strategies would advance relevant clinical…

  11. Report to NASA Committee on Aircraft Operating Problems Relative to Aviation Safety Engineering and Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The following report highlights some of the work accomplished by the Aviation Safety Engineering and Research Division of the Flight Safety Foundations since the last report to the NASA Committee on Aircraft Operating Problems on 22 May 1963. The information presented is in summary form. Additional details may be provided upon request of the reports themselves may be obtained from AvSER.

  12. Research publications of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Oregon Coast Range, 1934 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah E. Greene; Tawny Blinn

    1991-01-01

    A list of publications resulting from research at the Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon, from 1934 to 1990 is presented. Over 200 publications are listed, including papers, theses, and reports. An index is provided that cross-references the listings under appropriate keywords.

  13. Past and present views in the approach to the problem of high natural background areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastino, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    High natural background areas are of great interest because they present anomalous conditions in their geological and geochemical features and consequently in the background radiation levels. High natural background areas have been recognised as representing a valid field of investigation for assessing the effects induced by low-level exposures. Such an approach represents the first attempt to draw an environmental impact evaluation, even if focussed on a single potentially harmful parameter only. Past and current studies on High Background Radiation Areas are reviewed with special emphasis on the ongoing programs and prospectives; their significance is discussed on the basis of the sectorial approach mostly used in the environmental studies. A more complete approach is suggested based on the impact evaluation and extention to all the potentially harmful environmental factors

  14. Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.

  15. Building the European Research Area in nuclear fission pioneering steps in actinide science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The concept of the European Research Area (ERA) aims at closer development of research policies in Europe and closer networking of research capacities, to reduce fragmentation of research in Europe. The goal is to make European research more effective and competitive. Several approaches are made to create ERA. The European Research Framework Programme is one tool in this context, with the introduction of the new instruments, Integrated Projects, Networks of Excellence and Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives. Actinide science is one area that could benefit from better coordination and more effective use of the research capacities, both human and physical. The European Commission is thus funding a Network of Excellence (ACTINET-6) and an Integrated Project (EUROPART) in this area within the sixth EURATOM Framework Programme. (author)

  16. Through Human Eyes: A New Approach to the Problem of Workforces in Remote Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, W. H. C.

    The often unstable workforce in remote areas can possibly be strengthened by stabilizing adjacent human settlements with community design which works from the inside out to emphasize the human, social, cultural, and environmental aspects of the settlements. Because stresses resulting from isolation, loss of social relationships, lack of…

  17. Euratom research and training in nuclear reactor safety: Towards European research and the higher education area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, G. van

    2004-01-01

    In this invited lecture, research and training in nuclear fission are looked at from a European perspective with emphasis on the three success factors of any European policy, namely: common needs, vision and instruments, that ought to be strongly shared amongst the stakeholders across the Member States concerned. As a result, the following questions are addressed: What is driving the current EU trend towards more research, more education and more training, in general? Regarding nuclear fission, in particular, who are the end-users of Euratom 'research and training' and what are their expectations from EU programmes? Do all stakeholders share the same vision about European research and training in nuclear fission? What are the instruments proposed by the European Commission (EC) to conduct joint research programmes of common interest for the nuclear fission community? In conclusion, amongst the stakeholders in Europe, there seems to be a wide consensus about common needs and instruments, but not about a common vision regarding nuclear. (author)

  18. State and Perspectives of Research in Bulgaria: Problems and Weacknesses in Science Policy [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current status of the Bulgarian research sector is analyzed. There are alarming trends both in the system of higher education as well as in the research organizations; some of them are listed. The main problems and weaknesses of the educational and research policy in Bulgaria are under the critic. Phenomena as mcdonaldization of higher education, mass higher education, integration processes in science of XXth century, the transition from the normal to post-normal science, appearance and development of surrogate science, increasing the number of marginal scientific sources, are considered in details. The basic normative science documents are considered and their weak features are exhibited.

  19. Instruction texts and problems for the training and examination of selected personnel at research nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejka, K.; Fleischhans, J.; Hejzlar, R.

    1994-01-01

    The publication comprises 6 separate brochures: (1) Selected chapters in reactor theory; (2) Experimental education methods; (3) Research and experimental reactors; (4.1) Technical description of the LVR-15 reactor; (4.2) Technical description of the LR-0 reactor; (4.3) Technical description of the VR-1 reactor; (5) Research reactor safety and operation; and (6) Database of problems for qualification examinations. Brochure No. 4 consists of 3 separate parts. The publication is intended for the training and examination of the following research reactor staff: reactor operator, shift engineer, control physicist, and start-up group head. (J.B.)

  20. Research reactor utilization. Summary reports of three study group meetings: Irradiation techniques at research reactors, held in Istanbul 15-19 November 1965; Research reactor operation and maintenance problems, held in Caracas 6-10 December 1965; and Research reactor utilization in the Far East, held in Lucas Heights 28 February - 4 March 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The three sections of this book, which are summary reports of three Study Group meetings of the IAEA: Irradiation techniques at research reactors, Istanbul, 15-19 November 1965; Research reactor operation and maintenance problems, Caracas, 6-10 December 1965; and Research reactor utilization in the Far East, Lucas Heights, Australia, 28 February - 4 March 1966. These meetings were the latest in a series designed to promote efficient utilization of research reactors, to disseminate information on advances in techniques, to discuss common problems in reactor operations, and to outline some advanced areas of reactor-based research. (author)

  1. Active and Healthy Ageing as a Wicked Problem: The Contribution of a Multidisciplinary Research University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Graffigna, Guendalina; Baitieri, Maddalena; Amato, Alessandra; Bonanomi, Maria Grazia; Valentini, Paolo; Castelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The quest for an active and healthy ageing can be considered a "wicked problem." It is a social and cultural problem, which is difficult to solve because of incomplete, changing, and contradictory requirements. These problems are tough to manage because of their social complexity. They are a group of linked problems embedded in the structure of the communities in which they occur. First, they require the knowledge of the social and cultural context in which they occur. They can be solved only by understanding of what people do and why they do it. Second, they require a multidisciplinary approach. Wicked problems can have different solutions, so it is critical to capture the full range of possibilities and interpretations. Thus, we suggest that Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (UCSC) is well suited for accepting and managing this challenge because of its applied research orientation, multidisciplinary approach, and integrated vision. After presenting the research activity of UCSC, we describe a possible "systems thinking" strategy to consider the complexity and interdependence of active ageing and healthy living.

  2. ZONING OF COASTAL AREA FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE Š PRESENT SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lav Bavčević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We already acepted that Croatian economical and geopolitical possition can bee improved only with better utilization of coastal area. Under these conditions mariculture also makes a part od sea master plan because demands for mariculture are focused on clean environmental conditions to obtain economic benefits. Increased pressure to the coastal area is global trend and if not planed and organized can provoke conflicts and can affect further development. Under these condition, marine aquaculture is frequent subject of many discussion focused on the environmental impact. Conflict of different interest in coastal area with no argumentation is putting marine aquaculture in worst position related with tourism and industry. Hard argumentations is laying in noneadequate frame of work in some facilities and to take advantake competitors are preasenting marine aquaculture in worst picture. Marine aquaculture product has to be health product, which can be completely damaged because of non-responsible approach of other activity. Mariculture also can suffer from self-pollution as for example tourism and must be well planed and managed. Fecal pollution from towns, pollution from bad controlled tourists activity, industry, influence of intensive and non controlled agriculture in coast line, are also potential danger for quality of all sea products and also cultured products from marine aquaculture. High quality of marine products can be obtained by zoning of coastal area, and in concept of these zoning it is necessary to define the zones for marine aquaculture. Procedure of zoning has to be divided in three steps: deetrmination of present status of area, definition of shore land for making mariculture related shore infrastructure and definitions of areas suitable for mariculture with limits of production. These can make positive situations with avoiding conflicts in exploitation of common resources in future. Zone for marine aquaculture has to be controlled

  3. Effects of a Research-Based Intervention to Improve Seventh-Grade Students' Proportional Problem Solving: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Harwell, Michael R.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Karl, Stacy R.; Lein, Amy E.; Simonson, Gregory; Slater, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of a research-based intervention, schema-based instruction (SBI), on students' proportional problem solving. SBI emphasizes the underlying mathematical structure of problems, uses schematic diagrams to represent information in the problem text, provides explicit problem-solving and metacognitive…

  4. The problems of territory rehabilitation in the area of ChNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshalkin, G.S.; Arkhipov, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism is considered by which the forming of fuel, fuel-condensate and condensate fallout zones (having different radionuclides contents, different physic-chemical mobility and biological accessibility of radionuclides that constitute a part of radioactive contamination) proceeds. The works aimed at rehabilitation of the ChNPP area and adjacent territories are briefly characterised. Possible practical measures on rehabilitating the agricultural and forest tracts of the exclusive zone their total area being of more than 200,000 ha, are at issue. Emphasis is put on importance of special soil treatment that ensures efficient reduction of exposure dose rate (by an order of magnitude) and considerable diminution of radionuclide transfer to agriculture products

  5. Selected Problems Of Noninvasive Ooze Dredging In The Protected Areas Of Port Docks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramowicz-Gerigk Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the ooze dredging concepts in the protected areas of harbour docks. The proposed method and system for ooze dredging are dedicated to all types of seabed protection, but the main concern are the geotextile mattresses, not resistant to mechanical damages. Due to the large seabed areas covered with this type of protection the effective method of noninvasive ooze dredging should be based on the use of a technical vessel for underwater works. The result of the analysis is the concept of the method and system for ooze dredging including in particular the mechanism for the automatic holding of the suction-dredge head in the proper distance from the seabed protection surface - the leading wheel truck and buoyancy-ballast system.

  6. A time-dependent vehicle routing problem in the service area of intermodal terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Braekers, K.; Caris, A.; Janssens, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the operational planning of drayage operations in the service area of intermodal container terminals. Drayage operations refer to the full truckload container transpot activities that take place on a regional scale around these terminals. They involve the transport of loaded and empty containers between container terminals, container depots, consignees and shippers. Drayage operations are mostly performed by truck and constitute a large part of total costs of an intermo...

  7. Drug problems in contemporary China: a profile of Chinese drug users in a metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaicheng; Zhang, Lening; Liu, Jianhong

    2011-03-01

    Drug problems are reemerging in China since the nation implemented economic reform and an "open door" policy in the early 1980s. This is causing both national and international concern. However, knowledge and understanding of the Chinese drug problem is fairly limited because of the nation's unique social and political history. In response to this shortage of information, our study presents a profile of Chinese drug users. Data were collected from a survey of drug users attending mandatory treatment centres in a large city in 2009. We present a demographic profile of the drug users, describe their patterns of drug use, their access to drugs and their history of drug treatment. Chinese drug users, like those from the U.S., are likely to be unemployed and have a low level of education. However, they are more likely than those in the U.S. to use heroin, Bingdu (methamphetamine) and Maguo (a derivative of methamphetamine), and they pay less for their drugs. This profile of drug users is informative and valuable for drug prevention, intervention, and treatment in the Chinese setting because knowing and understanding the drug population is essential for effective control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying and evaluating high risk areas and challenges on marine drilling riser system in relation to deepwater problems

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology The main concerns during drilling operations are riser integrity and maintaining well control. This thesis has mainly been focusing on the problems and challenges faced with the marine riser system to illuminate high risk areas related to riser integrity. A marine riser system consists generally of four main elements; the upper marine riser package, riser joints, lower marine riser package, and the blowout preventer, each playing an important par...

  9. Subsynchronous Oscillation Problem Research in the UHVDC System of a Regional Power Grid in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the grid structure being more and more complex and the rapid development of the HVDC system, studying the subsynchronous oscillation (SSO problem on HVDC system has more engineering practice significance. The paper studies subsynchronous oscillations problem of generators near the ±800kV UHVDC converter station, and analyzes the subsynchronous oscillation possibilities through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation. At last, though the researched UHVDC thermal plants have none SSO risk but it needs other measures to make the relevant generators return on normal operation.

  10. Feasible research on VLLW disposal in control area of nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Guo Weiqun

    2013-01-01

    Based on the basic requirements on the VLLW landfill disposal specified by the national codes and standards, a on-site disposal of VLLW in the control area of nuclear installation was proposed. A detail analysis of the advantages and disadvantages about the disposal method and the problem to be solved were described. Results showed that the on-site disposal of VLLW in the control area of nuclear installation was feasible in practice. (authors)

  11. Economic Development Mode and Countermeasure Research on the Nansi Lake Drainage Area Based on Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yong-fei; Peng, Li-min

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, it is pointed out that circular economy should be vigorously developed in the Nansi Lake Drainage Area, and the connotation of circular economy is expounded. Then, problems in developing circular economy in Nansi Lake Drainage Area are analyzed from the aspects of agriculture, industrial enterprises, and waste utilization. Finally, combining with the four modes of peasant household, enterprise, region and society in the development of circular economy, corresponding countermeasures a...

  12. A survey of critical research areas in the energy segment of restructured electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanduri, Vishnu; Das, Tapas K.

    2009-01-01

    Availability of a large volume of recent literature on deregulated (a.k.a. restructured) electricity markets underscores the importance of the research needs to ensure proper design and functioning of the markets. Researchers have made significant contributions fueling the evolution of the fundamental market design changes that have taken place since the beginning of the restructuring process. Due to the vast scope, existing survey papers are focused on particular facets of deregulated electricity markets. We adopt a similar approach by focusing on the most important research areas related to the energy market. The contributions of the survey paper lie in the novel approach used in classifying the literature based on critical research areas. Some areas of research such as auction based pricing, bidding strategy formulation, market equilibria, and market power are reviewed in a different light than other existing survey papers. We conclude by providing some future research directions for the energy markets. (author)

  13. Research program on climatic and environmental problems. Summary of Norwegian climatic and ozone layer research in the last decade and important research tasks in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, Elin

    1999-04-01

    This report includes 44 abstracts, 21 lectures and 23 posters from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Research Council, the Steering Group for the Norwegian research programme for changes in climate and ozone layer. The topics dealt with are: Results from the research, the greenhouse effect and its influence on the climate of today, the interactions between ocean and climate, pollution influence on ozone layer changes, the UV radiation effects and their influence on the environment, climatic modelling and forecasting, ecological problems related to climatic and environmental changes, the climatic influences of human energy utilisation and suggestions for future research

  14. Domestic dogs in rural communities around protected areas: conservation problem or conflict solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano A Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog-wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog-wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25-75% of the dog-wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households.

  15. Energy usage, problems and policy proposals: evidence from distinctive villages in poverty-stricken loess areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xinglong; Xue, Weixian

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine energy consumption among poverty-stricken loess areas of middle Gansu, and put forward a settlement to energy upgrading and meanwhile mitigating environmental contagion and shaking off poverty. Energy consumption of 371 households from 3 distinctive categories of landform is explored. The surveyed data investigation displays that energy consumption composition is marked by clear dissimilarity of power mix, with stalk(41%) and coal(32.3%) acting as the major form, fire grass a powerful supplement, and the remaining power resources playing a tiny part for the mountain; coal(52.45%) being the dominant power, dry grasses(20%) and stalk (17.6%) performing a supplemental part, other resources of power being at the insignificant position for the semi-mountain; beside which there being a similar energy pattern on the plain except stalk composing a tiny share of 7.5%. This energy mix is mainly attributed to economic poverty, and provokes a list of ills such as plant damage, water loss and soil erosion, ultimately posing a formidable threat to sustainable development. A fresh energy engineering mode termed quaternity-dominating pattern is introduced and addressed, which can lift the sample areas out of poverty both in economics and energy. The paper concludes with pointing out practical proposals on launching and running this energy engineering project for the sample areas. This paper contributes to the growing body of knowledge by exploring energy use among poverty-stricken regions, usually being disregarded in most studies of China.

  16. Domestic dogs in rural communities around protected areas: conservation problem or conflict solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Singer, Randall S; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog-wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog-wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25-75% of the dog-wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households.

  17. English Language Teaching in Rural Areas: A Scenario and Problems and Prospects in Context of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md.Mahroof Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Language is one of the medium of expressing our ideas, feelings and emotions. And if we think about language in present world then English is one of the most used languages in the world and English is used as a second language in Bangladesh. English is introduced here at the primary level and its inclusion continues till the tertiary level of education. Most of the students of the primary schools in rural areas are weak in English language due to lack of skilled and trained teachers who are f...

  18. Problems and possibilities of establishing greenery within nuclear power plant areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supuka, J.

    1987-01-01

    The environmental impacts of nuclear power plants are briefly discussed. The arrangement of the green in the area of nuclear power plants is illustrated by an example of the territorial plans of the Bohunice nuclear power plants. The green must fullfil multiple functions, such as architectonical, aesthetical, wind protection, dust protection, noise and radioactivity protection, soil improvement, psychological, soil reclamation, renaturalization, and social functions. The green zones are differentiated into the actual plant zone, the hygiene protection zone, the accompanying green zone, and the peripheral housing development green zone. (M.D.). 6 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  19. WHAT ARE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS PH.D. STUDENTS LEARNING ABOUT AGRIBUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS AND SUBJECT AREAS?

    OpenAIRE

    House, Lisa; Sterns, James A.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the PowerPoint presentation given by the authors at the 2002 WCC-72 meetings, regarding what agricultural economics Ph.D students are learning about agribusiness research methods and subject areas.

  20. A delineating procedure to retrieve relevant publication data in research areas : the case of nanocellulose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milanez, D.H.; Noyons, E.C.M.; Lopes, de Faria L.I.

