Sample records for research practice implications

  1. Nursing intellectual capital theory: implications for research and practice. (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya


    Due to rising costs of healthcare, determining how registered nurses and knowledge resources influence the quality of patient care is critical. Studies that have investigated the relationship between nursing knowledge and outcomes have been plagued with conceptual and methodological issues. This has resulted in limited empirical evidence of the impact of nursing knowledge on patient or organizational outcomes. The nursing intellectual capital theory was developed to assist with this area of inquiry. Nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes the sources of nursing knowledge available within an organization and delineates its relationship to patient and organizational outcomes. In this article, we review the nursing intellectual capital theory and discuss its implications for research and practice. We explain why the theory shows promise for guiding research on quality work environments and how it may assist with administrative decision-making related to nursing human resource management and continuing professional development.

  2. Recapitalization, Implications for Educational Policy and Practice and Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Scheerens, Jaap


    In this concluding chapter conclusions are drawn, and the relevance of the results for educational science and policy and practice are discussed. Illustrations are provided that were drawn from the exploration of policy and practices in the Netherlands. Synthetic answers to the three research

  3. Beauty: A Concept with Practical Implications for Teacher Researchers (United States)

    Winston, Joe


    Hillman's (2001) simple affirmation that "an idea of beauty is useful, functional, practical" is one this article attempts to pursue with teacher researchers in mind, based on the belief that to move from the "re"pression of beauty to its "ex"pression--or, at the very least, to its articulation--will enlighten rather than distract individuals. The…

  4. Implications of the new sepsis definition on research and practice. (United States)

    Peach, Brian C


    The Society of Critical-Care Medicine and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine recently announced a marked change in the sepsis definition. A task force of 19 sepsis clinicians and researchers made the change based on advances in the pathobiological understanding of the septic process. The task force determined that there were numerous justifications for a revision of the sepsis definition, which are outlined in this article. The systemic inflammatory response criteria have been replaced by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score in the newly operationalized definition (Singer et al., 2016). In addition to the definition change, the task force recommended using the new quick SOFA (qSOFA) score in non-ICU settings, as a risk stratification tool to identify patients who may be septic or be at risk of developing sepsis. The change in definition will likely have a negative impact on sepsis research in the short-term as hospitals adjust their coding for the new definition, but may result in less misclassification bias and improved research data in the long-term. While the intent of the SCCM/ESICM task force was to better define sepsis for coding and epidemiological research purposes, there is the potential for improved patient outcomes if clinicians are better able to differentiate between sepsis and inflammatory events. The qSOFA tool may also aid clinicians in recognizing sepsis in a quicker manner, leading to more timely treatment, and potentially better outcomes. While the new operationalized Sepsis-3 definition appears on the surface to be an improvement over the previous iterations, it remains to be seen if research data will be more robust using the new criteria. There is the potential for better patient outcomes if clinicians are better able to differentiate sepsis from inflammatory events with the new definition, and if sepsis cases are recognized sooner with qSOFA. Future research on the impact of this definition change on research and

  5. Analytical Implications of Using Practice Theory in Workplace Information Literacy Research (United States)

    Moring, Camilla; Lloyd, Annemaree


    Introduction: This paper considers practice theory and the analytical implications of using this theoretical approach in information literacy research. More precisely the aim of the paper is to discuss the translation of practice theoretical assumptions into strategies that frame the analytical focus and interest when researching workplace…

  6. Practical and Scholarly Implications of Information Behaviour Research: A Pilot Study of Research Literature (United States)

    Koh, Kyungwon; Rubenstein, Ellen; White, Kelvin


    Introduction: This pilot study examined how current information behaviour research addresses the implications and potential impacts of its findings. The goal was to understand what implications and contributions the field has made and how effectively authors communicate implications of their findings. Methods: We conducted a content analysis of 30…

  7. Typologies of Cohabitation: Implications for Clinical Practice and Research (United States)

    Gold, Joshua M.


    This article will explore the current evolution in the practice of cohabitation. The intent of this literature- and web-based article is to acquaint counselors with three typologies of cohabitation. These categories can be utilized in the development of psychoeducational and remedial interventions and in the identification of areas of future…

  8. Mapping the Asthma Care Process: Implications for Research and Practice. (United States)

    Dima, Alexandra Lelia; de Bruin, Marijn; Van Ganse, Eric


    Whether people with asthma gain and maintain control over their condition depends not only on the availability of effective drugs, but also on multiple patient and health care professional (HCP) behaviors. Research in asthma rarely considers how these behaviors interact with each other and drug effectiveness to determine health outcomes, which may limit real-life applicability of findings. The objective of this study was to develop a logic process model (Asthma Care Model; ACM) that explains how patient and HCP behaviors impact on the asthma care process. Within a European research project on asthma (ASTRO-LAB), we reviewed asthma care guidelines and empirical literature, and conducted qualitative interviews with patients and HCPs. Findings were discussed with the project team and respiratory care experts and integrated in a causal model. The model outlines a causal sequence of treatment events, from diagnosis and assessment to treatment prescription, drug exposure, and health outcomes. The relationships between these components are moderated by patient behaviors (medication adherence, symptom monitoring, managing triggers, and exacerbations) and HCP behaviors (medical care and self-management support). Modifiable and nonmodifiable behavioral determinants influence the behaviors of patients and HCPs. The model is dynamic as it includes feedback loops of behavioral and clinical outcomes, which influence future patient and HCP decision making. Key evidence for each relationship is summarized to derive research priorities and clinical recommendations. The ACM model is of interest to both researchers and practitioners, and intended as a first version (ACM-v1) of a common framework for generating and translating research evidence in asthma care. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analytical implications of using practice theory in workplace information literacy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, Camilla Elisabeth; Lloyd, Annemaree


    Introduction: This paper considers practice theory and the analytical implications of using this theoretical approach in information literacy research. More precisely the aim of the paper is to discuss the translation of practice theoretical assumptions into strategies that frame the analytical...... focus and interest when researching workplace information literacy. Two practice theoretical perspectives are selected, one by Theodore Schatzki and one by Etienne Wenger, and their general commonalities and differences are analysed and discussed. Analysis: The two practice theories and their main ideas...... of what constitute practices, how practices frame social life and the central concepts used to explain this, are presented. Then the application of the theories within workplace information literacy research is briefly explored. Results and Conclusion: The two theoretical perspectives share some...

  10. The down syndrome behavioral phenotype: implications for practice and research in occupational therapy. (United States)

    Daunhauer, Lisa A; Fidler, Deborah J


    ABSTRACT Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal cause of intellectual disability. The genetic causes of DS are associated with characteristic outcomes, such as relative strengths in visual-spatial skills and relative challenges in motor planning. This profile of outcomes, called the DS behavioral phenotype, may be a critical tool for intervention planning and research in this population. In this article, aspects of the DS behavioral phenotype potentially relevant to occupational therapy practice are reviewed. Implications and challenges for etiology-informed research and practice are discussed.

  11. Learning from collaborative research on sustainably managing fresh water: implications for ethical research-practice engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret L. Ayre


    Full Text Available Since the mid-2000s, there has been increasing recognition of the promise of collaborative research and management for addressing complex issues in sustainably managing fresh water. A large variety of collaborative freshwater research and management processes is now evident around the world. However, how collective knowledge development, coproduction, or cocreation is carried out in an ethical manner is less well known. From the literature and our experiences as applied, transdisciplinary researchers and natural resource management practitioners, we seek to describe and explore these aspects of empirical cases of collaborative freshwater research and management. Drawing on cases from Indigenous community-based natural resource management in northern Australia, flood and drought risk management in Bulgaria, water management and climate change adaptation in the Pacific, and regional catchment and estuary management in Victoria and New South Wales in Australia, we identify lessons to support improved collaborative sustainable freshwater management research and practice. Cocreation represents an emerging approach to participation and collaboration in freshwater management research-practice and can be seen to constitute four interlinked and iterative phases: coinitiation, codesign, coimplementation, and coevaluation. For freshwater researchers and managers and their collaborators, paying attention to these phases and the ethical dilemmas that arise within each phase will support the cocreation of more effective and ethical research-practice through: sensitizing collaborators to the need for reflexivity in research-practice, proposing action research codesign as a method for managing emergent questions and outcomes, and supporting more equitable outcomes for collaborators through an emphasis on coevaluation and collaborative articulation of the links between research outputs and practice outcomes.

  12. Citizen Science and Biomedical Research: Implications for Bioethics Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris W Callaghan


    Full Text Available Certain trends in scientific research have important relevance to bioethics theory and practice. A growing stream of literature relates to increasing transparency and inclusivity of populations (stakeholders in scientific research, from high volume data collection, synthesis, and analysis to verification and ethical scrutiny. The emergence of this stream of literature has implications for bioethics theory and practice. This paper seeks to make explicit these streams of literature and to relate these to bioethical issues, through consideration of certain extreme examples of scientific research where bioethical engagement is vital. Implications for theory and practice are derived, offering useful insights derived from multidisciplinary theory. Arguably, rapidly developing fields of citizen science such as informing science and others seeking to maximise stakeholder involvement in both research and bioethical engagement have emerged as a response to these types of issues; radically enhanced stakeholder engagement in science may herald a new maximally inclusive and transparent paradigm in bioethics based on lessons gained from exposure to increasingly uncertain ethical contexts of biomedical research.

  13. Interviewing children in custody cases: implications of research and policy for practice. (United States)

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda B; Romanoff, Anna


    Research on child interviewing has burgeoned over the past 25 years as expectations about children's agency, competence, and participation in society have changed. This article identifies recent trends in research, policy, and theory with implications for the practice of interviewing children in cases of contested divorce and for the weight to be given the information children provide. A number of fields of relevant research are identified, including studies of families who have participated in the family law system, studies of child witnesses in the field, experimental studies of the effects of interview techniques on children's memory and suggestibility, and ethnographic methods that elicit children's views of their own experiences. Finally, a set of 10 principles for practice are delineated based on the best available science. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Toward an Ontology of Practices in Educational Administration: Theoretical Implications for Research and Practice (United States)

    Newton, Paul; Riveros, Augusto


    In this article, we argue for a study of educational administration centered on an "ontology of practices." This is an initial proposal for thinking about and conceptualizing practices in educational administration. To do this, first, we explore how practices are constituted and how they configure the social realities of practitioners.…

  15. Implications of RDoC for the research and practice of psychotherapy. (United States)

    Hershenberg, Rachel; Goldfried, Marvin R


    The field of psychotherapy is at an important juncture. Recent changes in the field include (a) the skeptical reception of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and (b) NIMH's prioritization of an alternative classification system to guide translational and intervention research. Moreover, (c) the field continues to be held accountable to governmental agencies and third-party payers to demonstrate its empirical basis. Thus, psychological research as it relates to the practice of psychotherapy is at a crossroads. In this article, we provide a brief overview of several generations of psychotherapy outcome research, including the consequences that followed in the 1980s as psychotherapy research moved toward randomized controlled trials for clinical disorders. We delineate the inherent strengths and limitations of this movement and address how the NIMH has recently responded with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). We then address philosophical and practical implications of the emphasis on a neuroscientific conceptualization of psychological problems. Finally, we discuss opportunities for a next generation of convergent science that incorporates, rather than replaces, psychosocial variables across stages of translational research and treatment development. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Implications of American Indian gambling for social work research and practice. (United States)

    Momper, Sandra L


    Since the 1988 passage of the Indian Gaming and Regulatory Act (IGRA), American Indian tribal communities have rapidly opened up casinos. American Indian participation in recreational gambling has increased, resulting in an increase in problem and pathological gambling. However, increased revenues from gaming have significantly benefited tribes. Background information on the Supreme Court case that led to passage of the IGRA and subsequently the opening of casinos on Indian reservations is provided. Data are presented on American Indian gambling studies that explore the impact of gambling on the development of problem or pathological gambling among American Indians. Reports and data are presented on the effects of gambling on the socioeconomic development of tribal communities. The implications of American Indian gaming for social work research and practice are discussed.

  17. Mapping patterns of change in emotion-focused psychotherapy: Implications for theory, research, practice, and training. (United States)

    Watson, Jeanne C


    An important objective in humanistic-experiential psychotherapies and particularly emotion-focused psychotherapy (EFT) is to map patterns of change. Effective mapping of the processes and pathways of change requires that in-session processes be linked to in-session resolutions, immediate post-session changes, intermediate outcome, final therapy outcome, and longer-term change. This is a challenging and long-term endeavour. Fine-grained descriptions of in-session processes that lead to resolution of specific interpersonal and intrapersonal issues linked with longer-term outcomes are the foundation of EFT, the process-experiential approach. In this paper, evidence in support of EFT as a treatment approach will be reviewed along with research on two mechanisms of change, viewed as central to EFT, clients' emotional processing and the therapeutic relationship conditions. The implications for psychotherapy research are discussed. Given the methodological constraints, there is a need for more innovative methodologies and strategies to investigate specific psychotherapy processes within and across different approaches to map patterns and mechanisms of change to enhance theory, research, practice, and training.

  18. English in the multilingual classroom: implications for research, policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Brutt-Griffler


    Full Text Available Purpose – The shift in the function of English as a medium of instruction together with its use in knowledge construction and dissemination among scholars continue to fuel the global demand for high-level proficiency in the language. These components of the global knowledge economy mean that the ability of nations to produce multilinguals with advanced English proficiency alongside their mastery of other languages has become a key to global competitiveness. That need is helping to drive one of the greatest language learning experiments the world has ever known. It carries significant implications for new research agendas and teacher preparation in applied linguistics. Design/methodology/approach – Evidence-based decision-making, whether it pertains to language policy decisions, instructional practices, teacher professional development or curricula/program building, needs to be based on a rigorous and systematically pursued program of research and assessment. Findings – This paper seeks to advance these objectives by identifying new research foci that underscore a student-centered approach. Originality/value – It introduces a new theoretical construct – multilingual proficiency – to underscore the knowledge that the learner develops in the process of language learning that makes for the surest route to the desired high levels of language proficiency. The paper highlights the advantages of a student-centered approach that focuses on multilingual proficiency for teachers and explores the concomitant conclusions for teacher development.

  19. Analytical Methods for Quantification of Vitamin D and Implications for Research and Clinical Practice. (United States)

    Stokes, Caroline S; Lammert, Frank; Volmer, Dietrich A


    A plethora of contradictory research surrounds vitamin D and its influence on health and disease. This may, in part, result from analytical difficulties with regard to measuring vitamin D metabolites in serum. Indeed, variation exists between analytical techniques and assays used for the determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Research studies into the effects of vitamin D on clinical endpoints rely heavily on the accurate assessment of vitamin D status. This has important implications, as findings from vitamin D-related studies to date may potentially have been hampered by the quantification techniques used. Likewise, healthcare professionals are increasingly incorporating vitamin D testing and supplementation regimens into their practice, and measurement errors may be also confounding the clinical decisions. Importantly, the Vitamin D Standardisation Programme is an initiative that aims to standardise the measurement of vitamin D metabolites. Such a programme is anticipated to eliminate the inaccuracies surrounding vitamin D quantification. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  20. Interrogating the Contested Spaces of Rural Aging: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice. (United States)

    Skinner, Mark W; Winterton, Rachel


    Informed by a critical turn underway in rural gerontology, this article explores how the intersection of global and local trends relating to population aging and rural change create contested spaces of rural aging. The aim is to build our understanding of rural as a dynamic context within which the processes, outcomes, and experiences of aging are created, confronted, and contested by older adults and their communities. A review of key developments within gerontology and rural studies reveals how competing policies, discourses, and practices relating to healthy aging and aging in place, rural citizenship and governmentality, and social inclusion and inequality combine in particular ways to empower or disempower a diverse range of older rural adults aging in a diverse range of rural communities. The article provides a contextually sensitive perspective on potential sources of conflict and exclusion for older adults in dynamic rural spaces and further enhances our understanding of how rural physical and social environments are constructed and experienced in older age. A framework for interrogating emergent questions about aging in rural contexts is developed and implications for advancing research, policy, and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  1. Uncovering the benefits of participatory research: implications of a realist review for health research and practice. (United States)

    Jagosh, Justin; Macaulay, Ann C; Pluye, Pierre; Salsberg, Jon; Bush, Paula L; Henderson, Jim; Sirett, Erin; Wong, Geoff; Cargo, Margaret; Herbert, Carol P; Seifer, Sarena D; Green, Lawrence W; Greenhalgh, Trisha


    Participatory research (PR) is the co-construction of research through partnerships between researchers and people affected by and/or responsible for action on the issues under study. Evaluating the benefits of PR is challenging for a number of reasons: the research topics, methods, and study designs are heterogeneous; the extent of collaborative involvement may vary over the duration of a project and from one project to the next; and partnership activities may generate a complex array of both short- and long-term outcomes. Our review team consisted of a collaboration among researchers and decision makers in public health, research funding, ethics review, and community-engaged scholarship. We identified, selected, and appraised a large-variety sample of primary studies describing PR partnerships, and in each stage, two team members independently reviewed and coded the literature. We used key realist review concepts (middle-range theory, demi-regularity, and context-mechanism-outcome configurations [CMO]) to analyze and synthesize the data, using the PR partnership as the main unit of analysis. From 7,167 abstracts and 591 full-text papers, we distilled for synthesis a final sample of twenty-three PR partnerships described in 276 publications. The link between process and outcome in these partnerships was best explained using the middle-range theory of partnership synergy, which demonstrates how PR can (1) ensure culturally and logistically appropriate research, (2) enhance recruitment capacity, (3) generate professional capacity and competence in stakeholder groups, (4) result in productive conflicts followed by useful negotiation, (5) increase the quality of outputs and outcomes over time, (6) increase the sustainability of project goals beyond funded time frames and during gaps in external funding, and (7) create system changes and new unanticipated projects and activities. Negative examples illustrated why these outcomes were not a guaranteed product of PR

  2. Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases and Their Unique Cognitive Profiles: Implications for Nursing Practice and Research (United States)

    Vance, David E.; Dodson, Joan E.; Watkins, Jason; Kennedy, Bridgett H.; Keltner, Norman L.


    To successfully negotiate and interact with one’s environment, optimal cognitive functioning is needed. Unfortunately, many neurological and psychiatric diseases impede certain cognitive abilities such as executive functioning or speed of processing; this can produce a poor fit between the patient and the cognitive demands of his or her environment. Such non-dementia diseases include bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress syndrome, depression, and anxiety disorders, just to name a few. Each of these diseases negatively affects particular areas of the brain, resulting in distinct cognitive profiles (e.g., deficits in executive functioning but normal speed of processing as seen in schizophrenia). In fact, it is from these cognitive deficits in which such behavioral and emotional symptoms may manifest (e.g., delusions, paranoia). This article highlights the distinct cognitive profiles of such common neurological and psychiatric diseases. An understanding of such disease-specific cognitive profiles can assist nurses in providing care to patients by knowing what cognitive deficits are associated with each disease and how these cognitive deficits impact everyday functioning and social interactions. Implications for nursing practice and research are posited within the framework of cognitive reserve and neuroplasticity. PMID:23422693

  3. Practical implications for RPV irradiation surveillance under long term operation based on latest research results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, H.; Keim, E.; Barthelmes, J.; Schnabel, H.


    The international programs CARISMA, CARINA and LONGLIFE belong to the research programs which have been performed during the last 10 years to study the irradiation behavior of RPV steels under long term operation of more than 60 years. Some characteristic but different irradiated RPV steels used in Pressurized Water Reactors have been extensively investigated in each of those three programs. Whereas the CARISMA and CARINA programs were mainly focused on material testing to study the irradiation-induced change of material properties in terms of fracture toughness, the main objective of LONGLIFE was to investigate the change of microstructure with various analysis techniques and to understand the mechanisms behind. In this way it was possible to get a comprehensive material characterization in terms of macro-physical properties and micro-structural features for a number of RPV steels which have been studied at different irradiation levels up to 8*10 19 cm -2 (E > 1 MeV). The essential macro-physical and micro-structural results are summarized, in particular regarding the impact of copper and nickel, and the neutron flux on the irradiation behavior and with respect to possible late irradiation effects under long term operation. Moreover, the change of material properties is linked with embrittlement mechanisms such as formation of element specific precipitations, segregations, and matrix defects. Well-known trend curves are also applied to the measured T 41 and T 0 data in order to assess their appropriateness for long term operation. Based on the comprehensive available data base, practical implications for RPV irradiation surveillance programs under long term operation are highlighted with respect to issues like material specific application of reference temperature concepts, data scattering, prediction of high fluence behavior and how to cope with possible late irradiation effects. Finally, best practices for RPV irradiation surveillance programs are suggested from

  4. The Implications of Autonomist Marxism for Research and Practice in Education and Technology (United States)

    Hall, Richard


    This article considers the relevance of Autonomist Marxism for both research and practice in education and technology. The article situates the Autonomist perspective against that of traditional Marxist thought--illustrating how certain core Autonomist concepts enable a critical reading of developments in information and communication technology.…

  5. Position Statement on Motivations, Methodologies, and Practical Implications of Educational Neuroscience Research: fMRI Studies of the Neural Correlates of Creative Intelligence (United States)

    Geake, John


    In this position statement it is argued that educational neuroscience must necessarily be relevant to, and therefore have implications for, both educational theory and practice. Consequently, educational neuroscientific research necessarily must embrace educational research questions in its remit.

  6. Yarning/Aboriginal storytelling: towards an understanding of an Indigenous perspective and its implications for research practice. (United States)

    Geia, Lynore K; Hayes, Barbara; Usher, Kim


    There is increasing recognition of Indigenous perspectives from various parts of the world in relation to storytelling, research and its effects on practice. The recent emergence of storytelling or yarning as a research method in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island studies and other Indigenous peoples of the world is gaining momentum. Narratives, stories, storytelling and yarning are emerging methods in research and has wide ranging potential to shape conventional research discourse making research more meaningful and accessible for researchers. In this paper we argue for the importance of Indigenous research methods and Indigenous method(ology), within collaborative respectful partnerships with non-Indigenous researchers. It is imperative to take these challenging steps together towards better outcomes for Indigenous people and their communities. In the Australian context we as researchers cannot afford to allow the gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and mainstream Australia health outcomes to grow even wider. One such pathway is the inclusion of Aboriginal storytelling or yarning from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait perspective within Indigenous and non-Indigenous research paradigms. Utilising Aboriginal storytelling or yarning will provide deeper understanding; complementing a two-way research paradigm for collaborative research. Furthermore, it has significant social implications for research and clinical practice amongst Indigenous populations; thus complementing the biomedical medical paradigm.

  7. A randomized study of multimedia informational aids for research on medical practices: implications for informed consent (United States)

    Kraft, Stephanie A; Constantine, Melissa; Magnus, David; Porter, Kathryn M.; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Green, Michael; Kass, Nancy E; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; Cho, Mildred K


    Background/aims Participant understanding is a key element of informed consent for enrollment in research. However, participants often do not understand the nature, risks, benefits, or design of the studies in which they take part. Research on medical practices, which studies standard interventions rather than new treatments, has the potential to be especially confusing to participants because it is embedded within usual clinical care. Our objective in this randomized study was to compare the ability of a range of multimedia informational aids to improve participant understanding in the context of research on medical practices. Methods We administered a Web-based survey to members of a proprietary online panel sample selected to match national U.S. demographics. Respondents were randomized to one of five arms: four content-equivalent informational aids (animated videos, slideshows with voiceover, comics, and text), and one no-intervention control. We measured knowledge of research on medical practices using a summary knowledge score from 10 questions based on the content of the informational aids. We used ANOVA and paired t-tests to compare knowledge scores between arms. Results There were 1500 completed surveys (300 in each arm). Mean knowledge scores were highest for the slideshows with voiceover (65.7%), followed by the animated videos (62.7%), comics (60.7%), text (57.2%), and control (50.3%). Differences between arms were statistically significant except between the slideshows with voiceover and animated videos and between the animated videos and comics. Informational aids that included an audio component (animated videos and slideshows with voiceover) had higher knowledge scores than those without an audio component (64.2% versus 59.0%, peffectively than text alone. However, the relatively low knowledge scores suggest that targeted informational aids may be needed to teach some particularly challenging concepts. Nonetheless, our results demonstrate the

  8. Ethical implications for clinical practice and future research in "at risk" individuals. (United States)

    Singh, Fiza; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo; Cadenhead, Kristin S


    The last 15 years have witnessed a shift in schizophrenia research with increasing interest in earlier stages of illness with the hope of early intervention and ultimately prevention of psychotic illness. Large-scale longitudinal studies have identified clinical and biological risk factors associated with increased risk of psychotic conversion, which together with symptomatic and demographic risk factors may improve the power of prediction algorithms for psychotic transition. Despite these advances, 45-70% of at risk subjects in most samples do not convert to frank psychosis, but continue to function well below their age matched counterparts. The issue is of utmost importance in light of the upcoming DSM-V and the possible inclusion of the attenuated psychotic symptoms syndrome (APSS) diagnosis, with clinical and ethical implications. Clinical considerations include feasibility of reliably diagnosing the at risk state in non-academic medical centers, variable psychotic conversion rates, a non-uniform definition of conversion and extensive debate about treatment for individuals with an ill-defined outcome. On the ethical side, diagnosing APSS could lead to unnecessary prescribing of antipsychotics with long-term deleterious consequences, slow research by providing a false sense of comfort in the diagnosis, and have psychosocial implications for those who receive a diagnosis. Thus it may be prudent to engage at risk populations early and to use broad-spectrum treatments with low risk benefit ratios to relieve functional impairments, while simultaneously studying all subsets of the at risk population.

  9. Cancer survivorship care-planning: Practice, research, and policy implications for social work. (United States)

    Wagner, Richard W; Pritzker, Suzanne


    Increasing numbers of cancer survivors are living longer than 5 years from their diagnosis date. This has resulted in a growing population of cancer survivors, expected to reach 19 million by 2024. Survivors frequently experience late effects caused by cancer and its treatment, reducing survivors' quality of life in multiple domains. Survivorship care-plans may aid the many physical, psychosocial, and financial needs that emerge posttreatment. However, the lack of reimbursement mechanisms, the limited amount of effectiveness research, and minimal guidelines for content and delivery are barriers to the widespread provision of survivorship care-plans. Challenges and opportunities for social work practice, research, and policy are identified and discussed.

  10. A qualitative study of intimate partner violence universal screening by family therapy interns: implications for practice, research, training, and supervision. (United States)

    Todahl, Jeffrey L; Linville, Deanna; Chou, Liang-Ying; Maher-Cosenza, Patricia


    Although a few family therapy researchers and clinicians have urged universal screening for intimate partner violence (IPV), how screening is implemented-and, in particular, client and therapist response to screening-is vaguely defined and largely untested. This qualitative study examined the dilemmas experienced by couples and family therapy interns when implementing universal screening for IPV in an outpatient clinic setting. Twenty-two graduate students in a COAMFTE-accredited program were interviewed using qualitative research methods grounded in phenomenology. Three domains, 7 main themes, and 26 subthemes were identified. The three domains that emerged in this study include (a) therapist practice of universal screening, (b) client response to universal screening, and (c) therapist response to universal screening. Implications for practice, research, training, and supervision are discussed.

  11. A systematic review of collaboration and network research in the public affairs literature: implications for public health practice and research. (United States)

    Varda, Danielle; Shoup, Jo Ann; Miller, Sara


    We explored and analyzed how findings from public affairs research can inform public health research and practice, specifically in the area of interorganizational collaboration, one of the most promising practice-based approaches in the public health field. We conducted a systematic review of the public affairs literature by following a grounded theory approach. We coded 151 articles for demographics and empirical findings (n = 258). Three primary findings stand out in the public affairs literature: network structure affects governance, management strategies exist for administrators, and collaboration can be linked to outcomes. These findings are linked to priorities in public health practice. Overall, we found that public affairs has a long and rich history of research in collaborations that offers unique organizational theory and management tools to public health practitioners.

  12. Trust in leadership: meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice. (United States)

    Dirks, Kurt T; Ferrin, Donald L


    In this study, the authors examined the findings and implications of the research on trust in leadership that has been conducted during the past 4 decades. First, the study provides estimates of the primary relationships between trust in leadership and key outcomes, antecedents, and correlates (k = 106). Second, the study explores how specifying the construct with alternative leadership referents (direct leaders vs. organizational leadership) and definitions (types of trust) results in systematically different relationships between trust in leadership and outcomes and antecedents. Direct leaders (e.g., supervisors) appear to be a particularly important referent of trust. Last, a theoretical framework is offered to provide parsimony to the expansive literature and to clarify the different perspectives on the construct of trust in leadership and its operation.

  13. Social work and adverse childhood experiences research: implications for practice and health policy. (United States)

    Larkin, Heather; Felitti, Vincent J; Anda, Robert F


    Medical research on "adverse childhood experiences" (ACEs) reveals a compelling relationship between the extent of childhood adversity, adult health risk behaviors, and principal causes of death in the United States. This article provides a selective review of the ACE Study and related social science research to describe how effective social work practice that prevents ACEs and mobilizes resilience and recovery from childhood adversity could support the achievement of national health policy goals. This article applies a biopsychosocial perspective, with an emphasis on mind-body coping processes to demonstrate that social work responses to adverse childhood experiences may contribute to improvement in overall health. Consistent with this framework, the article sets forth prevention and intervention response strategies with individuals, families, communities, and the larger society. Economic research on human capital development is reviewed that suggests significant cost savings may result from effective implementation of these strategies.

  14. A randomized study of multimedia informational aids for research on medical practices: Implications for informed consent. (United States)

    Kraft, Stephanie A; Constantine, Melissa; Magnus, David; Porter, Kathryn M; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Green, Michael; Kass, Nancy E; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Cho, Mildred K


    Participant understanding is a key element of informed consent for enrollment in research. However, participants often do not understand the nature, risks, benefits, or design of the studies in which they take part. Research on medical practices, which studies standard interventions rather than new treatments, has the potential to be especially confusing to participants because it is embedded within usual clinical care. Our objective in this randomized study was to compare the ability of a range of multimedia informational aids to improve participant understanding in the context of research on medical practices. We administered a web-based survey to members of a proprietary online panel sample selected to match national US demographics. Respondents were randomized to one of five arms: four content-equivalent informational aids (animated videos, slideshows with voice-over, comics, and text) and one no-intervention control. We measured knowledge of research on medical practices using a summary knowledge score from 10 questions based on the content of the informational aids. We used analysis of variance and paired t-tests to compare knowledge scores between arms. There were 1500 completed surveys (300 in each arm). Mean knowledge scores were highest for the slideshows with voice-over (65.7%), followed by the animated videos (62.7%), comics (60.7%), text (57.2%), and control (50.3%). Differences between arms were statistically significant except between the slideshows with voice-over and animated videos and between the animated videos and comics. Informational aids that included an audio component (animated videos and slideshows with voice-over) had higher knowledge scores than those without an audio component (64.2% vs 59.0%, p informational aids with a character-driven story component (animated videos and comics) and those without. Our results show that simple multimedia aids that use a dual-channel approach, such as voice-over with visual reinforcement, can

  15. Implications for research and practice of the biographic approach for storytelling. (United States)

    Ewens, Beverley; Hendricks, Joyce; Sundin, Deb


    Background Intensive care unit survivors face many physical and psychological difficulties during their recovery following discharge from hospital. These difficulties can significantly affect their quality of life. Healthcare providers and survivors' families often do not understand what recovery means in this population, which may affect the support provided. Aim To consider the potential of the biographical method in helping to create stories that illustrate recovery in intensive care survivors and other populations. Discussion This paper identifies how the biographical approach has provided survivors with a way to uncover the hidden parts of their lives through diaries and interviews, and reveal the hidden stories of intensive care survivorship and recovery. Conclusion The application of the biographical method enabled stories to be created that identified the disruption survivors encounter as they struggle to appear recovered. Implications for practice The biographical method can illuminate experiences uncaptured by other methods. This insight into recovery journeys can help healthcare practitioners and family members to understand and recognise the need for support during recovery.

  16. Gendered negotiations for research participation in community-based studies: implications for health research policy and practice


    Kamuya, Dorcas M; Molyneux, Catherine S; Theobald, Sally


    There is a growing literature documenting the complex realities of consent processes in the field, and the negotiations and ethical dilemmas involved. Much has also been written about how gender and power shape household decision-making processes. However, these bodies of literature have rarely been brought together to inform research theory and practice in low-income settings. In this paper, qualitative research (observation, focus group discussions and interviews) were used alongside large ...

  17. Coronary heart disease in South Asian immigrants: synthesis of research and implications for health promotion and prevention in nursing practice. (United States)

    Mathews, Rahel; Zachariah, Rachel


    Although the literature reflects that Asian Indians in the United States and globally have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality because of coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes, few studies have described the clinical implications in the United States. Traditional risk factors dictate practice, yet these risk factors do not fully explain the rates. Central obesity, lipoprotein (a), and insulin resistance may have a strong role. The literature suggests that proactive nursing using culturally specific clinical measures are necessary to reduce risk factors for CHD and diabetes in South Asians. Additional research and prevention strategies focused on immigrant South Asians in the United States are recommended.

  18. Biological variation in musculoskeletal injuries: current knowledge, future research and practical implications. (United States)

    Collins, Malcolm; September, Alison V; Posthumus, Michael


    Evidence from familial and genetic association studies have reported that DNA sequence variants play an important role, together with non-genetic factors, in the aetiology of both exercise-associated and occupational-associated acute and chronic musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. The associated variants, which have been identified to date, may contribute to the interindividual variation in the structure and, by implication, mechanical properties of the collagen fibril and surrounding matrix within musculoskeletal soft tissues, as well as their response to mechanical loading and other stimuli. Future work should focus on the establishment of multidisciplinary international consortia for the identification of biologically relevant variants involved in modulating injury risk. These consortia will improve the limitations of the published hypothesis-driven genetic association studies, since they will allow resources to be pooled in recruiting large well-characterised cohorts required for whole-genome screening. Finally, clinicians and coaches need to be aware that many direct-to-consumer companies are currently marketing genetic tests directly to athletes without it being requested by an appropriately qualified healthcare professional, and without interpretation alongside other clinical indicators or lifestyle factors. These specific genetic tests are premature and are not necessarily required to evaluate susceptibility to musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Current practice should rather consider susceptibility through known risk factors such as a positive family history of a specific injury, a history of other tendon and/or ligament injuries and participation in activities associated with the specific musculoskeletal injuries. Potential susceptible athletes may then be individually managed to reduce their risk profile. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  19. Social smoking implications for public health, clinical practice, and intervention research. (United States)

    Schane, Rebecca E; Glantz, Stanton A; Ling, Pamela M


    Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including "non-habit forming" cigarettes. Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, "Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?" as opposed to "Are you a smoker?" Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy.

  20. Youth with Behavioral Health Disorders Aging Out of Foster Care: a Systematic Review and Implications for Policy, Research, and Practice. (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D; Adams, Danielle R


    This systematic review aimed to (1) identify and summarize empirical studies on youth with behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care and (2) address implications for behavioral health policy, research, and practice. We identified previous studies by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ISI Citation Indexes and obtaining references from key experts in the child welfare field. A total of 28 full articles published between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed and summarized into the key areas including systems of care, disability type, transition practice area, study methods, study sample, transition outcome measures, study analysis, and study findings. Considering how fast youth who have behavioral health disorders fall through the crack as they exit foster care, one cannot understate the importance of incorporating timely and appropriate transition planning and care coordination for youth who have behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care into the usual case management performed by behavioral health systems and service providers.

  1. Weight compensation characteristics of Armeo®Spring exoskeleton: implications for clinical practice and research. (United States)

    Perry, Bonnie E; Evans, Emily K; Stokic, Dobrivoje S


    Armeo®Spring exoskeleton is widely used for upper extremity rehabilitation; however, weight compensation provided by the device appears insufficiently characterized to fully utilize it in clinical and research settings. Weight compensation was quantified by measuring static force in the sagittal plane with a load cell attached to the elbow joint of Armeo®Spring. All upper spring settings were examined in 5° increments at the minimum, maximum, and two intermediate upper and lower module length settings, while keeping the lower spring at minimum. The same measurements were made for minimum upper spring setting and maximum lower spring setting at minimum and maximum module lengths. Weight compensation was plotted against upper module angles, and slope was analyzed for each condition. The Armeo®Spring design prompted defining the slack angle and exoskeleton balance angle, which, depending on spring and length settings, divide the operating range into different unloading and loading regions. Higher spring tensions and shorter module lengths provided greater unloading (≤6.32 kg of support). Weight compensation slope decreased faster with shorter length settings (minimum length = -0.082 ± 0.002 kg/°; maximum length = -0.046 ± 0.001 kg/°) independent of spring settings. Understanding the impact of different settings on the Armeo®Spring weight compensation should help define best clinical practice and improve fidelity of research.

  2. Integrating substance abuse care with community diabetes care: implications for research and clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghitza UE


    Full Text Available Udi E Ghitza,1 Li-Tzy Wu,2 Betty Tai11Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Cigarette smoking and alcohol use are prevalent among individuals with diabetes in the US, but little is known about screening and treatment for substance use disorders in the diabetic population. This commentary discusses the scope and clinical implications of the public health problem of coexisting substance use and diabetes, including suggestions for future research. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the US, and is associated with many severe health complications like cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney damage, and limb amputations. There are an estimated 24 million adults in the US with type 2 diabetes. Approximately 20% of adults aged 18 years or older with diabetes report current cigarette smoking. The prevalence of current alcohol use in the diabetic population is estimated to be around 50%–60% in epidemiological surveys and treatment-seeking populations. Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in a dose-dependent manner and is an independent modifiable risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes. Diabetic patients with an alcohol or other drug use disorder show a higher rate of adverse health outcomes. For example, these patients experience more frequent and severe health complications as well as an increased risk of hospitalization, and require longer hospital stays. They are also less likely to seek routine care for diabetes or adhere to diabetes treatment than those without an alcohol or other drug use disorder. The Affordable Care Act of 2010 and the Mental Health Parity Act and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 provide opportunities for facilitating integration of

  3. Expanding concepts in ischaemic heart disease: implications for clinical practice and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maseri, A.; Pasceri, V.; Giordano, A.; Trani, C.


    In the late Eighties, a series of observations from several institutions around the world has dramatically revolutionized the traditional notion that the occurrence of myocardial infarction was related most of the time to the development of critical flow-limiting coronary stenosis. All these studies showed that the infarct-related artery had only minimal or mild stenosis in about two thirds of the cases. Therefore, contrary to our previous beliefs, in clinical practice the detection of coronary stenosis has a lesser role in the prognostic assessment of patients with ischaemic heart disease, unless associated with extensive ischemia or with phases of instability. In fact, the major determinants of prognosis are represented by age, left ventricular function, effort tolerance and especially by the clinical stability or instability of angina. According to the Bayesian an theorem, in low risk patients any diagnostic test has a very low predictive accuracy, unless very high specificity criteria are used. The value of diagnostic tests in the assessment of patients' prognosis should be evaluated in intermediate risk groups. The emphasis of clinical research has, therefore, shifted from the detection of flow-limiting stenosis to the study of the multiple and varied dynamic causes of stable and unstable ischaemia, where the possibilities of making new, seminal observations are greater

  4. The use of music on Barney & Friends: implications for music therapy practice and research. (United States)

    McGuire , K M


    movement and props/costumes was also prevalent, and may have contributed to high interobserver reliability of tempo. Implications for music therapists and teachers working with young children and music researchers examining various epistemological questions of music learning and behavior are discussed.

  5. Global Health Systems and Policy Development: Implications for Health Literacy Research, Theory and Practice. (United States)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Dodson, Sarity; Leung, Angela; Levin-Zamir, Diane


    Accessible and responsive health systems are critical to population health and human development. While progress has been made toward global health and development targets, significant inequities remain within and between countries. Expanding health inequities suggest a widespread and systemic neglect of vulnerable citizens, and a failure to enshrine within policies a responsibility to tailor care to the variable capabilities of citizens. Implementation of health and social policies that drive the design of accessible health systems, services, products and infrastructure represents the next frontier for health reform. Within this chapter we argue the need to consider health and health literacy across policy domains, to operationalize the intent to address inequities in health in meaningful and pragmatic ways, and to actively monitor progress and impact within the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We contend that viewing and developing policies and systems within a health literacy framework will assist in placing citizens and equity considerations at the center of development efforts. In this chapter, we explore the relationship between health literacy and equitable access to health care, and the role of health system and policy reform. We first explore international policies, health literacy, and the SDGs. We then explore national policies and the role that national and local services and systems play in building health literacy, and responding to the health literacy challenges of citizens. We discuss the World Health Organization's (WHO) Framework for Integrated People-Centered Health Services and the way in which health services are being encouraged to understand and respond to citizen health literacy needs. Each section of the chapter ends with a summary and a review of health literacy research and practice. Throughout, we illustrate our points through 'vignettes' from around the world.

  6. Changing Research Practices and Research Infrastructure Development (United States)

    Houghton, John W.


    This paper examines changing research practices in the digital environment and draws out implications for the development of research infrastructure. Reviews of the literature, quantitative indicators of research activities and our own field research in Australia suggest that there is a new mode of knowledge production emerging, changing research…

  7. Children of Color and Parental Incarceration: Implications for Research, Theory, and Practice (United States)

    Graham, James A.; Harris, Yvette R.


    Practical information about culturally appropriate interventions with children of incarcerated parents (CIPs) of color and their families is notably sparse. This study uses a cultural-ecological perspective to contextualize individual, family, and legal issues inherent in many intervention programs for CIPs of color. The authors highlight…

  8. Girls and Gaming: A Summary of the Research with Implications for Practice (United States)

    Agosto, Denise E.


    Over the last two decades, the topic of gender and computer gaming has generated much research interest. Researchers have examined a number of related issues, including the relative frequency with which girls and boys use computer games, the educational benefits of gaming and the types of educational games that appeal to girls. This article…

  9. Comorbidity of Anxiety and Conduct Problems in Children: Implications for Clinical Research and Practice (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Ollendick, Thomas H.


    Given the relative lack of research on the comorbidity of anxiety disorders (ADs) and conduct problems (oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder) in youth, we examine this comorbidity from both basic and applied perspectives. First, we review the concept of comorbidity and provide a framework for understanding issues pertaining to…

  10. Too Anxious to Speak? The Implications of Current Research into Selective Mutism for Educational Psychology Practice (United States)

    Cleave, Hayley


    Selective Mutism is a low incidence disorder but has considerable impact on the school system when it occurs. Over the last decade several research articles have been published which have challenged the understanding of the aetiology of Selective Mutism. Current perceptions about the aetiology of Selective Mutism are considered in order to inform…

  11. The Importance of Workplace Bullying to Vocational Psychology: Implications for Research and Practice (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Mary E.; Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Bernfeld, Steve J.; Carter, Laura M.; Kies, Ashley; Fouad, Nadya A.


