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Sample records for research letters erl

  1. Carbon dioxide issue: A perspective for the energy research laboratories. Report No. ERL 90-46(TR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C J; Read, P J

    1990-01-01

    This document presents a major revision of CANMET's Energy Research Laboratories' (ERL) view on atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide from its original policy in early 1989. The report covers ERL's mandate to deal with pollutants caused by the production, upgrading and utilization of fuels, concentrating on carbon dioxide emissions, and identifies new and improved fuel utilization and energy conversion technologies. It indicates strategies for implementing these technologies to decrease atmospheric pollution, toxic wastes and carbon dioxide emissions in an economically acceptable way; explains what ERL has already achieved; and presents proposals to expand ERL's work to lead Canada in the development of environmentally sound fuel technologies. Strategies not considered include improvement in motor vehicle efficiency and the enhancement of natural biological carbon dioxide absorbers by preserving forests and coral reefs and other crustaceans in oceans.

  2. EDITORIAL: The need and challenge for Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2006-11-01

    Why another journal? This is the inevitable question that every effort to launch a new journal must, and should, address. A common statistic in the business world is that nine out of ten new restaurants fail. In the academic world something similar, but less definitive, can happen: a potentially interesting, but practically flawed, effort can be launched, never truly build an intellectual community, but then continue as a sub-critical, little-known journal for far too long. The challenge any new publication, academic or professional, faces is thus extreme. A new journal must find a way to usefully compete, and bring new value, in the face of multiple existing outlets for significant results, tremendous barriers to establishing a 'track record' or 'name recognition' against existing publications, and a print and a cyberspace increasingly desperate in the search for 'content', scientific or otherwise. In the case of Environmental Research Letters (ERL), however, these questions answered themselves and, as a result, I cannot imagine a more critically needed new publication. Indeed, the goal of ERL is to be more than simply one more good new journal. It is to be a place—both physical and online—that those engaged in environmental issues—from researchers within the physical and natural sciences, to those concerned with applied systems studies, modeling and simulation techniques, practical engagement in environmental activism, and developing, conducting or critiquing policy, legal, or business efforts—will all want to go to read, and to engage with colleagues. The environmental field has witnessed an incredible intellectual and professional proliferation. The areas of ecological resilience, global change science, policy, law and economics, industrial ecology, green buildings, environmental genomics, environmental archaeology, and the sociology of environmental movements have become increasingly regarded and, to varying degrees, recognized themselves as major

  3. EDITORIAL: Celebrating one year of Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2008-03-01

    The one-year anniversary is a critical milestone for a new journal. At that point there are enough articles published to begin to define the scope and readership, yet generally not enough of a track-record for the full community to regard the new entrant as a fixture and a source of 'must read' material. Environmental Research Letters (ERL) has set itself a particularly large and interesting challenge: to help connect the vast community of environmental researchers, practitioners, activists, and interested informed observers. ERL and its partner online resource base and community website, environmentalresearchweb, fills a major void: a single locus for rapid publication of peer-reviewed and highly interdisciplinary material spanning literally every aspect of environmental research and thought. The wide range of material that falls squarely into the purview of ERL—from restoration ecology to global change science and politics, to toxicology and environmental justice, to environmental and social impacts of energy conversion—illustrate just how diverse a 'community' we hope to serve. Thanks to an exceptional editorial staff and board, and a diverse range of fascinating contributed papers, ERL is off to a particularly fast start. ERL has both a small advisory board and a larger editorial board. The board serves several functions, beginning with the traditional one of taking the lead on reviews of papers in such a dizzying array of areas. This task alone is a challenge because of the commitment ERL has made to exceptionally rapid publication: a goal of 90 days from submission to online publication for accepted papers. This goal, which we have generally met, includes the publication of complementary (but not always complimentary) 500 1000 word commentaries on a number of papers. To accomplish this alone the editorial board, and the reviewers, have been heroic, and deserve a huge round of applause. IOP Publishing too, has been truly wonderful in making this happen

  4. It takes a community to define a discipline: the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters It takes a community to define a discipline: the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Dan

    2012-03-01

    When does a scientific journal become a community? This is not the question that we explicitly set out to address five years ago when IOP Publishing agreed to launch a new format interdisciplinary journal, Environmental Research Letters (ERL). However, on reflection, that is what ERL has become, and what it needs to continue to explore during its next years of growth and evolution. The motivation for founding ERL was initially more focused: to alter the mode of publication and review in the diverse, yet linked fields of environmental and resource studies and to ensure new levels of interaction, inclusion and equity, providing the platform for the world-changing research findings published in ERL. The key driver in this conversation was the issue of access. Specifically the situation that too many research findings were produced by, and for, very specific academic 'clubs', and that the opportunity to engage in discussion and debate over important emerging findings about our world was being severely limited by the process of publication in frequently slow-to-publish and tremendously expensive traditional academic journals. The need for change was, and still is, obvious. Environmental and resource studies have been the fastest growing and most diverse nexus of academic research, private sector concern and public sector action. Universities worldwide are adding academic and extension professorships and staff as well as experiencing increasing student interest in this area at a record pace. Corporate social and environmental sustainability has been changing dramatically and, in lurching fits and starts, a mosaic of environmental regulations—both carrots and sticks—are emerging worldwide. The 'Rio + 20' Earth Summit in June 2012 will be a testament to both the dramatic broadening of this interest, and the frustration about the lack of progress at building strong global institutions to permit international cooperation. This is a clear call for an on-going and evolving

  5. EDITORIAL: 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Dan; Wright, Guillaume

    2011-12-01

    To celebrate the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) the publishers of the journal, IOP Publishing, have awarded a prize for the five best articles published in ERL since the journal began in 2006. The procedure for deciding the winning articles was as thorough as possible to ensure that the most outstanding articles would win the prize. A shortlist of 25 nominated research articles, five for each year since ERL was launched, which were chosen based on a range of criteria including novelty, scientific impact, readership, broad appeal and wider media coverage, was selected. The ERL Editorial Board then assessed and rated these 25 articles in order to choose a winning article for each year. We would like to announce that the following articles have been awarded ERL's 5th anniversary best article prize: 2006/7 The Bodélé depression: a single spot in the Sahara that provides most of the mineral dust to the Amazon forest Ilan Koren, Yoram J Kaufman, Richard Washington, Martin C Todd, Yinon Rudich, J Vanderlei Martins and Daniel Rosenfeld 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 2008 Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought Ning Zeng, Jin-Ho Yoon, Jose A Marengo, Ajit Subramaniam, Carlos A Nobre, Annarita Mariotti and J David Neelin 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014002 2009 How difficult is it to recover from dangerous levels of global warming? J A Lowe, C Huntingford, S C B Raper, C D Jones, S K Liddicoat and L K Gohar 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 2010 Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia Matti Kummu, Philip J Ward, Hans de Moel and Olli Varis 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 2011 Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas Jukka Heinonen and Seppo Junnila 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Our congratulations go to these authors. In recognition of their outstanding work, we are delighted to offer all of the authors of the winning articles free

  6. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  7. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  8. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  9. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  10. HIGH-CURRENT ERL-BASED ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEN-ZVI, I.

    2005-01-01

    The design of an electron cooler must take into account both electron beam dynamics issues as well as the electron cooling physics. Research towards high-energy electron cooling of RHIC is in its 3rd year at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The luminosity upgrade of RHIC calls for electron cooling of various stored ion beams, such as 100 GeV/A gold ions at collision energies. The necessary electron energy of 54 MeV is clearly out of reach for DC accelerator system of any kind. The high energy also necessitates a bunched beam, with a high electron bunch charge, low emittance and small energy spread. The Collider-Accelerator Department adopted the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) for generating the high-current, high-energy and high-quality electron beam. The RHIC electron cooler ERL will use four Superconducting RF (SRF) 5-cell cavities, designed to operate at ampere-class average currents with high bunch charges. The electron source will be a superconducting, 705.75 MHz laser-photocathode RF gun, followed up by a superconducting Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). An R and D ERL is under construction to demonstrate the ERL at the unprecedented average current of 0.5 amperes. Beam dynamics performance and luminosity enhancement are described for the case of magnetized and non-magnetized electron cooling of RHIC

  11. Letters to those who Dare Feel: Using Reflective Letter-Writing to Explore the Emotionality of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Pithouse-Morgan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using reflective letter-writing as a method of generating data, a group of four researchers embarked on a collaborative autoethnographic inquiry into the emotional dimensions of researching social aspects of HIV & AIDS. In this article, we use the medium of a narrative dialogue to represent and re-examine our reflective letter-writing method. The dialogue draws attention to key features of reflective letter-writing as a collaborative autoethnographic research method and, in so doing, highlights and explores the nature, potential significance, and challenges of this method. Our discussion points to the value of a collaborative process of reflective letter-writing as a way for researchers to access and portray emotional aspects of their research experience, to deepen their engagement with these emotional dimensions, and to gain insight into their own and others' lived research experiences.

  12. Design study of the compact ERL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajima, Ryoichi; Nakamura, Norio; Sakanaka, Shogo; Kobayashi, Yukinori

    2008-02-01

    Energy-recovery linac (ERL) is a promising device for future X-ray light sources, which can produce coherent X-rays and femto-second X-ray pulses. In Japan, we have organized a collaboration team, consisting of the members of KEK, JAEA, ISSP and other laboratories, toward realization of future ERL light sources, and started R and D efforts to establish accelerator technologies relevant to the ERL light source. In order to demonstrate all the accelerator technologies working together, we have decided to build a small facility, the Compact ERL. This report presents a design study of the Compact ERL, which includes R and D issues for each accelerator component, studies on the beam dynamics, performance of the Compact ERL as a light source of THz and X-ray. (author)

  13. R&D ERL: Magnetic measurements of the ERL magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, A.

    2010-08-01

    The magnet system of ERL consists of G5 solenoids, 6Q12 quadrupoles with 0.58 T/m gradient, 3D60 dipoles with 0.4 T central field, 15 and 30 degree Z-bend injection line dipole/quadrupole combined function magnets, and extraction line magnets. More details about the magnets can be found in a report by G. Mahler. Field quality in all the 6Q12 quadrupoles, 3D60 dipoles and the injection line magnets has been measured with either a rotating coil, or a Hall probe mapper. This report presents the results of these magnetic measurements.

  14. Optic issues in ongoing ERL projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.L.; Muratori, B.D.; Owen, H.L.; Hoffstaetter, G.H.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Calaga, R.; Fischer, W.; Chang, X.Y.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; MacKay, W.W.; Montag, C.; Parker, B.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.; Ruggiero, A.; Satogata, T.; Surrow, B.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Yakimenko, V.; Zhang, S.Y.; Piot, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    A wide range of optics issues for energy recovery linac (ERL)-based projects are illustrated through the presentation of ongoing projects covering both light sources, at Cornell and Daresbury and high energy and nuclear physics accelerators at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. This presented range of projects demonstrates how the different designs teams see the challenges of studying and solving optics issues for their particular project's ERLs, with studies appropriate to the stage of maturity of the project. Finally, as an illustration of the complexity and detail behind a single aspect of ERL optics design we present an overview of the highly important generic topic of longitudinal phase space evolution in ERLs

  15. R&D ERL: Vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the {approx}10{sup -9} torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2{sup o}K is reduced to low 10{sup -11} torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The

  16. R and D ERL: Vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the ∼10 -9 torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2 o K is reduced to low 10 -11 torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The cryostat vacuum thermally

  17. Derived ERLs for inhalation of alpha-emitting aerorols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    Derived alpha action levels are expressed as dpm/m 3 and give the airborne concentration of an assumed mixture of α-emitters which if inhaled for a period of 4 hours would result in a dose commitment to members of the critical group in the exposed population equal to the emergency reference levels (ERLs) of dose recommended by the Medical Research Council (1975). The period of 4 hours is chosen as a realistic time during which an assessment of the severity of a release may be made and appropriate countermeasures instituted. The derived α ERLs are set with reference to the potential range of isotopic releases for a specific reactor system and in the case of gas-cooled magnox reactors, a value of 10 3 dpm/m 3 (170 Bqm -3 ) has been used. This level was based upon the lung and GI tract models originally recommended by ICRP 2 (1959:1964) and revised ERLs for the inhalation of α-emitters consequent upon the improved metabolic models subsequently proposed by the ICRP (1966:1972) are evaluated. It is shown that the derived α ERLs for irradiated magnox and AGR fuels are largely independent of the physico-chemical forms of the released material, while variations with cooling time of fuel are also discussed. In addition, the special limits imposed by the chemical toxicity of uranium when inhaled in a soluble, low enriched form are briefly outlined

  18. Contemporary trends in the research of the Letter to Philemon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Adamczewski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the period of last two or three decades interpretation of the Letter to Philemon has undergone significant changes. Exegetes applying the historical-critical method proposed recently several new ways of reconstructing the situation that occasioned Paul’s writing the letter. It has been suggested e.g. that Onesimus was no runaway, but probably an envoy from Colossae, or Philemon’s estranged brother, or a slave justifiably seeking intercession, or a roamer. Synchronic methods applied by many exegetes (structural, rhetorical, narrative and pragmatic criticism elucidate various kinds of influence of the letter upon the reader. More and more popular becomes also nowadays manifold liberationist approach. However, beyond applying these various hermeneutic procedures there is also, at least for believing exegetes, an important task of adequate explaining the significance of the Letter to Philemon as an inspired writing.

  19. The JLab high power ERL light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, G.R.; Behre, C.; Benson, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on an Energy-Recovered (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160MeV electron beam and an average current of 10mA in 75MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz ∼ half cycle pulse whose average brightness is >5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20W of average power extracted [Carr, et al., Nature 420 (2002) 153]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100fs pulses with >200W of average power. The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [Neil, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 662]: up to 10kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14μm in 400fs pulses at up to 74.85MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000nm light at up to 3kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10ms long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser deposition and ablation, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the system and

  20. The JLab high power ERL light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.R. Neil; C. Behre; S.V. Benson; M. Bevins; G. Biallas; J. Boyce; J. Coleman; L.A. Dillon-Townes; D. Douglas; H.F. Dylla; R. Evans; A. Grippo; D. Gruber; J. Gubeli; D. Hardy; C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Jordan; M.J. Kelley; L. Merminga; J. Mammosser; W. Moore; N. Nishimori; E. Pozdeyev; J. Preble; R. Rimmer; Michelle D. Shinn; T. Siggins; C. Tennant; R. Walker; G.P. Williams and S. Zhang

    2005-03-19

    A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on an Energy-Recovered, (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160 MeV electron beam and an average current of 10 mA in 75 MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz {approx} half cycle pulse whose average brightness is > 5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20 W of average power extracted[1]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100 fs pulses with >200 W of average power. The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [2]: up to 10 kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14 microns in 400 fs pulses at up to 74.85 MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000 nm light at up to 3 kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10 microseconds long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser deposition and ablation, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the system and discuss some of the discoveries we have made

  1. Status of a Plan for an ERL Extension to CESR

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffstaetter, Georg Heinz; Belomestnykh, Sergey; Bilderback, Donald H; Billing, Michael G; Greenwald, Zipi; Gruner, Sol M; Li, Yulin; Liepe, Matthias; Padamsee, Hasan; Sagan, David; Sinclair, Charles K; Smolenski, Karl W; Song, Changsheng; Sung-Hwoon Choi, Joseph; Talman, Richard M; Tigner, Maury

    2005-01-01

    We describe the status of plans to build an Energy-Recovery Linac (ERL) X-ray facility at Cornell University. This 5 GeV ERL is an upgrade of the CESR ring that currently powers the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Due to its very small electron-beam emittances, it would dramatically improve the capabilities of the light source and result in X-ray beams orders of magnitude better than any existing storage ring light source. The emittances are based upon simulations for currents that are competitive with ring-based sources. The ERL design that is presented has to allow for non-destructive transport of these small emittances. The design includes a series of X-ray beamlines for specific areas of research. As an upgrade of the existing storage ring, special attention is given to reuse of many of the existing ring components. Options of bunch compression are discussed, tolerances for emittance growth are specified, and simulations of the beam-breakup instability and methods of increasing its thresho...

  2. Physics Challenges for ERL Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lia Merminga

    2004-07-01

    We present an overview of the physics challenges encountered in the design and operation of Energy Recovering Linac (ERL) based light sources. These challenges include the generation and preservation of low emittance, high-average current beams, manipulating and preserving the transverse and longitudinal phase space, control of the multipass beam breakup instability, efficient extraction of higher order mode power and RF control and stability of the superconducting cavities. These key R&D issues drive the design and technology choices for proposed ERL light sources. Simulations and calculations of these processes will be presented and compared with experimental data obtained at the Jefferson Lab FEL Upgrade, a 10 mA ERL light source presently in commissioning, and during a 1 GeV demonstration of energy recovery at CEBAF.

  3. eRHIC ERL modeling in Zgoubi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meot, F.; Brooks, S.; Hao, Y.; Jing, Y.; Ptitsyn, V.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.

    2016-01-01

    This Note discusses on-going work regarding the modeling of eRHIC ERL in the ray-tracing code Zgoubi. The various pieces of the recirculator puzzle, their optical properties and their assemblage into an operational input data file in are addressed. The Note reports in particular on preparatory stages toward extensive end-to-end 6D polarized electron bunch transport simulations, which yield methods, as well a series of preliminary qualitative outcomes, discussed as well.

  4. Resource Letter MP-3: The Manhattan Project and Related Nuclear Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2016-10-01

    This Resource Letter is a supplement to the earlier Resource Letters MP-1 and MP-2, and provides further sources on the Manhattan Project and related research. Books, review papers, journal articles, videos, and websites are cited for the following topics: general works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, foreign wartime nuclear programs and related allied intelligence, the use of the bombs against Hiroshima and Nagasaki, technical papers of historical interest, postwar policy and technical developments, and educational materials. Together, these three Resource Letters describe nearly 400 sources of information on the Manhattan Project.

  5. Resource Letter MP-2: The Manhattan project and related nuclear research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2011-02-01

    This Resource Letter is a supplement to my earlier Resource Letter MP-1 and provides further sources on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: General works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, foreign wartime programs and allied intelligence, technical papers of historical interest, and postwar policy and technical developments. I also give a list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues.

  6. Template for letter of approval by Research Supervisor

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Liliane Castets-Poupart

    a) As research supervisor of J. Smith, I confirm that I approve and support the research proposal submitted by the candidate. b) J. Smith has successfully completed the following course(s):. STAT 890: Statistics, Survey Design and Analysis INAF 540: International Affairs Dynamics. ECON 700: Qualitative Research Data.

  7. Template for letter of approval by Research Supervisor

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Liliane Castets-Poupart

    a) the approval of the candidate's final version of their research proposal (not just the research topic) by the research supervisor; b) the list of courses already completed and still to be completed by the candidate in the master's/PhD program; c) confirmation that all courses will be completed, and, for PhD candidates,.

  8. Open Letter to Research Councils UK: Rebuttal of ALPSP Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Berners-Lee, Tim; De Roure, Dave; Harnad, Stevan; Shadbolt, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    The Research Councils of the UK (RCUK) propose to require that the authors of all journal articles resulting from RCUK-funded research must make them openly accessible by self-archiving them on the web in order maximise their usage and impact. ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers) claim that this will have a negative effect on journals, but the only evidence they provide fails to support their claim and all existing evidence is to the contrary: Journal publication...

  9. Method for energy recovery of spent ERL beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marhauser, Frank; Hannon, Fay; Rimmer, Robert; Whitney, R. Roy

    2018-01-16

    A method for recovering energy from spent energy recovered linac (ERL) beams. The method includes adding a plurality of passive decelerating cavities at the beam dump of the ERL, adding one or more coupling waveguides between the passive decelerating cavities, setting an adequate external Q (Qext) to adjust to the beam loading situation, and extracting the RF energy through the coupling waveguides.

  10. Resource Letter MP-1: The Manhattan Project and related nuclear research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2005-09-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: general works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, the German nuclear program, and technical papers of historical interest. A list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues is also given.

  11. Ferrite HOM Absorber for the RHIC ERL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn,H.; Choi, E.M.; Hammons, L.

    2008-10-01

    A superconducting Energy Recovery Linac is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as test bed for RHIC upgrades. The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity for the Energy-Recovery linac at RHIC is performed exclusively by two ferrite absorbers. The ferrite properties have been measured in ferrite-loaded pill box cavities resulting in the permeability values given by a first-order Debye model for the tiled absorber structure and an equivalent permeability value for computer simulations with solid ring dampers. Measured and simulated results for the higher-order modes in the prototype copper cavity are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the finished niobium cavity are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes in the ERL. by the ferrite absorbers.

  12. Geophysical Research Letters: New policies improve top-cited geosciences journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calais, Eric; Diffenbaugh, Noah; D'Odorico, Paolo; Harris, Ruth; Knorr, Wolfgang; Lavraud, Benoit; Mueller, Anne; Peterson, William; Rignot, Eric; Srokosz, Meric; Strutton, Peter; Tyndall, Geoff; Wysession, Michael; Williams, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Geophysical Research Letters (GRL) is the American Geophysical Union's premier journal of fast, groundbreaking communication. It rapidly publishes high- impact,letter-length articles, and it is the top-cited multidisciplinary geosciences journal over the past 10 years, with an impact factor that increased again in 2009, to 3.204. For manuscripts submitted to GRL, the median time to first and final decision is 23 and 27 days, respectively—a 35% improvement since 2007—and the median time from submission to publication is 13 weeks for 90% of GRL papers—a 25% improvement since 2007. Among high-impact publications in the geosciences, GRL has the fastest turnaround.

  13. DC photoemission electron guns as ERL sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, Charles K.

    2006-01-01

    Very-high-voltage DC electron guns, delivering moderate duration bunches from photoemission cathodes, and followed by conventional drift bunching and acceleration, offer a practical solution for an ERL injector. In a variant of this scheme, a DC gun is placed in close proximity to a superconducting RF accelerator cavity, with few or no active elements between the gun and cavity. The principal technical challenge with such electron guns arises from field emission from the cathode electrode and its support structure. Field emission may result in voltage breakdown across the cathode-anode gap, or a punch-through failure of the insulator holding off the cathode potential, as well as lesser though still serious problems. Various means to mitigate these problems are described. The operational lifetime of high quantum efficiency photocathodes in these guns is determined by the vacuum conditions, through phenomena such as chemical poisoning and ion back-bombardment. Minimization of the field strength on electrode structures pushes high-voltage DC guns toward large dimensions and, correspondingly, large outgassing loads, but it is also true that these guns offer many opportunities for achieving excellent vacuum conditions. Good solutions to vacuum problems that had previously limited cathode lifetime have been demonstrated in recent years. Designs for DC guns presently in use and planned for the near future will be described. The parameters necessary for a 100 mA average current, very-high-voltage DC gun with a photocathode operational lifetime greater than 100 h appear to be within reach, but have yet to be demonstrated. A 1 A average current source with good cathode operational lifetime will require developments beyond the present state-of-the-art

  14. A Review of NASA Human Research Program's Scientific Merit Processes: Letter Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelczyk, James A. (Editor); Strawbridge, Larisa M. (Editor); Schultz, Andrea M. (Editor); Liverman, Catharyn T. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the Committee on the Review of NASA Human Research Program's (HRP's) Scientific Merit Assessment Processes in December 2011. The committee was asked to evaluate the scientific merit assessment processes that are applied to directed research tasks2 funded through the HRP and to determine best practices from similar assessment processes that are used in other federal agencies. This letter report and its recommendations are the product of a 10-member ad hoc committee, which included individuals who had previously conducted research under the HRP, were familiar with the HRP s research portfolio and operations, had specific knowledge of peer review processes, or were familiar with scientific merit assessment processes used in other organizations and federal agencies, such as the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); National Institutes of Health (NIH); National Science Foundation (NSF); and U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA), Defense (DOD), and Transportation.

  15. Deflecting cavity for beam diagnostics at Cornell ERL injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belomestnykh, Sergey; Bazarov, Ivan; Shemelin, Valery; Sikora, John; Smolenski, Karl; Veshcherevich, Vadim

    2010-01-01

    A single-cell, 1300-MHz, TM110-like mode vertically deflecting cavity is designed and built for beam slice emittance measurements, and to study the temporal response of negative electron affinity photocathodes in the ERL injector at Cornell University. We describe the cavity shape optimization procedure, RF and mechanical design, its performance with beam.

  16. Generation of laser Compton gamma-rays using Compact ERL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hajima, Ryoichi; Nagai, Ryoji; Hayakawa, Takehito; Mori, Michiaki; Seya, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive isotope-specific assay system using nuclear resonance fluorescence has been developed at JAEA. In this system, intense, mono-energetic laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma-rays are generated by combining an energy recovery linac (ERL) and laser enhancement cavity. As technical development for such an intense gamma-ray source, we demonstrated generation of LCS gamma-rays using Compact ERL (supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) developed in collaboration with KEK. We also measured X-ray fluorescence for elements near iron region by using mono-energetic LCS gamma-rays. In this presentation, we will show results of the experiment and future plan. (author)

  17. Generation of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from JAERI-ERL

    CERN Document Server

    Hajima, R; Kikuzawa, N; Minehara, E J; Nagai, R; Nishitani, T; Sawamura, M

    2005-01-01

    An electron beam with high-average current and short bunch length can be accelerated by energy-recovery linac. Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from such an electron beam will be a useful light source around millimeter wavelength. We report results from a preliminary measurement of CSR emitted from a bending magnet of JAERI-ERL. Possible enhancement of CSR power by FEL micro-bunching is also discussed.

  18. MESA. An ERL project for particle physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, Florian [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Mainz Energy-recovering Superconducting Accelerator (MESA) will be constructed at the Institut fuer Kernphysik of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz. The accelerator is a low energy continuous wave (CW) recirculating electron linac for particle physics experiments. MESA will be operated in two different modes serving mainly two experiments: the first is the external beam (EB) mode, where the beam is dumped after being used with the external fixed target experiment P2, whose goal is the measurement of the weak mixing angle with highest accuracy. The required beam current for P2 is 150 μA with polarized electrons at 155 MeV. In the second operation mode MESA will be run as an energy recovery linac (ERL). In an ERL the energy of the electrons is recovered after their experimental use by decelerating them in the superconducting acceleration cavities. The experiment served in this mode is a (pseudo) internal fixed target experiment named MAGIX. It demands an unpolarized beam of 1 mA at 105 MeV. In a later construction stage of MESA the achievable beam current in ERL-mode shall be upgraded to 10 mA. Within this talk an overview of the MESA project will be given highlighting the challenges of operation with high density internal gas targets and the (*new*) physics applications.

  19. Design study of an ERL Test Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, E; Brüning, O; Calaga, R; Catalan-Lasheras, N; Goddard, B; Klein, M; Torres-Sanchez, R; Valloni, A

    2014-01-01

    The modern concept of an Energy Recovery Linac allows providing large electron currents at large beam energy with low power consumption. This concept is used in FEL’s, electron-ion colliders and electron coolers. CERN has started a Design Study of an ERL Test Facility with the purpose of 1) studying the ERL principle, its specific beam dynamics and operational issues, as relevant for LHeC, 2) providing a test bed for superconducting cavity modules, cryogenics and integration, 3) studying beam induced quenches in superconducting magnets and protection methods, 4) providing test beams for detector R&D and other applications. It will be complementary to existing or planned facilities and is fostering international collaboration. The operating frequency of 802 MHz was chosen for performance and for optimum synergy with SPS and LHC; the design of the cryomodule has started. The ERL Test Facility can be constructed in stages from initially 150 MeV to ultimately 1 GeV in 3 passes, with beam currents of up to 8...

  20. ER stress inhibitor attenuates hearing loss and hair cell death in Cdh23erl/erl mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Juan; Li, Bo; Apisa, Luke; Yu, Heping; Entenman, Shami; Xu, Min; Stepanyan, Ruben; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Müller, Ulrich; Hatzoglou, Maria; Zheng, Qing Yin

    2016-11-24

    Hearing loss is one of the most common sensory impairments in humans. Mouse mutant models helped us to better understand the mechanisms of hearing loss. Recently, we have discovered that the erlong (erl) mutation of the cadherin23 (Cdh23) gene leads to hearing loss due to hair cell apoptosis. In this study, we aimed to reveal the molecular pathways upstream to apoptosis in hair cells to exploit more effective therapeutics than an anti-apoptosis strategy. Our results suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is the earliest molecular event leading to the apoptosis of hair cells and hearing loss in erl mice. We also report that the ER stress inhibitor, Salubrinal (Sal), could delay the progression of hearing loss and preserve hair cells. Our results provide evidence that therapies targeting signaling pathways in ER stress development prevent hair cell apoptosis at an early stage and lead to better outcomes than those targeting downstream factors, such as tip-link degeneration and apoptosis.

  1. HOM frequency control of SRF cavity in high current ERLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2018-03-01

    The acceleration of high-current beam in Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities is a challenging but essential for a variety of advanced accelerators. SRF cavities should be carefully designed to minimize the High Order Modes (HOM) power generated in the cavities by the beam current. The reduction of HOM power we demonstrate in a particular case can be quite large. This paper presents a method to systematically control the HOM resonance frequencies in the initial design phase to minimize the HOM power generation. This method is expected to be beneficial for the design of high SRF cavities addressing a variety of Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) applications.

  2. Market Research on Law School Student Aid Award Letters and Shopping Sheet Information. NASFAA Consumer Information & Law Student Indebtedness Task Force Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Market Research on Law School Student Aid Award Letters and Shopping Sheet Information" set out to identify through consumer testing what information on the financial aid award letter and U.S. Department of Education's (ED) Shopping Sheet could be modified to create a document that better assists students applying to, or currently…

  3. Response to the Letter to the Editor of Crop Science from Donald R. Davis regarding our research article published in Crop Science (2011: 51:2721-2727)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This letter serves as a response to the Letter to the Editor submitted by Donald R. Davis regarding our research article entitled “Mineral Concentration of Broccoli Florets in Relation to Year of Cultivar Release” published in Crop Science (2011, 51:2721-2727). In our manuscript, we clearly stated ...

  4. HOM identification by bead pulling in the Brookhaven ERL cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, H; Jain, Puneet; Johnson, Elliott C; Xu, Wencan

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory measurements of the Brookhaven Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) cavity at superconducting temperature produced a long list of high order modes (HOMs). The niobium 5-cell cavity is terminated at each end with HOM ferrite dampers that successfully reduce the Q-factors to levels required to avoid beam break up (BBU) instabilities. However, a number of un-damped resonances with Q≥106 were found at 4 K and their mode identification forms the focus of this paper. The approach taken here consists of bead pulling on a copper (Cu) replica of the ERL cavity with dampers involving various network analyzer measurements. Several different S21 transmission measurements are used, including those taken from the fundamental input coupler to the pick-up probe across the cavity, others between beam-position monitor probes in the beam tubes, and also between probes placed into the cells. The bead pull technique suitable for HOM identification with a metallic needle or dielectric bead is detailed. This paper presents the...

  5. A STUDY ON LEGIBILITY OF LETTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve ERSAN,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the most general sense, lettering is the art of drawing letters, in which the letter forms carry illustrtive features. In this research which is titled "An Analysis on Legibility in Letterings Used in Print Advertisements", letterings used in and specially designed for print ads are analysed and their contribution to the ads are examined. Legibility, which is the fundamental function of writing and typography is examined in the field of lettering that has an illustrative approach. Also, the article puts emphasis on the technique and form’s contribution on content in letterings. Keywords: Lettering, print advertisements, letter design, illustration, legibility.

  6. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  7. Development of web database system for JAERI ERL-FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro

    2005-01-01

    The accelerator control system for the JAERI ERL-FEL is a PC-based distributed control system. The accelerator status record is stored automatically through the control system to analyze the influence on the electron beam. In order to handle effectively a large number of stored data, it is necessary that the required data can be searched and visualized in easy operation. For this reason, a web database (DB) system which can search of the required data and display visually on a web browser was developed by using open source software. With introduction of this system, accelerator operators can monitor real-time information anytime, anywhere through a web browser. Development of the web DB system is described in this paper. (author)

  8. Development of web database system for JAERI ERL-FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2005-06-01

    The accelerator control system for the JAERI ERL-FEL is a PC-based distributed control system. The accelerator status record is stored automatically through the control system to analyze the influence on the electron beam. In order to handle effectively a large number of stored data, it is necessary that the required data can be searched and visualized in easy operation. For this reason, a web database (DB) system which can search of the required data and display visually on a web browser was developed by using open source software. With introduction of this system, accelerator operators can monitor real-time information anytime, anywhere through a web browser. Development of the web DB system is described in this paper. (author)

  9. THE ERL HIGH-ENERGY COOLER FOR RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEN-ZVI, I.

    2006-01-01

    Electron cooling [1] entered a new era with the July 2005 cooling of the Tevatron recycler ring [2] at Fermilab, using γ = 9.5. Considering that the cooling rate decreases as faster than γ 2 and the electron energy forces higher electron currents, new acceleration techniques, high-energy electron cooling presents special challenges to the accelerator scientists and engineers. For example, electron cooling of RHIC at collisions requires electron beam energy up to about 54 MeV at an average current of between 50 to 100 mA and a particularly bright electron beam. The accelerator chosen to generate this electron beam is a superconducting Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) with a superconducting RF gun with a laser-photocathode

  10. R&D ERL: Beam dynamics, parameters, and physics to be learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayran, D.