    2016-01-01

    Advances concerning publication-level classification system have been demonstrated striking results by dealing properly with emergent, complex and interdisciplinary research areas, such as nanotechnology and nanocellulose. However, less attention has been paid to propose a delineating method to

  1. Increase in Population Density and Aggravation of Social and Psychological Problems in Areas with High-Rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-rise apartment houses have technical and economic advantages in areas with dense population. Their placement in the central part of the city allows increasing the number of living space in the limited territory, to bring population to the place of employment and reduce pendular migration. But increase in population density leads to psychological problems: level of a stress, fatigue increases, the number of phobias grows, infectious diseases extend quicker. These problems can be solved at resettlement of inhabitants to the suburb. However such decision leads to aggravation of a transport problem and the pulsing increase in population density in the downtown and on its suburb. To solve a transport problem, it is necessary not to increase the square of the cities. Therefore in the suburbs is also used high-rise construction. But high-rise residential districts on the suburb of the city get own social problems which are capable to destroy all advantages of high-rise construction.

  2. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: potential problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; Dougherty, D.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1985-12-01

    If a state or state compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) by 1986 as required by the Low-Level Waste Policy Act, then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. In this report, extended storage of LLRW is considered in order to determine for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission areas of concern and actions recommended to resolve these concerns. The focus is on the properties and performance of the waste form and waste container. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. The areas of concern about extended storage of LLRW are grouped into two categories: (1) Performance of the waste form and/or container during storage, e.g., radiolytic gas generation, radiation-enhanced degradation of polymeric materials, and corrosion. (2) Effects of extended storage on the properties of the waste form and/or container that are important after storage (e.g., radiation-induced embrittlement of high-density polyethylene and the weakening of steel containers resulting from corrosion). A discussion is given of additional information and actions required to address these concerns

  3. Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in Stirling engine modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Roy C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirling engine computer models with test data have demonstrated that engine thermodynamic losses need better characterization. Various Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and efforts that are underway to characterize these losses are discussed.

  4. Climate change in the Carpathian-Balkan Area. Advancing research and cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains are considered to be one of Europe’s last “wilderness” areas, but are nevertheless under heavy pressure from human activities. Examples range from large-scale activities (e.g. metal and coal mining and ecological disasters (e.g. tailing dam failures in the Toroiaga and Baia Mare areas to cross-border pollution (e.g. Chernobyl nuclear accident. The current political thrust for economic development is accelerating the pace of industrial activities, exploitation of natural resources and tourism. Romania has just recently been integrated into the European Union and many community-based projects were initiated to evaluate problems related to climatic and anthropogenic impacts.The diversity of landforms that characterize the Carpathian region encompassing mountain ranges and large spans of adjacent lowlands and the dynamic interplay between North Atlantic, continental, and Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns in southeastern Europe, have resulted in extremely fragmented habitats and exceptional biodiversity (Veres and Mindrescu, 2013. However, the Carpathian Mountains remain the least studied mountain environment in Europe, as reflected for example by the low number of well-dated and high-resolution paleorecords (e.g. Buczkó et al. 2009. Rose et al. (2009 published a pollution history study from a lake in the Retezat Mountains at the western extremity of the Southern Carpathians, but no paleoenvironmental studies exist for the rest of the mountain range, despite the abundance of suitable sites (Akinyemi et al., 2013.An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field (geosciences, as innovative science is increasingly stimulated by studies that cross disciplinary boundaries and thus benefit from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by creating “meeting places” where geoscience

  5. ETHICAL REVIEW OF BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH IN BELARUS: CURRENT STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famenka, Andrei

    2011-04-01

    The paper provides description of the system of ethical review for biomedical research in Belarus, with special emphasis on its historical background, legal and regulatory framework, structure and functioning. It concludes that the situation with research ethics in Belarus corresponds to the tendency of bureaucratic approach to establishment of systems of ethical review for biomedical research, observed in a number of countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Different social, economical and political factors of transition have major impact on capacities of the Belarusian RECs to ensure adequate protection of human subjects. Among the main problems identified are non-equivalent stringency of ethical review for different types of biomedical research; lack of independence, multidisciplinarity, pluralism and lay representation experienced by RECs; low level of research ethics education and transparency of RECs activities. Recommendations are made to raise the issue of research ethics on the national agenda in order to develop and maintain the research ethics system capable to effectively protect research participants and promote ethical conduct in research.

  6. 75 FR 1115 - Invitation for Public Comment on Strategic Research Direction, Research Priority Areas and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    .... The RD&T strategic planning process is collaborative, cross-modal, and forward looking, focusing on... strategic planning effort that will guide the Department's research, development, and technology activities... planning process to cover the years 2010-2015 and to address the proposed Departmental key priorities as...

  7. Changing governance of research and technology policy : The European research area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edler, Jakob; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Behrens, Maria

    2003-01-01

    This collection analyses and comments on the development of the ERA, which seeks to coordinate national research and advance European wide projects. The contributors include leading scholars of European integration and technology policy and high-level administrators. They discuss the potential

  8. Recommendations regarding problems of research policy relating to the establishment and operation of atomic power stations in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This report, which was submitted by the Danish Planning Council for Research to the Parliamentary Committee on Scientific Research, is based on reports from the DANISH Atomic Energy Commission. and on a sub-committee appointed by the Planning Council, as well as on the comments of the Danish Research Council on these reports. The Planning Council submit that: (1) the question of the introduction and scope of Danish utilization of atomic energy should be considered as a link in setting up a total plan for energy policy elucidating the possibilities in the energy field from both aspects of supply and demand, (2) that there is a continuous interaction between energy policy and research policy in the subject field, (3) that the total resources for energy research and development should be considerably increased, (4) that investigations into the economy of atomic power should be intensified, and (5) that investigations of possibilities for long-term storage of radioactive waste in Denmark should be speeded up. Further, the Planning Council points out the need for research in areas such as (a) wind and solar energy, (b) the environmental impact of utilizing atomic power in relation to that of utilizing other forms of power, (c) economic and social effects of different forms of energy supply, as well as the problems of siting, decision taking and public information and participation and finally, (d) the utilization of the energy raw materials found in Greenland.

  9. Recommendations regarding problems of research policy relating to the establishment and operation of atomic power stations in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report, which was submitted by the Danish Planning Council for Research to the Parliamentary Committee on Scientific Research, is based on reports from the DANISH Atomic Energy Commission. and on a sub-committee appointed by the Planning Council, as well as on the comments of the Danish Research Council on these reports. The Planning Council submit that: 1) the question of the introduction and scope of Danish utilization of atomic energy should be considered as a link in setting up a total plan for energy policy elucidating the possibilities in the energy field from both aspects of supply and demand, 2) that there is a continuous interaction between energy policy and research policy in the subject field 3) that the total resources for energy research and development should be considerably increased, 4) that investigations into the economy of atomic power should be intensified, and 5) that investigations of possibilities for long-term storage of radioactive waste in Denmark should be speeded up. Further, the Planning Council points out the need for research in areas such as a) wind and solar energy, b) the environmental impact of utilizing atomic power in relation to that of utilizing other forms of power, c) economic and social effects of different forms of energy supply, as well as the problems of siting, decision taking and public information and participation and finally, d) the utilization of the energy raw materials found in Greenland. (B.P.)

  10. Teaching medical students to discern ethical problems in human clinical research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; Warner, Teddy D; Green Hammond, Katherine A; Brody, Janet L; Kaminsky, Alexis; Roberts, Brian B

    2005-10-01

    Investigators and institutional review boards are entrusted with ensuring the conduct of ethically sound human studies. Assessing ethical aspects of research protocols is a key skill in fulfilling this duty, yet no empirically validated method exists for preparing professionals to attain this skill. The authors performed a randomized controlled educational intervention, comparing a criteria-based learning method, a clinical-research- and experience-based learning method, and a control group. All 300 medical students enrolled at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine in 2001 were invited to participate. After a single half-hour educational session, a written posttest of ability to detect ethical problems in hypothetical protocol vignettes was administered. The authors analyzed responses to ten protocol vignettes that had been evaluated independently by experts. For each vignette, a global assessment of the perceived significance of ethical problems and the identification of specific ethical problems were evaluated. Eighty-three medical students (27%) volunteered: 50 (60%) were women and 55 (66%) were first- and second-year students. On global assessments, the criteria-focused group perceived ethical problems as more significant than did the other two groups (p evaluation skills. This work supports the potential value of empirically derived methods for preparing professionals to discern ethical aspects of human studies.

  11. Cross-Cultural Communication Training for Students in Multidisciplinary Research Area of Biomedical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical Engineering makes multidisciplinary research area, which includes biology, medicine, engineering and others. Communication training is important for students, who have a potential to develop Biomedical Engineering. Communication is not easy in a multidisciplinary research area, because each area has its own background of thinking. Because each nation has its own background of culture, on the other hand, international communication is not easy, either. A cross-cultural student program has been designed for communication training in the multidisciplinary research area. Students from a variety of backgrounds of research area and culture have joined in the program: mechanical engineering, material science, environmental engineering, science of nursing, dentist, pharmacy, electronics, and so on. The program works well for communication training in the multidisciplinary research area of biomedical engineering. Foreign language and digital data give students chance to study several things: how to make communication precisely, how to quote previous data. The experience in the program helps students not only understand new idea in the laboratory visit, but also make a presentation in the international research conference. The program relates to author's several experiences: the student internship abroad, the cross-cultural student camp, multi PhD theses, various affiliations, and the creation of the interdisciplinary department.

  12. [Soil seed bank research of China mining areas: necessity and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; Zhang, Da-Wei; Li, Xue; Peng, Jian; Guan, Ai-Nong; Liu, Xiao-Si

    2011-05-01

    Soil seed bank consists of all living seeds existed in soil and its surface litter, especially in topsoil, and can reflect the characteristics of regional biodiversity. As the base of vegetation restoration and potential greening material, topsoil and its seed bank are the limited and non-renewable resources in mining areas. The study of soil seed bank has become one of the hotspots in the research field of vegetation restoration and land reclamation in China mining areas. Owing to the special characteristics of mining industry, the soil seed bank study of mining areas should not only concern with the seed species, quantities, and their relations with ground surface vegetation, but also make use of the research results on the soil seed bank of other fragile habitats. Besides, a breakthrough should be sought in the thinking ways and research approach. This paper analyzed the particularity of mining area's soil seek bank research, summarized the research progress in the soil seed bank of mining areas and other fragile habitats, and put forward the challenges we are facing with. It was expected that this paper could help to reinforce the soil seed bank research of China mining areas, and provide scientific guidelines for taking great advantage of the significant roles of soil seed bank in land reclamation and vegetation restoration in the future.

  13. Family and career-conscious hospitals - problem areas and necessary steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegert, Jörg M; Liebhardt, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the wide range of compatibility issues between work in the medical profession and the family. Several topics are intertwined and overlap in some areas. Family friendliness in curative medicine, healthcare, medical studies and the training, specialisation and CPD of doctors is a key theme in the current debate on the future of health and family policies. The rising proportion of women and changes in the medical community characterise the future of medicine. Topics such as working hours and organisation of work, as well as family support and maternity leave, must be discussed further and in particular regarding employees in the health services. This overview will describe where Germany has issues, what is already being done well in the hospitals but could still be improved.

  14. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: potential problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; Dougherty, D.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    If a state or state compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) by 1986 as required by the Low-Level Waste Policy Act, then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The issue of extended storage of LLRW is addressed in order to determine for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission the areas of concern and the actions recommended to resolve these concerns. The focus is on the properties and behavior of the waste form and waste container. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. The areas of concern about extended storage of LLRW are grouped into two categories: 1. Behavior of the waste form and/or container during storage, e.g., radiolytic gas generation, radiation-enhanced degradation of polymeric materials, and corrosion. 2. Effects of extended storage on the properties of the waste form and/or container that are important after storage (e.g., radiation-induced oxidative embrittlement of high-density polyethylene and the weakening of steel containers resulting from corrosion by the waste). The additional information and actions required to address these concerns are discussed and, in particular, it is concluded that further information is needed on the rates of corrosion of container material by Class A wastes and on the apparent dose-rate dependence of radiolytic processes in Class B and C waste packages. Modifications to the guidance for solidified wastes and high-integrity containers in NRC's Technical Position on Waste Form are recommended. 27 references

  15. Potential problem areas: extended storage of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskind, B.

    1985-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. In particular, the range of storage alternatives considered and being implemented by the nuclear power plant utilities is described. The properties of the waste forms and waste containers are discussed. An overview is given of the performance of the waste package and its contents during storage (e.g., radiolytic gas generation, corrosion) and of the effects of extended storage on the performance of the waste package after storage (e.g., radiation-induced embrittlement of polyethylene, the weakening of steel containers by corrosion). Additional information and actions required to address these concerns, including possible mitigative measures, are discussed. 26 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Pioneering space research in the USSR and mathematical modeling of large problems of radiation transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushkevich, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    This review is to remind scientists of the older generation of some memorable historical pages and of many famous researchers, teachers and colleagues. For the younger researchers and foreign colleagues it will be useful to get to know about pioneer advancements of the Soviet scientists in the field of information and mathematical supply for cosmonautic problems on the eve of the space era. Main attention is paid to the scientific experiments conducted on the piloted space vehicles and the research teams who created the information and mathematical tools for the first space projects. The role of Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh, the Major Theoretician of cosmonautics, is particularly emphasized. He determined for the most part the basic directions of development of space research and remote sensing of the Earth and planets that are shortly called remote sensing

  17. Problems with change in R2 as applied to theory of reasoned action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafimow, David

    2004-12-01

    The paradigm of choice for theory of reasoned action research seems to depend largely on the notion of change in variance accounted for (DeltaR2) as new independent variables are added to a multiple regression equation. If adding a particular independent variable of interest increases the variance in the dependent variable that can be accounted for by the list of independent variables, then the research is deemed to be 'successful', and the researcher is considered to have made a convincing argument about the importance of the new variable. In contrast to this trend, I present arguments that suggest serious problems with the paradigm, and conclude that studies on attitude-behaviour relations would advance the field of psychology to a far greater extent if researchers abandoned it.

  18. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  19. Prospects for Research Training Activities in the Context of the Problems of the Modern Practice of Primary School.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guruzhapov V. A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the current problems of research training activities in terms of the requirements of the Federal state educational standard of primary education. The initial methodological basis for the formulation of the problems is the theory of developmental education by Davydov and his followers. The article raises the question of the possibility of using the ideas of Dewey and Maslow to develop research training activities. There is the analysis of such subjects as formulating and performing learning tasks as a way of mastering theoretical knowledge in «from abstract to particular» microcycle; the content of theoretical generalizations formed before training activities (naive scientific concepts; forms of assimilation into the collective training activities; forms of cooperation in teaching and project activities; the content and form of requirements for training activities. Possible practical use of the study results are described. This area provides a lot of topics for Master’s thesis in the “Cultural-Historical Psychology and Activity Approach in Education” research Master’s program

  20. Mental health problems among the survivors in the hard-hit areas of the Yushu earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On April 14, 2010, an earthquake registering 7.1 on the Richter scale shook Qinghai Province in southwest China. The earthquake caused numerous casualties and much damage. The epicenter, Yushu County, suffered the most severe damage. As a part of the psychological relief work, the present study evaluated the mental health statuses of the people affected and identified the mental disorder risk factors related to earthquakes. METHODS: Five hundred and five earthquake survivors living in Yushu County were investigated 3-4 months after the earthquake. Participant demographic data including gender, age, marital status, ethnicity, educational level, and religious beliefs were collected. The Earthquake-Specific Trauma Exposure Indicators assessed the intensity of exposure to trauma during the earthquake. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL-25 assessed the symptoms and prevalence rates of probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD as well as anxiety and depression, respectively. The Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS evaluated subjective social support. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of probable PTSD, anxiety, and depression were 33.7%, 43.8% and 38.6%, respectively. Approximately one fifth of participants suffered from all three conditions. Individuals who were female, felt initial fear during the earthquake, and had less social support were the most likely to have poor mental health. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that there are serious mental problems among the hard-hit survivors of the Yushu earthquake. Survivors at high risk for mental disorders should be specifically considered. The present study provides useful information for rebuilding and relief work.

  1. PROBLEMS OF PROTECTION OF URBAN AREAS FROM RADIONUCLIDES STRONTIUM-90 AND CAESIUM-137 AFTER TECHNOLOGICAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cheremisina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The methods of decontamination of radionuclides from soils are considered. The literature focuses on fixing radionuclides in soils and creating geochemical barriers that it is prevent the spread of pollution. The main disadvantage of these methods is exclude the possibility of building a territory. It is need to clean up the area to the sanitary and hygienic requirements for further use and then it is desirable to fix the residual activity. Carried out an analysis of forms of radionuclides fixation in soils and mechanics of this fixation, therewith revealed that Cs-137 fixed more strongly on mineral component of soil, than Sr-90, which is mainly in the acid-soluble and exchangeable form, and, as a consequence, passes into the liquid phase during soil deactivation more easily. Contaminated soil deactivation in the urbanized territory is possible by washing it by ferric chloride solution at a concentration 0.02-0.05 M and with an equimolar addition of an ammonium chloride. Therewith most efficient methods, which used in-situ conditions, are heap and convection leaching technologies with treatment degree, which not less than 80%. At the same time, the most efficient methods which used in-situ conditions are heap and the convection leaching. The hardware-technological scheme of a convection leaching is presented. Noted that ammonium salts additions slightly rising coefficient of treatment from Sr-90. Because ammonium salts aren’t expensive, their additions allow to obtain significant economic benefits due to decreasing of ferric chloride consumption, which is more valuable, and waste water volume reduction.