    Workplace bullying is a significant problem in many adult work settings. Much of the research has been conducted by organizational psychologists. It is important for vocational scholars and practitioners to be knowledgeable about the phenomena of workplace bullying, as they are in a position to contribute to the literature base and to counsel…

  12. Implications of Studies on Self-Esteem for Educational Research and Practice. (United States)

    Coopersmith, Stanley

    The research of this author indicates that the development of high self-esteem (defined as the good-bad dimension of self-concept) is associated with (1) acceptance, (2) clearly defined limits and moderately high goals, and (3) respectful treatment. Such factors as status, income, and education are only related to high self-esteem if they are a…

  13. The Veterans Affairs's Corporate Data Warehouse: Uses and Implications for Nursing Research and Practice. (United States)

    Price, Lauren E; Shea, Kimberly; Gephart, Sheila


    The Department of Veterans Affairs Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA) is supported by one of the largest integrated health care information systems in the United States. The VHA's Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW) was developed in 2006 to accommodate the massive amounts of data being generated from more than 20 years of use and to streamline the process of knowledge discovery to application. This article describes the developments in research associated with the VHA's transition into the world of Big Data analytics through CDW utilization. The majority of studies utilizing the CDW also use at least one other data source. The most commonly occurring topics are pharmacy/medications, systems issues, and weight management/obesity. Despite the potential benefit of data mining techniques to improve patient care and services, the CDW and alternative analytical approaches are underutilized by researchers and clinicians.

  14. Definition and measurement of guilt: Implications for clinical research and practice (United States)

    Tilghman-Osborne, Carlos; Cole, David A.; Felton, Julia W.


    Research on the relation of guilt to psychopathology is highly inconsistent. Some studies suggest that guilt contributes to psychopathology; others suggest that guilt serves a protective role. This review of 23 theory-based definitions of guilt and 25 measures of guilt suggests that a lack of conceptual clarity may be to blame. Measures of guilt do not correspond well to the definitions from which they derive. Many definitions and measures reflect the intrusion of extraneous constructs that could confound guilt research. Furthermore, definitions and measures of guilt change with developmental level. Nevertheless, two broad conceptualizations of guilt emerge. Central to both is a focus on one’s action or inactions involving real or imagined moral transgressions. Distinguishing the two conceptualizations is whether or not guilt is inherently adaptive construct, generating remorse, augmenting a sense of responsibility, and motivating reparation. Recommendations for the definition and measurement of guilt are discussed. PMID:20451312

  15. Identifying optimal postmarket surveillance strategies for medical and surgical devices: implications for policy, practice and research. (United States)

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Umoquit, Muriah; Lehoux, Pascale; Ross, Sue; Ducey, Ariel; Urbach, David R


    Non-drug technologies offer many benefits, but have been associated with adverse events, prompting calls for improved postmarket surveillance. There is little empirical research to guide the development of such a system. The purpose of this study was to identify optimal postmarket surveillance strategies for medical and surgical devices. Qualitative methods were used for sampling, data collection and analysis. Stakeholders from Canada and the USA representing different roles and perspectives were first interviewed to identify examples and characteristics of different surveillance strategies. These stakeholders and others they recommended were then assembled at a 1-day nominal group meeting to discuss and prioritise the components of a postmarket device surveillance system, and research needed to achieve such a system. Consultations were held with 37 participants, and 47 participants attended the 1-day meeting. They recommended a multicomponent system including reporting by facilities, clinicians and patients, supported with some external surveillance for validation and real-time trials for high-risk devices. Many considerations were identified that constitute desirable characteristics of, and means by which to implement such a system. An overarching network was envisioned to broker linkages, establish a shared minimum dataset, and support communication and decision making. Numerous research questions were identified, which could be pursued in tandem with phased implementation of the system. These findings provide unique guidance for establishing a device safety network that is based on existing initiatives, and could be expanded and evaluated in a prospective, phased fashion as it was developed.

  16. Housing and Child Well Being: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice. (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J; Farrell, Anne F


    Inadequate housing and homelessness represent significant barriers to family stability and child development. An accumulating body of evidence documents the relatively high risk of family separation among families experiencing housing instability and homelessness, the extent of housing problems experienced by families involved in the child welfare system, and the disproportionately high rates of homelessness among youth aging out of foster care. Vulnerable youth and families interact frequently with various social service programs intended to mitigate multifaceted and multilevel risks, however, systems efforts and resources are rarely coordinated and results to date are mixed. We introduce 13 papers that are part of a burgeoning, increasingly sophisticated body of scholarship that inform coordinated responses to inadequate housing experienced by families involved in child welfare and related interventions. We note emergent themes and state a pressing need for research that accounts for ecological and contextual influences, examines the differential impact of housing and service interventions, identifies critical ingredients of effective housing and service interventions, and positions for scale-up. We distill findings into a set of observations and recommendations that align with best intentions to improve quality of life and promote well being among some of society's most vulnerable individuals. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  17. Attention and memory deficits in breast cancer survivors: implications for nursing practice and research. (United States)

    Frank, Jennifer Sandson; Vance, David E; Jukkala, Angela; Meneses, Karen M


    Breast cancer survivors (BCSs) commonly report deficits in attention and memory, cognitive functions crucial for daily optimal functioning. Perceived deficits are reported before, during, and after adjuvant therapy and affect quality of life throughout survivorship. Deficits of attention and memory are particularly disruptive for BCSs working or attending school who report that subtle impairment diminishes their confidence and their performance at all levels of occupation. Chemotherapy and endocrine therapy contribute to attention and memory deficits, but research findings have not fully established the extent or timing of that influence. Fortunately, potential interventions for attention and memory deficits in BCSs are promising. These include cognitive remediation therapies aimed at training for specific areas of deficit, cognitive behavioral therapies aimed at developing compensatory strategies for areas of deficit, complementary therapies, and pharmacologic therapies.

  18. The Acceptance of Apologies in the Corrective Process: Implications for Research and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Strickland


    Full Text Available Apology scholars and researchers in psychology, law, and justice commonly conceptualise the corrective process that follows wrongful behaviour as an apology-followed-by-forgiveness sequence. In this paper, however, we suggest on the basis of our analysis of the research literature that a more suitable conceptualisation of the corrective process is one that includes the acceptance of an apology as an additional discrete step that is distinct from forgiveness. We begin with a brief discussion of the psychological view of apologies as a process of negotiation between offending and offended parties, and how psychologists conceive peoples’ responses to apologies. We also review the psychological literature to determine how psychologists define the acceptance of an apology and how they view it within the corrective process. We then briefly examine how the outcome of forgiveness is commonly used as a restorative ideal in the context of restorative justice conferencing and suggest that assessing instead the acceptance of an apology may be more appropriate in this setting. We conclude the paper with a brief agenda for further researchHabitualmente, los académicos que estudian las disculpas y los investigadores en psicología, derecho y justicia conceptualizan el proceso correctivo que sigue a un comportamiento ilegal como una secuencia disculpa-seguida-de-perdón. Este artículo, sin embargo, se sugiere, a partir del análisis de literatura científica, que sería más adecuado realizar una conceptualización del proceso correctivo incluyendo la aceptación de una disculpa como un paso diferente adicional que es distinto del perdón. En primer lugar se trata de forma breve la visión de las disculpas como un proceso de negociación entre víctimas y victimarios, y cómo conciben los psicólogos las respuestas de la gente ante las disculpas. También se analiza la literatura sobre psicología para determinar cómo definen los psicólogos la aceptaci

  19. Religion, spirituality, and medicine: research findings and implications for clinical practice. (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G


    A growing body of scientific research suggests connections between religion, spirituality, and both mental and physical health. The findings are particularly strong in patients with severe or chronic illnesses who are having stressful psychologic and social changes, as well as existential struggles related to meaning and purpose. Recent studies indicate that religious beliefs influence medical decisions, such as the use of chemotherapy and other life-saving treatments, and at times may conflict with medical care. This article addresses the ways physicians can use such information. Spirituality is an area that makes many physicians uncomfortable, since training in medical schools and continuing medical education programs are limited. Not only do most physicians lack the necessary training, they worry about spending additional time with patients and overstepping ethical boundaries. While these concerns are valid, each can be addressed in a sensible way. Taking a spiritual history, supporting the patient's beliefs, and orchestrating the fulfillment of spiritual needs are among the topics this article will address. The goal is to help physicians provide medical care that is sensitive to the way many patients understand and cope with medical illness.

  20. Assessing the Organizational Social Context (OSC) of child welfare systems: implications for research and practice. (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J


    The study: (1) provides the first assessment of the a priori measurement model and psychometric properties of the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measurement system in a US nationwide probability sample of child welfare systems; (2) illustrates the use of the OSC in constructing norm-based organizational culture and climate profiles for child welfare systems; and (3) estimates the association of child welfare system-level organizational culture and climate profiles with individual caseworker-level job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The study applies confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and hierarchical linear models (HLM) analysis to a US nationwide sample of 1,740 caseworkers from 81 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Wellbeing (NSCAW II). The participating child welfare systems were selected using a national probability procedure reflecting the number of children served by child welfare systems nationwide. The a priori OSC measurement model is confirmed in this nationwide sample of child welfare systems. In addition, caseworker responses to the OSC scales generate acceptable to high scale reliabilities, moderate to high within-system agreement, and significant between-system differences. Caseworkers in the child welfare systems with the best organizational culture and climate profiles report higher levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Organizational climates characterized by high engagement and functionality, and organizational cultures characterized by low rigidity are associated with the most positive work attitudes. The OSC is the first valid and reliable measure of organizational culture and climate with US national norms for child welfare systems. The OSC provides a useful measure of Organizational Social Context for child welfare service improvement and implementation research efforts which include a focus on child welfare system culture and climate. Copyright © 2012

  1. Exploring patient experiences with prescription medicines to identify unmet patient needs: implications for research and practice. (United States)

    Kucukarslan, Suzan N; Lewis, Nancy J W; Shimp, Leslie A; Gaither, Caroline A; Lane, Daniel C; Baumer, Andrea L


    Pharmacy services are offered to patients, and often, they decline participation. Research is needed to better understand patients' unmet needs when taking prescribed medications. To identify and characterize patients' unmet needs related to using prescribed medication for chronic conditions. Focus groups of patients using prescription medication for chronic conditions discussed their experiences with medications, starting from initial diagnosis to ongoing management. Sessions involved 40 patients from 1 Midwestern U.S. state. Major themes were identified using content analysis. Three major themes emerged. First, patients seek information to understand their health condition and treatment rationale. Patients form an illness perception (its consequence, controllability, cause, and duration) that dictates their actions. Second, patients desire to be involved in treatment decisions, and they often feel that decisions are made for them without their understanding of the risk-to-benefit trade-off. Third, patients monitor the impact of treatment decisions to determine if anticipated outcomes are achieved. The results were consistent with Dowell's therapeutic alliance model (TAM) and Leventhal's common sense model (CSM). The TAM can be used to model the consultative services between pharmacists and patients. The impact of the new services (or interventions) can be evaluated using the CSM. Patients expressed a strong desire to be involved in their treatment decisions. The effectiveness of medication therapy management services may be enhanced if pharmacists build on patients' desire to be involved in their treatment decisions and assist them to understand the role of medications and their risks and expected outcomes within the context of the patients' perceptions of illness and desired coping strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Emergent Themes from Recent Research Syntheses in Science Education and Their Implications for Research Design, Replication, and Reporting Practices (United States)

    Taylor, Joseph; Furtak, Erin; Kowalski, Susan; Martinez, Alina; Slavin, Robert; Stuhlsatz, Molly; Wilson, Christopher


    This article draws upon the experiences of four recent efforts to synthesize the findings of quantitative studies in science education research. After establishing the need for research syntheses in advancing generalizable knowledge and causal effects research in our field, we identify a set themes that emerged in the process of conducting these…

  3. The Educational Implications of Type I Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Research and Recommendations for School Psychological Practice (United States)

    Kucera, Miranda; Sullivan, Amanda L.


    Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in children and youth, with many affected students requiring individualized services and supports within educational settings. This article systematically reviews the research regarding the implications of this illness for students' cognitive and academic functioning to…

  4. Concordance between local, institutional, and central pathology review in glioblastoma: implications for research and practice: a pilot study. (United States)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Nair, Vimoj; Epari, Sridhar; Pietsch, Torsten; Jalali, Rakesh


    There is significant inter-observer variation amongst the neuro-pathologists in the typing, subtyping, and grading of glial neoplasms for diagnosis. Centralized pathology review has been proposed to minimize this inter-observer variation and is now almost mandatory for accrual into multicentric trials. We sought to assess the concordance between neuro-pathologists on histopathological diagnosis of glioblastoma. Comparison of local, institutional, and central neuro-oncopathology reporting in a cohort of 34 patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma accrued consecutively at a tertiary-care institution on a prospective trial testing the addition of a new agent to standard chemo-radiation regimen. Concordance was sub-optimal between local histological diagnosis and central review, fair between local diagnosis and institutional review, and good between institutional and central review, with respect to histological typing/subtyping. Twelve (39%) of 31 patients with local histological diagnosis had identical tumor type, subtype and grade on central review. Overall agreement was modestly better (52%) between local diagnosis and institutional review. In contrast, 28 (83%) of 34 patients had completely concordant histopathologic diagnosis between institutional and central review. The inter-observer reliability test showed poor agreement between local and central review (kappa statistic=0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.03-0.32, P=0.043), but moderate agreement between institutional and central review (kappa statistic=0.51, 95%CI: 0.17-0.84, P=0.00003). Agreement between local diagnosis and institutional review was fair. There exists significant inter-observer variation regarding histopathological diagnosis of glioblastoma with significant implications for clinical research and practice. There is a need for more objective, quantitative, robust, and reproducible criteria for better subtyping for accurate diagnosis.

  5. A qualitative understanding of the effects of reusable sanitary pads and puberty education: implications for future research and practice. (United States)

    Hennegan, Julie; Dolan, Catherine; Steinfield, Laurel; Montgomery, Paul


    The management of menstruation has come to the fore as a barrier to girls' education attainment in low income contexts. Interventions have been proposed and piloted, but the emerging nature of the field means limited evidence is available to understand their pathways of effect. This study describes and compares schoolgirls' experiences of menstruation in rural Uganda at the conclusion of a controlled trial of puberty education and sanitary pad provision to elucidate pathways of effect in the interventions. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with schoolgirls who participated in the Menstruation and the Cycle of Poverty trial concurrent with the final set of quantitative surveys. A framework approach and cross-case analysis were employed to describe and compare the experiences of 27 menstruating girls across the four intervention conditions; education (n = 8), reusable sanitary pads (n = 8), education with reusable sanitary pads (n = 6), and control (n = 5). Themes included: menstrual hygiene, soiling, irritation and infection, physical experience, knowledge of menstruation, psychological, social and cultural factors, and support from others. Those receiving reusable pads experienced improvements in comfort and reliability. This translated into reduced fears around garment soiling and related school absenteeism. Other menstrual hygiene challenges of washing, drying and privacy remained prominent. Puberty education improved girls' confidence to discuss menstruation and prompted additional support from teachers and peers. Findings have important implications for the development and evaluation of future interventions. Results suggest the provision of menstrual absorbents addresses one core barrier to menstrual health, but that interventions addressing broader needs such as privacy may improve effectiveness. Puberty education sessions should increase attention to body awareness and include strategies to address a wider range of practical menstrual challenges

  6. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research. (United States)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; Velkers, Francisca C; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S


    A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting "robust" animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  7. Improving Practice through Research. (United States)

    Rose, Terry L.


    The article discusses the need for communication of research findings involving exceptional individuals, the need for resolution of the research-practice dichotomy, and the types of papers which will appear in the new column. (JDD)

  8. An Evidence-Based Review of Academic Web Search Engines, 2014-2016: Implications for Librarians’ Practice and Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Condit Fagan


    Full Text Available Academic web search engines have become central to scholarly research. While the fitness of Google Scholar for research purposes has been examined repeatedly, Microsoft Academic and Google Books have not received much attention. Recent studies have much to tell us about the coverage and utility of Google Scholar, its coverage of the sciences, and its utility for evaluating researcher impact. But other aspects have been woefully understudied, such as coverage of the arts and humanities, books, and non-Western, non-English publications. User research has also tapered off. A small number of articles hint at the opportunity for librarians to become expert advisors concerning opportunities of scholarly communication made possible or enhanced by these platforms. This article seeks to summarize research concerning Google Scholar, Google Books, and Microsoft Academic from the past three years with a mind to informing practice and setting a research agenda. Selected literature from earlier time periods is included to illuminate key findings and to help shape the proposed research agenda, especially in understudied areas.

  9. Patients’ Online Access to Their Primary Care Electronic Health Records and Linked Online Services: Implications for Research and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freda Mold


    Full Text Available Online access to medical records and linked services, including requesting repeat prescriptions and booking appointments, enables patients to personalize their access to care. However, online access creates opportunities and challenges for both health professionals and their patients, in practices and in research. The challenges for practice are the impact of online services on workload and the quality and safety of health care. Health professionals are concerned about the impact on workload, especially from email or other online enquiry systems, as well as risks to privacy. Patients report how online access provides a convenient means through which to access their health provider and may offer greater satisfaction if they get a timely response from a clinician. Online access and services may also result in unforeseen consequences and may change the nature of the patient-clinician interaction. Research challenges include: (1 Ensuring privacy, including how to control inappropriate carer and guardian access to medical records; (2 Whether online access to records improves patient safety and health outcomes; (3 Whether record access increases disparities across social classes and between genders; and (4 Improving efficiency. The challenges for practice are: (1 How to incorporate online access into clinical workflow; (2 The need for a business model to fund the additional time taken. Creating a sustainable business model for a safe, private, informative, more equitable online service is needed if online access to records is to be provided outside of pay-for-service systems.

  10. Ecohealth Research in Practice

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research, education, and practice in ecohealth have seen almost logarithmic ... Health Organization; Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Mexico; and IDRC). ..... rates and improving the control of major diseases like tuberculosis and malaria, ...

  11. Shared meanings of success, happiness, and health among adults with cerebral palsy and physiotherapists: implications for practice and research. (United States)

    Gannotti, Mary E; Blanchard, Yvette; Blumberg, Lisa; LaRocco, Diana


    To describe shared meanings of success, happiness, and health of adults with cerebral palsy and physiotherapists. Ethnography employed open ended/semi-structured interviews and structured questionnaires (Satisfaction with Life Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II ® , Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, Life Habits Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Survey, and PROMIS ® Pain Interference Scale). Content analysis of qualitative data and principal components analysis of questionnaire responses identified shared meanings. Fourteen adults with cerebral palsy and 15 physiotherapists (median age 46) had similar levels of education. For both groups, social achievements, personal goals, employment, and supporting a family defined success. Adults with cerebral palsy more frequently identified tenacity and persistence as important for success. Both groups described happiness as spending time with loved ones, recreational activities, and having purpose in life. Adults with cerebral palsy identified the importance of self-acceptance for happiness. For both, health included self-care of mind/spirit, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal wellness, and physical fitness (the ability to perform physical tasks). Analysis of questionnaire responses identified shared meanings (eigenvalue 41, 95% explained variance). Adults with cerebral palsy and physiotherapists share similar experiences, behaviors, and feelings about success, happiness, and health. This knowledge may improve communication, enhance evidence-based practice, and foster services to support wellbeing. Implications for rehabilitation Cerebral palsy is a life-long condition, but we know little about social and physical outcomes for adults with cerebral palsy. Lack of understanding about meanings of success, happiness, and health may be a barrier for consumers accessing and for providers delivering evidence-based services. Physiotherapists and adults with cerebral palsy share similar meanings (feelings

  12. Toward an integrative understanding of narrative and emotion processes in Emotion-focused therapy of depression: implications for theory, research and practice. (United States)

    Angus, Lynne


    This paper addresses the fundamental contributions of client narrative disclosure in psychotherapy and its importance for the elaboration of new emotional meanings and self understanding in the context of Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) of depression. An overview of the multi-methodological steps undertaken to empirically investigate the contributions of client story telling, emotional differentiation and meaning-making processes (Narrative Processes Coding System; Angus et al., 1999) in EFT treatments of depression is provided, followed by a summary of key research findings that informed the development of a narrative-informed approach to Emotion-focused therapy of depression (Angus & Greenberg, 2011). Finally, the clinical practice and training implications of adopting a research-informed approach to working with narrative and emotion processes in EFT are described, and future research directions discussed.

  13. Using Inquiry to Develop Reasoning Skills and to Prepare Students to Take Initiative in a Research Setting: Practical Implications from Research (United States)

    Ball, T.; Hunter, L.


    This paper confirms and complicates claims that undergraduate research experiences are critical for the advancement of key science and engineering reasoning skills. We use descriptive statistics and narrative vignettes to report on the frequency and quality of opportunities for six participants in a research apprenticeship program to engage in scientific argumentation. The results of our two year study suggest that, on average, these interns were more likely to engage in scientific argumentation during preparatory learning activities carefully designed to mimic research practices than while working at their appointed research sites. Our findings include examples of particular curricular elements and pedagogic strategies that supported and advanced intern participation.

  14. Teacher's experiences in PBL: implications for practice (United States)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.


    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching practices in higher education. For data collection, the research method used was written narratives to these teachers, at the end of the PBL semester. Findings suggest that teachers express a positive view of PBL as a learning approach. They identify student motivation and engagement, along with a better understanding of the application of concepts in real-life situations, as important outcomes of the project for students. Besides this, teachers also highlight the importance of the development of transversal skills by students throughout the project. Recommendations for future work and implications for practice will also be discussed.

  15. The Vulnerability of Study Participants in the Context of Transnational Biomedical Research: From Conceptual Considerations to Practical Implications. (United States)

    Orth, Helen Grete; Schicktanz, Silke


    Outsourcing clinical trials sponsored by pharmaceutical companies from industrialized countries to low- (middle)-income countries - summarized as transnational biomedical research (TBR) - has lead to many concerns about ethical standards. Whether study participants are particularly vulnerable is one of those concerns. However, the concept of vulnerability is still vague and varies in its definition. Despite the fact that important international ethical guidelines such as the Declaration of Helsinki by the World Medical Association or the Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects by the Council of International Organizations of Medical Sciences refer to vulnerability as ethical principle, each of their approaches are different. To overcome these shortcomings, we analyze and unite different approaches of vulnerability and develop practical criteria in order to operationalize the concept especially for the context of TBR. These criteria refer to the context of a study as well as the characteristics and the current living situation of study participants. Based on a case study of an HIV-vaccine-trial conducted in India we demonstrate how those criteria can be applied in a retrospective way to identify potential ethical conflicts. The criteria can also indicate a prospective function for ethical pre-assessment. For this, we provide an outlook for three major topics: 1. Vulnerability as a normative concept: Different ways of protection; 2. The relevance of transparency and 3. Vulnerability as an instrument to increase decision participation of human subjects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Linking research to practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto-Correia, T.; Kristensen, L.


    , questions on the changes affecting the rural, addressed by society to the scientific community, are of a, new character and require novel research approaches. This paper argues that landscape based, approaches can be useful basis for the required conceptual innovation. The paper presents and, discusses...... a set of examples of practice driven research developments, in contrasting regions of Europe. And it proposes a conceptual model which aims to contextualize empirical research driven by, problems set up in practice, and combining the ecological and structural dimensions with the socioeconomic...

  17. Design (research) practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva


    possibilities through experimentation (Brandt and Binder 2007). Likewise in relation to design research we have argued that “the possible is always contingent and though research may convincingly provide arguments for certain possibilities both search and arguments have to be guided by programs that set...... substantiate or challenge this view and the dialectic between program and probing is in our view central to any design practice” (Binder and Redström 2006: 4). Our suggestion is to see design research practices as fundamentally homologous to any other design practices both in terms of the way they are driven...

  18. Women's perceptions of polycystic ovary syndrome following participation in a clinical research study: implications for knowledge, feelings, and daily health practices. (United States)

    Colwell, Katie; Lujan, Marla E; Lawson, Karen L; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R


    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive aged women. It is a poorly understood and often undiagnosed condition that has implications for the health of affected women. We assessed changes in knowledge, feelings, and daily health practices related to PCOS in clinical research study participants. Sixty-eight women who had received counselling and education about PCOS while participating in a clinical research study were invited to complete an online survey that assessed levels of concern, knowledge, healthy dieting, active living, and health care satisfaction before and after the study. Differences and associations between scores were analyzed by paired t tests and Pearson correlation. Forty-three women (63%) completed the survey. After taking part in a clinical research study, participants believed they had increased knowledge of (P better lifestyle practices (P women felt empowered to participate in the management of their condition and communicate with their primary care providers. Women with PCOS felt that they had more knowledge and motivation to implement preventive health strategies after participating in a clinical research study. Education about how PCOS affects their immediate and long-term health enabled women with PCOS to feel physical and psychological benefits and to engage more with their health care providers.

  19. Architectural Practice as Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anna Katrine


    , qualitative and quantitative, scientific and artistic methods pollinate each other, and an attempt to set up a span for ‘research by design’ to unfold in, rather than a rigid definition. In mutual exploitation architectural writing, drawing and potentially the construction of objects with properties embodied......The paper discusses a kind of research which lies between ‘research by design’ and ‘artistic research’. The term ‘research by design’ is reconstructed to include artistic ways of working, and the paper is an exemplification of a research practice, which seeks to let subjective and objective...... in them, is the very research. This approach is framed by Deleuze’s reading of Bergson’s intuitive method and Peirce’s concept abduction, both methods which concern creative processes, material production and organisation, and the breakthrough of novelty....

  20. Communication, sensemaking and change as a chord of three strands: Practical implications and a research agenda for communicating organizational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, M.; Elving, W.J.L.


    Purpose - The paper aims to propose practical and theoretical consequences of emerging lines of thinking about communication during organizational change. Design/methodology/approach - This conceptual paper suggests several benefits that a sensemaking approach may have in enhancing organizational

  1. Planning Practice and Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Urban planning has dramatically shifted when compared with its former logics and styles. Increasingly, the dynamics of large urban agglomerations spanning multiple boundaries put significant pressure on planning institutions to scale up. In this shifting context, how can both planning theory...... and practice co- evolve in adapting to the ever-increasing transformation of cities and urban regions? In this context, Planning Practice and Research (PPR) is seeking perspectives from the young academic community in planning. We propose to publish at least one special edition of PPR with a number of short...... papers from Young Academics. The contributions should address the question of how planning theory and practice can respond to the increasing complexity of cities and regions....

  2. Combinatorial Mathematics: Research into Practice (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath; English, Lyn D.


    Implications and suggestions for using combinatorial mathematics in the classroom through a survey and synthesis of numerous research studies are presented. The implications revolve around five major themes that emerge from analysis of these studies.

  3. Disproportionate Diagnosis of Mental Disorders among African American versus European American Clients: Implications for Counseling Theory, Research, and Practice (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert C.; Feisthamel, Kevin P.


    Research generated by the professions of psychiatry and psychology reveals that African Americans are more often diagnosed with specific mental disorders (e.g., psychotic disorders) compared with European Americans. No research to date, however, has investigated whether professional counselors make differential diagnoses according to client race.…

  4. Learning to Help Through Humble Inquiry and Implications for Management Research, Practice, and Education: An Interview With Edgar H. Schein


    LAMBRECHTS, Frank; Bouwen, Rene; Grieten, Styn; HUYBRECHTS, Jolien; Schein, Edgar H.


    For more than 50 years, Edgar H. Schein, the Sloan Fellows Professor of Management Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Sloan School of Management, has creatively shaped management and organizational scholarship and practice. He is the author of 15 books, including Process Consultation Revisited, Organizational Culture and Leadership, Career Anchors, Organizational Psychology, Career Dynamics, and Helping, as well as numerous articles in academic and professional journals. ...

  5. Sexual practices of young educated men: implications for further research and health education in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). (United States)

    Raheel, Hafsa; Mahmood, Muhammad Afzal; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz


    Considering the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other associated health problems among young people globally, it is important to identify sexual practices that could potentially compromise health. This study explored the sexual practices of young men in Riyadh city, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Materials and methodology A cross-sectional study among young, male students was conducted using a pre-tested, structured, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analysis and adjusted odds ratio (OR) were calculated. Among 225 study participants, 31% had engaged in premarital sexual activity at least once and 61% viewed pornographic movies/materials. Only 51% knew that condom use could prevent STIs, 20% were not aware that HIV could be transmitted through both homosexual and heterosexual contacts. Premarital sexual activity was associated with the use of illegal drugs (OR: 2.51), viewing of pornographic movies (OR: 6.79) and traveling alone abroad (OR: 3.10). and recommendations Our study was the first to report the existence of premarital sexual practices among young educated men in KSA. There is a need to identify in detail the risks and the knowledge gaps, and base sexual health awareness among youth on such knowledge in order to prevent the spread of STIs and HIV.

  6. Practical Implications of Using Real-World Evidence (RWE) in Comparative Effectiveness Research : Learnings from IMI-GetReal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makady, Amr; Stegenga, Heather; Ciaglia, Antonio; Debray, Thomas Pa; Lees, Michael; Happich, Michael; Ryll, Bettina; Abrams, Keith; Thwaites, Rob; Garner, Sarah; Jonsson, Páll; Goettsch, Wim G.

    In light of increasing attention towards the use of real-world evidence (RWE) in decision making in recent years, this commentary aims to reflect on the experiences gained in accessing and using RWE for comparative effectiveness research as a part of the Innovative Medicines Initiative GetReal

  7. Attention Mechanisms in Children with Anxiety Disorders and in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications for Research and Practice (United States)

    Weissman, Adam S.; Chu, Brian C.; Reddy, Linda A.; Mohlman, Jan


    Inattention is among the most commonly referred problems for school-aged youth. Research suggests distinct mechanisms may contribute to attention problems in youth with anxiety disorders versus youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compared children (8-17 years) with anxiety disorders (n = 24) and children (8-16…

  8. Meeting the substance abuse treatment needs of lesbian, bisexual and transgender women: implications from research to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens S


    Full Text Available Sally StevensSouthwest Institute for Research on Women (SIROW and Department of Gender and Women’s Studies (GWS, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Research on the incidence, etiology and substance abuse treatment needs of lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LBT women is limited. Most research indicates higher levels of alcohol and drug abuse among these populations compared to their heterosexual counterparts, with recent research indicating that substance abuse is a particular concern for transgender individuals and an increasing problem among younger LBT individuals. Risk factors and reasons for substance abuse among sexual minority women are similar to those of heterosexual women, yet are substantially complicated by issues of family rejection and lack of social support, stigma and minority stress, as well as abuse and harassment. Historically, substance abuse prevention, early intervention, and clinical treatment programs were designed to meet the needs of the sexual majority population with relatively few programs designed to incorporate the specific needs of sexual minorities. This article reviews findings from previous studies and utilizes new data collected from community-based and residential substance abuse treatment programs to (1 examine issues relevant to LBT women and substance use, and (2 make recommendations for tailoring substance abuse treatment programs to meet the needs of these populations.Keywords: lesbian, bisexual, transgender, substance abuse, family rejection, social support, stigma, minority stress, abuse, harassment

  9. Cyberbullying among Youth: A Comprehensive Review of Current International Research and Its Implications and Application to Policy and Practice (United States)

    Cassidy, Wanda; Faucher, Chantal; Jackson, Margaret


    Cyberbullying research is rapidly expanding with many studies being published from around the world in the past five or six years. In this article we review the current international literature published in English, with particular attention to the following themes: The relationship of cyberbullying to the more traditional face-to-face bullying,…

  10. The organizational social context of mental health medicaid waiver programs with family support services: implications for research and practice. (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Williams, Nathaniel J; Green, Philip; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Hoagwood, Kimberly


    Peer family support specialists (FSS) are parents with practical experience in navigating children's mental health care systems who provide support, advocacy, and guidance to the families of children who need mental health services. Their experience and training differ from those of formally trained mental health clinicians, creating potential conflicts in priorities and values between FSS and clinicians. We hypothesized that these differences could negatively affect the organizational cultures and climates of mental health clinics that employ both FSS and mental health clinicians, and lower the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of FSS. The Organizational Social Context measure was administered on site to 209 FSS and clinicians in 21 mental health programs in New York State. The study compared the organizational-level culture and climate profiles of mental health clinics that employ both FSS and formally trained clinicians to national norms for child mental health clinics, assessed individual-level job satisfaction and organizational commitment as a function of job (FSS vs. clinician) and other individual-level and organizational-level characteristics, and tested whether FSS and clinicians job attitudes were differentially associated with organizational culture and climate. The programs organizational culture and climate profiles were not significantly different from national norms. Individual-level job satisfaction and organizational commitment were unrelated to position (FSS vs. clinician) or other individual-level and organizational-level characteristics except for culture and climate. Both FSS' and clinicians' individual-level work attitudes were associated similarly with organizational culture and climate.

  11. The Organizational Social Context of Mental Health Medicaid Waiver Programs with Family Support Services: Implications for Research and Practice (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Williams, Nathaniel J.; Green, Philip; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Hoagwood, Kimberly


    Introduction Peer family support specialists (FSS) are parents with practical experience in navigating children’s mental health care systems who provide support, advocacy and guidance to the families of children who need mental health services. Their experience and training differ from those of formally trained mental health clinicians, creating potential conflicts in priorities and values between FSS and clinicians. We hypothesized that these differences could negatively affect the organizational cultures and climates of mental health clinics that employ both FSS and mental health clinicians, and lower the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of FSS. Method The Organizational Social Context (OSC) measure was administered on site to 209 FSS and clinicians in 21 mental health programs in New York State. The study compared the organizational-level culture and climate profiles of mental health clinics that employ both FSS and formally trained clinicians to national norms for child mental health clinics, assessed individual-level job satisfaction and organizational commitment as a function of job (FSS vs. clinician) and other individual-level and organizational-level characteristics, and tested whether FSS and clinicians’ job attitudes are differentially associated with organizational culture and climate. Results The programs’ organizational culture and climate profiles were not significantly different from national norms. Individual-level job satisfaction and organizational commitment were unrelated to position (FSS vs. clinician) or other individual-level and organizational-level characteristics except for culture and climate. Conclusions Organizational culture and climate are not related to the employment of FSS. Both FSS’ and clinicians’ individual-level work attitudes are associated similarly with organizational culture and climate. PMID:24065458

  12. Implications of Risk Management Practices on Financial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implications of Risk Management Practices on Financial Performance of Sugar ... The respondents were functional heads of the companies under the survey. ... of downside losses in order to minimize the negative impact of risk on returns.

  13. Prescription Opioid Misuse Among Rural Community Pharmacy Patients: Pilot Study for Screening and Implications for Future Practice and Research. (United States)

    Cochran, Gerald T; Engel, Rafael J; Hruschak, Valerie J; Tarter, Ralph E


    Opioid misuse imposes a disproportionately heavy burden on individuals living in rural areas. Community pharmacy has the potential to expand and coordinate with health professionals to identify and intervene with those who misuse opioids. Rural and urban community pharmacy patients were recruited in this pilot project to describe and compare patterns of opioid misuse. We administered a health screening survey in 4 community pharmacies among patients filling opioid medications. Univariate statistics were used to assess differences in health characteristics and opioid medication misuse behaviors between rural and urban respondents. Multivariable statistics were used to identify risk factors associated with rural and urban opioid misuse. A total of 333 participants completed the survey. Participants in rural settings had poorer overall health, higher pain levels, lower education, and a higher rate of unemployment compared to patients in urban pharmacies. Rural respondents with illicit drug use (adjustable odds ratio [aOR]: 14.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.16-95.38), posttraumatic stress disorder (aOR: 5.44, 95% CI = 1.52-19.50), and ≤high school education (aOR: 6.68, 95% CI = 1.06-42.21) had increased risk for opioid misuse. Community pharmacy represents a promising resource for potential identification of opioid misuse, particularly in rural communities. Continued research must extend these findings and work to establish collaborative services in rural settings.

  14. Stem cell terminology: practical, theological and ethical implications. (United States)

    Shanner, Laura


    Stem cell policy discussions frequently confuse embryonic and fetal sources of stem cells, and label untested, non-reproductive cloning as "therapeutic." Such misnomers distract attention from significant practical and ethical implications: accelerated research agendas tend to be supported at the expense of physical risks to women, theological implications in a multi-faith community, informed consent for participation in research, and treatment decisions altered by unrealistic expectations.

  15. From Action Research to Practice Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Goldkuhl


    Full Text Available Action research (AR has gained more acceptance as an approach to qualitative research in information systems (IS. The complexities of organisational and technical change makes this approach a suitable one in IS research. There are, however, still some controversies and confusions about the relation between “action” and “research”. The many types of AR and similar approaches (not labelled as AR that have emerged demands further conceptual clarification of AR. A conceptual inquiry of AR, presented in the paper, has led to the identification of several unresolved issues concerning intervention research like AR. An alternative research approach is presented: practice research. This research approach is well founded in pragmatism and it builds on the two premises: 1 to contribute to general practice through abstract and useful knowledge and 2 to study the empirical field as interconnected practices. Several important concepts of practice research are described as: local practice contribution vs. general practice contribution; theorizing vs. situational inquiry. Practice research is seen as a broader notion encompassing AR and other research approaches as e.g. design research and evaluation research. Two case examples of practice research are briefly presented and compared: one AR-based study in the social welfare sector and one evaluation study of a taxation e-service.

  16. Practical implications of 'postmodern philosophy'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mile V.


    Full Text Available The article examines the implications of the discourse about postmodernity. Postmodernity is analyzed as a complex discursive figure. Within the discourse about postmodernity three levels are distinguished: the postmodern condition, postmodernism, and reflection of the postmodern condition. Special attention is paid to globalization and the problem of the enforcement of modern projects in East-European societies, particularly Serbia. These societies are termed object-societies, while their modification of modernity is called eastmodernity. The author's answer to the complexity of the postmodern condition is a conception of the politics of subsistence.

  17. Embodied Experience in Educational Practice and Research (United States)

    Bengtsson, Jan


    The intention of this article is to make an educational analysis of Merleau-Ponty's theory of experience in order to see what it implicates for educational practice as well as educational research. In this way, we can attain an understanding what embodied experience might mean both in schools and other educational settings and in researching…

  18. Using the Delphi Method for Selecting Effective Rehabilitation Practices for Case Study Research: Methods, Challenges, and Solutions and Implications for Future Research (United States)

    Fleming, Allison R.; Boeltzig-Brown, Heike; Foley, Susan M.


    Purpose: We describe a modified Delphi method used to select effective state vocational rehabilitation agency practices to prioritize rehabilitation services for individuals with most significant disabilities within the context of Order of Selection, an area where there is little known and published. Specifically, we describe how we applied the…

  19. Individualised care for women with assisted conception pregnancies and midwifery practice implications: An analysis of the existing research and current practice. (United States)

    Younger, Mimi; Hollins-Martin, Caroline; Choucri, Lesley


    the aim is to explore the psychosocial needs of women who are pregnant after assisted conception, specifically in vitro Fertilisation and whether their needs are being addressed within the current maternity care service. critical review of the literature using a narrative approach. 15 papers were identified. These included both qualitative and quantitative studies, literature reviews and surveys. The findings of this limited narrative review imply that women who undergo assistive reproductive techniques to achieve pregnancy have higher levels of anxiety in pregnancy and may have some difficulties in the transition to parenthood leading to perinatal morbidity. It appears that for this group of women it is important that their history in achieving pregnancy is known to the care providers, to enable the alleviation of some of the anxieties they face. Various aspects of antenatal care have been identified as possible areas which if addressed may reduce these levels of anxiety leading to a reduction in perinatal morbidity. currently, there is insufficient evidence to suggest that providing specialist midwifery care reduces morbidity in these women. However, maternity service providers should consider offering additional antenatal and postnatal services to meet the needs of this group in advance of further research in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Some practical implications of source term reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of severe accident source terms and suggests how this knowledge might be applied to a number of specific aspects of reactor safety. In preparing the report, consideration has been restricted to source term issues relating to light water reactors (LWRs). Consideration has also generally been restricted to the consequences of hypothetical severe accidents rather than their probability of occurrence, although it is recognized that, in the practical application of source term research, it is necessary to take account of probability as well as consequences. The specific areas identified were as follows: Exploration of the new insights that are available into the management of severe accidents; Investigating the impact of source term research on emergency planning and response; Assessing the possibilities which exist in present reactor designs for preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents and how these might be used effectively; Exploring the need for backfitting and assessing the implications of source term research for future designs; and Improving the quantification of the radiological consequences of hypothetical severe accidents for probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) and informing the public about the realistic risks associated with nuclear power plants. 7 refs

  1. Research in dental practice: a 'SWOT' analysis. (United States)

    Burke, F J T; Crisp, R J; McCord, J F


    Most dental treatment, in most countries, is carried out in general dental practice. There is therefore a potential wealth of research material, although clinical evaluations have generally been carried out on hospital-based patients. Many types of research, such as clinical evaluations and assessments of new materials, may be appropriate to dental practice. Principal problems are that dental practices are established to treat patients efficiently and to provide an income for the staff of the practice. Time spent on research therefore cannot be used for patient treatment, so there are cost implications. Critics of practice-based research have commented on the lack of calibration of operative diagnoses and other variables; however, this variability is the stuff of dental practice, the real-world situation. Many of the difficulties in carrying out research in dental practice may be overcome. For the enlightened, it may be possible to turn observations based on the volume of treatment carried out in practice into robust, clinically related and relevant research projects based in the real world of dental practice.

  2. Implications of teacher educators' practices in assessment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents findings on teacher educators' practices in assessment and their implications for student learning in Tanzania. Research on classroom assessment has been dichotomizing assessment and teaching-learning processes instead of viewing assessment as an integral part of the teachinglearning process.

  3. Linking Research to Practice

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An overview of ethics in ICTD research suggests a comprehensive canon is absent. ... And our home, the Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information, .... For example, global media coverage focused on the advent of commercially ...

  4. Relative age effect: implications for effective practice. (United States)

    Andronikos, Georgios; Elumaro, Adeboye Israel; Westbury, Tony; Martindale, Russell J J


    Physical and psychological differences related to birthdate amongst athletes of the same selection year have been characterised as the "relative age effects" (RAEs). RAEs have been identified in a variety of sports, both at youth and adult level, and are linked with dropout of athletes and a reduction of the talent pool. This study examined the existence, mechanisms and possible solutions to RAEs using qualitative methodology. Seven experts in the field of talent identification and development were interviewed. Inductive analysis of the data showed that, while there was mixed evidence for the existence of RAEs across sports, the eradication of RAEs was attributed to controllable features of the development environment. The factors reported included the structure of "categories" used to group athletes within the sport (e.g. age, weight, size, skills), recognition and prioritisation of long-term development over "short term win focus." Education of relevant parties (e.g. coaches, scouts, clubs) about RAEs and the nature of "talent" within a long-term context was suggested, along with careful consideration of the structure of the development environment (e.g. delayed selection, provision for late developers, focus on skills not results, use of challenge). Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  5. Research-Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Desimone


    Full Text Available Recent attention on partnerships between researchers and practitioners highlights the potential of these relationships to provide high-quality usable knowledge for improving schools. But how do we translate guiding partnership principles into specific actionable steps? How do we build and maintain an effective partnership? How do we reconcile and integrate multiple partnership frameworks to establish a coherent set of partnership activities? How do we evaluate partnership progress and outcomes? Building on the recent insightful work on partnerships, we offer a framework for planning, building, implementing, and monitoring partnerships, based on the literature and our experiences in a partnership between a university-based school of education at a major research university and the research office of a big-city school district. Using a theory describing attributes that define a policy’s strength, we propose an organizing framework to transform insights about partnerships into concrete activities and mechanisms to help achieve the potential of these partnerships to use research to improve schooling.