    2010-02-01

    The R&D ERL facility at BNL aims to demonstrate CW operation of ERL with average beam current in the range of 0.1-1 ampere, combined with very high efficiency of energy recovery. The ERL is being installed in one of the spacious bays in Bldg. 912 of the RHIC/AGS complex (Fig. 1). The bay is equipped with an overhead crane. The facility has a control room, two service rooms and a shielded ERL cave. The control room is located outside of the bay in a separate building. The single story house is used for a high voltage power supply for 1 MW klystron. The two-story unit houses a laser room, the CW 1 MW klystron with its accessories, most of the power supplies and electronics. The ERL R&D program has been started by the Collider Accelerator Department (C-AD) at BNL as an important stepping-stone for 10-fold increase of the luminosity of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) using relativistic electron cooling of gold ion beams with energy of 100 GeV per nucleon. Furthermore, the ERL R&D program extends toward a possibility of using 10-20 GeV ERL for future electron-hadron/heavy ion collider, MeRHIC/eRHIC. These projects are the driving force behind the development of ampere-class ERL technology, which will find many applications including light sources and FELs. The intensive R&D program geared towards the construction of the prototype ERL is under way: from development of high efficiency photo-cathodes to the development of new merging system compatible with emittance compensation.

  11. Development of a high brightness, high current SRF photo-electron source for ERL applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Axel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (Germany); Collaboration: bERLinPro Team

    2016-07-01

    Energy recovery linacs (ERL) offer the potential to combine major beam properties of the two main domains of particle accelerators: The low emittance of linear accelerators and the high average beam current of storage rings, while also allowing to compress to short bunches below the ps regime. This makes among other applications ERLs an ideal candidate for future light sources. The beam properties of the ERL are given by the performance of the injection section and hence of the beam source. Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin is currently designing and building a high average current all superconducting CW driven ERL as a prototype to demonstrate low normalized beam emittance of 1 mm*mrad at 100 mA and short pulses of about 2 ps. In this contribution we discuss the development of this class of a high brightness, high current SRF photo-electron source and present recent commissioning results. Also, alternative approaches at other laboratories are shortly reviewed.

  12. High power RF systems for the BNL ERL project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaltsman, A.; Lambiase, R.

    2011-03-28

    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) project, now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires two high power RF systems. The first RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting electron gun. The RF power from this system is used to drive nearly half an Ampere of beam current to 2 MeV. There is no provision to recover any of this energy so the minimum amplifier power is 1 MW. It consists of 1 MW CW klystron, transmitter and power supplies, 1 MW circulator, 1 MW dummy load and a two-way power splitter. The second RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting cavity. The system accelerates the beam to 54.7 MeV and recovers this energy. It will provide up to 50 kW of CW RF power to the cavity. It consists of 50 kW transmitter, circulator, and dummy load. This paper describes the two high power RF systems and presents the test data for both.

  13. Learnin''Em Their Letters'--Story, Professional Practice and "New Paradigm" Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, P. J.

    A combination of narrative, autobiographical, and arts-based research methods was used to explore experiential learning and professional practice in diverse teaching/learning and adult education settings. The research methodology drew upon concepts developed by the following individuals: Jerome Bruner and his constructivist approach that values…

  14. Titles of Scientific Letters and Research Papers in Astrophysics: A Comparative Study of Some Linguistic Aspects and Their Relationship with Collaboration Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, David I.; Alcaraz, M. Ángeles

    2017-01-01

    In this study we compare the titles of scientific letters and those of research papers published in the field of astrophysics in order to identify the possible differences and/or similarities between both genres in terms of several linguistic and extra-linguistic variables (length, lexical density, number of prepositions, number of compound…

  15. Letter: Meyerhofer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This letter confirms that the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was an important part of the FY10 NIF Polar Drive Exploding Pusher experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments were designed by LLE to produce requested neutron yields to calibrate and qualify nuclear diagnostics. LLE built a deuterium-tritium filling system for the glass shells and provided them to LLNL for mounting. In FY10, four exploding pusher implosions were performed with measured neutron yields within a factor of two of requested and ion temperatures within 20% of requested. These implosions are proving to be an ideal platform for commissioning the nuclear diagnostic suite on the NIF and are achieving all of the objectives planned for this campaign.

  16. Closing plenary summary of working group 4 instrumentation and controls for ERL2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassner, D.; Obina, T.

    2011-10-16

    Working group 4 was charged with presentations and discussions on instrumentation and controls with regards to Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). There were 4 sessions spanning 3.5 hours in which 7 talks were delivered, the first being an invited plenary presentation. The time allotted for each talk was limited to 20-25 minutes in order to allow 5-10 minutes for discussion. Most of the talks were held in joint session with working group 5 (Unwanted Beam Loss). This format was effective for the purpose of this workshop. A final series of discussion sessions were also held with working group 5. Summary of the working group 4 activities, presented in the closing plenary session. We had a plenary presentation on operational performance, experience, and future plans at the existing ERL injector prototype at Cornell. This included instrumentation data, controls system configurations, as well as description of future needs. This was followed by four talks from KEK and RIKEN/SPring-8 that described electron beam instrumentation already in use or under development that can be applied to ERL facilities. The final talks described the ERLs under construction at KEK and BNL. The format of having joint sessions with working group 5 was beneficial as there were a significant number of common topics and concerns with regards to the causes of beam loss, instrumentation hardware, and techniques used to measure and analyze beam loss.

  17. Feedback scheme for kink instability in ERL based electron ion collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Y.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2011-01-01

    Kink instability presents one of the limiting factors from achieving higher luminosity in ERL based electron ion collider (EIC). However, we can take advantage of the flexibility of the linac and design a feedback system to cure the instability. This scheme raises the threshold of kink instability dramatically and provides opportunity for higher luminosity. We studied the effectiveness of this system and its dependence on the amplitude and phase of the feedback. In this paper we present results of theses studies of this scheme and describe its theoretical and practical limitations. The main advantage of an energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron ion collider (EIC) over a ring-ring type counterpart is the higher achievable luminosity. In ERL-based version, one electron beam collides with the opposing ion beam only once so that the beam-beam parameter can largely exceed the usual limitation in an electron collider ring, while the beam-beam parameter for the ion beam remains small values. The resulting luminosity may be enhanced by one order of magnitude. The beam dynamics related challenges also arise as the luminosity boost in ERL based EIC due to the significant beam-beam effect on the electron beam. The effects on the electron beam include the additional large beam-beam tune shift and nonlinear emittance growth, which are discussed. The ion beam may develop a head-tail type instability, referred as 'kink instability', through the interaction with the electron beam. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of an active feedback system to mitigate the kink instability, by taking advantage of the flexibility of ERL. Throughout the paper, we will discuss the collision between proton and electron beam. Any other ion species can be scaled by its charge Z and ion mass A.

  18. A Letter to Ahmad Khan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Mirgaleev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We bring to attention of specialists an undated letter of Ottoman ruler Mehmed II Fatih to the Great Horde khan Ahmad from the collection of famous collector of Ottoman charters Feridun-bey [1, S. 289]. The addressee is the famous ruler of the Great Horde, khan Ahmad. Daulat Khan mentioned in the letter is Nur-Davlet. He was connected with khan Ahmad, and, as indicated by the letter, he had also set in close contact with the Ottomans whose ruler openly declares in a letter that “our sight of benevolence and patronage is directed toward him”. Thereby the Sultan made it clear to the “principal” Tatar khan Akhmad that Nur-Davlet was under the patronage of the Ottoman Empire. Considering the period of activity of Nur-Davlet in Crimea, presumably the letter was written in 1477. Famous researcher of the Crimean Khanate V.D. Smirnov had already examined the letter and the question of why Ahmad Khan was named the Crimean khan in the title of the letter [2, p. 221–222].

  19. Letters and Letter Writing in Early Modern Culture: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recently renewed scholarly interest in historical letters and letter writing has given rise to several studies which explore the culture of epistolarity from different perspectives. The article offers an introduction to recent scholarship on epistolary discourse and practices in early modern culture. Given the importance of letters as data for several types of diachronic investigation, the article focuses on three points that are crucial for an understanding of the relevance of epistolary discourse itself in early modern European culture. Firstly, letters are invaluable data for historical linguistics, to which they provide information for the history of languages, and sociohistorical and sociolinguistic research. A second recent field of investigation considers letters as documents and material items; the results of research in this area have contributed to the reconstruction of official relationships and information exchanges in past cultures and shed light on social interaction. A third, more traditional area of study, deals with the letter as a form that has given rise to many different genres across the centuries, both practical and literary.

  20. Letters on nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.; Maier-Leibnitz, H.

    1982-01-01

    Heinz Maier-Leibnitz a well-known scientist, nuclear physicist, for 50 years, who publicily supported the idea not to overrate the dangers of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, has grown tired of talking only to colleagues. He invites a junior fellow physicist, who held engaged speeches against the nuclear power plant Zwentendorf, to an exchange of thoughts. Peter Kafka, an astro-physicist studied the self organisation of the universe from the big bang to the economic crisis and encountered the question of which conditions have to be fulfilled to prevent progress from becoming caranogenous. He became one of the spokesmen of 'political ecology' and called for resistance again large-scale technological use of scientific knowledge. He was enthusiastic about the idea of an exchange of letters, because he - just like his partner - believes in gaining knowledge by discussion. The variety of subjects is sketched briefly in form of three lectures. In the letters both scientists discuss intensly about: - Freedom of science and responsibility of science. - Decisions on energy questions under time-pressure. - Risks of nuclear plants. - Large scale technology and large-scale research or decentralization. - Energy utilization and energy waste. - Nuclear energy and alternatives. - Sense and nonsense of detailed future planning. In the end no one has convinced the other. The reader however finds a lot of new incentives in the letters - printed in unabridged form - a lot of new and significant arguments for a discussion which has only just started. (orig.) [de

  1. The ERL-based Design of Electron-Hadron Collider eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptitsyn, Vadim [et al.

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments of the ERL-based design of future high-luminosity electron-hadron collider eRHIC focused on balancing technological risks present in the design versus the design cost. As a result a lower risk design has been adopted at moderate cost increase. The modifications include a change of the main linac RF frequency, reduced number of SRF cavity types and modified electron spin transport using a spin rotator. A luminosity-staged approach is being explored with a Nominal design ($L \\sim 10^{33} {\\rm cm}^2 {\\rm s}^{-1}$) that employs reduced electron current and could possibly be based on classical electron cooling, and then with the Ultimate design ($L \\gt 10^{34} {\\rm cm}^{-2} {\\rm s}^{-1}$) that uses higher electron current and an innovative cooling technique (CeC). The paper describes the recent design modifications, and presents the full status of the eRHIC ERL-based design.

  2. ERL-BASED LEPTON-HADRON COLLIDERS: eRHIC AND LHeC

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    Two hadron-ERL colliders are being proposed. The Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) plans to collide the high-energy protons and heavy ions in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN with 60-GeV polarized electrons or positrons. The baseline scheme for this facility adds to the LHC a separate recirculating superconducting (SC) lepton linac with energy recovery, delivering a lepton current of 6.4mA. The electron-hadron collider project eRHIC aims to collide polarized (and unpolarized) electrons with a current of 50 (220) mA and energies in the range 5–30 GeV with a variety of hadron beams— heavy ions as well as polarized light ions— stored in the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL. The eRHIC electron beam will be generated in an energy recovery linac (ERL) installed inside the RHIC tunnel.

  3. An FFAG-ERL at Cornell University for eRHIC prototyping and bright-beam applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffstaetter, Georg [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Cornell University has prototyped technology essential for any high-brightness electron ERL. This includes a DC gun and an SRF injector Linac with world-record current and normalized brightness in a bunch train, a high-current CW cryomodule for 70 MeV energy gain, a high-power beam stop, and several diagnostics tools for high-current and high-brightness beams, e.g. slid measurements for 6-D phase-space densities, a fast wire scanner for beam profiles, and beam loos diagnostics. All these are now available to equip a one-cryomodule ERL, and laboratory space has been cleared out and is radiation shielded to install this ERL at Cornell. BNL has designed a multi-turn ERL for eRHIC, where beam is transported more than 20 times around the RHIC tunnel. The number of transport lines is minimized by using two non-scaling (NS) FFAG arcs. A collaboration between BNL and Cornell has been formed to investigate the new NS-FFAG optics and the multi-turn eRHIC ERL design by building a 4-turn, one-cryomodule ERL at Cornell. It has a NS-FFAG return loop built with permanent magnets and is meant to accelerate 40 mA beam to 250 MeV.

  4. Letters of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Thursday 5 November was another major milestone en route to the establishment of the experimental programme for CERN's LHC protonproton collider to be built in the 27- kilometre LEP tunnel. After initial discussions of 'Expressions of Interest' at the specially arranged meeting at Evian-les-Bains, France, earlier this year (May, page 1), three Letters of Intent have emerged, together involving nearly 2000 physicists from research institutes all over the world. As well as these researchers listed on the documents, the plans in fact involve many additional technical specialists who work behind the scenes. It was a historic moment as these three detector proposals were aired at the first open meeting of the new LHC Experiments Committee. CERN's main auditorium and a large overflow room receiving relayed video pictures were both packed. From these three schemes - ATLAS, CMS and L3P - and the first reactions to their letters of intent, eventually two projects will emerge, for which full technical proposals will be prepared, including construction plans and credible costings

  5. The legibility of letters and words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    The saying made famous by Mathew Carter that "type is a beautiful group of letters, not a group of beautiful letters”, highlights the fact that although a typeface consists of a number of letters it is when the letters are assembled in a word that they become type. However, research indicates...... that what makes letters legible in isolation is not necessarily the same as what makes them legible in words. Is it possible to create a typeface where both letters and words have a high level of legibility or are those factors so different that they cannot be combined? Through a literature review...... on relevant experimental investigations, I will in this talk present examples of when the legibility findings on letters and words correlate and when they differ....

  6. Heat treatment of long pulse operation for the JAERI ERL-FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawamura, Masaru; Nagai, Ryoji; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; Hajima, Ryoichi; Minehara, Eisuke

    2005-01-01

    RF power sources are replaced from all-solid-state amplifiers to IOT amplifiers for the superconducting accelerators (SCAs) and a vacuum tube amplifier for the SHB of the JAERI ERL-FEL. A long pulse operation increased the pressure in the cryostat of the SCA. The single-cell SCA can be operated in 9% duty according to the time constant of the pressure decay in the cryostat. SHB can be operated in 4% duty which is limited by the frequency range of the tuners. The result of the ABAQUS calculation shows the more duty operation. (author)

  7. Upgrade of a control system for the JAERI ERL-FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro

    2004-01-01

    The accelerator control system used for the JAERI ERL-FEL is a PC-based distributed control system that has been in operation since 1992. Since an interface bus of the PCs is obsolete, interface boards for the PCs are difficult to obtain in recent years. Thus we have been developing the CAMAC controller with μITRON operating system to replace the old PCs connected with CAMAC. We will introduce a Java and CORBA environment in the new control system. The control system upgrade, including hardware upgrading and applications rewriting, is described in this paper. (author)

  8. Anonymous letters? DNA and fingerprints technologies combined to solve a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, A; Cormaci, P; Teatino, A; La Marca, A; Barbaro, A

    2004-12-02

    Two brothers, living in two different cities, received two different anonymous letters. We performed latent prints development and DNA research on the letters and also on a glass used by a cousin suspected to be the letters' sender.

  9. Letter to the parliament:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This piece was a letter directed towards various ministers in the parliament, targeted at raising a discussion on the values in the education of architects in Denmark and various related topics.......This piece was a letter directed towards various ministers in the parliament, targeted at raising a discussion on the values in the education of architects in Denmark and various related topics....

  10. Student Teacher Letters of Reference: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Richard W.; Schroeder, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Letters of reference are commonly used in acquiring a job in education. Despite serious issues of validity and reliability in writing and evaluating letters, there is a dearth of research that systematically examines the evaluation process and defines the constructs that define high quality letters. The current study used NVivo to examine 160…

  11. Why doctors do not answer referral letters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Referral letters act as permission slips to allow patients easy access to ... Methods: A qualitative study method was used, as the purpose of this study was to .... The total list of topics ..... Research design: qualitative and quantitative approaches.

  12. Letter to Carl Niigeli

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We reproduce an english translation of one of these letters below, in which ... contemporary scientific knowledge, and that under the circumstances ... generation it became necessary to limit the numbers because of lack of space, so that, in.

  13. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  14. Beam dynamics studies of the photo-injector in low-charge operation mode for the ERL test facility at IHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yi; Xiao Ouzheng

    2014-01-01

    The energy recovery linac test facility (ERL-TF), which is a compact ERL-FEL (free electron laser) two-purpose machine, was proposed at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing. As one important component of the ERL-TF, the photo-injector that started with a photocathode direct-current gun has been designed. In this paper, optimization of the injector beam dynamics in low-charge operation mode is performed with iterative scans using Impact-T. In addition, the dependencies between the optimized beam quality and the initial offset at cathode and element parameters are investigated. The tolerance of alignment and rotation errors is also analyzed. (authors)

  15. Letter Names, Letter Sounds and Phonological Awareness: An Examination of Kindergarten Children across Letters and of Letters across Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary Ann; Bell, Michelle; Shaw, Deborah; Moretti, Shelley; Page, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    In this study 149 kindergarten children were assessed for knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, phonological awareness, and cognitive abilities. Through this it examined child and letter characteristics influencing the acquisition of alphabetic knowledge in a naturalistic context, the relationship between letter-sound knowledge and…

  16. Maritime Geo-Fence Letter Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    1 Classification | CG-926 RDC | author | audience | month year Maritime Geo-Fence Letter Report Authors: Irene Gonin and Gregory...Johnson   Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. July 2016 Report No. CG-D-10-16 Maritime Geo-Fence...United States Coast Guard Research & Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 Maritime Geo-Fence Letter Report 1

  17. Suspending Damage: A Letter to Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Eve

    2009-01-01

    In this open letter, Eve Tuck calls on communities, researchers, and educators to reconsider the long-term impact of "damage-centered" research--research that intends to document peoples' pain and brokenness to hold those in power accountable for their oppression. This kind of research operates with a flawed theory of change: it is often used to…

  18. The legacy of Hans Selye and the origins of stress research: a retrospective 75 years after his landmark brief "letter" to the editor# of nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Sandor; Tache, Yvette; Somogyi, Arpad

    2012-09-01

    Hans Selye's single author short letter to Nature (1936, 138(3479):32) inspired a huge and still growing wave of medical research. His experiments with rats led to recognition of the "general adaptation syndrome", later renamed by Selye "stress response": the triad of enlarged adrenal glands, lymph node and thymic atrophy, and gastric erosions/ulcers. Because of the major role of glucocorticoids (named by Selye), he performed extensive structure-activity studies in the 1930s-1940s, resulting in the first rational classification of steroid hormones, e.g. corticoids, testoids/androgens, and folliculoids/estrogens. During those years, he recognized the respective anti- and pro-inflammatory actions of gluco- and mineralocorticoids in animal models, several years before demonstration of anti-rheumatic actions of cortisone and adrenocorticotrophic hormones in patients. Nevertheless, Selye did not receive a Nobel Prize, which was awarded in 1950 to the clinician Hench and the two chemists who isolated and synthesized some of the glucocorticoids. Nonetheless, Selye was internationally recognized as a world authority in endocrinology, steroid chemistry, experimental surgery, and pathology. He wrote over 1500 original and review articles, singly authored 32 books, and trained 40 PhD students, one of whom (Roger Guillemin) won a Nobel Prize for isolating the hypothalamic releasing factors/hormones. Here, we consider the main implications of his first article launching the biological stress concept and the key ideas and problems that occupied him. Selye considered "Stress in heath and disease is medically, sociologically, and philosophically the most meaningful subject for humanity that I can think of".

  19. Técnicas da carta-perdida como instrumento de pesquisa social: um estudo sobre preconceito e ajuda The lost letter technique as a social research instrument: a study of prejudice and helping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Vinagre da Silva

    1998-01-01

    author made a significant difference, more letter in this condition were posted. Methodologically, the lost letter technique showed promise, especially as a non-reactive research instrument in the study of prejudice and helping behavior.

  20. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents The imaginary Sun? Harold Aspden Energy Science Ltd, PO Box 35, Southampton SO16 7RB, UK Difficult physics? Tim Akrill Chief Examiner, A-level Physics, Edexcel Foundation Was it a dream? Bill Jarvis 6 Peggy's Mill Road, Edinburgh EH4 6JY

  1. Letters From Peplau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Ann R

    2018-03-01

    Dr. Hildegard Peplau, considered to be our first modern Nurse theorist and the Mother of Psychiatric Nursing, was a prolific writer, engaging in correspondence with colleagues and students who sought her professional and theoretical expertise. Through these letters, she influenced psychiatric nursing while maintaining a broad international network of professional colleagues. An analysis of letters, written between 1990 and 1998, provides insights into Peplau's last decade of professional life and a model of how to support the next generation of nurse scholars. Using content analysis, 24 letters received between 1990 and 1998 were read, reread, and coded. Recurring themes were identified. Three themes were identified. These include Peplau, the Person: Living a Life of Professional Balance; Lighting a Spark: Investing in the Next Generation; and Work in the Vineyards of Nursing: Maintaining a Life of Scholarship. The letters depict Peplau's keen intellect, her wide professional network, her leisure time spent with family and friends, and her own work to assure that her theoretical legacy continued. Peplau's insights continue to be relevant as psychiatric mental health nursing leaders engage in activities to support the next generation of scholars and leaders.

  2. Letters in this Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Reforming the General Chemistry Textbook individual letters by Edward T. Samulski; Stephen J. Hawkes; Stephen J. Fisher; J. Stephen Hartman; A. R. H. Cole; Stanley Pine, Ronald Archer, and Herbert Kaesz; Jimmy Reeves; Robert Hill; and Brock Spencer, C. Bradley Moore and Nedah Rose. Re: article by R. J. Gillespie The author replies

  3. CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED DURING THE PROCESSING OF THE BNL ERL 5 CELL ACCELERATING CAVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURRILL,A.

    2007-06-25

    One of the key components for the Energy Recovery Linac being built by the Electron cooling group in the Collider Accelerator Department is the 5 cell accelerating cavity which is designed to accelerate 2 MeV electrons from the gun up to 15-20 MeV, allow them to make one pass through the ring and then decelerate them back down to 2 MeV prior to sending them to the dump. This cavity was designed by BNL and fabricated by AES in Medford, NY. Following fabrication it was sent to Thomas Jefferson Lab in VA for chemical processing, testing and assembly into a string assembly suitable for shipment back to BNL for integration into the ERL. The steps involved in this processing sequence will be reviewed and the deviations from processing of similar SRF cavities will be discussed. The lessons learned from this process are documented to help future projects where the scope is different from that normally encountered.

  4. Challenges Encountered during the Processing of the BNL ERL 5 Cell Accelerating Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Burrill; I. Ben-Zvi; R. Calaga; H. Hahn; V. Litvinenko; G. T. McIntyre; P. Kneisel; J. Mammosser; J. P. Preble; C. E. Reece; R. A. Rimmer; J. Saunders

    2007-08-01

    One of the key components for the Energy Recovery Linac being built by the Electron cooling group in the Collider Accelerator Department is the 5 cell accelerating cavity which is designed to accelerate 2 MeV electrons from the gun up to 15-20 MeV, allow them to make one pass through the ring and then decelerate them back down to 2 MeV prior to sending them to the dump. This cavity was designed by BNL and fabricated by AES in Medford, NY. Following fabrication it was sent to Thomas Jefferson Lab in VA for chemical processing, testing and assembly into a string assembly suitable for shipment back to BNL and integration into the ERL. The steps involved in this processing sequence will be reviewed and the deviations from processing of similar SRF cavities will be discussed. The lessons learned from this process are documented to help future projects where the scope is different from that normally encountered.

  5. Conceptual design of a high real-estate gradient cavity for a SRF ERL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chen; Stony Brook University, NY; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Stony Brook University, NY; Hao, Yue

    2017-01-01

    The term “real-estate gradient” is used to describe the energy gain provided by an accelerating structure per actual length it takes in the accelerator. given that the length of the tunnel available for the accelerator is constrained, the real-estate gradient is an important measure of the efficiency of a given accelerator structure. When designing an accelerating cavity to be efficient in this sense, the unwanted Higher Order Mode (HOM) fields should be reduced by suitable HOM dampers. This is a particularly important consideration for high current operation. The additional RF components might take longitude space and reduce the total accelerating efficiency. We describe a new high efficiency 5-cell cavity with the dampers included. The total length of the cavity is reduced by 13% as compared to a more conventional design without compromising the cavity fundamental-mode performance. In addition, the HOM impedance is reduced for a higher Beam-Break-Up (BBU) threshold of operating current. In this article, we consider an example, a possible application at the eRHIC Energy Recovery Linac (ERL).

  6. Conceptual design of a high real-estate gradient cavity for a SRF ERL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Hao, Yue; Xin, Tianmu; Wang, Haipeng

    2017-10-01

    The term "real-estate gradient" is used to describe the energy gain provided by an accelerating structure per actual length it takes in the accelerator. given that the length of the tunnel available for the accelerator is constrained, the real-estate gradient is an important measure of the efficiency of a given accelerator structure. When designing an accelerating cavity to be efficient in this sense, the unwanted Higher Order Mode (HOM) fields should be reduced by suitable HOM dampers. This is a particularly important consideration for high current operation. The additional RF components might take longitude space and reduce the total accelerating efficiency. We describe a new high efficiency 5-cell cavity with the dampers included. The total length of the cavity is reduced by 13% as compared to a more conventional design without compromising the cavity fundamental-mode performance. In addition, the HOM impedance is reduced for a higher Beam-Break-Up (BBU) threshold of operating current. In this paper, we consider an example, a possible application at the eRHIC Energy Recovery Linac (ERL).

  7. ERL with non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient lattice for eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hao, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Litvinenko, V. N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The proposed eRHIC electron-hadron collider uses a "non-scaling FFAG" (NS-FFAG) lattice to recirculate 16 turns of different energy through just two beam lines located in the RHIC tunnel. This paper presents lattices for these two FFAGs that are optimized for low magnet field and to minimize total synchrotron radiation across the energy range. The higher number of recirculations in the FFAG allows a shorter linac (1.322GeV) to be used, drastically reducing cost, while still achieving a 21.2 GeV maximum energy to collide with one of the existing RHIC hadron rings at up to 250GeV. eRHIC uses many cost-saving measures in addition to the FFAG: the linac operates in energy recovery mode, so the beams also decelerate via the same FFAG loops and energy is recovered from the interacted beam. All magnets will be constructed from NdFeB permanent magnet material, meaning chillers and large magnet power supplies are not needed. This paper also describes a small prototype ERL-FFAG accelerator that will test all of these technologies in combination to reduce technical risk for eRHIC.

  8. State-of-the-Art Electron Guns and Injector Designs for Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL)

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Alan; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Benson, Stephen V; Blüm, Hans; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Campisi, Isidoro E; Chang, Xiangyun; Christina, Vincent; Cole, Michael; Colestock, Patrick L; Daly, Edward; Douglas, David; Dylla, Fred H; Falletta, Michael; Hahn, Harald; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Hogan, John; Holmes, Douglas; Janssen, Dietmar; Kayran, Dmitry; Kelley, John P; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Kurennoy, Sergey; Lewellen, John W; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; Mammosser, John; McIntyre, Gary; Neil, George R; Nguyen, Dinh C; Nicoletti, Tony; Peterson, Ed; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Reass, William; Rees, Daniel; Rimmer, Robert; Rode, Claus; Russell, Steven; Scaduto, Joseph; Schrage, Dale L; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Siggins, Tim; Warren Funk, L; Whitlach, Timothy; Wiseman, Mark; Wong, Robert; Wood, Richard L; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Young, Lloyd M; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    A key technology issue of ERL devices for high-power free-electron laser (FEL) and 4th generation light sources is the demonstration of reliable, high-brightness, high-power injector operation. Ongoing programs that target up to 1 Ampere injector performance at emittance values consistent with the requirements of these applications are described. We consider that there are three possible approaches that could deliver the required performance. The first is a DC photocathode gun and superconducting RF (SRF) booster cryomodule. Such a 750 MHz device is being integrated and will be tested up to 100 mA at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility beginning in 2007. The second approach is a high-current normal-conducting RF photoinjector. A 700 MHz gun will undergo thermal test in 2006 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which, if successful, when equipped with a suitable cathode, would be capable of 1 Ampere operation. The last option is an SRF gun. A half-cell 703 MHz SRF gun capable of delivering 1.0...

  9. Letters of Map Change (LOMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Documents, including different types of Letters of MAP Revision (LOMR) and Letters of Map Amendment (LOMA), which are issued by FEMA to revise or amend the flood...

  10. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate letters on data on elastic (p,n) charge exchange: compilation, the potentialities of δ-electron control of luminosity in experiments with internal targets at the Nuclotron, pion broadening and low-mass dilepton production, fluctuation of electromagnetic cascade axis in dense amorphous segmented media, the forward detector of the ANKE spectrometer. Tracking system and its use in data analysis, quantum field theory with three-dimensional vector time, curvature decomposition and the Einstein-Yang-Mills equations, an integral equation for the spinor amplitude of a massive neutral Dirac particle in a curved space time with arbitrary geometry and surprising resonances in 147 Sm(nα) 144 Nd reaction

  11. Particles and Nuclei, Letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate letters on analysis of experimental data on relativistic nuclear collisions in the Lobachevski space, relativistic contribution of the final-state interaction to deuteron photodisintegration, on the charge asymmetry of the like-sign lepton pairs induced by B - B bar - production asymmetry, limits on the ν e → ν e neutrino oscillation parameters from an experiment at the IHEP-JINR neutrino detector, excitation of high spin isomers in photonuclear reactions, study of product formation in proton-nuclear reactions on the 129 I target induced by 660-MeV protons, application of jet pumps in the cryogenic system of the Nuclotron - superconducting accelerator of relativistic particles and study of the silicon drift detector performance with inclined tracks

  12. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate letters on nonlocal chiral quark model with confinement, perturbation of finite-lattice spectral levels by nearby nuclear resonances, on the application of 'Z 0 + jet' events for determining the gluon distribution in a proton at the LHC, account of light velocity constancy in the Galilean problem on the free movement of a particle and its fall onto the ground, first results of crystal deflector investigations at the Nuclotron external beams, decay parameters of K mesons, measured at proton synchrotron U-70 using 'Hyperon' set-up and modern world data, prototype of atomic-emission spectrometer on the basis of one-electrode impulse RF discharge for analytical measurements, polarimeter for Nuclotron internal beam and primordial bubbles of colour superconducting quark matter

  13. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains thirteen separate letters on start-to-end simulations of SASE FEL at the TESLA test facility, possible ways of improvement of the FEM oscillator with a Bragg resonator, the status and perspectives of the electron cooling method development, crystalline ion beams in storage rings, latest results of modeling of LHC beam injection, charge exchange injection in a synchrotron equipped with an electron cooling system, fringe and hysteresis effects in electron guns, nonstationary regimes of electron flow formation in secondary emission inverse coaxial diodes, a proposal of the experiment testing of the fine structure of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation, computer simulation of the electron beam dynamics at the accelerator structure and the injector of S-band linac with energies of 3 and 10 MeV, calculation of the electron beam dynamics of the accelerator LUE-200, the accelerator-accumulation facility ITEP-TWAC and accelerators-drivers of electronuclear facilities

  14. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. The journal publishes original research, case report/case series, letter to the editor, reviews of health related issues in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing, public and allied health sciences. Furthermore the DMSJ endeavours to disseminate research findings mainly of medical ...