  2. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  3. Mental health problems among adults in tsunami-affected areas in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, Frits; Chakkraband, M L Somchai; Thienkrua, Warunee; Pengjuntr, Wachira; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Tantipiwatanaskul, Prawate; Mock, Philip A; Ekassawin, Suparat; Varangrat, Anchalee; Gotway, Carol; Sabin, Miriam; Tappero, Jordan W

    2006-08-02

    On December 26, 2004, an undersea earthquake occurred off the northwestern coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The tsunami that followed severely affected all 6 southwestern provinces of Thailand, where 5395 individuals died, 2991 were unaccounted for, and 8457 were injured. To assess the prevalence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression among individuals residing in areas affected by the tsunami in southern Thailand as part of a public health emergency response and rapid assessment. A multistage, cluster, population-based mental health survey was conducted from February 15 to 22, 2005, of random samples of displaced (n = 371) and nondisplaced persons in Phang Nga province (n = 322) and nondisplaced persons in the provinces of Krabi and Phuket (n = 368). Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire on handheld computers. A surveillance follow-up survey of the displaced persons (n = 371) and nondisplaced persons (n = 322) in Phang Na was conducted in September 2005. Medical Outcomes Study-36 Short-Form Health Survey SF-36 to assess self-perceived general health, bodily pain, and social and emotional functioning; the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire to assess tsunami-specific traumatic events; and the Hopkins Checklist-25 to detect symptoms of anxiety and depression. Participation rates for displaced and nondisplaced persons in the rapid assessment survey were 69% and 58%, respectively. Symptoms of PTSD were reported by 12% of displaced and 7% of nondisplaced persons in Phang Nga and 3% of nondisplaced persons in Krabi and Phuket. Anxiety symptoms were reported by 37% of displaced and 30% of nondisplaced persons in Phang Nga and 22% of nondisplaced persons in Krabi and Phuket. Symptoms of depression were reported by 30% of displaced and 21% of nondisplaced persons in Phang Nga and 10% of nondisplaced persons in Krabi and Phuket. In multivariate analysis, loss of livelihood was independently and significantly

  4. Using integrated research and interdisciplinary science: Potential benefits and challenges to managers of parks and protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Charles; Powell, Robert B.; Machlis, Gary; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; van Riper, Carena J.; von Ruschkowski, Eick; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Galipeau, Russell E.

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to build a case for utilizing interdisciplinary science to enhance the management of parks and protected areas. We suggest that interdisciplinary science is necessary for dealing with the complex issues of contemporary resource management, and that using the best available integrated scientific information be embraced and supported at all levels of agencies that manage parks and protected areas. It will take the commitment of park managers, scientists, and agency leaders to achieve the goal of implementing the results of interdisciplinary science into park management. Although such calls go back at least several decades, today interdisciplinary science is sporadically being promoted as necessary for supporting effective protected area management(e.g., Machlis et al. 1981; Kelleher and Kenchington 1991). Despite this history, rarely has "interdisciplinary science" been defined, its importance explained, or guidance provided on how to translate and then implement the associated research results into management actions (Tress et al. 2006; Margles et al. 2010). With the extremely complex issues that now confront protected areas (e.g., climate change influences, extinctions and loss of biodiversity, human and wildlife demographic changes, and unprecedented human population growth) information from more than one scientific discipline will need to be brought to bear in order to achieve sustained management solutions that resonate with stakeholders (Ostrom 2009). Although interdisciplinary science is not the solution to all problems, we argue that interdisciplinary research is an evolving and widely supported best practice. In the case of park and protected area management, interdisciplinary science is being driven by the increasing recognition of the complexity and interconnectedness of human and natural systems, and the notion that addressing many problems can be more rapidly advanced through interdisciplinary study and analysis.

  5. [The strategic research areas of a University Hospital: proposal of a quali-quantitative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzi, Elisa; Ardissino, Diego; Ferrari, Carlo; Vitale, Marco; Caminiti, Caterina

    2018-02-01

    This work aimed to objectively identify the main research areas at the University Hospital of Parma. To this end, a multidisciplinary working group, comprising clinicians, researchers, and hospital management, was formed to develop a shared quali-quantitative method. Easily retrievable performance indicators were selected from the literature (concerning bibliometric data and grant acquisition), and a scoring system developed to assign weights to each indicator. Subsequently, Research Team Leaders were identified from the hospital's "Research Plan", a document produced every three years which contains information on the main research themes carried out at each Department, involved staff and available resources, provided by health care professionals themselves. The selected performance indicators were measured for each Team Leader, and scores assigned, thus creating a ranking list. Through the analyses of the research themes of top Team Leaders, the Working Group identified the following five strategic research areas: (a) personalized treatment in oncology and hematology; (b) chronicization mechanisms in immunomediate diseases; (c) old and new risk factors for cardiovascular diseases; (d) nutritional disorders, metabolic and chronic-degenerative diseases; (e) molecular diagnostic and predictive markers. We have developed an objective method to identify a hospital's main research areas. Its application can guide resource allocation and can offer ways to value the work of professionals involved in research.

  6. Application of Operational Research Techniques in Operating Room Scheduling Problems: Literature Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyda Gür

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased healthcare costs are pushing hospitals to reduce costs and increase the quality of care. Operating rooms are the most important source of income and expense for hospitals. Therefore, the hospital management focuses on the effectiveness of schedules and plans. This study includes analyses of recent research on operating room scheduling and planning. Most studies in the literature, from 2000 to the present day, were evaluated according to patient characteristics, performance measures, solution techniques used in the research, the uncertainty of the problem, applicability of the research, and the planning strategy to be dealt within the solution. One hundred seventy studies were examined in detail, after scanning the Emerald, Science Direct, JSTOR, Springer, Taylor and Francis, and Google Scholar databases. To facilitate the identification of these studies, they are grouped according to the different criteria of concern and then, a detailed overview is presented.

  7. Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Janice; Brazier, John; O'Cathain, Alicia; Lloyd-Jones, Myfanwy; Paisley, Suzy

    2012-11-22

    To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or 'ill-being' were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms), autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

  8. Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connell Janice

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms, autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

  9. Some problems with non-inferiority tests in psychotherapy research: psychodynamic therapies as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2018-02-14

    In virtually every field of medicine, non-inferiority trials and meta-analyses with non-inferiority conclusions are increasingly common. This non-inferiority approach has been frequently used by a group of authors favoring psychodynamic therapies (PDTs), concluding that PDTs are just as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT). We focus on these examples to exemplify some problems associated with non-inferiority tests of psychological treatments, although the problems also apply to psychopharmacotherapy research, CBT research, and others. We conclude that non-inferiority trials have specific risks of different types of validity problems, usually favoring an (erroneous) non-inferiority conclusion. Non-inferiority trials require the definition of non-inferiority margins, and currently used thresholds have a tendency to be inflationary, not protecting sufficiently against degradation. The use of non-inferiority approaches can lead to the astonishing result that one single analysis can suggest both, superiority of the comparator (here: CBT) and non-inferiority of the other treatment (here PDT) at the same time. We provide recommendations how to improve the quality of non-inferiority trials, and we recommend to consider them among other criteria when evaluating manuscripts examining non-inferiority trials. If psychotherapeutic families (such as PDT and CBT) differ on the number of investigating trials, and in the fields of clinical applications, and in other validity aspects mentioned above, conclusions about their general non-inferiority are no more than a best guess, typically expressing the favored approach of the lead author.

  10. Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence: a review of psychological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Zhilinskaya,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed psychological research that consider the Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence. Based on the understanding of self-consciousness as a central adolescence new formation, we formulated a set of tasks of adolescence. It is shown that for the successful solution of age problems by teenagers on the Internet, specialized environments should be designed. Internet as a medium of teenagers’ socialization is characterized by a high degree of variety and uncontrollability. Behavior of adolescents on the Internet depends on the social and cultural context in which they live. The emergence of the Internet makes new demands on media competence of the teenager and his environment. Adolescents face online with a variety of risks. An essential resource for successful adolescent development is the presence of a person whom he trusts, with whom he can consult in difficult situations. The research plan involves the creation of Internet resources, contributing to the solution of teenagers’ problems age, as well as the mapping of the Internet in terms of its developmental potential.

  11. The Study of the Magnitude of the Research Problems before and after the Administrative and Management Interventions from the Faculty Members and Researchers' Viewpoint at Qom University of Medical Sciences , Qom, Iran, during 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darabi Sh.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: The examination of the research attractions in developed counties, and deficiencies and constraints in conducting researches can reveal invaluable implications. The researches carried out in recent decades are indicative of the fact that there have always been major constraints during the research conduction. Those countries which aspire to compete in the world should remove all the constraints and barriers, and attract the necessary attention on researches. Thus, the current study was intended to find the problems and limitations, and offer the needed interventions so as to overcome those problems.Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental (pre and post one. The participants of the study included those faculty members and researchers who had conducted at least a project as an administrator or a major contributor before and after intervention. In order to gather data, a self-designed questionnaire was filled in two phases; before and after the interventions. The questionnaire included demographics and information about research problems in the four areas of Research Project Preparation (RPP, Research Project Conduct (RPC, Administrative-Management and Personal Problems. Descriptive statistics and various statistical procedures tests were utilized to analyze the data.Results: The findings revealed that the mean of the magnitude of the research problems in RPP, RPC, administrative management and personal problems was a significant difference (P<0.001 before and after intervention. In RPP, lack of beneficial database bank in university, in RPC lack of budget, in Administrative-Management lack of knowledge accountant about corresponding activity and in Personal Problems lack of enough motivation for research were all having the highest intensity. Thus, after intervention the magnitude of the problem was reduced. Conclusion: In conclusion, it seems that bureaucratic rules, shortage of research budget, heavy work

  12. A Glimpse of Scientific Research on Fundamental Problems of Military and Civil Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1939-01-01

    Among the outstanding accomplishments of the last century is man's conquest of the air. That conquest began in 1903 when the Wright brothers made the first successful flight of an airplane at Kitty Hawk, N. C. Five years later the United States Government purchased its first airplane for the use of the Army, and began the training of officers for military flying. During the years immediately preceding the outbreak of the World War the Government and a meager aircraft industry had made important progress, but the Government, practically the only customer, had purchased less than 100 airplanes. In the meantime, leading European nations, sensing acutely the potentialities of aircraft in warfare, had made greater progress and had begun laying the foundations for the new science of aeronautics. The World War gave a remarkable impetus to the development of aeronautics and emphasized the need for organized research on the fundamental problems of flight. By act of Congress approved March 3, 1915, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics was created and charged with the duty of supervising, directing, and conducting fundamental scientific research and experiment in aeronautics. With the farsighted support of the Congress the Committee has led the world in the development of unique aeronautical research facilities in its laboratories at Langley Field, Va. The research programs include problems initiated by the Committee and its subcommittees and also investigations requested by the Army, the Navy, and the Civil Aeronautics Authority. The results of researches conducted under one control, serve without duplication of effort, the needs of all branches of aviation, civil and military, and exert a profound influence on the progress of aeronautics by improving the performance, efficiency, and safety of aircraft. A brief description of the results of some of the committee's researches and of the equipment employed will be found in the following pages.

  13. How Can We Improve Problem Solving in Undergraduate Biology? Applying Lessons from 30 Years of Physics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, A.-M.; Caballero, M. D.; Knight, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research. PMID:23737623

  14. How can we improve problem solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, A-M; Caballero, M D; Knight, J K

    2013-06-01

    If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research.

  15. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-08-31

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.

  16. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site's total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside

  17. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  18. Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwilliam, K.M.; Geerlings, H.

    1992-04-01

    This report has been prepared for the Strategic Analysis in Science and Technology Unit (SAST) of the Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development of the Commission of the European Communities. The background of the project to which this report contributes is a recognition of the growing impact of transportation on the environment, both as a function of growth in trade and as a leisure activity. The project is directed towards the elucidation of the many interactions between technology, transport and environment, in order to provide the Commission with (a) recommendations on the priorities for Community research and development in transport technology and other related areas of technology, and (b) an understanding of the implications of technological change on policy options, within the Community with regard to transport and environment and other related areas, such as energy and regional planning

  19. Means-end chains and laddering: An inventory of problems and an agenda for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Sørensen, Elin

    Executive summary 1. Means-end chains are a device used to understand how consumers mentally link products to self-relevant consequences. Means-end chains are usually measured by a method called laddering. 2. Means-end chains may fall short of tapping all relevant aspects of how consumers think...... about products. Specifically, nonverbal imagery, episodic information, and procedural knowledge are not included in means-end chains. 3. A number of methodological problems can be identified in the collection of means-end chain data. Major problems, which should be addressed in research, are methods...... to elicit the product attributes the laddering is to start with, the integration of a usage situation in the interview, and the basic decision on how much direct the respondent. 4. Concerning the coding of laddering data, a higher degree of transparency of the coding process would be desirable. 5...

  20. An Existential Perspective on Death Anxiety, Retirement, and Related Research Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, John W

    2017-06-01

    Aspects of existentialism relevant to existence and death anxiety (DA) are discussed. Included are the "thrownness" of existence, being-with-others, the motivational influence of inevitable death, the search for meaning, making the most of existence by taking responsibility for one's own life, and coping with existential isolation. The attempted separation of DA from object anxiety is a significant difficulty. The correlations among age, gender, and DA are variable. Personality and role-oriented problems in the transition to retirement are discussed along with Erikson's notion of "generativity" as an expression of the energy and purpose of mid-life. Furthermore, methodological and linguistic problems in DA research are considered. The article suggests qualitative methodologies as an interpersonal means of exploring DA within the contexts of psychotherapy and counselling.

  1. Study of a methodology of identifying important research problems by the PIRT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Urayama, Ryoichi; Komura, Ichiro; Furukawa, Takashi; Yusa, Noritaka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new methodology of identifying important research problems to be solved to improve the performance of some specific scientific technologies by the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process, which has been used as a methodology for demonstrating the validity of the best estimate simulation codes in USNRC licensing of nuclear power plants. It keeps the fundamental concepts of the original PIRT process but makes it possible to identify important factors affecting the performance of the technologies from the viewpoint of the figure of merit and problems associated with them, which need to be solved to improve the performance. Also in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed method by showing a specific example of the application to physical events or phenomena in objects having fatigue or SCC crack(s) under ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing. (author)

  2. The Teaching Model through Problem-Based Learning in a Course on Bibliographic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Cristina Hernández-Ching

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The experience of applying problem-based learning (PBL technique in the Bibliographic Research course from a Bachelor of English study plan of a public university during the first half of 2014 is shared. The investigation aimed to answer the following question: Does the problem-based learning technique in the Bibliographic Research course allows to implement the main tenets of the teaching model: epistemological foundation, learning theory, methodology and didactics, and communication processes? The research approach proposed was qualitative, and triangulation for measuring variables was implemented. The following instruments were applied: observation, experience record books, and focus groups. Furthermore, formative learning was measured by means of an online survey. Results of the instruments were categorized using technology-based tools such as Wordle (observation, NVivo (record books and MindNode (focus groups. A convenience sampling was used to collect data from eight students enrolled in the Bibliographic Research course, ten students of Integrated English II for non-English majors, and the researcher, as professor of the courses. It was determined that the PBL technique permitted to reach the main tenets of the teaching model. It was identified that the teacher was the main learner, and the one who benefited from the process, since a culture of knowledge, throughout the course, was created. It was also concluded that this technique allowed to develop twenty-first century skills. It would be valuable to quantify whether the development of the four basic skills of English, especially the conversation one, improves using the technique along with technologies.

  3. Drone swarm with free-space optical communication to detect and make deep decisions about physical problems for area surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazher, Wamidh Jalil; Ibrahim, Hadeel T.; Ucan, Osman N.; Bayat, Oguz

    2018-03-01

    This paper aims to design a drone swarm network by employing free-space optical (FSO) communication for detecting and deep decision making of topological problems (e.g., oil pipeline leak), where deep decision making requires the highest image resolution. Drones have been widely used for monitoring and detecting problems in industrial applications during which the drone sends images from the on-air camera video stream using radio frequency (RF) signals. To obtain higher-resolution images, higher bandwidth (BW) is required. The current study proposed the use of the FSO communication system to facilitate higher BW for higher image resolution. Moreover, the number of drones required to survey a large physical area exceeded the capabilities of RF technologies. Our configuration of the drones is V-shaped swarm with one leading drone called mother drone (DM). The optical decode-and-forward (DF) technique is used to send the optical payloads of all drones in V-shaped swarm to the single ground station through DM. Furthermore, it is found that the transmitted optical power (Pt) is required for each drone based on the threshold outage probability of FSO link failure among the onboard optical-DF drones. The bit error rate of optical payload is calculated based on optical-DF onboard processing. Finally, the number of drones required for different image resolutions based on the size of the considered topological area is optimized.

  4. 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC) Field Site Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, Mark D.

    2008-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has established the 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (300 Area IFRC) on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the Office of Science. The project is funded by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD). The purpose of the project is to conduct research at the 300 IFRC to investigate multi-scale mass transfer processes associated with a subsurface uranium plume impacting both the vadose zone and groundwater. The management approach for the 300 Area IFRC requires that a Field Site Management Plan be developed. This is an update of the plan to reflect the installation of the well network and other changes.

  5. Knapsack problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Hans; Pisinger, David

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen years have passed since the seminal book on knapsack problems by Martello and Toth appeared. On this occasion a former colleague exclaimed back in 1990: "How can you write 250 pages on the knapsack problem?" Indeed, the definition of the knapsack problem is easily understood even by a non-expert who will not suspect the presence of challenging research topics in this area at the first glance. However, in the last decade a large number of research publications contributed new results for the knapsack problem in all areas of interest such as exact algorithms, heuristics and approximation schemes. Moreover, the extension of the knapsack problem to higher dimensions both in the number of constraints and in the num­ ber of knapsacks, as well as the modification of the problem structure concerning the available item set and the objective function, leads to a number of interesting variations of practical relevance which were the subject of intensive research during the last few years. Hence, two years ago ...

  6. Accelerators for Society - TIARA 2012 Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    TIARA (Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area - Preparatory Phae) is an European Collaboration of Accelerator Technology, which by running research projects, technical, networks and infrastructural has a duty to integrate the research and technical communities and infrastructures in the global scale of Europe. The Collaboration gathers all research centers with large accelerator infrastructures. Other ones, like universities, are affiliated as associate members. TIARA-PP (preparatory phase) is an European infrastructural project run by this Consortium and realized inside EU-FP7. The paper presents a general overview of TIARA activities, with an introduction containing a portrait of contemporary accelerator technology and a digest of its applications in modern society.