  6. Research-Practice


    Laura M. Desimone; Tonya Wolford; Kirsten Lee Hill


    Recent attention on partnerships between researchers and practitioners highlights the potential of these relationships to provide high-quality usable knowledge for improving schools. But how do we translate guiding partnership principles into specific actionable steps? How do we build and maintain an effective partnership? How do we reconcile and integrate multiple partnership frameworks to establish a coherent set of partnership activities? How do we evaluate partnership progress and outcome...

  7. Learning Disabilities: Implications for Policy regarding Research and Practice--A Report by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities, March 2011 (United States)

    Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2012


    The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) affirms that the construct of learning disabilities represents a valid, unique, and heterogeneous group of disorders, and that recognition of this construct is essential for sound policy and practice. An extensive body of scientific research on learning disabilities continues to support…

  8. Research versus educational practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik


    Over the past years, the European Journal of Engineering Education (EJEE), the journal of the European Society for Engineering Education (SEFI) developed as a more research oriented journal. Bibliometric analyses show that EJEE keeps pace with other leading journals in the field of Engineering...... Education in most respects. EJEE serves a worldwide audience with about as many contributions from Europe as from other parts of the world. Yet, the impact factor of the journal calculated according to the formula of Thomson's ISI Web of Science seems to be lagging behind. As an explanation...

  9. Barriers to Research and Implications for Training Counselors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Ruby


    Full Text Available Research is an important part of quality clinical practice in the field of counseling. This study addresses the constraints that produce a gap in master’s level practitioner research among counselors in Illinois. Ninety-nine master’s level clinicians responded to surveys and answered a series of questions regarding what constrains them from being more involved in research. These respondents provided valuable feedback regarding possible recommendations for training that might encourage increased research activity for future master’s level counselors. Training improvements such as mentored research activity and training in less complex research methods were indicated. Keywords: Clinical practice, Implications, Barriers to research, less complex research

  10. The Utility of Rural and Underserved Designations in Geospatial Assessments of Distance Traveled to Healthcare Services: Implications for Public Health Research and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee Smith


    Full Text Available Health disparities research in rural populations is based on several common taxonomies identified by geography and population density. However, little is known about the implications of different rurality definitions on public health outcomes. To help illuminate the meaning of different rural designations often used in research, service delivery, or policy reports, this study will (1 review the different definitions of rurality and their purposes; (2 identify the overlap of various rural designations in an eight-county Brazos Valley region in Central Texas; (3 describe participant characteristic profiles based on distances traveled to obtain healthcare services; and (4 examine common profile characteristics associated with each designation. Data were analyzed from a random sample from 1,958 Texas adults participating in a community assessment. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify natural groupings of individuals based on distance traveled to obtain three healthcare services: medical care, dental care, and prescription medication pick-up. Significant variation in cluster representation and resident characteristics was observed by rural designation. Given widely used taxonomies for designating areas as rural (or provider shortage in health-related research, this study highlights differences that could influence research results and subsequent program and policy development based on rural designation.

  11. The utility of rural and underserved designations in geospatial assessments of distance traveled to healthcare services: implications for public health research and practice. (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B; Wendel, Monica L; Ahn, Sangnam; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Drake, Kelly N; Ory, Marcia G


    Health disparities research in rural populations is based on several common taxonomies identified by geography and population density. However, little is known about the implications of different rurality definitions on public health outcomes. To help illuminate the meaning of different rural designations often used in research, service delivery, or policy reports, this study will (1) review the different definitions of rurality and their purposes; (2) identify the overlap of various rural designations in an eight-county Brazos Valley region in Central Texas; (3) describe participant characteristic profiles based on distances traveled to obtain healthcare services; and (4) examine common profile characteristics associated with each designation. Data were analyzed from a random sample from 1,958 Texas adults participating in a community assessment. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify natural groupings of individuals based on distance traveled to obtain three healthcare services: medical care, dental care, and prescription medication pick-up. Significant variation in cluster representation and resident characteristics was observed by rural designation. Given widely used taxonomies for designating areas as rural (or provider shortage) in health-related research, this study highlights differences that could influence research results and subsequent program and policy development based on rural designation.

  12. A Hierarchical Multiple-Level Approach to the Assessment of Interpersonal Relatedness and Self-Definition: Implications for Research, Clinical Practice, and DSM Planning. (United States)

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J


    Extant research suggests there is considerable overlap between so-called 2-polarities models of personality development; that is, models that propose that personality development evolves through a dialectic synergistic interaction between 2 key developmental tasks across the life span-the development of self-definition on the one hand and of relatedness on the other. These models have attracted considerable research attention and play a central role in DSM planning. This article provides a researcher- and clinician-friendly guide to the assessment of these personality theories. We argue that current theoretical models focus on issues of relatedness and self-definition at different hierarchically organized levels of analysis; that is (a) at the level of broad personality features, (b) at the motivational level (i.e., the motivational processes underlying the development of these dimensions), and (c) at the level of underlying internal working models or cognitive affective schemas, and the specific interpersonal features and problems in which they are expressed. Implications for further research and DSM planning are outlined.

  13. Research Schools: Grounding Research in Educational Practice (United States)

    Hinton, Christina; Fischer, Kurt W.


    Education lacks a strong infrastructure for connecting research with educational practice and policy. The need for this linkage grows as findings in cognitive science and biology become ever more relevant to education. Teachers often lack the background knowledge needed to interpret scientific results, whereas scientists often lack an…

  14. Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate Change Communication Research: Trends and Implications. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... with a specific focus on the themes that have dominated current studies, major research methods in use, major theories that ...

  15. Action research in pharmacy practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh


    Action research (AR) is based on a collaborative problem-solving relationship between researcher and client, and the aims of this research are to solve the problem and to generate new knowledge. The chapter describes and shows how several different methods might be used for data collection in an AR......-based study. Concepts related to AR are described; in addition, the multifaceted role of the action researcher is described, along with a set of data quality criteria for evaluating the quality of an AR-based study. Then follows a thorough description of a Danish AR-based pharmacy practice study. The chapter...

  16. Research in Nursing Practice, Education, and Administration: Collaborative, Methodological, and Ethical Implications. Proceedings of the Research Conference of the Southern Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing (3rd, Baltimore, Maryland, December 2-3, 1983). (United States)

    Strickland, Ora L., Ed.; Damrosch, Shirley P., Ed.

    Collaborative research in nursing is discussed in five papers from the 1983 conference of the Southern Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing. Also included are 32 abstracts of nursing research, focusing on clinical practice, as well as nursing education and research models. Paper titles and authors are as follows: "Building a Climate…

  17. Thermal comfort: research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van J.; Mazej, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.


    Thermal comfort -the state of mind, which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment- is an important aspect of the building design process as modern man spends most of the day indoors. This paper reviews the developments in indoor thermal comfort research and practice since the second half


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Belolipetskaya


    Full Text Available An article gives in a comprehensive manner the main idea of pharmacokinetics, as the science about rules of substances behavior in the internal environment of the organism, as well as of main parameters of pharmacokinetic researches. The article provides vivid and very  persuasive examples of high practical importance of this science both for creating new medical forms of drugs and for choosing the optimal of therapy regime.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Belolipetskaya


    Full Text Available An article gives in a comprehensive manner the main idea of pharmacokinetics, as the science about rules of substances behavior in the internal environment of the organism, as well as of main parameters of pharmacokinetic researches. The article provides vivid and very  persuasive examples of high practical importance of this science both for creating new medical forms of drugs and for choosing the optimal of therapy regime.

  20. Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of translation in development contexts in Africa. ... Abstract. Drawing from Game Theory, the article conceptualises language practice as games, that is ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health. ... over time are important, especially as this region is undergoing rapid transformation. ... Through policy and aggressive health education, traditional child rearing practices in ...

  2. Practical statistics in pain research. (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyun


    Pain is subjective, while statistics related to pain research are objective. This review was written to help researchers involved in pain research make statistical decisions. The main issues are related with the level of scales that are often used in pain research, the choice of statistical methods between parametric or nonparametric statistics, and problems which arise from repeated measurements. In the field of pain research, parametric statistics used to be applied in an erroneous way. This is closely related with the scales of data and repeated measurements. The level of scales includes nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales. The level of scales affects the choice of statistics between parametric or non-parametric methods. In the field of pain research, the most frequently used pain assessment scale is the ordinal scale, which would include the visual analogue scale (VAS). There used to be another view, however, which considered the VAS to be an interval or ratio scale, so that the usage of parametric statistics would be accepted practically in some cases. Repeated measurements of the same subjects always complicates statistics. It means that measurements inevitably have correlations between each other, and would preclude the application of one-way ANOVA in which independence between the measurements is necessary. Repeated measures of ANOVA (RMANOVA), however, would permit the comparison between the correlated measurements as long as the condition of sphericity assumption is satisfied. Conclusively, parametric statistical methods should be used only when the assumptions of parametric statistics, such as normality and sphericity, are established.

  3. Brain Research: Implications for Learning. (United States)

    Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

    Brain research has illuminated several areas of the learning process: (1) learning as association; (2) learning as reinforcement; (3) learning as perception; (4) learning as imitation; (5) learning as organization; (6) learning as individual style; and (7) learning as brain activity. The classic conditioning model developed by Pavlov advanced…

  4. Vignettes: Implications for LIS Research (United States)

    Benedetti, Allison; Jackson, John; Luo, Lili


    Vignettes, brief descriptions of fictional characters and situations, serve as a tool to study people's lives, perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes about specific situations. Although not widely used in library and information science (LIS) research, vignettes can depersonalize responses to controversial situations or behavioral responses related…

  5. Tour Guiding Research Insights, Issues and Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meged, Jane Widtfeldt


    The book Tour guiding research – insights, issues and implications by Betty Weiler and Rosemary Black is a most welcome contribution to the specific research field of guided tours within tourism studies. It sets forth to “give an authoritative state-of-art review of the scholarly literature on tour...

  6. Education System Reform in China after 1978: Some Practical Implications (United States)

    Sun, Miantao


    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of education system reform in China since 1978, and its practical implications. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from literature review and interview. An overview of education system reform and its practical implications was found through data analysis. Findings: There has been two…

  7. Practical implications of neutron survey instrument performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, R. J.; Bartlett, D. T.; Hager, I. G.; Jones, I. N.; Molinos, C.; Roberts, N. J.; Taylor, G. C.; Thomas, D. J.


    Improvements have been made to the Monte Carlo modelling used to calculate the response of the neutron survey instruments most commonly used in the UK, for neutron energies up to 20 MeV. The improved modelling of the devices includes the electronics and battery pack, allowing better calculations of both the energy and angle dependence of response. These data are used to calculate the response of the instruments in rotationally and fully isotropic, as well as unidirectional fields. Experimental measurements with radionuclide sources and monoenergetic neutron fields have been, and continue to be made, to test the calculated response characteristics. The enhancements to the calculations have involved simulation of the sensitivity of the response to variations in instrument manufacture, and will include the influence of the user and floor during measurements. The practical implications of the energy and angle dependence of response, variations in manufacture, and the influence of the user are assessed by folding the response characteristics with workplace energy and direction distributions. (authors)

  8. Practical implications of the new risk perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje


    In recent years several authors have argued for the adoption of certain new types of risk perspectives which highlight uncertainties rather than probabilities in the way risk is understood and measured. The theoretical rationale for these new perspectives is well established, but the practical implications have not been so clearly demonstrated. There is a need to show how the new perspectives change the way risk is described and communicated in real-life situations and in its turn the effects on risk management and decision making. The present paper aims at contributing to this end by considering two cases, related to a national risk level, and a specific analysis concerning an LNG plant. The paper concludes that the new risk perspectives influence the current regime in many ways, in particular the manner in which the knowledge dimension is described and dealt with. Two methods for characterising the strength of knowledge are presented, one of them based on a new concept, the “assumption deviation risk”, reflecting risks related to the deviations from the conditions/states defined by the assumption made

  9. Researching literacy practices in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    Researching literacy practices in transition Postmodern societies are characterized by constant, fast and unpredictable mobility of people, goods, ideas and values. These mobilities are often visualized as a movement from one place to another, as a temporary interference of the stability of fixed...... places. An alternative take on mobilty sees movement as the default and change as the normal way of being rather than the exception (Barton, 2012). This understanding of change is central to the framing concept of this symposium: transition. Transitional processes around literacy are significant because...... literacy is something that is taught and learned, that is adopted, transformed and appropriated and that is used to categorize and classify people (Holm & Pitkänen-Huhta, 2012). Based on detailed empirical studies in the Nordic countries, the aim of this symposium is to discuss how to explore and research...

  10. Thermal comfort: research and practice. (United States)

    van Hoof, Joost; Mazej, Mitja; Hensen, Jan L M


    Thermal comfort--the state of mind, which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment--is an important aspect of the building design process as modern man spends most of the day indoors. This paper reviews the developments in indoor thermal comfort research and practice since the second half of the 1990s, and groups these developments around two main themes; (i) thermal comfort models and standards, and (ii) advances in computerization. Within the first theme, the PMV-model (Predicted Mean Vote), created by Fanger in the late 1960s is discussed in the light of the emergence of models of adaptive thermal comfort. The adaptive models are based on adaptive opportunities of occupants and are related to options of personal control of the indoor climate and psychology and performance. Both models have been considered in the latest round of thermal comfort standard revisions. The second theme focuses on the ever increasing role played by computerization in thermal comfort research and practice, including sophisticated multi-segmental modeling and building performance simulation, transient thermal conditions and interactions, thermal manikins.

  11. A perspectiva pragmática nas pesquisas sobre prática instrumental: condições e implicações procedimentais A pragmatic perspective in instrumental practice research: conditions and procedural implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Antunes Teixeira dos Santos


    Full Text Available Pesquisas em prática instrumental evidenciam tendências que expressam certos aspectos de racionalidade calculada da ação e apontam para uma perspectiva pragmática de engajamento pessoal frente às situações de prática. Sistematizações sobre modos intencionais de proceder na prática instrumental em conexão com níveis de especialização músico-instrumental encontram-se não somente nos resultados dessas pesquisas, mas também implícitos nos conceitos de prática. Assim, o presente artigo discute a natureza e a finalidade das condições procedimentais implícitas nos conceitos e resultados de pesquisas em prática instrumental. Implicações procedimentais apresentam-se também nas discussões referentes à quantidade e a qualidade na prática, e justificam a existência de níveis diferenciados de especialização músico-instrumental na prática. O presente artigo aborda ainda a relação entre procedimentos e estratégias de prática.Research in instrumental practice has shown some trends that express certain aspects of calculated rationality, and point out to a pragmatic regime of personal commitment during practice. The systematization of the intentional procedures of the performer in order to improve and to refine one's music expertise level is present in research as well as in the concepts of instrumental practice. Thus, the present article discusses the nature and the goals of the procedimental conditions implicit in the concepts and research results in instrumental practice. Procedimental implications are also present in the discussion of the role of quantity and quality in the practice and justify the existence of different levels of instrumental expertise in the practice. This article also raises the relationship between procedures and strategies of practice.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fedorova


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to consider the problem of students’ research both worldwide and in Russia.Methods. The methods involve review and analysis of the foreign and Russian scientific literature on studied subjects; surveys on the management and realisation of student’s scientific activity in different countries; comparative analysis of the data received during surveys.Results and scientific novelty. At the first stage literature concerning the question of doing research in different countries is analyzed. Then the problems existing in the sphere of students’ research worldwide are identified. Among them are students’ motivation, supervisors’ motivation, developing friendly scientific environment at various levels, communication in science. Then, two surveys were held to support the theoretical issues. The first concerned general aspects of students’ research internationally such as when they start doing it, how they are motivated, what are the relations with supervisors etc. The second included questions about general age of getting scientific degrees (bachelor, master, and PhD, and was divided into two parts: for international and Russian staff. Procedures and results of the surveys undertaken for revealing of scientists’ opinion on quality and features of the specified kind of students’ activity in different countries across the world are described. It is shown, that some problems are common for Russia and global scientific society.Practical significance. On the basis of world experience, some solutions on development of scientific activity of the Russian students have been proposed by the author.

  13. Research and clinical practice relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashammakhi N


    Full Text Available To The Editor: I highly value and greet the authors for their editorial. Many important issues related to medical education and its future in Libya have been discussed in this paper [1]. One important point that has been addressed and I feel deserves attention is the “abnormal” relationship between clinical practice and research in Libya. From discussions with colleagues, this problem somehow has evolved from a misconception about educational and training systems that may have occurred in the past. It may also be related to the lack of attention to research that has long existed in Libya [2,3]. The other aspect, shared with many other developing countries, is the misconception of research as unimportant or a luxury aspect of medicine. When it comes to understanding how a system (including healthcare can be updated and developed, the answer is vague! One important reason is a lack of understanding of the impact that research has on developing methods. In developed countries, research is the main academic distinction that leads to appointments for coveted positions in the system and is an important factor for academic promotion. In Libya, there remain arguments about who will be awarded Chair of university clinical departments. Such a post should no doubt be given to those with established academic achievements. When highly qualified persons are at the top of the pyramid this leads to further progress and enhanced research and advancement. The authors have discussed the point of having proper search committees for leadership and faculty positions. I believe that it will help eliminate the current stagnation and help to create innovative solutions. This should lead to improved medical education, health services, and ultimately impact the quality of life of all Libyan citizens.

  14. Theorizing practice research in social work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggerhøj, Lars


    . To elaborate and define practice research in social work, it is necessary to consider connected approaches and theories. The article will show that practice research is both connected to and can use the theoretical frames of Actual science and Mode 2 knowledge production. To understand and develop research......The article focuses on theories, definitions, interests, possibilities and barriers in practice research in social work. It points out that both practice and research will be influenced by participating in and developing practice research. – and that both parts must and will learn from the process...... closely connected to practice it is necessary to define it in three different ways: practice research, practitioner research and user-controlled research. Examples from different Nordic approaches connected to these definitions will be presented. Although practice and research both need to develop...

  15. Web 2.0 in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: A Research Synthesis and Implications for Instructional Design and Educational Practice (United States)

    Parmaxi, Antigoni; Zaphiris, Panayiotis


    This study explores the research development pertaining to the use of Web 2.0 technologies in the field of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Published research manuscripts related to the use of Web 2.0 tools in CALL have been explored, and the following research foci have been determined: (1) Web 2.0 tools that dominate second/foreign…

  16. Methodological Issues and Practices in Qualitative Research. (United States)

    Bradley, Jana


    Discusses methodological issues concerning qualitative research and describes research practices that qualitative researchers use to address these methodological issues. Topics discussed include the researcher as interpreter, the emergent nature of qualitative research, understanding the experience of others, trustworthiness in qualitative…

  17. Links between Conflict Management Research and Practice (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.


    This paper explicates the implications of my research on conflict management for self improvement and for practitioners who work to improve the conflict management of others. I also note how my experiences with practitioners have informed my research.

  18. Ethics and the practice of qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Ian Frank


    Ethics and the practice of qualitative research? Qualitative Social Work 7 (4): 400-414. Reprinted......Ethics and the practice of qualitative research? Qualitative Social Work 7 (4): 400-414. Reprinted...

  19. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice aims to publish original research papers of high standard, containing material of significant contribution to civil engineering, with emphasis being placed on material that is applicable to the solution of practical problems.

  20. Research in a dental practice setting. (United States)

    Fardal, Oystein


    There is a shortage of research from dental practice. The aim of this article is to stimulate more interest in dental research. This is done by explaining the basic principles of doing research in a dental practice setting. Examples are taken from the author's own practice. Emphasis is placed on the following points: how to develop and research ideas; factors specific to dental practice; how articles and journals are rated; making a protocol for the study; examiners' reliability and statistical analysis.

  1. Teacher's reading comprehension: Implication for teaching practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Benevides Soares


    Full Text Available A question of interest for educational workers is the reading comprehension process, a fundamental ability for progress in more advanced years of schooling, and its effect on pedagogical practices. This is a study that explores this question. A reading comprehension instrument composed by four structural levels of text and a scale of pedagogical practice composed by four sub-scales involving: cognitive practices with linguistic focus, cognitive practices, affective and motor practices, continuous education, was used. The results of 53 children suggest a slight tendency of teacher to prioritize cognitive practices independently of their reading comprehension level.

  2. Employment Status after Spinal Cord Injury (1992-2005): A Review with Implications For Interpretation, Evaluation, Further Research, and Clinical Practice (United States)

    Young, Amanda E.; Murphy, Gregory C.


    The purpose of this study is to review the research conducted on the topic of employment status after spinal cord injury that was published between 1992 and 2005. This study follows on from an earlier review that focused on papers published between 1976 and 1991. The current study extends the earlier review by reporting an aggregate employment…

  3. Evolutionary adaptations: theoretical and practical implications for visual ergonomics. (United States)

    Fostervold, Knut Inge; Watten, Reidulf G; Volden, Frode


    The literature discussing visual ergonomics often mention that human vision is adapted to light emitted by the sun. However, theoretical and practical implications of this viewpoint is seldom discussed or taken into account. The paper discusses some of the main theoretical implications of an evolutionary approach to visual ergonomics. Based on interactional theory and ideas from ecological psychology an evolutionary stress model is proposed as a theoretical framework for future research in ergonomics and human factors. The model stresses the importance of developing work environments that fits with our evolutionary adaptations. In accordance with evolutionary psychology, the environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA) and evolutionarily-novel environments (EN) are used as key concepts. Using work with visual display units (VDU) as an example, the paper discusses how this knowledge can be utilized in an ergonomic analysis of risk factors in the work environment. The paper emphasises the importance of incorporating evolutionary theory in the field of ergonomics. Further, the paper encourages scientific practices that further our understanding of any phenomena beyond the borders of traditional proximal explanations.

  4. Elementary Mathematics Specialists: Ensuring the Intersection of Research and Practice (United States)

    McGatha, Maggie B.


    This paper provides a historical overview of the role and impact of elementary mathematics specialists as well as current implications and opportunities for the field. Furthermore, suggestions are offered for the mathematics education field for ensuring the intersection of practice and research. [For complete proceedings, see ED581294.

  5. Professional ethics in biomedical engineering practice and research. (United States)

    Monzon, Jorge E; Monzon-Wyngaard, Alvaro


    This paper discusses some guidelines for use with the accepted fundamental canons of ethics for engineers. We present some rules of practice and professional obligations emerging from these canons. Basic recommendations for engineers dissenting on ethical grounds are also presented. Ethical issues relating to Biomedical Engineering research are illustrated. We mention some cases that could be used to further understanding the ethical implications of biomedical engineering practice.

  6. Implications of ICD-10 for Sarcopenia Clinical Practice and Clinical Trials: Report by the International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research Task Force. (United States)

    Vellas, B; Fielding, R A; Bens, C; Bernabei, R; Cawthon, P M; Cederholm, T; Cruz-Jentoft, A J; Del Signore, S; Donahue, S; Morley, J; Pahor, M; Reginster, J-Y; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, Y; Roubenoff, R; Sinclair, A; Cesari, M


    Establishment of an ICD-10-CM code for sarcopenia in 2016 was an important step towards reaching international consensus on the need for a nosological framework of age-related skeletal muscle decline. The International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research Task Force met in April 2017 to discuss the meaning, significance, and barriers to the implementation of the new code as well as strategies to accelerate development of new therapies. Analyses by the Sarcopenia Definitions and Outcomes Consortium are underway to develop quantitative definitions of sarcopenia. A consensus conference is planned to evaluate this analysis. The Task Force also discussed lessons learned from sarcopenia trials that could be applied to future trials, as well as lessons from the osteoporosis field, a clinical condition with many constructs similar to sarcopenia and for which ad hoc treatments have been developed and approved by regulatory agencies.

  7. Implementing Comprehensive Reform: Implications for Practice (United States)

    Stout, Karen A.


    This chapter describes the challenges and practical barriers community colleges face when implementing comprehensive reform, exploring how reforms are leading to some improvements but not often scaled improvements.

  8. Cocaine treatment admissions at three sentinel sites in South Africa (1997–2006: findings and implications for policy, practice and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plüddemann Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate prevalence data on cocaine use, that points to where problems exist and the extent of these problems, is necessary to guide the formulation of effective substance abuse policy and practice. The purpose of this study was to provide surveillance information about the nature and extent of problematic cocaine use in South Africa. Methods Data were collected between January 1997 and December 2006 on admissions for drug abuse treatment through a regular monitoring system involving 56 drug treatment centres and programmes in Cape Town, Gauteng Province (Johannesburg and Pretoria and the Eastern Cape every six months as part of the South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use (SACENDU. A one-page form was completed by treatment centre personnel to obtain demographic data, the patients' primary and secondary substances of abuse, the mode, frequency and age of first use of substance, and information on prior treatment. Results Treatment indicators point to a significant increase in cocaine related admissions over time in all sites, but with substantial inter-site variation, particularly in recent years. The data indicate high levels of crack cocaine use and high levels of daily usage among patients, most of whom were first time admissions. Patients with cocaine related problems continue to be predominantly male, with a mean age of around 30 years. Substantial changes in the racial profile of patients have occurred over time. Poly drug use is high with cocaine often used with alcohol, cannabis and other drugs. Conclusion These trends point to the possibility of cocaine use becoming a serious health and social issue in South Africa and demonstrate the utility of continued monitoring of cocaine treatment admissions in the future. They also highlight the need to address cocaine use in national and provincial policy planning and intervention efforts. In terms of treatment, the findings highlight the need to ensure that

  9. Participatory Research: New Approaches to the Research to Practice Dilemma. (United States)

    Meyer, Luanna H.; Park, Hyun-Sook; Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita; Schwartz, Ilene; Harry, Beth


    This article presents a rationale for incorporating elements of participatory research approaches into intervention research intended to improve practice. After an overview of the research-to-practice problem, it illustrates how the incorporation of participatory research approaches applied to various decision points can enhance the construction…

  10. Democratic Schooling in Norway: Implications for Leadership in Practice (United States)

    Moller, Jorunn


    This article explores the meaning of an education based on democratic values and the implications for school leadership in practice. Based on findings from a case study in a Norwegian upper secondary school, the study describes democratic school leadership in practice, with particular attention to the distribution of power and leadership in the…

  11. Researching collaboratively: implications for qualitative research and researchers. (United States)

    Cheek, Julianne


    Often discussions about collaborative research, and collaboration generally, begin at the point of how to collaborate, who to collaborate with, and what to collaborate about. Rarely do they include equally important questions of why we are having discussions about collaboration, where such an impetus and emphasis is coming from, and how it connects to the contemporary political research context. In a recent editorial in Qualitative Health Research, Janice Morse highlighted the need for reflection about collaboration. This article responds to that call, providing reflections on collaboration, the imperative to collaborate, and what this all might mean for both qualitative research and qualitative researchers. I hope to stimulate new points of departure for thinking and action shaping collaborative research endeavors without-and just as crucially, within-qualitative research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BORES


    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing insight into some of the implication of short selling for markets, investors as well as regulators. Findings show that capital flows are adversely affected by strict regulation and bans of short sales, while market liquidity, and bid-ask spread can be improved by allowing short selling. Additionally portfolios that incorporate short selling strategies can have lower volatility in returns. The informational content of short sales can provide important feedback for informed investors and lead to better price discovery.

  13. Medical Malpractice Implications of Clinical Practice Guidelines. (United States)

    Ruhl, Douglas S; Siegal, Gil


    Clinical practice guidelines aim to improve medical care by clarifying and making useful recommendations to providers. Although providers should account for patients' unique characteristics when determining a treatment plan, it is generally perceived as good practice to follow guidelines when applicable. This is of interest in malpractice litigation, where it is essential to establish a standard of care to evaluate the performances of providers. Although the opinions of expert witnesses are used to determine standards of care, guidelines are expected to play a leading role. Guidelines alone should not establish a legal standard but may help inform this discussion in the courtroom. Therefore, it is incumbent that excellent, practical, and timely guidelines are continually created and updated in a transparent way. These guidelines must be very clear and underscore the various strengths of recommendation based on the quality of available evidence.

  14. Future methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D


    research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging...... of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed. © 2016, Springer International Publishing.......This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice...

  15. Contemporary marketing practice : theoretical propositions and practical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgreen, A.; Palmer, R.; Vanhamme, J.


    Marketing has changed significantly since it first emerged as a distinct business and management phenomenon. We identify some of the major factors causing the observed change in marketing practice. We then describe a classification scheme that is based on transaction marketing and relationship

  16. Brief report : ethical problems in research practice


    Colnerud, Gunnel


    Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees, and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts, and problems in research. They were all researchers at the postdoctoral ...

  17. Psychotherapy, psychopathology, research and practice: pathways of connections and integration. (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G


    This paper describes three pathways of connections between different communities of knowledge seekers: integration of psychotherapeutic approaches, integration of psychotherapy and psychopathology, and integration of science and practice. Some of the issues discussed involve the delineation and investigation of common factors (e.g., principles of change), improvement of major forms of psychotherapy, clinical implications of psychopathology research, as well as current and future directions related to practice-research networks. The aim of this paper is to suggest that building bridges across theoretical orientations, scientific fields, professional experiences, and epistemological views may be a fruitful strategy to improve our understanding and the impact of psychotherapy.

  18. Conducting research in clinical psychology practice: Barriers, facilitators, and recommendations. (United States)

    Smith, Kirsten V; Thew, Graham R


    The combination of clinical psychologists' therapeutic expertise and research training means that they are in an ideal position to be conducting high-quality research projects. However, despite these skills and the documented benefits of research to services and service users, research activity in practice remains low. This article aims to give an overview of the advantages of, and difficulties in conducting research in clinical practice. We reviewed the relevant literature on barriers to research and reflected on our clinical and research experiences in a range of contexts to offer practical recommendations. We considered factors involved in the planning, sourcing support, implementation, and dissemination phases of research, and outline suggestions to improve the feasibility of research projects in post-qualification roles. We suggest that research leadership is particularly important within clinical psychology to ensure the profession's continued visibility and influence within health settings. Clinical implications Emerging evidence suggests that clinical settings that foster research are associated with better patient outcomes. Suggestions to increase the feasibility of research projects in clinical settings are detailed. Limitations The present recommendations are drawn from the authors' practical experience and may need adaptation to individual practitioners' settings. This study does not attempt to assess the efficacy of the strategies suggested. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  19. A postfoundationalist research paradigm of practical theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Park


    This article examines and argues for postfoundationalism – transversal reason, interdisciplinarity and interpreted experience – as a viable theological option against rigid foundationalism and relativistic nonfoundationalism. Also discussed are the process and the interdisciplinary nature of practical theology. It is suggested that narrative research and social constructionism should be part of the research paradigm of postfoundational practical theology.

  20. SLT Beliefs about Collaborative Practice: Implications for Education and Learning (United States)

    Jago, Suzanne; Radford, Julie


    Effective collaborative practice is expected of newly qualified speech and language therapists (SLTs) in order to achieve the best outcomes for clients. Research into collaborative practice has identified a number of barriers to and facilitators of collaborative practice, but there has been limited research into how well prepared newly qualified…

  1. Implications of radiation risk for practical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.


    Radiobiological experiments with animals and cells have led to an expectation that the risks of cancer and hereditary effects are reduced at low doses and low dose rates of low LET radiation. Risk estimates derived from human exposures at high doses and dose rates usually contain an allowance for low dose effects in comparison with high dose effects, but no allowance may have been made for low dose rate effects. Although there are reasons for thinking that leukaemia risks may possibly have been underestimated, the total cancer risk assumed by ICRP for occupational exposures is reasonably realistic. For practical dosimetry the primary dose concepts and limits have to be translated into secondary quantities that are capable of practical realisation and measurement, and which will provide a stable and robust system of metrology. If the ICRP risk assumptions are approximately correct, it is extremely unlikely that epidemiological studies of occupational exposures will detect the influence of radiation. Elaboration of dosimetry and dose recording for epidemiological purposes is therefore unjustified except possibly in relation to differences between high and low LET radiations. (author)

  2. Practical Applications of Reading Research. (United States)

    Harris, Albert J.

    There are three main reasons why reading research has not had a stronger influence on what goes on in schools. The first reason is the powerful impact of social forces such as the bandwagon effect, the pendulum swing, and the prevailing climate of opinion. These factors determine to an unfortunately large degree whether or not particular research…

  3. Reflective practice and its implications for pharmacy education. (United States)

    Tsingos, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Smith, Lorraine


    Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.(1-2) Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student's own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a multidisciplinary team. Although reflective practices have been embraced elsewhere in health professions education, their strengths and shortcomings need to be considered when implementing such practices into pharmacy curricula. This review provides an overview of the evolution of theories related to reflective practice, critically examines the use of reflective tools (such as portfolios and blogs), and discusses the implications of implementing reflective practices in pharmacy education.

  4. Employment of people with disabilities: Implications for HR management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gida


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, firstly, present the findings of an empirical study in which the human resource management practices associated with the employment of people with disabilities were investigated. The human resource management challenges related to employment of people with disabilities were also identified in the empirical study and are presented in this paper. A further purpose of this paper is to propose a number of recommendations focused on human resource management practices and principles aimed at assisting managers and human resource management specialists in their endeavours to effectively deal with the employment of people with disabilities. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper is based on an empirical study in which interviews were conducted with respondents from 19 different organisations identified in the Financial Mail's 'Top 100 Organisations in South Africa' list. Findings: The findings from the empirical study suggest that very few organisations are dealing with the employment of people with disabilities as a priority in their equity strategies. Where attention is being given to this issue, respondents seem to either address it as a legal compliance issue or a social responsibility 'project'. Furthermore, very little has been done to review current human resource management practices to determine whether they are discriminatory towards people with disabilities. Based on the insights gained from these findings and in line with best practice principles identified in the relevant literature, a number of recommendations focusing on human resource management practices and principles in relation to the employment of people with disabilities are proposed. Implications: This paper provides a number of practical steps to consider as part of an organisation's response to equity strategies related to the employment of people with disabilities. Originality/Value: In the Employment Equity Commission's Annual Report

  5. Gamifying Learning Experiences: Practical Implications and Outcomes (United States)

    Dominguez, Adrian; Saenz-de-Navarrete, Joseba; de-Marcos, Luis; Fernandez-Sanz, Luis; Pages, Carmen; Martinez-Herraiz, Jose-Javier


    Gamification is the use of game design elements and game mechanics in non-game contexts. This idea has been used successfully in many web based businesses to increase user engagement. Some researchers suggest that it could also be used in web based education as a tool to increase student motivation and engagement. In an attempt to verify those…

  6. Computed tomographic practice and dosimetry: implications for nuclear medicine: editorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, P.J.; Harding, L.K.


    This editorial briefly discusses the results of an NRPB survey of x-ray computed tomography practice and dosimetry in the UK. A wide variation in practice and patient doses was revealed. The implications for nuclear medicine are considered. The NRPB is to issue formal guidance on protection of the patient undergoing a CT investigation with the aim of achieving a more systematic approach to the justification and optimization of such exposures. (UK)

  7. From Research to Practical Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Sabine; Bødker, Keld; Tøth, Thomas


    aim to support operational managers responsible for outsourced IT activities in carrying out the concrete task of knowledge transfer planning and execution. We report from a longitudinal project conducted in a major financial company headquartered in Denmark and an offshore development center located...... in India. We identify the three main knowledge transfer challenges experienced by the case company. The identified challenges inform the design of a systematic five-step approach to the company’s knowledge transfer. Our main contribution is to illustrate how extant research can be applied to understand...... and solve a particular company’s knowledge transfer challenges in a way that fits with the company culture....

  8. Emergency department surge: models and practical implications. (United States)

    Nager, Alan L; Khanna, Kajal


    Emergency Department crowding has long been described. Despite the daily challenges of managing emergency department volume and acuity; a surge response during a disaster entails even greater challenges including collaboration, intervention, and resourcefulness to effectively carry out pediatric disaster management. Understanding surge and how to respond with appropriate planning will lead to success. To achieve this, we sought to analyze models of surge; review regional and national data outlining surge challenges and factors that impact surge; and to outline potential solutions. We conducted a systemic review and included articles and documents that best described the theoretical and practical basis of surge response. We organized the systematic review according to the following questions: What are the elements and models that are delineated by the concept of surge? What is the basis for surge response based on regional and national published sources? What are the broad global solutions? What are the major lessons observed that will impact effective surge capacity? Multiple models of surge are described including public health, facility-based and community-based; a 6-tiered response system; and intrinsic or extrinsic surge capacity. In addition, essential components (4 S's of surge response) are described along with regional and national data outlining surge challenges, impacting factors, global solutions, and lesions observed. There are numerous shortcomings regionally and nationally affecting our ability to provide an effective and coordinated surge response. Planning, education, and training will lead to an effective pediatric disaster management response.

  9. Conceptualising the policy practice and behavioural research relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeatman Heather


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy is frequently identified in the behavioural nutrition and physical activity research literature as a necessary component of effective research and practice. The purpose of this commentary is to promote a dialogue to contribute towards the further development of conceptual understandings and theories of the relationship between policy practice and behavioural research and how these two activities might work synergistically to improve public health outcomes. Methods Drawing on policy and public health literature, this commentary presents a a conceptual model of the interaction and mediation between nutrition and physical activity-relevant policy and behavioural nutrition and physical activity research, environments, behaviours and public health implications. The selling of food in school canteens in several Australian states is discussed to illustrate components of the relationship and the interactions among its components. Results The model depicts a relationship that is interdependent and cyclic. Policy contributes to the relationship through its role in shaping environmental and personal-cognitive determinants of behaviours and through these determinants it can induce behaviour change. Behavioural research describes behaviours, identifies determinants of behaviour change and therefore helps inform policy development and monitor and evaluate its impact. Conclusion The model has implications for guiding behavioural research and policy practice priorities to promote public health outcomes. In particular, we propose that policy practice and behavioural research activities can be strengthened by applying to each other the theories from the scientific disciplines informing these respective activities. Behavioural science theories can be applied to help understand policy-making and assist with disseminating research into policy and practice. In turn, policy science theories can be applied to support the 'institutionalisation

  10. A Methodological Approach for Researching National Classroom Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yew Tee


    Full Text Available Little continues to be known about what actually happens in classrooms, particularly from a national perspective. Descriptions of classroom practices from a national vantage point can provide a bird's eye view of salient patterns and variations within an education system, especially one as centralised as that of Malaysia. With these descriptions, especially if the primary data consists of video recordings, one can also begin to compare movements in classroom practices across time and space; theorise about the nature of practice within the system as well as inform policy deliberations. This paper examines key methodological decisions of conducting a national study to research classroom educational practice within Malaysia's public school system. The case is made for the use of such studies to gain a bird's eye perspective of classroom practices in a national system as well as to lay the foundations for inter-system comparisons. Potential implications and opportunities of these types of studies are also discussed.

  11. Safeguarding and Protecting Children in Maternity Services: Implications for Practice (United States)

    Lazenbatt, Anne; Greer, Jean


    This article debates the issues involved in safeguarding and protecting children in maternity services and offers implications for professional practice. Midwives and other staff who work as members of the maternity team have a safeguarding role to play in the identification of babies and children who have been abused, or are at risk of abuse, and…

  12. Glutamate in schizophrenia: clinical and research implications. (United States)

    Goff, D C; Wine, L


    The excitatory amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, are of interest to schizophrenia research because of their roles in neurodevelopment, neurotoxicity and neurotransmission. Recent evidence suggests that densities of glutamatergic receptors and the ratios of subunits composing these receptors may be altered in schizophrenia, although it is unclear whether these changes are primary or compensatory. Agents acting at the phencyclidine binding site of the NMDA receptor produce symptoms of schizophrenia in normal subjects, and precipitate relapse in patients with schizophrenia. The improvement of negative symptoms with agents acting at the glycine modulatory site of the NMDA receptor, as well as preliminary evidence that clozapine may differ from conventional neuroleptic agents in its effects on glutamatergic systems, suggest that clinical implications may follow from this model. While geriatric patients may be at increased risk for glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity, very little is known about the specific relevance of this model to geriatric patients with schizophrenia.

  13. Global megatrends and their implications for environmental assessment practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retief, Francois, E-mail: [Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Bond, Alan [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny [Integral Sustainability (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Morrison-Saunders, Angus [Murdoch University (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental, Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); King, Nicholas [Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa)


    This paper addresses the future of environmental assessment (EA) practice in light of a rapidly changing world. We apply a literature review-based methodology to firstly identify key global megatrends and then reflect upon the implications for EA practice based on some known challenges. The key megatrends identified are synthesised into six categories: i) demographics, ii) urbanization, iii) technological innovation, iv) power shifts, v) resource scarcity and vi) climate change. We then discuss the implications of these megatrends for EA practice against four known EA challenges namely: dealing with i) complexity and uncertainty, ii) efficiency, iii) significance and iv) communication and participation. Our analysis suggests important implications for EA practice such as: increased difficulties with accuracy of prediction; the need for facilitative adaptation; an increase in the occurrence of unexpected events; higher expectations for procedural efficiency; challenges with information and communication management; dealing with significance judgements; and mitigation amidst resource scarcity and increasing pressures on earth systems. The megatrends underscore the need for continued evolution of EA thinking and practice, especially moving away from seeking a predictable single future or outcome towards the possibility of multiple scenarios with associated adaptability and enhanced system resilience capable of responding to rapid change.

  14. Global megatrends and their implications for environmental assessment practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retief, Francois; Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; King, Nicholas


    This paper addresses the future of environmental assessment (EA) practice in light of a rapidly changing world. We apply a literature review-based methodology to firstly identify key global megatrends and then reflect upon the implications for EA practice based on some known challenges. The key megatrends identified are synthesised into six categories: i) demographics, ii) urbanization, iii) technological innovation, iv) power shifts, v) resource scarcity and vi) climate change. We then discuss the implications of these megatrends for EA practice against four known EA challenges namely: dealing with i) complexity and uncertainty, ii) efficiency, iii) significance and iv) communication and participation. Our analysis suggests important implications for EA practice such as: increased difficulties with accuracy of prediction; the need for facilitative adaptation; an increase in the occurrence of unexpected events; higher expectations for procedural efficiency; challenges with information and communication management; dealing with significance judgements; and mitigation amidst resource scarcity and increasing pressures on earth systems. The megatrends underscore the need for continued evolution of EA thinking and practice, especially moving away from seeking a predictable single future or outcome towards the possibility of multiple scenarios with associated adaptability and enhanced system resilience capable of responding to rapid change.