  15. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  16. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on the role of the complanar emission of particles in nuclear interaction for E 0 >10 16 eV detected in the stratosphere, 10 B nucleus fragment yields, nuclear teleportation (proposal for an experiment), invisible 'glue' bosons in model field theory, calculation of the ionization differential effective cross sections in fast ion-atom collisions, interactions of ultracold neutrons near surface of solids, g factors as a probe for high-spin structure of neutron-rich Dy isotopes, search for periodicities in experimental data by the autoregressive model methods

  17. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on the interaction of high energy Λ 6 He hypernuclear beams with atomic nuclei, the position-sensitive detector of a high spatial resolution on the basis of a multiwire gas electron multiplier, pseudorapidity hadron density at the LHC energy, high precision laser control of the ATLAS tile-calorimeter module mass production at JINR, a new approach to ECG's features recognition involving neural network, subcriticity of a uranium target enriched in 235 U, beam space charge effects in high-current cyclotron injector CI-5, a homogeneous static gravitational field and the principle of equivalence

  18. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on kinematic separation and mass analysis of heavy recoiling nuclei, dynamical effects prior to heavy ion fusion, VACTIV-DELPHI graphical dialog based program for the analysis of gamma-ray spectra, irradiation of nuclear emulsions in relativistic beams of 6 He and 3 H nuclei, optical and structural investigations of PLZT x/65/35 (x = 4, 8 %) ferroelectric ceramics irradiated by a high-current pulsed electron beam, the oscillating charge and first evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay

  19. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on physics from extra dimensions, new physics in the new millennium with GENIUS: double beta decay, dark matter, solar neutrinos, the (μ - , e + ) conversion in nuclei mediated by light Majorana neutrinos, exotic muon-to-positron conversion in nuclei: partial transition sum evaluation by using shell model, solar neutrino problem accounting for self consistent magnetohydrodynamics solution for solar magnetic fields, first neutrino observations from the Sudbury neutrino observatory and status report on BOREXINO and results of the muon-background measurements at CERN

  20. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on quantum field theory and symmetries in nuclear physics, multifractal analysis of AFM images of Nb thin film surfaces, the fast-acting memory for multichannel converters of time to digital, an analysis of the anomalous Cherenkov radiation obtained in the relativistic lead ion beam at CERN SPS, the problem of consistency of the thermal-spike model with experimentally determined electron temperature, ATLAS calorimeter performance for charged pion as well as on collective flow in multifragmentation induced by relativistic helium and carbon ions variation of the coulomb repulsion in multifragmentation

  1. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on the DELPHI experiment at LEP, the Fermi-surface dynamics of rotating nuclei, production of large samples of the silica dioxide aerogel in the 37-litre autoclave and test of its optical properties, preliminary radiation resource results on scintillating fibers, a new algorithm for the direct transformation method of time to digital with the high time resolution and development and design of analogue read-out electronics for HADES drift chamber system

  2. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  3. "Physical Review Letters" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Paul J.; Lynch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Ask any physicist what the preeminent journal in the field is, and I think the almost unanimous answer will be "Physical Review Letters" ("PRL"). This weekly journal of the American Physical Society publishes high-impact research from all the major subdisciplines of physics. This journal is not the one you would think is the first place a high…

  4. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue of the information letter consists of two articles, "Music Therapy" and "Research and Applications of Psychomusical Techniques"; a review of the book, "La musicotherapie et les methods nouvelles d'association des techniques" by Guilhot and Cecourt, and a bibliography of books on music therapy written in…

  5. 42 CFR 93.202 - Charge letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charge letter. 93.202 Section 93.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  6. Teaching Braille Letters, Numerals, Punctuation, and Contractions to Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also…

  7. Professional Citation Practices in Child Maltreatment Forensic Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Catherine F.; Bell, Stephanie; Mian, Marcellina; Spafford, Marlee M.; Lingard, Lorelei

    2011-01-01

    Using rhetorical genre theory and research on reported speech, this study investigates the citation practices in 81 forensic letters written by paediatricians and nurse practitioners that provide their opinion for the courts as to whether a child has experienced maltreatment. These letters exist in a complex social situation where a lack of…

  8. JAERI 10kW High Power ERL-FEL and Its Applications in Nuclear Energy Industries

    CERN Document Server

    Minehara, E J; Iijima, H; Kikuzawa, N; Nagai, R; Nishimori, N; Nishitani, T; Sawamura, M; Yamauchi, T

    2005-01-01

    The JAERI high power ERL-FEL has been extended to the more powerful and efficient free-electron laser (FEL) than 10kW for nuclear energy industries, and other heavy industries like defense, shipbuilding, chemical industries, environmental sciences, space-debris, and power beaming and so on. In order to realize such a tunable, highly-efficient, high average power, high peak power and ultra-short pulse FEL, we need the efficient and powerful FEL driven by the JAERI compact, stand-alone and zero boil-off super-conducting RF linac with an energy-recovery geometry. Our discussions on the ERL-FEL will cover the current status of the 10kW upgrading and its applications of non-thermal peeling, cutting, and drilling to decommission the nuclear power plants, and to demonstrate successfully the proof of principle prevention of cold-worked stress-corrosion cracking failures in nuclear power reactors under routine operation using small cubic low-Carbon stainless steel samples.

  9. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate records on the new results on simulation of the nuclotron beam extraction with a bent crystal, the Ehrenfest force in inhomogeneous magnetic field, the e/h ratio of the electromagnetic calorimeter, a new approach to develop hadronic event generators in HEP, an algebraic description of multilayer systems with resonances, a high-voltage module for photomultipliers, an estimation of the spin-flip contribution to the np→pn process from the charge exchange reaction on the deuteron, a measurement of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd→ 3 Hp reactions at RIKEN as well as on calibration of SPES4-π set-up in experiments on SATURNE-II

  10. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate records on the monochromatic neutrinos from massive fourth generation neutrino annihilation in the Sun and Earth, solar neutrino results from SAGE, the present and future oscillation experiments at reactors, as well as on the possibilities to test the LSND parameters at reactors, the energy spectrum of reactor antineutrinos and searches for new physics (recent developments), angular distribution of radiative gamma quanta in radiative beta decay of neutrons, an 37 Ar based neutrino source for calibration of the iodine solar neutrino detector, detector LENS as a new tool for solar neutrino spectroscopy, limits on different Majoron decay modes of 100 Mo, 116 Cd, 82 Se, and 96 Zr for neutrinoless double beta decays in the NEMO-2 experiment as well as on the search for 76 Ge and 150 Nd double beta decay to excited states

  11. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate records on Wien filter using in exploring on low-energy radioactive nuclei, memory effects in dissipative nucleus-nucleus collision, topological charge and topological susceptibility in connection with translation and gauge invariance, solutions of the multitime Dirac equation, the maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description, the charged conductor inside dielectric. Solution of boundary condition by means of auxiliary charges and the method of linear algebraic equations, optical constants of the TGS single crystal irradiated by power pulsed electron beam, interatomic pair potential and n-e amplitude from slow neutron scattering by noble gases, the two-coordinate multiwire proportional chamber of the high spatial resolution and neutron drip line in the region of O-Mg isotopes

  12. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on the integral representation for structure functions and target mass effects, multiscale properties of DNA primary structure including cross-scale correlations, dissipative evolution of the elementary act, the fine structure of the M T =1 Gamow-Teller resonance in 147g Tb→ 147 Gd β + /EC decay, the behaviour of the TVO temperature sensors in the magnetic fields, a fast method for searching for tracks in multilayer drift chambers of HADES spectrometer, a novel approach to particle track etching including surfactant enhanced control of pore morphology, azimuthal correlations of secondary particles in 32 S induced interactions with Ag(Br) nuclei at 4.5 GeV/ c/ nucleon

  13. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate records on status of 116 Cd double β decay study with 116 CdWO 4 scintillators, new limits on 2β processes in 40 Ca and 46 Ca by using low radioactive CaF 2 (Eu) crystal scintillators, the single state dominance in 2νββ-decay transitions to excited 0 + and 2 + final states, present status of the MONOLITH project, technique of neutrino-induced muon detection on the Earth surface, high-sensitive spectrometer of fast neutrons and the results of fast neutron background flux measurements at the gallium-germanium solar neutrino experiment (SAGE), new experimental limits on the electron stability and excitation of nuclear levels in 23 Na, 127 I and 129 Xe induced by the electron decay on the atomic shell and element-loaded organic scintillators for neutron and neutrino physics

  14. [A computerized system for the management of letters of authorization for access to sensitive data in a research and teaching hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodina, Annalisa; Brizzolara, Antonella; Vadruccio, Gianluca; Castaldi, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the experience of a hospital which has introduced a system of computerized management of letters of authorization for healthcare workers to access sensitive health data, through the use of open source software. A new corporate intranet portal was created with access given only to the privacy contacts of each operational unit of the hospital. Once the privacy contact has entered the relevant user authorization, these must be approved first by the Directors of the respective operational units and finally by the privacy officer. The introduction of this system has allowed a systematic approach to the management of authorization for access to health data by hospital staff, regular updating and monitoring of the authorization and the start of a process of digitalization of documents.

  15. Letter-Sound Knowledge: Exploring Gender Differences in Children When They Start School Regarding Knowledge of Large Letters, Small Letters, Sound Large Letters, and Sound Small Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermundur Sigmundsson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored whether there is a gender difference in letter-sound knowledge when children start at school. 485 children aged 5–6 years completed assessment of letter-sound knowledge, i.e., large letters; sound of large letters; small letters; sound of small letters. The findings indicate a significant difference between girls and boys in all four factors tested in this study in favor of the girls. There are still no clear explanations to the basis of a presumed gender difference in letter-sound knowledge. That the findings have origin in neuro-biological factors cannot be excluded, however, the fact that girls probably have been exposed to more language experience/stimulation compared to boys, lends support to explanations derived from environmental aspects.

  16. medication history documentation in referral letters of children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHILDREN PRESENTING AT THE EMERGENCY UNIT OF A TEACHING. HOSPITAL IN LAGOS ... infrequently reported in referral letters to a tertiary care hospital in Lagos,. Nigeria. .... researcher, a pharmacist and clinical pharmacologist.

  17. Love letters to the dead: resurrecting an epistolary art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Dorothy A; Graham-Pole, John R

    This article explores the art of letter-writing, specifically to our beloved dead, as a form of autoethnographic research, pedagogy, and care work. As university teachers and qualitative researchers in palliative and end-of-life care, we review the literature and history of epistolary communications with the deceased, as a prelude to writing our own letters. John writes to his long-dead mother and Dorothy to her recently deceased spouse Patrick, each letter followed by a reflective dialogue between us. Through this dialogue, we highlight the potential application of this art, or handcraft, to formal and informal palliative care, and the implications for practice, pedagogy, policy, and research. We propose that such direct, non-mediated, communications can offer a valuable form of healing for bereaved people. The therapeutic potential of letter writing and the abundance of literary and popular culture exemplars of responses from the dead are also largely unexplored in death education and research.

  18. Assessment of trace metals pollution in estuarine sediments using SEM-AVS and ERM-ERL predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges; Passos, Elisangela de Andrade; Alves, José do Patrocínio Hora

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the distributions of the investigation of trace metals geochemistry in surface sediments of the Sergipe river estuary, northeast Brazil. Analyses were carried out by Flame or electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS or ETAAS). Principal component analysis was applied to results to identify any groupings among the different sampling sites. In order to determine the extent of contamination, taking into account natural variability within the region, metal concentrations were normalized relative to aluminium. Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn contamination was observed in sediments from the area receiving highest inputs of domestic wastes, while cadmium contamination occurred in sediments from the region affected by highest inflows of industrial effluents. Possible toxicity related to these metals was examined using the relationship simultaneously extracted metals/acid volatile sulfide and by comparing sediment chemical data with sediment quality guidelines ERL-ERM values. Results obtained using the two methods were in agreement and indicated that adverse effects on aquatic biota should rarely occur.

  19. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor Letter from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashinin, Pavel P.

    2013-01-01

    Dear readers, contributors, and members of the world laser physics community. It is a great honour for us to introduce to you our new publishing partner, IOP Publishing, a subsidiary of the Institute of Physics, United Kingdom. IOP Publishing is a world renowned authority in producing journals, magazines, websites and services that enable researchers and research organizations to present their work to a world-wide audience. Laser Physics, the first English-language scientific journal in Russia, was founded in 1990 on the initiative of Alexander M Prokhorov, a pioneer and leader in laser physics research. Professor Prokhorov served as the first Editor-in-Chief of the journal until 2002. We are proud that it is our 23rd year of publishing Laser Physics and our 10th year of publishing Laser Physics Letters. We would like to honour the memory of our friend, late Professor Igor Yevseyev, whose enthusiasm and unwavering dedication to our journals contributed most significantly to their success. It was initially his idea in 2011 to approach IOP with a partnership proposal. We deeply regret that he is no longer with us as we enter this productive alliance. Now, in partnership with IOP, we are turning a new page in providing world-wide access to the cutting-edge research results in our journals, serving our well established global audience. We see new horizons opening for our journals for years to come and hope that our readers share our enthusiasm and aspirations. Please accept our best wishes for all your new scientific endeavors in the exciting field of laser physics.

  20. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on

  1. The Complaint Letter and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an assignment in which students write a letter of complaint, and discusses how this assignment aids students in seeing the importance of effective written communication to their daily lives. (SR)

  2. Letters to a Young Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Anne; Becker, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Presents words of encouragement to a young poet. Includes empathetic words and motivating ideas. Presents a letter including a quote from "Tintern Abbey" by William Wordsworth and ideas about that quote. (SG)

  3. Scientific Letter: Monosymptomatic Hypochondriacal Psychosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Monosymptomatic Hypochondriacal Psychosis (somatic delusional disorder): A report of two cases. ... African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  4. Letter from the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. Prieto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Letter from the editor Our first issue of 2018 is available now. We have 9 articles in this issue, in topics ranging from soil characterization, petrophysical properties of rocks, signal processing of images and GNSS station to asteroid impact effects. Mechanical soil properties in sandy-pebble soil are studied as a function of grain size content in Lu et al. Satellite-derived soil moisture estimation is discussed in Thanabalan and Vidhya, based on a semi-empirical approach and backscattering images. Macroscopic mechanical characteristics of rocks depend on a number of factors, including microstructure damage. Under changing temperature conditions (freeze-thaw rock samples studied by Jiang show significant strength decrease, which has important consequences in engineering. Advanced signal processing methods are used in Zeng et al. for image retrieval applied to remote sensing data, using a Bayesian network approach. Similarly, Oktar and Erdogan use linear trend and wavelet analysis to continuous GNSS data showing both displacements due to tectonic as well as atmospheric and hydrologic effects. Debris flows can in some cases become serious hazards because they can block river flow as a debris flow dam. Chen et al. propose a method to identify the formation of such dams, with an example from the Er river in Taiwan. Mamaseni et al. study the petrophysical properties of three formations in the Duhok Basin, northern Iran, based on well-log data. Results suggest a significant thickness with good moveable hydrocarbons in the study area. Methane adsorption and gas content are strongly influenced by shale composition. Zhu et al. show that Total Organic Content has a stronger influence on methane adsorption and gas content than the mineral composition, studying samples from the southern Sichuan Basin. Our last contribution in this issue discussed a large asteroid impact in eastern Colombia. The impact would have affected the environment and landscape, but

  5. Design, planning and construction of a third recirculation with ERL-mode for the S-DALINAC; Auslegung, Planung und Aufbau einer dritten Rezirkulation mit ERL-Modus fuer den S-DALINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Michaela

    2017-07-01

    This thesis focuses on the design, planning and construction of a third recirculation with an additional option of an energy-recovery-linac (ERL)-operation. The project goals are an increase of the final energy in cw-operation by using the main linac an additional time as well as completing the first ERL in Germany. Designing the separation dipole magnet was the biggest challenge of this project. It had to fulfill strict boundary conditions to the magnetic field distribution and challenging spatial constraints. After a demanding design process, the final version of the separation dipole was constructed. During the design, various simulations ensured the demanded quality. Particle tracking simulations of all energies through this dipole magnet showed that all beams have been bent precisely into their corresponding beamlines. Calculating the transverse homogeneity in the middle of the yoke showed very good results. All values stayed below the specified limit of 10{sup -3}. Regarding the longitudinal homogeneity, nearly all results have been below 5.10{sup -3}. Only the exit side of beam three showed deviations of up to 1.10{sup -2}. During the simulations, a strong dependency of the edge angles with respect to the vertical position was discovered, especially the exit edge angle. Ensuring a reliable beam dynamics simulation, this dependency has been checked with XBEAM. The result showed that these effects are controllable in a simple manner. Integrating higher multipole components along the different orbits led to smaller results than the recommended 10{sup -3}. All simulations showed very good results for such a complex dipole magnet. After manufacturing, the separation as well as the recombination dipole magnet have been measured and investigated with respect to all important parameters. The results for the transverse homogeneity of the magnetic field showed similar values in comparison to the theory. Nearly all beams stayed below 10{sup -3} except for the second

  6. The letter knowledge assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cassandra; Lousada, Marisa; Pereira, Rita; Hall, Andreia; Jesus, Luis M T

    2017-10-10

    There is a need to develop letter knowledge assessment tools to characterise the letter knowledge in Portuguese pre-schoolers and to compare it with pre-schoolers from other countries, but there are no tools for this purpose in Portugal. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and validation procedures of the Prova de Avaliação de Competências de Pré-Literacia (PACPL), which assesses letter knowledge. This study includes data that has been gathered in two phases: pilot and main study. In the pilot study, an expert panel of six speech and language pathologists analysed the instrument. Children (n = 216) aged 5;0-7;11 participated in the main study that reports data related to the psychometric characteristics of the PACPL. Content validity, internal consistency, reliability and contributing factors to performance were examined statistically. A modified Bland-Altman method revealed good agreement amongst evaluators. The main study showed that the PACPL has a very good internal consistency and high inter-rater (96.2% of agreement and a Cohen's k value of 0.92) and intra-rater (95.6% of agreement and a Cohen's k value of 0.91) agreement. Construct validity of the PCAPL was also assured (Cronbach's α of 0.982). Significant differences were found between age groups with children increasing their letter knowledge with age. In addition, they were better at identifying than at producing both letter names and letter sounds. The PACPL is a valid and reliable instrument to assess letter knowledge in Portuguese children.

  7. Letter processing and font information during reading: beyond distinctiveness, where vision meets design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas; Dyson, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    Letter identification is a critical front end of the reading process. In general, conceptualizations of the identification process have emphasized arbitrary sets of distinctive features. However, a richer view of letter processing incorporates principles from the field of type design, including an emphasis on uniformities across letters within a font. The importance of uniformities is supported by a small body of research indicating that consistency of font increases letter identification efficiency. We review design concepts and the relevant literature, with the goal of stimulating further thinking about letter processing during reading.

  8. Letter to the editors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-14

    Sep 14, 2012 ... Stimulating medical students interest in research: a neglected craft in Africa ... at conferences and workshops will be encouraged by provision of travel scholarships. ... should be made to play a greater role as donor agencies.

  9. Great Lakes Research Review, 1982. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    7D-i53 28 GREAT LAKES RESEARCH REVIEW 1982 PPENDICES (U) / PETROLEUM REFINERY PO INT SOURCE TASK FORCE WINDSOR (ONTARIO) NOV 82UNCLASSIFIED F/G 8...C7 U. 3 X 7 45 1 2 0. ODm C of. C.’ WC.’ L. LI 7 R-Ri53 62B GREAT LKES RESEARCH REVIEW 1982 PPENDICES (U) 2/3 PETROLEUM REFINERY POINT SOURCE TASK...NUMBER ORGANIZATION* TITLE OF PROJECT 001 A** 0300 ERL-D Acute and Early Life Stage Toxicity Testing of Priority Pollutant Chemicals 002 A 0302 ERL-D

  10. Fabrication and Final Field Tuning of Copper Cavity Models for a High-Current SRF ERL at 703.75 MHz

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Michael; Burger, Al; Falletta, Michael; Holmes, Douglas; Peterson, Ed; Wong, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Energy Systems is currently under contract to BNL to fabricate a five cell superconducting cavity and cryomodule for the RHIC eCooler SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) program.* The cavity is designed and optimized for ampere class SRF ERL service. As part of this program, we have fabricated two low power copper models of the RF cavities. During the fabrication process a series of frequency measurements were made and compared to the frequency expected at that point in the fabrication process. Where possible, the cavity was modified either before or during, the next fabrication step to tune the cavity frequency toward the target frequency. Following completion of the cavities they were tuned for field flatness and frequency. This paper will review the measurements made, frequency tuning performed, and discuss discrepancies between the expected and measured results. We will also review the as fabricated field profiles and the results of the tuning steps. Further, the cost and benefits of extensive in pro...

  11. Differences in SEM-AVS and ERM-ERL predictions of sediment impacts from metals in two US Virgin Islands marinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkey, Lynne M; Zaidi, Baqar R

    2007-02-01

    Two US Virgin Islands marinas were examined for potential metal impacts by comparing sediment chemistry data with two sediment quality guideline (SQG) values: the ratio of simultaneously extractable metals to acid volatile sulfides (SEM-AVS), and effects range-low and -mean (ERL-ERM) values. ERL-ERMs predicted the marina/boatyard complex (IBY: 2118 microg/g dry weight total metals, two exceeded ERMs) would have greater impacts than the marina with no boatyard (CBM: 231 microg/g dry weight total metals, no ERMs exceeded). The AVS-SEM method predicted IBY would have fewer effects due to high AVS-forming metal sulfide complexes, reducing trace metal bioavailability. These contradictory predictions demonstrate the importance of validating the results of either of these methods with other toxicity measures before making any management or regulatory decisions regarding boating and marina impacts. This is especially important in non-temperate areas where sediment quality guidelines have not been validated.

  12. Letter to the editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Annika Linde, Amelie Plymoth Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden It was with great interest that we noticed that other researchers are also interested in participant-collected nasal swabs to detect pathogens in acute respiratory infections, and we welcome the findings presented in the study by Vargas et al.1        Of importance is that already in the beginning of 2015, we showed in our research work that nasal self-sampling is feasible in large-scale surveillance of respiratory infections.2  View the original paper by Vargas and colleagues. 

  13. The Aunt Gladys Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students receive individual questions (i.e., What is a sparkler made of and what makes it sparkle?) to answers from their "Aunt Gladys." Students must research the everyday question, discover the answer, and then translate the answer into the common language of the masses. (PR)

  14. Letter from the editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Vargas Jiménez

    2017-01-01

    Humbly, from the Earth Sciences Research Journal, we want to adhere the same message: “It’s not magic, it’s science!” We present to you this new volume, is not so so much, but we hope every little bit helps.

  15. Letter to the editor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 5 (2013), s. 697-698 ISSN 0308-1087 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval linear equations * strong feasibility * Farkas-type theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.700, year: 2013

  16. Letter to the Editor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. July-Sep 2013 ... onion is highly beneficial for women to prevent ovarian cancer where white onions are not effective for ... of agent that acts at specific molecular targets with respect to cancer ...

  17. Development of a Bunched Beam Electron Cooler based on ERL and Circulator Ring Technology for the Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hannon, Fay E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hutton, Andrew M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Yves R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, He [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Jefferson Lab is in the process of designing an electron ion collider with unprecedented luminosity at a 45 GeV center-of-mass energy. This luminosity relies on ion cooling in both the booster and the storage ring of the accelerator complex. The cooling in the booster will use a conventional DC cooler similar to the one at COSY. The high-energy storage ring, operating at a momentum of up to 100 GeV/nucleon, requires novel use of bunched-beam cooling. There are two designs for such a cooler. The first uses a conventional Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) with a magnetized beam while the second uses a circulating ring to enhance both peak and average currents experienced by the ion beam. This presentation will describe the design of both the Circulator Cooling Ring (CCR) design and that of the backup option using the stand-alone ERL operated at lower charge but higher repetition rate than the ERL injector required by the CCR-based design.

  18. Vulnerabilität. Erläuterungen zu einem Schlüsselbegriff im Denken Judith Butlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pistrol Florian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Im neueren Denken Judith Butlers nimmt der Begriff der Vulnerabilität eine Schlüsselrolle ein. Kaum eines der vielen Themen, denen sich die US-amerikanische Autorin seit der Jahrtausendwende widmet, kann ohne Kenntnis ihrer Überlegungen zu diesem Terminus angemessen verstanden werden. Der Versuch einer Rekonstruktion ihrer Konzeption von Vulnerabilität steht allerdings vor der Schwierigkeit, dass Butlers Gedanken hierzu über zahlreiche Texte hinweg verstreut sind, wobei bisweilen unterschiedliche Aspekte betont und verschiedene Schwerpunktsetzungen vorgenommen werden. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden Butlers vulnerabilitätstheoretische Ausführungen in gebündelter Weise dargestellt und interpretiert. Dabei wird (1 die Bedeutsamkeit von Butlers Überlegungen zur Vulnerabilität für ihre Vorstellung von Körperlichkeit aufgewiesen, (2 der Zusammenhang von Vulnerabilität und Anerkennung erläutert und (3 gezeigt, welche ethischen Erwägungen Butler ausgehend von ihrer Anerkennungskonzeption und ihrem Denken der Vulnerabilität anstellt und inwiefern Vulnerabilität und politische Handlungsfähigkeit einander nicht ausschließen. Abschließend wird (4 Butlers Vulnerabilitätsverständnis mit einigen kritischen Rückfragen konfrontiert.

  19. Letter from the editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Vargas J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Times of change wind this year for Earth Sciences Research Journal. The hard work of the last years have resulted in a significant advance for this journal, and now we want to announce our four volumes to be published since 2016 every year. The objective of being a top-quality journal is in the North of our compass, and it will be inspiring the daily work of the people making this publication possible. Several conferences have called our journal for special issues, and we expect to fit into their requests to keep providing the users with novel contents in the earth sciences field. In this open-access issuing, there is room for all scientific papers looking for a worldwide site to publish. But not only in Earth Sciences Research Journal challenge winds are moving the kite. The petroleum market in the world is facing one of the most critical times of the history, playing on an unexpected stage where no many actors were ready for. Management of resources are in the spotlight of the political world; energy and water, as well as the environment, turned into subjects of the first line. Fracking has resulted in thousands of discussions inside and outside of the academic world. We want to encourage everyone involved in the scientific research on earth sciences to submit us their papers. Nowadays, we substantially revised every one of the works sent and pay strict attention to the review processes, reducing periods and improving experiences of authors in the editorial world. We intend to collaborate with other professional organizations interested in geology scientific communication. Find in the ESRJ a friendly hand to work with. For the volume 20, number 1, we are presenting 18 selected papers in different areas of study; original contents we hope will be of your complete usability. Comments, claims, and suggestions are always welcomed in Earth Sciences Research Journal through the mail account earthjour_fcbog@unal.edu.co. Thanks for reading and

  20. Letters from a Nightingale nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, E

    1996-01-01

    Mary Cadbury was one of six daughters in a wealthy Birmingham family, all of whom took up professional or unpaid philanthropic work. In 1873 Mary began nurse training at the Nightingale School, St Thomas's Hospital, and regularly sent letters to family and friends, which provide a graphic account of the experience of a nurse in the latter half of the nineteenth century.

  1. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense

  2. Letter from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmeier, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    As of 2007, Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes has reached its all-time high regarding the ISI journal impact factor, with an impressive increase of 60% compared to 2005. We now rank at 1,461, as shown in the statistics below. This is solely due to the increased quality of the published articles: In 2006, Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes published 208 research papers and received 1,033 citations -- five citations per paper on average. In 2007, we have published 177 research papers with roughly the same number of citations. In co-operation with Wiley InterScience we have achieved an average online publication time of just 4.5 months. We hope that the year 2008 will be comparably prosperous. As in the past, publication in Astronomische Nachrichten -- Astronomical Notes continues to be free of charge. Also, all articles of the first issue of each volume can be downloaded free of charge, as can all articles labelled ``Editor's Choice'', which are additionally featured with a color image on the front cover.

  3. Credit Card Debt Hardship Letter Samples

    OpenAIRE

    lissa coffey

    2016-01-01

    Having trouble with your credit card debt? Below you will find examples of hardship letters. There are several things to consider when writing a credit card hardship letter. A hardship letter is the first step to letting the credit card company know that things are bad. This free credit card hardship letter sample is only a guide in order to start the negotiation. Credit card debt hardship letter example, hardship letter to credit card. If you are having trouble paying off your debt and need ...

  4. Interactions between science and technology: analysis of the intellectual production of the researchers-inventors of the first letter- patent of the UFRGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Mielniczuk de Moura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses intellectual and industrial property and existing differences between scientific and technological knowledge. It aims at incorporating the patent in the context of the scientific and technological communication. It presents preliminary data of a study that aims at analyzing the relationship between scientific and technological information in the intellectual production of the researchers-inventors of the first patent from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS. It concludes that, in the case studied, a flow between scientific and technological information occurs, in which the former, after its diffusion and approval in the peer review process, subsidizes the latter. It suggests that other studies should be carried out.

  5. Letter to the Editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartemo, Petty; Nilsson, Jenny; Nordlund, Anders; Isaksson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Whole-body counting (WBC) is a method for measuring and determining the body burden of gamma-emitting radionuclides. The Research Institute for Industrial and Sea Hygiene, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, has designed a human whole-body phantom, IRINA, to be used for calibrations of WBC systems. We have created voxel phantoms of the IRINA phantoms in a lying geometry, in a total of six voxel phantoms, for usages of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. All the six voxel phantoms are now available through the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research web site together with a detailed description of the method used to create them. IRINA consists of a number of polyethylene blocks, called scatterers (density 0.95 g cm 3 ) and radionuclide sources. The scatterers come in two sizes: 110 x 165 x 55 mm 3 and 110 x 165 x 25 mm 3 . Two vertical channels, aimed for the insertion of the rod-shaped sources, run parallel to each scatterer's height (165 mm). The scatterers can be assembled to represent six different human bodies, who are either laying down, sitting or sitting bending: a 1-y-old with mass of 12 kg, a 6-y-old with mass of 24 kg, a 14-y-old with mass of 50 kg and an adult with mass of 70, 90 and 110 kg, respectively. Voxel phantoms are commonly created by segmentation of CT or MRI image sets of the real-life phantom, which is a favourable technique for complex geometries such as the human anatomy. This gives a three-dimensional array, whose dimension is determined by millimetre/pixel and slice thickness, where each element defines the position and material composition of a voxel in the xyz-space. However, the less-complicated structure of the IRINA phantom made it possible to construct the voxel phantoms without using segmentation of CT or MRI image sets. Instead, the voxel phantoms were created in MATLAB R , which is a strong computational tool for matrix manipulations. The dimensions of a large scatterer are related by 2:3:1. Each scatterer was divided into six unit cubes, with sides

  6. 48 CFR 42.504 - Postaward letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Postaward Orientation 42.504 Postaward letters. In some circumstances, a letter or other written form of communication to the contractor may be adequate postaward...

  7. Open letter to the Vatican.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    An open letter was published by Latin American and Caribbean women during the Special Session of the UN General Assembly on the International Conference on Population and Development. The letter generally focused on the Church¿s stand on women's reproductive rights. In particular, it questioned the Church on the following aspects of reproductive health, which include: 1) maternal death related to lack of access to reproductive health care; 2) Vatican representatives insisting that only parents can supervise their children education and health, which also lead to many cases of sexual abuse and incest; 3) women's sexual inequality and daily violence; 4) the Vatican delegation blocking the advances of contraception, sexual education, and HIV prevention; 5) problems of migrants and allocation of resources; and 6) the Church failing to recognize the capacity of young people to make decisions based on their own conscience.

  8. John von Neumann selected letters

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    John von Neuman was perhaps the most influential mathematician of the twentieth century, especially if his broad influence outside mathematics is included. Not only did he contribute to almost all branches of mathematics and created new fields, but he also changed post-World War II history with his work on the design of computers and with being a sought-after technical advisor to many figures in the U.S. military-political establishment in the 1940s and 1950s. The present volume is the first substantial collection of (previously mainly unpublished) letters written by von Neumann to colleagues, friends, government officials, and others. The letters give us a glimpse of the thinking of John von Neumann about mathematics, physics, computer science, science management, education, consulting, politics, and war. Readers of quite diverse backgrounds will find much of interest in this fascinating first-hand look at one of the towering figures of twentieth century science.

  9. Written Communications Simulation: Write Me a Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This simulation is intended for use as a culminating activity after students have been exposed to personal and/or business letter writing, use of reference manuals, typing of letters, mailing procedures, typing of numbers, punctuation practice, and filing procedures. Stated objectives are to enable students to type a mailable letter; to inspect,…

  10. Letter Dice. Technical Note No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Jock

    Letter and syllable dice devised for a project in rural Ecuador provide inexpensive, easily reproducible learning materials for practice in basic literary skills. Eleven wooden cubes with six letters on each cube are cast onto a surface and the player constructs words from the letters on the top side of the dice. After a word is formed and…

  11. 31 CFR 29.511 - Demand letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demand letters. 29.511 Section 29.511... Overpayments § 29.511 Demand letters. Except as provided in § 29.516(e), before starting collection action to recover an overpayment, the Benefits Administrator must send a demand letter that informs the debtor in...

  12. 7 CFR 3560.709 - Demand letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand letter. 3560.709 Section 3560.709 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Unauthorized Assistance § 3560.709 Demand letter. (a) If a... repayment schedule, the Agency will send the borrower a demand letter specifying: (1) The amount of...

  13. Michelangelo, a Tireless Letter Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Charles Fiorato

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A titan of artistic creation, the sculptor-painter-architect Michelangelo was also a tireless letter writer. Five hundred and eighteen of his letters have reached us, stretching from his youth to the eve of his death, but we know that many others have been lost. Written in a kind of familiar Florentine and in a style of minimalist ‘realism’ – which does not prevent the presence of either impetuous polemical flights or pages of literary indulgence – these letters deal mainly with everyday subjects: day-by-day relationships, either endearing or resentful, with his relatives, financial or property matters and, above all, the marriage problems which concerned his nephew Leonardo, the sole heir of the family. But one also discovers in them the artist’s warm feelings of friendship and love, his poetic and aesthetic exchanges, his relationships, often conflictual, with his fellow-artists and patrons as well as his reflections on old age and death. All in all, these letters represent a documentary chronicle of a Florentine bourgeois family and the technical hassle of an entrepreneur’s activity. If, on the one hand, the Carteggio does not shed light either on Michelangelo’s conception of art or the way in which he realized his works, on the other it illustrates certain latent aspects of his projects, as well as of his personality, which was at the same time melancholy and aggressive, surprisingly whole and manifold. This luxuriant correspondence presents, so to speak, a ‘genetic’ interest, since it reveals the hidden face of the brilliant conceiver and creator, of the artist and entrepreneur struggling with the obstacles whose overcoming makes creation possible. 

  14. What Do Letter Migration Errors Reveal About Letter Position Coding in Visual Word Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2004-01-01

    Dividing attention across multiple words occasionally results in misidentifications whereby letters apparently migrate between words. Previous studies have found that letter migrations preserve within-word letter position, which has been interpreted as support for position-specific letter coding. To investigate this issue, the authors used word…

  15. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Sarah; Treiman, Rebecca; Rosales, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Learning about letters is an important component of emergent literacy. We explored the possibility that parent speech provides information about letters, and also that children’s speech reflects their own letter knowledge. By studying conversations transcribed in CHILDES (MacWhinney, 2000) between parents and children aged one to five, we found that alphabetic order influenced use of individual letters and letter sequences. The frequency of letters in children’s books influenced parent utterances throughout the age range studied, but children’s utterances only after age two. Conversations emphasized some literacy-relevant features of letters, such as their shapes and association with words, but not letters’ sounds. Describing these patterns and how they change over the preschool years offers important insight into the home literacy environment. PMID:25598577

  16. Writing more informative letters of reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott M; Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2004-05-01

    Writing a meaningful and valuable letter of reference is not an easy task. Several factors influence the quality of any letter of reference. First, the accuracy and reliability of the writer's impressions and judgment depend on how well he knows the individual being described. Second, the writer's frame of reference, which is determined by the number of persons at the same level that he has worked with, will impact the context and significance of his beliefs and estimations. Third, the letter-writing skills of the person composing the letter will naturally affect the letter. To support the other components of a candidate's application, a letter of reference should provide specific examples of how an individual's behavior or attitude compares to a reference group and should assess "intangibles" that are hard to glean from a curriculum vitae or from test scores. This report offers suggestions that should help physicians write more informative letters of reference.