  7. [Research on problem of exogenous pollution of Chinese medicine resources from perspective of circular economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Tian, Kan; Tian, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Based on the in-depth analysis of the current situation of the exogenous pollution of Chinese medicine resources, this research mainly discusses the intrinsic link and practical significance between the development of circular economy in Chinese medicine resources and the control of the problem of the exogenous pollution from the perspective of circular economy, and proposes some suggestions to develop the recycling economy of Chinese medicine resources from the establishment of legal system, mechanism of development, production norms, industry standards and regulatory system of the recycling of Chinese medicine resources. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. [Thought on several problems of clinical revaluation of post-marketing herb research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2010-06-01

    The revaluation of post-marketing herb is a complex research work, which concerns widely content and difficult to put it into practice. The starting of our country's revaluation post-marketing herb was comparatively late. It should profect it both in laws and regulations mechanism as well as technological specification. This article is try to focus on some attention problems in revaluation of postmarketing herb process. Such as the laws and regulations demand, the basement and the subject of revaluation of post-marketing herb.

  9. Black boxes on wheels: research challenges and ethical problems in MEA-based robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2016-01-01

    Robotic systems consisting of a neuron culture grown on a multielectrode array (MEA) which is connected to a virtual or mechanical robot have been studied for approximately 15 years. It is hoped that these MEA-based robots will be able to address the problem that robots based on conventional...... and that they are not likely to be solved within the field. After that, I discuss whether MEA-based robotics should be considered pop science. Finally, I investigate the ethical aspects of this research....

  10. Methods for structuring scientific knowledge from many areas related to aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration.

  11. Research capacity for childhood obesity prevention in Latin America: an area for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Diana C; Vorkoper, Susan; Kohl, Harold W; Caballero, Benjamin; Batis, Carolina; Jauregui, Alejandra; Mason, Jessica; Pratt, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The rise of childhood obesity in Latin America calls for research capacity to understand, monitor and implement strategies, policies and programmes to address it. The objective of the study was to assess current research capacity in Latin America related to childhood obesity, nutrition and physical activity. We conducted a search of peer-reviewed articles on childhood obesity in Latin America with at least one Latin American author from 2010 to May 2015. We coded 484 published articles for author affiliation, study subjects' nationality, research topic and study design and extracted a series of networks per research topic, study design and collaborating country for each of the countries. Obesity is the most frequently explored topic. Nutrition and obesity are somewhat better developed compared with physical activity and sedentary behaviour. There are numerous observational and cross-sectional studies, indicating either a lack of capacity required for more complex research or the extent of the problem and associated factors is still unknown. The low number of intervention studies and the near absence of policy articles suggest a void in research capacity. For childhood obesity, there is a clear need to build research capacity that documents the current state of the problem and design evidence-based prevention and intervention efforts. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  12. How are topics born? Understanding the research dynamics preceding the emergence of new areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo A. Salatino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to promptly recognise new research trends is strategic for many stakeholders, including universities, institutional funding bodies, academic publishers and companies. While the literature describes several approaches which aim to identify the emergence of new research topics early in their lifecycle, these rely on the assumption that the topic in question is already associated with a number of publications and consistently referred to by a community of researchers. Hence, detecting the emergence of a new research area at an embryonic stage, i.e., before the topic has been consistently labelled by a community of researchers and associated with a number of publications, is still an open challenge. In this paper, we begin to address this challenge by performing a study of the dynamics preceding the creation of new topics. This study indicates that the emergence of a new topic is anticipated by a significant increase in the pace of collaboration between relevant research areas, which can be seen as the ‘parents’ of the new topic. These initial findings (i confirm our hypothesis that it is possible in principle to detect the emergence of a new topic at the embryonic stage, (ii provide new empirical evidence supporting relevant theories in Philosophy of Science, and also (iii suggest that new topics tend to emerge in an environment in which weakly interconnected research areas begin to cross-fertilise.

  13. The Study of the Magnitude of the Research Problems before and after the Administrative and Management Interventions from the Faculty Members and Researchers' Viewpoint at Qom University of Medical Sciences , Qom, Iran, during 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Darabi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: The examination of the research attractions in developed counties, and deficiencies and constraints in conducting researches can reveal invaluable implications. The researches carried out in recent decades are indicative of the fact that there have always been major constraints during the research conduction. Those countries which aspire to compete in the world should remove all the constraints and barriers, and attract the necessary attention on researches. Thus, the current study was intended to find the problems and limitations, and offer the needed interventions so as to overcome those problems.

    Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental (pre and post one. The participants of the study included those faculty members and researchers who had conducted at least a project as an administrator or a major contributor before and after intervention. In order to gather data, a self-designed questionnaire was filled in two phases; before and after the interventions. The questionnaire included demographics and information about research problems in the four areas of Research Project Preparation (RPP, Research Project Conduct (RPC, Administrative-Management and Personal Problems. Descriptive statistics and various statistical procedures tests were utilized to analyze the data.

    Results: The findings revealed that the mean of the magnitude of the research problems in RPP, RPC, administrative management and personal problems was a significant difference (P<0.001 before and after intervention. In RPP, lack of beneficial database bank in university, in RPC lack of budget, in Administrative-Management lack of knowledge accountant about corresponding activity and in Personal Problems lack of enough motivation for research were all having the

  14. Measuring benefits of protected area management: trends across realms and research gaps for freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Vanessa M; Setterfield, Samantha A; Douglas, Michael M; Kennard, Mark J; Ferdinands, Keith

    2015-11-05

    Protected areas remain a cornerstone for global conservation. However, their effectiveness at halting biodiversity decline is not fully understood. Studies of protected area benefits have largely focused on measuring their impact on halting deforestation and have neglected to measure the impacts of protected areas on other threats. Evaluations that measure the impact of protected area management require more complex evaluation designs and datasets. This is the case across realms (terrestrial, freshwater, marine), but measuring the impact of protected area management in freshwater systems may be even more difficult owing to the high level of connectivity and potential for threat propagation within systems (e.g. downstream flow of pollution). We review the potential barriers to conducting impact evaluation for protected area management in freshwater systems. We contrast the barriers identified for freshwater systems to terrestrial systems and discuss potential measurable outcomes and confounders associated with protected area management across the two realms. We identify key research gaps in conducting impact evaluation in freshwater systems that relate to three of their major characteristics: variability, connectivity and time lags in outcomes. Lastly, we use Kakadu National Park world heritage area, the largest national park in Australia, as a case study to illustrate the challenges of measuring impacts of protected area management programmes for environmental outcomes in freshwater systems. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. ORGANIZATIONAL AND LEGAL RESEARCH OF INDICATORS OF INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN COUNTRYSIDE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbrozhek SI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For recent decades in Ukraine populations’ health indicators became quite serious negative trends: increased mortality rates among people of working age, morbidity, reduced life expectancy and more. It should also be noted that one of the main indicators of the state, its civilization and competitiveness is the degree of orientation of the state to improve the health of citizens, legal and organizational improvement of the healthcare sector. The financial and economic crisis has significantly exacerbated the problems associated with the provision of medical care in Ukraine, ensuring its availability and good quality. The current healthcare system is fair and complaints from the public, and the medical staff, it is still not able to adequately meet the needs of the population in healthcare, to ensure the availability, quality and timeliness of health services, adequate prevention of morbidity, mortality and more. The need for healthcare reform emphasizes the failure to ensure the proper conditions existing in state funding and to implement effective schemes for full competition in the healthcare and pharmaceutical provision in countryside areas is therefore, in Ukraine implemented new organizational and legal approaches in reforming the health service. That is why in Ukraine implementing processes that are transparent, will reduce unnecessary costs for public administration and improve accessibility of the medications in countryside areas of different clinical and pharmacological, classification, nomenclature, legal and regulatory groups used in the pharmacotherapy of diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods. The organizational and legal, forensic and pharmaceutical researches were conducted in countryside areas at the regional level on example of the Kharkiv region on the basis of 62 public healthcare institutions, 16 public enterprises of healthcare and health companies of other ownership. Materials of the research were: the

  16. Communicating Academic Research Findings to IS Professionals: An Analysis of Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lang

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Because research findings often do not have direct or immediate relevance to IS professionals in industry, the question arises as to how those findings should be disseminated to them in a suitable form at such time as they do become relevant. A central argument of this paper is that the traditional mechanisms whereby academic researchers disseminate their work are prone to numerous communication breakdowns, and that much work which could potentially make valuable contributions to practice is haplessly lost within the vaults of academia. Using the well-known Shannon & Weaver communication model, three major problems are analyzed: the choice of dissemination channels, language barriers, and the alienation of academia from industry.

  17. PROBLEM OF RESEARCH OF EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IN FOREIGN PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Valentinovna Shipova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The review of psychology and pedagogical researches of the mentally retarded children devoted to studying of a problem of emotional development in foreign science and practice is presented in article. Various approaches to an assessment of the importance of violations of the emotional sphere of the personality at mentally retarded children for all mental development of the child are considered, need of the accounting of emotional frustration of mentally retarded children for their education and education, and also social adaptation and integration into sociocultural and educational space is discussed. Research of emotional development of mentally retarded children in the course of training is important for development of programs of psychology and pedagogical diagnostics and correction of emotional violations at this category of school students, formation of their self-control, development of the emotional relations.

  18. Implementation of research results to prevent land degradation in viticultural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués Pérez, Maria Jose; Bienes, Ramon; de Benito, Alejandro; Velasco, Ana

    2013-04-01

    This study shows the lack of interest of land users to establish contact with scientific institutions and their reluctance to change their traditional way to manage their soils. It is conducted in Madrid and Castilla La Mancha, Spain, where the production of wine is an important source of income. The basic research was dealing with sustainable land management in sloping vineyards to prevent soil degradation. The usual reduced tillage practice in the area is compared with different cover grasses in the inter-rows of vines. The results demonstrate that these managements are able to increase soil organic matter, improve infiltration, reduce runoff and soil loss and increase soil aggregate stability. Nevertheless a decrease in production is noticed in some permanent cover treatments. A survey to know the feasibility of implementation of this sustainable land management was conducted. Less than 5% of vine growers coming to cellars and cooperatives were willing to be interviewed. Finally 64 vine growers answered a questionnaire regarding different aspects of their environmental concerns, age, land management practices and economic situation. The majority of respondents (82%) are worried about erosion problems in their sloping vineyards. They were informed about the results of the abovementioned project but only 32% of them would change the cultivation by grasses in the inter-rows. The respondents were not old (72% below 50 years old), and the agriculture was not their first activity (69% had other different sources of income). It is remarkable that they have some misunderstandings and lack of knowledge in questions regarding soil conservation. Only 3% of them receive some kind of economic aid from the institutions to avoid land degradation. This could be related to the small or medium size of their lands as 87% of them have plots smaller than 50 ha. The extension services and policy makers have to face this situation to achieve the proper implementation of scientific

  19. Overhanging Features and the SLM/DMLS Residual Stresses Problem: Review and Future Research Need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert E. Patterson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A useful and increasingly common additive manufacturing (AM process is the selective laser melting (SLM or direct metal laser sintering (DMLS process. SLM/DMLS can produce full-density metal parts from difficult materials, but it tends to suffer from severe residual stresses introduced during processing. This limits the usefulness and applicability of the process, particularly in the fabrication of parts with delicate overhanging and protruding features. The purpose of this study was to examine the current insight and progress made toward understanding and eliminating the problem in overhanging and protruding structures. To accomplish this, a survey of the literature was undertaken, focusing on process modeling (general, heat transfer, stress and distortion and material models, direct process control (input and environmental control, hardware-in-the-loop monitoring, parameter optimization and post-processing, experiment development (methods for evaluation, optical and mechanical process monitoring, imaging and design-of-experiments, support structure optimization and overhang feature design; approximately 143 published works were examined. The major findings of this study were that a small minority of the literature on SLM/DMLS deals explicitly with the overhanging stress problem, but some fundamental work has been done on the problem. Implications, needs and potential future research directions are discussed in-depth in light of the present review.

  20. Prospective areas in the production technology of scientific equipment for space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslavets, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The average labor of individual types of operations in the percentage ratio of the total labor consumption of manufacturing scientific instruments and apparatus for space research is presented. The prospective areas in the production technology of billet, machining, mechanical assembly, installation and assembly, adjustment and regulation and testing and control operations are noted. Basic recommendations are made with respect to further reduction of labor consumption and an increase in the productivity of labor when manufacturing scientific equipment for space research.

  1. A review of research on the problem of aggression inhibitors (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers in the genesis of the formation of aggressive behavior inextricably consider proagressive and constraining, or inhibiting, aggressive manifestations of structure. The second part of the article deals with a theoretical overview of the problem of aggression inhibitors, which covers the latest Russian and foreign research aimed at studying the individual manifestations of factors deterring aggression. For basis for the analysis we chose classification of personality structures inhibiting aggressive manifestations, proposed by F.S. Safuanov, which includes values, socio-normative, dispositional, emotional, communicative, intellectual restraining structure and psychological protective mechanisms. We made conclusion that the problem of aggression inhibitors currently stands on the threshold of a new phase of the study, that is to provide a holistic model, including illegal aggressive behavior, taking into account not only the socio-psychological characteristics of "aggressor" and his victims, and personality structures that promote and inhibiting aggression, but also covering a wide range of inhibitors of aggression, acting through different psychological mechanisms.

  2. Features and Characteristics of Problem Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceker, Eser; Ozdamli, Fezile

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the years, there appears to be an increase in Problem Based Learning applications in education; and Problem Based Learning related research areas. The main aim of this research is to underline the fundamentals (basic elements) of Problem Based Learning, investigate the dimensions of research approached to PBL oriented areas (with a look…

  3. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Moubarac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

  4. Twenty third scientific conference on research-scientific problems of constructing mine buildings and metallurgical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiadrowski, W

    1978-01-01

    Annual conference was held in Krynica from 16-23 September 1977. One hundred and nineteen papers were delivered, of these 24 papers were on mine buildings. It was noted that damage caused by underground coal mining is prevalent and characterized by a tendency to increase. In the middle of the 1970s damages paid by mines (mainly by coal mines) reached 5 billion zlotys yearly. Damages which were not compensated, and social cost of mining damages are not included in the calculation. The following problems were discussed: interaction between foundations of buildings with ground in areas affected by deformations; influnce of underground coal mining on properties of soil; improving construction of large industrial plants located on grounds characterized by surface deformations; influence of underground coal mining on deformations of walls of sedimentation tanks; complex utilization of mined deposits in the Upper Silesian basin, Rybnik basin and in the Lublin black coal basin (coal and other minerals). (In Polish)

  5. Way Search to Research: from Academic Exercises in Architecture to Scientific Investigations into Actual Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintaras Stauskis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. An interest in doctoral studies reflects the overall status of the scientist in the country in general and the role of science in the architect profession in particular. The article analyses the basic channels of how the students of architecture search for and find the ways to transfer themselves from the study area into an academic research environment. In order to figure out general trends and to outline the differences and similarities of doctoral studies that could further facilitate cooperation, the paper presents the thematic outputs of doctoral programmes in architecture schools in Vilnius, Riga, Venice, Jelgava and Weimar. With reference to the example of the Faculty of Architecture, VGTU, the trends towards developing research activities are analysed taking into account three interconnected branches of architecture: urban design, building architecture and landscape architecture. The cooperation and coordination of academic and research activities in wider European space is taking place upon common interest based on the specificities of each school and priorities of the chosen region. The awareness of global and regional processes in architectural research is an important point for the present and coming generations of researchers in Europe as they are building their careers on the basis of investigation into the options of the local applications of global competences in a cross-professional and inter-disciplinary way.

  6. Man-Computer Symbiosis Through Interactive Graphics: A Survey and Identification of Critical Research Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Patricia A.

    The purpose of this report was to determine the research areas that appear most critical to achieving man-computer symbiosis. An operational definition of man-computer symbiosis was developed by: (1) reviewing and summarizing what others have said about it, and (2) attempting to distinguish it from other types of man-computer relationships. From…

  7. CG-DAR-1: Guide to the declassified areas of nuclear energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    This guide, which is based on classification of information by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and on subsequent declassification actions by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors, is intended to identify those areas of nuclear research and development that have been removed from the Restricted Data (RD) category and declassified

  8. Social-ecological research in urban natural areas: an emergent process for integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle L. Johnson; D. S. Novem Auyeung; Nancy F. Sonti; Clara C. Pregitzer; Heather L. McMillen; Richard Hallett; Lindsay K. Campbell; Helen M. Forgione; Mina Kim; Sarah Charlop-Powers; Erika S. Svendsen

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the structure and function of urban landscapes requires integrating social and ecological research. Here, we integrate parallel social and ecological assessments of natural areas within New York City. We examined social data (from a rapid assessment of park use and meaning, collected at a park zone level) alongside ecological data (froma plot-based...

  9. Research on the Value of AACSB Business Accreditation in Selected Areas: A Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    The AACSB claims that its accreditation provides evidence of business school quality in a variety of areas. This paper reviews and synthesizes existing research on the value of AACSB accreditation on four key topics of importance to schools, prospective students, and employers: effect on obtaining quality students, students' job placement, faculty…

  10. Engineering Research and Development and Technology thrust area report FY92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langland, R.T.; Minichino, C. [eds.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff and the technology needed to support current and future LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) to identify key technologies and (2) to conduct high-quality work to enhance our capabilities in these key technologies. To help focus our efforts, we identify technology thrust areas and select technical leaders for each area. The thrust areas are integrated engineering activities and, rather than being based on individual disciplines, they are staffed by personnel from Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and other LLNL organizations, as appropriate. The thrust area leaders are expected to establish strong links to LLNL program leaders and to industry; to use outside and inside experts to review the quality and direction of the work; to use university contacts to supplement and complement their efforts; and to be certain that we are not duplicating the work of others. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes activities conducted within the Program for the fiscal year 1992. Its intent is to provide timely summaries of objectives, theories, methods, and results. The nine thrust areas for this fiscal year are: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Emerging Technologies; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Microwave and Pulsed Power; Nondestructive Evaluation; and Remote Sensing and Imaging, and Signal Engineering.