  15. Researching language teaching: Understanding practice through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we argue that second language acquisition (SLA) research and theory have a significant role to play in teacher education, especially at the masters level. The danger of overly practical approaches is that they cannot challenge current practice in ways that are both critical and rigorous. However, to engage ...

  16. Fieldwork in nursing research: positionality, practicalities and predicaments. (United States)

    Borbasi, Sally; Jackson, Debra; Wilkes, Lesley


    This paper draws on the literature to explore some of the issues of concern to nurses undertaking fieldwork in contemporary healthcare settings. The emergence of poststructuralist and postmodern perspectives has raised questions about ethnographic approaches, and problematized the role of researchers in the construction of plausible and credible ethnographic accounts. As a practice discipline, nursing needs to negotiate a thorny path between methodological purity and practical application, with nurse researchers required to take account of both philosophical and pragmatic concerns. There is general agreement that researching with an individual or group rather than researching on an individual or group is the more effective way to approach fieldwork. Feminist writers appear to have dealt with this issue best, advocating intimacy, self-disclosure, and reciprocity in encounters with research participants. The duality of the nurse researcher role; power and politics and the moral implications of fieldwork are acknowledged as factors influencing nurses in the planning and conduct of fieldwork. Nurses as researchers may be better equipped than other social researchers to deal with contingencies in the field. Laying the epistemological ground for the participant observer role during fieldwork and understanding its impact on the resultant ethnographic account is essential to methodological rigour in field research. Consideration of some of the practicalities and predicaments experienced by nurses as researchers when conducting fieldwork prior to going out into the field is an important research strategy and will facilitate methodological potency.

  17. Transition of Research into Medical Practice (United States)

    Polk, James D.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.


    This slide presentation reviews the process of transforming medical research into practical medicine for astronauts and for every day people. Several examples of medical practices that started in space medical research and then were proved useful in other settings: Actigraphy, bone density scanning, the use of Potassium Citrate as a countermeasure used to lessen the risk of kidney stone formation, and ultrasound uses in remote and telemedicine,

  18. Training Research: Practical Recommendations for Maximum Impact (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Koerner, Kelly; Weingardt, Kenneth R.; Kendall, Philip C.


    This review offers practical recommendations regarding research on training in evidence-based practices for mental health and substance abuse treatment. When designing training research, we recommend: (a) aligning with the larger dissemination and implementation literature to consider contextual variables and clearly defining terminology, (b) critically examining the implicit assumptions underlying the stage model of psychotherapy development, (c) incorporating research methods from other disciplines that embrace the principles of formative evaluation and iterative review, and (d) thinking about how technology can be used to take training to scale throughout all stages of a training research project. An example demonstrates the implementation of these recommendations. PMID:21380792

  19. Qualitative methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie


    Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...... research attempts to answer the “why” questions, it is useful for describing, in rich detail, complex phenomena that are situated and embedded in local contexts. Typical methods include interviews, observation, document analysis, and netnography. Qualitative research has to live up to a set of rigid...... quality criteria of research conduct to provide trustworthy results that contribute to the further development of the area....

  20. Legal implications of genetics and crime research. (United States)

    Denno, D W


    Two controversial topics dominate discussions of the legal implications of genetics and crime research; (1) the viability and politics of such research, which has sparked fervent debate in the USA; and (2) the current status of new or atypical criminal law defences, which would include a genetic-defect defence to criminal behaviour. This chapter begins by examining the scientifically discredited XYY chromosome syndrome defence, the major genetic-defect defence that defendants have attempted, albeit unsuccessfully. It then focuses on attorneys' efforts to test for evidence of genetic abnormality in the recent and highly publicized case involving convicted murderer Stephen Mobley, whose family history reveals four generations of violent, aggressive and behaviourally disordered men and women. Mobley is currently appealing his death sentence before the Georgia Supreme Court on the basis that the trial court denied his request both to have genetic testing performed and to have such testing allowed as evidence into court. This chapter concludes by emphasizing that the question is not whether genetic evidence will ever be admitted into court, but when and under what kinds of circumstances. No doubt, genetic evidence, and comparable kinds of biological evidence, will have a major impact on juries when such evidence is more fully accepted by the legal and scientific communities.

  1. Contracting for safety with patients: clinical practice and forensic implications. (United States)

    Garvey, Keelin A; Penn, Joseph V; Campbell, Angela L; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony


    The contract for safety is a procedure used in the management of suicidal patients and has significant patient care, risk management, and medicolegal implications. We conducted a literature review to assess empirical support for this procedure and reviewed legal cases in which this practice was employed, to examine its effect on outcome. Studies obtained from a PubMed search were reviewed and consisted mainly of opinion-based surveys of clinicians and patients and retrospective reviews. Overall, empirically based evidence to support the use of the contract for safety in any population is very limited, particularly in adolescent populations. A legal review revealed that contracting for safety is never enough to protect against legal liability and may lead to adverse consequences for the clinician and the patient. Contracts should be considered for use only in patients who are deemed capable of giving informed consent and, even in these circumstances, should be used with caution. A contract should never replace a thorough assessment of a patient's suicide risk factors. Further empirical research is needed to determine whether contracting for safety merits consideration as a future component of the suicide risk assessment.

  2. Interactions In Online Education Implications For Theory & Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askim KURT


    Full Text Available This book was edited by, Charles Juwah, Senior EducationDevelopment Officer at Robert Gordon University, where heruns the postgraduate learning and teaching qualificationcourse. It was published by Routledge in 2006.Interaction is very important in open and flexible learning,and apparent at all levels of engagement, whether betweenstudents, students and tutors, online learning materials orinterfacing with the learning environment. A student whoactively engages with learning materials, interactions helpto improve learning by fortifying knowledge and providingcontext, encouraging reflection, questioning and deeplyunderstanding of a subject.This book provides international perspectives on key topics including analyzing and designing e-learning interactions, social and conceptual dimensions of learning, interactions in online discussions, interactions in pair learning, and professional development of online facilitators. In this book a collection of research and innovative case material drawn from practitioners and academicians and it covers the theory and the practical implications of related issues. It is essential reading for all those involved in the design,implementation, management and use of open and flexible learning.

  3. Cognitive load theory: Practical implications and an important challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmie Leppink, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available The field of medical education has adopted a wide variety of theories from other fields. A fairly recent example is cognitive load theory, which originated in educational psychology. Several empirical studies inspired by cognitive load theory and reviews of practical implications of cognitive load theory have contributed to guidelines for the design of medical education. Simultaneously, several research groups have developed instruments for the measurement of cognitive load in a medical education context. These developments notwithstanding, obtaining evidence for different types of cognitive load remains an important challenge. Therefore, the aim of this article is twofold: to provide medical educators with three key guidelines for the design of instruction and assessment and to discuss several fundamental issues in the remaining challenges presented by different types of cognitive load. The guidelines revolve around minimizing cognitive activity that does not contribute to learning, working with specific learning goals in mind, and appreciating the multifaceted relation between learning and assessment. Key issues around the types of cognitive load include the context in which learning occurs, the continued use of single-item mental effort ratings, and the timing of cognitive load and learning outcome measurements.

  4. Attachment Theory and Religiosity: A Summary of Empirical Research with Implications for Counseling Christian Clients (United States)

    Reinert, Duane F.; Edwards, Carla E.; Hendrix, Rebecca R.


    The authors summarize the growing body of empirical research literature in the area of psychology of religion that has been guided by attachment theory and indicate implications for counseling, including practical suggestions for case conceptualization, possible spiritual interventions, and ethical guidelines for practice. Attachment theory…

  5. STS: Adding Value To Research and Practice. (United States)

    Kumar, David D.; Chubin, Daryl E.


    Introduces the Kumar and Chubin-edited collection, "Science, Technology, and Society: A Sourcebook on Research and Practice". Presents an outline of the 12 chapters that examine STS trends, curriculum, teaching, learning, mentoring, advocacy, public policy, and issues for further research. (Author/WRM)

  6. Enabling Critical Reflection on Research Supervisory Practice (United States)

    Pearson, Margot; Kayrooz, Carole


    This paper describes the development of an instrument--The Reflective Supervisor Questionnaire (RSQ). The RSQ maps the domain of research supervisory practice as a facilitative process involving educational tasks and activities. It is designed to assist research supervisors explore, by means of self-reflection and reflection on feedback from…

  7. A Practical School Public Relations Research Primer (United States)

    Moore, Edward H.


    Advances in communication technology have created many new tools for school communicators--as well as increasing complexities for their programs. As a result, solid school communication research programs offering practical research insights for planning, tracking, and assessing school communication efforts are more important than ever. Still, many…

  8. Consumer energy management: policy implications of research. 2 Vols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.


    This report provides a framework for understanding the practical implications of consumer energy conservation research in Canada. A review of such research was undertaken to determine its implications for increasing the effectiveness of Canadian conservation policies and programs. The major conclusions and recommendations were as follows. Conservation has been acknowledged as the single most important element in solving Canada's petroleum shortfall in the 1980s. An analytic approach to the formulation of energy policies and the design of conservation programs will be essential if meaningful energy savings in the consumer sector are to be realized. Prior to designing any conservation program, it is essential that the components of consumer energy policy be understood. In order to assess the effectiveness of conservation efforts, it is necessary to assign relative priorities to the criteria of probable energy savings, cost effectiveness, impact by fuel type, impact on consumers, enforceability, and institutional considerations. Conservation efforts aimed at consumers must be based on understanding the basic processes which underlie how they perceive and respond to various types of conservation initiatives. This understanding is gained through consumer impact analysis and program research. The latter action attempts to analyze the effectiveness and acceptability of programs involving information, financial incentives, energy standards, and energy usage restrictions. Conservation programs must ensure that barriers to adoption, such as lack of time and knowledge, financial resources, and lifestyle impacts, will be minimized. 93 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Adoption research, practice, and societal trends: Ten years of progress. (United States)

    Wiley, Mary O'Leary


    Adoption involves the legal transfer of parental rights and responsibilities from a child's birth parents to adults who will raise the child (Reitz & Watson, 1992). Research related to adoption has expanded over the past 10 years and has incorporated more focus on implications for practice and public policy. This expansion has reflected increased awareness of the lived experience of adopted individuals, in addition to that of adoptive families and birth or first parents and families, collectively known as the adoption kinship network (Grotevant & McRoy, 1998). Trends discussed included research and social trends or movements (2007-2017) since the publication of the final article in a series of articles in the psychological literature related to adoption in The Counseling Psychologist (Baden & Wiley, 2007; Lee, 2003; O'Brien & Zamostny, 2003; Wiley & Baden, 2005; Zamostny, O'Brien, Baden, & Wiley, 2003; Zamostny, Wiley, O'Brien, Lee, & Baden, 2003). This article summarizes the social trends and research related to adoption over the last 10 years, including longitudinal and meta-analytic studies, increased research and conceptualization of ethnic and racial identity development, research on microaggressions, and research on diverse adoptive families, including those with gay and lesbian parents. Social trends included increased knowledge related to Internet accessibility, genetic information, continued focus on openness, and viewing adoption through a more critical lens. Implications are discussed for the development of programs that enhance competence of mental health professionals and adoption professionals in adoption-competent practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Resource depletion promotes automatic processing: implications for distribution of practice. (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H


    Recent models of cognition include two processing systems: an automatic system that relies on associative learning, intuition, and heuristics, and a controlled system that relies on deliberate consideration. Automatic processing requires fewer resources and is more likely when resources are depleted. This study showed that prolonged practice on a resource-depleting mental arithmetic task promoted automatic processing on a subsequent problem-solving task, as evidenced by faster responding and more errors. Distribution of practice effects (0, 60, 120, or 180 sec. between problems) on rigidity also disappeared when groups had equal time on resource-depleting tasks. These results suggest that distribution of practice effects is reducible to resource availability. The discussion includes implications for interpreting discrepancies in the traditional distribution of practice effect.

  11. Researching Lean: Methodological implications of loose definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännmark, Mikael; Langstrand, Jostein; Johansson, Stina


    practices seem to overlap with other popular management concepts, such as High Performance Work Systems, World Class Manufacturing and Total Quality Management. This confusion, combined with different methodological and theoretical traditions, has led to much debate and contradictory conclusions regarding...... Lean. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate some key methodological issues that need to be considered in future Lean research to allow increased understanding of Lean effects for different stakeholders, primarily meaning the customer, employer and employees. Design/methodology/approach – The paper...... on the case studies, we suggest that future investigations describe the Lean interventions in more detail. General descriptions or analogies, e.g. ‘learning organizations’, presumably increase the present confusion regarding Lean impact on different stakeholders. The case studies also illustrate...

  12. Exploring accountability of clinical ethics consultants: practice and training implications. (United States)

    Weise, Kathryn L; Daly, Barbara J


    Clinical ethics consultants represent a multidisciplinary group of scholars and practitioners with varied training backgrounds, who are integrated into a medical environment to assist in the provision of ethically supportable care. Little has been written about the degree to which such consultants are accountable for the patient care outcome of the advice given. We propose a model for examining degrees of internally motivated accountability that range from restricted to unbounded accountability, and support balanced accountability as a goal for practice. Finally, we explore implications of this model for training of clinical ethics consultants from diverse academic backgrounds, including those disciplines that do not have a formal code of ethics relating to clinical practice.

  13. Practical implications of incentive systems are utilized by dental franchises. (United States)

    Yavner, S B


    The success of any dental practice depends, among other factors, on the critical role of staff employees. In order to encourage desired staff behaviors, incentive systems can be designed for employee dentists, assistants/hygienists and managers. A survey of dental franchises was conducted in 1987 for the purpose of examining their incentive control systems. The specific incentives employed by these dental franchises for their employees are analyzed. The implications of these incentive systems used by dental franchise organizations for all dental practices are then discussed.

  14. Researching the Practice of Fostering Transformative Learning: Lessons Learned From the Study of Andragogy (United States)

    Taylor, Edward W.; Laros, Anna


    This article identifies factors that have contributed to the challenges associated with the practice and research of fostering transformative learning (TL), by drawing on the work by Rachal and others in reviewing the study of andragogy--theory, research, and practice. Implications are also discussed of how scholars of TL can best respond to the…

  15. Researching Practice Wisdom in Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Chun-Sing Cheung


    Full Text Available Researching practice wisdom in social work Social workers, as skilled helpers who make professional decisions using intuitive actions rather than by following defined rules, deserve better recognition for their practice wisdom. However, since there is a tendency amongst practitioners who adhere to the evidence-based paradigm to disregard practitioners’ knowledge, empirical research on practice wisdom in social work needs to be encouraged. The author argues that the lack of a sound methodology hinders the development of such an invaluable asset for practitioners. It is suggested that a heuristic paradigm that embraces the concepts of tacit knowing, intuition and indwelling will provide a way forward towards recognizing the importance of social workers’ practice wisdom.

  16. Good science, bad science: Questioning research practices in psychological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.


    In this dissertation we have questioned the current research practices in psychological science and thereby contributed to the current discussion about the credibility of psychological research. We specially focused on the problems with the reporting of statistical results and showed that reporting

  17. From Research Assistant to Professional Research Assistance: Research Consulting as a Form of Research Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn E. Pollon


    Full Text Available Research assistantships have long been viewed as an extension of the formal education process, a form of apprenticeship, and a pathway into the professional practice of research in institutional settings. However, there are other contexts in which researchers practice research. This self-study documents the formative role research assistantships played in the authors’ development as professional research consultants. Four professional research consultants who held research assistant positions during their master’s and doctoral studies describe the contributions of their research assistantship experiences to the advancement of their knowledge, skills, and passion for research and subsequently to their career decisions. Professional research consulting is identified as a natural extension of research assistant roles and a potential career path. The article enhances current understandings about the ways research assistantships contribute to the development of researchers, and specifically to the development of professional research consultants. The analysis will be of interest to students contemplating entering into research assistantships, current research assistants, current research assistant supervisors, academic staff looking to improve their research productivity, and department chairs.

  18. Practice implications and recommendations for managing codeine misuse and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergin Michael


    Full Text Available Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O’Malley’s framework (1. Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline from 1994 to 2014. Follow-up search strategies involved hand searching and searching of pharmaceutical, health, medical and drug related websites. Initial zscreening identified 3,105 articles with 475 meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight broad categories organised the literature, data charting and qualitative synthesis. This paper presents implications for practice and makes recommendations to address these issues. Themes identified relate to raising public and practitioner awareness, risk management, dispensing practices and monitoring and surveillance of codeine. Evidence to inform law enforcement, drug surveillance, public health initiatives, harm reduction approaches, pharmacy, clinical and treatment practices is warranted.

  19. Evidence-Based Practice in Autism Educational Research: Can We Bridge the Research and Practice Gap? (United States)

    Guldberg, Karen


    In order to develop deeper and better understandings of what constitutes effective educational practices, and to bridge the gap between research and practice, there is a need for a paradigm shift in autism educational research. The contribution of this paper is to examine the key methodological challenges that stand in the way of autism…

  20. Flipped Instruction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice (United States)

    IGI Global, 2017


    The integration of technology into modern classrooms has enhanced learning opportunities for students. With increased access to educational content, students gain a better understanding of the concepts being taught. "Flipped Instruction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice" is a comprehensive reference source for the latest scholarly…

  1. Studio Practice within a Research Context (United States)

    Knight, Katherine


    In this article, the author tells the story of a continuing body of work that she began in 2001, titled "Navigate." The author relates that she sees this extended project as a case study of her working habits and ideas bridging the moment when she began to think of her practice as research. Through the story telling and writing this…

  2. Knowledge Asymmetries Between Research and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard


    This article discusses the problem of implementing scientific knowledge in practice. The discussion is based on a case study of barriers to implementing research-based principles of sustainable organic arable farming. The current literature tends to see this problem either as a dissemination issu...

  3. Contemporary Play Therapy: Theory, Research, and Practice (United States)

    Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.; Gerard Kaduson, Heidi, Ed.


    This highly practical book presents current developments in play therapy, including innovative applications for particular problems and populations. Contributors first discuss the latest ideas and techniques emerging from object-relations, experiential, dynamic, and narrative perspectives. Next, research evaluating the effectiveness of play…

  4. Just in Time Research: Privacy Practices (United States)

    Grama, Joanna Lyn


    The January 2014 edition of the ECAR Update subscriber newsletter included an informal poll on information privacy practices. The poll was intended to collect a quick snapshot of the higher education community's thoughts on this important topic during Data Privacy Month. Results of the poll will be used to inform EDUCAUSE research, programs,…

  5. Response to Intervention: Research and Practice (United States)

    Hall, Carol; Mahoney, Jamie


    Response to Intervention (RTI) is a service model designed to meet the learning needs of students prior to diagnosis and placement in special education settings. Results of a quantitative quasi-experimental research study to investigate the relationship between the RTI plan and self-reported implementation practices among general education…

  6. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 2001. (United States)

    Rudner, Lawrence M., Ed.; Schafer, William D., Ed.


    This document consists of articles 23 through 26 published in the electronic journal "Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation" in 2001: (23) "Effects of Removing the Time Limit on First and Second Language Intelligence Test Performance" (Jennifer Mullane and Stuart J. McKelvie); (24) "Consequences of (Mis)use of the Texas Assessment of…

  7. Workplace Innovation: Theory, Research and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Rus, D.; Pot, F.D.


    This book focuses on workplace innovation, which is a key element in ensuring that organizations and the people within them can adapt to and engage in healthy, sustainable change. It features a collection of multi-level, multi-disciplinary contributions that combine theory, research and practical

  8. Medical ethics research between theory and practice. (United States)

    ten Have, H A; Lelie, A


    The main object of criticism of present-day medical ethics is the standard view of the relationship between theory and practice. Medical ethics is more than the application of moral theories and principles, and health care is more than the domain of application of moral theories. Moral theories and principles are necessarily abstract, and therefore fail to take account of the sometimes idiosyncratic reality of clinical work and the actual experiences of practitioners. Suggestions to remedy the illness of contemporary medical ethics focus on re-establishing the connection between the internal and external morality of medicine. This article discusses the question how to develop a theoretical perspective on medical ethical issues that connects philosophical reflection with the everyday realities of medical practice. Four steps in a comprehensive approach of medical ethics research are distinguished: (1) examine health care contexts in order to obtain a better understanding of the internal morality of these practices; this requires empirical research; (2) analyze and interpret the external morality governing health care practices; sociological study of prevalent values, norms, and attitudes concerning medical-ethical issues is required; (3) creation of new theoretical perspectives on health care practices; Jensen's theory of healthcare practices will be useful here; (4) develop a new conception of bioethics that illuminates and clarifies the complex interaction between the internal and external morality of health care practices. Hermeneutical ethics can be helpful for integrating the experiences disclosed in the empirical ethical studies, as well as utilizing the insights gained from describing the value-contexts of health care practices. For a critical and normative perspective, hermeneutical ethics has to examine and explain the moral experiences uncovered, in order to understand what they tell us.

  9. From research to practice: one organisational model for promoting research based practice. (United States)

    Kitson, A


    This paper describes a framework used by the National Institute for Nursing in Oxford to integrate research, development and practice. With the increasing attention given to the topic of how research findings are implemented into clinical practice, it was felt important to share the challenges that have arisen in attempting to combine traditional research activities with more practice based development work. The emerging conceptual framework, structures and functions are described highlighting the variety of partnerships to be established in order to achieve the goal of integrating research into practice. While the underpinning principles of the framework--generating knowledge, implementing research into practice and evaluating the effectiveness of programmes--are not new, it is the way they have been combined within an organisational structure that could be helpful to others considering such a strategy. Both the strengths and weaknesses of the model are discussed, a number of conclusions drawn as to its robustness and consideration given to its replication.

  10. [A framework for evaluating ethical issues of public health initiatives: practical aspects and theoretical implications]. (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo


    The "Framework for the Ethical Conduct of Public Health Initiatives", developed by Public Health Ontario, is a practical guide for assessing the ethical implications of evidence-generating public health initiatives, whether research or non-research activities, involving people, their biological materials or their personal information. The Framework is useful not only to those responsible for determining the ethical acceptability of an initiative, but also to investigators planning new public health initiatives. It is informed by a theoretical approach that draws on widely shared bioethical principles. Two considerations emerge from both the theoretical framework and its practical application: the line between practice and research is often blurred; public health ethics and biomedical research ethics are based on the same common heritage of values.

  11. Research as a Respectful Practice: An Exploration of the Practice of Respect in Qualitative Research (United States)

    O'Grady, Emmanuel


    This article explores the practice of respect within qualitative research methods. As interpersonal respect plays a significant role in the esteem felt within a relationship, it can also serve to cultivate trust between researchers and their participants in a research study. This article details the findings of a research study examining respect…

  12. Translational research in oncology: Implications for palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunangshu Ghoshal


    Full Text Available The label “translational research” (TR has become ever more popular in the biomedical domain in recent years. It is usually presented as an attempt to bridge a supposed gap between knowledge produced at the laboratory bench and its use at the clinical bedside. This is claimed to help society harvest the benefits of its investments in scientific research. The past decade has witnessed a remarkable acceleration in the pace of translational cancer medicine – genome sequencing of various human cancers has been broadly deployed in drug discovery programs, diagnostic tests have been developed to predict molecularly targeted anticancer agents, advent of cancer immunotherapies, an enhanced appreciation of the complex interactions that exist between tumor cells and their microenvironment have revolutionized the management of cancers. Treatment for cancer and palliative care (PC go hand in hand and the role of TR in PC can no longer be ignored. This paper discusses about the scientific discourse of TR in cancer care and its implications for the practice of PC. It starts with a brief reconstruction of the history of the concept and subsequently unravels how the label is used in clinical/research practice. In conclusion, TR seems to be driven by a changed relationship between science and society. “Translation” has become important because society is thought to deserve a tangible return in terms of health and quality of life on its investment in basic biomedical science.

  13. [General practice research units in Denmark: multidisciplinary research in support of practical work]. (United States)

    Reventlow, Susanne; Broholm, Katalin Alexa Király; Mäkelä, Marjukka


    In Denmark the general practice research units operating in connection with universities provide a home base, training and methodology support for researchers in the field from medical students to general practitioners carrying out practical work. Research issues frequently require a multidisciplinary approach and use of different kinds of materials. Problems arising from the practical work of general practitioners take priority in the wide selection of topics. The units have networked efficiently with organizations of general practitioners and medical education. The combination of research environments has created synergy benefiting everybody and increased the scientific productivity and visibility of the field.

  14. Ideology and community social psychology: theoretical considerations and practical implications. (United States)

    Montenegro, Marisela


    This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice.

  15. Effective Teamwork Practical Lessons from Organizational Research

    CERN Document Server

    West, Michael A


    Updated to reflect the latest research evidence, the third edition of Effective Teamwork provides business managers with the necessary guidance and tools to build and maintain effective teamwork strategies. A new edition of a bestselling book on teamwork from an acknowledged leader in the fieldOffers a unique integration of rigorous research with practical guidance to develop effective leadership teamsFeatures new chapters on virtual teams and top management teams, plus contemporary themes of ethics and valuesUtilizes research based on positive psychology techniques

  16. Comprehension instruction research-based best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Parris, Sheri R; Morrow, Lesley Mandel


    All key issues of research and practice in comprehension instruction are addressed in this highly regarded professional resource and course text. Leading scholars examine the processes that enable students to make meaning from what they read--and how this knowledge can be applied to improve teaching at all grade levels. Best practices for meeting the needs of diverse elementary and secondary students are identified. Essential topics include strategies for comprehending different types of texts, the impact of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), cutting-edge assessment approaches, and the gr

  17. Collaborative Partnerships between Research and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte; Willumsen, Elisabeth

    design is applied, including qualitative approaches such as fieldwork and interviews. In addition, a survey questionnaire is developed containing a psychometric evaluation representing the quantitative approach. The main goals of the project are: 1) to identify innovation in daily practices in elderly...... between research institutions and elderly care facilities to study social innovation as a phenomenon in institution-based elderly care. We received initial funding from the Research Council of Norway to work closely together on the main proposal, which was subsequently funded. Five research institutions......The ambition to open up the processes and results of publicly-funded research has led to the emergence of a broad Open Science movement. The goal is radical: to make research accessible to everyone so as to enhance impact and innovation in society. Not only governments and funding agencies...

  18. Second Language Writing Research and Written Corrective Feedback in SLA: Intersections and Practical Applications (United States)

    Ferris, Dana R.


    For more than a decade now, a great deal of research has been done on the topic of written corrective feedback (CF) in SLA and second language (L2) writing. Nonetheless, what those research efforts really have shown as well as the possible implications for practice remain in dispute. Although L2 writing and SLA researchers often examine similar…

  19. Quota sampling in internet research: practical issues. (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik


    Quota sampling has been suggested as a potentially good method for Internet-based research and has been used by several researchers working with Internet samples. However, very little is known about the issues or concerns in using a quota sampling method in Internet research. The purpose of this article was to present the practical issues using quota sampling in an Internet-based study. During the Internet study, the research team recorded all recruitment issues that arose and made written notes indicating the possible reasons for the problems. In addition, biweekly team discussions were conducted for which written records were kept. Overall, quota sampling was effective in ensuring that an adequate number of midlife women were recruited from the targeted ethnic groups. However, during the study process, we encountered the following practical issues using quota sampling: (1) difficulty reaching out to women in lower socioeconomic classes, (2) difficulty ensuring authenticity of participants' identities, (3) participants giving inconsistent answers for the screening questions versus the Internet survey questions, (4) potential problems with a question on socioeconomic status, (5) resentment toward the research project and/or researchers because of rejection, and (6) a longer time and more expense than anticipated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Trontelj


    Full Text Available In the field of science, we see cases of misconduct ranging from relatively minor departurefrom good manners and practice to more severe dishonesty and even criminal behaviour.Unethical experiments on human beings are among the worst abuses in scientific researchin medicine. Unethical research is usually also worthless from the scientific point of view.The commonest types of offence, however, include mismanagement of data, conscious misinterpretation,wrongful authorship, biased citation of work by others, plagiarism, misquotationor suppression of findings for the interests or upon the request of the sponsor or In the field of science, we see cases of misconduct ranging from relatively minor departurefrom good manners and practice to more severe dishonesty and even criminal behaviour.Unethical experiments on human beings are among the worst abuses in scientific researchin medicine. Unethical research is usually also worthless from the scientific point of view.The commonest types of offence, however, include mismanagement of data, conscious misinterpretation,wrongful authorship, biased citation of work by others, plagiarism, misquotationor suppression of findings for the interests or upon the request of the sponsor or In the field of science, we see cases of misconduct ranging from relatively minor departurefrom good manners and practice to more severe dishonesty and even criminal behaviour.Unethical experiments on human beings are among the worst abuses in scientific researchin medicine. Unethical research is usually also worthless from the scientific point of view.The commonest types of offence, however, include mismanagement of data, conscious misinterpretation,wrongful authorship, biased citation of work by others, plagiarism, misquotationor suppression of findings for the interests or upon the request of the sponsor or even a senior scientist in the team. Every case of misconduct and fraud may causedamage: it may undermine confidence of the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Milošević


    Full Text Available Theories of learning which are classified in two broad schools as theories of connections and cognitive theories, differ among themselves according to specific interaction relationships between external stimulus (S, reaction and behavior and organism (R, i.e. particular learner (O. In relation to pedagogical practices, predominance of a certain school is not rare, often without any objective insight into their potentials related to age, sex, learning contents and other determinants. Well-known approaches within the theories of relations include classical Pavlov reflex, Guthry’s close conditioning, associating of Thorndyke, and Skinner’s efficient conditioning. Practical implications of these theories in acquiring motor skills are related to an active learner’s approach, significance of repetition – exercising, supporting, and rewarding correct answers, as well as strengthening a new behavior by imitation of a sample – modeling.

  2. The SANE Research Project: Its Implications for Higher Education. (United States)

    Harrison, Andrew; Dugdale, Shirley


    Describes a 2-year research program called Sustainable Accommodation for the New Economy (SANE), which is exploring the implications of the distributed workplace. Its focus is on the creation of sustainable, collaborative workplaces for knowledge workers across Europe, encompassing both virtual and physical spaces. Discusses its implications for…

  3. Case management: developing practice through action research. (United States)

    Smith, Annetta; Mackay, Seonaid; McCulloch, Kathleen


    This article is a report of an action research study carried out with community nurses to help develop case management within their practice. Using action research principles, nurses reviewed and analysed their current practice and developed recommendations for further embedding case management as a means of supporting patients with complex care needs in their own homes. Findings indicate that a number of factors can influence the community nurse's ability to implement case management. These factors include approaches to case finding, availability of resources and interprofessional working. Important considerations for nurses were the influence of the context of care, the geographical location and the health needs of the local patient population, which meant that case management may need to be adapted to meet local circumstances.

  4. Researching media through practices: an ethnographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Roig


    Full Text Available Anthropological and ethnographic research on media have been largely focused on analyzing reception of media products (television, radio, press and film and media consumption related to domestic appropriation of technologies (Rothenbuhler et al., 2005. There is also a wide body of research devoted to the study of the political dimension of alternative and indigenous media (Ginsburg, 2002. However, there has been a separation between media and internet studies, and between the analysis of media reception and practices of self-production, such as family photography or home video. Current digital media practices urge reexamination of self-produced content and media flows from a broader perspective that cuts across divisions between public and private, corporative media products and people's releases, home production and cultural industry, political activism and everyday life.

  5. Health physics practices at research accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.


    A review is given of the uses of particle accelerators in health physics, the text being a short course given at the Health Physics Society Ninth Midyear Topical Symposium in February, 1976. Topics discussed include: (1) the radiation environment of high energy accelerators; (2) dosimetry at research accelerators; (3) shielding; (4) induced activity; (5) environmental impact of high energy accelerators; (6) population dose equivalent calculation; and (7) the application of the ''as low as practicable concept'' at accelerators

  6. An online forum as a qualitative research method: practical issues. (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik


    Despite the positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known on the practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. The aim of this study was to describe the practical issues encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranging from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of the discussions were reviewed and analyzed using content analysis. Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: (a) a high response and retention rate and (b) automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants' forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method.

  7. Heart Failure: From Research to Clinical Practice. (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul


    "Heart failure: from research to clinical practice", a collection of selected reviews, which comes out also as a book, covers essentially all important aspects of heart failure, including the pathogenesis, clinical features, biomarkers, imaging techniques, medical treatment and surgical treatments, use of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and palliative care. The reviews include essential background information, state of the art, critical and in-depth analysis, and directions for future researches for elucidation of the unresolved issues. Everyone interested in heart failure is expected to find this compilation helpful for a deeper understanding of some of the complex issues.

  8. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice. (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea


    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  9. Guidance for using mixed methods design in nursing practice research. (United States)

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Newman, David; Dyess, Susan; Piyakong, Duangporn; Liehr, Patricia


    The mixed methods approach purposefully combines both quantitative and qualitative techniques, enabling a multi-faceted understanding of nursing phenomena. The purpose of this article is to introduce three mixed methods designs (parallel; sequential; conversion) and highlight interpretive processes that occur with the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative findings. Real world examples of research studies conducted by the authors will demonstrate the processes leading to the merger of data. The examples include: research questions; data collection procedures and analysis with a focus on synthesizing findings. Based on experience with mixed methods studied, the authors introduce two synthesis patterns (complementary; contrasting), considering application for practice and implications for research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Brokering the Research-Practice Gap: A typology. (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Neal, Zachary P; Kornbluh, Mariah; Mills, Kristen J; Lawlor, Jennifer A


    Despite widespread recognition of a research-practice gap in multiple service sectors, less is known about how pre-existing communication channels facilitate the flow of information between researchers and practitioners. In the current study, we applied an existing typology of brokerage developed by Gould and Fernandez (Sociol Methodol 19:89-126, 1989) to examine what types of brokerage facilitate information spread between researchers and educational practitioners. Specifically, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 school administrators and staff in two public school districts regarding their experiences searching for information about instructional, health, and social skills programs. Using deductive content analysis, we found evidence of all five types of brokerage identified by Gould and Fernandez (1989). However, only three types of brokerage-gatekeepers, representatives, and liaisons-were involved in the flow of information between school administrators and researchers. Moreover, information transfer often occurred in longer chains that involved multiple, distinct types of brokerage. We conclude with the broad implications of our findings for narrowing the research-practice gap by improving researchers' dissemination efforts and practitioners' search for information.

  11. Learned-Helplessness Theory: Implications for Research in Learning Disabilities. (United States)

    Canino, Frank J.


    The application of learned helplessness theory to achievement is discussed within the context of implications for research in learning disabilities. Finally, the similarities between helpless children and learning disabled students in terms of problems solving and attention are discussed. (Author)

  12. Determinism and Underdetermination in Genetics: Implications for Students' Engagement in Argumentation and Epistemic Practices (United States)

    Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar


    In the last two decades science studies and science education research have shifted from an interest in products (of science or of learning), to an interest in processes and practices. The focus of this paper is on students' engagement in epistemic practices (Kelly in Teaching scientific inquiry: Recommendations for research and implementation. Sense Publishers, Rotterdam, pp 99-117, 2008), or on their practical epistemologies (Wickman in Sci Educ 88(3):325-344, 2004). In order to support these practices in genetics classrooms we need to take into account domain-specific features of the epistemology of genetics, in particular issues about determinism and underdetermination. I suggest that certain difficulties may be related to the specific nature of causality in genetics, and in particular to the correspondence between a given set of factors and a range of potential effects, rather than a single one. The paper seeks to bring together recent developments in the epistemology of biology and of genetics, on the one hand, with science education approaches about epistemic practices, on the other. The implications of these perspectives for current challenges in learning genetics are examined, focusing on students' engagement in epistemic practices, as argumentation, understood as using evidence to evaluate knowledge claims. Engaging in argumentation in genetics classrooms is intertwined with practices such as using genetics models to build explanations, or framing genetics issues in their social context. These challenges are illustrated with studies making part of our research program in the USC.

  13. Intellectual disability in Africa: implications for research and service development. (United States)

    McKenzie, Judith Anne; McConkey, Roy; Adnams, Colleen


    Although intellectual disability (ID) is probably the largest impairment grouping on the African continent, few indigenous research and evaluation studies have been undertaken. This article is an initial attempt to relate service delivery issues to an African research agenda. We critically analysed the available literature, drawing on academic publications and those of non-governmental agencies. In this process we identified several key issues for further investigation, namely: understanding ID in African contexts, access to education and health care, the provision of appropriate assistance and support, and income generation. We relate our analysis to the recommendations made in the World Report on Disability but with a specific focus on ID in Africa. The need for mainstreaming and prioritising ID in non-disability related and across impairment programmes is highlighted. We note the importance of families and emphasise the need to draw on informal and traditional forms of care and participation. The need for reliable research evidence to support practice is highlighted. We conclude with a call to action by and on behalf of individuals with ID to be included in the development priorities of the continent. Implications for Rehabilitation Service provision for people with intellectual disabilities in Africa is not always well served by insights obtained from western research agendas. Appropriate and effective rehabilitation requires an understanding of the context and the environment in which the disabled person operates. Indigenous research into the provision of support to families and the inclusion of persons with intellectual disability into mainstream programmes as well as disability specific provision is recommended.

  14. Integrative Mental Health (IMH): paradigm, research, and clinical practice. (United States)

    Lake, James; Helgason, Chanel; Sarris, Jerome


    This paper provides an overview of the rapidly evolving paradigm of "Integrative Mental Health (IMH)." The paradigm of contemporary biomedical psychiatry and its contrast to non-allopathic systems of medicine is initially reviewed, followed by an exploration of the emerging paradigm of IMH, which aims to reconcile the bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model with evidence-based methods from traditional healing practices. IMH is rapidly transforming conventional understandings of mental illness and has significant positive implications for the day-to-day practice of mental health care. IMH incorporates mainstream interventions such as pharmacologic treatments, psychotherapy, and psychosocial interventions, as well as alternative therapies such as acupuncture, herbal and nutritional medicine, dietary modification, meditation, etc. Two recent international conferences in Europe and the United States show that interest in integrative mental health care is growing rapidly. In response, the International Network of Integrative Mental Health (INIMH: was established in 2010 with the objective of creating an international network of clinicians, researchers, and public health advocates to advance a global agenda for research, education, and clinical practice of evidence-based integrative mental health care. The paper concludes with a discussion of emerging opportunities for research in IMH, and an exploration of potential clinical applications of integrative mental health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Community science, philosophy of science, and the practice of research. (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer


    Embedded in community science are implicit theories on the nature of reality (ontology), the justification of knowledge claims (epistemology), and how knowledge is constructed (methodology). These implicit theories influence the conceptualization and practice of research, and open up or constrain its possibilities. The purpose of this paper is to make some of these theories explicit, trace their intellectual history, and propose a shift in the way research in the social and behavioral sciences, and community science in particular, is conceptualized and practiced. After describing the influence and decline of logical empiricism, the underlying philosophical framework for science for the past century, I summarize contemporary views in the philosophy of science that are alternatives to logical empiricism. These include contextualism, normative naturalism, and scientific realism, and propose that a modified version of contextualism, known as perspectivism, affords the philosophical framework for an emerging community science. I then discuss the implications of perspectivism for community science in the form of four propositions to guide the practice of research.

  16. General practice registrars' intentions for future practice: implications for rural medical workforce planning. (United States)

    Harding, Catherine; Seal, Alexa; McGirr, Joe; Caton, Tim


    The models of practice that general practice registrars (GPRs) envisage undertaking will affect workforce supply. The aim of this research was to determine practice intentions of current GPRs in a regional general practice training program (Coast City Country General Practice Training). Questionnaires were circulated to 220 GPRs undertaking general practice placements to determine characteristics of ideal practice models and intentions for future practice. Responses were received for 99 participants (45%). Current GPRs intend to work an average of less than eight half-day sessions/week, with male participants intending to work more hours (t(91)=3.528, P=0.001). More than one-third of this regional cohort intends to practice in metropolitan centres. Proximity to family and friends was the most important factor influencing the choice of practice location. Men ranked remuneration for work as more important (t (88)=-4.280, Pmedical graduates intend to own their own practice compared with 52% of international medical graduates (χ 2 (1)=8.498, P=0.004). Future general practitioners (GPs) intend to work fewer hours than current GPs. Assumptions about lifestyle factors, practice models and possible professional roles should be carefully evaluated when developing strategies to recruit GPs and GPRs into rural practice.

  17. A Bicultural Researcher's Reflections on Ethical Research Practices With Muslim Immigrant Women: Merging Boundaries and Challenging Binaries. (United States)

    Salma, Jordana; Ogilvie, Linda; Keating, Norah; Hunter, Kathleen F

    Bicultural researchers are well positioned to identify tensions, disrupt binaries of positions, and reconcile differences across cultural contexts to ensure ethical research practices. This article focuses on a bicultural researcher's experiences of ethically important moments in research activities with Muslim immigrant women. Three ethical principles of respect, justice, and concern for welfare are highlighted, revealing the implications of binary constructions of identity, the value of situated knowledge in creating ethical research practices, and the need to recognize agency as a counterforce to oppressive narratives about Muslim women.

  18. Research and Practical Trends in Geospatial Sciences (United States)

    Karpik, A. P.; Musikhin, I. A.


    In recent years professional societies have been undergoing fundamental restructuring brought on by extensive technological change and rapid evolution of geospatial science. Almost all professional communities have been affected. Communities are embracing digital techniques, modern equipment, software and new technological solutions at a staggering pace. In this situation, when planning financial investments and intellectual resource management, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of those trends that will be in great demand in 3-7 years. This paper reviews current scientific and practical activities of such non-governmental international organizations as International Federation of Surveyors, International Cartographic Association, and International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, analyzes and groups most relevant topics brought up at their scientific events, forecasts most probable research and practical trends in geospatial sciences, outlines topmost leading countries and emerging markets for further detailed analysis of their activities, types of scientific cooperation and joint implementation projects.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Karpik


    Full Text Available In recent years professional societies have been undergoing fundamental restructuring brought on by extensive technological change and rapid evolution of geospatial science. Almost all professional communities have been affected. Communities are embracing digital techniques, modern equipment, software and new technological solutions at a staggering pace. In this situation, when planning financial investments and intellectual resource management, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of those trends that will be in great demand in 3-7 years. This paper reviews current scientific and practical activities of such non-governmental international organizations as International Federation of Surveyors, International Cartographic Association, and International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, analyzes and groups most relevant topics brought up at their scientific events, forecasts most probable research and practical trends in geospatial sciences, outlines topmost leading countries and emerging markets for further detailed analysis of their activities, types of scientific cooperation and joint implementation projects.