  17. Justification and authority in institutional review board decision letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Justin T; Gleason, Katharine A; Joffe, Steven

    2017-12-01

    While ethnographic study has described the discussions that occur during human subjects research ethics review, investigators have minimal access to the interactions of ethics oversight committees. They instead receive letters stipulating changes to their proposed studies. Ethics committee letters are central to the practice of research ethics: they change the nature of research, alter the knowledge it produces, and in doing so construct what ethical research is and how it is pursued. However, these letters have rarely been objects of analysis. Accordingly, we conducted a qualitative analysis of letters written by American institutional review boards (IRBs) overseeing biomedical and health behavioral research. We sought to clarify how IRBs exercise their authority by assessing the frequency with which they provided reasons for their stipulations as well as the nature of these reasons. We found that IRBs frequently do not justify their stipulations; rather, they often leave ethical or regulatory concerns implicit or frame their comments as boilerplate language replacements, procedural instructions, or demands for missing information. When they do provide justifications, their rationales exhibit substantial variability in explicitness and clarity. These rhetorical tendencies indicate that the authority of IRBs is grounded primarily in their role as bureaucratic gatekeepers. We conclude by suggesting that greater attention to justification could help shift the basis of the IRB-researcher relationship from compliance to mutual accountability. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. EDITORIAL: Dialog on Science and Policy to Address the Climate Crisis to conclude the International Association of Research Universities Climate Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark Dialog on Science and Policy to Address the Climate Crisis to conclude the International Association of Research Universities Climate Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Paul; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-06-01

    This is not the usual Editor-in-Chief letter, namely one that focuses on the accomplishments of the journal—and for ERL they have been numerous this year—but a recognition of the critical time that we are now in when it comes to addressing not only global climate change, but also the dialog between science and politics. In recognition of the many 'tipping points' that we now confront—ideally some of them positive social moments—as well as the clear scientific conclusion that environmental tipping points are points of long-lasting disruption, this paper takes a different form than I might have otherwise written. While the scientific body of knowledge around global environmental change mounts, so too, do the hopeful signs that change can happen. The election of Barack Obama is unquestionably one such sign, witnessed by the exceptional interest that his story has brought not only to US politics, but also to global views of the potential of the United States, as well as to the potential role of science and investigation in addressing pressing issues. In light of these inter-related issues, reproduced here—largely due to the efforts of Paul Baer to transcribe a remarkable conversation—is a dialog not only on the science of global warming and the potential set of means to address this issue, but also on the interaction between research, science and the political process. The dialog itself is sufficiently important that I will dispense with the usual discussion of the exciting recognition that ERL has received with an ISI rating (a factor rapidly increasing), the high levels of downloads of our papers (for some articles over 5000 and counting), and the many news and scientific publications picking up ERL articles (in recent days alone Science, Environmental Science and Technology, and The Economist). This conversation was the concluding plenary session of the 10-12 March International Association of Research Universities (IARU) Conference on Climate Change

  19. Development of control and data processing system for JAERI ERL-FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro

    2005-03-01

    A personal computer (PC) based distributed control system has been developed for Free Electron Laser (FEL) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and operated since 1992. The control system was implemented on Ethernet LAN of PCs, Nippon Electric Company (NEC Corp.) PC-9800 series 32 bit personal computers. It became troublesome to maintain the control system, because many application programs did not work on outdated hardware interfaces and operating system. Furthermore, since security updates of the operating system (OS) were no longer provided, the problem was in network security when many PCs were connected with the LAN. We have to solve these problems and to improve the reliability and the safety of the control system, an ITRON-based controller was developed. In Japan, the ITRON is very popular and embedded in many products such as industrial instruments or household appliances that are demanded of its high reliability. When the local controller was installed, a new control program was developed by Java language which had high compatibility on many platforms so that replacement of the computer for consoles might become easy in future. High reliability and interchangeability have been successfully realized by them, and the control system made long continuous operation possible. (author)

  20. Resource letter SH-1: superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    The resource letter covers the general subject of superfluid helium and treats 3 He and 3 He-- 4 He mixtures as well as 4 He. No effort has been made to include the fascinating experiments on either solid helium or the equally fascinating work on adsorbed helium where the helium coverage is below that necessary for superfluidity. An earlier resource letter by C. T. Lane [Am. J. Phys. 35, 367 (1967)] may be consulted for additional comments on some of the cited earlier manuscripts, but the present work is self-contained and may be used independently. Many high-quality research reports have not been cited here. Rather, the author has tried in most cases to include works particularly readable or relevant. There is a relatively heavy emphasis on experimental references. The primary reason is that these works tend to be more generally readable. No doubt some works that might have been included, have not, and for this the author takes responsibility with apology. Articles selected for incorporation in a reprint volume (to be published separately by the American Association of Physics Teachers) are marked with an asterisk(*). Following each referenced work the general level of difficulty is indicated by E, I, or A for elementary, intermediate, or advanced

  1. To Domingos: letters, friends, literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laíse Ribas Bastos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The object for studying and analysis in this work is a set of letters received by Domingos Carvalho da Silva, which points to the constitution of a scene consisted of friendship and dissidences around a common literary and intellectual perspective. The objective of this work is to map the heterogeneity of the group as well as the problematic project involving the literary production in that moment, in order to find, thus, the means and ways of permanence of literature as it was configured between the 1940s and the 1960s.

  2. The "One-Letter-War"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peder

    2017-01-01

    The resolve of the naming dispute between Denmark, Norway and Sweden over the sea name Skagerrak has always been hailed as a prime example of how a naming dispute between countries over joint geographical name features should be handled and solved. This is a search into the story behind the scenes...... by the national mapping agencies. Practical Implications: Useful for institutions seeking name dispute resolution. Building on the extensive correspondence of almost fifty letters in the Danish Place-Name Commission’s journal archive, this naming dispute is shown to be of a rather different nature and resolve...

  3. Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Barbiero, Chiara; Facoetti, Andrea; Lonciari, Isabella; Carrozzi, Marco; Montico, Marcella; Bravar, Laura; George, Florence; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the causes of dyslexia are still debated, all researchers agree that the main challenge is to find ways that allow a child with dyslexia to read more words in less time, because reading more is undisputedly the most efficient intervention for dyslexia. Sophisticated training programs exist, but they typically target the component skills of reading, such as phonological awareness. After the component skills have improved, the main challenge remains (that is, reading deficits must be treated by reading more—a vicious circle for a dyslexic child). Here, we show that a simple manipulation of letter spacing substantially improved text reading performance on the fly (without any training) in a large, unselected sample of Italian and French dyslexic children. Extra-large letter spacing helps reading, because dyslexics are abnormally affected by crowding, a perceptual phenomenon with detrimental effects on letter recognition that is modulated by the spacing between letters. Extra-large letter spacing may help to break the vicious circle by rendering the reading material more easily accessible. PMID:22665803

  4. Teaching braille letters, numerals, punctuation, and contractions to sighted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also numerals, punctuation, symbols, and contractions; we evaluated this program with 4 sighted undergraduate participants. Exposure to this program resulted in mastery of all braille-to-print relations for each participant. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. A letter signed: the very beginnings of Dalton's atomic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Herbert T

    2010-11-01

    This paper explores the provenance and content of a previously unknown personal letter by John Dalton (1766-1844), which is dated 12 April 1803. It relates to a startling breakthrough in Dalton's research, which pre-dates by five months the earliest date in his laboratory notebook, namely, 6 September 1803. The author acquired the letter about thirty years ago, and now offers it to the public. He makes no attempt to explain how it contributes to--or even changes--our understanding of Dalton, but leaves that privilege to Dalton scholars.

  6. Analysis of letter name knowledge using Rasch measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ryan P; Skibbe, Lori E; Justice, Laura M

    2011-01-01

    Letter name knowledge (LNK) is a key predictor of later reading ability and has been emphasized strongly in recent educational policy. Studies of LNK have implicitly treated it as a unidimensional construct with all letters equally relevant to its measurement. However, some empirical research suggests that contextual factors can affect the measurement of LNK. In this study, we analyze responses from 909 children on measures of LNK using the Rasch model and its extensions, and consider two contextual factors: the format of assessment and the own-name advantage, which states that children are more likely to know letters in their own first names. Results indicate that both contextual factors have important impacts on measurement and that LNK does not meet the requirements of Rasch measurement even when accounting for the contextual factors. These findings introduce philosophical concerns for measurement of constrained skills which have limited content for assessment.

  7. Anne Scott Sørensen, Ole Martin Høystad, Erling Bjurström and Halvard Vike Nye kulturstudier - En innføring, Oslo: Spartacus Forlag AS/Scandinavian Academic Press, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gösta Arvastson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nye kulturstudier [New Cultural Studies] is the first introduction to cultural studies in Scandinavia and an impressive presentation of the subject. The book aims to explain how cultural studies emerged as an interdisciplinary field in humanities and social sciences. Other introductions to cultural research in eth-nology and anthropology have been produced - but this one is different, since it is more comprehensive and am-bitious. Nye kulturstudier is the result of in-terdisciplinary collaboration between four colleagues from Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Senior lecturer Anne Scott Sørensen and Professor Ole Martin Høystad are affiliated to the Institute for Literature, Media and Cultural Studies at the University of Southern Denmark in Odense. Professor Erling Bjurström belongs to Tema Q at Linköping Uni-versity, and Professor Halvard Vike works at the Institute for Social Anthro-pology at Oslo University. The authors comment that they are oriented towards different subjects and educational pro-grammes at their respective universities. The book begins with a background to the theories and scientific traditions. This is followed by Cultural Analysis and Methodology, a chapter on Identity, Globalisation and Multiculturalism, one on Taste, Lifestyle and Consumption and, finally, by Nature, Body and Ex-perience Landscapes.

  8. Sense-Making and Map-Making: War Letters as Personal Geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Knopf

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Structured in three parts, this article will briefly review David Herman’s idea of “spatial reference” in narrative, particularly in epistolary form, and explain the research method used in this project; introduce military geographies and demonstrate how various spatial references function in war letters; and, lastly, illustrate the value of war letters as spatial artifacts and subjective cartography.

  9. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 26, Number 3, May-June 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Unleashing the "Brain Power" of Groups in the Classroom: The Neuroscience behind Collaborative Work (Nancy Walser); (2) Putting AP to the Test: New Research Assesses the…

  10. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 22, Number 6, November-December 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) (In)formative Assessments: New Tests and Activities Can Help Teachers Guide Student Learning (Robert Rothman); (2) Recent Research on the Achievement Gap: How Lifestyle…

  11. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 24, Number 3, May-June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) "Equity, Access, and Opportunity": Despite Challenges, More Districts Adopt One-to-One Laptop Programs (Colleen Gillard); (2) Small Kids, Big Words: Research-Based Strategies…

  12. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 27, Number 4, July-August 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Integrated Data Systems Link Schools and Communities: Researchers Combine School and Non-School Data to Inform Interventions and Policy (Patti Hartigan);…

  13. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 26, Number 6, November-December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Nancy, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Video Games Take Testing to the Next Level: Researchers See Promise in Game-Like Assessments That Measure Complex Skills (Robert Rothman); (2) An Academic…

  14. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 28, Number 1, January-February 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Nancy, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Using Theater to Teach Social Skills: Researchers Document Improvements for Children with Autism (Patti Hartigan); (2) The Family Model of Schooling Revisited: Few Teachers,…

  15. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 23, Number 5, September-October 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Confronting the Autism Epidemic: New Expectations for Children with Autism Means a New Role for Public Schools (Kate McKenna); (2) Internet Research 101:…

  16. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA LETTER SHARING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN KOMUNIKASI SISWA INTROVERT

    OpenAIRE

    Elian Iwi Afifah; Triyono Triyono; Yuliati Hotifah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Communication skills are the most important things for teenagers. There is a leaning that the teenagers who have low communication skills can be called as someone who is introvert personality. People who are introvert personality tend to be difficult to communicate and express verbally. The purpose of developing letter sharing media is to improve communication skills of introvert student. This research is development research by adopting Borg and Gall research model. The development...

  17. Writing More Informative Letters of Reference

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Scott M; Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2004-01-01

    Writing a meaningful and valuable letter of reference is not an easy task. Several factors influence the quality of any letter of reference. First, the accuracy and reliability of the writer's impressions and judgment depend on how well he knows the individual being described. Second, the writer's frame of reference, which is determined by the number of persons at the same level that he has worked with, will impact the context and significance of his beliefs and estimations. Third, the letter...

  18. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firor, John W.

    1994-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  19. Effect of orthographic processes on letter-identity and letter-position encoding in dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eReilhac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify letters and encode their position is a crucial step of the word recognition process. However and despite their word identification problem, the ability of dyslexic children to encode letter-identity and letter-position within strings was not systematically investigated. This study aimed at filling this gap and further explored how letter identity and letter position encoding is modulated by letter context in developmental dyslexia. For this purpose, a letter-string comparison task was administered to French dyslexic children and two chronological-age (CA and reading-age (RA-matched control groups. Children had to judge whether two successively and briefly presented 4-letter-strings were identical or different. Letter-position and letter-identity were manipulated through the transposition (e.g., RTGM vs. RMGT or substitution of two letters (e.g., TSHF vs. TGHD. Non-words, pseudo-words and words were used as stimuli to investigate sub-lexical and lexical effects on letter encoding. Dyslexic children showed both substitution and transposition detection problems relative to CA controls. A substitution advantage over transpositions was only found for words in dyslexic children whereas it extended to pseudo-words in RA controls and to all type of items in CA controls. Letters were better identified in the dyslexic group when belonging to orthographically familiar strings. Letter position encoding was very impaired in dyslexic children who did not show any word context effect in contrast to CA controls. Overall, the current findings point to a strong letter identity and letter position encoding disorder in developmental dyslexia.

  20. Sixty-Minute Review of Letter Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Donald H.; Graham, Louise

    1974-01-01

    The article describes a one-hour presentation which provides a basic stereotyped pattern of letter organization for the four types of letters (order, request, claim, and reply) the business of secretarial student is most likely to have to write. The four paragraphs of the pattern are: purpose, explanation, optional, and closing. (AG)

  1. Culture and subculture in transactional letter writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the relative contributions of subculture membership and mother-tongue status/target culture membership in writing transactional letters. We examined the letters accompanying articles initially submitted for publication by 26 NSE and 23 NNSE academics, and compared them with ef...

  2. When Do First Letters Mnemonics Aid Recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P. E.; Cook, N.

    1978-01-01

    The evidence for the effectiveness of the first letter mnemonic technique is confused. There are at least three studies showing no effect, and one where an improvement in recall occurred. Reports two experiments which attempted to locate the conditions under which the first letter mnemonic is effective. (Author/RK)

  3. The Indirect Empathic Approach to Claim Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James D.

    1985-01-01

    In discussing letter-writing methods for business communication classes, the article explains that claim letter formats other than the direct approach are not only legitimate, but also effective, and suggests that the approach selected should depend upon the circumstances surrounding the claim. (CT)

  4. Mining Research Laboratories annual report, 1984-85. Rapport annuel des Laboratoires de recherche miniere, 1984-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, C.A.

    1985-05-01

    One of the main objectives of CANMET's Energy Research program is to develop the technologies required to conserve and to increase the supply of liquid fossil fuels in Canada to bridge the gap that exists between domestic supply and demand (both internal demand and export opportunities). The Energy Research Laboratories (ERL) respond to this R D objective on matters related to the upgrading of oil sands; heavy oil and synthetic crude production; coal/bitumen coprocessing; and improved oil and gas domestic heating furnaces. Another major objective is to develop the technologies to burn fossil fuels, mainly coal, under environmentally acceptable conditions; ERL responds to this objective through research in the areas of coal combustion and gasification. This report summarizes the activities of ERL during the fiscal year 1984/85. A recent reorganization of the ERL is summarily described. The total expenses of ERL in 1984/85 were 169 persons/year, $6.375 million in salaries, $3.499 million in operating costs, $2.740 million in capital investments, and $10,000 million in contracts. Included in the report are listings of employees, patents, publications, technical committees, and contracts. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. A Stimulus Sampling Theory of Letter Identity and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dennis; Kinoshita, Sachiko; van Casteren, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Early on during word recognition, letter positions are not accurately coded. Evidence for this comes from transposed-letter (TL) priming effects, in which letter strings generated by transposing two adjacent letters (e.g., "jugde") produce large priming effects, more than primes with the letters replaced in the corresponding position (e.g.,…

  6. Critical contrastive rhetoric: The influence of L2 letter writing instruction on L1letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed critical contrastive rhetoric to investigate the L2 to L1 transfer of organizational pattern and directness level of speech acts in business complaint letters. By examining the L1 complaint letters of 30 tourism university students in two phases of study, pre and post instruction of English complaint letter, the study revealed that the rhetorical organization of Persian letters are in a state of hybridity. The post instruction comparison of letters, however, showed a tendency towards applying English conventions both in organization and directness level of complaint speech act in the L1 complaint letters. The results also revealed that after instruction the expert in the field of tourism viewed some letters as inappropriate in terms of politeness which is reflected through some lexical items.

  7. Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorens, Vera; Takano, Keisuke; Franck, Erik; Roberts, John E; Raes, Filip

    2015-09-01

    We tested the usefulness of name-letter preference scores as indirect indicators of self-esteem by exploring whether multiple unsupervised self-administrations of letter rating tasks within a short period of time yield useful data. We also examined whether preferences for initials and noninitial name-letters tap different aspects of self-esteem. Participants from a community sample (N = 164; 58 men and 106 women, 17-67 years, Mage = 34.57, SD = 13.28) completed daily letter rating tasks and state self-esteem questionnaires for 7 consecutive days. They also completed a trait self-esteem questionnaire on the first measurement day as well as 6 months later. Preference scores for first-name initials were stronger but more unstable than preference scores for other name-letters. Preferences for first-name initials were primarily associated with directly measured state self-esteem whereas preferences for noninitials were primarily associated with directly measured trait self-esteem even if the latter was measured 6 months later. Thus, we showed that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable. Previous letter rating studies, which almost exclusively used initial preferences, should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem. In future studies, researchers should focus on the name-letter preference that reflects the aspect of self-esteem they wish to address. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Standardized letters of recommendation and successful match into otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimple, Adam J; McClurg, Stanley W; Del Signore, Anthony G; Tomoum, Mohamed O; Lin, Feng-Chang; Senior, Brent A

    2016-05-01

    Historically, narrative letters of recommendation have been utilized in the selection of applicants for otolaryngology residency programs. In the last two application cycles, our specialty adopted a standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR). The intent was to decrease time burden for letter writers and to provide readers with an objective evaluation of applicants. The objective of this study was to determine attributes in the SLOR that correlate with matching into a residency program. We performed a retrospective study using SLOR, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 scores, and matched outcomes of applicants who applied to our institution for the 2013 and 2014 match cycle. We included the following variables from the SLOR in the statistical analysis to determine which ones were associated with matching: patient care, medical knowledge, communication skills, procedural skills, research, initiative and drive, commitment to otolaryngology, commitment to academic medicine, match potential, and USMLE1 scores. We identified 532 applicants and 963 SLOR. In successful applicants, scores for patient care, medical knowledge, communication skills, initiative and drive, and match potential were statistically higher (P otolaryngology, commitment to academic medicine, and USMLE step 1 scores were not higher among successfully matched applicants. Although SLOR can save time for letter writers and provide an objective description of applicants, the utility of individual domains within the SLOR is questionable. Additionally, it is concerning that applicants' professionalism and procedural skills are not correlated with matching in our specialty. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:1071-1076, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. A red-letter day !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  10. The effect of letter string length and report condition on letter recognition accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Avesh; Karmazinaite, Berta; Rossow, Andrea S

    Letter sequence recognition accuracy has been postulated to be limited primarily by low-level visual factors. The influence of high level factors such as visual memory (load and decay) has been largely overlooked. This study provides insight into the role of these factors by investigating the interaction between letter sequence recognition accuracy, letter string length and report condition. Letter sequence recognition accuracy for trigrams and pentagrams were measured in 10 adult subjects for two report conditions. In the complete report condition subjects reported all 3 or all 5 letters comprising trigrams and pentagrams, respectively. In the partial report condition, subjects reported only a single letter in the trigram or pentagram. Letters were presented for 100ms and rendered in high contrast, using black lowercase Courier font that subtended 0.4° at the fixation distance of 0.57m. Letter sequence recognition accuracy was consistently higher for trigrams compared to pentagrams especially for letter positions away from fixation. While partial report increased recognition accuracy in both string length conditions, the effect was larger for pentagrams, and most evident for the final letter positions within trigrams and pentagrams. The effect of partial report on recognition accuracy for the final letter positions increased as eccentricity increased away from fixation, and was independent of the inner/outer position of a letter. Higher-level visual memory functions (memory load and decay) play a role in letter sequence recognition accuracy. There is also suggestion of additional delays imposed on memory encoding by crowded letter elements. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of 20 kW input power coupler for 1.3 GHz ERL main linac. Component test at 30 kW IOT test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Umemori, Kensei; Sakanaka, Shogo; Takahashi, Takeshi; Furuya, Takaaki; Shinoe, Kenji; Ishii, Atsushi; Nakamura, Norio; Sawamura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    We started to develop an input coupler for a 1.3 GHz ERL superconducting cavity. Required input power is about 20 kW for the cavity acceleration field of 20 MV/m and the beam current of 100 mA in energy recovery operation. The input coupler is designed based on the STF-BL input coupler and some modifications are applied to the design for the CW 20 kW power operation. We fabricated input coupler components such as ceramic windows and bellows and carried out the high-power test of the components by using a 30 kW IOT power source and a test stand constructed for the highpower test. In this report, we mainly describe the results of the high-power test of ceramic window and bellows. (author)

  12. Adequacy of authors' replies to criticism raised in electronic letters to the editor: cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Delamothe, Tony; Godlee, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether substantive criticism in electronic letters to the editor, defined as a problem that could invalidate the research or reduce its reliability, is adequately addressed by the authors....

  13. Letter Report for the Review of ORD Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop (August 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following is a letter report from the Executive Committee of the BOSC concerning the review of the ORD Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop: Developing a Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Research Strategy for Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide.

  14. Alphabetical: How Every Letter Tells a Story

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    From minding your Ps and Qs to wondering why X should mark the spot, Alphabetical is a book for everyone who loves words and language. Whether it's how letters are arranged on keyboards or Viking runes, textspeak or zip codes, this book will change the way you think about letters for ever. How on Earth did we fix upon our twenty-six letters, what do they really mean, and how did we come to write them down in the first place? Michael Rosen takes you on an unforgettable adventure through the hi...

  15. Resource letter for Accelerated Matter Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, F.

    1989-07-01

    This resource letter covers diverse literature(400 titles) relevant to the Accelerated Matter Program in the Particles and Fields Group at the University of Melbourne. Specifically, the research areas covered are: inertia induced electric fields in accelerated matter; strain induced contact potentials; the patch effect/surface potentials. There are no claims made for completeness. The areas of gravity, acceleration and strain induced effects in matter, and drift tube experiments with matter/antimatter are extensively covered, if not complete. The literature on acceleration/inertia induced effects in metals has a long history dating back to the 19th century and the reader is referred to the review by Barnett (1935) for an extensive list of references not included here. All other work following this 1935 review, has been included here. The literature on surface physics is very extensive and no attempt has been made to cover it all. Every major paper on metal surfaces has been cited. Several other references have been included which fall only loosely into the above areas and they represent useful and/or interesting material for this research program

  16. 试析涉诉信访的社会矛盾化解能力%Research on Conflict- solving Capacity of Complaint Letters and Visits Involved in a Lawsuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋心然

    2012-01-01

    As a particular right to remedy and a system to resolve disputes in contemporary China, complaint letters and visits involved in a lawsuit are considered as an important way to solve social conflicts. However, owning to the particularity for such letters and ,visits to resolve disputes and provide remedy, it is hard for them to become an effective method to resolve social conflicts. On the contrary, it will probably bring more problems, and drive appeals and visits into a circulation, resulting in conflicts continuing to upgrade.%涉诉信访作为当代中国一项特有的权利救济和纠纷解决机制,被视为化解社会矛盾的重要渠道。但是,涉诉信访处理纠纷和提供救济的特殊性,决定了它很难成为化解矛盾的手段,而极可能成为产生问题的途径,使“诉”与“访”形成循环,导致矛盾不断升级。

  17. Advice letter on policy instruments renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In a letter of July 2010 the Energy Council made recommendations for a policy framework with more obligations and fewer subsidies. This included the Energy Council's advice to investigate whether the introduction of a supplier obligation could play a major role in the realisation of the CO2 emission target of the Netherlands and increase the share of renewable energy in line with European agreements. This advice letter deals with one aspect of the broader considerations: the share of renewable electricity and the kind of incentive framework that is needed to achieve the target concerned. In this letter we will examine the possibilities of the SDE+ support (financial incentive for renewable energy) scheme and the supplier obligation, the effects on the market and the consequences for achieving the target. This letter closes with conclusions and recommendations. [nl

  18. Burroughs's Postcolonial Visions in The Yage Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Keomany, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In her article "Burroughs's Postcolonial Visions in The Yage Letters" Melanie Keomany discusses the contents of William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg's The Yage Letters which could be dismissed as openly bigoted and racist. Keomany posits that the text reveals valuable connections between the colonial expansion of the eighteenth century and 1950s USA and Latin America. By re-shaping Burroughs's lived experiences in the Amazon into a text where the narrator William Lee mimics sardonically an...

  19. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  20. Structured printed referral letter (form letter; saves time and improves communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.J.C. Ramanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Referral of patients to hospitals, specialists and other institutions is an essential part of primary health care. Patients are referred to specialists when investigation or therapeutic options are exhausted in primary care or when opinion or advice is needed from them. Referral has considerable implications for patients, health care system and health care costs. Good communication between primary and secondary care is essential for the smooth running of any health care system. Referral and reply letters are the sole means of communication between doctors most of the time and breakdown in communication could lead to poor continuity of care, delayed diagnoses, polypharmacy, increased litigation risk and unnecessary testing. A referral letter also helps to avoid patient dissatisfaction and loss of confidence in family physician. Studies of referral letters have reported that specialists are dissatisfied with their quality and content. Inclusion of letter writing skills in the medical curriculum, peer assessment and feedback have shown to improve the quality of referral letters. . Form letters have shown to enhance information content and communication in referral process. In Sri Lanka referral letters are usually hand written and frequent complaints are that these letters do not contain adequate information and retrieval of information is a problem due to poor legibility and clarity. Sometimes Primary care doctors refer patients to hospitals and specialists with only verbal instructions. To address these short comings this form letter was introduced. Based on the guidelines and systematic review of published articles, items of information to be included were decided. Printed forms of the letter are kept in the practice and the doctor has to just fill up relevant information under each heading. The objectives of introducing this structured referral letter was to improve the quality and standard of referral letters and save time for both general

  1. Section for qualitative methods (Letter)

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Z.; Madill, A.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative research methods are increasingly used in all areas of psychology. We have proposed a new Section – the Qualitative Methods in Psychology Section – for anyone with an interest in using these research methods.

  2. Letters of Second Lieutenant Charles Wesley Chapman, Jr. December 19, 1894 - May 3, 1918

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    that every possible channel of communication will be utilized to ascertain the whereabouts of your son. The personal effects of 2nd. Lieut. Charles W...AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE Letters of Second Lieutenant Charles Wesley Chapman, Jr. December 19, 1894–May 3, 1918 Air Force...in-Publication Data Chapman, Charles Wesley, Jr., 1894–1918. Letters of Second Lieutenant Charles Wesley Chapman, Jr., December 19, 1894–May 3, 1918

  3. Rene Descartes’ letter to abbot Mersenne. November, 20, 1629. Translation from English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharova Alina Alekseevna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This letter is of value for lingua-philosophical and linguistic researches. Rene Descartes’ remarks about the first proposal for the universal language are expounded in it. Descartes was considered as a pioneer in linguistic constructions due to these remarks. This letter contains philosopher’s conclusions about the universal language’s grammar and use, as well as project’s implementation obstacles.

  4. Transcribing and digitizing eighteenth- and nineteenth-century letters for a historical digital repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunster, Emily S; Kipnis, Daniel G; Angelo, F Michael

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2011, the Scott Memorial Library purchased 53 letters belonging to an 1841 graduate of Jefferson Medical College, John Plimpton Green. The library staff transcribed and digitized the letters, creating an online collection in the university's institutional repository, Jefferson Digital Commons. This article will detail the process of transcribing and digitizing the collection along with sharing statistics and the benefits of this project to global researchers.

  5. Should intellectual property be disseminated by "forwarding" rejected letters without permission?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, V K

    1996-01-01

    Substantive scientific letter writing is a cost-effective mode of complementing observational and experimental research. The value of such philosophically uncommitted and unsponsored well-balanced scientific activity has been relegated. Critical letter writing entails the abilities to: maintain rational scepticism; refuse to conform in order to explain data; persist in keeping common sense centre-stage; exercise logic to evaluate the biological significance of mathematical figures, including ...

  6. Agnes Pockels: Life, Letters and Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Christiane A.

    2004-03-01

    Agnes Pockels (1862 - 1935) was a German woman, whose studies pioneered surface science. She was born in malaria infected North Italy while her father served in the Austrian army. Because he suffered adverse health effects, the family moved in1871 to Braunschweig (North Germany). There, Pockels went to high school. She was interested in science, but formal training was not available for girls. She took on the role of household manager and nurse as her parents' health deteriorated further. Her diary illustrates the difficulties she faced in trying to maintain her own health, the health of her parents and her scientific research at the same time. When Pockels was 18 or 19, she designed a ring tensiometer. Additionally, she found a new method to introduce water-insoluble compounds to the water surface by dissolving them in an organic solvent, and applying drops of the solution. Her surface film balance technique from 1882 is the basis for the method later developed by Langmuir. Since her experimental work was highly original and in a new field, she failed to get it recognized in her own country. When she was 28, she wrote to Lord Rayleigh, since she had read about his recent experiments in surface physics. Rayleigh was so impressed with her experimental methods and results that he had her letter translated from German and published it in Nature (1891). She continued her research on surface films, interactions of solutions and contact angles (more papers, 3 in Nature). Still, she did all experiments at home. With the death of her brother in 1913 and the onset of the war, she retired into private life. Thus she was surprised when she was awarded in her late 60ies with a honorary doctorate by the TU Braunschweig (1932) and the annual prize of the German Colloid Society (1931).

  7. Analysis of reliability of professor recommendation letters based on concordance with self-introduction letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyun

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between a checklist's categories of professor recommendation letters and characteristics of the self-introduction letter. Checklists of professor recommendation letters were analyzed and classified into cognitive, social, and affective domains. Simple correlation was performed to determine whether the characteristics of the checklists were concordant with those of the self-introduction letter. The difference in ratings of the checklists by pass or fail grades was analyzed by independent sample t-test. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether a pass or fail grade was influenced by ratings on the checklists. The Cronbach alpha value of the checklists was 0.854. Initiative, as an affective domain, in the professor's recommendation letter was highly ranked among the six checklist categories. Self-directed learning in the self-introduction letter was influenced by a pass or fail grade by logistic regression analysis (pprofessor recommendation letters and the sum of all characteristics in the self-introduction letter.

  8. Can "CANISO" Activate "CASINO"? Transposed-Letter Similarity Effects with Nonadjacent Letter Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Nonwords created by transposing two "adjacent" letters (i.e., transposed-letter (TL) nonwords like "jugde") are very effective at activating the lexical representation of their base words. This fact poses problems for most computational models of word recognition (e.g., the interactive-activation model and its extensions), which assume that exact…

  9. Letter and symbol identification: No evidence for letter-specific crowding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Eric; Descamps, Marine; Denis-Noël, Ambre; Colé, Pascale

    2017-09-01

    It has been proposed that letters, as opposed to symbols, trigger specialized crowding processes, boosting identification of the first and last letters of words. This hypothesis is based on evidence that single-letter accuracy as a function of within-string position has a W shape (the classic serial position function [SPF] in psycholinguistics) whereas an inverted V shape is obtained when measured with symbols. Our main goal was to test the robustness of the latter result. Our hypothesis was that any letter/symbol difference might result from short-term visual memory processes (due to the partial report [PR] procedures used in SPF studies) rather than from crowding. We therefore removed the involvement of short-term memory by precueing target-item position and compared SPFs with precueing and postcueing. Perimetric complexity was stringently matched between letters and symbols. In postcueing conditions similar to previous studies, we did not reproduce the inverted V shape for symbols: Clear-cut W shapes were observed with an overall smaller accuracy for symbols compared to letters. This letter/symbol difference was dramatically reduced in precueing conditions in keeping with our prediction. Our results are not consistent with the claim that letter strings trigger specialized crowding processes. We argue that PR procedures are not fit to isolate crowding processes.