  11. Awareness Research Concerning the Existence and Implications of the Avrig – Scorei – Fagaras protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratucu G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based upon a survey conducted in the protected area of Avrig - Scorei - Făgăraş from Romania. The main purpose of the article is to determine the awareness, attitudes and ways in which the inhabitants of a protected area may act towards the conservation of the area and support the community development. The research was based on a direct interview, using a questionnaire comprising 20 direct questions. The sampling method was probabilistic, with a multistage sampling, as it allows the possibility to extrapolate the results obtained for the entire research population. The systematic error is of +/-4%. The results showed a reduced awareness of the residents about the existence, functioning and support of this protected area, as well as a positive approach of the local public institutions involved in the management of the area. The local institutions have started to enforce the rules and regulations concerning the protection of the environment in this area, still with a long way to run, according to the opinions of the locals, until reaching the EU standards in this field.

  12. Engineering Research and Development and Technology thrust area report FY92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langland, R.T.; Minichino, C.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff and the technology needed to support current and future LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) to identify key technologies and (2) to conduct high-quality work to enhance our capabilities in these key technologies. To help focus our efforts, we identify technology thrust areas and select technical leaders for each area. The thrust areas are integrated engineering activities and, rather than being based on individual disciplines, they are staffed by personnel from Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and other LLNL organizations, as appropriate. The thrust area leaders are expected to establish strong links to LLNL program leaders and to industry; to use outside and inside experts to review the quality and direction of the work; to use university contacts to supplement and complement their efforts; and to be certain that we are not duplicating the work of others. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes activities conducted within the Program for the fiscal year 1992. Its intent is to provide timely summaries of objectives, theories, methods, and results. The nine thrust areas for this fiscal year are: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Emerging Technologies; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Microwave and Pulsed Power; Nondestructive Evaluation; and Remote Sensing and Imaging, and Signal Engineering

  13. ASSESSMENT FORM - NEW IMPROVEMENT OF ACTIONS: CONCENTRATION AND RESEARCH AREAS / CURRICULUM STRUCTURE / FUNDRAISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema MP Calderon

    Full Text Available Objective: This review aims to develop a critical and current analysis of the basic structure of a Postgraduate program for proposing improvement actions and new evaluation criteria. Method: To examine the items that are areas of concentration (AC, research lines (LP, research projects (PP, curricular structure and fundraising were consulted the Area Document, the 2013 Evaluation Report and the Assessment Sheets of Medicine III programs, evaluated in the 2010-2012 period. Results: Consistency is recommended especially among AC, LP and PP, with genuine link between activities and permanent teachers skills and based on structured curriculum in the education of the student. The Program Proposal interfere, and much, in qualifying a program. The curriculum should provide subsidy to the formation of the researcher, through the core subjects, and development of PP, being the concept of disciplines to support lines and research projects. Fundraise should be set out in research projects and in the CV-Lattes. The area recommended that at least 40-50% of permanent teachers present fundraising and the minimum 20-25% of these teachers to have productivity scholarship PQ / CNPq during the triennium. Conclusion: It is necessary to promote wide discussion and find a consensus denominator for these issues. The actions should contribute to the improvement of evaluation forms and certainly for the qualification of the programs but graduate.

  14. Challenges for EURATOM research and training in the frame of the European 'Higher Education' And 'Research' areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, G. Van

    2009-01-01

    The paper is intended to answer two major questions of the modern society: 1) What are the challenges for EURATOM Research and Training in the frame of the European 'Higher Education' and 'Research' areas? (main stakeholders); 2) What kind of response is offered by the EURATOM RD and DD and E and T programmes in nuclear fission and radiation protection? (scientific and societal impact). The actions of the research policy in the EU are not conducted for the sake of acquiring Knowledge as a goal per se, but as a support to other EU policies, in particular, the Energy policy. In the area of fission and radiation protection, this Community policy implies the co-operation of all stakeholders (most of them participate in the EURATOM programmes), that is: research organisations (public and private, power and medical applications, etc); systems suppliers (e.g. nuclear vendors, engineering companies, etc); energy providers (e.g. electric utilities, heat and/or hydrogen vendors, etc); nuclear regulatory bodies and associated technical safety organizations (TSO); education and training (E and T) institutions, and, in particular, universities; civil society and the international institutional framework (IAEA and OECD/NEA). The emphasis in the paper is on the improvements all along the history of nuclear fission power (Generations I, II and III) as well as on the visionary innovation proposed by the 'Generation IV International Forum' (GIF). International research (in particular, EURATOM), in this area is guided by the four 'GIF Technology Goals for industry and society', namely: sustainability: e.g. enhanced fuel utilisation and optimal waste management; economics: e.g. minimisation of costs of MWe installed and MWh generated; safety and reliability: e.g. robust safety architecture, no need for off-site measures; proliferation resistance and physical protection: e.g. absence of separated Pu. EURATOM research and training is presented in the broader context of the new EU policy

  15. A risk characterization of safety research areas for integral fast reactor program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Cahalan, J.E.; Hill, D.J.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Tibbrook, R.W.; Wei, T.Y.; Wright, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper characterizes the areas of integral fast reactor (IFR) safety research in terms of their importance in addressing the risk of core disruption sequences for innovative designs. Such sequences have traditionally been determined to constitute the primary risk to public health and safety. All core disruption sequences are folded into four fault categories: classic unprotected (unscrammed) events; loss of decay heat; local fault propagation; and failure to critical reactor structures. Event trees are used to describe these sequences and the areas in the IFR safety and related base technology research programs are discussed with respect to their relevance in addressing the key issues in preventing or delimiting core disruptive sequences. Thus a measure of potential for risk reduction is obtained for guidance in establishing research priorities

  16. A risk characterization of safety research areas for Integral Fast Reactor program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Cahalan, J.E.; Hill, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper characterizes the areas of Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) safety research in terms of their importance in addressing the risk of core disruption sequences for innovative designs. Such sequences have traditionally been determined to constitute the primary risk to public health and safety. All core disruption sequences are folded into four fault categories: classic unprotected (unscrammed) events; loss of decay heat; local fault propagation; and failure of critical reactor structures. Event trees are used to describe these sequences and the areas in the IFR Safety and related Base Technology research programs are discussed with respect to their relevance in addressing the key issues in preventing or delimiting core disruptive sequences. Thus a measure of potential for risk reduction is obtained for guidance in establishing research priorites

  17. Temas e problemas nos projetos de pesquisa Thems and problems in research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Bianchi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O ponto de partida da atividade cienífica é o espanto e a admiração perante o desconhecido que provocam a imaginação científica, conduzindo o investigador à escolha de uma dada temática. Relevância para o mundo real e contribuição para um campo específico do conhecimento são, aqui, critérios de definição temática. Para o cientista, o tema de pesquisa é o terreno sobre o qual ele formulará problemas relevantes de investigação capazes de suprir lacunas em nossos conhecimentos. Tais problemas devem ser construídos de tal maneira que suas soluções não só esclareçam aspectos até então não explicados do tema, como apontem para novos problemas, ou seja, futuras investigações científicas. Constatando a crescente exigência de monografias de conclusão de curso para a obtenção de título nos cursos de graduação, o artigo procura construir um guia para a definição de temas e a formulação de pesquisa nas ciências humanas. Para tanto, procederá a uma reconstrução metodológica do caminho percorrido por C. Wright Mills em sua obra The power elite. Palavras-chave: Metodologia da pesquisa. Pesquisa cientifica. Problemas científicos. The starting point of the scientific activity is the puzzle and admiration in face of the unknown, which, certainly, will challenge the scientific imagination, leading the researcher in the choice of a certain theme. Relevance for the real world and contribution for a specific field of knowledge are the basic criteria for the thematic definition used here. For the scientist, the theme of the research is the base to formulate relevant research problems able to fill in the gaps of our knowledge. Such problems must be built in such a way that is solutions will not only clarify some aspects of the theme that remained not explained but also provide a path for new questions, i.e., for new scientifc researches to come. As there is a growing demand of under-graduate monographs for

  18. THE PROBLEM OF PROTECTING THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN SPATIAL PLANNING IN RURAL AREAS IN SOUTH-EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusława Baran-Zgłobicka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Local planning in Poland encompasses spatial development conditions and directions study for a district (“study” and a local spatial development plan (“local plan”. The study is the only planning document that is required for the entire area of a district. It outlines directions of spatial policy and spatial development. Detailed investigations encompassed nine functionally diverse rural districts in SE Poland. The objective was to assess the description of environmental determinants and the problems of natural resources protection presented in the studies. The adequacy of the adopted approach to the subject matter and its correlation with spatial development directions were analysed. The analysed studies usually provide an exhaustive description of (a natural resources and the nature conservation system along with restrictions in environment use, and (b the problem of raw materials. Not all studies, however, highlight the local, very often unique characteristics of the natural environment. Natural hazards are marginalized in some studies. There is also a lack of concrete solutions for the protection of space and improvement of spatial order.

  19. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF IDEAS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY IN SPORTS: PROBLEMS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Vladimirovna Vardanyan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the research of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. On the basis of analysis of ideas about psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form the necessity of overcoming the fragmentation and lack of system is substantiated. The authors state that one and the same sports situation can constructively or destructively affect the psychological safety of direct or indirect participants of sports events. In this context, it is important to create the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports. Great attention is paid to systematization of the content of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. The created models of words and expressions that convey ideas about this phenomenon are of particular value. In the structure of the concept the dominant meanings, expressed in the nucleus, and additional meanings, related to the periphery of the concept are distinguished.Purpose: to explore the ideas of psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form; to determine ways of overcoming the conceptual psycholinguistic problems in the process of experimental research of psychological safety in sports; to create the model of words and expressions which are used to verbalize the concept “psychological safety in sports”.Methodology: theoretical analysis of psychological and linguistic literature, creation of the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research, modeling of the conceptual ideas of psychological safety in sports.Results: psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports, the model of content and structure of the corresponding concept.Practical implications: Pedagogical Psychology, Sports Psychology, Philology, Psycholinguistics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-11

  20. Managing Ethical Problems in Qualitative Research Involving Vulnerable Populations, Using a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk RN, PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the researcher's study was to examine the meaning that intimate partners of female rape victims attached to their lived experiences after the rape. The conduct of qualitative research concerning non-offending partners of female rape victims, however, often involves multifaceted ethical and practical challenges, which can be managed through the use of pilot studies. The pilot study described in this report had three objectives. The first was to pretest and refine the proposed method for locating, accessing, and recruiting intimate partners of female rape victims, within the first two weeks after the rape, for participation in a six-month longitudinal study. The second objective was to identify and prevent all possible risk factors in the proposed recruitment and data collection methods that could harm the participants' safety during the main study. The third objective was to determine the feasibility of the main study, in terms of the limited financial and human resources available. The pilot phase was valuable in identifying ethical and methodological problems during the recruitment of participants and collection of data. It allowed for methodological adjustments prior to the main study and confirmed the feasibility of the overall research design. A pilot, pretesting phase is therefore seen as an essential component of a qualitative study involving a vulnerable population.

  1. A top priority problem of national radiation protection - proper disposal of research reactor spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, N.; Matausek, M.V.; Jovic, V.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents basic facts about RA research reactor at the Vinca Institute. The present state of the RA reactor spent fuel storage pool appears to be a serious safety and radiological problem, which must be solved urgently, independent of the decision about the future status of the reactor itself. The following paragraphs describe current activities on improving storage conditions of the research reactor RA spent fuel. Activities performed so far, concerning identification and improvement of the spent fuel storage conditions are presented. These are verification of radiation protection measures, radiological and chemical analyses, visual inspection and photographing, safety analyses and nuclear criticality studies.A project for long-term solution of the research reactor spent fuel storage is proposed. In order to minimise further corrosion and establish strict control of all the relevant technological parameters of the utility, improvement of conditions for disposal of the fuel in the existing storage, is foreseen in the first phase. New dry storage for long-term storing of the spent fuel should be built during the second phase of the project. Particular attention is paid to the activities related to radiation protection and waste treatment, starting from standard monitoring and control, radiological analyses, regulations and legislation, to complicated handling of high level radioactive waste. (authors)

  2. Problems and Tasks of TRAINING at Courses for Enhancement of Qualification in the Radioactive Waste Management Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I. A.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Batyukhnova, O. G.; Shcherbatova, T. D.; Ojovan, M. I.; Arustamov, A. E.

    2002-01-01

    Requirements to the professional competence of the personnel engaged in the area of the radioactive waste management are increased. Higher school cannot supply the branch with the qualified personnel; therefore special attention should be given to the system of staff retraining and to the increase of their qualification. In that paper the analysis of SIA ''Radon'' experience on the organization and carrying out training at courses of qualification improvement is represented. The main criterion of the analysis is the research of an education efficiency. Also here the basic directions of the training process improving are submitted as well as the requirements that should be considered when forming the teaching staff and trainees groups

  3. The Usefulness of Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches and Methods in Researching Problem-Solving Ability in Science Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyisi, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Research in science education is to discover the truth which involves the combination of reasoning and experiences. In order to find out appropriate teaching methods that are necessary for teaching science students problem-solving skills, different research approaches are used by educational researchers based on the data collection and analysis…

  4. Benchmark problem for IAEA coordinated research program (CRP-3) on GCR afterheat removal. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shoji; Shiina, Yasuaki; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hishida, Makoto; Sudo, Yukio

    1995-08-01

    In this report, detailed data which are necessary for the benchmark analysis of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Program (CRP-3) on 'Heat Transport and Afterheat Removal for Gas-cooled Reactors under Accident Conditions' are described concerning about the configuration and sizes of the cooling panel test apparatus, experimental data and thermal properties. The test section of the test apparatus is composed of pressure vessel (max. 450degC) containing an electric heater (max. 100kW, 600degC) and cooling panels surrounding the pressure vessel. Gas pressure is varied from vacuum to 1.0MPa in the pressure vessel. Two experimental cases are selected as benchmark problems about afterheat removal of HTGR, described as follows, The experimental conditions are vacuum inside the pressure vessel and heater output 13.14kW, and helium gas pressure 0.73MPa inside the pressure vessel and heater output 28.79kW. Benchmark problems are to calculate temperature distributions on the outer surface of pressure vessel and heat transferred to the cooling panel using the experimental data. The analytical result of temperature distribution on the pressure vessel was estimated +38degC, -29degC compared with the experimental data, and analytical result of heat transferred from the surface of pressure vessel to the cooling panel was estimated max. -11.4% compared with the experimental result by using the computational code -THANPACST2- of JAERI. (author)

  5. Assessing Risks to Wildlife Populations from Multiple Stressors: Overview of the Problem and Research Needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne R. Munns, Jr.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife populations are experiencing increasing pressure from human-induced changes in the landscape. Stressors including agricultural and urban land use, introduced invasive and exotic species, nutrient enrichment, direct human disturbance, and toxic chemicals directly or indirectly influence the quality and quantity of habitat used by terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. Governmental agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are required to assess risks to wildlife populations, in its broadest definition, that result from exposure to these stressors, yet considerable uncertainty exists with respect to how such assessments should be conducted. This uncertainty is compounded by questions concerning the interactive effects of co-occurring stressors, appropriate spatial scales of analysis, extrapolation of response data among species and from organisms to populations, and imperfect knowledge and use of limited data sets. Further, different risk problems require varying degrees of sophistication, methodological refinement, and data quality. These issues suggest a number of research needs to improve methods for wildlife risk assessments, including continued development of population dynamics models to evaluate the effects of multiple stressors at varying spatial scales, methods for extrapolating across endpoints and species with reasonable confidence, stressor-response relations and methods for combining them in predictive and diagnostic assessments, and accessible data sets describing the ecology of terrestrial and aquatic species. Case study application of models and methods for assessing wildlife risk will help to demonstrate their strengths and limitations for solving particular risk problems.

  6. The rising tide of ocean diseases: Unsolved problems and research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvell, Drew; Aronson, Richard; Baron, Nancy; Connell, Joseph; Dobson, Andrew P.; Ellner, Steve; Gerber, Leah R.; Kim, Kiho; Kuris, Armand M.; McCallum, Hamish; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McKay, Bruce; Porter, James; Pascual, Mercedes; Smith, Garriett; Sutherland, Katherine; Ward, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    New studies have detected a rising number of reports of diseases in marine organisms such as corals, molluscs, turtles, mammals, and echinoderms over the past three decades. Despite the increasing disease load, microbiological, molecular, and theoretical tools for managing disease in the world's oceans are under-developed. Review of the new developments in the study of these diseases identifies five major unsolved problems and priorities for future research: (1) detecting origins and reservoirs for marine diseases and tracing the flow of some new pathogens from land to sea; (2) documenting the longevity and host range of infectious stages; (3) evaluating the effect of greater taxonomic diversity of marine relative to terrestrial hosts and pathogens; (4) pinpointing the facilitating role of anthropogenic agents as incubators and conveyors of marine pathogens; (5) adapting epidemiological models to analysis of marine disease.

  7. Legal problem research on surrogacy%代孕问题法律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶

    2015-01-01

    Along with social progress and development, the application of surrogacy is increasingly frequent. It overturns original reproductive concept and way, at the same time through the existing legal system. Conduct legal research and legal problems of surrogacy regulation, is quite necessary.%随着社会的进步和发展,代孕这一人类辅助生殖技术在生活中的应用也日渐频繁.它颠覆了原有的生殖观念和方式,同时冲击着现有的法律制度.对代孕问题进行法律研究和法律规制,相当必要.

  8. Power Quality Problems Mitigation using Dynamic Voltage Restorer in Egypt Thermal Research Reactor (ETRR-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, T.; Ayad, N.M.; Abdel Haleam, A.; Mahmoud, M.