  20. The JIDA conference: Teaching practice as research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Bardí-Milà


    Full Text Available The Workshop on Educational Innovation in Architecture (JIDA promotes reflection and debate among the faculty of the different schools of architecture. The communications presented in the five editions held so far (2013-2017 can be considered a “living archive” of the teaching practices of more than thirty Spanish and twenty foreign universities. This material is extremely helpful for improving the education of architects and to lay the foundations for research into the instructional scenario in this discipline. With this purpose in mind, work is being done on a constellation of terms related to pedagogical practices, which is intended to conceptualize the diversity of strategies and methodologies presented these years at the conference. This sample of teaching experiences is a base upon which to consider the current situation of schools of architecture and to ask ourselves: what will training be like for architects 20 years from now?

  1. Foundations of intervention research in instrumental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lunde Hatfield


    Full Text Available The goals of the present study are to evaluate, implement, and adapt psychological skills used in the realm of sports into music performance. This research project also aims to build foundations on how to implement future interventions to guide music students on how to optimize practice toward performance. A two-month psychological skills intervention was provided to two students from the national music academy’s bachelor program in music performance to better understand how to adapt and construct psychological skills training programs for performing music students. The program evaluated multiple intervention tools including the use of questionnaires, performance profiling, iPads, electronic practice logs, recording the perceived value of individual and combined work, as well as the effectiveness of different communication forms. Perceived effects of the intervention were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations, and logs.

  2. Policy Implications of Air Quality Research (United States)

    Sheinbaum, C.


    While an integrated assessment approach will be required to achieve and sustain improvements in the air quality of Mexico City Metropolitan Area's (MCMA), policy strategies must be based on a solid understanding of the pollutant emissions and atmospheric processes that lead to unacceptable levels of air pollution. The required level of understanding can only be achieved by comprehensive atmospheric measurements followed by a coordinated atmospheric modeling program. The innovative, two-phase atmospheric measurement program, which was a collaborative effort between Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Mexican Metropolitan Environmental Commission, with exploratory measurements in February 2002 and extensive measurements from late March through early May of 2003, was an important step towards meeting these requirements. Although the extensive data sets from the two measurement programs are still being analyzed by the investigators, their preliminary analysis efforts have yielded important insights into the nature and extent of air pollution problem in the MCMA, which in turn will have important policy implications.

  3. Brain Research: Implications to Diverse Learners (United States)

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Motz, LaMoine L.


    This article deals with brain research. It discusses how a growing understanding of the way the brain functions offers new insights into the minds of students at all stages of development. Brain-based research deals with classroom-relevant concerns, such as sensory perception, attention, memory, and how emotions affect learning. The goals for…

  4. Women's self-perception and self-care practice: implications for health care delivery. (United States)

    Mendias, E P; Clark, M C; Guevara, E B


    Mexican American women experience unique health care needs related to integration of Mexican and American cultures. To learn how to better promote self-care practices and service utilization in women of Mexican origin living in Texas, researchers used a qualitative approach to interview a convenience sample of 11 low-income women attending a health clinic. Researchers collected narrative data about the women's perceptions of health, wellness, and self-care. Using the matrix approach described by Miles and Huberman, we organized findings around women's roles, including participants' descriptions of themselves, their health and wellness awareness, self-care practices for health/illness and wellness/nonwellness, barriers to self-care, origin of self-care practices, and perceptions of life control. Implications for health planning and service delivery are presented.

  5. Open Research Data: From Vision to Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Pampel, Heinz


    “To make progress in science, we need to be open and share.” This quote from Neelie Kroes (2012), vice president of the European Commission describes the growing public demand for an Open Science. Part of Open Science is, next to Open Access to peer-reviewed publications, the Open Access to research data, the basis of scholarly knowledge. The opportunities and challenges of Data Sharing are discussed widely in the scholarly sector. The cultures of Data Sharing differ within the scholarly disciplines. Well advanced are for example disciplines like biomedicine and earth sciences. Today, more and more funding agencies require a proper Research Data Management and the possibility of data re-use. Many researchers often see the potential of Data Sharing, but they act cautiously. This situation shows a clear ambivalence between the demand for Data Sharing and the current practice of Data Sharing. Starting from a baseline study on current discussions, practices and developments the article describe the challenges...

  6. Moving research tools into practice: the successes and challenges in promoting uptake of classification tools. (United States)

    Cunningham, Barbara Jane; Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Thomas-Stonell, Nancy; Rosenbaum, Peter


    In this paper, we present our experiences - both successes and challenges - in implementing evidence-based classification tools into clinical practice. We also make recommendations for others wanting to promote the uptake and application of new research-based assessment tools. We first describe classification systems and the benefits of using them in both research and practice. We then present a theoretical framework from Implementation Science to report strategies we have used to implement two research-based classification tools into practice. We also illustrate some of the challenges we have encountered by reporting results from an online survey investigating 58 Speech-language Pathologists' knowledge and use of the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), a new tool to classify children's functional communication skills. We offer recommendations for researchers wanting to promote the uptake of new tools in clinical practice. Specifically, we identify structural, organizational, innovation, practitioner, and patient-related factors that we recommend researchers address in the design of implementation interventions. Roles and responsibilities of both researchers and clinicians in making implementations science a success are presented. Implications for rehabilitation Promoting uptake of new and evidence-based tools into clinical practice is challenging. Implementation science can help researchers to close the knowledge-to-practice gap. Using concrete examples, we discuss our experiences in implementing evidence-based classification tools into practice within a theoretical framework. Recommendations are provided for researchers wanting to implement new tools in clinical practice. Implications for researchers and clinicians are presented.

  7. Improving statistical reasoning theoretical models and practical implications

    CERN Document Server

    Sedlmeier, Peter


    This book focuses on how statistical reasoning works and on training programs that can exploit people''s natural cognitive capabilities to improve their statistical reasoning. Training programs that take into account findings from evolutionary psychology and instructional theory are shown to have substantially larger effects that are more stable over time than previous training regimens. The theoretical implications are traced in a neural network model of human performance on statistical reasoning problems. This book apppeals to judgment and decision making researchers and other cognitive scientists, as well as to teachers of statistics and probabilistic reasoning.

  8. Rethinking the Concept of Acculturation: Implications for Theory and Research (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Szapocznik, Jose


    This article presents an expanded model of acculturation among international migrants and their immediate descendants. Acculturation is proposed as a multidimensional process consisting of the confluence among heritage-cultural and receiving-cultural practices, values, and identifications. The implications of this reconceptualization for the…

  9. SASPREN - a new development in family practice research in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    headaches, fatigue, hypertension, anxiety, depression, respiratory ... research on the impact of psychological, economic, social and cultural factors ... Family practice research networks. Obstacles to research in family practice are well known.

  10. The research-practice relationship in ergonomics and human factors--surveying and bridging the gap. (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Shorrock, Steven T


    Significant discord has been aired regarding the widening research-practice gap in several disciplines (e.g. psychology, healthcare), especially with reference to research published in academic journals. The research-practice gap has profound and wide-ranging implications for the adequacy of ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) research and the implementation of research findings into practice. However, no substantive research on this issue has been identified in E/HF. Using an online questionnaire, practitioners were asked about their application of scientific research findings published in peer-reviewed journals and to suggest ways to improve research application in practice. A total of 587 usable responses were collected, spanning 46 countries. This article describes some of the key differences and correlations concerning reading, usefulness and barriers to application among respondents, who varied in terms of organisational type, percentage of work time devoted to application vs. research, society membership and experience. Various solutions proposed by the survey respondents on ways to bridge the research-practice gap are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between research and practice in E/HF has long been a subject of discussion, with commentators pointing to tension and possible implications for the adequacy of the discipline. Findings from a cross-sectional survey provide ergonomics practitioners' views on research, leading to discussion of strategies for achieving better integration.

  11. Prakriti-based research: Good reporting practices. (United States)

    Bhalerao, Supriya; Patwardhan, Kishor


    The recent advances in the fields of genomics, personalized medicine, and Ayurveda have motivated many researchers to look at the relationship between Prakriti (phenotype-based Ayurveda constitution) and various objective biological parameters. As a result, a number of studies reporting such a relationship have made their way into mainstream scholarly journals. However, when it comes to the protocols that these workers follow to identify one's Prakriti, there are several issues that are yet to be resolved. In this communication, we propose a few reporting practices that such workers are required to be encouraged to follow, while submitting their work on Prakriti to scholarly journals. We have arranged this proposal under the following domains that may serve as a preliminary checklist in this context: The textual references, validation process, assessment of characters, scoring pattern, weightage assignment, criterion for expressing the final Prakriti type, and a need to publish the complete Prakriti-determination tool. We advocate that only if the workers in the field adhere to these good reporting practices, one will be able to draw meaningful, generalizable, and applicable interpretations out of such studies. We also suggest that the editors of relevant scholarly journals may recommend these reporting practices while considering such reports for publication. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. On the Assessment of Paramedic Competence: A Narrative Review with Practice Implications. (United States)

    Tavares, W; Boet, S


    Paramedicine is experiencing significant growth in scope of practice, autonomy, and role in the health care system. Despite clinical governance models, the degree to which paramedicine ultimately can be safe and effective will be dependent on the individuals the profession deems suited to practice. This creates an imperative for those responsible for these decisions to ensure that assessments of paramedic competence are indeed accurate, trustworthy, and defensible. The purpose of this study was to explore and synthesize relevant theoretical foundations and literature informing best practices in performance-based assessment (PBA) of competence, as it might be applied to paramedicine, for design or evaluation of assessment programs. A narrative review methodology was applied to focus intentionally, but broadly, on purpose relevant, theoretically derived research that could inform assessment protocols in paramedicine. Primary and secondary studies from a number of health professions that contributed to and informed best practices related to the assessment of paramedic clinical competence were included and synthesized. Multiple conceptual frameworks, psychometric requirements, and emerging lines of research are forwarded. Seventeen practice implications are derived to promote understanding as well as best practices and evaluation criteria for educators, employers, and/or licensing/certifying bodies when considering the assessment of paramedic competence. The assessment of paramedic competence is a complex process requiring an understanding, appreciation for, and integration of conceptual and psychometric principles. The field of PBA is advancing rapidly with numerous opportunities for research.




  14. The Changing Research Context: Implications for Leadership (United States)

    Billot, Jennie


    Within the changing tertiary environment, research activity and performance are coming under greater pressure and scrutiny. External policy and funding directives are resulting in revised institutional objectives, requiring variations to organisational structures and processes. These changes have an impact on the relationship between the…

  15. Policy Implications of Research on School Time. (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin


    The allocation and use of time are considered important in the context of learning because time can be manipulated, measured, and applied to the design of instructional programs. After a clarification of terminology, an overview of current research on time is offered and policy recommendations discussed. (MJL)

  16. Leadership in research across academia and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McRae


    Full Text Available Transcript of a keynote address delivered by John McRae at the 2009 ARCC Architectural Research Conference at the University of Texas San Antonio.I value very much the award and I certainly have truly enjoyed the time and the meeting these couple of days has been extremely stimulating. We were talking several of us ahead of time about the rigor and the intensity with which the programs are being presentedin each of the meetings. We really, I think, have the group here that’s going to be serving us well for thefuture.I want to also say today, in expressing my appreciation for this award, that the list of past awardees is stellarand includes several colleagues and personal friends towhom I owe a debt in my professional development and am grateful for the opportunity to address the conference and hope that my remarks with be of even a small benefit to our collective efforts to strengthen research across academia and practice. I started my career in both academia and practice in 1967, little more than the 30 years you were so gracious to give me, in Gainesville and at the University of Florida. Over this span of the last 42 years I have sought to develop my own research and creative work agenda and, through administrative roles, have made an effort to foster the research of colleagues when I could. So what was it like in the late 60’s and early70’s? Some of you may recall. In the interest of full disclosure, I have included a few images of my research work during my early years as a faculty member at the University of Florida. And so, here is another shot of our research team. Some of you may remember the Chicago 7. This is the rainbow 9 and, in fact, aside from myself, whom you will recognize, there are several other people there who are today in positions helping to lead this nation. That is kind of hard to imagine but there they are.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Milošević


    Full Text Available Theories of learning which are classified in two broad schools as theories of connections and cognitive theories, differ among themselves according to specific interaction relationships between external stimulus (S, reaction and behavior and organism (R, i.e. particular learner (O. In relation to pedagogical practices, predominance of a certain school is not rare, often without any objective insight into their potentials related to age, sex, learning contents and other determinants. Supporters of the theories of connections treat behavior as a result of relations or associations, whereas learning occurs when these relations are strengthened by repetition or when new relations are formed. These theories are usually classified as theories of stimulus-reaction (S-R, whereas associating in this sense is used to stress the concept most theories usually agree upon: that learning consists of relations and link between stimuli (S-S, between stimuli and reactions (S-R, or between reaction and impulse (R-P. Well-known approaches within the theories of relations include classical Pavlov reflex, Guthry’s close conditioning, associating of Thorndyke, and Skinner’s efficient conditioning. Practical implications of these theories in acquiring motor skills are related to an active learner’s approach, significance of repetition – exercising, supporting, and rewarding correct answers, as well as strengthening a new behavior by imitation of a sample – modeling.

  18. Researching Lean: Methodological Implications of Loose Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Brännmark


    Full Text Available Recently, Lean Production (Lean has become a prevailing management concept in Sweden. However, previous research seems to show that the Lean concept and the impact of Lean vary considerably between organizations. This paper illustrates some key methodological issues that need to be considered when researching loosely defined management concepts such as Lean. The paper is based on a review of the literature and five comparative Swedish cases studies. Our study indicates that Lean has changed over time and that operationalization and interpretations of the concept vary considerably. This study concludes that future Lean studies should include a thorough assessment of the Lean interventions, study settings, and in particular non-Lean factors mediating the outcomes of Lean-inspired change programs.

  19. Muscle dysmorphia: methodological issues, implications for research. (United States)

    Suffolk, Mark T; Dovey, Terence M; Goodwin, Huw; Meyer, Caroline


    Muscle dysmorphia is a male-dominated, body image-related psychological condition. Despite continued investigation, contention surrounds the nosological status of this disorder. The aim of this article was to review the literature on muscle dysmorphia to provide a qualitative account of methodological issues that may inhibit our understanding. Key areas relating to non-standardized participant groups, measuring instruments, and terminology were identified as potentially inhibiting symptom coherence and diagnostic reliability. New measuring instruments validated with clinical samples and carefully described participant groups, standardized terminology, and a greater emphasis on prospective longitudinal research with specific sub groups of the weight training community would be of interest to the field.

  20. Practicalization strategic research of FBR cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Practicalization strategic research of FBR cycle consists of two phases such as phase I (FY 1999-2000) and phase II (to FY 2005). In every phase, research and development plants and results are checked and reviewed. The assessment indexes are five development objects such as safety, economical efficiency, resource effective utilization, environmental load decrease and nuclear non-proliferation and technical realization, too. Reactor core, FBR plant system and fuel cycle system are investigated. We selected the research subjects of cooling materials as sodium, heavy metals (lead and lead bismuth alloy), gas (carbon dioxide and helium) and water (boiling water, power water and supercritical pressure water) and fuel types as cladding tube fuel (oxide, nitride and metal) and coated fuel particle (oxide and nitride) for helium gas cooling reactor. In FY1999, the good reactor core and FBR plant system for every cooling materials are studied. Two reprocessing (a wet reprocessing using aqueous solution and a dry method) were selected. In FY 2000, we will investigate effects of throughput, plant concept and cost and evaluate achievement of development objects and then decide the development plan. (S.Y.)

  1. Elder self-neglect: research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong XQ


    Full Text Available XinQi Dong Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Elder self-neglect is a global public health and human rights issue that threatens older people’s health and safety. It commonly refers to refusal or failure to provide oneself with care and protection in areas of food, water, clothing, hygiene, medication, living environments, and safety precautions. While prevalent, the status of self-neglecting individuals remains largely unclear, in particular within community-dwelling populations. By reviewing the epidemiology of elder self-neglect (definition, prevalence, risk factors, and consequences to date, the present paper identifies key research gaps such as methodological inconsistency in case identification and measurement, and study designs that are inadequate to determine risk factors of self-neglect. More importantly, in light of the rapidly growing older population, relevant stakeholders (researchers, healthcare providers, social service providers, legal professionals, community organizations, and policymakers must be prepared for an expected increasing number of self-neglect cases and enlarging scope of the problem. Hence, in this article, I present an overview regarding the management issues of elderly self-neglect related to the detection, assessment, reporting and referral, and decision-making capacity. Based on the current literature, the paper is aimed to explore the present knowledge and challenges, and how they can pave the way for solutions to self-neglect research, practice, and policy. Keywords: elderly self-neglect, elder abuse, self-neglect future directions 

  2. Practice-based Research Network Research Good Practices (PRGPs): Summary of Recommendations. (United States)

    Dolor, Rowena J; Campbell-Voytal, Kimberly; Daly, Jeanette; Nagykaldi, Zsolt J; O'Beirne, Maeve; Sterling, Pamela; Fagnan, Lyle J; Levy, Barcey; Michaels, LeAnn; Louks, Hannah A; Smith, Paul; Aspy, Cheryl B; Patterson, V Beth; Kano, Miria; Sussman, Andrew L; Williams, Robert; Neale, Anne Victoria


    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) conduct research in community settings, which poses quality control challenges to the integrity of research, such as study implementation and data collection. A foundation for improving research processes within PBRNs is needed to ensure research integrity. Network directors and coordinators from seven U.S.-based PBRNs worked with a professional team facilitator during semiannual in-person meetings and monthly conference calls to produce content for a compendium of recommended research practices specific to the context of PBRNs. Participants were assigned to contribute content congruent with their expertise. Feedback on the draft document was obtained from attendees at the preconference workshop at the annual PBRN meeting in 2013. A revised document was circulated to additional PBRN peers prior to finalization. The PBRN Research Good Practices (PRGPs) document is organized into four chapters: (1) Building PBRN Infrastructure; (2) Study Development and Implementation; (3) Data Management, and (4) Dissemination Policies. Each chapter contains an introduction, detailed procedures for each section, and example resources with information links. The PRGPs is a PBRN-specific resource to facilitate PBRN management and staff training, to promote adherence to study protocols, and to increase validity and generalizability of study findings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Recent Changes in Humanistic Research Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Vikman, Jutta Maria; Liljenstrøm, Andreas Jan


    -authors and supervisors but also the theoretical sources, data types and analytical methods/techniques used. We show that, while the share of article-based dissertations (as opposed to monographs) is relatively stable, the share of English dissertations grows from around 18 percent in the beginning of the period...... and analytical methods/techniques such as qualitative interviews, participant observation, categorized coding and statistical analysis. With respect to theoretical sources, many humanistic PhD dissertations also converge with the social sciences. We discuss these findings in the light of the situation......The present paper analyzes changes in research practices in the humanities around the turn of the millennium. The analysis is based on a reading of all humanistic PhD dissertations in Denmark between 1992 and 2012 (N=1,958). For every dissertation we recorded not only language, format, co...

  4. Reflecting on reflection in interprofessional education: implications for theory and practice. (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G


    Interprofessional education (IPE) involves learning, and learning requires reflection. Educators need to "reflect more on reflection" if they are to be effective teachers in ensuring the learning outcomes essential for teamwork and interprofessional practice (IPP), including incorporating both theory and practice into the development of educational interventions. First, this discussion surveys the IPE-relevant literature on reflection, and then defines and refines the multidimensional concept of reflection as it relates to IPE in developing and implementing teamwork learning programs and experiences. Second, specific methods to promote reflection are presented and explored, including self-assessments, journaling, and written papers. Actual samples from student journals and assignments provide examples of the impacts of using these methods on participant reflection and learning. Finally, implications for an expanded understanding and application of reflection for IPE will be discussed, and recommendations made for educational practice and research in this area.

  5. Bridging the Research-Practice Gap: Research Translation and/or Research Transformation (United States)

    Hirschkorn, Mark; Geelan, David


    The issue of the "research-practice gap"--the problematic relationship between research in education and educational practice--has been widely reported in the literature. This critical literature review explores some of the causes and features of the gap and suggests some possible approaches for addressing it. These solutions involve changes in…

  6. Business development - the function, research propositions, and managerial implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe

    and executives from high-tech firms and venture capitalists in North America, Asia, and Europe to provide a foundation for future research. Business development is an emerging staff function providing an added level of sophistication to the firms' overall strategic management with interesting performance...... implications. The business development function is typically found in progressive firms especially within high-tech industries, but is argued to become critical for all types of firms across industries wishing to grow and accumulate wealth. Research propositions and managerial implications are discussed....

  7. Miscommunication between patients and general practitioners: implications for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan S


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Effective communication is integral to the general practice consultation, yet it is acknowledged that problems commonly occur. Previous research has shown that misunderstandings with potentially significant consequences occur frequently, but does not provide a clear picture of how and why miscommunication occurs, or how such problems can be prevented or resolved. This study explored the occurrence and management of specific examples of miscommunication in two routine general practice consultations. METHODS: A multi-method case study approach was used. The primary data collected for each case included a video-recorded consultation and post-consultation interviews with each general practitioner (GP and patient. Instances of communication mismatch were examined using in-depth interaction analysis techniques. FINDINGS: GPs and patients may not be aware when misunderstandings have occurred. In-depth analysis of the case studies revealed the complexity of miscommunication: it was not a straightforward matter to locate when or why instances of communication mismatch had occurred, and each of the mismatches was quite distinctive: (1 they were identified in different ways; (2 they occurred at different points in the communication process; (3 they arose because of problems occurring at different levels of the communication, and (4 they had different consequences. CONCLUSION: Given the frequency and complexity of miscommunication in general practice consultations, GPs need to consider adopting various strategies, at both the practice/systems level and the level of the consultation interaction to minimise the risk of communication problems.

  8. Implications of the law on video recording in clinical practice. (United States)

    Henken, Kirsten R; Jansen, Frank Willem; Klein, Jan; Stassen, Laurents P S; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J


    Technological developments allow for a variety of applications of video recording in health care, including endoscopic procedures. Although the value of video registration is recognized, medicolegal concerns regarding the privacy of patients and professionals are growing. A clear understanding of the legal framework is lacking. Therefore, this research aims to provide insight into the juridical position of patients and professionals regarding video recording in health care practice. Jurisprudence was searched to exemplify legislation on video recording in health care. In addition, legislation was translated for different applications of video in health care found in the literature. Three principles in Western law are relevant for video recording in health care practice: (1) regulations on privacy regarding personal data, which apply to the gathering and processing of video data in health care settings; (2) the patient record, in which video data can be stored; and (3) professional secrecy, which protects the privacy of patients including video data. Practical implementation of these principles in video recording in health care does not exist. Practical regulations on video recording in health care for different specifically defined purposes are needed. Innovations in video capture technology that enable video data to be made anonymous automatically can contribute to protection for the privacy of all the people involved.

  9. Understanding implementation in complex public organizations – implication for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Cecilie Høiland


    Full Text Available The effective implementation of politically initiated public service innovations to the front-lines of the public service organization, where the innovation is to be applied, is a challenge that both practitioners and researchers struggle to solve. We highlight the importance of analysing contextual factors at several levels of the implementation system, as well as the importance of considering how the practical everyday work situations of the front-line workers influence their application of the innovation in question. We illustrate this by exploring the implementation process of a specific work inclusion measure, looking at its wider context and some of its implementation outcomes at a specific public agency. The intention is to illustrate the significance of considering the contextual complexity influencing implementation work as a reminder for practitioners to take this into account in their planning and practices.

  10. Practical implications of pre-employment nurse assessments. (United States)

    Kuthy, James E; Ramon, Cheree; Gonzalez, Ronald; Biddle, Dan A


    Hiring nurses is a difficult task that can have serious repercussions for medical facilities. If nurses without proper skills are hired, patients can suffer from insufficient quality of care and potentially life-threatening conditions. Nurse applicants' technical knowledge is extremely important to avoid negative outcomes; however, there are soft skills that factor into their success, such as bedside manner, personality, communication, and decision making. In order for medical facilities to select and maintain high-performing nurse staff, hiring managers must incorporate evaluations for these types of skills in their hiring process. The current study focused on using content/criterion-related validation design to create assessments by which nurse applicants can be evaluated for both technical knowledge/skills and soft skills. The study included participation of more than 876 nursing staff members. To rank applicants on divergent skills, 3 assessment types were investigated, resulting in the creation of an assessment with 3 components. The clinical, situational, and behavioral components that were created measure applicants' job knowledge, interpersonal competency in medical facility-related situations, and aspects of personality and behavior, respectively. Results indicate that using the assessment can predict 45% of a nurse applicant's future job performance. Practical implications include hiring and maintaining a higher quality of nurses and decreased hiring costs.

  11. Exploring Practice-Research Networks for Critical Professional Learning (United States)

    Appleby, Yvon; Hillier, Yvonne


    This paper discusses the contribution that practice-research networks can make to support critical professional development in the Learning and Skills sector in England. By practice-research networks we mean groups or networks which maintain a connection between research and professional practice. These networks stem from the philosophy of…

  12. Current Research on Adolescence and its Program Implications. (United States)

    Cvetkovich, George; Grote, Barbara

    This paper discusses program implications of research on adolescents. A brief historical review of teenage sexuality is presented in order to put current information in perspective. The present increase in teenage fertility is seen as part of a larger epidemic failure of socialization. A number of recent studies are reviewed and synthesized,…

  13. Florence Nightingale, Statistician: Implications for Teachers of Educational Research. (United States)

    Rice, Marti H.; Stallings, William M.

    This paper presents an overview of Florence Nightingale's statistical background and accomplishments; discusses Victorian statistics, Nightingale's education and statistical contributions; and concludes with implications for professors and students of educational research. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), the first woman elected as a fellow of…

  14. Perspectives on academic misconduct: implications for education and practice. (United States)

    Klainberg, Marilyn B; McCrink, Andrea; Eckardt, Patricia; Schecter, Rose; Bongiorno, Anne; Sedhom, Laila


    From Harvard to high school, concern related to academic misconduct, specifically cheating and its impact on societal issues, has become a great concern for educational communities. While a significant number of studies on ethical behaviors in practice in other professions such as business have been published, little research exists on registered nurses in practice. Even fewer studies have, for registered nurses, addressed if there is an association between perceived academic misconduct as students and perceived unethical behaviors in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceptions of registered professional nurses' (RNs) current workplace behaviors and the RNs' retrospective perceptions of their academic misconduct as students. A convenience sample of 1 66 RNs enrolled in master's degree programs at four university schools of nursing completed questionnaires regarding their beliefs and behaviors. The outcome of this study was significant. Results revealed a strong relationship between unethical behaviors of the RN in practice and their prior academic misconduct when they were students.

  15. Nursing research ethics, guidance and application in practice. (United States)

    Doody, Owen; Noonan, Maria


    Ethics is fundamental to good research practice and the protection of society. From a historical point of view, research ethics has had a chequered past and without due cognisance there is always the potential for research to do harm. Research ethics is fundamental to research practice, nurse education and the development of evidence. In conducting research, it is important to plan for and anticipate any potential or actual risks. To engage in research, researchers need to develop an understanding and knowledge of research ethics and carefully plan how to address ethics within their research. This article aims to enhance students' and novice researchers' research ethics understanding and its application to nursing research.

  16. General practices as emergent research organizations: a qualitative study into organizational development. (United States)

    Macfarlane, Fraser; Shaw, Sara; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Carter, Yvonne H


    An increasing proportion of research in primary care is locally undertaken in designated research practices. Capacity building to support high quality research at these grass roots is urgently needed and is a government priority. There is little previously published research on the process by which GP practices develop as research organizations or on their specific support needs at organizational level. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with 28 key informants in 11 research practices across the UK, we explored their historical accounts of the development of research activity. We analysed the data with reference to contemporary theories of organizational development. Participants identified a number of key events and processes, which allowed us to produce a five-phase model of practice development in relation to research activity (creative energy, concrete planning, transformation/differentiation, consolidation and collaboration). Movement between these phases was not linear or continuous, but showed emergent and adaptive properties in which specific triggers and set-backs were often critical. This developmental model challenges previous categorical taxonomies of research practices. It forms a theory-driven framework for providing appropriate support at the grass roots of primary care research, based on the practice's phase of development and the nature of external triggers and potential setbacks. Our findings have important implications for the strategic development of practice-based research in the UK, and could serve as a model for the wider international community.

  17. The Potential of Threshold Concepts: An Emerging Framework for Educational Research and Practice (United States)

    Lucas, Ursula; Mladenovic, Rosina


    This paper explores the notion of a "threshold concept" and discusses its possible implications for higher education research and practice. Using the case of introductory accounting as an illustration, it is argued that the idea of a threshold concept provides an emerging theoretical framework for a "re-view" of educational…

  18. Gender Issues in Action Research: Implications for Adult Education (United States)

    Heiskanen, Tuula


    Gender equality is a widely recognized value. Still, on the practical level, it is not easy to achieve true gender equality. Gender has proved to be a complicated issue both for research and practice. Gender change projects trying to make changes in detected disadvantages have repeatedly run into a problem: it is difficult to put gender issues on…

  19. Implications of complex adaptive systems theory for interpreting research about health care organizations. (United States)

    Jordon, Michelle; Lanham, Holly Jordan; Anderson, Ruth A; McDaniel, Reuben R


    Data about health care organizations (HCOs) are not useful until they are interpreted. Such interpretations are influenced by the theoretical lenses used by the researcher. Our purpose was to suggest the usefulness of theories of complex adaptive systems (CASs) in guiding research interpretation. Specifically, we addressed two questions: (1) What are the implications for interpreting research observations in HCOs of the fact that we are observing relationships among diverse agents? (2) What are the implications for interpreting research observations in HCOs of the fact that we are observing relationships among agents that learn? We defined diversity and learning and the implications of the non-linear relationships among agents from a CAS perspective. We then identified some common analytical practices that were problematic and may lead to conceptual and methodological errors. Then we described strategies for interpreting the results of research observations. We suggest that the task of interpreting research observations of HCOs could be improved if researchers take into account that the systems they study are CASs with non-linear relationships among diverse, learning agents. Our analysis points out how interpretation of research results might be shaped by the fact that HCOs are CASs. We described how learning is, in fact, the result of interactions among diverse agents and that learning can, by itself, reduce or increase agent diversity. We encouraged researchers to be persistent in their attempts to reason about complex systems and learn to attend not only to structures, but also to processes and functions of complex systems.

  20. Surveying views on Payments for Ecosystem Services: implications for environmental management and research


    Waylen, KJ; Martin-Ortega, J


    The concept of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is globally of increasing interest. However, little is known about the views and expectations of professionals and practitioners expected to enable or implement this concept. Since these individuals design, select, shape and deliver environmental management, their views and expectations are critical to understanding how PES may play out in practice. Using the first survey on this topic, in the UK this research discusses the implications for...

  1. Variability of CSF Alzheimer's disease biomarkers: implications for clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J B Vos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers are increasingly being used for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of CSF intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability on diagnostic CSF-based AD classification of subjects and identified causes of this variation. METHODS: We measured CSF amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42, total tau (t-tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau by INNOTEST enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA in a memory clinic population (n = 126. Samples were measured twice in a single or two laboratories that served as reference labs for CSF analyses in the Netherlands. Predefined cut-offs were used to classify CSF biomarkers as normal or abnormal/AD pattern. RESULTS: CSF intralaboratory variability was higher for Aβ1-42 than for t-tau and p-tau. Reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification (normal vs. abnormal of 26% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 10% based on t-tau, and 29% based on p-tau. The changes in absolute biomarker concentrations were paralleled by a similar change in levels of internal control samples between different assay lots. CSF interlaboratory variability was higher for p-tau than for Aβ1-42 and t-tau, and reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification of 12% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 1% based on t-tau, and 22% based on p-tau. CONCLUSIONS: Intralaboratory and interlaboratory CSF variability frequently led to change in diagnostic CSF-based AD classification for Aβ1-42 and p-tau. Lot-to-lot variation was a major cause of intralaboratory variability. This will have implications for the use of these biomarkers in clinical practice.

  2. Observations on Citation Practices in Mathematics Education Research. Research Commentary (United States)

    Leatham, Keith R.


    The author argues that the field of mathematics education as a whole can and should improve its citation practices. He discusses 4 forms of citation practice and considers how they vary with respect to transparency of voice. He also discusses several ways that citation practices may misrepresent cited authors' ideas. He concludes with suggestions…

  3. Theory Loves Practice: A Teacher Researcher Group (United States)

    Hochtritt, Lisa; Thulson, Anne; Delaney, Rachael; Dornbush, Talya; Shay, Sarah


    Once a month, art educators from the Denver metro area have been gathering together in the spirit of inquiry to explore issues of the perceived theory and daily practice divide. The Theory Loves Practice (TLP) group was started in 2010 by Professors Rachael Delaney and Anne Thulson from Metropolitan State University of Denver (MSU) and now has 40…

  4. Hybridization of Practices in Teacher-Researcher Collaboration (United States)

    Hamza, Karim; Palm, Ola; Palmqvist, Jenny; Piqueras, Jesús; Wickman, Per-Olof


    In this paper we present experiences from a joint collaborative research project which may be described as an encounter between a school science teaching practice and a university science didactics research practice. We provide narratives which demonstrate how the encounter between these two communities of practice interacted to produce…

  5. Practice as Research: A Fine Art Contextual Study (United States)

    Adams, Suze


    This paper examines the dynamic interplay between practice and theory in practice-led research in the visual arts. Building on recent debate around the issue and following appropriately rigorous models, the importance of locating a suitable methodology to adequately reflect the integrated process of research practice in written as well as visual…

  6. Physician opportunity costs for performing practice-based research. (United States)

    Hahn, D L


    An inverse association has been documented between the magnitude of patient care responsibilities (health maintenance organization penetration) and the amount of clinical research produced by academic medical centers. The output of academic family practice research is affected by this calculus. This article presents evidence that current market-place demands to increase patient care services may have an even greater impact on nonacademic family practice clinician researchers involved in practice-based research (PBR).

  7. practice-oriented research in service of designing interventions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    but rather practice oriented, and illustrates the need for n-type research. We present ... Problem owners are not involved in main-line qualitative or quantitative research. ... not only have knowledge of the research methodology, but should also.

  8. Researchers' Incentives and the Dearth of Practical Research Results. (United States)

    Armstrong, David G.


    Educational researchers have been influenced too much by research schema derived from the assumptions of empirical researchers in the sciences. Theory building should be sacrificed for the development of research products with clearer, more concrete relevance for teachers. (JN)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Karovska Ristovska


    Full Text Available Educational policy for children with intellectual disability in Republic of Macedonia is not always consistent with the practical implications. The subject of this research was to gain an insight into the current condition of the persons with intellectual disabilities in Macedonia, before all an insight into the barriers that they are facing in their attempts to access educational information and services. This was done through conducting a qualitative (desk-top analyses of the national legislations; semi-structured interviews with parents of persons with intellectual disabilities and focus groups with relevant stakeholders and a quantitative research (quality of life research for the disabled persons. In the research a total number of 213 examinees were included. As in many other cases, and in many other countries, policy and practice are not always coherent. Legislation in the area of education in our country has to be modified and accommodated to the needs of the persons with disabilities and their parents or care-givers. The final conclusion from our research is that the persons with ID are still on the margins of society, and they lead everyday battles to prove that their needs must be taken into consideration in context of their human rights. Although awareness for the importance of the rightful treatment of this problem is not on a satisfactory level, still we can notice a shift in perception and liberation of prejudice.

  10. The Wider Implications of Business-model Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Lettl, Christopher


    Business-model research has struggled to develop a clear footprint in the strategic management field. This introduction to the special issue on the wider implications of business-model research argues that part of this struggle relates to the application of five different perspectives on the term...... “business model,” which creates ambiguity about the conceptual boundaries of business models, the applied terminology, and the potential contributions of business-model research to strategic management literature. By explicitly distinguishing among these five perspectives and by aligning them into one...... overarching, comprehensive framework, this paper offers a foundation for consolidating business-model research. Furthermore, we explore the connections between business-model research and prominent theories in strategic management. We conclude that business-model research is not necessarily a “theory on its...

  11. Process research on Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples: linking theory to practice. (United States)

    Greenman, Paul S; Johnson, Susan M


    The focus of this article is on the link among theory, process, and outcome in the practice of Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples. We describe the EFT model of change and the EFT perspective on adult love as the reflection of underlying attachment processes. We outline the manner in which theory and research inform EFT interventions. This leads into a detailed review of the literature on the processes of change in EFT. We highlight the client responses and therapist operations that have emerged from process research and their relation to treatment outcomes. We discuss the implications of this body of research for clinical practice and training. © FPI, Inc.

  12. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice. (United States)

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel


    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.

  13. Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack

    Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research Objective: To introduce, in the multi-disciplinary contexts of clinical decision making and policy formation, a theory-based decision-analytic framework for the transparent forward translation of research......-calculation with evidence-based ratings for option performance on those criteria to produce a preference-sensitive assessment or opinion. Results: The first example shows the framework connecting nursing informatics and nursing ethics in the clinical context of a nurse’s decision to disclose or not disclose information......, satisfaction, Quality of Life), organization-related (staff and work environment, internal and external communication and relationships) and economics-related (start-up costs, financial implications and externalities)). Conclusion: Web-based decision support can provide nursing with a template, technique...

  14. Psychoacoustic entropy theory and its implications for performance practice (United States)

    Strohman, Gregory J.

    This dissertation attempts to motivate, derive and imply potential uses for a generalized perceptual theory of musical harmony called psychoacoustic entropy theory. This theory treats the human auditory system as a physical system which takes acoustic measurements. As a result, the human auditory system is subject to all the appropriate uncertainties and limitations of other physical measurement systems. This is the theoretic basis for defining psychoacoustic entropy. Psychoacoustic entropy is a numerical quantity which indexes the degree to which the human auditory system perceives instantaneous disorder within a sound pressure wave. Chapter one explains the importance of harmonic analysis as a tool for performance practice. It also outlines the critical limitations for many of the most influential historical approaches to modeling harmonic stability, particularly when compared to available scientific research in psychoacoustics. Rather than analyze a musical excerpt, psychoacoustic entropy is calculated directly from sound pressure waves themselves. This frames psychoacoustic entropy theory in the most general possible terms as a theory of musical harmony, enabling it to be invoked for any perceivable sound. Chapter two provides and examines many widely accepted mathematical models of the acoustics and psychoacoustics of these sound pressure waves. Chapter three introduces entropy as a precise way of measuring perceived uncertainty in sound pressure waves. Entropy is used, in combination with the acoustic and psychoacoustic models introduced in chapter two, to motivate the mathematical formulation of psychoacoustic entropy theory. Chapter four shows how to use psychoacoustic entropy theory to analyze the certain types of musical harmonies, while chapter five applies the analytical tools developed in chapter four to two short musical excerpts to influence their interpretation. Almost every form of harmonic analysis invokes some degree of mathematical reasoning

  15. Rigor or mortis: best practices for preclinical research in neuroscience. (United States)

    Steward, Oswald; Balice-Gordon, Rita


    Numerous recent reports document a lack of reproducibility of preclinical studies, raising concerns about potential lack of rigor. Examples of lack of rigor have been extensively documented and proposals for practices to improve rigor are appearing. Here, we discuss some of the details and implications of previously proposed best practices and consider some new ones, focusing on preclinical studies relevant to human neurological and psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. STAKEHOLDER DISTRUST - Implications of Distrust Research for Stakeholder Theory


    Laude, Daniel; Weibel, Antoinette; Sachs, Sybille; Schafheitle, Simon Daniel


    Stakeholder theory has addressed the role of trust in organization-stakeholder relationships in depth. Although it is similarly relevant, distrust as a distinct construct from (low) trust has received relatively little consideration by stakeholder theorists. Thus, this article focuses on stakeholder distrust and reflects on the findings of distrust research in organizational studies and the implications for stakeholder theory. For this purpose, we conduct a systematic literature review of org...

  17. Elder Abuse: Systematic Review and Implications for Practice. (United States)

    Dong, Xin Qi


    This article is based on the lecture for the 2014 American Geriatrics Society Outstanding Scientific Achievement for Clinical Investigation Award. Elder abuse is a global public health and human rights problem. Evidence suggests that elder abuse is prevalent, predictable, costly, and sometimes fatal. This review will highlight the global epidemiology of elder abuse in terms of its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences in community populations. The global literature in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, BIOSIS, Science Direct, and Cochrane Central was searched. Search terms included elder abuse, elder mistreatment, elder maltreatment, prevalence, incidence, risk factors, protective factors, outcomes, and consequences. Studies that existed only as abstracts, case series, or case reports or recruited individuals younger than 60; qualitative studies; and non-English publications were excluded. Tables and figures were created to highlight the findings: the most-detailed analyses to date of the prevalence of elder abuse according to continent, risk and protective factors, graphic presentation of odds ratios and confidence intervals for major risk factors, consequences, and practical suggestions for health professionals in addressing elder abuse. Elder abuse is common in community-dwelling older adults, especially minority older adults. This review identifies important knowledge gaps, such as a lack of consistency in definitions of elder abuse; insufficient research with regard to screening; and etiological, intervention, and prevention research. Concerted efforts from researchers, community organizations, healthcare and legal professionals, social service providers, and policy-makers should be promoted to address the global problem of elder abuse. © 2015, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Implementation as transfer between policy, research and practice in care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Niet, A. van der


    Background: Health Services Research is policy related and results have an impact on practices. Implementation of research output into practices is performed with a variety of strategies. Type of policy intentions and research output create a specific context for implementation. The main question

  19. Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: Implementation Science (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Prelock, Patricia A.


    Purpose: This article introduces implementation science, which focuses on research methods that promote the systematic application of research findings to practice. Method: The narrative defines implementation science and highlights the importance of moving research along the pipeline from basic science to practice as one way to facilitate…

  20. Education(al) Research, Educational Policy-Making and Practice (United States)

    Clark, Charles


    Professor Whitty has endorsed the consensus that research into education is empirical social science, distinguishing "educational research" which seeks directly to influence practice, and "education research" that has substantive value but no necessary practical application. The status of the science here is problematic. The positivist approach is…

  1. Patient acceptability and practical implications of pharmacokinetic studies in patients with advanced cancer. (United States)

    Dobbs, N A; Twelves, C J; Ramirez, A J; Towlson, K E; Gregory, W M; Richards, M A


    We have studied the practical implications and acceptability to patients of pharmacokinetic studies in 34 women receiving anthracyclines for advanced breast cancer. The following parameters were recorded: age, ECOG performance status, psychological state (Rotterdam Symptom Checklist), cytotoxic drug and dose, number of venepunctures for treatment and sampling, and time when the sampling cannula was removed. Immediately after finishing pharmacokinetic sampling, patients completed a questionnaire which revealed that (i) all patients understood sampling was for research, (ii) 35% of patients experienced problems with sampling, (iii) benefits from participation were perceived by 56% of patients. Of 20 patients later questioned after completion of their treatment course, 40% recalled difficulties with blood sampling. Factors identifying in advance those patients who tolerate pharmacokinetic studies poorly were not identified but the number of venepunctures should be minimised. Patients may also perceive benefits from 'non-therapeutic' research.