  10. Letter-Transposition Effects Are Not Universal: The Impact of Transposing Letters in Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of letter-transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that…

  11. Should intellectual property be disseminated by "forwarding" rejected letters without permission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V K

    1996-08-01

    Substantive scientific letter writing is a cost-effective mode of complementing observational and experimental research. The value of such philosophically uncommitted and unsponsored well-balanced scientific activity has been relegated. Critical letter writing entails the abilities to: maintain rational scepticism; refuse to conform in order to explain data; persist in keeping common sense centre-stage; exercise logic to evaluate the biological significance of mathematical figures, including statistics, and the ability to sustain the will to share insights regarding disease mechanisms on an ostensibly lower research platform. During peer review, innovative letter writing may share the occasionally unfortunate fate of innovative research. Rejected scientific letters do not automatically lose copyright. Periodicals with high letter loads will see some valuable contributions wasted, but that is the price for maintaining autonomy in scientific publication. The scientific community is an integrated whole that must respect the rights of authors at all levels. Unauthorised forwarding of rejected letters sets the dangerous precedent of justifying unjust means.

  12. Traditions of martyrdom in the Ignatian Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhrmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The letters of Ignatius represent one of the key texts for the emergence of martyrdom during the second century AD in Christianity. This article is concerned with the question whether Ignatius contributed to a “theology of martyrdom” or whether he rather relied on previous traditions. The author argues, by undertaking an analysis of certain pragmatics and semantics, that the motif of martyrdom is solely used to buttress Ignatius’ claim for authority among his intended addressees by referring to an understanding of martyrdom that has its roots in the New Testament. An identification of the author of the letters with a historical martyr is regarded as unlikely.

  13. Editorial: Letter from the Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Zick

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Editorial 8(2 We are pleased to present issue 8 (2. The focus section is edited by Helmut Thome (University of Halle-Wittenberg, Germany and Steven F. Messner (University at Albany, United States, and focuses on methodological constraints, options, and solutions in longitudinal research on criminal violence. We are honored that Helmut Thome, Steven Messner, and the contributors offer their scientific knowledge and evidence in the interests of gaining a deeper understanding of one of the most promising methodological approaches in conflict and violence research, i.e. longitudinal data analyses. Sincere thanks to the editors and authors for opening up the potential of this specific kind of research for advances to better assess and understand criminal violence in a long term perspective. We hope this issue will be discussed and quoted in the interdisciplinary community of researchers. The open section again fulfills its aim to foster contributions on diverse topics in the field of conflict and violence, starting with an analysis of Southeast Asian media reception of the Israeli/Palestine conflict. The second paper shows how social cohesion activities have the potential to change disparaging attitudes in Cyprus. The third and final contribution examines teen dating violence in Switzerland from various angles.

  14. Crystal and molecular structure of the coordination compounds of Er3+ with 1-(methoxydiphenylphosphoryl)-2-diphenylphosphorylbenzene [ErL21(NO3)2]2[Er(NO3)2(H2O)5]0.333(NO3)2.333 · 2.833H2O and its ethyl substituted derivative [ErL22(NO3)2][Er(NO3)5]0.5 · 0.5H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakova, I. N.; Baulin, V. E.; Ivanova, I. S.; Pyatova, E. N.; Sergienko, V. S.; Tsivadze, A. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The coordination compounds of Er 3+ with 1-(methoxydiphenylphosphoryl)-2-diphenylphosphorylbenzene [ErL 2 1 (NO 3 ) 2 ] 2 [Er(NO 3 ) 2 (H 2 O) 5 ] 0.333 (NO 3 ) 2.333 · 2.833H 2 O (I) and its ethyl substituted derivative [ErL 2 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ][Er(NO 3 ) 5 ] 0.5 · 0.5H 2 O (II) are synthesized and their crystal structures are studied. I and II contain [ErL 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ] + complex cations of identical composition and close structure. The eight-vertex polyhedron of the Er atom in the shape of a distorted octahedron with two split trans vertices is formed by the O atoms of the phosphoryl groups of L ligands and nitrate anions. L ligands close nine-membered metallocycles. The structures contain spacious channels which are populated differently, namely, by disordered [Er(NO 3 ) 2 (H 2 O) 5 ] + complex cations, NO 3 − anions, and crystallization water molecules in I and disordered [Er(NO 3 ) 5 ] 2− complex anions and crystallization water molecules in II. The IR spectra of I and II are studied

  15. Letters in the Forest: Global precedence effect disappears for letters but not for non-letters under reading-like conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLachmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Normally-skilled reading involves special processing strategies for letters, which are habitually funneled into an abstract letter code. On the basis of previous studies we argue that this habit leads to the preferred usage of an analytic strategy for the processing of letters, while non-letters are preferably processed via a holistic strategy. The well-known Global Precedence Effect (GPE seems to contradict to this assumption, since, with compound, hierarchical figures, including letter items, faster responses are observed to the global than to the local level of the figure, as well as an asymmetric interference effect from global to local level. We argue that with letters these effects depend on presentation conditions; only when they elicit the processing strategies automatized for reading, an analytic strategy for letters in contrast to non-letters is to be expected. We compared the GPE for letters and non-letters in central viewing, with the global stimulus size close to the functional visual field in whole word reading (6.5o of visual angle and local stimuli close to the critical size for fluent reading of individual letters (.5o of visual angle. Under these conditions, the GPE remained robust for non-letters. For letters, however, it disappeared: letters showed no overall response time advantage for the global level and symmetric congruence effects (local-to-global as well as global-to local interference. We interpret these results as according to the view that reading is based on resident analytic visual processing strategies for letters.

  16. Varsity letters documenting modern colleges and universities

    CERN Document Server

    Samuels, Helen Willa

    1998-01-01

    A study of the functions of colleges and universities, Varsity Letters is intended to aid those responsible for the documentation of these institutions. Samuels offers specific advice about the records of modern colleges and universities and proposes a method to ensure their adequate documentation. She also offers a method to analyze and plan the preservation of records for any type of institution.

  17. Reply to letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the letter by Dr. Amir Arav I would like to mention the following. The application of the principle of directional solidification to cryopreservation of living cells was, as far as I am aware, not the invention of Dr. Arav. It was first published and patented by Rubinsky (Berkeley,

  18. SiD Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, H.; Oreglia, M.; Berger, E.L.; Guarino, V.; Repond, J.; Weerts, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Srivastava, A.; Butler, J.M.; Goldstein, Joel; Velthuis, J.; Radeka, V.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Lutz, P.; de Roeck, A.; Elsener, K.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Grefe, C.; Klempt, W.; Linssen, L.; Schlatter, D.; Speckmayer, P.; Thom, J.; Yang, J.; Christian, D.C.; Cihangir, S.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Fisk, H.E.; Garren, L.A.; Krempetz, K.; Kutschke, R.K.; Lipton, R.; Para, A.; Tschirhart, R.; Wenzel, H.; Yarema, R.; Grunewald, M.; Pankov, A.; U., Gomel State Tech.; Dutta, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Balbuena, J.P.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullan, M.; Christian, G.B.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marinnas, C.; Vos, M.; Duarte, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Jaramillo, R.; Lopez, Virto A.; Martinez-Eivero, C.; Moya, D.; Ruiz-Mimeno, A.; Vila, I.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu-Guo, C.; Winter, M.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Onoprienko, D.V.; Kim, G.N.; Park, H.; Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Cap, S.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Espargiliare, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Gronberg, J.; Walston, S.; Wright, D.; Sawyer, L.; Laloum, M.; Ciobanu, C.; Chauveau, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Cowan, R.f.; Fisher, P.; Yamamoto, R.K.; Kenney, ClMl; Boos, E.E.; Merkin, M.; Chen, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Galkin, V.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Ossetski, D.; Saveliev, V.; Kapusta, F.; De Masi, R.; Vrba, V.; Lu, C.; McDonald, K.T.; Smith, A.J.S.; Bortoletto, D.; Coath, R.; Crooks, J.; Damerell, C.; Gibson, M.; Nichols, A.; Stanitzki, M.; Strube, J.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Weber, M.; Worm, S.; Zhang, Z.; Barklow, T.L.; Belymam, A.; Breidenbach, M.; Cassell, R.; Craddock, W.; Deaconu, C.; Dragone, A.; Graf, N.A.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Hewett, J.L.; Jaros, J.A.; Johnson, A.S.; Kim, P.C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; McCormick, J.; Moffeit, K.; Neal, H.A.; Nelson, T.K.; Oriunno, M.; Partridge, R.; Peskin, M.E.; Rizzo, T.G.; Rowson, P.; Su, D.; Woods, M.; Chakrabarti, S.; Dieguez, A.; Garrido, Ll.; Kaminski, J.; Conway, J.S.; Chertok, M.; Gunion, J.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Tripathi, S.M.; Fadeyev, V.; Schumm, B.A.; Oreglia, M.; Gill, J.; Nauenberg, U.; Oleinik, G.; Wagner, S.R.; Ranjan, K.; Shivpuri, R.; Varner, G.S.; Orava, R.; Van Kooten, R.; Bilki, B.; Charles, M.; Kim, T.J.; Mallik, U.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Brau, B.P.; Willocq, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Riles, Keith; Yang, H.-J.; Kriske, R.; Cremaldi, L.; Rahmat, R.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Seidel, S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Wayne, M.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N.; Strom, D.M.; Torrence, E.; Banda, Y.; Burrows, P.N.; Devetak, E.; Foster, B.; Lastovicka, T.; Li, Y.-M.; Nomerotski, A.; Riera-Babures, J.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Manly, S.; Adeva, B.; Iglesias Escudero, C.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Gao, D.; Jie, W.; Jungfeng, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Q.; Yi, J.; Yonggang, W.; Zhao, Z.; De, K.; Farbin, A.; Park, S.; Smith, J.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Lou, X.C.; Abe, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Lubatti, H.J.; Band, H.R.; Feyzi, F.; Prepost, R.; Karchin, P.E.; Milstene, C.; Baltay, C.; Dhawan, S.; Kwon, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Letter of intent describing SiD (Silicon Detector) for consideration by the International Linear Collider IDAG panel. This detector concept is founded on the use of silicon detectors for vertexing, tracking, and electromagnetic calorimetry. The detector has been cost-optimized as a general-purpose detector for a 500 GeV electron-positron linear collider.

  19. 46 CFR 28.60 - Exemption letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS General Provisions § 28.60 Exemption letter. (a) Types of exemptions. (1) Specific exemption means... for an exemption of either type must be in writing, have specific reasons for the request, and be sent... vessel to which any exemption applies. (e) Right of appeal. Any person directly affected by a decision or...

  20. The anthrax letters: a medical detective story

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Leonard A

    2003-01-01

    .... Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cole, Leonard A., 1933The anthrax letters : a medical detective story / Leonard A. Cole. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-08881-X - ISBN 0-309-52584-5 (PDF) 1. Bioterrorism- United States. 2. Anthrax- United States. 3. Postal service- United States. 4. Victims of...

  1. Readerly and Writerly "Letters from the Park."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Susana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses in depth the film "Cartas del parque" ("Letters from the Park"), the first of six films in the "Amores Dificiles" series. Notes that the film is pervaded by the traditional overdetermination of gender roles. Suggests that an intrusive and authoritative narrator makes of this both a "readerly" and a…

  2. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter T

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter T ... and economic aspects of management and conservation of tropical flora and fauna. ... Les principaux thèmes qui y sont abordés recouvrent les axes de recherche ...

  3. The Influence Of Tax Billing By Forced Letter Intensity Against Taxpayer Compliance In Tax Service Office €˜Pratama€™ Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Pangemanan, Sifrid; Kawulur, Cecilya Helmy

    2015-01-01

    Tax Billing by forced letter is the governments efforts to improve the welfare of the people and encourage people to be responsible and participate in economic development. This study aims to determine the influence of tax billing by forced letter intensity against taxpayer compliance in Tax Service Office €˜Pratama€™ Manado. The analysis method used in this research is associative research methods to describe the influence of tax billing by forced letter intensity against taxpayer compliance...

  4. A letter from Alvin Weinberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, during the autumn of 1942, a group of physicists, chemists and engineers were assembled to work on what was to become the Canadian atomic energy project. The base for this work was Montreal. This paper concentrates on the contributions of a sub-group of those scientists, namely those working on the development of nuclear reactor theory. The members of that group comprised an international mix of Canadians, Britons and Americans. A few already had international reputations as theoretical physicists, but the majority were young men and women, generally under the age of 30, who were very talented but not yet famous. They worked under conditions of the utmost secrecy, initially with little help from the United States, and developed virtually from first principles most of the important aspects of modern reactor theory. The results of their work were issued as Canadian National Research Council reports with the prefix MT (Montreal Theory), and between 1943 and 1946 about 80 such reports were written. The theory described therein was fundamental to the later design and construction of the Canadian NRX reactor, which was a very successful research tool. Soon after the end of World War II, a few of the MT reports were written up and published in either the Physical Review or the Canadian Journal of Research. However, more than 80% of the work was not published and therefore did not receive the formal recognition that it deserved. A few of the reports that went unpublished were so important that one wonders why they never appeared in the learned journals. To be sure, the work they contained was certainly used world-wide and the reports cited. However, human nature being what it is, after some years the original sources were forgotten and only the published papers which cited them were quoted. After a while those classic, early MT reports seem to have faded from memory. Thus it was that, when I recently tried to find one of them to check on a particular matter (in

  5. Editorial: Letter from the Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Heitmeyer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue our guest editors are close to home. Wilhelm Heitmeyer and Steven F. Messner, both members of our own Board of Editors, have assembled a focus section examining the question of “Youth at Risk.” Their collection certainly lives up to our aspiration to be truly interdisciplinary and international. The methods applied in the reported research range from interview-based studies through empirical number-crunching to laboratory experiments (the latter a first for this journal; the geographical scope spans from Argentina through Central America and Europe to Africa. The youth at risk here are in conflict with the police, with each other, with societies that fear them, with societies that ignore their needs. Our systematically eclectic approach continues outside the focus section too, with contributions on the theory of violence, female fighters in Africa, and spousal violence in Pakistan.

  6. The letter of submission: avoiding the promotional genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    1998-01-01

    Functionally the letter of submission accompanying an article submitted to a journal is promotional, but it does not have the form one would expect from e.g. Bhatia 1993. Instead it is extremely brief and uninformative. This reflects the so-called Utilitarian Discourse which is a shared feature...... of American culture and the subculture of science. Research published elsewhere (Okamura and Shaw 1999, ESPJ) shows that neither native speakers of English nor non-natives who were not practising scientists could produce the appropriate genre, while NNS scientists produced texts which only deviated slightly...

  7. Crossmodal deficit in dyslexic children: practice affects the neural timing of letter-speech sound integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko eŽarić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A failure to build solid letter-speech sound associations may contribute to reading impairments in developmental dyslexia. Whether this reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds changes over time within individual children and how this relates to behavioral gains in reading skills remains unknown. In this research, we examined changes in event-related potential (ERP measures of letter-speech sound integration over a 6-month period during which 9-year-old dyslexic readers (n=17 followed a training in letter-speech sound coupling next to their regular reading curriculum. We presented the Dutch spoken vowels /a/ and /o/ as standard and deviant stimuli in one auditory and two audiovisual oddball conditions. In one audiovisual condition (AV0, the letter ‘a’ was presented simultaneously with the vowels, while in the other (AV200 it was preceding vowel onset for 200 ms. Prior to the training (T1, dyslexic readers showed the expected pattern of typical auditory mismatch responses, together with the absence of letter-speech sound effects in a late negativity (LN window. After the training (T2, our results showed earlier (and enhanced crossmodal effects in the LN window. Most interestingly, earlier LN latency at T2 was significantly related to higher behavioral accuracy in letter-speech sound coupling. On a more general level, the timing of the earlier mismatch negativity (MMN in the simultaneous condition (AV0 measured at T1, significantly related to reading fluency at both T1 and T2 as well as with reading gains. Our findings suggest that the reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds in dyslexic children may show moderate improvement with reading instruction and training and that behavioral improvements relate especially to individual differences in the timing of this neural integration.

  8. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Dear authors and reviewers of articles for Measurement Science and Technology, I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2006, and special thanks go to those of you who have kindly reviewed articles for the journal this year. I would also like to take this opportunity to update you on some of the developments on the journal this year. As many of you are no doubt aware our impact factor (a measure of the average number of times recent papers are referred to by others) has remained above 1 for the second year in a row. This is often taken as an indication of the quality and relevance of recently published research, and although as readers we develop our own instinct for journals of high quality, it is gratifying as an Editor to see the data from an independent organization agreeing with my own assessment. This year we have welcomed several new faces to our Editorial Board and International Advisory Board. We are delighted to welcome Professor Hirofumi Yamada of the University of Kyoto as a representative from Japan. From China we have been joined by Professor Xuzong Chen of Peking University and Professor Zhiyi Wei of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. Professor Ivan Marusic from University of Minnesota and Dr Paul Williams of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder have joined as North American representatives. As usual you will be able to submit your articles through them or direct to the Editorial Office in Bristol, UK. As part of our ongoing initiative to give our authors' work the highest visibility, all articles are freely available online for 30 days from the date of publication, allowing all researchers to read and view the latest research as soon as it is published, and this year there have been many interesting articles to read! As regular readers are aware, Measurement Science and Technology publishes special issues and features, which highlight an area of current interest. This year's topics included

  9. [Various report forms and letters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  10. Letter-transposition effects are not universal: The impact of transposing letters in Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effects of letter transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that transposed-letter (TL) root primes inhibited responses to targets derived from the non-transposed root letters, and that this inhibition was unrelated to relative root frequency. Experiment 2 replicated this result and showed that if the transposed letters of the root created a nonsense-root that had no lexical representation, then no inhibition and no facilitation were obtained. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that in contrast to English, French, or Spanish, TL nonword primes did not facilitate recognition of targets, and when the root letters embedded in them consisted of a legal root morpheme, they produced inhibition. These results suggest that lexical space in alphabetic orthographies may be structured very differently in different languages if their morphological structure diverges qualitatively. In Hebrew, lexical space is organized according to root families rather than simple orthographic structure, so that all words derived from the same root are interconnected or clustered together, independent of overall orthographic similarity.

  11. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA LETTER SHARING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN KOMUNIKASI SISWA INTROVERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elian Iwi Afifah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Communication skills are the most important things for teenagers. There is a leaning that the teenagers who have low communication skills can be called as someone who is introvert personality. People who are introvert personality tend to be difficult to communicate and express verbally. The purpose of developing letter sharing media is to improve communication skills of introvert student. This research is development research by adopting Borg and Gall research model. The development result showed that this product has the criteria of usefulness, feasibility, accuracy, and attractiveness and appropriate when used to facilitate students to express communication skills in writing. Abstrak: Keterampilan komunikasi merupakan hal yang terpenting bagi remaja. Terdapat kecenderungan bahwa remaja yang memiliki keterampilan komunikasi yang rendah dapat dikatakan sebagai seseorang yang berkepribadian introvert. Orang yang berkepribadian introvert cenderung sulit berkomunikasi dan sulit mengungkapkan secara lisan. Pengembangan media letter sharing ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan keterampilan komunikasi siswa introvert. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan dengan  mengadopsi model penelitian Borg and Gall. Hasil pengembangan menunjukkan bahwa produk ini mempunyai kriteria kegunaan, kelayakan, ketepatan, kemenarikan dan sesuai apabila digunakan untuk memfasilitasi siswa dalam mengekspresikan keterampilan komunikasi secara tertulis.

  12. Patient information letters on nutrition: development and implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, J.J. van; Drenthen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1998 the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) began developing patient information letters (PILs), based on the practice guidelines for family physicians (FPs) (NHG standards). Five nutritional guidance letters have since been developed with the Dutch Nutrition Center.

  13. Use of Standard Guidelines for Department of Medicine Summary Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Matthew; La Rochelle, Jeffrey; Lang, Valerie; DeWaay, Deborah; Adams, William; Nasraty, Farah

    2018-04-12

    Phenomenon: Fourth-year medical students obtain Department of Medicine (DOM) letters ("Chair" letters) to support their residency applications. Writing and interpreting DOM letters are challenging. There is heterogeneity in the letters that makes it difficult to both write and read these letters. The purpose of this study is to determine the value of new guidelines developed by a task force of clerkship directors and program directors in internal medicine and assess the implementation of these guidelines. The Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine performed a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine clerkship directors at U.S. and Canadian medical schools in 2014. In addition, the primary author's institution reviewed 1,347 DOM letters between 2012 and 2014 to assess the implementation of these guidelines. The survey response rate was 78%. DOM letter writers reported the guidelines were better, easier to implement, and more compatible with the purpose of DOM letters than previously. Most letter readers reported that letters using the guidelines were more credible. Writers of DOM letters in lower academic ranks rated the letters with guidelines higher in several domains than those in higher academic ranks. Readers of DOM letters in higher academic ranks rated the letters with guidelines higher in several domains than those in lower academic ranks. In the DOM letters examined, the odds of meeting each guideline increased with each additional year. However, for 3 guidelines there was an initial decline in adherence from 2012 to 2013 before increasing again in 2014-the recommended length, clerkship description, and detailed narrative guidelines. Letters solely written by a chair were less likely to incorporate the guidelines. Insights: Clerkship directors often write the DOM letters and identify with the purpose of the guidelines. As writers, lower ranking academic faculty value the guidelines more than higher ranking academic faculty. As readers of DOM letters

  14. Differences in acetate recovery factor between groups may interfere with tracer estimates of fat oxidation (letter to the editor)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Lars B. Borghouts; E.E. Blaak; P. Schrauwen; A.J.M. Wagenmakers

    2001-01-01

    This letter to the editor argues that the assumption of a single value for the acetate recovery factor in carbon-13 stable isotope research for different individuals, can lead to significant errors in the outcomes of substrate utilization measurements.

  15. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  16. Exploring Corporate Rhetoric: Metadiscourse in the CEO's Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Examines how metadiscourse is used to create a positive corporate image in 137 CEOs' letters, showing how CEOs use nonpropositional material to realize rational, credible, and affective appeals. Reveals the essentially rhetorical nature of CEOs' letters by comparing the frequency and distribution of metadiscourse in their letters and directors'…

  17. Return to sender: Constantijn Huygens as a man of letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosseye, L.; Blom, F.; Leerintveld, A.

    2013-01-01

    Return to Sender takes as its starting point Constantijn Huygens’ letters and shows us the author in his different guises: intimus of René Descartes, translator of John Donne, collector of art, writer of flirtatious love letters and the author of a long consolatory letter-poem for an ailing friend

  18. The Predictive Validity of Teacher Candidate Letters of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Richard W.; Schroeder, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Letters of reference are widely used as an essential part of the hiring process of newly licensed teachers. While the predictive validity of these letters of reference has been called into question it has never been empirically studied. The current study examined the predictive validity of the quality of letters of reference for forty-one student…

  19. Evidence for magnocellular involvement in the identification of flanked letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omtzigt, D.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.; Kolk, H.H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the role of the magno system in reading. One important hypothesis is that this system is involved in the allocation of attention. We reasoned that the presentation of a single letter automatically draws attention to this letter, whereas in the case of a flanked letter, an

  20. Composing chaotic music from the letter m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.

    Chaotic music is composed from a proposed iterative map depicting the letter m, relating the pitch, duration and loudness of successive steps. Each of the two curves of the letter m is based on the classical logistic map. Thus, the generating map is xn+1 = r xn(1/2 - xn) for xn between 0 and 1/2 defining the first curve, and xn+1 = r (xn - 1/2)(1 - xn) for xn between 1/2 and 1 representing the second curve. The parameter r which determines the height(s) of the letter m varies from 2 to 16, the latter value ensuring fully developed chaotic solutions for the whole letter m; r = 8 yielding full chaotic solutions only for its first curve. The m-model yields fixed points, bifurcation points and chaotic regions for each separate curve, as well as values of the parameter r greater than 8 which produce inter-fixed points, inter-bifurcation points and inter-chaotic regions from the interplay of the two curves. Based on this, music is composed from mapping the m- recurrence model solutions onto actual notes. The resulting musical score strongly depends on the sequence of notes chosen by the composer to define the musical range corresponding to the range of the chaotic mathematical solutions x from 0 to 1. Here, two musical ranges are used; one is the middle chromatic scale and the other is the seven- octaves range. At the composer's will and, for aesthetics, within the same composition, notes can be the outcome of different values of r and/or shifted in any octave. Compositions with endings of non-repeating note patterns result from values of r in the m-model that do not produce bifurcations. Scores of chaotic music composed from the m-model and the classical logistic model are presented.

  1. Hamlet and Japanese Men of Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawachi Yoshiko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare has exerted a powerful influence on Japanese literature since he was accepted in the second half of the nineteenth century. Particularly Hamlet has had a strong impact on Japanese men of letters and provided them with the impetus to revive the play in contemporary literature. In this paper I discuss how they have utilized Hamlet for their creative activity and enriched Japanese literature.

  2. Letters of credit getting more expensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, J

    1991-09-02

    Hospital executives who haven't been in the market recently for a new or renewed letter of credit will find it a more expensive way to back their variable-rate debt. Annual fees are surging, for reasons ranging from an international banking agreement that goes into effect next year to more conservative fee structures being instituted because of bad loans made by some banks in the past decade.

  3. A Key to the Art of Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    2008-01-01

    The article examines A. Lane's grammar A Key to the Art of Letters and its contexts. Symbolically published at the threshold to the eighteenth century, Lane presents an unusually bold plan to make English a world language. Although Lane's book holds a key position in the development of English...... that Lane is the first to use English as the basis for writing universal grammar, as part of his strategy to promote English as a universal code for learning and science...

  4. Faces in the Mist: Illusory Face and Letter Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory A. Rieth

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We report three behavioral experiments on the spatial characteristics evoking illusory face and letter detection. False detections made to pure noise images were analyzed using a modified reverse correlation method in which hundreds of observers rated a modest number of noise images (480 during a single session. This method was originally developed for brain imaging research, and has been used in a number of fMRI publications, but this is the first report of the behavioral classification images. In Experiment 1 illusory face detection occurred in response to scattered dark patches throughout the images, with a bias to the left visual field. This occurred despite the use of a fixation cross and expectations that faces would be centered. In contrast, illusory letter detection (Experiment 2 occurred in response to centrally positioned dark patches. Experiment 3 included an oval in all displays to spatially constrain illusory face detection. With the addition of this oval the classification image revealed an eyes/nose/mouth pattern. These results suggest that face detection is triggered by a minimal face-like pattern even when these features are not centered in visual focus.

  5. Algoritmi matematici nelle lettere di Gerbert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.

    The content of Gerbert's "scientific" letters is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis on arithmetical and geometrical issues, such as multiplication and division rules related to the use of abacus, superparticular numbers and evaluation of the area of an equilateral triangle. It is shown that Gerbert's area formula, albeit based on rational fractions, could hardly be conceived without knowledge of Pythagoras' theorem. This fact casts a light also on the astronomical tools created by Gerbert, where the didactical aspect cannot be separated from the accuracy of the demonstrations and of the measurements.

  6. The Jamaica Letter and its intellectual genealogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. de la Reza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the fundamental objectives of The Jamaica Letter is the reflection on the features that should have the international order after the fall of the Spanish Empire. For its organization, Simon Bolívar appeals to the amphictyonic assemblies of classical Greece and invokes the Pan-European project of the Abbe Saint Pierre. This article traces the documentary sources from which Bolivar derives his notion of confederal union and inspires the unions treaties from 1822 to 1826.

  7. Energies and raw materials. Letter n.28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This letter of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Materials) deals with the following four main topics: the main recommendations of the final report of the working Group ''Factor 4'' concerning the energy policy; the energy conservation certificates as a tool of the energy control with their implication in the residential and ternary sector; the increase of the solar water heaters and heat pumps sales thanks to the tax credits; the California example facing the climatic change and the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  8. Resource Letter OSE-1: Observing Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fraknoi, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the available literature, listing selected books, articles, and online resources about scientific, cultural, and practical issues related to observing solar eclipses. It is timely, given that a total solar eclipse will cross the continental United States on August 21, 2017. The next total solar eclipse path crossing the U.S. and Canada will be on April 8, 2024. In 2023, the path of annularity of an annular eclipse will cross Mexico, the United States, and Canada, with partial phases visible throughout those countries.

  9. A classification of marked hijaiyah letters' pronunciation using hidden Markov model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisesty, Untari N.; Mubarok, M. Syahrul; Adiwijaya

    2017-08-01

    Hijaiyah letters are the letters that arrange the words in Al Qur'an consisting of 28 letters. They symbolize the consonant sounds. On the other hand, the vowel sounds are symbolized by harokat/marks. Speech recognition system is a system used to process the sound signal to be data so that it can be recognized by computer. To build the system, some stages are needed i.e characteristics/feature extraction and classification. In this research, LPC and MFCC extraction method, K-Means Quantization vector and Hidden Markov Model classification are used. The data used are the 28 letters and 6 harakat with the total class of 168. After several are testing done, it can be concluded that the system can recognize the pronunciation pattern of marked hijaiyah letter very well in the training data with its highest accuracy of 96.1% using the feature of LPC extraction and 94% using the MFCC. Meanwhile, when testing system is used, the accuracy decreases up to 41%.

  10. Collected Letters of José Martí: a linguistic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra, Ana Jústiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Any approach to José Marti’s literary production should consider the study of his collected letters, which are noticeable for its content and expressive devices. This article synthesizes the criteria of former researchers who have considered Marti’s collected letters as a privileged genre among the multiple and diverse cultivated by the Apostle (speeches, dramas, essays, journal article, short stories and literary criticism. The collected letters takes a large proportion of his prolific literary production and its expressive force has been widely recognized as a source of inspiration for other poets. His collection of letters is outstanding and lasting in time for its expressive magnificence, its depth of content and precise choice of words. Originally written for a definite addressee, the letters are currently read by new generations of readers, who rediscover a new message in each. Topic considered in this article is part of a wider range study which is been prepared as Ph. D. thesis.

  11. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Brian G; Rupert, Douglas J

    2016-01-16

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  12. ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

  13. Open letter to Mr Christian Bataille, Deputy of Nord region, France. Open letter on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacroix P

    2007-02-01

    The author, by means of a letter to the deputy Christian Bataille, presents arguments to the shutdown of old nuclear power plants. He points out the environmental and economical arguments in favor of a decrease of the nuclear power use in France. (A.L.B.)

  14. Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brang, D.; Rouw, R.; Ramachandran, V.S.; Coulson, S.

    2011-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological condition in which viewing numbers or letters (graphemes) results in the concurrent sensation of color. While the anatomical substrates underlying this experience are well understood, little research to date has investigated factors influencing the

  15. Development of Early Handwriting: Visual-Motor Control during Letter Copying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldarelli, Jennifer E.; Kahrs, Björn A.; Hunt, Sarah C.; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of handwriting for school readiness and early academic progress, prior research on the development of handwriting has focused primarily on the product rather than the process by which young children write letters. In contrast, in the present work, early handwriting is viewed as involving a suite of perceptual, motor, and…

  16. Letter report: Cold crucible melter assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.

    1996-03-01

    One of the activities of the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project is to assist the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program in determining which melter systems should be performance tested for potential implementation in the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant. The Richland Operations Office (RL) has recommended that the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) be evaluated as a candidate ''next generation'' melter. As a result, the CCM System Evaluation cost account was established under the PVTD Project so that the CCM could be initially assessed on a high-priority basis. This letter report summarizes a brief initial review and assessment of the CCM. Using the recommendations made in this document, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and RL will make a decision regarding the urgency of performance testing the CCM. If the decision is favorable, a subcontract will be negotiated for performance testing of a CCM using Hanford HLW simulants in a pilot-scale facility. Because of the aggressive nature of the schedule, the CCM evaluation was not rigorous. The evaluation consisted of a literature review and interviews with proponents of the technology during a recent trip to France. This letter report summarizes the evaluation and makes recommendations regarding further work in this area

  17. Implied reading direction and prioritization of letter encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Alex O; Nguyen, Elizabeth H L; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2017-10-01

    Capacity limits hinder processing of multiple stimuli, contributing to poorer performance for identifying two briefly presented letters than for identifying a single letter. Higher accuracy is typically found for identifying the letter on the left, which has been attributed to a right-hemisphere dominance for selective attention. Here, we use rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of letters in two locations at once. The letters to be identified are simultaneous and cued by rings. In the first experiment, we manipulated implied reading direction by rotating or mirror-reversing the letters to face to the left rather than to the right. The left-side performance advantage was eliminated. In the second experiment, letters were positioned above and below fixation, oriented such that they appeared to face downward (90° clockwise rotation) or upward (90° counterclockwise rotation). Again consistent with an effect of implied reading direction, performance was better for the top position in the downward condition, but not in the upward condition. In both experiments, mixture modeling of participants' report errors revealed that attentional sampling from the two locations was approximately simultaneous, ruling out the theory that the letter on one side was processed first, followed by a shift of attention to sample the other letter. Thus, the orientation of the letters apparently controls not when the letters are sampled from the scene, but rather the dynamics of a subsequent process, such as tokenization or memory consolidation. Implied reading direction appears to determine the letter prioritized at a high-level processing bottleneck. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Particles and nuclei, letters, in Russian, pt.4

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate records on thermal multifragmentation, nuclear fog and critical temperature for the liquid-gas phase transition, topological and nontopological solutions for the chiral bag model with constituent quarks, comparison of ATLAS tilecal module No. 8 high-precision metrology measurement results obtained by laser (JINR) and photogrammetric (CERN) methods, calibration of the beam polarimeter at the JINR synchrophasotron, anomalous A-, t-dependence and the phase behaviour of partial wave of coherent production of radial state pi (1300), about some inverse problems of nuclear physics, the nuclear matter modification at intermediate energies, experimental research of the NN scattering with polarized particles at the VdG accelerator of Charles university. Project 'NN interactions' and the forward detector of the ANKE spectrometer. Scintillation and Cherenkov hodoscopes

  19. DOE Advanced Scientific Advisory Committee (ASCAC): Workforce Subcommittee Letter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Barbara [University of Houston; Calandra, Henri [Total SA; Crivelli, Silvia [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Davis; Dongarra, Jack [University of Tennessee; Hittinger, Jeffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Lathrop, Scott A. [NCSA, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Sarkar, Vivek [Rice University; Stahlberg, Eric [Advanced Biomedical Computing Center; Vetter, Jeffrey S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2014-07-23

    Simulation and computing are essential to much of the research conducted at the DOE national laboratories. Experts in the ASCR ¬relevant Computing Sciences, which encompass a range of disciplines including Computer Science, Applied Mathematics, Statistics and domain Computational Sciences, are an essential element of the workforce in nearly all of the DOE national laboratories. This report seeks to identify the gaps and challenges facing DOE with respect to this workforce. This letter is ASCAC’s response to the charge of February 19, 2014 to identify disciplines in which significantly greater emphasis in workforce training at the graduate or postdoctoral levels is necessary to address workforce gaps in current and future Office of Science mission needs.