    2013-01-01

    Egypt thermal research reactor (ETRR-2) was subjected to several Power Quality Problems such as voltage sags/swells, harmonics distortion, and short interruption. ETRR-2 encompasses a wide range of loads which are very sensitive to voltage variations and this leads to several unplanned shutdowns of the reactor due to trigger of the Reactor Protection System (RPS). The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) has recently been introduced to protect sensitive loads from voltage sags and other voltage disturbances. It is considered as one of the most efficient and effective solution. Its appeal includes smaller size and fast dynamic response to the disturbance. This paper describes a proposal of a DVR to improve power quality in ETRR-2 electrical distribution systems . The control of the compensation voltage is based on d-q-o algorithm. Simulation is carried out by Matlab/Simulink to verify the performance of the proposed method

  9. Researches on Problems in College Students'Grammar Learning and Countermeasures%Researches on Problems in College Students' Grammar Learning and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖芳

    2016-01-01

    Grammar is the guiding rules of language, and a good mastery of grammar is the basis of English learning. This paper starts from the problems in college students' current grammar learning and put forwards some strategies to improve their English grammar.

  10. Problem solving in physics: research review, analysis, and a methodological proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Fávero

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on problem solving in Physics based on the scientific articles published in periodicals of the related field of study. The articles considered for this study were published in the period between the end of the 70`s until 1999. A categorization of the publications , according to the issue investigated, the theoretical background used, the research method adopted, the results and conclusions are considered as a starting point in order to present a research profile of the field of study. Next, this profile is discussed and analyzed , pointing out the convergent aspects that characterize the field. Taking this analysis into account, the following thesis (based on Fávero`s proposal, 2000 is defended: in order to generate tools for the teaching practice of Physics through the study of problem solving, a method that substitutes the idea of knowledge transmission in the communication processes that takes place in the classroom should be developed. This method should comprise the idea of interlocution (Vion, 2000 which focuses on social interaction as a means to reveal metacognitive regulations of the subjects, pariticipants in the process, and their development of awareness in relation to a conceptual field (Vergnaud, 1990 – Physics, in this case. The analysis of these processes considers the verbal exchanges among the subjects (Bromberg & Chabrol, 1999 developed in the situation of interaction. This thesis is supported by the articulation of concepts in Psychology, including its interface with linguistics, such as conceptual field, development of awareness and acts of speech, which are reconsidered in this study.

  11. RESEARCH ON ARGES RIVER FISH FAUNA IN BUDEASA-GOLESTI AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Mihaela Truţă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arges River was subject to periodic ichthyologic, hydrobiological and hydrological research. By its content and approach the present paper shows a series of research on fish fauna in Budeasa-Golesti area of Arges River, Pitesti. By research presented in the study we sought to evaluate the state and evolution of fish fauna in the city reservoirs, Pitesti area, over the last 30 years, trying to highlight the causes that led to the current situation and to propose measures for the conservation of natural fish fauna in the future. Fish fauna in Pitesti area currently consists of 14 species belonging to four families: Cyprinidae (9 species, Cobitidae (1 species, Esocidae (1 species and Percidae (3 species. Most species live naturally in lakes studied except for one species Pseudorasbora parva which was introduced accidentally. The research undertaken to reflect changes in the fish fauna in the last 30 years, indicates an increase in the number of species, either through deliberate stocking for sport fishing purposes or due to changes in biotope favouring the development of certain species which were accidental in the past.

  12. Activities of Nuclear Research Institute Rez in the area of hydrogen technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucek, A.; Janik, L.; Misak, J.

    2010-01-01

    NRI is a research institution established in 1955. Nowadays, the Institute provides wide range of expertise and services for operators of the nuclear power plants in the Czech Republic and abroad, supports Czech central state institutions in the domains of strategic energy planning and development, management of radioactive waste (for the Ministry of Trade and Industry), provides independent expertise for the State Office of Nuclear Safety, performs activities in the area of exploitation of ionising radiation and irradiation services for basic and applied research, health service and industry, performs research and provides services for radioactive waste disposal, production of radiopharmaceuticals, education and training of experts and scientific specialists and performs many other activities. With the gradual changes in energy policy, hydrogen economy becomes one of the important topics related to nuclear energy. NRI is participating in the research and development in this area and as a member of the Czech Hydrogen Technology Platform is currently the leader in this area in the country. To promote hydrogen economy, NRI prepared and participated in several demonstration projects. Studies on production of hydrogen in current and future nuclear power plants are performed as well. (authors)

  13. Reproductive health problems and health seeking behavior of female sex workers in Sabon Gari Local Government Area, Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L O Omokanye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sexual and reproductive health needs of sex workers have been neglected both in research and public health interventions. Among the reasons for this are the condemnation, stigma and ambiguous legal status of sex work in Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the reproductive health problems and health-seeking behavior of brothel-based female sex workers (FSW. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based FSW in Sabon-Gari Local Government in Zaria, Nigeria between 1 st January 2011 and 31 st June 2011. A total of 208 FSW were randomly selected and information was obtained with the use of the semi-structured questionnaire. Data entry was done with the help of structured codes in Microsoft Excel. Descriptive analysis was carried out using the statistical package (SSPS 16-University of Bristol. Results: Majority 90.7% of the respondents had experienced reproductive morbidity in the last 3 months. Frequently experienced symptoms were vaginal discharge (63.8%, acute lower abdominal pain (57.5%, menstrual irregularities (37% and genital ulcer (32.3%. Genital tear occurred in only 25 (9.8% respondents. Furthermore, 178 (63.6% had a termination of unwanted pregnancies. Most (32.3% sought care for their reproductive health problems from chemist shops; followed by the private hospitals in 23.6% of respondents. Others took self-medication for their ailments. Post-treatment success was the most frequently mentioned reason for the choice of place of treatment, followed by finance. Conclusion: The most commonly reported reproductive health problem among FSW was vaginal discharge and many of them have poor health seeking behavior. Health promotion and client sensitive health care services specifically targeting FSW should be developed, packaged and delivered to improve reproductive health of FSW. There should be concerted efforts by the government and other stakeholders in reproductive health to

  14. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus

  15. An informatics research agenda to support precision medicine: seven key areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Avillach, Paul; Benham-Hutchins, Marge; Breitenstein, Matthew K; Crowgey, Erin L; Hoffman, Mark A; Jiang, Xia; Madhavan, Subha; Mattison, John E; Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Ray, Bisakha; Shin, Dmitriy; Visweswaran, Shyam; Zhao, Zhongming; Freimuth, Robert R

    2016-07-01

    The recent announcement of the Precision Medicine Initiative by President Obama has brought precision medicine (PM) to the forefront for healthcare providers, researchers, regulators, innovators, and funders alike. As technologies continue to evolve and datasets grow in magnitude, a strong computational infrastructure will be essential to realize PM's vision of improved healthcare derived from personal data. In addition, informatics research and innovation affords a tremendous opportunity to drive the science underlying PM. The informatics community must lead the development of technologies and methodologies that will increase the discovery and application of biomedical knowledge through close collaboration between researchers, clinicians, and patients. This perspective highlights seven key areas that are in need of further informatics research and innovation to support the realization of PM. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  16. Materials of research-practical conference dedicated to 70-anniversary of sanitation, hygiene and occupational diseases research institute 'Actual problems of hygiene, sanitation and ecology'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandarov, T.I.; Kamil'dzhanov, A.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    The Research-practical conference dedicated to 70-anniversary of sanitation, hygiene and occupational diseases research institute 'Actual problems of hygiene, sanitation and ecology' was held on 2004 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Specialists discussed various aspects of actual problems of sanitation, hygiene, occupational diseases and ecology. They discussed also some aspects of radiology and nuclear medicine, radiation protection and dosimetry, radiation and other environmental pollutant effect on living organisms and biological materials. More than 250 talks were presented in the meeting. (k.m.)

  17. WebMail versus WebApp: Comparing Problem-Based Learning Methods in a Business Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams van Rooij, Shahron

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approaches on knowledge transfer, problem-solving self-efficacy, and perceived learning gains among four intact classes of adult learners engaged in a group project in an online undergraduate business research methods course. With two of the classes using a text-only PBL workbook…

  18. Training Interdisciplinary "Wicked Problem" Solvers: Applying Lessons from HERO in Community-Based Research Experiences for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Alida; DeLauer, Verna; Martin, Deborah; Rogan, John

    2015-01-01

    Management of "wicked problems", messy real-world problems that defy resolution, requires thinkers who can transcend disciplinary boundaries, work collaboratively, and handle complexity and obstacles. This paper explores how educators can train undergraduates in these skills through applied community-based research, using the example of…

  19. Recent advances in the source term area within the SARNET European severe accident research network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L.E.; Haste, T.; Kärkelä, T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Main achievements of source term research in SARNET are given. • Emphasis on the radiologically important iodine and ruthenium fission products. • Conclusions on FP release, transport in the RCS and containment behaviour. • Significance of large-scale integral experiments to validate the analyses used. • A thorough list of the most recent references on source term research results. - Abstract: Source Term has been one of the main research areas addressed within the SARNET network during the 7th EC Framework Programme of EURATOM. The entire source term domain was split into three major areas: oxidising impact on source term, iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system and containment and data and code assessment. The present paper synthesises the main technical outcome stemming from the SARNET FWP7 project in the area of source term and includes an extensive list of references in which deeper insights on specific issues may be found. Besides, based on the analysis of the current state of the art, an outlook of future source term research is outlined, where major changes in research environment are discussed (i.e., the end of the Phébus FP project; the end of the SARNET projects; and the launch of HORIZON 2020). Most probably research projects will be streamlined towards: release and transport under oxidising conditions, containment chemistry, existing and innovative filtered venting systems and others. These will be in addition to a number of projects that have been completed or are ongoing under different national and international frameworks, like VERDON, CHIP and EPICUR started under the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the OECD/CSNI programmes BIP, BIP2, STEM, THAI and THAI2, and the French national programme MIRE. The experimental PASSAM project under the 7th EC Framework programme, focused on source term mitigation systems, is highlighted as a good example of a project addressing potential enhancement of safety systems

  20. Recent advances in the source term area within the SARNET European severe accident research network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medio Ambientales y Tecnologica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Haste, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Kärkelä, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Main achievements of source term research in SARNET are given. • Emphasis on the radiologically important iodine and ruthenium fission products. • Conclusions on FP release, transport in the RCS and containment behaviour. • Significance of large-scale integral experiments to validate the analyses used. • A thorough list of the most recent references on source term research results. - Abstract: Source Term has been one of the main research areas addressed within the SARNET network during the 7th EC Framework Programme of EURATOM. The entire source term domain was split into three major areas: oxidising impact on source term, iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system and containment and data and code assessment. The present paper synthesises the main technical outcome stemming from the SARNET FWP7 project in the area of source term and includes an extensive list of references in which deeper insights on specific issues may be found. Besides, based on the analysis of the current state of the art, an outlook of future source term research is outlined, where major changes in research environment are discussed (i.e., the end of the Phébus FP project; the end of the SARNET projects; and the launch of HORIZON 2020). Most probably research projects will be streamlined towards: release and transport under oxidising conditions, containment chemistry, existing and innovative filtered venting systems and others. These will be in addition to a number of projects that have been completed or are ongoing under different national and international frameworks, like VERDON, CHIP and EPICUR started under the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the OECD/CSNI programmes BIP, BIP2, STEM, THAI and THAI2, and the French national programme MIRE. The experimental PASSAM project under the 7th EC Framework programme, focused on source term mitigation systems, is highlighted as a good example of a project addressing potential enhancement of safety systems

  1. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    chemical sensitivity versus bioaerosols (aerosolized microbes), or the contribution of the microorganisms to the chemical sensitivities, is not yet understood. If the inhabitants of a building exhibit similar symptoms of a clearly defined disease with a nature and time of onset that can be related to building occupancy, the disease is generally referred to as ''building-related illness.'' Once the SBS has been allowed to elevate to this level, buildings are typically evacuated and the costs associated with disruption of the building occupants, identification of the source of the problem, and eventual remediation can be significant. Understanding the primary causes of IAQ problems and how controllable factors--proper HVAC system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert the problems may help all building owners, operators, and occupants to be more productive (Arens and Baughman 1996). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of IAQ research that has been conducted in various types of facilities. However, it focuses primarily on school facilities because, for numerous reasons that will become evident, they are far more susceptible to developing IAQ problems than most other types of facilities; and the occupants, children, are more significantly affected than adults (EPA 1998).

  2. [Scientific bases of the organization of psychiatric care: the solution of practical problems in the framework of priority research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yastrebov, V S; Mitikhin, V G; Solokhina, T A; Mitikhina, I A

    ОBJECTIVE: a system analysis and modeling for important areas of research of the organization of psychiatric services in Russia in the study mental health of the population, identification of factors affecting the formation of the contingent of persons with mental disorders, organizational and functional structure of mental health services and mental health care. The authors analyzed scientific publications on the problems of psychiatric care organization as well as the results of own research over the last 25 years using system analysis. The approach that allows a creation of a range of population models to monitor the status of mental health based on medical, demographic and social factors (more than 60 factors) of life was suggested. The basic models and approaches for the evaluation of activity of divisions of mental health services at the macro and micro-social levels, taking into account expert information and individual characteristics of patients and relatives, were demonstrated. To improve treatment quality, the models of identification of the factors, which positively or negatively influenced the commitment to psychopharmacotherapy of patients with schizophrenia and their families, were developed.

  3. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  4. RESEARCH ON THE HOMOGENEITY OF TEMPERATURES IN JOINT'S AREA BY VULCANIZING THE CONVEYOR BELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan DOBROTA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The researches presented in this paper have followed the analysis of the heat transfer mode during joining through vulcanization of the conveyor belts and also the homogeneity of the temperatures in the joint area. The researches were made under laboratory conditions taking into account the process of joining of two conveyor belts of the type ST 2000 with an installation of the type DSLQ. Temperature measurement was conducted using an EX42570 pyrometer in four distinct points corresponding to each end of the two conveyor belts on the both sides of the band, namely the active and inactive side.

  5. Utilizing a logic model to identify clinical research problems: a lesson from philosophy of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins CR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia R Collins School of Nursing, College of Social Sciences, Loyola University, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Communication and decision making in the health care workplace often involve finding solutions to ill-structured problems in uncertain, dynamic environments influenced by the competing interests of multiple stakeholders. In this environment, doctoral-prepared nurses who practice as administrators, policy makers, or advanced practice practitioners are often compelled to make important decisions based upon evaluating the merit of colleagues’ proposals against some desired organizational or population outcome. Of equal importance is the nurse leader’s own capacity to construct a compelling argument or proposal that will drive the organization forward to meet the evolving needs for quality health care. Where do we learn the skills necessary to foster this kind of critical thinking in our professional communications? The author suggests that one teaching–learning approach can be found through the thoughtful application of the work of British philosopher Steven Toulmin. Toulmin defined a model for both the analysis and derivation of logical arguments or proposals that can be readily learned and applied for use in health care systems. This model posits that a substantive argument or claim can be evaluated based on the assumptions it presumes (warrants and the strength of the evidence base (backing. Several of the social science professions have adapted Toulmin’s model to generate analysis and creative solutions to complex or emergent problems. The author proposes that an application of this model be included in the pedagogy of doctoral level Philosophy of Science or Nursing Theory courses. The Toulmin process often provides the doctoral student or novice researcher with their first real learning experience in defining the scope and inherent challenges of framing a clinical issue to be the focus of their scholarly translational

  6. Research Area 3: Mathematics (3.1 Modeling of Complex Systems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    Title: RESEARCH AREA 3: MATHEMATICS (3.1 Modeling of Complex Systems). Proposal should be directed to Dr. John Lavery Report Term: 0-Other Email ...Paolo Rosso Email : prosso@dsic.upv.es values of the profile characteristics taken by the users), intersection (they represent the relationship between...accuracy, especially when adding fully connected layers at the end of the network. This work has resulted in the writing of a manuscript for the Journal

  7. Research, development and demonstration in the energy area in Switzerland - List of projects 2000/2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report prepared by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews research, development and demonstration projects in the energy area that were partly or wholly supported by the Swiss Federation in the years 2000/2001. A list of over 1,000 projects is presented, whereby many projects supported by the Swiss Cantons and local authorities are not included in the statistics. The report also contains figures on the efforts made by the private economy in these areas. The classification of the projects in the four main areas 'efficient use of energy', 'renewable energy sources', 'nuclear energy' and 'energy economics' is presented. This allows comparison with other publications such as the Federal Energy-Research Concept or the Overviews of the Energy-Research Programme Managers. The classification system is also compared with that used by the International Energy Agency (IEA). The Network for Information and Technology Transfer (ENET) is also presented, which has a comprehensive data base at its disposal and which maintains a systematic collection of energy-relevant publications. Details on these projects can be obtained from the appropriate heads of programmes and SFOE departmental heads, whose addresses are given in the report

  8. The Development Of Learning Sets And Research Methodology Module Using Problem Based Learning For Accounting Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Partono; Nurkhin, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Improving the learning process is very important for every lecturer by implement innovative learning methods or media. The purpose of this study is to develop a research methodology learning instruction and module based of problem based learning for accounting education students. This research applied research and development design in the research methodology course in Economics Education (Accounting) Department, Faculty Of Economics, Semarang State University. Data analysis was used to test...

  9. Effects of Sonic Booms on Marine Mammals: Problem Review and Recommended Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ann E.

    1996-01-01

    By flying the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) exclusively over uninhabited areas and mo over water, human annoyance will be reduced to acceptable levels. However, this strategy will for HSCT proponents to contend with the potential effects of sonic booms on animals, particularly ma mammals. What follows is a summary of the environmental regulations that must be addressed, the scientific community's concerns about the potential effects of the HSCT, and recommendations fox research to address the most important concerns. The recommendations included herein are based both on existing scientific evidence and regulatory needs. One cannot over-emphasize the importance of obtaining the appropriate information prior to substantial public exposure. Recent controversies over other human-made acoustic sources in the ocean suggest that the HSCT will receive intense scrutiny. It seems certain that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) or its equivalent will be necessary.