  2. Male Contraception: Research, New Methods, and Implications for Marginalized Populations. (United States)

    Plana, Olivia


    The majority of research on contraception has focused on manipulating the female reproductive system. Recent studies have identified novel contraceptives for males, including hormonal- and nonhormonal-based therapeutics. Although these new contraceptives are still undergoing clinical trials, their development and potential future use in society necessitate serious consideration of their implications for reproductive health. Through my analysis of the research conducted on male contraception over time and the current therapeutics available, it is clear that male contraception has the potential to shift societal gender dynamics and provide males with greater control over their own reproduction. This article also identifies the implications of these novel contraceptives for marginalized populations, especially men of color and men of lower socioeconomic positions. To overcome barriers to contraception among these populations, public policy efforts are needed in order to motivate the development of programs that facilitate coverage of these new male contraceptives by health plans and to increase their availability to underserved communities. Health care providers will be responsible for educating patients about these novel male contraception options and the need to continue using existing methods (e.g., condoms) in order to prevent sexually transmitted infections. This article analyzes the research conducted on male contraception and identifies the implications of these novel therapeutics for marginalized groups of men in the United States to identify the interventions that will be necessary to help ensure that all men have access to these promising scientific innovations.

  3. Bringing Cultural Diversity to Feminist Psychology. Theory, Research, and Practice. (United States)

    Landrine, Hope, Ed.

    This book focuses on the theoretical, empirical and practice-based implications of recognizing cultural diversity in the psychology of women. Contributors to this volume share the common objective of keeping feminist psychology robust and useful. Chapters in the first section, "Cultural Diversity in Theory and Methodology in Feminist…

  4. Effectiveness of Mentoring Program Practices. Research in Action. Issue 2 (United States)

    DuBois, David L.


    This article focuses on mentoring program practices in relation to issues of effectiveness, while recognizing that implications for program quality conceptualized more broadly is a key concern in need of greater investigation. The author provides an overview of selected conceptual and methodological issues involved with identification of…

  5. Problems emerging from practicing research methodologies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The on-going debates and conflicts between defenders of the quantitative research approach and advocates of the qualitative approach to research tends to leave the post graduate students in a dilemma and disillusioned as to which approach to use in their research process. However, the advent of mixed method as the ...

  6. Survey Practices in Dental Education Research. (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Kuster, Curtis G.


    The use of mailed questionnaires in research on dental education is examined, and several factors that researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors are identified. Examples from the "Journal of Dental Education" are used. (Author/MLW)

  7. Making Theory Come Alive through Practice-based Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Knutz, Eva; Rind Christensen, Poul

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how practice-based design research is able not only to challenge, but also to push toward further development of some of the basic assumpstions in emotion theories as used within design research. In so doing, we wish to increase knolwedge on a central...... epistemological question for design research, namely how practice-based design research can be a vehicle for the construction of new theory for design research....

  8. Teaching reading comprehension to learners with autism spectrum disorder: Discrepancies between teacher and research-recommended practices. (United States)

    Accardo, Amy L; Finnegan, Elizabeth G


    Students with autism spectrum disorder have been found to experience difficulty with reading comprehension despite intact decoding and word recognition. This identified need for targeted reading comprehension remediation results in a need for teachers to utilize research-based practices and to individualize instruction for students with autism spectrum disorder; however, teachers report a lack of access to such practices. This study utilized survey methodology to gather perceptions and experiences of teachers and to compare teacher preparedness to use effective instructional practices emerging from the extant research to teacher-reported effective practices in the classroom. Study findings, based on 112 participants, reveal a discrepancy between teacher-reported effective practices, and the practices identified as effective through research, indicating a research to practice gap. Implications for practice include professional development recommendations, and the need for increased communication between researchers and teachers.

  9. FM Research for Practice in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    handover of data from building projects to FM and Building Information Modelling also became an important field of development. Research in FM started at DTU in 2003 and got a major boost by the establishing of CFM in 2008. In recent years sustainability has emerged as a new important research area in FM...... on national level, which have had importance to constitute and form a professional basis for FM. Approach (Theory/Methodology): The paper provides a chronological overview of research and development activities related to FM over the last 30 years in Denmark, including CFM’s ongoing research projects. Results......: In the 1980’s the research activities related to FM mostly concerned indoor climate and there was also some research on briefing and development projects concerning building operation. In the 1990’s the research related to FM was broadened to a wider environmental focus including energy and the external...

  10. FM research for practice in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker


    handover of data from building projects to FM and Building Information Modelling also became an important field of development. Research in FM started at DTU in 2003 and got a major boost by the establishing of CFM in 2008. In recent years sustainability has emerged as a new important research area in FM...... on national level, which have had importance to constitute and form a professional basis for FM. Approach (Theory/Methodology): The paper provides a chronological overview of research and development activities related to FM over the last 30 years in Denmark, including CFM’s ongoing research projects. Results......: In the 1980’s the research activities related to FM mostly concerned indoor climate and there was also some research on briefing and development projects concerning building operation. In the 1990’s the research related to FM was broadened to a wider environmental focus including energy and the external...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corazon Saturnina A Castro


    Full Text Available Error correction is one of the most contentious and misunderstood issues in both foreign and second language teaching. Despite varying positions on the effectiveness of error correction or the lack of it, corrective feedback remains an institution in the writing classes. Given this context, this action research endeavors to survey prevalent attitudes of teachers and students toward corrective feedback and examine their implications to classroom practices.  This paper poses the major problem:  How do teachers’ perspectives on corrective feedback match the students’ views and expectations about error treatment in their writing? Professors of the University of the Philippines who teach composition classes and over a hundred students enrolled in their classes were surveyed.  Results showed that there are differing perceptions of teachers and students regarding corrective feedback. These oppositions must be addressed as they have implications to current pedagogical practices which include constructing and establishing appropriate lesson goals, using alternative corrective strategies, teaching grammar points in class even in the tertiary level, and further understanding the learning process.

  12. [Interpersonal psychotherapy from research to practice]. (United States)

    Rahioui, H; Blecha, L; Bottai, T; Depuy, C; Jacquesy, L; Kochman, F; Meynard, J-A; Papeta, D; Rammouz, I; Ghachem, R


    Interpersonal therapy (IPT) is a brief, structured psychotherapy initially intended to treat adult depression that was developed in the 1970s and manualized in 1984 by G. Klerman and his team. Two main theories served as a basis for its design: Bowlby's attachment theory and communication theory. Klerman theorized that tensions and problems in interpersonal relationships (i.e. disputes) cause psychological distress in vulnerable individuals that may lead to a major depressive episode. Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that an insecure attachment style is strongly associated with lifetime depression. Severe depressive episodes have been correlated with avoidant attachment in women. IPT is based on the hypothesis that recent or ongoing disturbances in interpersonal relationships either trigger or follow the onset of mood disorder. In practice, IPT assists patients in analysing their interpersonal relationship modes, correlating their relational states with their mood and in learning to use better communication. Resolving difficulties in interpersonal relationships through the use of better communication skills promotes the improvement of depressive symptoms. Klerman identified four interpersonal areas that seem to be highly correlated with depressive episodes: grief (a close and important personal relation who has died), interpersonal disputes (conflicts with significant people such as a spouse or another close family member), role transition (significant life changes such as retirement, parenthood or chronic and invalidating illness) and interpersonal deficits (patients who have limited social contacts and few interpersonal relations). Classically, IPT is planned around 12-16 weekly sessions. During the initial sessions, the therapist will explore all existing interpersonal relations and any significant dysfunctions, both recent and ongoing. Following this interview, the area the patient considers as driving the current depressive episode will be

  13. Public health implications of post-harvest fish handling practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wide range of handling practices for harvested fish exists and they have economic as well as public health implications. This paper is a review of the existing problems in fish handling technologies at post-harvest in Nigeria. The public health aspects with the associated implications are highlighted. Status of policy on fish ...

  14. Research mathematicians’ practices in selecting mathematical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Johansen, Mikkel Willum


    mathematicians select and pose problems and discuss to what extent our results can be used to inform, criticize, and develop educational practice at various levels. Selecting and posing problems is far from simple. In fact, it is considered hard, complex, and of crucial importance. A number of criteria...

  15. Cooperative Learning: Review of Research and Practice (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.


    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from pre-school through to tertiary level and across different subject domains. It involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks--goals and tasks that they would be unable to complete by…

  16. Collaborative Learning. Research to Practice Brief (United States)

    Lawrence, K. S.


    A Fully Integrated Educational System practices collaborative learning among all peers. The study summarized in this report (Zhang, X., Anderson, R. C., Morris, J., Miller, B., Nguyen-Janiel, K. T., Lin, T., Zhang, J., Jadallah, M., Scott, T., Sun, J., Latawjec, B., Ma, S., Grabow, K., & Hsu, J. Y. (2016). "Improving children's competence…

  17. Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated nutritional intervention among mothers of under-five children in rural communities of a developing country: its effects on maternal practice of complementary feeding and child's nutritional status · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M.O. Onoja, S.H. Idris, A.A. ...

  18. Sustainable practices in hospitality : A research framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rheede, van A.; Blomme, R.J.


    The hospitality industry is starting to take responsibility for environmental sustainability. A strong focus on energy, waste, and water usage is directly linked with financial benefits in the operation of the hoteliers. Practices connected to the social aspect of sustainability are less developed.

  19. Nurses' maths: researching a practical approach. (United States)

    Wilson, Ann

    To compare a new practical maths test with a written maths test. The tests were undertaken by qualified nurses training for intravenous drug administration, a skill dependent on maths accuracy. The literature showed that the higher education institutes (HEIs) that provide nurse training use traditional maths tests, a practical way of testing maths had not been described. Fifty five nurses undertook two maths tests based on intravenous drug calculations. One was a traditional written test. The second was a new type of test using a simulated clinical environment. All participants were also interviewed one week later to ascertain their thoughts and feelings about the tests. There was a significant improvement in maths test scores for those nurses who took the practical maths test first. It is suggested that this is because it improved their conceptualisation skills and thus helped them to achieve accuracy in their calculations. Written maths tests are not the best way to help and support nurses in acquiring and improving their maths skills and should be replaced by a more practical approach.

  20. Blood specimen labelling errors: Implications for nephrology nursing practice. (United States)

    Duteau, Jennifer


    Patient safety is the foundation of high-quality health care, as recognized both nationally and worldwide. Patient blood specimen identification is critical in ensuring the delivery of safe and appropriate care. The practice of nephrology nursing involves frequent patient blood specimen withdrawals to treat and monitor kidney disease. A critical review of the literature reveals that incorrect patient identification is one of the major causes of blood specimen labelling errors. Misidentified samples create a serious risk to patient safety leading to multiple specimen withdrawals, delay in diagnosis, misdiagnosis, incorrect treatment, transfusion reactions, increased length of stay and other negative patient outcomes. Barcode technology has been identified as a preferred method for positive patient identification leading to a definitive decrease in blood specimen labelling errors by as much as 83% (Askeland, et al., 2008). The use of a root cause analysis followed by an action plan is one approach to decreasing the occurrence of blood specimen labelling errors. This article will present a review of the evidence-based literature surrounding blood specimen labelling errors, followed by author recommendations for completing a root cause analysis and action plan. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) will be presented as one method to determine root cause, followed by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU) as a framework for implementation of strategies to reduce blood specimen labelling errors.

  1. Using gender research in development: food security in practice


    Quisumbing, Agnes R.; McClafferty, Bonnie


    Metadata only record This guide presents research from several countries in IFPRI's research program on gender and intrahousehold relations, using quantitative and qualitative methods. It examines the implications of these issues in the success of development initiatives and suggestions for integrating gender research in projects and policy. The guide is divided into the following sections: the importance of using gender and intrahousehold research to inform projects and policies; gender a...

  2. The Role of Health Services Research in Developing Practice Policy: Development of Practice Guidelines. (United States)

    Crall, James J.


    The paper offers guidance for the incorporation of treatment effectiveness research into clinical dental practice guidelines. Recommended is inclusion of patients' preferences for different outcomes as well as of clinical outcomes in development of valid practice guidelines. (DB)

  3. Conducting Research in Schools: A Practical Guide (United States)

    Alibali, Martha W.; Nathan, Mitchell J.


    Cognitive development unfolds in many contexts, and one of the most important of these contexts is school. Thus, understanding the school context is critical for understanding development. This article discusses some of the reasons why cognitive developmental researchers might wish to conduct research in schools, describes how to get started…

  4. Research into Practice: Grammar Learning and Teaching (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane


    This selective review of the second language acquisition and applied linguistics research literature on grammar learning and teaching falls into three categories: where research has had little impact (the non-interface position), modest impact (form-focused instruction), and where it potentially can have a large impact (reconceiving grammar).…

  5. Factors that affect general practice as a choice of medical speciality: implications for policy development. (United States)

    Vohra, Amit; Ladyshewsky, Richard; Trumble, Stephen


    Objective This article critically appraises the range of personal, professional and social factors that affect the choice of speciality across medical students, prevocational doctors, general practice registrars and general practitioners. Methods This qualitative study applied constructs from the fields of decision theory and career theory to better understand the complex nature of choosing a speciality. In all, 47 in-depth interviews were conducted with participants at different stages of their career cycle. The data was codified and analysed using NVivo to identify key factors that influenced speciality choice. Results The research identified 77 individual findings influencing general practice as a choice of medical speciality. These were distilled into a matrix to show that factors such as money, prestige and peer interaction did not have a compelling effect, whereas clinical and academic role models, flexibility, work-life balance, scope of practice, connection with patients, training environment and practical opportunities did. Conclusion The findings indicate that the decision in relation to the choice of medical speciality is a complex cognitive process that is undertaken within a personal, social and professional context particular to each individual. What is known about the topic? Current literature aims to quantify changes in attitudes towards choice of speciality or the effect of particular variables in isolation while ignoring the complexity of this decision process and how the numerous variables compare with each other. What does this paper add? The present study is the first intergenerational research on this topic in the Australian context and the paper dismisses the role of prestige and remuneration as key drivers of choice in picking general practice as a speciality, noting that money is merely a 'hygiene factor'. What are the implications for policy makers? A policy framework outlining 10 key principles is presented to assist policy makers seeking

  6. Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa ... of research studies that do not conform with international ethical standards and ... Journal articles ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science ...

  7. Researching Early Childhood Policy and Practice. A Critical Ecology (United States)

    Urban, Mathias


    This article examines the renewed interest in early childhood education and care in European politics, and the implications for research in changing policy contexts. Based on the policy analysis, it argues for a radical reconceptualisation of how, with and for whom, and to what end we design, conduct and interpret research in early childhood in…

  8. Closing the Gap between Research Evidence and Clinical Practice: Jordanian Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Research Utilisation (United States)

    Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad; Musa, Ahmad S.; Al-Khawaldeh, Omar A.; Al Qudah, Hani; Alhabahbeh, Atalla


    Background: The nursing profession is a combination of theory and practical skill, and nurses are required to generate and develop knowledge through implementing research into clinical practice. Considerable number of barriers could hind implementing research findings into practice. Barriers to research utilisation are not identified in the…

  9. Research philosophy in pharmacy practice: necessity and relevance. (United States)

    Winit-Watjana, Win


    Pharmacy practice has gradually evolved with the paradigm shifted towards patient-focused practice or medicines optimisation. The advancement of pharmacy-related research has contributed to this progression, but the philosophy of research remained unexplored. This review was thus aimed to outline the succinct concept of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research. Research philosophy has been introduced to offer an alternative way to think about problem-driven research that is normally conducted. To clarify the research philosophy, four research paradigms, i.e. positivism (or empiricism), postpositivism (or realism), interpretivism (or constructivism) and pragmatism, are investigated according to philosophical realms, i.e. ontology, epistemology, axiology and logic of inquiry. With the application of research philosophy, some examples of quantitative and qualitative research were elaborated along with the conventional research approach. Understanding research philosophy is crucial for pharmacy researchers and pharmacists, as it underpins the choice of methodology and data collection. The review provides the overview of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research. Further discussion on this vital issue is warranted to help generate quality evidence for pharmacy practice. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Economics of Distance and Online Learning Theory, Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reviewed by TOJDE


    Full Text Available Economics of Distance and Online LearningTheory, Practice and ResearchBy William Bramble & Santosh PandaPrice: $125.00ISBN: 978-0-415-96388-6, Binding: Hardback, Publishedby: Routledge, New York, Publication Date: March 2008, Pages: 312TOJDEABOUT THE BOOKThis book provides a comprehensive overview of theorganizational models of distance and online learning froman international perspective and from the point of view ofeconomic planning, costing and management decisionmaking.The book points to directions for the further research anddevelopment in this area, and will promote furtherunderstanding and critical reflection on the part ofadministrators, practitioners and researchers of distanceeducation.The experiences and perspectives in distance education inthe US are balanced with those in other areas of the world.Table of ContentsPrefaceSECTION ONE: INTRODUCTIONChapter 1: Organizational and Cost Structures for Distanceand Online Learning, William J. Bramble and Santosh PandaSECTION TWO: PLANNING AND MANAGEMENTChapter 2: Changing Distance Education andChanging Organizational Issues, D. Randy Garrison and Heather KanukaChapter 3: Online Learning and the University, Chris Curran217Chapter 4: Virtual Schooling and Basic Education, Thomas ClarkChapter 5: Historical Perspectives on Distance Education in the United States, Paul J.Edelson and Von PittmanSECTION THREE: FUNDINGChapter 6: Funding of Distance and Online Learning in the United States, Mark J. Smithand William J. BrambleChapter 7: Funding Distance Education: A Regional Perspective, Santosh Panda andAshok GabaSECTION FOUR: COST STRUCTURES AND MODELSChapter 8: Costs and Quality of Online Learning, Alistair InglisChapter 9: Costing Virtual University Education, Insung JungChapter 10: Cost-Benefit of Student Retention Policies and Practices, Ormond SimpsonSECTION FIVE: DISTANCE TRAININGChapter 11: Cost Benefit of Online Learning, Zane Berge and Charlotte DonaldsonChapter 12: Transforming Workplace

  11. Relational Aggression, Victimization, and Language Development: Implications for Practice (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.


    This review explores the development of relational aggression and relational victimization among peers, with specific emphasis on clinical implications for speech-language pathologists. Developmental manifestations of relational aggression and victimization are reviewed from early childhood through emerging adulthood. The concurrent and…

  12. Pumps vs. airlifts: Theoretical and practical energy implications (United States)

    In the design of a recirculating aquaculture system five life-supporting issues should be considered which include aeration, degasification, circulation, biofiltration, and clarification. The implications associated with choosing a pumped system versus an airlift system to address these issues was e...

  13. Translating advances in reading comprehension research to educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. McNamara


    Full Text Available The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. First, research suggests that comprehension skills are separable from decoding processes and important at early ages, suggesting that comprehension skills should be targeted early, even before the child learns to read. Second, there is an important distinction between reading processes and products, as well as their causal relationship: processes lead to certain products. Hence, instructional approaches and strategies focusing on processes are needed to improve students’ reading performance (i.e., product. Third, inferences are a crucial component of skilled comprehension. Hence, children need scaffolding and remediation to learn to generate inferences, even when they know little about the text topic. Fourth, comprehension depends on a complex interaction between the reader, the characteristics of the text, and the instructional task, highlighting the need for careful selection of instructional materials for individual students and specific groups of students. Finally, educators may benefit from heightened awareness of the limitations and inadequacies of standardized reading comprehension assessments, as well as the multidimensionality of comprehension to better understand their students’ particular strengths and weaknesses.

  14. Translating advances in reading comprehension research to educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. McNAMARA


    Full Text Available The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. First, research suggests that comprehension skills are separable from decodingprocesses and important at early ages, suggesting that comprehension skills should be targeted early, even before the child learns to read. Second, there is an important distinction between readingprocesses and products, as well as their causal relationship: processes lead to certain products. Hence, instructional approaches and strategies focusing on processes are needed to improve students’reading performance (i.e., product. Third, inferences are a crucial component of skilled comprehension. Hence, children need scaffolding and remediation to learn to generate inferences, even when they know little about the text topic. Fourth, comprehension depends on a complex interaction between the reader, the characteristics of the text, and the instructional task, highlighting the need for careful selection of instructional materials for individual students and specific groups of students. Finally, educators may benefit from heightened awareness of the limitations and inadequacies of standardized reading comprehension assessments, as well as the multidimensionality of comprehension to better understand their students’ particular strengths and weaknesses.

  15. Gender integration in coeducational classrooms: Advancing educational research and practice. (United States)

    Fabes, Richard A; Martin, Carol Lynn; Hanish, Laura D; DeLay, Dawn


    Despite the fact that most boys and girls are in classrooms together, there is considerable variation in the degree to which their classrooms reflect gender integration (GI). In some classrooms, boys' and girls' relationships with each other are generally positive and harmonious. However, in other classes, students tend to only work with classmates of the same gender (i.e., gender segregation, GS), and cross-gender interactions seldom occur or, when they do, they may not be positive. As such, the coeducational context of schools provides no assurance that boys and girls work effectively together to learn, solve academic problems, and support one another in their academic efforts. The purpose of this perspective paper is to call attention to the importance of studying and understanding the role of GI in contemporary U.S. coeducational classrooms. Some of the costs associated with the failure to consider GI also are identified, as are implications for future research and educational practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Doing Mixed Methods Research Pragmatically: Implications for the Rediscovery of Pragmatism as a Research Paradigm (United States)

    Feilzer, Martina Yvonne


    This article explores the practical relevance of pragmatism as a research paradigm through the example of a piece of pragmatic research that not only used both quantitative and qualitative research methods but also exploited the inherent duality of the data analyzed. Thus, the article aims to make the case that pragmatism as a research paradigm…

  17. Teacher Motivation: Definition, Research Development and Implications for Teachers (United States)

    Han, Jiying; Yin, Hongbiao


    The past decade has witnessed an increase in research on teacher motivation which has been proved a crucial factor closely related to a number of variables in education such as student motivation, educational reform, teaching practice and teachers' psychological fulfilment and well-being. To address the constant calls for teacher motivation…

  18. Practices of Legitimacy and the Problem of Artistic Research (United States)

    Matcham, David


    This paper examines the positioning of art practice as a mode of research through various legitimising practices. While frequently fruitful, the imperative to make art justify itself as a form of research in order to achieve legitimacy allows that in art which does not engage in negative dialectics to slip from view. The possibility of the kind of…

  19. Using Action Research Projects to Examine Teacher Technology Integration Practices (United States)

    Dawson, Kara


    This study examined the technology integration practices of teachers involved in a statewide initiative via one cycle of action research. It differs from other studies of teacher technology integration practices because it simultaneously involved and provided direct benefits to teachers and researchers. The study used thematic analysis to provide…

  20. Internet research: improving traditional community analysis before launching a practice. (United States)

    Barresi, B; Scott, C


    Optometric practice management experts have always recommended that optometrists thoroughly research the communities in which they are considering practicing. Until the Internet came along, demographic research was possible but often daunting. Today, say these authors, it's becoming quite a bit easier ... and they show us how.

  1. Connecting Practice and Research: Integrated Reading and Writing Instruction Assessment (United States)

    Caverly, David C.; Taylor, Judi Salsburg; Dimino, Renee K.; Lampi, Jodi P.


    The first "Connecting Practice and Research" column (Lampi, Dimino, & Salsburg Taylor, 2015), introduced a Research-to-Practice partnership (Coburn & Penuel, 2016) between two faculty from a community college and a university professor who were aiming to develop effective integrated reading and writing (IRW) instruction through a…

  2. Practical implications of empirically studying moral decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzelmann, N.; Ugazio, G.; Tobler, P.N.


    This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main

  3. Integrating Practice Guidelines into Professional Training: Implications for Diversity Competence (United States)

    Miville, Marie L.; Duan, Changming; Nutt, Roberta L.; Waehler, Charles A.; Suzuki, Lisa; Pistole, M. Carole; Arredondo, Patricia; Duffy, Michael; Mejia, Brenda X.; Corpus, Melissa


    The authors present the findings of a special task group (STG) organized to explore effective training strategies for the practice guidelines focused on diverse populations. They provide a brief literature review and summarize survey data from academic training directors regarding current use of practice guidelines. The authors then describe the…

  4. The Contributions of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Theory to Innovative Research and Practice Cultures in Social Work. (United States)

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; Sharkey, Caroline; Briggs, Adam Christopher


    In this article the authors tie the emergence of an empirical practice research culture, which enabled the rise in evidence-based practice in social work to the introduction of applied behavior analysis and behavioral theory to social work practice and research. The authors chronicle the: (1) scientific foundations of social work, (2) influence and push by corporatized university cultures for higher scholarship productivity among faculty, (3) significance of theory in general, (4) importance of behavioral theory in particular as a major trigger of the growth in research on effective social work practice approaches, and (5) commonalities between applied behavior analysis and evidence-based practice. The authors conclude with implications for addressing the dual challenges of building an enhanced research culture in schools of social work and the scholarship of transferring practice research to adoption in real world practice settings.

  5. Bridging the Gap of Practice and Research: A Preliminary Investigation of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳寂絹 Chi-Chuan Wu


    Full Text Available The gap between practice and research is commonly found in disciplines with both ofprofessional practitioners and academic researchers. How to bridge the gap is also acontinuing concern in the field of Library and Information Studies. This article describes therecent development of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information ScienceResearch (EBLIP, and provides analysis of the journal EBLIP including its authors’backgrounds, methods, and topics. The results show that the United States and Canadaare the two major nations of contributors; more than 70% of first authors are librarians; 76%of the articles were contributed by one single institute, co-authorship by cross-nationinstitutes were rarely seen, and demonstrates local research interests; type of co-authoredagency is primarily among libraries; 60% methods employed include questionnaires,interviews and content analysis; the coverage of topics is rather broad, and the top threecategories of research topics include Information Literacy & Instruction, Information Needs& Seeking Behavior, and Reference Services / Digital Reference Services (15%, 10%, and8%; many datasets were obtained from real library practice, and 72% of articles provide specific implications for applications which highlight the value of implementation. Manylibrarians have the research capability, and this article serves as a purpose to introduce theevidence-based research and encourage more such research done in Taiwan. Hopefully itmay benefit and further enhance the quality of library decision-making and their professionalimage.

  6. Ethical Issues and Best Practice Considerations for Internet Research (United States)

    Colvin, Jan; Lanigan, Jane


    With rapidly increasing public use of the Internet and advances in Web technologies, family and consumer sciences researchers have the opportunity to conduct Internet-based research. However, online research raises critical ethical issues concerning human subjects that have an impact on research practices. This article provides a review of the…

  7. Perception, understanding and practice of ethics during research on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Scandals have occurred over time involving conduct of research in different parts of the world. This study was aimed at exploring researchers' perception, understanding, appreciation and practice of research ethics during research on human subjects. Methods: A qualitative approach using the exploratory and ...

  8. Trends in dermatology practices and the implications for the workforce. (United States)

    Ehrlich, Alison; Kostecki, James; Olkaba, Helen


    The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) practice profile surveys have been conducted for more than a decade to gauge trends in our workforce supply and demand. To update the trends and current workforce issues for the field of dermatology. The AAD Practice Profile Survey is sent by both e-mail and postal mail to a random sample of practicing dermatologists who are AAD members. Shifts are noted in the primary practice setting; fewer dermatologists are in solo practice and more are in group practices than in previous years. Teledermatology use trended upward from 7% to 11% between 2012 and 2014. The implementation of electronic health records increased from 51% in 2011 to 70% in 2014. There is potential for response bias and inaccurate self-reporting. Survey responses collected may not be representative of all geographic areas. The demand for dermatology services remains strong. Shifts in the practice setting may be related to increases in overhead costs that are partially associated with the implementation of technology-based medical records. Integration of electronic health records and utilization of telemedicine are increasing. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Medicine as a Community of Practice: Implications for Medical Education. (United States)

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Steinert, Yvonne


    The presence of a variety of independent learning theories makes it difficult for medical educators to construct a comprehensive theoretical framework for medical education, resulting in numerous and often unrelated curricular, instructional, and assessment practices. Linked with an understanding of identity formation, the concept of communities of practice could provide such a framework, emphasizing the social nature of learning. Individuals wish to join the community, moving from legitimate peripheral to full participation, acquiring the identity of community members and accepting the community's norms.Having communities of practice as the theoretical basis of medical education does not diminish the value of other learning theories. Communities of practice can serve as the foundational theory, and other theories can provide a theoretical basis for the multiple educational activities that take place within the community, thus helping create an integrated theoretical approach.Communities of practice can guide the development of interventions to make medical education more effective and can help both learners and educators better cope with medical education's complexity. An initial step is to acknowledge the potential of communities of practice as the foundational theory. Educational initiatives that could result from this approach include adding communities of practice to the cognitive base; actively engaging students in joining the community; creating a welcoming community; expanding the emphasis on explicitly addressing role modeling, mentoring, experiential learning, and reflection; providing faculty development to support the program; and recognizing the necessity to chart progress toward membership in the community.

  10. Using Qualitative Research to Bridge Research, Policy, and Practice (United States)

    Sallee, Margaret W.; Flood, Julee T.


    Too often, researchers get a bad name for engaging in inquiry that is inaccessible to the practitioner and policy communities who could most benefit from it. Although speaking to others in the scholarly community is important, researchers must also be able to translate their results into more accessible language for multiple audiences. This…

  11. Cultural relativism and cultural diversity: implications for nursing practice. (United States)

    Baker, C


    This article examines the doctrine of cultural relativism in nursing practice. To introduce the issue, an overview of the intellectual history of cultural relativism is presented. The academic themes of the debate surrounding cultural relativism are illustrated with an example of the social controversy in France involving cultural relativism as used to defend the practice of female genital excision among immigrant communities. The dilemma faced by nursing in making cross-cultural judgments is then examined in the light of the academic and social debates. The article concludes with a theoretical resolution of the issue of cultural relativism for nursing practice that is based on hermeneutic philosophy.

  12. Embodied Pronunciation Learning: Research and Practice (United States)

    Chan, Marsha J.


    This article summarizes research on body language, embodiment, and the incorporation of proprioception, physical movement, gestures, and touch into second language education, particularly with regard to the pronunciation of English. It asserts that careful attention to breathing, vocalization, articulatory positions, pulmonic and tactile…

  13. Creativity and Innovation: Theory, Research, and Practice (United States)

    Plucker, Jonathan A., Ed.


    Creativity and innovation are frequently mentioned as key 21st-century skills for career and life success. Indeed, recent research provides evidence that the jobs of the future will increasingly require the ability to bring creative solutions to complex problems. And creativity is often the spice of life, that little extra something that makes the…

  14. Converging Paths: Creativity Research and Educational Practice (United States)

    Hanson, Michael Hanchett


    Education has long been a central issue for creativity research, and the integration of creativity and education has remained a goal and controversy. In spite of over sixty years of trying to bring creativity into education, education is often criticized for not teaching creative thinking, while also criticized from other quarters for not meeting…

  15. Multicultural Issues in Literacy Research and Practice. (United States)

    Willis, Arlette Ingram, Ed.; Garcia, Georgia Earnest, Ed.; Barrera, Rosalinda B., Ed.; Harris, Violet J., Ed.

    This book addresses the lack of research and scholarly discussion on multicultural literacies. A common theme across chapters is the ways in which elements of difference--race, ethnicity, gender, class, and language--create tensions that influence students' literacy experiences and achievements. Sections explore the relationships among culture,…

  16. Contextualizing Theories and Practices of Bricolage Research (United States)

    Rogers, Matt


    Within the last decade, bricolage, as an approach to qualitative inquiry, has gained popularity in academic circles. However, while conceptual and concrete precedents exist, the approach has remained relatively misunderstood, and unpopular, in broader research communities. This may be because the complexity of the approach has stymied widespread…

  17. IT in legal practice : research in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wees, Leo; Huysman, Marleen


    A research project initiated by the Centre for Computers and Law of the Erasmus University Rotterdam will examine the application of information technology (IT) to law firms. The project stresses the specific organizational aspects that need to be taken into account when dealing with the

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Related to AIDS among Prisoners: Implications for Social Work Practice. (United States)

    Miah, M. Mizanur Rahman; Olivero, J. Michael


    A survey of 33 male and 5 female prisoners examined their knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission modes, current sexual behavior and safe sex practices, and sources of AIDS information and degree of trust in these sources. Discusses implications for social work practices and development of AIDS education for prisoners. (SV)

  19. Researching health inequalities with Community Researchers: practical, methodological and ethical challenges of an 'inclusive' research approach. (United States)

    Salway, Sarah; Chowbey, Punita; Such, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Beverly


    draw on the experiences of 12 CRs. Two sets of data were generated, analysed and integrated: debriefing/active reflection exercises throughout the 18-month research process and individual qualitative interviews with CRs, conducted at the end of the project ( n  = 9). Data were organised using NVivo10 and coded line-by-line using a framework developed iteratively. Synthesis and interpretation were achieved through a series of reflective team exercises involving input from 4 of the CRs. Final consolidation of key themes was conducted by SS and ES. Results Being an 'insider' to the communities brought distinct advantages to the research process but also generated complexities. CRs highlighted how 'something would be lost' without their involvement but still faced challenges in gathering and analysing data. Some CRs found it difficult to practice reflexivity, and problems of ethnic stereotyping were revealed. Conflict between roles as community members and investigators was at times problematic. The approach promoted some aspects of personal empowerment, but CRs were frustrated by the limited impact of the research at the local level. Conclusions Working with CRs offers distinct practical, ethical and methodological advantages to public health researchers, but these are limited by a range of challenges related to 'closeness', orthodox research structures and practices and the complexities of dynamic identities. For research of this type to meet its full potential and avoid harm, there is a need for careful support to CRs and long-term engagement between funders, research institutions and communities.

  20. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 1: Introduction


    Moser, Albine; Korstjens, Irene


    In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called Frequently Asked Questions. This journal series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By ‘novice’ we mean Master’s students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research ...

  1. Nursing practice implications of the year of ethics. (United States)

    Harris, Karen T


    e 2015 ANA Code of Ethics is foundational to professional nursing practice and is aligned with AWHONN’s core values, standards of care and position statement on ethical decision-making in the clinical setting. Understanding the roles and responsibilities of nurses to ensure an ethical practice environment is critical to perinatal health outcomes and sta engagement and to the prevention of moral distress.

  2. Implementation as transfer between policy, research and practice in care.


    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Niet, A. van der


    Background: Health Services Research is policy related and results have an impact on practices. Implementation of research output into practices is performed with a variety of strategies. Type of policy intentions and research output create a specific context for implementation. The main question here is: what combinations of background factors and implementation strategies lead to successful implementations in health care? Methods: Sources for this study are evaluations of 72 completed imple...

  3. Four simple recommendations to encourage best practices in research software. (United States)

    Jiménez, Rafael C; Kuzak, Mateusz; Alhamdoosh, Monther; Barker, Michelle; Batut, Bérénice; Borg, Mikael; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Chue Hong, Neil; Cook, Martin; Corpas, Manuel; Flannery, Madison; Garcia, Leyla; Gelpí, Josep Ll; Gladman, Simon; Goble, Carole; González Ferreiro, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Griffin, Philippa C; Grüning, Björn; Hagberg, Jonas; Holub, Petr; Hooft, Rob; Ison, Jon; Katz, Daniel S; Leskošek, Brane; López Gómez, Federico; Oliveira, Luis J; Mellor, David; Mosbergen, Rowland; Mulder, Nicola; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Pergl, Robert; Pichler, Horst; Pope, Bernard; Sanz, Ferran; Schneider, Maria V; Stodden, Victoria; Suchecki, Radosław; Svobodová Vařeková, Radka; Talvik, Harry-Anton; Todorov, Ilian; Treloar, Andrew; Tyagi, Sonika; van Gompel, Maarten; Vaughan, Daniel; Via, Allegra; Wang, Xiaochuan; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S; Crouch, Steve


    Scientific research relies on computer software, yet software is not always developed following practices that ensure its quality and sustainability. This manuscript does not aim to propose new software development best practices, but rather to provide simple recommendations that encourage the adoption of existing best practices. Software development best practices promote better quality software, and better quality software improves the reproducibility and reusability of research. These recommendations are designed around Open Source values, and provide practical suggestions that contribute to making research software and its source code more discoverable, reusable and transparent. This manuscript is aimed at developers, but also at organisations, projects, journals and funders that can increase the quality and sustainability of research software by encouraging the adoption of these recommendations.

  4. Four simple recommendations to encourage best practices in research software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Rafael C.; Kuzak, Mateusz; Alhamdoosh, Monther


    Scientific research relies on computer software, yet software is not always developed following practices that ensure its quality and sustainability. This manuscript does not aim to propose new software development best practices, but rather to provide simple recommendations that encourage...... the adoption of existing best practices. Software development best practices promote better quality software, and better quality software improves the reproducibility and reusability of research. These recommendations are designed around Open Source values, and provide practical suggestions that contribute...... to making research software and its source code more discoverable, reusable and transparent. This manuscript is aimed at developers, but also at organisations, projects, journals and funders that can increase the quality and sustainability of research software by encouraging the adoption...

  5. Strategic Integration: The Practical Politics of Integrated Research in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrae van Kerkhoff


    Full Text Available Designing an integrative research program requires that research leaders negotiate a balance between the scientific interest of research and the practical interests of non-scientific partners. This paper examines the ways integrated research is formally categorised, and analyses the tangible expressions of the practical politics involved in reconciling scientific and practical interests. Drawing on a comparative study of two Australian Cooperative Research Centres, I argue that categories used by the research leaders to describe the research programs embody three different strategies for structuring the relationships between researchers and their partners. These include matching research program categories to partners’ implementation program categories, reproducing existing integrative partnership models, and filling gaps in understanding with new technical approaches. These strategies offer different advantages and disadvantages. The cases suggest that the integrative approach favoured by each Centre depended on issues such as the geographic scope of policy arenas, sources of scientific credibility, and the political risks facing partners. The practical politics of research organisation offers a new lens for understanding both the practice and theory of integrated research.

  6. Radon risk communication research: Practical lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.


    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. There are now a number of completed studies that have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. This paper summarizes the research results that are most crucial for planning and implementing effective radon risk communication programs. We identify six reasons why people do not respond to radon as a serious threat and provide some remedies suggested by radon studies

  7. A Translational Model of Research-Practice Integration (United States)

    Vivian, Dina; Hershenberg, Rachel; Teachman, Bethany A.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Wolfe, Barry


    We propose a four-level, recursive Research-Practice Integration framework as a heuristic to (a) integrate and reflect on the articles in this Special Section as contributing to a bidirectional bridge between research and practice, and (b) consider additional opportunities to address the research–practice gap. Level 1 addresses Treatment Validation studies and includes an article by Lochman and colleagues concerning the programmatic adaptation, implementation, and dissemination of the empirically supported Coping Power treatment program for youth aggression. Level 2 translation, Training in Evidence-Based Practice, includes a paper by Hershenberg, Drabick, and Vivian, which focuses on the critical role that predoctoral training plays in bridging the research–practice gap. Level 3 addresses the Assessment of Clinical Utility and Feedback to Research aspects of translation. The articles by Lambert and Youn, Kraus, and Castonguay illustrate the use of commercial outcome packages that enable psychotherapists to integrate ongoing client assessment, thus enhancing the effectiveness of treatment implementation and providing data that can be fed back to researchers. Lastly, Level 4 translation, the Cross-Level Integrative Research and Communication, concerns research efforts that integrate data from clinical practice and all other levels of translation, as well as communication efforts among all stakeholders, such as researchers, psychotherapists, and clients. Using a two-chair technique as a framework for his discussion, Wolfe's article depicts the struggle inherent in research–practice integration efforts and proposes a rapprochement that highlights advancements in the field. PMID:22642522

  8. The Practice of Designing Qualitative Research on Educational Leadership: Notes for Emerging Scholars and Practitioner-Scholars (United States)

    Knapp, Michael S.


    This article addresses a gap in methodological writing, concerning typical practice in designing qualitative inquiry, especially in research on educational leadership. The article focuses on how qualitative research designs are actually developed and explores implications for scholars' work, especially for new scholars and for methods teachers.…

  9. The new nowhere land? A research and practice agenda for the "Always On Culture"


    McDowall, Almuth; Kinman, G.


    Purpose: Rapid developments in the field of information communication technology (ICT) mean that e-working has become increasingly common and prolonged – the “always-on-culture” potential to enhance work-life balance via increased flexibility in terms of time and location, as well as posing the risk of being ‘always on’ has been identified with potentially serious implications for the health and performance of employees. We identify a research agenda and review current organizational practice...

  10. Invisible nursing research: thoughts about mixed methods research and nursing practice. (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline


    In this this essay, the author addresses the close connection between mixed methods research and nursing practice. If the assertion that research and practice are parallel processes is accepted, then nursing practice may be considered "invisible mixed methods research," in that almost every encounter between a nurse and a patient involves collection and integration of qualitative (word) and quantitative (number) information that actually is single-case mixed methods research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Adapting research instruction to support the scholarship of practice: practice-scholar partnerships. (United States)

    Crist, Patricia A


    ABSTRACT Evidence-based practice (EBP) is crucial to the success of delivering quality occupational therapy services. The skill to engage in the scholarship of practice is central to being able to create evidence specific to one's everyday practice and leads to an emerging role within occupational therapy called the practice-scholar. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the effectiveness of an instructional approach that engaged the scholarship of practice and the functions of a practice-scholar. Occupational therapy graduate students and practitioners collaborated to develop a practice-based study proposal during a traditional experimental research class. The objective was to apply research concepts contextualized within the natural practice context while developing the role of the practice-scholar in designing outcomes studies. As part of an entry-level research course, students (n == 39) and practitioners (n == 14) were grouped into learning teams and discussed two self-assessments to reflect on their self-efficacy perceptions of practice-scholarship research at the beginning and the end of a series of guided sessions to design a research proposal. Postcourse results show that students' perceptions of self-efficacy improved regarding their abilities to participate in practice-scholarship as a result of the learning partnerships. Anecdotal similarities were found for practitioners. As an instructional method, the learning partnership facilitated the development of foundational knowledge and skills related to becoming practice-scholars through increased self-efficacy in using proposal design. This educational approach proactively used the scholarship of practice research to bridge practice and education using a meaningful, partnership-based model for entry-level graduate students and occupational therapy practitioners.

  12. Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric


    Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking.

  13. Practical radiation shielding for biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.C.; Reginatto, M.; Party, E.; Gershey, E.L.