  20. Modern physics letters A special issue on hadrontherapy

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    CERN Courier Review (Jul 8, 2016) : The applications of nuclear and particle physics to medicine have seen extraordinary development since the discovery of X-rays by Röntgen at the end of the 19th century. Medical imaging and oncologic therapy with photons and charged particles (specifically hadrons) are currently hot research topics. This special issue of Modern Physics Letters is dedicated to hadron therapy, which is the frontier of cancer radiation therapy, and aims at filling a gap in the current literature on medical physics. Through 10 invited review papers, the volume presents the basics of hadron therapy, along with the most recent scientific and technological developments in the field. The first part covers topics such as the history of hadron therapy, radiation biophysics, particle accelerators, dose-delivery systems and treatment planning. In the second part, more specific topics are treated, including dose and beam monitoring, proton computer tomography, innoacustics and microdosimetry. This vo...

  1. Open Letter to the European Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej; Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    2016-01-01

    to the information society. A key component of this acquis is the prohibition of general monitoring obligations to the benefit of providers of intermediary services. It is a means to achieve at least two central objectives: the encouragement of innovation as well as the protection of fundamental rights of all...... Internet users, namely the rights protected by Articles 8 and 11 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Yet, the proposed Copyright Directive, in particular, seems to negatively affect both the domain and effect of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive. The signatories of this open letter therefore...... urge the European Commission to take into account the human rights dimension of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive, as made explicit by the Court of the Justice of the European Union, and to make sure its implications are carefully examined across sectors. Authors: Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon Eleonora...

  2. Commentary to the Letter of Robert Arasimowicz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Rosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The author in his letter to the editor presents his own vision of carrying out archives’ tasks that arise from the public principle of archives. He is concerned especially with stagnation and passive role of archives in promoting their collections. To justify his theses the author conducted a survey among a group of his friends. He asked them four questions that tested their knowledge of archives and archival collections. Answers proved earlier conjectures to be true and were similar to the author’s experience; they showed that the society has poor knowledge of archives and their collections. The author proposed some general solutions, referring especially to actions taken by museums.

  3. Letter contrast sensitivity function of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, H L; Brennan, N A

    1998-06-01

    To provide empirical data of letter CSF for various levels of defocus under controlled conditions of luminance and age. Corrected distance visual acuities were tested at different levels of contrast and defocus. An experiment was conducted using the Medmont visual acuity tester on 10 young subjects and under normal room lighting. Empirical data of visual acuity were obtained for 7 levels of contrast (5, 10, 15, 25, 40, 60, 80%) and defocus levels of 0, +1 and +2D. A mathematical model was derived (R2=0.995) and this can be used to estimate visual acuity at various contrast levels for defocus of < or =+2D. This information is useful for the clinician as normative data and for further development of optical models to predict visual performance of the eye.

  4. Maker of patterns an autobiography through letters

    CERN Document Server

    Dyson, Freeman

    2018-01-01

    While recognizing that quantum mechanics demands serious attention, Albert Einstein in 1926 admonished fellow physicist Max Born that the theory does not bring us closer to the secrets of the Old One. Aware that there are deep mysteries that Nature intends to keep for herself, Freeman Dyson, the 94-year-old theoretical physicist, has nonetheless chronicled the stories of those who were engaged in solving some of the most challenging quandaries of twentieth-century physics. Written between 1940and the early 1980s, these letters to relatives form an historic account of modern science and its greatest players, including J.Robert Oppenheimer, Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking,and Hans Bethe. Whether reflecting on the horrors of World War II, the moral dilemmas of nuclear development, the challenges of the space program, or the considerable demands of raising six children, Dyson offers a firsthand account of one of the greatest periods of scientific discovery of our modern age.

  5. What can we learn from learning models about sensitivity to letter-order in visual word recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Itamar; Armstrong, Blair C.; Frost, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the effects of letter transposition in Indo-European Languages has shown that readers are surprisingly tolerant of these manipulations in a range of tasks. This evidence has motivated the development of new computational models of reading that regard flexibility in positional coding to be a core and universal principle of the reading process. Here we argue that such approach does not capture cross-linguistic differences in transposed-letter effects, nor do they explain them. To address this issue, we investigated how a simple domain-general connectionist architecture performs in tasks such as letter-transposition and letter substitution when it had learned to process words in the context of different linguistic environments. The results show that in spite of of the neurobiological noise involved in registering letter-position in all languages, flexibility and inflexibility in coding letter order is also shaped by the statistical orthographic properties of words in a language, such as the relative prevalence of anagrams. Our learning model also generated novel predictions for targeted empirical research, demonstrating a clear advantage of learning models for studying visual word recognition. PMID:25431521

  6. THE EFFECT OF IRANIAN FEMALE EFL LEARNERS’ POLITENESS STRATEGIES AWARENESS ON THEIR LETTER WRITING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Yousefian Dastmalchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the effect of teaching politeness strategies based on the models proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987 and Leech (1983 to intermediate English learners on their ability in writing more polite letters. The instrumentation includes an IELTS test, used as a placement test, an inventory, used to measure learners’ awareness of politeness strategies, and a letter-writing test, used as a measurement of learners’ ability in using politeness strategies. Among all the participants, twenty of them were put in the control group, and twenty-four of them in the experimental group, who went under the treatment. They were taught how to write politely based on the politeness strategy models proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987 and Leech (1983. After the treatment, learners wrote letters to the same people with the same situations. Comparing the twenty learners in the control group with the twenty-four learners in experimental group, the researchers concluded that the treatment had a significant effect on the learners’ ability in writing more polite letters. They selected to use more formal strategies with those who they saw further distance with, and more informal strategies with more intimate people. Furthermore, the answers the learners provided to the questions of the inventory offered more awareness of politeness strategies. This implies that they were more aware of various choices of polite language that were available for them to use in the given situations.

  7. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perea

    Full Text Available The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words.Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters.We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities.The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  8. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality) occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  9. Pirates at Parties: Letter Position Processing in Developing Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Saskia; Castles, Anne

    2013-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in letter position coding in adults, but little is known about the development of this process in children learning to read. Here, the letter position coding abilities of 127 children in Grades 2, 3, and 4 (aged 7-10 years) were examined by comparing their performance in reading aloud "migratable" words (e.g.,…

  10. Letters to a Young Baller: Exploring Epistolary Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawansky, Megan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of epistolary criticism within the realm of sport studies and aspires to encourage scholars to consider the use of non-traditional sport memorabilia and source materials when telling emotive stories about sport and sport practices. The use of letters and the letter-writing format to tell a personal narrative…

  11. Analyzing International Letters in a Business Communication Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devet, Bonnie

    1998-01-01

    Shows how students can use persuasive principles of communication (format and writer's purpose) and of classical rhetoric (organization, ethos, pathos, logos, and style) to improve their ability to analyze business letters. Shows how applying these principles to the analysis of business letters from other countries helps students write better and…

  12. Scientific Letter: Stabbing nails into the neck: an unusual self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Stabbing nails into the neck: an unusual self-damaging behavior mandating neurosurgery. A Aghabiklooei, R Aghabiklooei, N Zamani. Abstract. Scientific Letter - No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  13. The Syntax of Persuasion: Two Business Letters of Request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Mohan R.

    1983-01-01

    Business letter-writers are advised to develop reader empathy and benefit before they ask a favor. The author analyzed two model 16th century letters of request to determine if similar advice was given in the past, and found that the request was subordinate to building a mutually beneficial relationship. (PD)

  14. 22 CFR 201.71 - Terms of letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall not be inconsistent with or contrary to the terms of the letter of commitment. Any such letter of credit or agreement may be modified or extended at any time in such a manner and to such extent as is acceptable to the approved applicant and the bank: Provided, That such modification or extension may not be...

  15. Why Doctors Do Not Answer Referral Letters | Smith | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Healthcare workers at primary healthcare (PHC) clinics are frustrated by the fact that they do not receive replies to their referral letters to doctors. Referral letters act as permission slips to allow patients easy access to treatment by specialists at secondary and tertiary service levels and communicate reasons for ...

  16. Referral letters to the psychiatrist in Nigeria: is communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: A majority (>80%) of the referral letters had no information on the current medication list, relevant psychosocial history, outline of management to date, results of investigations to date, and known allergies. Conclusion: Deficits in communication or information transfer through referral letters to the psychiatrist are ...

  17. Intertextuality in Ba's So Long a Letter and Umunnakwe's Dear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intertextuality takes for granted the interdependence of literary texts because every artistic creation is a re-echoing of past knowledge. Mariama Ba's So Long A Letter and Ndubisi Umunnakwe's Dear Ramatoulaye are African examples. This work examines how Ba's So Long A Letter intertextualises with Umunnakwe's Dear ...

  18. Mud, Blood, and Bullet Holes: Teaching History with War Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    From handwritten letters of the American Revolution to typed emails from Iraq and Afghanistan, correspondence from U.S. troops offers students deep insight into the specific conflicts and experiences of soldiers. Over 100,000 correspondences have been donated to the Legacy Project, a national initiative launched in 1998 to preserve war letters by…

  19. Referral letters to the psychiatrist in Nigeria: is communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    history, may not be elements that non-psychiatrist phy- sicians routinely collect during their examinations and, therefore, one would not expect such information to be available to be included in referral letters. Conclusion. Deficits in communication or information transfer through referral letters to the psychiatrist are common.

  20. 50 CFR 216.257 - Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.257 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless suspended or revoked...

  1. 50 CFR 216.258 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.258 Renewal of Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization...

  2. Open letter to EU Commission about proposed EDC Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågerstrand, Marlene; Bero, Lisa; Beronius, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Open letter in response to the proposed criteria for identification and regulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals, under the PPP and Biocides Regulations......Open letter in response to the proposed criteria for identification and regulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals, under the PPP and Biocides Regulations...

  3. Experimental test of contemporary mathematical models of visual letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, J T; Ashby, F G

    1982-12-01

    A letter confusion experiment that used brief durations manipulated payoffs across the four stimulus letters, which were composed of line segments equal in length. The observers were required to report the features they perceived as well as to give a letter response. The early feature-sampling process is separated from the later letter-decision process in the substantive feature models, and predictions are thus obtained for the frequencies of feature report as well as letter report. Four substantive visual feature-processing models are developed and tested against one another and against three models of a more descriptive nature. The substantive models predict the decisional letter report phase much better than they do the feature-sampling phase, but the best overall 4 X 4 letter confusion matrix fits are obtained with one of the descriptive models, the similarity choice model. The present and other recent results suggest that the assumption that features are sampled in a stochastically independent manner may not be generally valid. The traditional high-threshold conceptualization of feature sampling is also falsified by the frequent reporting by observers of features not contained in the stimulus letter.

  4. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Rouw, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits

  5. 7 CFR 1737.80 - Description of characteristics letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the amount of the proposed loan, its purposes, rate of interest, loan security requirements, and other... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Characteristics Letter § 1737.80 Description of characteristics letter. (a) After all of the...

  6. 32 CFR 884.17 - Commander's instruction letter to member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... instruction letter to member. Subject: Instructions in Case of Release on Bail or Personal Recognizance 1. You... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commander's instruction letter to member. 884.17... civilian custody on bail or on your own recognizance, report immediately in person or by telephone to the...

  7. 40 CFR 280.99 - Letter of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.99 Letter of credit. (a) An owner or operator may satisfy the... brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted: Irrevocable Standby.... We certify that the wording of this letter of credit is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR...

  8. Trends in the Employment Process: Resumes and Job Application Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Neld; Wells, Barron

    1999-01-01

    Surveys of Fortune 500 companies in 1978, 1985, and 1995 revealed trends and preferences in content of resumes and cover letters. Compared to earlier years, current preferences were for both letters and resumes in the initial contact, more emphasis on grammar and spelling, and acceptance of two-page resumes. (SK)

  9. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  10. Overt use of a tactile-kinesthetic strategy shifts to covert processing in rehabilitation of letter-by-letter reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Carney, Aimee Syms; Glezer, Laurie S; Friedman, Rhonda B

    2010-11-01

    BACKGROUND: Letter-by-letter readers identify each letter of the word they are reading serially in left to right order before recognizing the word. When their letter naming is also impaired, letter-by-letter reading is inaccurate and can render even single word reading very poor. Tactile and/or kinesthetic strategies have been reported to improve reading in these patients, but only under certain conditions or for a limited set of stimuli. AIMS: The primary aim of the current study was to determine whether a tactile/kinesthetic treatment could significantly improve reading specifically under normal reading conditions, i.e. reading untrained words presented in free vision and read without overt use of the strategy. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Three chronic letter-by-letter readers participated in a tactile/kinesthetic treatment aimed at first improving letter naming accuracy (phase 1) and then letter-by-letter reading speed (phase 2). In a multiple case series design, accuracy and speed of reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy was assessed before phase 1, after phase 1 and again after phase 2. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: All three patients significantly improved both their speed and accuracy reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy. All three patients required the additional practice in phase 2 to achieve significant improvement. Treatment did not target sentence level reading, yet two of the three patients became so adept that they could read entire sentences. CONCLUSIONS: This study replicates previous findings on the efficacy of tactile/kinesthetic treatment for letter-by-letter readers with poor letter naming. It further demonstrates that this treatment can alter cognitive processing such that words never specifically trained can be read in free vision without overtly using the trained strategy. The data suggest that an important element in achieving

  11. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  12. Teaching Complaint and Adjustment Letters--And Tact (My Favorite Assignment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deimling, Paula

    1992-01-01

    Describes a three-part assignment in which each student writes a complaint letter and an adjustment letter responding to another student's complaint letter. Discusses how the third part of the assignment--journal entries--allows students to formulate their own criteria for excellent letters based upon their reactions to the letters they receive.…

  13. Peer assessment of outpatient consultation letters – feasibility and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojeiji Suzan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Written correspondence is one of the most important forms of communication between health care providers, yet there is little feedback provided to specialists. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and satisfaction of a peer assessment program on consultation letters and to determine inter-rater reliability between family physicians and specialists. Methods A rating scale of nine 5-point Likert scale items including specific content, style items, education value of the letter and an overall rating was developed from a previous validated tool. Nine Internal Medicine specialists/subspecialists from two tertiary care centres submitted 10 letters with patient and physician identifiers removed. Two Internal Medicine specialists, and 2 family physicians from the other centre rated each letter (to protect writer anonymity. A satisfaction survey was sent to each writer and rater after collation of the results. A follow-up survey was sent 6–8 months later. Results There was a high degree of satisfaction with the process and feedback. The rating scale information was felt to be useful and appropriate for evaluating the quality of consultation letters by 6/7 writers. 5/7 seven writers felt that the feedback they received resulted in immediate changes to their letters. Six months later, 6/9 writers indicated they had maintained changes in their letters. Raters rank ordered letters similarly (Cronbach's alpha 0.57–0.84 but mean scores were highly variant. At site 1 there were significant differences in scoring brevity (p Conclusion Most participants found peer assessment of letters feasible and beneficial and longstanding changes occurred in some individuals. Family physicians and specialists appear to have different expectations on some items. Further studies on reliability and validity, with a larger sample, are required before high stakes professional assessments include consultation letters.

  14. Understanding Performance Decrements in a Letter-Canceling Task: Overcoming Habits or Inhibition of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Larry; Downie, Steven; Taylor, Grant; Marrington, Jessica; Tehan, Gerald; Ireland, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    The importance of self-regulation in human behavior is readily apparent and diverse theoretical accounts for explaining self-regulation failures have been proposed. Typically, these accounts are based on a sequential task methodology where an initial task is presented to deplete self-regulatory resources, and carryover effects are then examined on a second outcome task. In the aftermath of high profile replication failures using a popular letter-crossing task as a means of depleting self-regulatory resources and subsequent criticisms of that task, current research into self-control is currently at an impasse. This is largely due to the lack of empirical research that tests explicit assumptions regarding the initial task. One such untested assumption is that for resource depletion to occur, the initial task must first establish an habitual response and then this habitual response must be inhibited, with behavioral inhibition being the causal factor in inducing depletion. This study reports on four experiments exploring performance on a letter-canceling task, where the rules for target identification remained constant but the method of responding differed (Experiment 1) and the coherence of the text was manipulated (Experiments 1-4). Experiment 1 established that habit forming and behavioral inhibition did not produce any performance decrement when the targets were embedded in random letter strings. Experiments 2-4 established that target detection was sensitive to language characteristics and the coherence of the background text, suggesting that participants' automatic reading processes is a key driver of performance in the letter-e task.

  15. Resource Letter ALIP-1: Active-Learning Instruction in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.

    2012-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research-based active-learning instruction in physics. These are instructional methods that are based on, assessed by, and validated through research on the teaching and learning of physics. They involve students in their own learning more deeply and more intensely than does traditional instruction, particularly during class time. The instructional methods and supporting body of research reviewed here offer potential for significantly improved learning in comparison to traditional lecture-based methods of college and university physics instruction. We begin with an introduction to the history of active learning in physics in the United States, and then discuss some methods for and outcomes of assessing pedagogical effectiveness. We enumerate and describe common characteristics of successful active-learning instructional strategies in physics. We then discuss a range of methods for introducing active-learning instruction in physics and provide references to those methods for which there is published documentation of student learning gains.

  16. Open letter to Pope John Paul II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, F

    1991-01-01

    In an Open Letter to Pope John Paul II, written on World Population Day (July 11) 1991, Dr. Fred Sai, President of International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), called for a dialogue on voluntary family planning as a means of avoiding unwanted pregnancy. A half million women die each year from pregnancy-related causes--a death toll that could be dramatically reduced by universal access to low cost, effective contraception. Family planning further represents the best protection against abortion. The Catholic Church's vehement opposition to abortion and family planning methods other than periodic abstinence is in marked contrast to its support to human rights in other settings. The Church has supported struggles for economic ju stice in and among nations, sided with the poor, and advocated for transitions to democracy. At the same time, the family planning movement--which has as its overall objective the protection of the health and welfare of women, children, and families--is viewed by the Vatican as a vehicle for the enslavement rather than liberation of women. The opening of a sensitive dialogue between the Catholic Church and supporters of voluntary family planning could help couples make sound moral decisions about their families and contribute to saving the lives of millions of women, most of them poor.

  17. The Texts of Instruments connected with the Agency's Supply of Uranium to Japan. Letters relating to the Agency's Safeguards and Health and Safety measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    On 2 March 1962 the Director General, pursuant to a decision taken by the Board of Governors on 28 February, addressed a letter to the Governor from Japan cancelling those provisions of the letter of 24 March 1959 that related to the safeguards against diversion applicable to the JRR-3 research reactor project. On 20 June the Director General, pursuant to a decision taken by the Board on 14 June, addressed a further letter to the Governor cancelling the remaining provisions of the letter of 24 March 1959, which related to health and safety measures for the project. The texts of the two letters in question are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  18. Angles of Refraction: The Letters of Mary Delany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Chiavetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary Delany (1700-1788 is particularly famous for her paper-cuttings or ‘mosaicks’ based on botanical subjects. A very lively woman of fashion, she was close to Queen Charlotte and one of the Bluestocking Ladies. She left a vivid portrait of life and society in eighteenth century England and Ireland in the six volumes of her Autobiography and Letters, edited in 1861 by her descendant Lady Llanover. Her autobiography is made up of 18 letters sent to her most intimate friend, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Portland. The first letter is dated 1740, but in this, as in the following ones, Mrs. Delany narrates her past life to her friend, starting from the early years of her life, describing her unhappy marriage, financial difficulties as a widow, and family relationships. Along with these ‘autobiographical’ letters, other letters written by her to her sister Ann are introduced, which date to the periods of life Mrs. Delany is dealing with. The aim of this paper is to focus on the textual, linguistic and content differences between the two letter types, and analyse how the identity of Mary Delany is differently constructed and perceived in the explicit autobiographical letters addressed to the Duchess of Portland, and the ones written to her sister. 

  19. David Bohm : causality and chance, letters to three women

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The letters transcribed in this book were written by physicist David Bohm to three close female acquaintances in the period 1950 to 1956. They provide a background to his causal interpretation of quantum mechanics and the Marxist philosophy that inspired his scientific work in quantum theory, probability and statistical mechanics. In his letters, Bohm reveals the ideas that led to his ground breaking book Causality and Chance in Modern Physics. The political arguments as well as the acute personal problems contained in these letters help to give a rounded, human picture of this leading scientist and twentieth century thinker.

  20. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeck, Holger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Falkiner High Energy Physics Group; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (AT). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  1. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeck, Holger; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  2. BUDGET IN DANGER : OUR LETTER TO THE MINISTERS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    In edition no. 104 of Echo we told you about the Finance Committee meeting which took place on Wednesday 16 June and the tense atmosphere that reigned during this meeting. Echoing the alarming news from most of our countries (budget cuts, restrictions, reforms), CERN’s global budget is indeed under pressure. This is extremely serious. How can we carry out our mission if our Member States do not give us the means? Basic research cannot progress with budget cuts. The Management tried to make this understood at the meeting, however, most delegations could not or would not see reason. Refusing to sit idly by, the Staff Association decided to act immediately. It sent a letter to all ministers in the twenty Member States concerned by CERN and its financing. A copy was also sent to all Finance Committee and Council delegates. We thus hope to help convince all our Member States that it is essential that they continue to invest in basic research, a breeding ground for new ideas and at the roo...

  3. Secret letters cast light on Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, Matin

    2001-11-01

    Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)

  4. Letter-By-Letter Reading: Natural Recovery and Response to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pélagie M. Beeson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation provides a longitudinal study of an individual (RB with acquired alexia following left posterior cerebral artery stroke. At initial testing, RB exhibited acquired alexia characterized by letter-by-letter (LBL reading, mild anomic aphasia, and acquired agraphia. Repeated measures of reading accuracy and rate were collected for single words and text over the course of one year, along with probes of naming and spelling abilities. Improvements associated with natural recovery (i.e., without treatment were documented up to the fourth month post onset, when text reading appeared to be relatively stable. Multiple oral reading (MOR treatment was initiated at 22 weeks post-stroke, and additional improvements in reading rate and accuracy for text were documented that were greater than those expected on the basis of spontaneous recovery alone. Over the course of one year, reading reaction times for single words improved, and the word-length effect that is the hallmark of LBL reading diminished. RB's response to treatment supports the therapeutic value of MOR treatment to in LBL readers. His residual impairment of reading and spelling one-year post stroke raised the question as to whether further progress was impeded by degraded orthographic knowledge.

  5. How to write effective business letters: scribing information for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C W

    1993-11-01

    Pharmacists frequently write letters but lack specific training on how to do it well. This review summarizes strategies for improving business correspondence, emphasizes basic writing guidelines, and offers practical advice for pharmacists. The first steps for effective communication are careful planning and identifying the main message to be conveyed. The purpose for writing should be stated in the opening paragraph of the letter. To ensure a successful outcome, actions needed should be clearly summarized and visually highlighted. The tone of the letter should reflect a reasonable speech pattern, not the cryptic writing found in many scientific papers. The layout of the letter should be inviting, which is readily achievable through judicious use of word processing. Many delivery options are available, such as traditional postal services, express mail, and facsimile transmission. Readers are encouraged to test these basic writing principles and decide for themselves whether these recommendations affect the success of business correspondence.

  6. The Quasi-Business Letter: Passport to Foreign Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, John F.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests having foreign language students write business letters to stimulate interest in developing writing skills. This project gives the students the opportunity of travelling abroad vicariously and to collect souvenirs while improving their communication skills in the foreign language. (CFM)

  7. Region 6: Texas Austin Adequate Letter (11/23/2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA letter approves the Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets contained in the latest revision to Dallas/Fort Worth 2008 8-hour Ozone State Implementation Plan, finding them adequate for transportation conformity purposes to be announced in the Federal Register.

  8. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters.... SUMMARY: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT Policy Committee) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility for...

  9. Letter to Congressional Leaders on Top Defense Management Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This is in reply to the joint letter of October 12, 2000, from the Chairmen of the Senate Committee on the Budget and Committee on Governmental Affairs, the House Government Reform Committee, House...

  10. Letter to Congressional Leaders on Top Defense Management Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... Budget Committee and you on Department of Defense (DoD) management challenges. The joint letter requested that we update our previous assessments of the most significant management problems facing the DoD...

  11. The publication lapse of papers in Radiochemical and Radioanalytical Letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, T.; Nagydiosi-Kocsis, Gy.

    1982-01-01

    The time needed for passing through journal editorial and publication processing has been examined for the papers published in Radiochemical and Radioanalytical Letters for the years 1969-1981. (author)

  12. Politeness Strategies in Good-news Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕争; 李纳

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the presentation of politeness in good-news business letters at the lexical,syntactic,and discourse levels based on Leech's Politeness Principle and Brown and Levinson's Face-saving Theory.

  13. Scientific Letter: Gestalt psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Gestalt psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of borderline personality disorder: a case report. ... African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  14. Scientific Letter: Self-inflicted bilateral orchidectomy precipitated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Self-inflicted bilateral orchidectomy precipitated by erotic bizarre delusions: a case report. ... African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home ...

  15. A case study in unethical transgressive bioethics: "Letter of concern from bioethicists" about the prenatal administration of dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A; Brent, Robert L; Hippen, Benjamin

    2010-09-01

    On February 3, 2010, a "Letter of Concern from Bioethicists," organized by fetaldex.org, was sent to report suspected violations of the ethics of human subjects research in the off-label use of dexamethasone during pregnancy by Dr. Maria New. Copies of this letter were submitted to the FDA Office of Pediatric Therapeutics, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Office for Human Research Protections, and three universities where Dr. New has held or holds appointments. We provide a critical appraisal of the Letter of Concern and show that it makes false claims, misrepresents scientific publications and websites, fails to meet standards of evidence-based reasoning, makes undocumented claims, treats as settled matters what are, instead, ongoing controversies, offers "mere opinion" as a substitute for argument, and makes contradictory claims. The Letter of Concern is a case study in unethical transgressive bioethics. We call on fetaldex.org to withdraw the letter and for co-signatories to withdraw their approval of it.

  16. IDRC Doctoral Research Awards

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    test

    Literature Review. 2) Letter of Affiliation. Must be signed and on official letterhead from an institution/organization confirming affiliation. The institution/organization must be located in the country where your field research will take place. If more than one country is involved, you must provide one letter per country.

  17. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouw, Romke; Case, Laura; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur

    2014-01-01

    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457) of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes) and participants who do not (non-synesthetes). We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for “A,” red for “Monday,” and white for “Sunday.” We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences as shown by Simner et al. (2005). While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters) that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups. PMID

  18. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romke eRouw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days. The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457 of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes and participants who do not (non-synesthetes. We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for A, red for Monday, and white for Sunday. We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences shown by Simner et al (2005. While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups.

  19. Name-letter branding under scrutiny: real products, new algorithms, and the probability of buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    People like letters matching their own first and last name initials more than nonname letters. This name-letter effect has also been found for brands, i.e., people like brands resembling their own name letters (initial or first three). This has been termed name-letter branding effect. In the present study of 199 participants, ages 12 to 79 years, this name-letter branding effect was found for a modified design (1) using real products, (2) concentrating on product names rather than brand names, (3) using five different products for each letter of the Roman alphabet, (4) asking for the buying probability, and (5) using recently introduced algorithms, controlling for individual response tendencies (i.e., liking all letters more or less) and general normative popularity of particular letters (i.e., some letters are generally preferred more than other letters).

  20. NITRD NewsLetter - July 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Welcome to this first issue of NITRD Leads IT, a quarterly newsletter of the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program. We...

  1. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... The Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research is published by the College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin to encourage research into ... for 2013 as per Global Impact Factors (http://globalimpactfactor.com).

  2. NITRD NewsLetter - October 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Welcome to the second issue of NITRD Leads IT, a quarterly newsletter of the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program. I...

  3. NITRD NewsLetter - October 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Welcome to the October 2017 issue of the NITRD Leads IT quarterly newsletter of the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program. When we...

  4. Resource Letter GrW-1: Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Centrella, Joan M.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of gravitational radiation was one of the first predictions of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Progress in understanding this radiation theoretically was slow at first, owing to the difficulty of the nonlinear field equations and the subtleties of their physical effects. The experimental side of this subject also has taken a long time to develop, with efforts at detection severely challenged by the extreme weakness of the waves impinging on the Earth. However, as the 21st century begins, observations of the gravitational waves from astrophysical sources such as black holes, neutron stars, and stellar collapse are expected to open a new window on the universe. Vigorous experimental programs centered on ground-based detectors are being carried out worldwide, and a space-based detector is in the planning stages. On the theoretical side, much effort is being expended to produce robust models of the astrophysical sources and accurate calculations of the waveforms they produce. In this Resource Letter, a set of basic references will be presented first, to provide a general introduction to and overview of the literature in this field. The focus then will shift to highlighting key resources in more specialized areas at the forefront of current research.

  5. Letter to Dimitrie Gusti (21.10.1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞTEFANIA CRISTESCU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This section contains two important documents here published for the first time. The first is the text of a paper presented by St.C.-G. in 1939 at the Romanian Institute for Social Research and meant to accompany 12 sociological maps on the practices and interdictions concerning confined women in 35 villages of Țara Oltului (Olt county. This paper will allow us to reconstruct the lost maps in the near future. The second document consists of three completed forms of the social inquiry conducted by Șt. C.-G. concerning the everyday lives of students in an industrial College of Bucharest during World War II. The Report prepared by D. Gusti in view of awarding the Vernescu Academy prize to Șt. C.-G. for her book The Household in the Beliefs and Magic Rituals of the Women of Drăguș (Făgăraș, an activity report by Șt. C. and two letters (one by D. Gusti and the other by a former student teaching in her turn complete the picture of Șt. C.-G. at a professional and a personal level.

  6. Resource Letter HEPP-1: History of elementary-particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovis, R.C.; Kragh, H.

    1991-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature on the history of modern elementary-particle physics. Histories that treat developments from the 1930s through the 1980s are focused on and a sampling is included of the historiography covering the period c. 1890--1930, the prehistory of elementary-particle physics as a discipline. Also included are collections of scientific papers, which might be especially valuable to individuals who wish to undertake historical research on particular scientists or subfields of elementary-particle physics. The introduction presents some statistical data and associated references for elementary-particle physics and surveys historiographical approaches and issues that are represented in historical accounts in the bibliography. All references are assigned a rating of E (Elementary), I (Intermediate), or A (Advanced) based on their technical or conceptual difficulty or their appropriateness for a person attempting a graduated study of the history of modern particle physics. That is, items labeled E are suitable for the layman or would be fundamental to a beginning exploration of the history of particle physics, whereas items labeled A are technically demanding (mathematically, historiographically, or philosophically) or would be most appropriate for specialized or advanced examinations of various topics

  7. WORDS FROM "ACTS AND EPISTLES OF THE APOSTLES" IN ANTON CHEKHOV'S LETTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ivanovna Rodionova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chekhov was born in a very religious family and since early childhood became familiar with church practice. In the letters he wrote as a middle-aged man, he called himself an unbeliever. However, a lack of faith did not prevent him from using the Biblical words in his letters and works. This paper examines using the words from Acts and Epistles of the Apostles in Chekhov’s letters. We consider all the forms of this use: quotes, reminiscences, allusions, idioms of the New Testament’s origin, etc. The research enables us to evaluate the degree of Chekhov’s familiarity with Acts and Epistles of the Apostles, as well as the frequency and the context of his references to them. We also try to answer the question why Chekhov, being an unbeliever, uses the scriptural words so often, and we make a conclusion that scriptural words formed an integral part of his thesaurus. This, therefore, leads us to a conclusion that the researchers and readers of Chekhov need to know the Bible to understand the writer’s language.

  8. An exploratory study of early letter-sound knowledge in a low socio-economic context in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley O'Carroll

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores one aspect of early literacy development in a low socio-economic context in South Africa. Assessments conducted with a sample of children from two disadvantaged communities in Cape Town indicated that in this context, almost half of the learners entering Grade One were unable to recognise any letters. A Grade R intervention conducted by volunteers showed that children from this context were able to learn letter-sounds in Grade R through a programme that focused on teaching letter-sounds in the context of building language skills, emergent writing and concepts about print. In order to strengthen the effectiveness of the intervention, the volunteer programme was supplemented by support for the Grade R teacher and teaching assistant. Follow-up assessments of one of the intervention groups at the end of Grade One revealed significant correlations between early Grade One letter knowledge and end of Grade One word reading and spelling skills. The findings of this exploratory study are in line with research that shows the importance of letter-sound knowledge in the earliest stages of learning to read. This raises concerns about the historical lack of emphasis in the Grade R curriculum on this aspect of early literacy development. Although the study has a narrow focus and conclusions cannot be drawn about other aspects of early literacy learning in this context, the results suggest an urgent need for quality Grade R teacher training programmes with a specific focus on emergent literacy.