  10. Scientometrics on Public Health Research in Iran: Increase of Area Studies despite Embargoes? A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreau, Brice

    2017-03-01

    Due to embargoes and sanctions from 1979 until 2015, impact on scientific research in Iran may be critical. Public health is the main example of this burning point. In this paper, the aim was to map the scientific research in public health in Iran until 2014 with area studies as well as networks of countries involved. We used bibliographic analyses using VOS viewer software for network analysis during the period 1975-2014. Two databases were used: Web of Science and PubMed. We performed analyses of journals, authors, publication years, organizations, funding companies, countries, keywords and Web of sciences Categories. We accessed 862 articles published between 1991 and 2014, the majority of published after 2008. The main countries of research were Iran, the United States of America, England, and Sweden and represented the main network collaboration. The main Web of Sciences categories was public, occupational and environmental health, medicine general internal and parasitology. We accessed 25462 publications on PubMed database from 1950 to 2014. The majority of published after 2004. The main area studies were prognosis, wounds and injuries, soil solutions and biological markers. Public health research in Iran has been developed since 2004. The chief field was emerging cardiovascular diseases and communicable diseases. Other biotechnological fields were emerging such as biological markers research. Iran provides structures to face up with its new challenges using networks of countries such as the USA, England, and Sweden. End of embargoes could provide new perspectives for public health research and more largely scientific research in Iran.

  11. Research of Ancient Architectures in Jin-Fen Area Based on GIS&BIM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jing; Zheng, Qiuhong; Gao, Huiying; Sun, Hai

    2017-05-01

    The number of well-preserved ancient buildings located in Shanxi Province, enjoying the absolute maximum proportion of ancient architectures in China, is about 18418, among which, 9053 buildings have the structural style of wood frame. The value of the application of BIM (Building Information Modeling) and GIS (Geographic Information System) is gradually probed and testified in the corresponding fields of ancient architecture’s spatial distribution information management, routine maintenance and special conservation & restoration, the evaluation and simulation of related disasters, such as earthquake. The research objects are ancient architectures in JIN-FEN area, which were first investigated by Sicheng LIANG and recorded in his work of “Chinese ancient architectures survey report”. The research objects, i.e. the ancient architectures in Jin-Fen area include those in Sicheng LIANG’s investigation, and further adjustments were made through authors’ on-site investigation and literature searching & collection. During this research process, the spatial distributing Geodatabase of research objects is established utilizing GIS. The BIM components library for ancient buildings is formed combining on-site investigation data and precedent classic works, such as “Yingzao Fashi”, a treatise on architectural methods in Song Dynasty, “Yongle Encyclopedia” and “Gongcheng Zuofa Zeli”, case collections of engineering practice, by the Ministry of Construction of Qing Dynasty. A building of Guangsheng temple in Hongtong county is selected as an example to elaborate the BIM model construction process based on the BIM components library for ancient buildings. Based on the foregoing work results of spatial distribution data, attribute data of features, 3D graphic information and parametric building information model, the information management system for ancient architectures in Jin-Fen Area, utilizing GIS&BIM technology, could be constructed to support the

  12. Research of Ancient Architectures in Jin-Fen Area Based on GIS and BIM Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Jing; Zheng, Qiuhong; Gao, Huiying; Sun, Hai

    2017-01-01

    The number of well-preserved ancient buildings located in Shanxi Province, enjoying the absolute maximum proportion of ancient architectures in China, is about 18418, among which, 9053 buildings have the structural style of wood frame. The value of the application of BIM (Building Information Modeling) and GIS (Geographic Information System) is gradually probed and testified in the corresponding fields of ancient architecture’s spatial distribution information management, routine maintenance and special conservation and restoration, the evaluation and simulation of related disasters, such as earthquake. The research objects are ancient architectures in JIN-FEN area, which were first investigated by Sicheng LIANG and recorded in his work of “Chinese ancient architectures survey report”. The research objects, i.e. the ancient architectures in Jin-Fen area include those in Sicheng LIANG’s investigation, and further adjustments were made through authors’ on-site investigation and literature searching and collection. During this research process, the spatial distributing Geodatabase of research objects is established utilizing GIS. The BIM components library for ancient buildings is formed combining on-site investigation data and precedent classic works, such as “Yingzao Fashi”, a treatise on architectural methods in Song Dynasty, “Yongle Encyclopedia” and “Gongcheng Zuofa Zeli”, case collections of engineering practice, by the Ministry of Construction of Qing Dynasty. A building of Guangsheng temple in Hongtong county is selected as an example to elaborate the BIM model construction process based on the BIM components library for ancient buildings. Based on the foregoing work results of spatial distribution data, attribute data of features, 3D graphic information and parametric building information model, the information management system for ancient architectures in Jin-Fen Area, utilizing GIS and BIM technology, could be constructed to support

  13. Tackling the Reproducibility Problem in Systems Research with Declarative Experiment Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Ivo [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Maltzahn, Carlos [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Lofstead, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Moody, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Arpaci-Dusseau, Andrea [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-05-04

    Validating experimental results in the field of computer systems is a challenging task, mainly due to the many changes in software and hardware that computational environments go through. Determining if an experiment is reproducible entails two separate tasks: re-executing the experiment and validating the results. Existing reproducibility efforts have focused on the former, envisioning techniques and infrastructures that make it easier to re-execute an experiment. In this work we focus on the latter by analyzing the validation workflow that an experiment re-executioner goes through. We notice that validating results is done on the basis of experiment design and high-level goals, rather than exact quantitative metrics. Based on this insight, we introduce a declarative format for specifying the high-level components of an experiment as well as describing generic, testable conditions that serve as the basis for validation. We present a use case in the area of storage systems to illustrate the usefulness of this approach. We also discuss limitations and potential benefits of using this approach in other areas of experimental systems research.

  14. The Global Evidence Mapping Initiative: Scoping research in broad topic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavender Emma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence mapping describes the quantity, design and characteristics of research in broad topic areas, in contrast to systematic reviews, which usually address narrowly-focused research questions. The breadth of evidence mapping helps to identify evidence gaps, and may guide future research efforts. The Global Evidence Mapping (GEM Initiative was established in 2007 to create evidence maps providing an overview of existing research in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI. Methods The GEM evidence mapping method involved three core tasks: 1. Setting the boundaries and context of the map: Definitions for the fields of TBI and SCI were clarified, the prehospital, acute inhospital and rehabilitation phases of care were delineated and relevant stakeholders (patients, carers, clinicians, researchers and policymakers who could contribute to the mapping were identified. Researchable clinical questions were developed through consultation with key stakeholders and a broad literature search. 2. Searching for and selection of relevant studies: Evidence search and selection involved development of specific search strategies, development of inclusion and exclusion criteria, searching of relevant databases and independent screening and selection by two researchers. 3. Reporting on yield and study characteristics: Data extraction was performed at two levels - 'interventions and study design' and 'detailed study characteristics'. The evidence map and commentary reflected the depth of data extraction. Results One hundred and twenty-nine researchable clinical questions in TBI and SCI were identified. These questions were then prioritised into high (n = 60 and low (n = 69 importance by the stakeholders involved in question development. Since 2007, 58 263 abstracts have been screened, 3 731 full text articles have been reviewed and 1 644 relevant neurotrauma publications have been mapped, covering fifty-three high priority

  15. The Global Evidence Mapping Initiative: scoping research in broad topic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragge, Peter; Clavisi, Ornella; Turner, Tari; Tavender, Emma; Collie, Alex; Gruen, Russell L

    2011-06-17

    Evidence mapping describes the quantity, design and characteristics of research in broad topic areas, in contrast to systematic reviews, which usually address narrowly-focused research questions. The breadth of evidence mapping helps to identify evidence gaps, and may guide future research efforts. The Global Evidence Mapping (GEM) Initiative was established in 2007 to create evidence maps providing an overview of existing research in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). The GEM evidence mapping method involved three core tasks:1. Setting the boundaries and context of the map: Definitions for the fields of TBI and SCI were clarified, the prehospital, acute inhospital and rehabilitation phases of care were delineated and relevant stakeholders (patients, carers, clinicians, researchers and policymakers) who could contribute to the mapping were identified. Researchable clinical questions were developed through consultation with key stakeholders and a broad literature search. 2. Searching for and selection of relevant studies: Evidence search and selection involved development of specific search strategies, development of inclusion and exclusion criteria, searching of relevant databases and independent screening and selection by two researchers. 3. Reporting on yield and study characteristics: Data extraction was performed at two levels - 'interventions and study design' and 'detailed study characteristics'. The evidence map and commentary reflected the depth of data extraction. One hundred and twenty-nine researchable clinical questions in TBI and SCI were identified. These questions were then prioritised into high (n = 60) and low (n = 69) importance by the stakeholders involved in question development. Since 2007, 58 263 abstracts have been screened, 3 731 full text articles have been reviewed and 1 644 relevant neurotrauma publications have been mapped, covering fifty-three high priority questions. GEM Initiative evidence maps have a broad

  16. Landscape of Research Areas for Zeolites and Metal-Organic Frameworks Using Computational Classification Based on Citation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya Ogawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of porous materials is widely spreading nowadays, and researchers need to read tremendous numbers of papers to obtain a “bird’s eye” view of a given research area. However, it is difficult for researchers to obtain an objective database based on statistical data without any relation to subjective knowledge related to individual research interests. Here, citation network analysis was applied for a comparative analysis of the research areas for zeolites and metal-organic frameworks as examples for porous materials. The statistical and objective data contributed to the analysis of: (1 the computational screening of research areas; (2 classification of research stages to a certain domain; (3 “well-cited” research areas; and (4 research area preferences of specific countries. Moreover, we proposed a methodology to assist researchers to gain potential research ideas by reviewing related research areas, which is based on the detection of unfocused ideas in one area but focused in the other area by a bibliometric approach.

  17. A local area network for medical research; planning, realization and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schosser, R; Weiss, C; Messmer, K

    1991-01-01

    This report focuses on the planning and realization of an interdisciplinary local area network (LAN) for medical research at the University of Heidelberg. After a detailed requirements analysis, several networks were evaluated by means of a test installation, and a cost-performance analysis was carried out. At present, the LAN connects 45 (IBM-compatible) PCs, several heterogeneous mainframes (IBM, DEC and Siemens) and provides access to the public X.25 network and to wide-area networks for research (EARN, BITNET). The network supports application software that is frequently needed in medical research (word processing, statistics, graphics, literature databases and services, etc.). Compliance with existing "official" (e.g., IEEE 802.3) and "de facto" standards (e.g., PostScript) was considered to be extremely important for the selection of both hardware and software. Customized programs were developed to improve access control, user interface and on-line help. Wide acceptance of the LAN was achieved through extensive education and maintenance facilities, e.g., teaching courses, customized manuals and a hotline service. Since requirements of clinical routine differ substantially from medical research needs, two separate networks (with a gateway in between) are proposed as a solution to optimally satisfy the users' demands.

  18. Paralympic sport: an emerging area for research and consultancy in sports biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L

    2011-09-01

    The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. The overall purpose of this paper is to highlight the role that the field of sports biomechanics specifically (and sports science in general) may play in improving performance in various summer Paralympic sports through research and consultancy. To achieve this broad aim, this review provides some history and background on the Summer Paralympic Games, discusses the eligibility and classification rules, describes the potential for the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to inform practice and research in this area, and reviews selected studies examining the biomechanics of the primary forms of Paralympic locomotion. Some recommendations on how sports biomechanics can help facilitate improvements in Paralympic athletic performance through applied research and consultancy are provided, along with commentary on what may be some of the most important issues addressing Paralympic sport.

  19. Potential of luminescence based molecular animal imaging in research areas pertaining to cancer biology and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Hansa D.; Shetake, Neena G.; Balla Murali, M.S.; Kumar, Amit; Pandey, B.N.

    2017-01-01

    Animal imaging is getting tremendous importance in biomedical research areas including drug delivery, radiobiology and cancer research. Even though, imaging techniques like CT, PET, SPECT, MRI are available for experimental animals, luminescence-based molecular imaging is still considered as crucial and common tool for biomedical laboratories due to easy handling/maintenance, cost effectiveness and various strategies available to manipulate the molecules/cells employed for imaging purposes. The Molecular Animal Imaging System available in our laboratory is being utilized for various cancer research activities including measurement of tumor growth kinetics, angiogenesis, therapeutic efficacy evaluation and metastasis studies. Moreover, the imaging system is also been used for radio-luminescence imaging based on Cherenkov radiation of radio-pharmaceuticals. (author)

  20. ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON THE BREEDING AVIFAUNA OF THE DÂMBOVNIC AND SUSENI LAKES AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Denisa Conete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our research study was conducted in the area of the Dâmbovnic and Suseni lakes (a square of 2x2 km, two artificially created lakes. We identified 105 breeding species belonging to 13 orders, 39 families and 74 genera; 97 (92,4% of them are confirmed breeding species and 8 (7,6 % are probable breeding species. The results of the research on the Dâmbovnic and Suseni lakes area were compared and related to the data from the Atlas of the Romanian breeding species. By relating them to the Atlas data, we noted that 83 of the 100 breeding species cited in the Atlas were also recorded during our study; 22 new breeding species were identified (19 of them are confirmed breeding species and 3 are probable breeding species. The species that nest mainly in the reed beds (Ixobrychus minutus, Anas platyrhynchos, Fulica atra, Gallinula chloropus, Aythya ferina, Acrocephalus arundinaceus and in the ecotones, marginal areas stand out among the wetland-dependent species through their higher numbers of individuals. Chroicocephalus ridibundus and Himantopus himantopus were observed to nest in the Argeş county for the first time. Most of them are constant and euconstant species (78 species, the results reflecting the abundance of resources in the area during the nesting period. The species showing increasing trends in their breeding population had a significant share (57 %, because the attractiveness of these lakes for birds has continuously grown, being correlated with the ecological restoration of the degraded wetland areas and the emergenge of dense vegetation (thus creating new nesting places, the diversity of the habitat, the existence of ecotone areas, the diversification of the aquatic trophic resources and last but not least the reduced interaction between the local population and the bird communities in the lakes area. The anthropogenic influence is manifested through aggressive agriculture (the use of pesticides and fertilizers, etc. and more recently

  1. The NASA Applied Science Program Disasters Area: Disaster Applications Research and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. J.; Lindsay, F. E.; Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the Natural Disaster Application Area is to use NASA's capabilities in spaceborne, airborne, surface observations, higher-level derived data products, and modeling and data analysis to improve natural disaster forecasting, mitigation, and response. The Natural Disaster Application Area applies its remote sensing observations, modeling and analysis capabilities to provide hazard and disaster information where and when it is needed. Our application research activities specifically contribute to 1) Understanding the natural processes that produce hazards, 2)Developing hazard mitigation technologies, and 3)Recognizing vulnerability of interdependent critical infrastructure. The Natural Disasters Application area selects research projects through a rigorous, impartial peer-review process that address a broad spectrum of disasters which afflict populations within the United States, regionally and globally. Currently there are 19 active projects in the research portfolio which address the detection, characterization, forecasting and response to a broad range of natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and ash dispersion, wildfires, hurricanes, floods, tornado damage assessment, oil spills and disaster data mining. The Disasters team works with federal agencies to aid the government in meeting the challenges associated with natural disaster response and to transfer technologies to agencies as they become operational. Internationally, the Disasters Area also supports the Committee on Earth Observations Working Group on Disasters, and the International Charter on Space and Disasters to increase, strengthen, and coordinate contributions of NASA Earth-observing satellites and applications products to disaster risk management. The CEOS group will lead pilot efforts focused on identifying key systems to support flooding, earthquake, and volcanic events.

  2. Computational and Simulation Modeling of Political Attitudes: The 'Tiger' Area of Political Culture Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinea, Camelia Florela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In almost one century long history, political attitudes modeling research has accumulated a critical mass of theory and method. Its characteristics and particularities have often suggested that political attitude approach to political persuasion modeling reveals a strong theoretical autonomy of concept which entitles it to become a new separate discipline of research. Though this did not actually happen, political attitudes modeling research has remained the most challenging area – the “tiger” – of political culture modeling research. This paper reviews the research literature on the conceptual, computational and simulation modeling of political attitudes developed starting with the beginning of the 20th century until the present times. Several computational and simulation modeling paradigms have provided support to political attitudes modeling research. These paradigms and the shift from one to another are briefly presented for a period of time of almost one century. The dominant paradigmatic views are those inspired by the Newtonian mechanics, and those based on the principle of methodological individualism and the emergence of macro phenomena from the individual interactions at the micro level of a society. This period of time is divided in eight ages covering the history of ideas in a wide range of political domains, going from political attitudes to polity modeling. Internal and external pressures for paradigmatic change are briefly explained.

  3. Addressing the Educational Needs of Children with Williams Syndrome: A Rather Neglected Area of Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palikara, Olympia; Ashworth, Maria; Van Herwegen, Jo

    2018-04-13

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated with physical health problems, limitations in cognitive abilities and increased risk of mental health difficulties. This profile of complex needs may make it challenging to support children with WS in schools. Surprisingly, in the current international move for inclusion, limited research exists on the educational provision and academic achievements of children with WS, including the non-existing literature on their voices and the perspectives of key stakeholders. This letter calls for additional research on the risk and protective factors associated with the educational outcomes of these children, the perspectives of the children themselves and the development of the evidence-base about the effectiveness of education intervention programs.