    This paper reports on calculations which exist for estimating shielding required for radioactivity; however, they are often not applicable for the radionuclides and activities common in biomedical research. A variety of commercially available Lucite shields are being marketed to the biomedical community. Their advertisements may lead laboratory workers to expect better radiation protection than these shields can provide or to assume erroneously that very weak beta emitters require extensive shielding. The authors have conducted a series of shielding experiments designed to simulate exposures from the amounts of 32 P, 51 Cr and 125 I typically used in biomedical laboratories. For most routine work, ≥0.64 cm of Lucite covered with various thicknesses of lead will reduce whole-body occupational exposure rates of < 1mR/hr at the point of contact

  14. Ethical, Legal, and Social Implication of Cancer Research | Resources | CDP (United States)

    The Cancer Diagnosis Program strives to improve the diagnosis and assessment of cancer by effectively moving new scientific knowledge into clinical practice. This national program stimulates, coordinates and funds resources and research for the development of innovative in vitro diagnostics, novel diagnostic technologies and appropriate human specimens in order to better characterize cancers and allow improved medical decision making and evaluation of response to treatment.

  15. The Importance of Search as Intertextual Practice for Undergraduate Research (United States)

    Bodemer, Brett B.


    By first reassessing the role of search in the literacy event of the lower division undergraduate paper, this article argues that searching is not a lower-order mental activity but a concurrent, integral component of the research-writing process. This conclusion has large implications for information literacy instructional design, and several…

  16. Bridging the Research-to-Practice Gap: The Role of the Nurse Scientist. (United States)

    Brant, Jeannine M


    To describe the emerging role of the nurse scientist in health care organizations. Historical perspectives of the role are explored along with the roles of the nurse scientist, facilitators, barriers, and future implications. Relevant literature on evidence-based practice and research in health care organizations; nurse scientist role; interview with University of Colorado nurse scientist. The nurse scientist role is integral for expanding evidence-based decisions and nursing research. A research mentor is considered the most important facilitator for a successful nursing research program. Organizations should consider including the nurse scientist role to facilitate evidence-based practice and expand opportunities for nursing research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring Principals' Instructional Leadership Practices in Malaysia: Insights and Implications (United States)

    Harris, Alma; Jones, Michelle; Cheah, Kenny Soon Lee; Devadason, Edward; Adams, Donnie


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the findings from a small-scale, exploratory, study of principals' instructional leadership practice in Malaysian primary schools. The dimensions and functions of instructional leadership, explicitly explored in this study, are those outlined in the Hallinger and Murphy's (1985) model.…

  18. Critical Theory: Implications for School Leadership Theory and Practice. (United States)

    Peca, Kathy

    The school leader's behaviors are inspired by theories, and theories are intrinsic to practice. This paper provides an overview of an emerging perspective in educational administration, critical theory. The paper first highlights the philosophies of Immanuel Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Marx, and the Frankfurt School. It then discusses critical theory…

  19. Integrating Social Class into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed


    Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…

  20. Freudian Notion of Psychoanalysis: Its Implications in Contemporary Teaching Practices (United States)

    Awan, Muhammad Afzal


    The author has engaged in a critical review of Frued's notion of psychoanalysis and its vitality in teaching. Illustrating from Freud's own assertions and through the interpretations of the later critics, the author has pointed out certain noticeable pitfalls and, or incapacities of contemporary teaching practices. The forces of aggression and sex…

  1. Researching Language Teacher Cognition and Practice: International Case Studies (United States)

    Barnard, Roger, Ed.; Burns, Anne, Ed.


    This book presents a novel approach to discussing how to research language teacher cognition and practice. An introductory chapter by the editors and an overview of the research field by Simon Borg precede eight case studies written by new researchers, each of which focuses on one approach to collecting data. These approaches range from…




  3. Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ethical Medical and Biomedical Practice in Health Research in Africa. African countries have an urgent need for research to battle the diseases that ravage their populations and hamper their economic and social development. This research entails both benefits and risks for the people involved. Particular effort must be ...

  4. Continuing medical education revisited: theoretical assumptions and practical implications: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Dionyssopoulos, Alexander; Karalis, Thanassis; Panitsides, Eugenia A


    Recent research has evidenced that although investment in Continuing Medical Education (CME), both in terms of participation as well as financial resources allocated to it, has been steadily increasing to catch up with accelerating advances in health information and technology, effectiveness of CME is reported to be rather limited. Poor and disproportional returns can be attributed to failure of CME courses to address and stimulate an adult audience. The present study initially drew on research findings and adult learning theories, providing the basis for comprehending adult learning, while entailing practical implications on fostering effectiveness in the design and delivery of CME. On a second level, a qualitative study was conducted with the aim to elucidate parameters accounting for effectiveness in educational interventions. Qualitative data was retrieved through 12 in-depth interviews, conducted with a random sample of participants in the 26th European Workshop of Advanced Plastic Surgery (EWAPS). The data underwent a three level qualitative analysis, following the "grounded theory" methodology, comprising 'open coding', 'axial coding' and 'selective coding'. Findings from the EWAPS study come in line with relevant literature, entailing significant implications for the necessity to apply a more effective and efficient paradigm in the design and delivery of educational interventions, advocating for implementing learner-centered schemata in CME and benefiting from a model that draws on the learning environment and social aspects of learning. What emerged as a pivotal parameter in designing educational interventions is to focus on small group educational events which could provide a supportive friendly context, enhance motivation through learner-centered approaches and allow interaction, experimentation and critical reflection. It should be outlined however that further research is required as the present study is limited in scope, having dealt with a limited

  5. Diversity and equity in science education research, policy, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Okhee


    Provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-field analysis of current trends in the research, policy, and practice of science education. It offers valuable insights into why gaps in science achievement among racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic groups persist, and points toward practical means of narrowing or eliminating these gaps. Lee and Buxton examine instructional practices, science-curriculum materials, assessment, teacher education, school organization, and home-school connections.

  6. Sex Education beyond School: Implications for Practice and Research (United States)

    Yu, Juping


    The negative consequences of teenage sexual behaviour are issues of concern in Britain and many other western countries. Over one-quarter of British young people are reported to become sexually active prior to the age of 16 and the rate of teenage pregnancy remains one of the highest in Western Europe. Current UK Government policy on sex education…

  7. 'Nursing research culture' in the context of clinical nursing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher Berthelsen, Connie; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi


    for efficiency, nurses’ barriers to research use and the lack of definition of the concept of nursing research culture make it difficult to establish. Design Concept analysis. Data sources Data were collected through a literature review in PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO during March 2016. Methods Walker and Avant......Aim To report an analysis of the concept of nursing research culture in the context of clinical nursing practice. Background Nursing research culture should be valued for its contribution to improving patient care and should be considered as a routine hospital activity. However, the demand......'s eight-step framework for concept analysis. Results Five defining attributes of nursing research culture in the context of clinical nursing practice were identified: strong monodisciplinary nursing professionalism, academic thinking and socialization, research use as a part of daily nursing practice...

  8. Social research design: framework for integrating philosophical and practical elements. (United States)

    Cunningham, Kathryn Burns


    To provide and elucidate a comprehensible framework for the design of social research. An abundance of information exists concerning the process of designing social research. The overall message that can be gleaned is that numerable elements - both philosophical (ontological and epistemological assumptions and theoretical perspective) and practical (issue to be addressed, purpose, aims and research questions) - are influential in the process of selecting a research methodology and methods, and that these elements and their inter-relationships must be considered and explicated to ensure a coherent research design that enables well-founded and meaningful conclusions. There is a lack of guidance concerning the integration of practical and philosophical elements, hindering their consideration and explication. The author's PhD research into loneliness and cancer. This is a methodology paper. A guiding framework that incorporates all of the philosophical and practical elements influential in social research design is presented. The chronological and informative relationships between the elements are discussed. The framework presented can be used by social researchers to consider and explicate the practical and philosophical elements influential in the selection of a methodology and methods. It is hoped that the framework presented will aid social researchers with the design and the explication of the design of their research, thereby enhancing the credibility of their projects and enabling their research to establish well-founded and meaningful conclusions.

  9. Strengthening Research by Designing for Coherence and Connections to Practice (United States)

    Boerst, Timothy; Confrey, Jere; Heck, Daniel; Knuth, Eric; Lambdin, Diana V.; White, Dorothy; Baltzley, Patricia C.; Quander, Judith Reed


    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) is committed to strengthening relations between research and practice and to the development of a coherent knowledge base that is usable in practice. The need to work toward connection and coherence is not unique to the field of mathematics education. Fields such as medicine, software…

  10. Digital Video as Research Practice: Methodology for the Millennium (United States)

    Shrum, Wesley; Duque, Ricardo; Brown, Timothy


    This essay has its origin in a project on the globalization of science that rediscovered the wisdom of past research practices through the technology of the future. The main argument of this essay is that a convergence of digital video technologies with practices of social surveillance portends a methodological shift towards a new variety of…

  11. Commercial property loan valuations in the UK : implications of current trends in practice and liability


    Crosby, Neil; Lavers, Anthony; Foster , Henry


    This paper is the second of two papers which aim to examine the major legal liability implications of changes to the commercial property loan valuation process caused by the recession in the UK property market and to make recommendations to valuers and their professional institutions to improve the quality of the process and the result. The objectives of this paper are to address a number of the practical implications of changes to the loan valuation process within the context of legal liabil...

  12. Caffeine's implications for women's health and survey of obstetrician-gynecologists' caffeine knowledge and assessment practices. (United States)

    Anderson, Britta L; Juliano, Laura M; Schulkin, Jay


    Caffeine has relevance for women's health and pregnancy, including significant associations with spontaneous abortion and low birth weight. According to scientific data, pregnant women and women of reproductive age should be advised to limit their caffeine consumption. This article reviews the implications of caffeine for women's psychological and physical health, and presents data on obstetrician-gynecologists' (ob-gyns) knowledge and practices pertaining to caffeine. Ob-gyns (N = 386) who are members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network responded to a 21-item survey about caffeine. Although most knew that caffeine is passed through breast milk, only 24.8% were aware that caffeine metabolism significantly slows as pregnancy progresses. Many respondents were not aware of the caffeine content of commonly used products, such as espresso and Diet Coke, with 14.3% and 57.8% indicating amounts within an accurate range, respectively. Furthermore, ob-gyns did not take into account large differences in caffeine content across different caffeinated beverages with most recommending one to two servings of coffee or tea or soft drinks per day. There was substantial inconsistency in what was considered to be "high levels" of maternal caffeine consumption, with only 31.6% providing a response. When asked to indicate the risk that high levels of caffeine have on various pregnancy outcomes, responses were not consistent with scientific data. For example, respondents overestimated the relative risk of stillbirths and underestimated the relative risk of spontaneous abortion. There was great variability in assessment and advice practices pertaining to caffeine. More than half advise their pregnant patients to consume caffeine under certain circumstances, most commonly to alleviate headache and caffeine withdrawal. The data suggest that ob-gyns could benefit from information about caffeine and its relevance to their

  13. Sustainable landscaping practices for enhancing vegetation establishment : research summary. (United States)


    This research supports the integration of new practices and procedures to improve soil : structure that will help turf, meadow, forest and landscape plantings to thrive. It sought : to (1) demonstrate the effectiveness of innovative soil decompaction...

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Action Research Practices of English as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    The study intended to assess EFL teachers' actual practice of action research and the concomitant ... for teacher educators at higher education institutions in ..... immediate problems in their respective classrooms; b) it ..... Academic Staff Profile.

  15. Blending addiction research and practice: strategies for technology transfer. (United States)

    Condon, Timothy P; Miner, Lucinda L; Balmer, Curtis W; Pintello, Denise


    Consistent with traditional conceptions of technology transfer, efforts to translate substance abuse and addiction research into treatment practice have typically relied on the passive dissemination of research findings. The large gap between addiction research and practice, however, indicates that there are many barriers to successful technology transfer and that dissemination alone is not sufficient to produce lasting changes in addiction treatment. To accelerate the translation of research into practice, the National Institute on Drug Abuse launched the Blending Initiative in 2001. In part a collaboration with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration/Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's Addiction Technology Transfer Center program, this initiative aims to improve the development, effectiveness, and usability of evidence-based practices and reduce the obstacles to their timely adoption and implementation.

  16. The Implications of System 4 Approach on School Leadership Practices (United States)

    Khumalo, Steph Shuti


    School management is a highly contested research area. Credible research studies consistently argue that there is a positive relationship between school performance and school leadership. Like in any organisation, school principals deploy a number of leadership techniques to ensure that organisational objectives are achieved. School leadership is…

  17. Identification, assessment and intervention--Implications of an audit on dyslexia policy and practice in Scotland. (United States)

    Reid, Gavin; Deponio, Pamela; Davidson Petch, Louise


    This article reports on research commissioned by the Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED). It aimed to establish the range and extent of policy and provision in the area of specific learning difficulties (SpLD) and dyslexia throughout Scotland. The research was conducted between January and June 2004 by a team from the University of Edinburgh. The information was gathered from a questionnaire sent to all education authorities (100% response rate was achieved). Additional information was also obtained from supplementary interviews and additional materials provided by education authorities. The results indicated that nine education authorities in Scotland (out of 32) have explicit policies on dyslexia and eight authorities have policies on SpLD. It was noted however that most authorities catered for dyslexia and SpLD within a more generic policy framework covering aspects of Special Educational Needs or within documentation on 'effective learning'. In relation to identification thirty-six specific tests, or procedures, were mentioned. Classroom observation, as a procedure was rated high by most authorities. Eleven authorities operated a formal staged process combining identification and intervention. Generally, authorities supported a broader understanding of the role of identification and assessment and the use of standardized tests was only part of a wider assessment process. It was however noted that good practice in identification and intervention was not necessarily dependent on the existence of a dedicated policy on SpLD/dyslexia. Over fifty different intervention strategies/programmes were noted in the responses. Twenty-four authorities indicated that they had developed examples of good practice. The results have implications for teachers and parents as well as those involved in staff development. Pointers are provided for effective practice and the results reflect some of the issues on the current debate on dyslexia particularly relating to early



    Zoran Milošević; Nebojša Maksimović; Nada Milošević; Borislav Obradović


    Theories of learning which are classified in two broad schools as theories of connections and cognitive theories, differ among themselves according to specific interaction relationships between external stimulus (S), reaction and behavior and organism (R), i.e. particular learner (O). In relation to pedagogical practices, predominance of a certain school is not rare, often without any objective insight into their potentials related to age, sex, learning contents and other determinants. Suppor...

  19. Expanding our perspectives on research in musculoskeletal science and practice. (United States)

    Kerry, Roger


    The quantity and quality of scientific research within physiotherapy has unquestionably grown and matured over the last few decades, especially since the "formal" onset of evidence-based physiotherapy in the 1990s. The urgent need to evaluate our practice for effectiveness and efficiency has been responded to with thought and respect to both scientific integrity and shop-floor clinical needs. However, after thirty years or more of a professionally-governed and strategic approach to research activity, it is now timely to reflect, review, and consider the next chapter in the relationship between scientific research and clinical practice. This masterclass aims to develop a research vision for the future of physiotherapy. It is proposed that a crisis is evident within evidence-based physiotherapy, particular so given the assumed complexity and context-sensitivity of our clinical practice. This crisis period has highlighted fundamental limitations within the way research and practice are currently related. These limitations are presented and framed within the problematisation of empirical and philosophical concerns. As research becomes increasingly aligned to traditional scientific principles, examination of the real world context in which its outcomes are intended expose critical challenges for both research and clinical practice. A reconceptualisation of fundamental elements of scientific research may allow more meaningful relationships between research and clinical practice. A proposed research vision encourages scientific activity to embrace real-world complexity in a way that it is presently unable to. An enhanced person-centered, scientifically-informed world of effective musculoskeletal practice is envisaged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Informal Online Learning Practices: Implications for Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawn Winterwood


    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic study examines five American teenagers’ historical and current digitally-mediated multiliteracy practices within digital popular culture. The participants included three male and two female students of a private high school in the Midwestern United States. The study is framed by the notion that literacy is a socially, culturally, and historically situated discursive construct rather than a purely individualized cognitive endeavor. This social constructivist theory of literacy emphasizes the social conditions necessary to navigate the economic, social, and political worlds of the 21st century. The purpose of the study was to explore the students’ multiliteracy practices that they enact through their activities within digital popular culture. Data collection methods included synchronous interviews facilitated by video conferencing tools as well as observation of the participants’ online activities and member checks conducted via email and instant messaging. The analytic strategy employed during this study was informed by Clarke’s (2005 situational analysis method. The study’s findings indicate that literacy practices in which the study participants have engaged through informal learning activities within digital youth culture have had a much greater impact on enabling them to cultivate the multimodal literacies necessary within a postmodern digital era than have their formal educational experiences

  1. Field Research in Political Science Practices and Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravier, Magali


    Book review of: Kapiszewski (Diana), Maclean (Lauren M.), Read (Benjamin L.) ­ Field Research in Political Science. Practices and Principles. ­ Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015 (Strategies for Social Inquiry). XIV + 456 p. Figures. Annexe. Bibliogr. Index.......Book review of: Kapiszewski (Diana), Maclean (Lauren M.), Read (Benjamin L.) ­ Field Research in Political Science. Practices and Principles. ­ Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015 (Strategies for Social Inquiry). XIV + 456 p. Figures. Annexe. Bibliogr. Index....

  2. The research-practice gap: bridging the schism between eating disorder researchers and practitioners. (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ritschel, Lorie A; Lynn, Steven Jay; Brown, Amanda P; Cautin, Robin L; Latzman, Robert D


    The field of eating disorders (EDs) treatment has been beset by a marked disjunction between scientific evidence and clinical application. We describe the nature and scope of the research-practice gap in the ED field. We draw on surveys and broader literature to better understand the research-practice gap in ED treatment and reasons for resistance to evidence-based practice. We identify three sources of the research-practice gap: (1) attitudinal factors, (2) differences in the definition of "evidence," and (3) cognitive factors, especially naïve realism and confirmation bias. We affirm the role of science as a safeguard against human fallibility and as a means of bridging the research-practice gap, and delineate key principles of scientific thinking for ED researchers and practitioners. We conclude with proposals for narrowing the research-practice gap in ED treatment and enhancing the quality of interventions for ED clients. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Diverse Worlds and Research Practices of Qualitative Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Fielding


    Full Text Available The article considers the way that digital research technologies and online environments increasingly support new forms of qualitative research that have emerged as a result of new user groups taking up the practice of social research. New practitioners of qualitative research have entered the field from societies where qualitative research is a newly-established practice, and new cadres of "citizen researchers" have turned to qualitative methods for non-academic purposes. These groups challenge accepted understandings of qualitative methods. The article uses the example of qualitative software as a case study of how qualitative research is enabled by new digital tools that help new user groups extend the application of qualitative research methods. URN:

  4. Technological Implications of Supply Chain Practices in Agri-Food Sector: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mor


    Full Text Available Today, the global business environment compels enterprises to consider rest of the world in their competitive strategy analysis where firms ignore external factors such as economic trends, competitive positions or technology advancement in other countries. While going truly global with supply chain management, a company develops product in the United States, produce in India and trade in Europe, and they have changed the traditional operation management & logistical activities. This change in trade and the modernization of transport infrastructures have elevated the importance of flow management to new levels. Manufacturers and researchers have noticed many problems concerning supply chain activities, and usually either a system or subcomponent in supply chains is discussed in the literature, but they fails to answer the rational (why, what, how behind them. This paper addresses a review of the principles, bottlenecks and strategies of supply chain practices for organizations with an emphasis on the implications of Indian agri-food sector. Findings of this review reveal that the human & environmental issues, improved product visibility, food safety/quality and the associated economic benefits in sustainable agri-food supply chains can be achieved through innovation, collaboration, elimination of uncertainties and introducing global SCM practices into green & lean initiatives.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzilah Abd Rahman


    Full Text Available Knowledge of Diverse Learners (KDL is increasingly recognized as an essential component of knowledge base for effective teaching as in today’s schools, teachers must be prepared to teach a diverse population of student (Banks et al. 2005. In other words, teachers need to be aware that their students in a classroom are and always have been different from one another in a variety of ways. KDL refers to an understanding of diversity of students in terms of their abilities and interests and how they respond to diverse situations; an application of different teaching strategies; and how various types of classroom activities might be managed. Although KDL has come to be seen as important, details of its development, depth and quality among pre-service teachers (PSTs has remained something of mystery, as has the capability of PSTs to adapt and employ KDL into their actual teaching. As an effort to develop coherent understanding of the feature of prospective teachers regarding KDL, this paper addresses three questions. First, to what extent are the PSTs prepared for KDL as they are finishing the teacher education programmes? Secondly, how do the PSTs apply the KDL in their teaching practices? Thirdly, how do PSTs reflect on their practice in undertaking the elements of KDL during the teaching practices? This paper illustrates the results of a study involving a sample of 74 PSTs at a university in Malaysia. At the beginning of the study, 74 PSTs were given a questionnaire. 11 PSTs have been observed and interviewed. Result indicates that PSTs were able to develop KDL and show their understanding of it, yet not readily apply such knowledge in modified situations.

  6. The uses and implications of standards in general practice consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Maria Laura; Reventlow, Susanne; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm


    Quality standards play an increasingly important role in primary care through their inscription in various technologies for improving professional practice. While ‘hard’ biomedical standards have been the most common and debated, current quality development initiatives increasingly seek to include...... as manifestations of an inherent conflict between principles of patient-centredness and formal biomedical quality standards. However, this study suggests that standards on the ‘softer’ aspects of care may just as well interfere with a clinical approach relying on situated and attentive interactions with patients....

  7. [Cultural diversity and stereotyping: implication for the medical practice]. (United States)

    Durieux-Paillard, S; Loutan, L


    Increasing number of migrants worldwide brings doctors to treat patients of various origins. Patients' diversity enriches health professionals but also induces a risk of mutual incomprehension, due to cultural and language barriers. Multicultural context stimulates unwittingly stereotyping, based on a simplistic assessment of the patient's culture. Stereotyping is also influenced by the political and media coverage. Studies underscored that universally, minorities patients have an unequal access to health care in host countries. Health professionals should be aware that racial stereotyping exists in medical practice: it is a first step to bridge cultural gap between them and their patients.

  8. Practical guidelines for qualitative research using online forums. (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik


    With an increasing number of Internet research in general, the number of qualitative Internet studies has recently increased. Online forums are one of the most frequently used qualitative Internet research methods. Despite an increasing number of online forum studies, very few articles have been written to provide practical guidelines to conduct an online forum as a qualitative research method. In this article, practical guidelines in using an online forum as a qualitative research method are proposed based on three previous online forum studies. First, the three studies are concisely described. Practical guidelines are proposed based on nine idea categories related to issues in the three studies: (a) a fit with research purpose and questions, (b) logistics, (c) electronic versus conventional informed consent process, (d) structure and functionality of online forums, (e) interdisciplinary team, (f) screening methods, (g) languages, (h) data analysis methods, and (i) getting participants' feedback.

  9. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Gunn


    Full Text Available We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and reporting. The use of learning design as a strategy to develop and test theories in practice is integral to our argument. We conclude by supporting other researchers who recommend educational design research as a theory focused methodology to move the field forward in productive and consistent ways. The challenge of changing common practice will be involved. However, the potential to raise the profile of learning technology research and improve educational outcomes justifies the effort required.

  10. Current knowledge on radon risk. Implications for practical radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich; Giussani, Augusto; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina; Ruehm, Werner; Lecomte, Jean-Francois; Harrison, John; Breckow, Joachim


    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m -3 ). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop. (orig.)

  11. Current knowledge on radon risk. Implications for practical radiation protection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie, Essen (Germany); Giussani, Augusto; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Ruehm, Werner [German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Lecomte, Jean-Francois [International Affaires Directorate, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, P.O. Box 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Harrison, John [Oxford Brookes University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Breckow, Joachim [THM University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany)


    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m{sup -3}). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop. (orig.)

  12. Practical Implications of Empirically Studying Moral Decision-Making (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Nora; Ugazio, Giuseppe; Tobler, Philippe N.


    This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main problems usually keep us form acting and judging in a morally decent way: firstly, we make mistakes in moral reasoning. Secondly, even when we know how to act and judge, we still fail to meet the requirements due to personal weaknesses. This discussion naturally leads us to another question: can we narrow the gap between what people are morally required to do and what they actually do? We discuss findings from neuroscience, economics, and psychology, considering how we might bring our moral behavior better in line with moral theory. Potentially fruitful means include nudging, training, pharmacological enhancement, and brain stimulation. We conclude by raising the question of whether such methods could and should be implemented. PMID:22783157

  13. Practical implications of empirically studying moral decision-making. (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Nora; Ugazio, Giuseppe; Tobler, Philippe N


    This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main problems usually keep us form acting and judging in a morally decent way: firstly, we make mistakes in moral reasoning. Secondly, even when we know how to act and judge, we still fail to meet the requirements due to personal weaknesses. This discussion naturally leads us to another question: can we narrow the gap between what people are morally required to do and what they actually do? We discuss findings from neuroscience, economics, and psychology, considering how we might bring our moral behavior better in line with moral theory. Potentially fruitful means include nudging, training, pharmacological enhancement, and brain stimulation. We conclude by raising the question of whether such methods could and should be implemented.

  14. Evidence-based practice curriculum in allied health professions for teaching-research-practice nexus. (United States)

    Asokan, G V


    Allied healthcare workers are from diverse professions and the key skill required is providing evidence-based care but this concept has not permeated enough for using it skillfully in their professions. A well structured curriculum in allied health professions is needed to strengthen concerted teaching, research, and practice to empower their professionals and make considerable differences in the lives of people by adopting evidence-based practice. Information sources for allied health professionals have relied on advice of their supervisors and colleagues, personal experiences, authoritative theory and texts for practice. Because of "research-practice" gap, often the use of evidence is not reflected in an individual day to day professional practice. Although allied health professionals work in resource and evidence challenged settings, there are certain barriers and facilitators, which need to be addressed. To implement practice-related research findings and uptake of evidence requires two essential components, namely, practical component and knowledge component. Research bench marking and research metrics for quality assurance and standardization through evidence-based practice will promote academic status and credibility of allied health profession. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  15. A multi-disciplinary approach to medication safety and the implication for nursing education and practice. (United States)

    Adhikari, Radha; Tocher, Jennifer; Smith, Pam; Corcoran, Janet; MacArthur, Juliet


    Medication management is a complex multi-stage and multi-disciplinary process, involving doctors, pharmacists, nurses and patients. Errors can occur at any stage from prescribing, dispensing and administering, to recording and reporting. There are a number of safety mechanisms built into the medication management system and it is recognised that nurses are the final stage of defence. However, medication error still remains a major challenge to patient safety globally. This paper aims to illustrate two main aspects of medication safety practices that have been elicited from an action research study in a Scottish Health Board and three local Higher Education Institutions: firstly current medication safety practices in two clinical settings; and secondly pre and post-registration nursing education and teaching on medication safety. This paper is based on Phase One and Two of an Action Research project. An ethnography-style observational method, influenced by an Appreciative Inquiry (AI) approach was adapted to study the everyday medication management systems and practices of two hospital wards. This was supplemented by seven in-depth interviews with nursing staff, numerous informal discussions with healthcare professionals, two focus-groups, one peer-interview and two in-depth individual interviews with final year nursing students from three Higher Education Institutions in Scotland. This paper highlights the current positive practical efforts in medication safety practices in the chosen clinical areas. Nursing staff do employ the traditional 'five right' principles - right patient, right medication, right dose, right route and right time - for safe administration. Nursing students are taught these principles in their pre-registration nursing education. However, there are some other challenges remaining: these include the establishment of a complete medication history (reconciliation) when patients come to hospital, the provision of an in-depth training in

  16. A Case Study with an Identified Bully: Policy and Practice Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huddleston, Lillie


    Full Text Available Objective: Bullying is a serious public health problem that may include verbal or physical injury as well as social isolation or exclusion. As a result, research is needed to establish a database for policies and interventions designed to prevent bullying and its negative effects. This paper presented a case study that contributed to the literature by describing an intervention for bullies that has implications for research, practice and related policies regarding bullying.Methods: An individualized intervention for an identified bully was implemented using the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model (PCSIM; Nastasi, Moore, & Varjas, 2004 with a seventh-grade middle school student. Ecological and culture-specific perspectives were used to develop and implement the intervention that included psychoeducational sessions with the student and consultation with the parent and school personnel. A mixed methods intervention design was used with the following informants: the target student, the mother of the student, a teacher and the school counselor. Qualitative data included semi-structured interviews with the parent, teacher and student, narrative classroom observations and evaluation/feedback forms filled out by the student and interventionist. Quantitative data included the following quantitative surveys (i.e., Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index [CPTS-RI] and the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children, 2nd Edition. Both qualitative and quantitative data were used to evaluate the acceptability, integrity and efficacy of this intervention.Results: The process of intervention design, implementation and evaluation are described through an illustrative case study. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated a decrease in internalizing, externalizing and bullying behaviors as reported by the teacher and the mother, and a high degree of acceptability and treatment integrity as reported by multiple stakeholders.Conclusion: This case

  17. Research utilisation in sonographic practice: Attitudes and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Vicki; Wilson, Stephanie E.; Svensson, Jon; Brennan, Patrick


    Statutory agents have stipulated that research activity is a fundamental component of the healthcare professional's activity. Whilst the College of Radiographers have emphasised the importance of imaging personnel embracing this research ethos, there is little available data on the level of research activity within sonographic practice or on the factors that influence a sonographer's involvement in research activities. This work attempts to address these deficiencies. A questionnaire was sent to 300 UK-based sonographers of whom 218 responded (72%). The questionnaire was specifically designed to establish the level of involvement in research, the utilisation of research findings, attitudes towards research and perceived barriers to active research involvement. Responses were analysed investigating any correlations with the population demographics. The data collected showed the majority of sonographers (89%) were enthusiastic about research but with only 33% and 60% currently or previously performing research, respectively, and 73% using research findings to modify their clinical practice. Certain barriers to an active research involvement were shown, with 63%, 55% and 40% citing lack of time, education and collegial support, respectively. A range of statistical findings were linked to particular sonographer groups. The importance of good organisational structures and effective support from fellow health professionals was highlighted. The results confirm sonographers' appreciation of the benefits of research and it is suggested that if this enthusiasm is translated into effective research strategies, research output from ultrasound and other clinical departments should be enhanced.

  18. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice (United States)

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia


    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  19. Analysis, Analysis Practices and Implications for Modeling and Simulation (United States)


    the Somme, New York: Penguin , 1983. Kent, Glenn A., “Looking Back: Four Decades of Analysis,” Operations Research, Vol. 50, No. 1, 2002, pp. 122– many sources is fta /EBO.htm (as of December 18, 2006). Effects-based operations are controversial in some respects (Davis

  20. Aspects of Girls' Friendships: Practice Implications for Internalizing Problems (United States)

    Ralph, Leslie E. R.; Epkins, Catherine C.


    Background: Children's friendship quality is a particularly important risk or protective factor for internalizing problems and loneliness. Past research indicates that relationship satisfaction is related to perceived similarity; however, it is unclear whether this relation is seen in girls' friendship quality and whether this relation is…

  1. Training and Best Practice Guidelines: Implications for Metadata Creation (United States)

    Chuttur, Mohammad Y.


    In response to the rapid development of digital libraries over the past decade, researchers have focused on the use of metadata as an effective means to support resource discovery within online repositories. With the increasing involvement of libraries in digitization projects and the growing number of institutional repositories, it is anticipated…

  2. Land Tenure Practices and Women's Right to Land : Implications for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women's right to land in Anglophone Cameroon is subject to two conflicting regimes, customary and statutory. This grant will allow a team of researchers to examine women's right to land under statutory and customary law, and how access to land (or lack of it) affects women's economic status and participation in the ...

  3. The Rediscovery of Gratitude: Implications for Counseling Practice (United States)

    Young, Mark E.; Hutchinson, Tracy S.


    Although gratitude has been rediscovered by the field of positive psychology, strength-based wellness-oriented interventions have historically been a part of the humanistic tradition in counseling. The article is a review of emerging gratitude research including characteristics of gratitude, theoretical explanations, specific interventions, and…

  4. A multidirectional communication model: implications for social marketing practice. (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L


    The landscape of sending and receiving information has changed dramatically in the past 25 years. The communication process is changing from being unidirectional to multidirectional as consumers are becoming active participants by creating, seeking, and sharing information using a variety of channels and devices. The purpose of this article is to describe how this shift in the communication process- where gatekeepers control the creation and content of information and consumers are less active recipients to one that reflects a multidirectional and more dynamic process with participative consumers-will affect the social marketing process. This shift in communication does not represent an option for social marketers so much as a necessity. As professionals respond to this evolving communication model, the practice of social marketing can remain vibrant as a relevant consumer-oriented approach to behavior change.

  5. Financial remuneration for clinical and behavioral research participation: ethical and practical considerations. (United States)

    Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Borenstein, Amy R


    Although the practice of providing payment to clinical research participants has been ongoing for more than a century, it remains an ethically controversial topic among members of the research community. The aims of this commentary are to summarize ethical and practical considerations regarding financial remuneration of research participants and to make recommendations for researchers contemplating this practice. A PubMed search was conducted to explore the ethical implications surrounding financial remuneration and review the body of empiric data on this topic. Financial remuneration is perceived to be ethically acceptable by many researchers and research participants and can be helpful in the recruitment process. It is recommended that when investigators are contemplating whether to offer payment to research participants, they should consider the nature of the study and the potential benefits and risks to the participants, institutional or organizational guidelines, and cultural and societal norms specific to the population being studied. Financial remuneration has the ability to serve as a sign of appreciation for the contributions of research participants and a way to facilitate clinical and behavioral research.

  6. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. AIMS AND SCOPE The Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice aims to publish original research papers of high standard, containing material of broad interest and of significant contribution to civil engineering, with emphasis being placed on material that is applicable to the solution of ...

  7. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research & Practice. Volume 7, Issue D (United States)

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.


    "Focus on Basics" is the quarterly publication of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy. It presents best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policymakers. "Focus on Basics" is…

  8. Silent Conversations in the Labyrinth of Artistic Research and Practice (United States)

    Eis, Andrea


    This essay explores silent conversations with the past, but also navigates through the labyrinth of artistic process, with its manifold passages of research, chance occurrence and aesthetic experimentation. The double metaphors of silent conversations and labyrinths apply to the essay and the artwork within it, to the research and to the practice.…

  9. Researching contexts, practices and pedagogies in English for academic purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Blaj-Ward, L


    This book is a point of reference for EAP professionals planning to conduct or commission research into learning, teaching, professional development or quality assurance in EAP. It draws on academic and professional debates to inspire further research and practical initiatives to enhance EAP provision.

  10. Internet Research, Theory, and Practice: Perspectives from Ireland (United States)

    Fowley, Cathy, Ed.; English, Claire, Ed.; Thouësny, Sylvie, Ed.


    From 2000 to 2012 the number of Internet users rose from less than 0.4 billion to 2.4 billion. Scholarly, evidence-based Internet research is of critical importance. The field of Internet research explores the Internet as a social, political and educational phenomenon, providing theoretical and practical contributions to understanding, and…

  11. Rethinking Critically Reflective Research Practice: Beyond Popper's Critical Rationalism (United States)

    Ulrich, Werner


    We all know that ships are safest in the harbor; but alas, that is not what ships are built for. They are destined to leave the harbor and to confront the challenges that are waiting beyond the harbor mole. A similar challenge confronts the practice of research. Research at work cannot play it safe and stay in whatever theoretical and…

  12. Collective Genius: Bridging the Gaps among Research, Innovation and Practice (United States)

    O'Hair, Mary John


    In this article, the author focuses on bridging the gaps among research, innovation, and practice. First, the author reflects on historical perspectives involving the use of research to improve education and serve the public good. Second, the author explores the current climate as reflected by three national reports highlighting future roles of…

  13. A Practical Examination of Two Diverse Research Paradigms (United States)

    Brewer, Robert A.


    This manuscript examines the practical differences between quantitative and qualitative inquiry by comparing the differences between one article from each paradigm. Quantitative research differs greatly from qualitative inquiry in purpose, assumptions, methodology, and representation. While quantitative research has been the dominant paradigm for…

  14. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research : part 1: introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albine Moser; Irene Korstjens


    In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called Frequently Asked Questions. This journal series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for

  15. Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: Voice of Mediators (United States)

    Mehrani, Mehdi B.


    The present study aimed to explore the strategies that could be potentially employed in the Iranian ELT context to bridge the gap between research and practice. Data were collected through conducting a "focus group discussion" with a number of practitioner-researchers. The findings showed that to improve the relationship between…

  16. Networks of Practice in Science Education Research: A Global Context (United States)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina


    In this paper, we employ cultural sociology and Braj Kachru's model of World Englishes as theoretical and analytical tools for considering English as a form of capital necessary for widely disseminating research findings from local networks of practice to the greater science education research community. We present a brief analysis of recent…

  17. Innovations in Pharmacy through Practice-Based Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C. Schommer


    Full Text Available The overall purpose of this article is to serve as an invitation for submissions to the 'Practice-Based Research' section of INNOVATIONS in pharmacy. To provide background about this section of the journal, this paper describes: (1 the concept of innovations that we will apply, (2 the practice-based research domain, and (3 the use of practice-based research networks for this area of inquiry. We propose that uncertainty surrounding an innovation often will result in the postponement of the decision regarding its adoption until further evidence can be obtained. Such evidence often is gathered through considering the advice and experiences of opinion leaders and members of social systems who have adopted the innovation. We invite authors to present ideas, arguments, and evidence for innovations in pharmacy that arise out of practice-based research. We propose that this journal will be an excellent communication vehicle for providing convincing arguments and sound evidence in favor of innovations. Discourse regarding new ideas in such a format can further develop the ideas, create a critical mass of evidence, and be used for convincing others that the innovation should be adopted. We welcome submissions to the INNOVATIONS in pharmacy, PRACTICE-BASED RESEARCH content area that: (1 provide convincing arguments and sound evidence in favor of innovations for pharmacy, (2 are based upon practice-based research from case studies of single patients on one end of the continuum to findings from large populations of patients on the other end of the continuum, and/or (3 introduce innovations for practice-based research networks. We encourage articles from all perspectives and from all methods of inquiry. Type: Invitation

  18. Religion, Spirituality, and Health: The Research and Clinical Implications (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G.


    This paper provides a concise but comprehensive review of research on religion/spirituality (R/S) and both mental health and physical health. It is based on a systematic review of original data-based quantitative research published in peer-reviewed journals between 1872 and 2010, including a few seminal articles published since 2010. First, I provide a brief historical background to set the stage. Then I review research on R/S and mental health, examining relationships with both positive and negative mental health outcomes, where positive outcomes include well-being, happiness, hope, optimism, and gratefulness, and negative outcomes involve depression, suicide, anxiety, psychosis, substance abuse, delinquency/crime, marital instability, and personality traits (positive and negative). I then explain how and why R/S might influence mental health. Next, I review research on R/S and health behaviors such as physical activity, cigarette smoking, diet, and sexual practices, followed by a review of relationships between R/S and heart disease, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease and dementia, immune functions, endocrine functions, cancer, overall mortality, physical disability, pain, and somatic symptoms. I then present a theoretical model explaining how R/S might influence physical health. Finally, I discuss what health professionals should do in light of these research findings and make recommendations in this regard. PMID:23762764

  19. Group Organization and Communities of Practice in Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Krawczyk


    Full Text Available The collective lived experience of translational research teams requires further appreciation, particularly at the stages of group formation. To achieve this, we conducted a case study of a translational research team (n = 16. Through the case description and then discussing case-based themes with community of practice theory, themes such as “Being Open” and “Working as a Group” found that this team’s mutual respect, cooperation, and their sharing of knowledge uncovered an alternative way that professionals organize themselves for translational research projects. In conjunction to this finding, our analysis showed that the team has qualities of a community of practice.

  20. Research that Guides Practice: Outcome Research in Swedish PhD Theses Across Seven Disciplines 1997-2012. (United States)

    Olsson, Tina M; Sundell, Knut


    The core of evidence-based practice (EBP) as advocated for within the practice arms of the health and social sciences is to promote the routine incorporation of the best available research evidence into practice efforts. This requires discipline-specific education that is not only grounded in professional practice but also prepares would-be scientists in the application of the sophisticated techniques that characterize today's high research standards. Doctoral-level education is an important primer for future scientific endeavors across disciplines. This study examined 2334 theses published across Sweden in public health, criminology, nursing, psychiatry, psychology, social work, and sociology during the period 1997-2012. Of the theses reviewed, 13% aimed to investigate the effects of interventions. The highest percentage of effectiveness studies was found in nursing, public health, and psychology. The percentage of outcome research increased during the period. Controlled studies (with comparison group and pre- and post-test) occurred primarily within public health, nursing, psychiatry, and psychology. Of the 296 theses that included an intervention effectiveness study, 131 (44%), or 5.6% of all theses reviewed, met all four assessment criteria for quality. PhD education across seven disciplines in Sweden may be producing a professional core of scientists that is ill prepared to produce the type of research that is necessary to inform practice of the effects of its interventions as exposure to the rigors of quality effectiveness research is all but non-existent. This has implications for the advancement of an evidence-based practice and intervention science more broadly.

  1. Criminal investigations of child abuse: the research behind "best practices". (United States)

    Jones, Lisa M; Cross, Theodore P; Walsh, Wendy A; Simone, Monique


    This article reviews the research relevant to seven practices considered by many to be among the most progressive approaches to criminal child abuse investigations: multidisciplinary team investigations, trained child forensic interviewers, videotaped interviews, specialized forensic medical examiners, victim advocacy programs, improved access to mental health treatment for victims, and Children's Advocacy Centers (CACs). The review finds that despite the popularity of these practices, little outcome research is currently available documenting their success. However, preliminary research supports many of these practices or has influenced their development. Knowledge of this research can assist investigators and policy makers who want to improve the response to victims, understand the effectiveness of particular programs, or identify where assumptions about effectiveness are not empirically supported.

  2. Curating research data a handbook of current practice

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Lisa R


    Curating Research Data, Volume Two: A Handbook of Current Practice guides you across the data lifecycle through the practical strategies and techniques for curating research data in a digital repository setting. The data curation steps for receiving, appraising, selecting, ingesting, transforming, describing, contextualizing, disseminating, and preserving digital research data are each explored, and then supplemented with detailed case studies written by more than forty international practitioners from national, disciplinary, and institutional data repositories. The steps in this volume detail the sequential actions that you might take to curate a data set from receiving the data (Step 1) to eventual reuse (Step 8). Data curators, archivists, research data management specialists, subject librarians, institutional repository managers, and digital library staff will benefit from these current and practical approaches to data curation.