  9. Use of a journal club and letter-writing exercise to teach critical appraisal to medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R; White, M; Gray, J; Fischbacher, C

    2001-07-01

    There is growing interest in methods of teaching critical appraisal skills at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. We describe an approach using a journal club and subsequent letter writing to teach critical appraisal and writing skills to medical undergraduates. The exercise occurs during a 3-week public health medicine attachment in the third year of the undergraduate curriculum. Students work in small groups to appraise a recently published research paper, present their findings to their peers in a journal club, and draft a letter to the journal editor. Evaluation took place through: informal and formal feedback from students; number of letters written, submitted and published, and a comparison of marks obtained by students submitting a literature review assignment with and without critical appraisal teaching during the public health attachment. Feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. In the first 3(1/2) years, 26 letters have been published or accepted for publication, and 58 letters published on the Internet. There were no significant differences in overall marks or marks for the critical appraisal component of the literature review assignments between the two student groups. We believe our approach is an innovative and enjoyable method for teaching critical appraisal and writing skills to medical students. Lack of difference in marks in the literature review between the student groups may reflect its insensitivity as an outcome measure, contamination by other critical appraisal teaching, or true ineffectiveness.

  10. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Colizoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue. In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14 = 5.85, p = .030. Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13 = 0.51, p = .05. The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14 = 2.79, p = .014 and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  11. Pseudo-Synesthesia through Reading Books with Colored Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. Methodology/Principal Findings Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term ‘synesthetic’ training program. PMID

  12. How To Write a Business Letter. Power of the Printed Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Malcolm

    Business letters should turn people on rather than turning them off. To write a good business letter, know what the goal is before starting to write, call the reader by name, tell what the letter is about in the first paragraph, refer to dates when answering letters, and write from the reader's point of view. Be positive, be nice, and be natural.…

  13. Scientific and technical publications of the Environmental Research Laboratories: fiscal year 1976 (July 1, 1975 through September 30, 1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The Environmental Research Laboratories (ERL) conduct fundamental investigations needed to improve understanding of the physical environment. The ERL programs include investigation of ocean processes, and their interactions with the atmosphere; studies of the ocean environment as it is affected by waste disposal and development of energy resources; fundamental studies of the upper atmosphere and space environments; lower atmosphere research--the weather and climates; research on tsunamis, severe local storms, and hurricanes; studies of weather modification, and the environmental effects of global pollution or similar ecological factors; and development of equipment, instruments, systems, and facilities for these programs. This report lists the output of ERL in terms of papers and reports for the period July 1, 1975, through September 30, 1976. The list includes all known publications in journals for this period as well as those published within the official report series of the laboratories. Publications resulting from research contracts or grants and work done by cooperating institutes or on international aid programs are included

  14. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter Q

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quaestiones Mathematicae. Quaestiones Mathematicae publishes research papers from a wide range of mathematical topics that will often reflect the current mathematical research interests in South Africa. Published in English, the Journal receives contributions from authors around the globe. The Journal serves as an ...

  15. Self-Regulation Abilities and Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers' Vocabulary and Letter-Word Skills in Spanish and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francisco; Mikulski, Ariana M.; Conejo, L. Diego

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the heterogeneity in Spanish-speaking children's (N = 117; M age = 53 months; SD = 5 months; 57% boys) vocabulary and letter-word skills in English and Spanish after one year of preschool and the extent to which early self-regulation abilities (i.e., executive function and effortful control) were associated…

  16. Melanie Klein's letters addressed to Marcelle Spira (1955-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, Jean-Michel

    2009-12-01

    Between 1955 and 1960, Melanie Klein wrote some 45 hitherto unpublished letters to Marcelle Spira, the Swiss psychoanalyst living at that time in Geneva. In 2006, after Spira's death, these letters were deposited with the Raymond de Saussure Psychoanalysis Centre in Geneva. They are the only known letters that Klein addressed to her psychoanalyst colleagues. Several topics are mentioned in them: (1) the meetings between the two women in Geneva and London; (2) Spira's contribution to Boulanger's translation into French of The Psychoanalysis of Children, which Klein herself carefully revised; (3) the papers that Klein was at that time working on, including Envy and Gratitude; (4) Spira's own work; (5) the difficulties that Spira, a Kleinian psychoanalyst who trained in Buenos Aires, was encountering in her attempt to be admitted to the Swiss Psychoanalytical Society; and (6) a few items of personal and family news. In addition to the invaluable historical information that these letters provide, they offer us a very moving epistolary self-portrait of Melanie Klein, enabling us to discover her personality in the final years of her life - she died in September 1960, just two months after writing her last letter to Spira.

  17. Letters of Marcus Antonius Kappus from colonial America IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Stanonik

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The letter of Marcus Antonius Kappus which we publish in our present the fourth - continuation of his letters from Colonial America, is not preserved - as the first three letters are - in a manuscript. Instead we find it published in the famous contemporary collection of Jesuitic letters which appeared from 1728 till 1758 under the editorship of Joseph Stöcklein and his successors in Augsburg and Graz under the title Der neue Welt-Bott mit Allerhand Nachrichten derer Missionariorum Soc. Jesu. Kappus' letter can be found in vol. I, part II, p. 86-88 under the number 56. It has never since 1728 been reprinted in German, neither has it ever been published in an English translation. Our reprint of the German text is justified because Stöcklein's collection is generally not available even in the largest libraries, especially in America. An English translation can be useful because of the difficulties the old form of its German with its localisms can cause to its readers.

  18. [Representation of letter position in visual word recognition process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makioka, S

    1994-08-01

    Two experiments investigated the representation of letter position in visual word recognition process. In Experiment 1, subjects (12 undergraduates and graduates) were asked to detect a target word in a briefly-presented probe. Probes consisted of two kanji words. The latters which formed targets (critical letters) were always contained in probes. (e.g. target: [symbol: see text] probe: [symbol: see text]) High false alarm rate was observed when critical letters occupied the same within-word relative position (left or right within the word) in the probe words as in the target word. In Experiment 2 (subject were ten undergraduates and graduates), spaces adjacent to probe words were replaced by randomly chosen hiragana letters (e.g. [symbol: see text]), because spaces are not used to separate words in regular Japanese sentences. In addition to the effect of within-word relative position as in Experiment 1, the effect of between-word relative position (left or right across the probe words) was observed. These results suggest that information about within-word relative position of a letter is used in word recognition process. The effect of within-word relative position was explained by a connectionist model of word recognition.

  19. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter K

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KCA Journal of Business Management ... In addition, the journal publishes invited research reviews and reports of ... Kiswahili is an interdisciplinary international journal devoted to the study of Kiswahili language, linguistics and literature.

  20. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 10 of 10 ... Lagos Notes and Records is an annual, interdisciplinary journal of the humanities. ... The Lagos Business School Management Review is published by ... research articles; reviews of new and particularly noteworthy books ...

  1. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter T

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Science (TAJAS) is a peer reviewed scientific journal that publishes original and scholarly research articles ... The Tanzania Medical Journal is an international Journal - ISSN: 0856-0719.

  2. "Test" is a Four Letter Word

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G M

    2005-05-03

    For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word

  3. Letters on nuclear controversy. Streitbriefe ueber Kernenergie. Zwei Physiker ueber Wissenschaft, Fortschritt und die Folgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, P; Maier-Leibnitz, H

    1982-01-01

    Heinz Maier-Leibnitz a well-known scientist, nuclear physicist, for 50 years, who publicily supported the idea not to overrate the dangers of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, has grown tired of talking only to colleagues. He invites a junior fellow physicist, who held engaged speeches against the nuclear power plant Zwentendorf, to an exchange of thoughts. Peter Kafka, an astro-physicist studied the self organisation of the universe from the big bang to the economic crisis and encountered the question of which conditions have to be fulfilled to prevent progress from becoming caranogenous. He became one of the spokesmen of 'political ecology' and called for resistance again large-scale technological use of scientific knowledge. He was enthusiastic about the idea of an exchange of letters, because he - just like his partner - believes in gaining knowledge by discussion. The variety of subjects is sketched briefly in form of three lectures. In the letters both scientists discuss intensly about: - Freedom of science and responsibility of science. - Decisions on energy questions under time-pressure. - Risks of nuclear plants. - Large scale technology and large-scale research or decentralization. - Energy utilization and energy waste. - Nuclear energy and alternatives. - Sense and nonsense of detailed future planning. In the end no one has convinced the other. The reader however finds a lot of new incentives in the letters - printed in unabridged form - a lot of new and significant arguments for a discussion which has only just started.

  4. A Novel Handwritten Letter Recognizer Using Enhanced Evolutionary Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Fariborz; Mirzashaeri, Mohsen; Shahamatnia, Ehsan; Faridnia, Saed

    This paper introduces a novel design for handwritten letter recognition by employing a hybrid back-propagation neural network with an enhanced evolutionary algorithm. Feeding the neural network consists of a new approach which is invariant to translation, rotation, and scaling of input letters. Evolutionary algorithm is used for the global search of the search space and the back-propagation algorithm is used for the local search. The results have been computed by implementing this approach for recognizing 26 English capital letters in the handwritings of different people. The computational results show that the neural network reaches very satisfying results with relatively scarce input data and a promising performance improvement in convergence of the hybrid evolutionary back-propagation algorithms is exhibited.

  5. A Letter of Ladizlaus, the Franciscan Custodian of Gazaria (Caffa, April 10, 1287.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hautala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The following letter of Friar Ladizlaus, Franciscan Custodian of Gazaria (that is, of the Northern Black Sea region, contains an interesting description of the collision between Catholic missionaries and Muslim residents of Solkhat. In his letter, Friar Ladizalus describes the circumstances of the conflict that arose in the summer of 1286 between the Franciscans of Solkhat and local Muslim residents who were angered by Catholics’ habit of sound a bell on their church. During the conflict, the Solkhat Muslims demolished this bell and destroyed the Catholic church. In turn, the Franciscans submitted a complaint against their actions to khan Tula-Buga and Nogay. In response to the Minorites’ petition, Jochid rulers sent their representatives to Solkhat. Despite personal commitment to the Muslim faith, these representatives severely punished Franciscans’ offenders and allowed the Minorites both to rebuild their church and to hang three bells instead of one destroyed earlier. Letter’s translation is provided with the necessary comments, which will be expanded in the future monograph of the author. It is appropriate to note that the letter was analyzed in detail in a recent article of the Hungarian researcher Szylvia Kovács [4, p. 157–164]. The Latin text of the letter is reproduced according to Girolamo Golubovich’s edition based on the Codex Ottoboniana 2115 from the Vatican library (fol. 62 [3, p. 444–445]. Discrepancies from the followin earlier editions are also taken into account in the text: [8, no. 250, s. 248–250 (referred to as Starzer & Redlich; 2, p. 165, nota 1 (referred to as Eubel].

  6. EFL Students’ Preferences toward the Lecturer’s Corrective Feedback in Business Letters Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Sanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate; the students’ preferences toward the lecturer’s corrective feedback in the business letter writing and their reasons why they preferred for particular corrective feedback types. A case study was used by involving 15 EFL students who enrolled the Business Correspondence Course. The questionnaire and interview were used as the research instruments. This study revealed that; (1 the students preferred to receive lecturer correction (M=5.00, followed by lecturer-students conferencing (M=4.13, peer-correction (M=2.73, error identification (M=2.00, lecturer commentary (M=1.93, and self-correction (M=1.27. (2 the students’ reasons at choosing the lecturer correction were getting the directly good correction from the lecturer, which it would be used as the reference/guide for further improvements both linguistic accuracy and business letter organization. In lecturer-students conferencing, beside they got good correction and grateful appreciation from both their lecturer and other students, they could learn and share the knowledge of errors made together; however they ashamed their linguistics errors, low ability and knowledge in formatting good business letter could be known by others. In peer-correction, the students got the unsatisfied and satisfied corrective feedback from their peers; and they were doubt with their peers’ ability and knowledge in giving correction. In Error identification and lecturer commentary, it was difficult for the students to diagnose the real errors and to correct them. Finally, the reasons of self-correction were useless and unsatisfied to evaluate their own work since they had limited ability and knowledge in formatting the business letter writing effectively.

  7. Standardized Letter of Recommendation for Otolaryngology Residency Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jonathan N.; Liang, Conan; McFann, Kim; Abaza, Mona M.; Streubel, Sven-Olrik; Prager, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Develop a standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR) for otolaryngology residency application that investigates the qualities desired in residents and letter writer’s experience. Compare this SLOR to narrative letters of recommendation (NLOR). Study Design Prospective SLOR/NLOR Comparison. Methods The SLOR was sent to a NLOR writer for each applicant. The applicant’s NLOR/SLOR pair was blinded and ranked in seven categories by three reviewers. Inter-rater reliability and NLOR/SLOR rankings were compared. Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores were compared to our departmental rank list. Results Thirty-one SLORs (66%) were collected. The SLORs had higher inter-rater reliability for applicant’s qualifications for otolaryngology, global assessment, summary statement, and overall letter ranking. Writer’s background, comparison to contemporaries/predecessors, and letter review ease had higher inter-rater reliability on the NLORs. Mean SLOR rankings were higher for writer’s background (p=0.0007), comparison of applicant to contemporaries/predecessors (p=0.0031), and letter review ease (p<0.0001). Mean SLOR writing time was 4.17±2.18 minutes. Mean ranking time was significantly lower (p<0.0001) for the SLORs (39.24±23.45 seconds) compared to the NLORs (70.95±40.14 seconds). Means of cumulative SLOR scores correlated with our rank list (p=0.004), whereas means of cumulative NLOR scores did not (p=0.18). Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores did not correlate (p=0.26). Conclusions SLORs require little writing time, save reviewing time, and are easier to review compared to NLORs. Our SLOR had higher inter-rater reliability in 4 of 7 categories and was correlated with our rank list. This tool conveys standardized information in an efficient manner. PMID:23172646

  8. Letter report: Ari Patrinos -- Subsurface bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happer, W.; MacDonald, G.J.; Ruderman, M.A.; Treiman, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    During the past summer, the authors had the opportunity to examine aspects of the remediation program of the Department of Energy (DOE). The most important conclusion that they have come to is that there is an urgent need to mount a comprehensive research program in remediation. It is also clear to them that DOE does not have the funding to carry out a program on the scale that is required. On the other hand, Environmental Management could very well fund such activities. They would hope that in the future there would be close collaboration between Environmental Management and Energy Research in putting together a comprehensive and well thought-out research program. Here, the authors comment on one aspect of remediation: subsurface bioremediation

  9. Dear Hacker Letters to the Editor of 2600

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Actual letters written to the leading hackers' magazine. For 25 years, 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has given voice to the hacker community in all its manifestations. This collection of letters to the magazine reveals the thoughts and viewpoints of hackers, both white and black hat, as well as hacker wannabes, technophiles, and people concerned about computer security. Insightful and entertaining, the exchanges illustrate 2600 's vast readership, from teenage rebels, anarchists, and survivalists to law enforcement, consumer advocates, and worried parents.: 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has been the

  10. Una lettera a Sylos Labini. (A letter to Sylos Labini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Modigliani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The letter, dated 14 September 1956, starts a decade long correspondence between Franco Modigliani and Paolo Sylos Labini. Here Modigliani discusses at length a first draft of Sylos Labini’s book on oligopoly theory. Differently from Modigliani’s well known 1958 review of the book, Modigliani focuses here not mainly on the structure of oligopoly industries, but especially on the macroeconomic implications of Sylos Labini’s model. The letter is reproduced with Sylos Labini’s annotated comments on Modigliani’s remarks. JEL codes: B31, D43, E13

  11. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 86 ... It seeks to provide a forum for the dissemination of research, review articles and ... The Journal has a special focus on Islam in Africa, and on contemporary Islamic Thought. ... is an international, bi-annual official publication of African ... Sci. applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, under ...

  12. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 86 ... It particularly welcomes work of an interdisciplinary nature that brings together history, religion, politics, culture and law. The Journal has a ... The Journal for Juridical Science is an accredited national professional journal which publishes original research articles in law in Afrikaans and English. Multi and ...

  13. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter E

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 39 of 39 ... The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a ... Therefore, the thrust of the EPR is to provide readers with ideas that help them ... The Egyptian Journal of Biology is now closed to all new submissions

  14. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter O

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 8 of 8 ... Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this ...

  15. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter J

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... Its scope covers the fields of the geosciences, mining, metallurgy, materials science and geoenvironmental studies. ..... and it publishes original research papers, technical reports, state-of-the-art reviews and applied analyses of topical issues on all aspects of engineering practice in Ghana and abroad.

  16. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter Z

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 8 of 8 ... Zede is a scientific journal on engineering science and application, produced ... of engineering knowledge and methodologies in solving engineering problems. ... in African Educational Institution; Research Methods and Ethics in Africa ... Epidemiology, Immunology, Environmental science, Hydrobiology ...

  17. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 93 of 93 ... The African Journal of Social Work is an international refereed journal that serves as a forum for exchanging ideas and knowledge and discussing issues relevant to social work practice, education and research in the African region. Producing 2 issues a year, the Journal is published by the National ...

  18. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 93 ... African Journal of AIDS Research (AJAR) is a peer-reviewed ... The African Journal of Aquatic Science is an international journal ... Later, the need to expand the horizon of the journal led to the formation of a group (Biomedical Communications ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology.

  19. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 33 of 33 ... However, there is also room for issues of the larger international order or ... The journal is an initiative of the Phenomenology Research Group .... clinical chemistry, hydrochemistry, agrochemistry, geochemistry and biogeochemistry. .... Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology and Faculty of Dentistry.

  20. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter B

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 9 of 9 ... Also, areas of Laboratory Science, Technology, Mathematical Sciences, Microbiology, Physics, Medical Sciences and Zoology form part of the contents of the Journal. Scientists in the academia, research institutes and industries are therefore encouraged to participate actively in the propagation of their works ...

  1. Visual and Artistic Functions of Letters Khaghani’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. Zolfaghari

    Full Text Available The intensity of emotion and vibration of meaning in the poet's mind causes him to go beyond the ordinary language and through metaphors, similes and linguistic preparation he conveys intellectual and emotional meanings. He has a sharp eye and a sensitive spirit and creative temprement and by inventing new images shows the creativity and imagination in various arenas and attempts in the way of literary strength and creating personal style and this point more than anything else must be done by presenting images and newness. Perhaps in the sixth century, and especially in Azerbaijani school, more than other periods, poets have been looking for creating innovative style in eloquence. Their major attempts were mainly in imaging, it was a wide field that they have competed and it is natural that in this illustration the alphabet letters would be very helpful. Khaghani poetry as one of the greatest poets of this school has the perfect poetrical book of painting and meaning, and delicated pattern in new and different scientific, cultural and religious paintings and letters are a broad range of elements that put a new field in front of the poet and he is aware of the potential features of the letters and also the new images and the artistic creativity.This paper shows descriptive - analytical study of various aspects of Khaghani’s poetry and frequency of letters in the alphabet, authentic images based on alphabet, taken at different pseudo relevance of poetry in the context of multiple semantic and literal characters, making figures of speech based on literary characters, images and characters and the sense of connection . . . which has been shown in his poetry.Letter has double and even multiple uses in Khaghani poetic works (divan and more than the construction of words which is the real and common sense that is used as an artistic. There is a world in the heart of every letter, word and morpheme lies in the poet's point of view is the last and

  2. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children’s emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-writing skills made significant contributions to the prediction of spelling after controlling for age, parental education, print knowledge, phonological awareness, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge; however, only letter-writing abilities made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of spelling when both letter-writing and name-writing skills were considered together. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. Children’s letter-writing skills may be a better indicator of children’s emergent literacy and developing spelling skills than are their name-writing skills at the end of the preschool year. Spelling is a developmentally complex skill beginning in preschool and includes letter writing and blending skills, print knowledge, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge. PMID:21927537

  3. Editorial first issue: Letter from the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinaz Nasirinezhad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the first issue of Journal of Medical Physiology! Journal of Medical Physiology is a high-quality, peer reviewed, open access journal which will focus on physiology, biology, and neuroscience and their applications in clinic from the molecular levels to the levels of organs and systems.  In recent years knowledge of physiology has been under a great progress and is being taught as one of the major courses in medicine and allied fields in the universities. Many researchers are doing research in this field and try to find the basic mechanism and appropriate solution for diseases which are difficult to treat. The editorial board wants to create a balanced journal to help the researchers in the field of medicine and physiology to share the results of their research work. Like all good science, medical physiology has no national boundaries. Although we each have found our own niche where we work and feel most comfortable, science language is a common language and by this language scientist can learn from each other. We want Journal of Medical Physiology to be an international forum for sharing the best ideas. It will help researcher in the field of medicine and physiology to keep up with the science. We hope that this journal plays a major role in the development of the physiological sciences and contribute to the diffusion of scientific knowledge and to promote discussion among scientist. The journal will include original researches that are practical applications of known techniques as well as theoretical advances at the physiological sciences and medicine. I consider it a great honor being as Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Medical Physiology and I will do my best to face all challenges that confront the journal and striving to increase the quality and impact of the journal's content. Despite the inevitable push towards publishing in the highest impact factor journals possible, the other side of the coin is ensuring that your work is

  4. Initial letters on the pages of Ukrainian old printed books of the 17th-18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukhymets H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to such a complicated and little studied element of artistic decoration of Ukrainian printed books of the 17th-18th centuries as capital letters. The authors research old printed books from the collection of imprints of the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra’s typography. Various topics, iconography, compositional and artistic stylistic features of miniature illustrations of initial letters, their location on book pages, content correspondence or discrepancy with a text, usage of one clichй in various editions provide multiple new possibilities to researchers. Especially the authors accentuate iconography of gospel and life subjects, as well as the source studies analysis of initial letters, which in Ukrainian old printed editions of Baroque epoch impress with innovation of subject development and the ambition for original decisions of complex compositional tasks conditioned not only by the size and format of an initial, but also by the form and location of the letter itself in a certain decorative space.

  5. Badge of Honor or Scarlet Letter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zunino, Diego; Dushnitsky, Gary; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Research shows that most ventures fail, yet it has devoted limited attention to the consequences of entrepreneurs’ past failure for investors’ decisions. Our motivating insight is that failure can be due to bad luck, lack of skill or both. Therefore, failure conveys ambiguous information about...... of skill, however, is not discounted. The findings indicate no discount of failure based on the “failed” label only. Overall, our analysis sheds light on the rationality of investors. In a world where entrepreneurial failure is prevalent, we find that investors are sensitive to its core drivers: luck...

  6. "Letter-Space": Typographic Translations of Urban Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Jacqueline; O'Sullivan, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a Bachelor of Design honours year typography project in the medium of letterpress. The "Letter-space" project positioned letterpress as a textual, spatial and structural visual language, through which the experiences and meanings of a local urban place were translated, mapped and given form through typographic design. We…

  7. Effects of Grammatical Categories on Letter Detection in Continuous Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucambert, Denis; Zuniga, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on the interplay between the linguistic principles and the psycholinguistic processes involved in reading. Results from 56 participants on a letter detection task reveal that readers do not process all function words in the same manner. Omission rates were highest for function words occupying the head of maximal…

  8. Resensies: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa. Book Author: Steven Robins. Cape Town: Penguin, 2016. 314 pp. ISBN 978 1 77609 024 2. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/tvl.v.54i1.18.

  9. A Letter from a Black Mom to Her Son

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dyan

    2012-01-01

    An African American mother and teacher educator uses examples from her own childhood to describe how she hopes her child will be treated by teachers, and what she fears. In her letter to her son, the African American mom expresses how she want teachers to know her son's journey to school--metaphorically and physically. She wants them to know that…

  10. Letters to the Editor: Tattooing gone wrong | Hampton | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 55, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Letters to the Editor: Tattooing gone wrong. M I Hampton ...

  11. Letters of Gold: Enabling Primitive Accumulation through Neoliberal Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Büscher (Bram)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In Capital I, Marx wrote that the history of the separation of the producers from the means of production “is written in the annals of mankind in letters of blood and fire” (Marx, 1976: 875). This ‘so-called primitive accumulation’, or ‘accumulation by dispossession’ in David

  12. Predatory Journals and Perished Articles; a Letter to Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Narimani, Mashallah; Dadkhah, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, academic publishing has been faced with many destructive phenomena. “Predatory publishers” (or journals) are one challenge for  cholarly publishing. This term was introduced to academic societies for the first time by Jeffrey Beall in 2010. This letter to editor is about predatory journals and perished articles in the field of emergency medicine.

  13. Comradely Greetings: The Prison Letters of Nadya and Slavoj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Briziarelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Žižek and Tolokonnikova’s exchange letters provides the reader with the suggestive image and evocative words of two intellectuals speaking from very different contexts. This article discusses the relevance of this volume in the context of localized global capitalism and an equally localized global struggle against it.

  14. Letter to Daniel Gilligan of Petroleum Marketers Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    A letter in response to a request for the Agency’s view regarding whether several approaches would satisfy 40 CFR §112.7(a)(2)’s “equivalent environmental protection” provision and for clarification of the scope of the requirements in 40 CFR §112.

  15. The Wartime Success of Karl Shapiro's V-Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American soldier-poet Karl Shapiro won the Pulitzer Prize for V-Letter and Other Poems (1944), making him an instant celebrity. The volume was written while he was stationed in Australia and New Guinea during World War II. Shaprio sent the completed poems to his fiancée, Evalyn Katz, who edited

  16. 12 CFR 614.4720 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4720 Letters of credit. Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks, under policies adopted by their boards of directors...

  17. Discourse Strategies of Italian and English Sales Promotion Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaro, Carla

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a contrastive study on rhetorical differences between Italian and English sales promotion letters. It is assumed that cultural differences affect discourse genres traditionally considered as standardized, ritual or even formulaic, written business communication being a case in point. It was our goal to investigate how…

  18. Transposed-letter priming of prelexical orthographic representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A prime generated by transposing two internal letters (e.g., jugde) produces strong priming of the original word (judge). In lexical decision, this transposed-letter (TL) priming effect is generally weak or absent for nonword targets; thus, it is unclear whether the origin of this effect is lexical or prelexical. The authors describe the Bayesian Reader theory of masked priming (D. Norris & S. Kinoshita, 2008), which explains why nonwords do not show priming in lexical decision but why they do in the cross-case same-different task. This analysis is followed by 3 experiments that show that priming in this task is not based on low-level perceptual similarity between the prime and target, or on phonology, to make the case that priming is based on prelexical orthographic representation. The authors then use this task to demonstrate equivalent TL priming effects for nonwords and words. The results are interpreted as the first reliable evidence based on the masked priming procedure that letter position is not coded absolutely within the prelexical, orthographic representation. The implications of the results for current letter position coding schemes are discussed.

  19. 12 CFR 614.4810 - Standby letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... party in the performance of an obligation. (b) As a matter of sound banking practice, banks for... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 614.4810 Section 614.4810 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks...

  20. Evaluation of medical consultation letters at King Fahd Hospital, Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of medical consultation letters at King Fahd Hospital, Al Hufuf, Saudi Arabia. Hamed Abd Allah Al Wadaani, Magdy Hassan Balaha. Abstract. Background: In surgical wards, it is of paramount importance to communicate with other health care providers, mostly physicians, referring patients to them for their ...

  1. Friday Letters: Connecting Students, Teachers, and Families through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Terry H.; Bizzarri, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of student success in school is the involvement of families. However, the communication between students and families regarding school is often sparse at best and caregivers can feel left out as to what is happening. Friday letters improve communication between students and families and also provide a myriad of instructional…

  2. Letters and Viewpoints Planning Education in Africa: Towards the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letters and Viewpoints Planning Education in Africa: Towards the 21st Century. George N. Ngugi ... The relevance of planning education is questioned from the theoretical and philosophical perspectives on one hand, the professional and practical stance on the other. Its goals are scrutinized and its structure argued about.

  3. 78 FR 19288 - Letters of Authorization To Take Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R7-FHC-2013-N047; FF07CAMM00.FX.FR133707PB000] Letters of Authorization To Take Marine Mammals AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Fairweather, LLC........ Exploration........ Beaufort Sea Acoustic Monitoring July 15, 2012. Recorder...

  4. [Patients' letters and pre-modern medical lay-culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Consulting by letter was fairly common practice among the educated, upper classes of early modern Europe. Surviving letters of consultation written by patients, relatives or friends count among the most valuable source for the analysis of pre-modern experiences of disease and the body. This essay gives a brief overview of the various types of consultation letters and related documents which resulted from this practice before tracing the historical development of epistolary consultations from the late Middle Ages through the heyday medical correspondence in the 18th c. before its decline in the 19th c. It presents "experience", "self-fashioning" and "discourse" as three particularly fruitful levels of analysis on which patients' letters can be used within the wider framework of a cultural history of medicine. These three levels of analysis, or three distinct approaches, enable historians to access a greater awareness of the ways in which the experience of illness and the body is culturally framed with an analysis of the performative effects of patients' narratives and the influence of medical discourse among the wider society.

  5. 50 CFR 216.256 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.256 Applications for Letters of Authorization. To incidentally take...

  6. 50 CFR 216.259 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.259 Modifications to Letters of Authorization. (a) Except as provided in...

  7. 50 CFR 216.218 - Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance Activities Conducted During Offshore Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.218 Letters of...

  8. THE SPIRITUALITY OF THE LETTER TO THE GALATIANS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attention. In fact, I am aware of only two studies that focus on Galatians in .... does not explicitly use the term “coming age” here or elsewhere in his letters, .... framework according to which history is divided into the period before and the.

  9. Adolescent Suidice--An Open Letter to Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jane

    1988-01-01

    A mother of a 16 year-old suicide victim writes to school counselors who let her down by not informing her of important changes in her son's activities, personality, and choice of friends at school. The letter also addresses two psychologists in a psychiatric hospital who suppressed information about the boy's suicidal intentions and his…

  10. 48 CFR 49.601-2 - Letter notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter notice. 49.601-2 Section 49.601-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... immediate complete spoilage of work-in-process having a definite commercial value, or (D) to prevent any...

  11. Documentary Letters of Credit, Legal Nature and Sources of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Hamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt about risky nature of international trade. Such risk can be conceptualized as country risk, transportation risk, customer risk and etc. Documentary Letters of Credit (LC are used as a method of payment in international business for many centuries in order to reduce risk of trade specially when parties are located in different countries and do not have precise information from financial standing of each other. In such occasion LC will reduce the risk of trade by shifting payment obligation from buyer as an individual to a payment guarantee of a bank as a legal entity in return for presentation of complying documents with terms of credit by seller. Familiarity with legal nature and different legal frameworks which govern the international operation of documentary letters of credit can facilitate the process of international trade for businessmen and boost national economies. However, lack of knowledge about them can impose huge losses on international traders. Situation will be more complicated when we understand that there are many internationally recognized legal frameworks which can affect the operation of LC and they get frequently updated in order to address technological and economic developments in global market. In this paper, author tries to answer questions regarding (i what are international legal frameworks governing operation of documentary letters of credit? (ii which areas of LC operation has been covered by them and (iii how do they address the legal questions regarding international operation of documentary letters of credit?

  12. Model business letters, emails and other business documents

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    For anyone who wants to communicate effectively in business, this is your complete reference guide for any form of written communication. Packed with over 500 sample documents, over 100 tips for better business writing and useful templates you can apply to your writing immediately, Model Business Letters will help you put the key rules of good business writing into action.

  13. 15 CFR 700.63 - Letters of Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Letters of Understanding. 700.63 Section 700.63 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  14. Language Arts/Arts: Adopt-a-Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Rhoda K.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a five-week project in which elementary students chose a favorite letter as the main character of a 25- to 30-page book for practice in language skills. The book each child made was composed of more than 20 learning activities that stimulated students to review and practice skills, parts of speech, synonyms, antonyms and alliteration as…

  15. Rock 'n' Roll Heroes: Letter to President Eisenhower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jean W., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This primary source document can be used to teach secondary students about the rock 'n' roll era that emerged in the 1950's. The document is a letter written in 1958 by three teenagers to President Eisenhower concerning the induction of Elvis Presley into the U.S. Army. Class activities are also suggested. (RM)

  16. transformation in love in paul's letter to the galatians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This focus on the faith-works controversy has not been conducive to attempts to read it ... explosion of such studies on the meaning of the letter for contemporary life. .... often love has been studied in terms of a particular word rather than in terms of ..... and affectionate character.25 There is more, however: In Christ, humanity.

  17. LETTERS OF MARIA KUNCEWICZOWA TO HER LATE HUSBAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wzorek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the last book of Maria Kuncewiczowa – a set of twenty-three letters (provided with a postscript addressed to her deceased husband. The uniqueness of this correspondence, presented in literary form, lies in the fact that the recipient is dead, treated by the sender as someone constantly present in the real world and still associated with the temporality. "Listy do Jerzego" ("Letters to Jerzy" are – as Tadeusz Swat, one of the reviewers say – “an attempt at denial of death, to save Jerzy by love, memory, and literature.” The analysis of the work highlights the occurring axiological categories. It has been demonstrated that "Letters to Jerzy" is a book about eternal love reaching beyond the grave (in this respect, in stark contrast with "Tristan" 1946, felt with dignity of old age, and finally transcending into faith. "Letters to Jerzy" is also an attempt to reduce the suffering of the writer over the loss of her beloved husband. To some extent, therefore, they correspond to her earlier work "Cudzoziemka" ("Foreigner" in which Kuncewiczowa liberates from the negative emotions associated with the death of her mother.