  4. Effects of Singapore's Model Method on Elementary Student Problem Solving Performance: Single Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This research investigation examined the effects of Singapore's Model Method, also known as "model drawing" or "bar modeling" on the word problem-solving performance of American third and fourth grade students. Employing a single-case design, a researcher-designed teaching intervention was delivered to a child in third…

  5. Thoughts and Practice on Some Problems about Research and Application of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yun CHEN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main problems about research and application of two-line hybrid rice were reviewed, including the confusing nomenclature and male sterile lines classification, the unclear characteristics of photoperiod and temperature responses and the unsuitable site selection for male sterile line and hybrid rice seed production. In order to efficiently and accurately use dual-purpose genic male sterile lines, four types, including PTGMS (photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice, TGMS (thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice, reverse PTGMS and reverse TGMS, were proposed. A new idea for explaining the mechanism of sterility in dual-purpose hybrid rice was proposed. The transition from sterile to fertile was involved in the cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes and photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive ones. The minor-effect genes with accumulative effect on sterility were important factors that affected the critical temperature of sterility transfer. In order to make better use of dual-purpose lines, the characterization of responses to photoperiod and temperature of PTGMS should be made and the identification method for the characterization of photoperiod and temperature responses of PTGMS should also be put forward. The optimal ecological site for seed production could be determined according to the historical climate data and the requirements for the meteorological conditions during the different periods of seed production.

  6. Private Data -- The Real Story: A Huge Problem with Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. James Milgram

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A very influential paper on improving math outcomes was published in 2008. The authors refused to divulge their data claiming that agreements with the schools and Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act rules (FERPA prevented it.● It turns out that this is not true.● The claimed legal foundations do not say what these authors said they do, this this is a widespread misconception among education researchers.When we found the identities of the schools by other means, serious problems with the conclusions of the article were quickly revealed.● The 2008 paper was far from unique in this respect.● There are many papers that have had enormous influences on K-12 mathematics curricula, and could not be independently verified because the authors refused to reveal their data.In this article we describe how we were able to find the real data for the 2008 paper, and point out the legal constraints that should make it very difficult for authors of such papers to withhold their data in the future.

  7. Fundamental research in the area of high temperature fuel cells in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyomin, A.K.

    1996-04-01

    Research in the area of molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells has been conducted in Russia since the late 60`s. Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry is the lead organisation in this area. Research in the area of materials used in fuel cells has allowed us to identify compositions of electrolytes, electrodes, current paths and transmitting, sealing and structural materials appropriate for long-term fuel cell applications. Studies of electrode processes resulted in better understanding of basic patterns of electrode reactions and in the development of a foundation for electrode structure optimization. We have developed methods to increase electrode activity levels that allowed us to reach current density levels of up to 1 amper/cm{sup 2}. Development of mathematical models of processes in high temperature fuel cells has allowed us to optimize their structure. The results of fundamental studies have been tested on laboratory mockups. MCFC mockups with up to 100 W capacity and SOFC mockups with up to 1 kW capacity have been manufactured and tested at IHTE. There are three SOFC structural options: tube, plate and modular.

  8. Research progress on large-area perovskite thin films and solar modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichun Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organometal halide perovskites have exhibited a bright future as photovoltaic semiconductor in next generation solar cells due to their unique and promising physicochemical properties. Over the past few years, we have witnessed a tremendous progress of efficiency record evolution of perovskite solar cells (PSCs. Up to now, the highest efficiency record of PSCs has reached 22.1%; however, it was achieved at a very small device area of <0.1 cm2. With the device area increasing to mini-module scale, the efficiency record dropped dramatically. The inherent causes are mainly ascribed to inadequate quality control of large-area perovskite thin films and insufficient optimization of solar module design. In current stage of PSCs research and development, to overcome these two obstacles is in urgent need before this new technology could realize scale-up industrialization. Herein, we present an overview of recently developed strategies for preparing large-area perovskite thin films and perovskite solar modules (PSMs. At last, cost analysis and future application directions of PSMs have also been discussed.

  9. Problems and Guidelines of Strategy Implementation in Basic Educational Institutions under the Supervision of KhonKaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasiwan Tonkanya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to 1 study problems of strategy implementation in basic educational institutions under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4 ; and 2 propose the guidelines for strategy implementation in basic educational institutions under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4. The study was carried out in 2 phases. In phase 1, it focused on the study and analysis of the strategic implementation problems and phase 2 studied the best practice schools. The informants for the interview in phase 1 comprised 6 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized schools. They were selected by the use of purposive sampling technique. The population in the study of the strategic implementation problems in basic educational institutions in phase 1 consisted of 543 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from 181 schools under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4 in academic year 2014. The study samples were 217 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized schools under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4. The samples were selected by the use of stratified sampling technique. The informants of the phase 2 study were 6 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized best practice schools obtained from purposive sampling technique. The research instruments used for data collection consisted of 2 sets of questionnaires. The Set 1 questionnaire was the 5-point Likert scale on the levels of the problems in implementation with item discrimination at 0.60 – 1.00 and reliability of the whole questionnaire at .9359. The questionnaire contained 3 parts with 65 items. The Set 2 questionnaire comprised 2 parts with 10 items regarding

  10. [Thinking about several problems of the research of our family planning strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H

    1989-03-01

    On the basis of 1982 census data, it is estimated that from 1987-1997 13 million women will enter the age of marriage and child-bearing each year. The tasks of keeping the population size around 1.2 billion by the year 2000 is arduous. Great efforts have to be made to continue encouraging one child/couple, and to pursue the current plans and policies and maintain strict control over fertility. Keeping population growth in pace with economic growth, environment, ecological balance, availability of per capita resources, education programs, employment capability, health services, maternal and child care, social welfare and social security should be a component of the long term development strategy of the country. Family planning is a comprehensive program which involves long cycles and complicated factors, viewpoints of expediency in guiding policy and program formulation for short term benefits are inappropriate. The emphasis of family planning program strategy should be placed on the rural areas where the majority of population reside. Specifically, the major aspects of strategic thrusts should be the linkage between policy implementation and reception, between family planning publicity and changes of ideation on fertility; the integrated urban and rural program management relating to migration and differentiation of policy towards minority population and areas in different economic development stages. In order to achieve the above strategies, several measures are proposed. (1) strengthening family planning program and organization structure; (2) providing information on population and contraception; (3) establishing family planning program network for infiltration effects; (4) using government financing, taxation, loan, social welfare and penalty to regulate fertility motivations; (5) improving the system of target allocation and data reporting to facilitate program implementation; (6) strengthening population projection and policy research; (7) and strengthening

  11. Hydrology and hydrochemistry for the Rice Creek watershed of the Whiteshell Research Area, 1986--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, G. A.; Laporte, J. M.; Clarke, D.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents data and results of a hydrometeorological study carried out in the Rice Creek Watershed of the Whiteshell Research Area during 1986-90. Major water budget components, such as precipitation, runoff, groundwater, storage and evaporation, are evaluated and discussed. men annual precipitation was 544 mm, mean runoff was 101 mm, with evapo-transpiration as the residual being 443 mm. The steady-state groundwater component of the runoff is estimated to be less than 2 mm/unit area, or less than 2% of men annual basin yield. Water chemistry data for precipitation,l surface waters, and groundwaters are presented and the relative concentrations compared to provide information about sources of streamflow. Data on a major storm event that provided precipitation with an estimated return period of over 100 a are presented. Also discussed are the effects of beaver dams on the hydrology of a major tributary of the Rice Creek watershed. (auth)

  12. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and Environmental Management Science Program research award abstracts. Volume 2 of 3 -- Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation`s nuclear complex. Appendix B provides details about each of the 202 research awards funded by the EMSP. This information may prove useful to researchers who are attempting to address the Department`s environmental management challenges in their work, program managers who are planning, integrating, and prioritizing Environmental Management projects, and stakeholders and regulators who are interested in the Department`s environmental challenges. The research award information is organized by the state and institution in which the lead principal investigator is located. In many cases, the lead principal investigator is one of several investigators at a number of different institutions. In these cases, the lead investigator (major collaborator) at each of the additional institutions is listed. Each research award abstract is followed by a list of high cost projects that can potentially be impacted by the research results. High cost projects are Environmental Management projects that have total costs greater than $50 million from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and have costs or quantities of material associated with an Environmental Management problem area. High cost projects which must remain active in the year 2007 and beyond to manage high risk are also identified. Descriptions of these potentially related high cost Environmental Management projects can be found in Appendix C. Additional projects in the same problem area as a research award can be located using the Index of High Cost Environmental Management Projects by Problem Area, at the end of Appendices B and C.

  13. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and Environmental Management Science Program research award abstracts. Volume 2 of 3 -- Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation's nuclear complex. Appendix B provides details about each of the 202 research awards funded by the EMSP. This information may prove useful to researchers who are attempting to address the Department's environmental management challenges in their work, program managers who are planning, integrating, and prioritizing Environmental Management projects, and stakeholders and regulators who are interested in the Department's environmental challenges. The research award information is organized by the state and institution in which the lead principal investigator is located. In many cases, the lead principal investigator is one of several investigators at a number of different institutions. In these cases, the lead investigator (major collaborator) at each of the additional institutions is listed. Each research award abstract is followed by a list of high cost projects that can potentially be impacted by the research results. High cost projects are Environmental Management projects that have total costs greater than $50 million from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and have costs or quantities of material associated with an Environmental Management problem area. High cost projects which must remain active in the year 2007 and beyond to manage high risk are also identified. Descriptions of these potentially related high cost Environmental Management projects can be found in Appendix C. Additional projects in the same problem area as a research award can be located using the Index of High Cost Environmental Management Projects by Problem Area, at the end of Appendices B and C

  14. RESEARCH ON PROBLEMS WITH PROJECTS AND PARTNERSHIPS THAT PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE CENTRE REGION FACED IN ACCESSING EUROPEAN FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRASCU DANUT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available European project management is the main filed of the article. Assuming a connection between the degree of absorption of European funds and the degree of maturity of the Romanian society in terms of project management, the article seeks to identify the negative factors on accessing and carrying out European projects. The identified problem is a low degree of absorption of European funds in Romania, and the main objective of the research is to identify the problems faced by the public institutions in the Centre Region in accessing European funds and also the causes that led to the low absorption of European funds. This article’s research is based on a preliminary analysis performed by the authors on the rate of accessing of European funds published in the article called “The current state of European funds absorption through funding programmes – measure of the Romanian performances in the project management practice”. The conclusion of this article was a low rate of absorption of European funds in Romania, a fact that reveals a poor practice of the theory on project management. This article identifies part of the causes of this situation by identifying a part of the problems that stood in the way of beneficiaries of European funds The qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in combination in the research. The investigation has however a highly quantitative character, the purpose of the qualitative research being to provide the prerequisites for achieving the quantitative research. The interview-based qualitative research enabled the researcher to get acquainted with the subjects’ problems related to the theme of investigation, the causes that have generated these problems. This preliminary investigation to the questionnaire-based research aims to provide information that would help the researcher prepare the questionnaire, so that the questions allow getting the most comprehensive information to

  15. Psychometric evaluation of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elasy Tom A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey is a measure of diabetes-related stress for which reported use has been in largely Caucasian populations. Our purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the PAID in Southern rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A convenience sample of African American women (N = 131 ranging from 21–50 years of age and diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were recruited for a survey study from two rural Southern community health centers. Participants completed the PAID, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale (SDSCA. Factor analysis, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and construct validation facilitated psychometric evaluation. Results A principle component factor analysis of the PAID yielded two factors, 1 a lack of confidence subscale, and 2 a negative emotional consequences subscale. The Lack of Confidence and Negative Emotional Consequences subscales, but not the overall PAID scale, were associated with glycemic control and body mass index, respectively. Relationships with measures of depression and diabetes self-care supported construct validity of both subscales. Both subscales had acceptable (alpha = 0.85 and 0.94 internal consistency measures. Conclusion A psychometrically sound two-factor solution to the PAID survey is identified in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Lack of confidence in and negative emotional consequences of diabetes self-care implementation provide a better understanding of determinants of glycemic control and weight than an aggregate of the two scales.

  16. Sustainability indicators for innovation and research institutes of nuclear area in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, S.F.; Barreto, A.A.; Rodrigues, P.C.H.; Feliciano, V.M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Indicators are relevant tools for measuring sustainability process. In this study, the relevance of sustainability indicators appropriate for research and innovation institutes in Brazil is discussed. As reference for case study, nuclear research and innovation institutes were chosen. Sixty-nine sustainability indicators were considered. Some of these indicators were obtained from lists in the literature review, distributed between the dimensions environmental, economic, social, cultural and institutional. The other indicators were developed through discussions between professionals from nuclear, environmental, economic, social and cultural areas. Among the investigated indicators, 32 were selected as being the most relevant. Discrepancies were found during the analysis the opinions of the experts in relation to sustainability dimensions proposed. (author)

  17. Modifying a Research-Based Problem-Solving Intervention to Improve the Problem-Solving Performance of Fifth and Sixth Graders With and Without Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawec, Jennifer; Huang, Jia

    The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of a modified cognitive strategy instructional intervention originally developed to improve the mathematical problem solving of middle and high school students with learning disabilities (LD). Fifth and sixth grade general education mathematics teachers and their students of varying ability (i.e., average-achieving [AA] students, low-achieving [LA] students, and students with LD) participated in the research study. Several features of the intervention were modified, including (a) explicitness of instruction, (b) emphasis on meta-cognition, (c) focus on problem-solving prerequisites, (d) extended duration of initial intervention, and (e) addition of visual supports. General education math teachers taught all instructional sessions to their inclusive classrooms. Curriculum-based measures (CBMs) of math problem solving were administered five times over the course of the year. A multilevel model (repeated measures nested within students and students nested within schools) was used to analyze student progress on CBMs. Though CBM scores in the intervention group were initially lower than that of the comparison group, intervention students improved significantly more in the first phase, with no differences in the second phase. Implications for instruction are discussed as well as directions for future research.

  18. Recent Research and Development in Solving Atmospheric Corrosion Problems of Steel Industries in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, M.; Uchida, H.

    2002-01-01

    A rust layer, so called 'protective' rust layer, on a weathering low-alloy steel has strong protective ability for atmospheric corrosion of the steel. We have recently found through a large number of spectroscopic studies including Moessbauer spectroscopy that the protective rust layer forms after long-term phase transformation. The phase and structure of the rust definitely control the protective ability of the rust layer. From this recent knowledge, some new technologies have been developed. One is the surface-treatment technique that provides a possibility for obtaining the protective rust layer in a relatively short period even in the severe environments such as in marine and chloride (de-icing salts) containing environments. Others are based on selection of effective alloying elements for steel materials. These are particularly important for application in areas where protective rust layer formation may be hindered or prevented. In this paper, we mention recent progress in research and development on rusting protection by rust for atmospheric corrosion of steels in Japan.

  19. SARNET integrated European Severe Accident Research-Conclusions in the source term area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haste, T., E-mail: tim.haste@irsn.f [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Giordano, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Herranz, L. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medio Ambientales y Tecnologica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Girault, N.; Dubourg, R. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Sabroux, J.-C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, Saclay Research Centre, BP 68, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cantrel, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Bottomley, D. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Transuranium Institute, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Parozzi, F. [ENEA - Ricerca sul Sistema Elettrico (ERSE) SpA., Via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Auvinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland); Dickinson, S. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Harwell Business Centre, Didcot, OX11 0QJ (United Kingdom); Lamy, J.-C. [Electricite de France, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, F-69100 Villeurbanne (France); Weber, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Forschungsgelaende, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Albiol, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2009-12-15

    The overall aim of the SARNET (Severe Accident Research NETwork), in the EU 6th Framework programme was to integrate in a sustainable manner the research capabilities of fifty-one European organisations from eighteen member states of the European Union (EU) plus the Joint Research Centres, with one Canadian company, to resolve important remaining uncertainties and safety issues concerning existing and future nuclear plant, especially water-cooled reactors, under hypothetical severe accident conditions. It emphasised integrating activities, spreading of excellence (including knowledge transfer) and jointly executed research, with the knowledge gained being encapsulated in the European severe accident modelling code ASTEC. This paper summarises the achievements over the whole project in the Source Term Topic, which dealt with potential radioactive release to the environment, covering release of fission products and structural materials from the core, their transport in the primary circuit, and their behaviour in the containment. The main technical areas covered, as emphasised by the earlier EURSAFE project, were the effect of oxidative conditions on fission product release and transport (especially the behaviour of the highly radiotoxic ruthenium under air ingress conditions), iodine volatility in the primary circuit, control rod aerosol release (Ag-In-Cd) that affects iodine transport, containment by-pass in the case of steam generator tube rupture, aerosol retention in containment cracks, aerosol remobilisation in the circuit, and iodine/ruthenium behaviour in the containment especially concerning the volatile fraction in the atmosphere. The studies also covered performance of new experiments, analysis of existing data, and formulation and improvement of theoretical models. Significant progress was made in each area. Looking to the future, the 7th Framework successor project SARNET2 covers the remaining issues concerning iodine and ruthenium, including practical

  20. An Overview of Thematic Evolution of Physical Therapy Research Area From 1951 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Moral-Munoz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical Therapy is a profession which development and conceptual framework have been performed in the twentieth century. One of the major challenges of Physical Therapy in the twenty-first century is to identify the intellectual basis of its scientific domain. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the evolution of Physical Therapy research throughout scientific literature published in Web of Science (WoS and Scopus databases. In order to perform the analysis, WoS and Scopus bibliographic databases were used to download all records. A set of journals with overall topics in Physical Therapy discipline with the largest history in the Journal Citation Report were selected: Physiotherapy, Physical Therapy, and Australian Journal of Physiotherapy/Journal of Physiotherapy. The bibliometric tool SciMAT was employed to perform a science mapping analysis in order to detect and visualize the research themes and their evolution across three periods: 1951–1984, 1985–2000, and 2001–2013. The analysis carried out shows that Physical Therapy research field is mainly divided into nine thematic areas: Middle-Aged People, Muscle Function Alterations and Recovery, Health Education, Gait and Biomechanics, Central Nervous System, Heart Rate and Exercise, Diagnosis, Low Back Pain, and Animals. In conclusion, Physical Therapy citations and production are primarily focused on two large thematic areas, diseases that involve middle-aged population and muscle function and its alterations. Results can be used to provide a historical perspective on research conducted in this emerging field and to provide a scientific evidence-based practice model on which future studies can be built.