  3. Practicing Multicultural Education through Religiously Affiliated Schools and Its Implications for Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftahur Rohman


    Full Text Available Having varied ethnics, cultures, religions, or faiths, Indonesia is considered a multicultural nation in today’s world. This equity can be dangerous; but also can be advantageous if myriad interests of citizens are able to be nurtured through education, including religious schools. The research was conducted to explore multicultural practices in the State-owned Islamic High School (MAN 3 and the Catholic High School (SMA Stella Duce 2 in Yogyakarta Indonesia. Data was gathered via qualitative method by means of comparative study, aiming at seeking similarities and differences on promoting multicultural education values. Findings show similarities of teachers’ attitudes and characteristics as facilitator, accommodator, or assimilator whereas the differences include their leadership role in intrareligious dialog at MAN 3 and dialog leaders at SMA Stella Duce 2. Other issues include diverse understandings of religion and its perceived violence. The research formulates two categories of teacher as being multicultural-intrareligious pluralist and multicultural-intrareligious humanist. It also discusses implications on social change as a result of cultural interchange at those schools.

  4. Implications of the law on video recording in clinical practice


    Henken, Kirsten R.; Jansen, Frank-Willem; Klein, Jan; Stassen, Laurents; Dankelman, Jenny; Dobbelsteen, John


    textabstractBackground: Technological developments allow for a variety of applications of video recording in health care, including endoscopic procedures. Although the value of video registration is recognized, medicolegal concerns regarding the privacy of patients and professionals are growing. A clear understanding of the legal framework is lacking. Therefore, this research aims to provide insight into the juridical position of patients and professionals regarding video recording in health ...

  5. Genome typing of nonhuman primate models: implications for biomedical research. (United States)

    Haus, Tanja; Ferguson, Betsy; Rogers, Jeffrey; Doxiadis, Gaby; Certa, Ulrich; Rose, Nicola J; Teepe, Robert; Weinbauer, Gerhard F; Roos, Christian


    The success of personalized medicine rests on understanding the genetic variation between individuals. Thus, as medical practice evolves and variation among individuals becomes a fundamental aspect of clinical medicine, a thorough consideration of the genetic and genomic information concerning the animals used as models in biomedical research also becomes critical. In particular, nonhuman primates (NHPs) offer great promise as models for many aspects of human health and disease. These are outbred species exhibiting substantial levels of genetic variation; however, understanding of the contribution of this variation to phenotypes is lagging behind in NHP species. Thus, there is a pivotal need to address this gap and define strategies for characterizing both genomic content and variability within primate models of human disease. Here, we discuss the current state of genomics of NHP models and offer guidelines for future work to ensure continued improvement and utility of this line of biomedical research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Implications of NSTX lithium results for magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M., E-mail: [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Canik, J.M.; Diem, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Menard, J.; Paul, S.F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington at Seattle, Seattle, WA (United States); Sabbagh, S.A. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Skinner, C.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)


    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to {approx}100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium re-loadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, edge localized mode (ELM) control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  7. Implications of NSTX Lithium Results for Magnetic Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Canik, J.M.; Diem, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, G.


    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on NSTX for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ∼ 100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium reloadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, ELM control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  8. Implications of NSTX lithium results for magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Canik, J.M.; Diem, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, G.


    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ∼100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium re-loadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, edge localized mode (ELM) control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  9. Helmet wearing in Kenya: prevalence, knowledge, attitude, practice and implications. (United States)

    Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A


    In light of the increasing prevalence of motorcycles on Kenyan roads, there is a need to address the safety of individuals using this mode of transport. Helmet use has been proven to be effective in preventing head injuries and fatalities in the event of a crash. This study aims to understand the prevalence of helmet use as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two districts in Kenya over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Observational studies on helmet use at randomly selected locations throughout each district were done every quarter to estimate the prevalence of helmet use. Roadside knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were done two times a year in each district. Helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thika and Naivasha was assessed through systematic observations at randomly selected locations in the two districts between August 2010 and December 2014. Roadside KAP surveys were administered in both sites to motorcyclists in areas where they stopped, including motorcycle bays, petrol stations and rest areas near the helmet observation sites. Secondary analysis of trauma registries was also used. Negative binomial regressions were used to assess trends of helmet wearing among motorcyclists over time, and logistic regressions were used to analyze associated risk factors as well as association with health outcomes among those admitted to the four hospitals. A total of 256,851 motorcycles were observed in the two target districts during the study period. Overall, prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Thika and Naivasha across all periods was 35.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.87%-35.38%) and 37.42% (95% CI: 37.15%-37.69%) respectively. Prevalence of helmet wearing remained similar after the passage of a traffic amendment bill. These results were not statistically significant in either Thika or in Naivasha. Data from the KAP survey showed that respondents recognized the life-saving effect of wearing a helmet, but

  10. Semantic web implications for technologies and business practices

    CERN Document Server


    This book examines recent developments in semantic systems that can respond to situations and environments and events. The contributors to this book cover how to design, implement, and utilize disruptive technologies from the semantic and Web 3.0 arena. The editor and the contributors discuss two fundamental sets of disruptive technologies: the development of semantic technologies including description logics, ontologies, and agent frameworks; and the development of semantic information rendering including graphical forms of displays of high-density time-sensitive data to improve situational awareness. Beyond practical illustrations of emerging technologies, the goal of this book is to help readers learn about managing information resources in new ways and reinforcing the learning as they read on.   ·         Examines the contrast of competing paradigms and approaches to problem solving and decision-making using technology tools and techniques ·         Covers how to use semantic principle...

  11. The implication of transcultural psychiatry for clinical practice. (United States)

    Moldavsky, Daniel


    This article deals with the main concepts of Transcultural Psychiatry and their applications to everyday psychiatric practice. Transcultural psychiatry has undergone a conceptual reformulation in the last two decades. Having started with a comparative approach, which focused on the diverse manifestations of mental disorders among different societies, it broadened its scope, aiming at present to incorporate social and cultural aspects of illness into the clinical framework. Therefore, transcultural psychiatry now focuses more on what is called the illness experience than on the disease process, the latter understood as illness as it is viewed by health practitioners. Western medicine, of which psychiatry is a part, is grounded in positivist epistemological principles that stress the biological processes of disease. The intention of the paper is to develop an interest in alternative but also complementary ways of thinking. Modern transcultural psychiatry interprets some epidemiological and clinical aspects of major mental disorders (such as schizophrenia and depression) in a different light. However, it also distances itself from the absolute relativism of antipsychiatry, centering on clinical facts and helping clinicians in their primary task of alleviating suffering. An important contribution in addressing this task is the formulation of a cultural axis within the DSM model of multiaxial evaluation. A clinical vignette of a cultural formulation applied to a clinical discussion of a case is described.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko V. Ivetic


    Full Text Available This paper deals with practical problems of leak detection by methods based on hydraulic transient analysis. Controlled and safe transients can be generated and the response of the network, with the relevant information, can be monitored and analysed. Information about leaks, contained in the monitored pressure signal, cannot be easily retrieved, due to reflections, noise etc. On the basis of numerical experiments on a simple network, merits and limitations of several methods for signal analysis (time domain analysis, spectral density function and wavelet transform have been examined. Certain amount of information can be extracted from the time history of the pressure signal, assuming the first reflection of the pressure wave is captured with very high time resolution and accuracy. Only relatively large leaks can be detected using this methodology. As a way to increase the sensitivity of this method it is suggested that transforms in frequency domain and, especially, wavelet transforms, are used. The most promising method for leakage location and quantification seems to be based on wavelet analysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko V. Ivetic


    Full Text Available This paper deals with practical problems of leak detection by methods based on hydraulic transient analysis. Controlled and safe transients can be generated and the response of the network, with the relevant information, can be monitored and analysed. Information about leaks, contained in the monitored pressure signal, cannot be easily retrieved, due to reflections, noise etc. On the basis of numerical experiments on a simple network, merits and limitations of several methods for signal analysis (time domain analysis, spectral density function and wavelet transform have been examined. Certain amount of information can be extracted from the time history of the pressure signal, assuming the first reflection of the pressure wave is captured with very high time resolution and accuracy. Only relatively large leaks can be detected using this methodology. As a way to increase the sensitivity of this method it is suggested that transforms in frequency domain and, especially, wavelet transforms, are used. The most promising method for leakage location and quantification seems to be based on wavelet analysis.

  14. An Evolution in Research Practice for Investigating International Business Relationships


    Anne HAMPTON; James ROWELL


    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development and rationale of research methodology for a specific topic of research. The topic in question is an investigation into international business relationships, a complex subject and one that is very topical in the growing world of international business. It is intended to examine the logical development of research practice in our study and to show the changing thought processes and justifications we have made over a period of time. It is h...

  15. Use and misuse of research in books on sex trafficking: implications for interdisciplinary researchers, practitioners, and advocates. (United States)

    Fedina, Lisa


    Recent articles have raised important questions about the validity of prevalence data on human trafficking, exposing flawed methodologies behind frequently cited statistics. While considerable evidence points to the fact that human trafficking does exist in the United States and abroad, many sources of literature continue to cite flawed data and some misuse research in ways that seemingly inflate the problem, which can have serious implications for anti-trafficking efforts, including victim services and anti-trafficking legislation and policy. This systematic review reports on the prevalence data used in 42 recently published books on sex trafficking to determine the extent to which published books rely on data estimates and just how they use or misuse existing data. The findings from this review reveal that the vast majority of published books do rely on existing data that were not rigorously produced and therefore may be misleading or at minimum, inaccurate. Implications for practice, research, and policy are discussed, as well as recommendations for future prevalence studies on human trafficking. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Selecting for creativity and innovation potential: implications for practice in healthcare education. (United States)

    Patterson, Fiona; Zibarras, Lara Dawn


    The ability to innovate is an important requirement in many organisations. Despite this pressing need, few selection systems in healthcare focus on identifying the potential for creativity and innovation and so this area has been vastly under-researched. As a first step towards understanding how we might select for creativity and innovation, this paper explores the use of a trait-based measure of creativity and innovation potential, and evaluates its efficacy for use in selection for healthcare education. This study uses a sample of 188 postgraduate physicians applying for education and training in UK General Practice. Participants completed two questionnaires (a trait-based measure of creativity and innovation, and a measure of the Big Five personality dimensions) and were also rated by assessors on creative problem solving measured during a selection centre. In exploring the construct validity of the trait-based measure of creativity and innovation, our research clarifies the associations between personality, and creativity and innovation. In particular, our study highlights the importance of motivation in the creativity and innovation process. Results also suggest that Openness to Experience is positively related to creativity and innovation whereas some aspects of Conscientiousness are negatively associated with creativity and innovation. Results broadly support the utility of using a trait-based measure of creativity and innovation in healthcare selection processes, although practically this may be best delivered as part of an interview process, rather than as a screening tool. Findings are discussed in relation to broader implications for placing more priority on creativity and innovation as selection criteria within healthcare education and training in future.

  17. Factors Influencing Mini-CEX Rater Judgments and Their Practical Implications: A Systematic Literature Review. (United States)

    Lee, Victor; Brain, Keira; Martin, Jenepher


    At present, little is known about how mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) raters translate their observations into judgments and ratings. The authors of this systematic literature review aim both to identify the factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting and to translate these findings into practical implications for clinician assessors. The authors searched for internal and external factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting from 1980 to 2015 using the Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, PubMed, and Scopus databases. They extracted the following information from each study: country of origin, educational level, study design and setting, type of observation, occurrence of rater training, provision of feedback to the trainee, research question, and identified factors influencing rater judgments. The authors also conducted a quality assessment for each study. Seventeen articles met the inclusion criteria. The authors identified both internal and external factors that influence mini-CEX rater judgments. They subcategorized the internal factors into intrinsic rater factors, judgment-making factors (conceptualization, interpretation, attention, and impressions), and scoring factors (scoring integration and domain differentiation). The current theories of rater-based judgment have not helped clinicians resolve the issues of rater idiosyncrasy, bias, gestalt, and conflicting contextual factors; therefore, the authors believe the most important solution is to increase the justification of rater judgments through the use of specific narrative and contextual comments, which are more informative for trainees. Finally, more real-world research is required to bridge the gap between the theory and practice of rater cognition.

  18. Collaborative Professional Development in Chemistry Education Research: Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice (United States)

    Szteinberg, Gabriela; Balicki, Scott; Banks, Gregory; Clinchot, Michael; Cullipher, Steven; Huie, Robert; Lambertz, Jennifer; Lewis, Rebecca; Ngai, Courtney; Weinrich, Melissa; Talanquer, Vicente; Sevian, Hannah


    Professional development that bridges gaps between educational research and practice is needed. However, bridging gaps can be difficult because teachers and educational researchers often belong to different Communities of Practice, as their activities, goals, and means of achieving those goals often differ. Meaningful collaboration among teachers…

  19. Youth Work Transitions: A Review with Implications for Counselling and Career Practice (United States)

    Parada, Filomena; Young, Richard A.


    We critically review studies highlighting youth's work transitions and derive some implications for career and counselling theory and practice. We first discuss today's hypermodern world, specifically the meanings being conveyed by today's complex social realities and their impact on individuals' (work) lives. An overview of…

  20. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice (United States)

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat


    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  1. "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." Supreme Court Case: Implications for School Psychology Practice (United States)

    Dixon, Shauna G.; Eusebio, Eleazar C.; Turton, William J.; Wright, Peter W. D.; Hale, James B.


    The 2009 "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." United States Supreme Court case could have significant implications for school psychology practice. The Court ruled that the parents of a student with a disability were entitled to private school tuition reimbursement even though T.A. had not been identified with a disability or previously…




  3. Addressing Cross-Cultural Teamwork Barriers: Implications for Industry Practice and Higher Education Curricula (United States)

    Levitt, Steven R.


    This study explores cultural factors affecting international team dynamics and the implications for industry practice and higher education. Despite decades of studying and experience with cultural diversity, international work groups continue to be challenged by ethnocentrism and prejudices. Central to the context is that cultural differences in…

  4. A conceptual framework for transferring research to practice. (United States)

    Simpson, D Dwayne


    Systematic evaluations of efforts to transfer research-based interventions and procedures into general practice at community drug treatment programs have been limited. However, practical experiences as well as results from studies of technology transfer and organizational behavior in related fields provide a basis for proposing a heuristic model of key factors that influence this process. The successful completion of four stages of activity typically involved in program change (exposure, adoption, implementation, and practice of new interventions) appears to be influenced by several organizational considerations (e.g., institutional readiness for change, resources, and climate) as well as staff attributes. Assessment instruments for measuring organizational functioning (based on ratings aggregated for staff and patients in a program) are introduced, along with preliminary evidence for their validity. A better conceptual understanding of the process of program change and common barriers that may be encountered is needed for effectively transferring research to practice.

  5. Caries treatment in a dental practice-based research network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Gregg H; Gordan, Valeria V; Funkhouser, Ellen M


    OBJECTIVES: Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide a venue to foster evidence-based care. We tested the hypothesis that a higher level of participation in a dental PBRN is associated with greater stated change toward evidence-based practice. METHODS: A total of 565 dental PBRN practitio......OBJECTIVES: Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide a venue to foster evidence-based care. We tested the hypothesis that a higher level of participation in a dental PBRN is associated with greater stated change toward evidence-based practice. METHODS: A total of 565 dental PBRN......) of 36.0 (3.8) months later. A total of 224 were 'full participants' (enrolled in clinical studies and attended at least one network meeting); 181 were 'partial participants' (did not meet 'full' criteria). RESULTS: From 10% to 62% of practitioners were 'surgically invasive' at baseline, depending...

  6. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 1: Introduction. (United States)

    Moser, Albine; Korstjens, Irene


    In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called Frequently Asked Questions. This journal series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By 'novice' we mean Master's students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research for the first time. This series addresses their questions and provides researchers, readers, reviewers and editors with references to criteria and tools for judging the quality of papers reporting on qualitative research. This first article describes the key features of qualitative research, provides publications for further learning and reading, and gives an outline of the series.

  7. The Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS): Merging clinical practice, training, and research. (United States)

    Youn, Soo Jeong; Castonguay, Louis G; Xiao, Henry; Janis, Rebecca; McAleavey, Andrew A; Lockard, Allison J; Locke, Benjamin D; Hayes, Jeffrey A


    The goal of this article is to present information about a standardized multidimensional measure of psychological symptoms, the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS; Locke et al., 2011; Locke, McAleavey, et al., 2012; McAleavey, Nordberg, Hayes, et al., 2012), developed to assess difficulties specific to college students' mental health. We provide (a) a brief review and summary of the psychometric and research support for the CCAPS; (b) examples of the use of the CCAPS for various purposes, including clinical, training, policy, and counseling center advocacy; and (c) implications of the integration of routine outcome monitoring and feedback for the future of training, research, and clinical practice. In particular, the article emphasizes how the assimilation of and symbiotic relationship between research and practice can address the scientist-practitioner gap. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Guidance for research-practice partnerships (R-PPs) and collaborative research. (United States)

    Ovretveit, John; Hempel, Susanne; Magnabosco, Jennifer L; Mittman, Brian S; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Ganz, David A


    The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence based guidance to researchers and practice personnel about forming and carrying out effective research partnerships. A review of the literature, interviews and discussions with colleagues in both research and practice roles, and a review of the authors' personal experiences as researchers in partnership research. Partnership research is, in some respects, a distinct "approach" to research, but there are many different versions. An analysis of research publications and of their research experience led the authors to develop a framework for planning and assessing the partnership research process, which includes defining expected outcomes for the partners, their roles, and steps in the research process. This review and analysis provides guidance that may reduce commonly-reported misunderstandings and help to plan more successful partnerships and projects. It also identifies future research which is needed to define more precisely the questions and purposes for which partnership research is most appropriate, and methods and designs for specific types of partnership research. As more research moves towards increased participation of practitioners and patients in the research process, more precise and differentiated understanding of the different partnership approaches is required, and when each is most suitable. This article describes research approaches that have the potential to reduce "the research-practice gap". It gives evidence- and experience-based guidance for choosing and establishing a partnership research process, so as to improve partnership relationship-building and more actionable research.

  9. Conceptualizing boundaries for the professionalization of healthcare ethics practice: a call for empirical research. (United States)

    Brown, Nancy C; McGee, Summer Johnson


    One of the challenges of modern healthcare ethics practice is the navigation of boundaries. Practicing healthcare ethicists in the performance of their role must navigate meanings, choices, decisions and actions embedded in complex cultural and social relationships amongst diverse individuals. In light of the evolving state of modern healthcare ethics practice and the recent move toward professionalization via certification, understanding boundary navigation in healthcare ethics practice is critical. Because healthcare ethics is endowed with many boundaries which often delineate concerns about professional expertise and authority, epistemological reflection on the relationship between theory and practice points toward the social context as relevant to the conceptualization of boundaries. The skills of social scientists may prove helpful to provide data and insights into the conceptualization and navigation of clinical ethics qua profession. Empirical ethics research, which combines empirical description (usually social scientific) with normative-ethical analysis and reflection, is a way forward as we engage and reflect upon issues which have implications for practice standards and professionalization of the role. This requires cooperative engagement of the descriptive and normative disciplines to explore our understandings of boundaries in healthcare ethics practice. This will contribute to the ongoing reflection not only as we envision the professional role but to ensure that it is enacted in practice.

  10. Practice-Based Interdisciplinary Approach and Environmental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Datta


    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary researchers and educators, as community members, creators of knowledge, and environmental activists and practitioners, have a responsibility to build a bridge between community practice, academic scholarship, and professional contributions aimed at establishing environmental sustainability. In this paper, I focus on an undervalued area of environmental politics, practices, and often unarticulated assumptions which underlie human–environmental relations. This article challenges interdisciplinary studies that are not connected with practice by reconfiguring the meaning of a community-based, interdisciplinary approach. Drawing from works by Foucault, Latour, and Haraway, this paper first shows how to reconfigure the meaning of an interdisciplinary approach. Second, using Bourdieu and Brightman’s ethnographic studies as a framework, the paper situates practice as central to our efforts to deconstruct and replace current interdisciplinary initiatives with a practice-based approach. Through a practice-based interdisciplinary approach (PIA, environmental educators and researchers gain an awareness of and learn to make an investment in sustainable communities. As teams of environmental researchers practising in the local community, they are meaningfully involved with the community, with each other, and with the environment.

  11. The Research in e-HRM: Relevance and Implications in the Knowledge Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia TOTOLICI


    Full Text Available This article aims to review current empirical research on electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM and discusses some implications for future research, which will be focused on comparative analysis of how social and cultural factors might influence the implementation and development of e-HRM systems in different E.U. countries. Based on a definition and an initial framework, we analyzed the surveys conducted in this field as well as the case studies focused on practical e-HRM applications, the examined topics and the relevant findings. Another goal of this study is to highlight the gaps between e-HRM and HRIS (Human resource information system, which refers to ICT systems used within HR departments We are also interested in assessing the opportunities provided by Web 2.0 technologies for e-recruitment, the first field of human resource management to make extensive use of web-based technology.

  12. Engaging diverse student audiences in contemporary blended learning environments in Australian higher business education: Implications for Design and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Pye


    Full Text Available This research reports on a student audience engaging in an Australian university’s undergraduate commerce program core unit that is offered across three separate geographic campus locations and online. The research extends upon work undertaken on student engagement in online settings and lies in the domain of blended learning design and practice in the Australian higher education business context. Findings, inter alia, are presented across six major student engagement dimensions as applied to the interplay between online and located/campus learning (i.e. Online Active Learning, Online Social Interaction, Online Collaboration, Online Teaching, Online Assessment, and Online Contact with Staff. Implications for blended learning design, eLearning and practice in such complex environments are examined.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenilde Nogueira Paniago


    Full Text Available This study discusses an investigation done with teachers of a public school, located on countryside, city of Água Boa, Mato Grosso, with a view to looking for new alternatives to the teaching practice on school, by means of using the collaborative realization of projects and researches as pedagogical alternatives. As qualitative approach, the investigation has developed by means of the study of benchmarks, that discuss the research on teaching formation, on teaching practice, education on/of the countryside and, of the projects’ realization of teaching and research with and by teachers. The work enabled to get closer relationship between school and community, to articulate the theoretical knowledge, studied on school, and the life of countryside students, showing the necessity of theoretico-methodological formation with collective engagement of teachers and public politics that propitiate the emergence of conditions to the new practices of teaching on school on/of the countryside by the bias of search.

  14. Web indicators for research evaluation a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Thelwall, Michael


    In recent years there has been an increasing demand for research evaluation within universities and other research-based organisations. In parallel, there has been an increasing recognition that traditional citation-based indicators are not able to reflect the societal impacts of research and are slow to appear. This has led to the creation of new indicators for different types of research impact as well as timelier indicators, mainly derived from the Web. These indicators have been called altmetrics, webometrics or just web metrics. This book describes and evaluates a range of web indicators for aspects of societal or scholarly impact, discusses the theory and practice of using and evaluating web indicators for research assessment and outlines practical strategies for obtaining many web indicators. In addition to describing impact indicators for traditional scholarly outputs, such as journal articles and monographs, it also covers indicators for videos, datasets, software and other non-standard scholarly out...

  15. Research Circles - a method for developing guidance practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This video reports on our work with using research circles to improve our understanding of how to provide guidance and counseling to help young people in danger of dropping out of school. The video is based on the paper: Research Circles -- a method for developing guidance practices, and was pres......This video reports on our work with using research circles to improve our understanding of how to provide guidance and counseling to help young people in danger of dropping out of school. The video is based on the paper: Research Circles -- a method for developing guidance practices......, and was presented at the Conference for Social Justice, Prosperity and Sustainable Employment 2012 by assistant professor Helle Merete Nordentoft from DPU ( The film communicating the research paper was created by Mie Nørgaard...

  16. Threat Assessment and Targeted Violence at Institutions of Higher Education: Implications for Policy and Practice Including Unique Considerations for Community Colleges (United States)

    Bennett, Laura; Bates, Michael


    This article provides an overview of the research on targeted violence, including campus violence, and the implications for policy and practice at institutions of higher education. Unique challenges of threat assessment in the community college setting are explored, and an overview of an effective threat assessment policy and team at William…

  17. Using the World Wide Web to Connect Research and Professional Practice: Towards Evidence-Based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Moody


    Full Text Available In most professional (applied disciplines, research findings take a long time to filter into practice, if they ever do at all. The result of this is under-utilisation of research results and sub-optimal practices. There are a number of reasons for the lack of knowledge transfer. On the "demand side", people working in professional practice have little time available to keep up with the latest research in their field. In addition, the volume of research published each year means that the average practitioner would not have time to read all the research articles in their area of interest even if they devoted all their time to it. From the "supply side", academic research is primarily focused on the production rather than distribution of knowledge. While they have highly developed mechanisms for transferring knowledge among themselves, there is little investment in the distribution of research results be-yond research communities. The World Wide Web provides a potential solution to this problem, as it provides a global information infrastructure for connecting those who produce knowledge (researchers and those who need to apply this knowledge (practitioners. This paper describes two projects which use the World Wide Web to make research results directly available to support decision making in the workplace. The first is a successful knowledge management project in a health department which provides medical staff with on-line access to the latest medical research at the point of care. The second is a project currently in progress to implement a similar system to support decision making in IS practice. Finally, we draw some general lessons about how to improve transfers of knowledge from research and practice, which could be applied in any discipline.

  18. Biology of obesity and weight regain: Implications for clinical practice. (United States)

    Rogge, Mary Madeline; Gautam, Bibha


    Weight loss is recommended as first-line therapy for many chronic illnesses, including obesity. Most patients who do successfully lose weight are unable to maintain their reduced weight. Recent research findings are reviewed and synthesized to explain the biology of obesity, adaptation to weight loss, and weight regain. Weight regain is a common consequence of successful weight loss. Current obesity management strategies fail to take into consideration the underlying genetic and environmental causes of obesity. Available treatment modalities create a negative energy balance that stimulates integrated, persistent neurologic, endocrine, muscle, and adipose tissue adaptation to restore body weight and fat mass, independent of lifestyle changes. Understanding the pathophysiology of obesity and weight loss alters nurse practitioners' responsibilities in caring for patients with obesity. They are responsible for expanding assessment and intervention strategies and offering people with obesity realistic expectations for weight loss and regain. They are obligated to explain weight regain when it occurs to minimize patient frustration. Nurse practitioners have the opportunity to adopt new approaches to patient advocacy, especially in the areas of public policy to improve diagnostic tools and adjunctive therapy for people with obesity. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research: part 2: context, research questions and designs


    Moser, Albine; Korstjens, Irene


    In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By ‘novice’ we mean Master’s students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research f...

  20. Improving the dependability of research in personality and social psychology: recommendations for research and educational practice. (United States)

    Funder, David C; Levine, John M; Mackie, Diane M; Morf, Carolyn C; Sansone, Carol; Vazire, Simine; West, Stephen G


    In this article, the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) Task Force on Publication and Research Practices offers a brief statistical primer and recommendations for improving the dependability of research. Recommendations for research practice include (a) describing and addressing the choice of N (sample size) and consequent issues of statistical power, (b) reporting effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), (c) avoiding "questionable research practices" that can inflate the probability of Type I error, (d) making available research materials necessary to replicate reported results, (e) adhering to SPSP's data sharing policy, (f) encouraging publication of high-quality replication studies, and (g) maintaining flexibility and openness to alternative standards and methods. Recommendations for educational practice include (a) encouraging a culture of "getting it right," (b) teaching and encouraging transparency of data reporting, (c) improving methodological instruction, and (d) modeling sound science and supporting junior researchers who seek to "get it right."


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available “E-waste” is a popular, informal name for electronic products nearing the end of their “useful life”. This includes discarded computers, televisions, VCRs, stereos, copiers, fax machines, electric lamps, cell phones, audio equipment and batteries. E-wastes are considered dangerous, as certain components of some of these electronic products contain materials; such as lead; that are hazardous, depending on their condition and density. If improperly disposed, E-wastes can leach lead and other substances into soil and groundwater posing a threat to human health and environment. Many of these electronic products can be reused, refurbished, or recycled in an environmentally sound manner so that they are less harmful to the ecosystem. This paper highlights the types and hazards of E-wastes particularly the computers’ waste. The dimensions and ethicality of the problem in the third-world countries are reviewed. The needs for the appropriate management of e-waste and options that can be implemented are discussed. After reviewing the Islamic concepts for environmental protection, ethical implications for curriculum development as well research directions are highlighted. Elements for a course on e-waste as well as some across-the-curriculum topics are proposed. This is specially tailored to suit the faculty of Engineering at the International Islamic University-Malaysia.

  2. Improving product development practice: An action-research based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne

    In studies of new product development it has often been concluded that to a large extent new product suc-cess is tunder the influence of companies and long lists of direct norma-tive guide-lines have been formulated. Nevertheless descriptive studi that deve-lopment practice is still far from...... the widely published normative advice. While there may be several reasons for discrepancies between research results and prac-tice this paper focuses on problems of implementation of the identified success factors. Within the research area of NPD-management there has been numerous surveys as well as case...

  3. Practices and health perception of preparation of Brassica vegetables: translating survey data to technological and nutritional implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, P.Y.; Hantoro, I.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.


    Food preparation practices are known to have large nutritional implications on the final product. This article describes survey data on preparation practices of Brassica vegetables and the translation of these data into technological and nutritional implications using knowledge on the mechanisms of

  4. Are all "research fields" equal? Rethinking practice for the use of data from crowdsourcing market places. (United States)

    Gleibs, Ilka H


    New technologies like large-scale social media sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) and crowdsourcing services (e.g., Amazon Mechanical Turk, Crowdflower, Clickworker) are impacting social science research and providing many new and interesting avenues for research. The use of these new technologies for research has not been without challenges, and a recently published psychological study on Facebook has led to a widespread discussion of the ethics of conducting large-scale experiments online. Surprisingly little has been said about the ethics of conducting research using commercial crowdsourcing marketplaces. In this article, I focus on the question of which ethical questions are raised by data collection with crowdsourcing tools. I briefly draw on the implications of Internet research more generally, and then focus on the specific challenges that research with crowdsourcing tools faces. I identify fair pay and the related issue of respect for autonomy, as well as problems with the power dynamic between researcher and participant, which has implications for withdrawal without prejudice, as the major ethical challenges of crowdsourced data. Furthermore, I wish to draw attention to how we can develop a "best practice" for researchers using crowdsourcing tools.

  5. Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: A Roadmap about Good Clinical Practice and Patient Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Frati


    Full Text Available The latest research achievements in the field of stem cells led in 2016 to the publication of “Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation” by the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR. Updating the topics covered in previous publications, the new recommendations offer interesting ethical and scientific insights. Under the common principles of research integrity, protection of patient’s welfare, respect for the research subjects, transparency and social justice, the centrality of good clinical practice, and informed consent in research and translational medicine is supported. The guidelines implement the abovementioned publications, requiring rigor in all areas of research, promoting the validity of the scientific activity results and emphasizing the need for an accurate and efficient public communication. This paper aims to analyze the aforementioned guidelines in order to provide a valid interpretive tool for experts. In particular, a research activity focused on the bioethical, scientific, and social implications of the new recommendations is carried out in order to provide food for thought. Finally, as an emerging issue of potential impact of current guidelines, an overview on implications of compensation for egg donation is offered.

  6. Motivation and Gifted Students: Implications of Theory and Research (United States)

    Clinkenbeard, Pamela R.


    An analysis of contemporary motivation theories reveals implications for gifted and talented students. The expectancy-value framework, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation theories, goal orientations, self-efficacy and other self-perceptions, and attribution theory are described and discussed with respect to implications for the psychology and education…

  7. Researcher Mobility at a US Research-Intensive University: Implications for Research and Internationalization Strategies (United States)

    Payumo, Jane G.; Lan, George; Arasu, Prema


    This study offers a unique lens on the patterns, productivity, and impact of researcher mobility at a US research-intensive university. Bibliometric data for Washington State University (WSU) was extracted from Elsevier's Scopus database and analyzed for the 10-year period from 2002 to 2012. We grouped researchers into four categories based on…

  8. Sex as a Biological Variable in Emergency Medicine Research and Clinical Practice: A Brief Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J. McGregor


    Full Text Available The National Institutes of Health recently highlighted the significant role of sex as a biological variable (SABV in research design, outcome and reproducibility, mandating that this variable be accounted for in all its funded research studies. This move has resulted in a rapidly increasing body of literature on SABV with important implications for changing the clinical practice of emergency medicine (EM. Translation of this new knowledge to the bedside requires an understanding of how sex-based research will ultimately impact patient care. We use three case-based scenarios in acute myocardial infarction, acute ischemic stroke and important considerations in pharmacologic therapy administration to highlight available data on SABV in evidence-based research to provide the EM community with an important foundation for future integration of patient sex in the delivery of emergency care as gaps in research are filled.

  9. Situated Literacy Practices Amongst Artisans in the South West of Nigeria: Developmental and Pedagogical Implications (United States)

    Ade-Ojo, Gordon O.


    This paper reports an aspect of a larger study on literacy practices, needs and perceptions of artisans in a part of the South West region of Nigeria. Using an ethnographic approach to research, it identified a variety of literacy practices, events and mediums, thus confirming the notion of literacy as social practice. The study employed a…

  10. Shifting the Focus: Children's Image-Making Practices and Their Implications for Analysis (United States)

    Lomax, Helen Jayne


    This paper provides analytic focus on the productive and editorial contexts of children and young people's image-making, making visible its implications for the analysis of photographs. Drawing on participatory research in which children and young people worked alongside researchers to create a visual narrative of their lived experiences of…

  11. Colon cleansing protocol in children: research conditions vs. clinical practice. (United States)

    Elitsur, Yoram; Balfaqih, Yaslam; Preston, Deborah


     Colon preparation rates are the limiting factor for a successful diagnostic colonoscopy in children. Different colon cleansing protocols have been published for use in children. Unfortunately, the applicability of those published research protocols has not been formally evaluated in routine clinical practice. We investigated the success rate of our previously published colon cleansing protocol as utilized in our clinical practice.  This was a retrospective study. In the clinical practice, the colon cleansing protocol included PEG-3350 at a dose of 2 g/kg/day plus Dulcolax (Bisacodyl, Boehringer Ingelheim, TX USA) 5 mg/day for 2 days. Adequate colon preparation was graded between 1 - 5, as previously described, and grade ≥ 4.0 was considered an adequate preparation. Patients were instructed to complete a questionnaire that included PEG-3350 dose, number of stools per day, consistency of each stool, and side effects (vomiting, abdominal pain). Clinical and endoscopic results were compared between the protocol under research conditions and routine practice.  The success rate of the colon preparation in our clinical practice was similar to the results observed under our research protocol (75 % vs. 73.6 %). Moreover, the total number of stools, stool consistency, and the intubation rate of the terminal ileum were also similar. We concluded, that in our experience, the colon cleansing protocol used under research conditions was effective and appropriate for use in routine clinical practice.  We recommend testing each new protocol under the routine conditions of clinical practice to confirm its applicability for general practitioners.

  12. Systemic accident analysis: examining the gap between research and practice. (United States)

    Underwood, Peter; Waterson, Patrick


    The systems approach is arguably the dominant concept within accident analysis research. Viewing accidents as a result of uncontrolled system interactions, it forms the theoretical basis of various systemic accident analysis (SAA) models and methods. Despite the proposed benefits of SAA, such as an improved description of accident causation, evidence within the scientific literature suggests that these techniques are not being used in practice and that a research-practice gap exists. The aim of this study was to explore the issues stemming from research and practice which could hinder the awareness, adoption and usage of SAA. To achieve this, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 42 safety experts from ten countries and a variety of industries, including rail, aviation and maritime. This study suggests that the research-practice gap should be closed and efforts to bridge the gap should focus on ensuring that systemic methods meet the needs of practitioners and improving the communication of SAA research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Significance chasing in research practice: causes, consequences and possible solutions. (United States)

    Ware, Jennifer J; Munafò, Marcus R


    The low reproducibility of findings within the scientific literature is a growing concern. This may be due to many findings being false positives which, in turn, can misdirect research effort and waste money. We review factors that may contribute to poor study reproducibility and an excess of 'significant' findings within the published literature. Specifically, we consider the influence of current incentive structures and the impact of these on research practices. The prevalence of false positives within the literature may be attributable to a number of questionable research practices, ranging from the relatively innocent and minor (e.g. unplanned post-hoc tests) to the calculated and serious (e.g. fabrication of data). These practices may be driven by current incentive structures (e.g. pressure to publish), alongside the preferential emphasis placed by journals on novelty over veracity. There are a number of potential solutions to poor reproducibility, such as new publishing formats that emphasize the research question and study design, rather than the results obtained. This has the potential to minimize significance chasing and non-publication of null findings. Significance chasing, questionable research practices and poor study reproducibility are the unfortunate consequence of a 'publish or perish' culture and a preference among journals for novel findings. It is likely that top-down change implemented by those with the ability to modify current incentive structure (e.g. funders and journals) will be required to address problems of poor reproducibility. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Opportunities and challenges in social pharmacy and pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M


    Pharmacy practice and social pharmacy are two important research areas within pharmaceutical and health sciences. As the disciplines have undergone and are still undergoing changes, it is useful to reflect on the current state of their research as the basis for discussing further development....... The two areas are currently beset by a lack of consensus and charged all too often with evaluating narrowly focused pharmacy services. With the added challenge of diminished funding for research and the pressures to publish results, these fields have to accommodate a much broader research framework than...

  15. A community of practice: librarians in a biomedical research network. (United States)

    De Jager-Loftus, Danielle P; Midyette, J David; Harvey, Barbara


    Providing library and reference services within a biomedical research community presents special challenges for librarians, especially those in historically lower-funded states. These challenges can include understanding needs, defining and communicating the library's role, building relationships, and developing and maintaining general and subject specific knowledge. This article describes a biomedical research network and the work of health sciences librarians at the lead intensive research institution with librarians from primarily undergraduate institutions and tribal colleges. Applying the concept of a community of practice to a collaborative effort suggests how librarians can work together to provide effective reference services to researchers in biomedicine.

  16. "Suffering" in palliative sedation: Conceptual Analysis and Implications for Decision-Making in Clinical Practice. (United States)

    Bozzaro, Claudia; Schildmann, Jan


    Palliative sedation is an increasingly used and, simultaneously, challenging practice at the end of life. Many controversies associated with this therapy are rooted in implicit differences regarding the understanding of "suffering" as prerequisite for palliative sedation. The aim of this paper is to inform the current debates by a conceptual analysis of two different philosophical accounts of suffering, (1) the subjective and holistic concept and (2) the objective and gradual concept and by a clinical-ethical analysis of the implications of each account for decisions about palliative sedation. We will show that while the subjective and holistic account of suffering fits well with the holistic approach of palliative care, there are considerable challenges to justify limits to requests for palliative sedation. By contrast, the objective and gradual account fits well with the need for an objective basis for clinical decisions in the context of palliative sedation, but runs the risk of falling short when considering the individual and subjective experience of suffering at the end of life. We will conclude with a plea for the necessity of further combined conceptual and empirical research to develop a sound and feasible understanding of suffering which can contribute to consistent decision-making about palliative sedation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Exploring a pedagogical approach to integrating research, practice and teaching. (United States)

    Newton, Jennifer M; McKenna, Lisa G; Gilmour, Carole; Fawcett, Jacqueline


    Application of evidence is accepted as an important component of clinical practice. Teaching research to undergraduate students has been reported internationally as a challenge, particularly for nurse educators. In this paper, reported is a strategy designed to enhance research learning for undergraduate midwifery students at one university, which formed part of a larger, international investigation into women's responses to caesarean birth. Following theory classes and briefings, students worked with their clinical educators in practice to interview women using existing tools, and were engaged in qualitative data analysis. A number of challenges were encountered throughout the process, both for the educators and students. However, the teaching approach provided benefits for students in learning about midwifery research. Recommended as essential is for continued development of pedagogical approaches that make research tangible for students. Furthermore, provision of support for clinical staff working with students is important for success of such approaches.

  18. A practical workflow for making anatomical atlases for biological research. (United States)

    Wan, Yong; Lewis, A Kelsey; Colasanto, Mary; van Langeveld, Mark; Kardon, Gabrielle; Hansen, Charles


    The anatomical atlas has been at the intersection of science and art for centuries. These atlases are essential to biological research, but high-quality atlases are often scarce. Recent advances in imaging technology have made high-quality 3D atlases possible. However, until now there has been a lack of practical workflows using standard tools to generate atlases from images of biological samples. With certain adaptations, CG artists' workflow and tools, traditionally used in the film industry, are practical for building high-quality biological atlases. Researchers have developed a workflow for generating a 3D anatomical atlas using accessible artists' tools. They used this workflow to build a mouse limb atlas for studying the musculoskeletal system's development. This research aims to raise the awareness of using artists' tools in scientific research and promote interdisciplinary collaborations between artists and scientists. This video ( demonstrates a workflow for creating an anatomical atlas.

  19. Delivering research data management services fundamentals of good practice

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Sarah; Whyte, Angus


    The research landscape is changing, with key global research funders now requiring institutions to demonstrate how they will preserve and share research data. However, the practice of structured research data management is very new, and the construction of services remains experimental and in need of models and standards of approach. This groundbreaking guide will lead researchers, institutions and policy makers through the processes needed to set up and run effective institutional research data management services. This book will provide a step-by-step explanation of the components for an institutional service - effectively a 'how to guide'. Case studies from the newly emerging service infrastructures in the UK, USA and Australia will draw out the lessons learnt from working (or near to delivery) exemplars. Different approaches are highlighted and compared, for example, a case study of a researcher-focused strategy from Australia contrasted with a national, top-down approach. A chapter on the redeveloped UK ...

  20. Public health: disconnections between policy, practice and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gerjo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health includes policy, practice and research but to sufficiently connect academic research, practice and public health policy appears to be difficult. Collaboration between policy, practice and research is imperative to obtaining more solid evidence in public health. However, the three domains do not easily work together because they emanate from three more or less independent 'niches'. Work cycles of each niche have the same successive steps: problem recognition, approach formulation, implementation, and evaluation, but are differently worked out. So far, the research has focused on agenda-setting which belongs to the first step, as expressed by Kingdon, and on the use of academic knowledge in policy makers' decision-making processes which belongs to the fourth step, as elaborated by Weiss. In addition, there are more steps in the policy-making process where exchange is needed. Method A qualitative descriptive research was conducted by literature search. We analyzed the four steps of the policy, practice and research work cycles. Next, we interpreted the main conflicting aspects as disconnections for each step. Results There are some conspicuous differences that strengthen the niche character of each domain and hamper integration and collaboration. Disconnections ranged from formulating priorities in problem statements to power roles, appraisal of evidence, work attitudes, work pace, transparency of goals, evaluation and continuation strategies and public accountability. Creating awareness of these disconnections may result in more compatibility between researchers, policy makers and practitioners. Conclusion We provide an analysis that can be used by public health services-related researchers, practitioners and policy makers to be aware of the risk for disconnections. A synthesis of the social, practical and scientific relevance of public health problems should be the starting point for a dialogue that seeks to