  18. Philosophical Intelligence: Letters, Print, and Experiment during Napoleon's Continental Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Iain P

    2015-12-01

    This essay investigates scientific exchanges between Britain and France from 1806 to 1814, at the height of the Napoleonic Wars. It argues for a picture of scientific communication that sees letters and printed texts not as separate media worlds, but as interconnected bearers of time-critical information within a single system of intelligence gathering and experimental practice. During this period, Napoleon Bonaparte's Continental System blockade severed most links between Britain and continental Europe, yet scientific communications continued--particularly on electrochemistry, a subject of fierce rivalry between Britain and France. The essay traces these exchanges using the archive of a key go-between, the English man of science Sir Charles Blagden. The first two sections look at Blagden's letter-writing operation, reconstructing how he harnessed connections with neutral American diplomats, merchants, and the State to get scientific intelligence between London and Paris. The third section, following Blagden's words from Britain to France to America, looks at how information in letters cross-fertilized with information in print. The final section considers how letters and print were used together to solve the difficult practical problem of replicating experiments across the blockade.

  19. Charakter Marias. - Darbringung Jesu im Tempel. II. Dogmatik. - Demut Mariens. I. Dogmatik. - Ehe. III. Dogmatik. - Engel/Erzengel. II. Dogmatik. - Erlösungsordnung. - Eschatologie. - Evangelisation. - Gericht. - Gnadenthron. - Gotteskind. - Gottesschau. - Häresie. - Heilsplan Gottes. - Himmelfahrt Mariae. I. Dogmatik. - Hingabe Marias. - Hoffnung. - Inkulturation. - Jesus Christus. - Josephsehe. - Jungfräulichkeit. II. Dogmatik. - Jungfräulichkeitsgelübde. - Jungfrau und Mutter. - Menschwerdung. II. Dogmatik. - Mitwirken Mariens. - Münzen. - Nachfolge Marias. - Nächstenliebe Marias. - Ohnmacht Mariens. I. Dogmatik

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegenaus, Anton

    1992-01-01

    Charakter Marias. - Darbringung Jesu im Tempel. II. Dogmatik. - Demut Mariens. I. Dogmatik. - Ehe. III. Dogmatik. - Engel/Erzengel. II. Dogmatik. - Erlösungsordnung. - Eschatologie. - Evangelisation. - Gericht. - Gnadenthron. - Gotteskind. - Gottesschau. - Häresie. - Heilsplan Gottes. - Himmelfahrt Mariae. I. Dogmatik. - Hingabe Marias. - Hoffnung. - Inkulturation. - Jesus Christus. - Josephsehe. - Jungfräulichkeit. II. Dogmatik. - Jungfräulichkeitsgelübde. - Jungfrau und Mutter. - Menschwerd...

  20. Letters: In search of a voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochran Fallon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available What follows is a case study of a freshman at Millersville University who shall be referred to under the pseudonym “Root Beer,” who is enrolled in her first semester in the Spring semester of the 2010-2011 academic year. This case study began with an inquiry-based approach which was applied by presenting the student with a survey of questions which would help to identify the student, her background, and the various characteristics of her writing. This inquiry-based approach was utilized throughout the case study to address the puzzles of practice that came up during the course of determining this student’s needs as a writer. As the research process continued, the center of gravity for this student was identified as voice. Utilizing the knowledge gained about the writer, this researcher was able to provide materials that were selected based on the writer’s profile as a unique individual, in order to provide a familiar foundation to the student writer Root Beer as she worked through the difficulty of expressing voice in her writing. This case study with Root Beer was completed over the course of five separate one-on-one meetings with the student outside of class, each of which was at least one hour in length, although at least one meeting with the student ran two hours in length. This case study also included five observations of Root Beer’s English Composition class with Dr. Shea, conducted in Byerly Hall, Room 120, from 9 AM – 10:15 AM, Tuesdays and Thursdays. This case study will include a detailed explanation of the exercises employed to address the center of gravity issue of voice, the reasoning behind the selection of these exercises, an analysis the results, and how these results were employed in the selection of successive exercises. The potential implications and possible future applications of these exercises toward addressing this issue within a classroom of student writers in the future will also be expounded on in the

  1. Substituted-Letter and Transposed-Letter Effects in a Masked Priming Paradigm with French Developing Readers and Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to undertake a behavioral investigation of the development of automatic orthographic processing during reading acquisition in French. Following Castles and colleagues' 2007 study ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97," 165-182) and their lexical tuning hypothesis framework, substituted-letter and…

  2. [Report forms and letters regarding Rorabaugh 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  3. Is coal a four letter word?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, G.

    2004-01-01

    Political promises about the future phasing out of coal-fired power plants were presented in this paper, as well as a demonstration of coal's importance for baseload. Ontario's other energy supply options were discussed and compared, including imported hydro, nuclear projects, natural gas and green initiatives. It was stated that closing coal plants might reduce emissions by 6 per cent, but at a cost of 2 billion dollars per year. The importance of recognizing air sheds was stated, as well as financial penalties along with worsening air quality. A map of Ontario's air shed covering much of eastern North America illustrated this point. A comparison of approaches in the United States was drawn, where coal is the fuel of choice for new supply, with 92 new coal fired plants announced, and many new gas plants being cancelled. A chart of markets for new coal power plant technology was presented, as well as environmental statistics of clean coal. Criteria for coal power plant performance are: air emissions; by-product utilization; water use and discharge; efficiency and reliability; and, capital and product cost. Various research programs in the US were also discussed, with new performance targets examined. Options for Canada were presented. It was concluded that financial penalties, combined with the fact that air pollution has no borders may lead to a reevaluation of coal plant closure. Suggestions for improving coal plants include: the development of a clean air strategy; new investments in new technology for emission reduction; establishing a North American agreement on clean air with meaningful targets. Additionally, it was also suggested that treaty undertakings should involve Canadian participation in US technology development efforts. tabs., figs

  4. Pre-notification letter type and response rate to a postal survey among women who have recently given birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Angela L; Porter, Maree; Williamson, Jennifer L; Patterson, Jillian A; Roberts, Christine L

    2015-12-01

    Surveys are commonly used in health research to assess patient satisfaction with hospital care. Achieving an adequate response rate, in the face of declining trends over time, threatens the quality and reliability of survey results. This paper evaluates a strategy to increase the response rate in a postal satisfaction survey with women who had recently given birth. A sample of 2048 Australian women who had recently given birth at seven maternity units in New South Wales were invited to participate in a postal survey about their recent experiences with maternity care. The study design included a randomised controlled trial that tested two types of pre-notification letter (with or without the option of opting out of the survey). The study also explored the acceptability of a request for consent to link survey data with existing routinely collected health data (omitting the latter data items from the survey reduced survey length and participant burden). This consent was requested of all women. The survey had an overall response rate of 46% (913 completed surveys returned, total sample 1989). Women receiving the pre-notification letter with the option of opting out of the survey were more likely to actively decline to participate than women receiving the letter without this option, although the overall numbers of women declining were small (27 versus 12). Letter type was not significantly associated with the return of a completed survey. Among women who completed the survey, 97% gave consent to link their survey data with existing health data. The two types of pre-notification letters used in our study did not influence the survey response rate. However, seeking consent for record linkage was highly acceptable to women who completed the survey, and represents an important strategy to add to the arsenal for designing and implementing effective surveys. In addition to aspects of survey design, future research should explore how to more effectively influence personal

  5. Policy Reflection: Letter of Credit Usage by Defined Benefit Pension Plans in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma L. Nielson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an argument to be made for letting corporations hold off on contributing to their employees’ defined benefit pension plans, as long as there is a guarantee the cash will come eventually. That is the reason that provincial governments began allowing creditworthy companies to instead provide a letter of credit, backed by a Canadian bank, guaranteeing the cash deposit, and secured by the company’s line of credit or some similar facility. Sometimes circumstances are such that a company needs all the cash it can get to grow, or perhaps to manage through tough economic times. Given the sluggish recovery from last decade’s financial crisis and the difficulty for pension funds to grow amid persistent low interest rates, it perhaps is understandable that more companies are using standby letters of credit as IOUs for their employee pensions. The letters provide the companies more flexibility with their capital, and diminish the risk that, should returns to pension funds rise again to more normal rates, there could be “trapped surplus.” It is, however, harder to make a case for why public sector companies and Crown corporations have begun using letters of credit in place of cash deposits to pensions. They certainly do not face the same pressure for capital flexibility, given their revenue is frequently assured, and they face no competition that would pressure them to redirect capital for strategic purposes. And yet, research shows that this is happening, at least to some degree. That should give policymakers pause. Unfortunately, there is a troubling lack of data available as to which organizations have been using letters of credit in place of cash contributions to pension funds. Clearly they are proving useful for some companies, and that the exact reasons vary widely. We observe some companies using the letter of credit option that would appear to have plenty of capital flexibility, so the rationale for their use might not be what the

  6. Developing a bone mineral density test result letter to send to patients: a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmonds SW

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie W Edmonds,1,2 Samantha L Solimeo,3 Xin Lu,1 Douglas W Roblin,4,8 Kenneth G Saag,5 Peter Cram6,7 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2College of Nursing, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 3Center for Comprehensive Access and Delivery Research and Evaluation, Iowa City Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Iowa City, IA, USA; 4Kaiser Permanente of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA, USA; 5Department of Rheumatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 6Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 7University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; 8School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA Purpose: To use a mixed-methods approach to develop a letter that can be used to notify patients of their bone mineral density (BMD results by mail that may activate patients in their bone-related health care. Patients and methods: A multidisciplinary team developed three versions of a letter for reporting BMD results to patients. Trained interviewers presented these letters in a random order to a convenience sample of adults, aged 50 years and older, at two different health care systems. We conducted structured interviews to examine the respondents’ preferences and comprehension among the various letters. Results: A total of 142 participants completed the interview. A majority of the participants were female (64.1% and white (76.1%. A plurality of the participants identified a specific version of the three letters as both their preferred version (45.2%; P<0.001 and as the easiest to understand (44.6%; P<0.01. A majority of participants preferred that the letters include specific next steps for improving their bone health. Conclusion: Using a mixed-methods approach, we were able to develop and optimize a printed letter for communicating a complex test result (BMD to patients. Our results may offer guidance to clinicians, administrators, and researchers who are

  7. Magnocellular involvement in flanked-letter identification relates to the allocation of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omtzigt, D.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    To verify the hypothesis that the magnocellular system is important to flanked-letter identification [Neuropsychologia 40 (2002) 1881] because it subserves attention allocation, we conducted three letter-naming experiments in which we manipulated magnocellular involvement (colour vs. luminance

  8. Scientific Letter: High-intent suicide and the Beck's Suicide Intent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: High-intent suicide and the Beck's Suicide Intent scale: a case report. ... African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ... Abstract. Scientific Letter - No Abstract Available ...

  9. Insights from developmental and acquired letter position dyslexia on morphological decomposition in reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama eFriedmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We explored morphological decomposition in reading, the locus in the reading process in which it takes place and its nature, comparing different types of morphemes. We assessed these questions through the analysis of letter position errors in readers with letter position dyslexia(LPD. LPD is a selective impairment to letter position encoding in the early stage of word reading, which results in letter migrations (cloud-could. We used the fact that migrations in LPD occur mainly in word-interior letters, whereas exterior letters rarely migrate.The rationale was that if morphological decomposition occurs prior to letter position encoding and strips off affixes, word-interior letters adjacent to an affix (signs-signs would become exterior following affix-stripping and hence exhibit fewer migrations.We tested 11 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD and 1 with acquired LPD in 6 experiments of reading aloud, lexical decision, and comprehension, at the single word and sentence levels. We examined migrations next to inflectional,derivational,or bound function morphemes compared with exterior letters.Root letters adjacent to inflectional and derivational morphemes were treated like middle letters, and migrated frequently, whereas root letters adjacent to bound function morphemes patterned with exterior letters, and almost never migrated. Given that LPD is a pre-lexical deficit, these results indicate that morphological decomposition takes place in an early, pre-lexical stage. Morphologically complex nonwords showed the same pattern, indicating that this decomposition is structurally, rather than lexically, driven.We suggest that letter position encoding takes place before morphological analysis, but in some cases, as with bound function morphemes, the complex word is re-analyzed as two separate words. In this reanalysis, letter positions in each constituent word are encoded separately,and hence the exterior letters of the root are treated as exterior and

  10. Letter report: Evaluation of dryer/calciner technologies for testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.

    1996-02-01

    This letter report describes some past experiences on the drying and calcination of radioactive materials or corresponding simulants; and the information needed from testing. The report also includes an assessment of informational needs including possible impacts to a full-scale plant. This includes reliability, maintenance, and overall size versus throughput. Much of the material was previously compiled and reported by Mike Elliott of PNL open-quotes Melter Performance Assessmentclose quotes and Larry Eisenstatt of SEG on contract to WHC in a letter to Rod Powell. Also, an annotated bibliography was prepared by Reagan Seymour of WHC. Descriptions of the drying and calciner technologies, development status, advantages and disadvantages of using a WFE or calciner, and recommendations for future testing are discussed in this report

  11. The A.I.D.A. Plan and the Writing of Sales Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Rowena

    A study based on textual analysis of sales letters is reported that evaluates the Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action (AIDA) approach to teaching the writing of sales letters. Thirty business letters written by undergraduate business students and executives were analyzed. The forms of cohesion, voice pattern, and information focus of the…

  12. Readability of "Dear Patient" device advisory notification letters created by a device manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Luke A; Sharma, Arjun; Ottenberg, Abigale L; Mueller, Paul S

    2013-04-01

    In 2006, the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) recommended that cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) manufacturers use advisory notification letters to communicate with affected patients. To evaluate the readability of the HRS sample "patient device advisory notification" letter and those created by 1 CIED manufacturer. The HRS sample letter and 25 Boston Scientific Corporation letters dated from 2005 through 2011 were evaluated by using 6 readability tests. Readability (Flesch-Kincaid score) of the HRS sample letter was grade level 12.5, and median readability of the device manufacturer letters was grade level 12.8 (range 10.8-18.9). Similar results were obtained by using other readability scales. No letters had readability scores at the National Work Group on Literacy and Health's recommended reading level-fifth grade; the letters' readability exceeded this recommended level by an average of 7.7 grades (95% confidence interval 6.9-8.5; Preadability scores at the average reading level of US adults-eighth grade; the letters' readability exceeded this level by an average of 4.7 grades (95% confidence interval 3.9-5.5; Preadability of the HRS sample letter and those created by a CIED manufacturer significantly exceeded the recommended and average US adults' reading skill levels. Such letters are unlikely to be informative to many patients. CIED manufacturers should ensure that advisory letters are comprehensible to most affected patients. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA... Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302. The standard form of letter of transmittal for use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or...

  14. 24 CFR 242.49 - Funds and finances: deposits and letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... collection under the letter of credit. In the event a demand for payment thereunder is not immediately met... letters of credit. 242.49 Section 242.49 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...: deposits and letters of credit. (a) Deposits. Where HUD requires the mortgagor to make a deposit of cash or...

  15. Measuring Young Children's Alphabet Knowledge: Development and Validation of Brief Letter-Sound Knowledge Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Phillips, Beth M.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Anthony, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood teachers are increasingly encouraged to support children's development of letter-sound abilities. Assessment of letter-sound knowledge is key in planning for effective instruction, yet the letter-sound knowledge assessments currently available and suitable for preschool-age children demonstrate significant limitations. The purpose…

  16. 30 CFR 1.3 - Use of letters and acronym MSHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of letters and acronym MSHA. 1.3 Section 1.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OFFICIAL EMBLEM AND...; ESTABLISHMENT AND USE OF OFFICIAL EMBLEM § 1.3 Use of letters and acronym MSHA. The letters and acronym MSHA may...

  17. Eigenvalues of Words in Two Positive Definite Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Hillar, Christopher J; Johnson, Charles R

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether all words in two real positive definite letters have only positive eigenvalues is addressed and settled (negatively). This question was raised some time ago in connection with a long-standing problem in theoretical physics. A large class of words that do guarantee positive eigenvalues is identified, and considerable evidence is given for the conjecture that no other words do. In the process, a fundamental question about solvability of symmetric word equations is encoun...

  18. Letter concerning Li2B4O7 thermoluminescence dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C.G.

    1979-01-01

    This letter reports the comparison of two commercially available types of lithium borate thermoluminesence dosimeters: one in which crystalline lithium borate was pressed into chips, and the other in which lithium borate was dispersed in a glass matrix. When irradiated with cobalt 60 gamma radiation, the response of a single sample of each type was reproducible to within 1%. However, differences between the two samples were apparent in their long term storage characteristics

  19. Resource Letter HCMP-1: History of Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph D.

    2017-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the history of condensed matter physics, including discussions of the development of the field and strategies for approaching its complicated historical trajectory. Following the presentation of general resources, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: conceptual development; institutional and community structure; social, cultural, and political history; and connections between condensed matter physics and technology.

  20. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  1. Physics Letters B, Volume 716, Issue 1- Cover Page

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2012-01-01

    The cover page of the Physics Letters B Journal, Volume 716, Issue 1, dedicated to the observation of a new particle in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. To celebrate this historical discovery, Elsevier reprinted the ATLAS and the CMS articles together with a foreword by Peter Higgs and the other scientists that predicted the existence of the so-called Higgs boson and published this in a separate booklet.

  2. Letter to Freud: on the plight of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Dinah M

    2011-12-01

    In the form of a letter, the writer communicates to Freud her appreciation for the incomparable richness and complexity of the psychoanalytic enterprise in its century-long evolution from classical, Freudian origins to new developments in theory and technique. At the same time, concern is expressed about the continuity and survival of psychoanalysis in a cultural milieu that has absorbed its once radical ideas about sexuality and unconscious motivation while resisting its viability as a method of treatment.

  3. Letter to my children about sex and the catholic church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, R J

    1994-09-01

    This essay is directed to a younger generation. It summarizes the conflicting traditions in the Catholic community today: official Church teaching (represented by "Humanae Vitae" and "Veritatis Splendor"), liberal theologians like Charles Curran (who occasioned this letter), and ordinary Catholics struggling in an imperfect world. The paper attempts to integrate values from three traditions, those associated with respect for new life, a loving relationship, and playfulness. The resulting synthesis offers a spiritually and psychologically viable option worth considering, the author believes.

  4. Editorial team for the CERN Computer News Letter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Computer News Letter (CNL) informs the users of CERN computing facilities about changes and trends in this area. The CNL can also include some conference or meeting reports and technical briefs which can --as they are not necessarily CERN specific-- be helpful to non-CERN users. From left to right: W. von Rueden, Nicole Crémel and François Grey

  5. Decoding English Alphabet Letters Using EEG Phase Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YiYan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that the phase pattern and power of the low frequency oscillations of brain electroencephalograms (EEG contain significant information during the human cognition of sensory signals such as auditory and visual stimuli. Here, we investigate whether and how the letters of the alphabet can be directly decoded from EEG phase and power data. In addition, we investigate how different band oscillations contribute to the classification and determine the critical time periods. An English letter recognition task was assigned, and statistical analyses were conducted to decode the EEG signal corresponding to each letter visualized on a computer screen. We applied support vector machine (SVM with gradient descent method to learn the potential features for classification. It was observed that the EEG phase signals have a higher decoding accuracy than the oscillation power information. Low-frequency theta and alpha oscillations have phase information with higher accuracy than do other bands. The decoding performance was best when the analysis period began from 180 to 380 ms after stimulus presentation, especially in the lateral occipital and posterior temporal scalp regions (PO7 and PO8. These results may provide a new approach for brain-computer interface techniques (BCI and may deepen our understanding of EEG oscillations in cognition.

  6. ERP Indices of Stimulus Prediction in Letter Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Kaan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the current focus on anticipation in perception, action and cognition, including language processing, there is a need for a method to tap into predictive processing in situations in which cue and feedback stimuli are not explicitly marked as such. To this aim, event related potentials (ERPs were obtained while participants viewed alphabetic letter sequences (“A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, “E”, …, in which the letters were highly predictable, and random sequences (“S”, “B”, “A”, “I”, “F”, “M”, …, without feedback. Occasionally, the presentation of a letter in a sequence was delayed by 300 ms. During this delay period, an increased negativity was observed for predictive versus random sequences. In addition, the early positivity following the delay was larger for predictive compared with random sequences. These results suggest that expectation-sensitive ERP modulations can be elicited in anticipation of stimuli that are not explicit targets, rewards, feedback or instructions, and that a delay can strengthen the prediction for a particular stimulus. Applications to language processing will be discussed.

  7. Christmas, consumption and materialism: discourse analysis of children’s Christmas letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Luna Batinga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article reports the results of an empirical research that sought to understand the many meanings referring to Christmas that appear in letters written by children and sent to Santa Claus. It is based on the idea that, by means of a playful activity such as writing Christmas letters, children would be able to bring up a variety of issues referring to their daily lives. Design/methodology/approach – This research, which is of interpretative nature, made use of elements belonging to discourse analysis. Discourse analysis is a theoretical and methodological field linked to Linguistics, which studies language in movement, producing meaning since it is a social practice. Findings – The results point to discursive marks that suggest traces of materialism and secularism in the narratives and stories created by children concerning Christmas. Moreover, Santa Claus is directly associated with the date and stands out as an emblematic figure in children’s imagination. Originality/value – Reporting Christmas imagery and the creation of its meanings by children can help unveil essential issues, or at least point out “clues” referring to the degree of symbolism that is present in the various social and cultural manifestations of contemporary society

  8. How electricity providers communicate price increases – A qualitative analysis of notification letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pick, Doreén; Zielke, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    In several markets firms are required to explicitly announce price increases by sending customers notification letters. The purpose of this article is to analyze how electricity providers deal with such obligatory price increase communication and to provide a comprehensive overview of communicative arguments used by firms. Data is gathered through a content analysis of 97 price increase mailings. Findings show that electricity providers apply several price communication strategies while other promising strategies for customer retention are mostly ignored (i.e., those related to competitors, offerings and relationship benefits). Further, price increase communication differs between national and local firms. Local firms are more transparent in their price increase communication and refer even less often to offer and relationship benefits. Electricity firms have many options to improve the potential effects of price increase letters, such as referring to the future relationship. This is the first study which examines the content of price increase communication by firms. It structures price communication practices used by electricity providers, analyzes their empirical relevance, summarizes findings in five global propositions, and provides a detailed agenda for future research. Moreover, the study indicates several means for public policy organizations to offer regulations on the content of price increase notifications. - Highlights: • We examine 97 price increase letters from electricity providers in Germany. • We investigate the means how firms deal with price increase communications. • Electricity providers aim to hide price increases towards their customers. • Electricity providers only scarcely use benefit and relationship communication. • Price increase communication differs between types of providers as national firms are more professional.

  9. Adequacy of authors' replies to criticism raised in electronic letters to the editor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Delamothe, Tony; Godlee, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    . Inclusion criteria Research papers generating substantive criticism in the rapid responses section on bmj.com. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Severity of criticism (minor, moderate, or major) as judged by two editors and extent to which the criticism was addressed by authors (fully, partly, or not) as judged by two......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether substantive criticism in electronic letters to the editor, defined as a problem that could invalidate the research or reduce its reliability, is adequately addressed by the authors. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: BMJ between October 2005 and September 2007...... editors and the critics. RESULTS: A substantive criticism was raised against 105 of 350 (30%, 95% confidence interval 25% to 35%) included research papers, and of these the authors had responded to 47 (45%, 35% to 54%). The severity of the criticism was the same in those papers as in the 58 without author...

  10. Verse Letter from Gregory of Nazianzus to Vitalianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Brodňanská

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a complex view of the poetic letter of Gregory of Nazianzus II, II, 3 Ad Vitalianum, which has not yet been the subject of modern criticism. The letter is a plea by Vitalianus’ banished sons for their father to take them back. Based on the manuscript tradition, the article’s author concludes that the fictional author of the letter is the son Phocas rather than Peter. The disrupted relationship between father and sons is reflected in both the content of the poem and the forms of salutations used: the seemingly positive epithets φέριστε, μακάρτατε, and φίλε; forms of address which directly express a certain distance and coldness (μέγα φέρτατε, ὦ ἄνα, or even animosity towards the father (ὀλοώτατε δαῖμον, ὦ κακόβουλε. The poetic letter has a concentric structure (A; B; C; D; E; F; G; F´; E´; D´; C´; B´; A´, with individual com­ponents linked for the most part thematically. The letter is written in dactylic hexameter. The most frequently used metre in the verses is the holodactyl, and the most frequent caesura is the caesura post tertium trochaeum. As far as the breach of Hermann’s bridge in verses is concerned, and based on the understanding of the term ‘word’ in metrics, the author of the article concludes that in the majority of cases the breach is only ‘visual’, and cannot be detected when listened to. Gregory did not avoid three true hiatuses; and in two verses, in order to keep the rhythm of dactylic hexameter, it is essential to measure a long syllable as a short one. However, metric errors may be related to prosodic licence.

  11. Letter Frequency Analysis of Lithuanian and Other Languages Using the Latin Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate specificities of alphabets, particularly the letter frequencies while designing keyboards, analyzing texts, designing games based on alphabets, and doing some text mining. In order to adequately compare lettter frequences of Lithuanian language to other languages in the Internet space, Wikipedia source was selected which content is common to different languages. The method of letter frequency jumps is used. The main attention is paid to the analysis of letter frequencies at the boundary between native letters and foreign letters used in Lithuanian and other languages.

  12. Involuntary attention with uncertainty: peripheral cues improve perception of masked letters, but may impair perception of low-contrast letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzel, Dirk; Gauch, Angélique; Buetti, Simona

    2010-10-01

    Improvements of perceptual performance following the presentation of peripheral cues have been ascribed to accelerated accrual of information, enhanced contrast perception, and decision bias. We investigated effects of peripheral cues on the perception of Gabor and letter stimuli. Non-predictive, peripheral cues improved perceptual accuracy when the stimuli were masked. In contrast, peripheral cues degraded perception of low-contrast letters and did not affect the perception of low-contrast Gabors. The results suggest that involuntary attention accelerates accrual of information but are not entirely consistent with the idea that involuntary attention enhances subjective contrast. Rather, peripheral cues may cause crowding with single letter targets of low contrast. Further, we investigated the effect of the amount of uncertainty on involuntary attention. Cueing effects were (initially) larger when there were more possible target locations. In addition, cueing effects were larger when error feedback was absent and observers had no knowledge of results. Despite these strategic factors, location uncertainty was not sufficient to produce cueing effects, showing that location uncertainty paired with non-predictive cues reveals perceptual and not (only) decisional processes.

  13. Letter to the King” By Jules Destry: from Separatism to Unitarism in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella V. Ermakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contradictions between the regions of Belgium - Wallonia and Flanders - have a long history associated with uneven political, economic and cultural development of the territories, which in 1830 became parts of an independent state, the Kingdom of Belgium. The "Letter to the King", written by eminent Belgian politician and writer, socialist Jules Destree (1863 - 1936 gg., is one of the most interesting sources on the history of Belgium of this period, It became a kind of manifesto of balance between the ideas of separatism and unitarianism. This article includes excerpts from the "Letter to the King", which were given for the first time in the author's Russian translation and conducted historical criticism of the source. The study is based on a set of scientific methods and approaches, including the principle of scientific objectivity and systematic approach, used in historical research. The main methods are problematic and historical-comparative analysis, classification and comparison of political and historical concepts. An external source of criticism included information about the place and the time of the creation of document, the biography of the author studies; internal critic source recreates the idea of the letter and the background of historical events. Prominent Belgian politician and writer, socialist Jules Destree (1863 - 1936, highly appreciated the personal qualities of King Albert I, appealed to his experience and political vision, describing all the problems Walloons faced in their opposition to the Flemish. Destree in his letter opposed the unequal development of the regions of Belgium and the protectionist policies of the central government in respect to the detriment of Flanders Wallonia. He summarized and formulated the factors that, in his opinion, interfere with the full development of his country. Destree pays great attention to linguistic differences, which were at the heart of conflicts between Walloons and Flemings, and

  14. The elaboration of motor programs for the automation of letter production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibon, Laurence Séraphin; Gerber, Silvain; Kandel, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    We investigated how children learn to write letters. Letter writing evolves from stroke-by-stroke to whole-letter programming. Children of ages 6 to 9 (N=98) wrote letters of varying complexity on a digitizer. At ages 6 and 7 movement duration, dysfluency and trajectory increased with stroke number. This indicates that the motor program they activated mainly coded information on stroke production. Stroke number affected the older children's production much less, suggesting that they programmed stroke chunks or the whole letter. The fact that movement duration and dysfluency decreased from ages 6 to 8, and remained stable at ages 8 and 9 suggests that automation of letter writing begins at age 8. Automation seems to require the elaboration of stroke chunks and/or letter-sized motor programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Rouw, Romke; Ramachandran, V S; Coulson, Seana

    2011-04-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological condition in which viewing numbers or letters (graphemes) results in the concurrent sensation of color. While the anatomical substrates underlying this experience are well understood, little research to date has investigated factors influencing the particular colors associated with particular graphemes or how synesthesia occurs developmentally. A recent suggestion of such an interaction has been proposed in the cascaded cross-tuning (CCT) model of synesthesia, which posits that in synesthetes connections between grapheme regions and color area V4 participate in a competitive activation process, with synesthetic colors arising during the component-stage of grapheme processing. This model more directly suggests that graphemes sharing similar component features (lines, curves, etc.) should accordingly activate more similar synesthetic colors. To test this proposal, we created and regressed synesthetic color-similarity matrices for each of 52 synesthetes against a letter-confusability matrix, an unbiased measure of visual similarity among graphemes. Results of synesthetes' grapheme-color correspondences indeed revealed that more similarly shaped graphemes corresponded with more similar synesthetic colors, with stronger effects observed in individuals with more intense synesthetic experiences (projector synesthetes). These results support the CCT model of synesthesia, implicate early perceptual mechanisms as driving factors in the elicitation of synesthetic hues, and further highlight the relationship between conceptual and perceptual factors in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Deep Learning Model of Perception in Color-Letter Synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Bock

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a psychological phenomenon where sensory signals become mixed. Input to one sensory modality produces an experience in a second, unstimulated modality. In “grapheme-color synesthesia”, viewed letters and numbers evoke mental imagery of colors. The study of this condition has implications for increasing our understanding of brain architecture and function, language, memory and semantics, and the nature of consciousness. In this work, we propose a novel application of deep learning to model perception in grapheme-color synesthesia. Achromatic letter images, taken from database of handwritten characters, are used to train the model, and to induce computational synesthesia. Results show the model learns to accurately create a colored version of the inducing stimulus, according to a statistical distribution from experiments on a sample population of grapheme-color synesthetes. To the author’s knowledge, this work represents the first model that accurately produces spontaneous, creative mental imagery characteristic of the synesthetic perceptual experience. Experiments in cognitive science have contributed to our understanding of some of the observable behavioral effects of synesthesia, and previous models have outlined neural mechanisms that may account for these observations. A model of synesthesia that generates testable predictions on brain activity and behavior is needed to complement large scale data collection efforts in neuroscience, especially when articulating simple descriptions of cause (stimulus and effect (behavior. The research and modeling approach reported here provides a framework that begins to address this need.

  17. Analysis of opinions issued in comment letters on the term prudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ranieri Bomfim Sampaio de Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001, the International Accounting Standards Board (Iasb has worked to revise the Conceptual Framework (CF. Therefore, it has issued Discussion papers (DP, aiming to collect the stakeholders’ opinions about different aspects of the CF. One of the aspects discussed is the inclusion or not of Prudence in the CF. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the opinions issued in the comment letters in response to the DPs between 2006 and 2013 about the exclusion of the term Prudence from the CF. The research was undertaken through the content analysis of 420 comment letters forwarded to the Iasb, among which 176 were identified that contain the terms Prudence/Conservatism, 117 of which are in favor of including the term. Among those against the inclusion, the main justification is the existence of conflict between Prudence and neutrality. The respondents’ opinions were also separated per location and interest groups, showing that the European respondents are more favorable to the inclusion of the term, while Anglo-Saxon America defends it least. What the interest groups is concerned, the group that was most in favor of the insertion of the term were the Preparers, while the Financial Institutions were the most unfavorable agents. Using Kappa Analysis, it was observed that the level of agreement among the respondents’ opinions indicates weak agreement with the total number of samples, suggesting that further debate and reflection on the theme is needed.

  18. A Finite Abelian Group of Two-Letter Inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin E. Balbuena

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In abstract algebra, the study of concrete groups is fundamentally important to beginners. Most commonly used groups as examples are integer addition modulo n, real number addition and multiplication, permutation groups, and groups of symmetry. The last two examples are finite non-abelian groups and can be investigated with the aid of concrete representations. This study presents a finite abelian group of inversions of two letter symbols with vertical and horizontal axes of symmetry and whose binary operation is established through motions like alternation, rotation, reflection, and a combination of two or all motions.

  19. Euroopa ratsaliitude juhtide konverents Poolas / ERL

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    19.-20. jaanuarini Poolas Varssavis toimunud konverentsist "Best Practice in Horse Industry", millest võtsid osa enamuse Euroopa ratsaliitude ja suuremate hobusekasvatusorganisatsioonide esindajad, teiste hulgas ka Eesti Ratsaspordi Liit

  20. ERL Option for LHeC

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, Y; Litvinenko, VN; Ptitsyn, V; Trbojevic, D; Tsoupas, N

    2010-01-01

    We present a self-consistent system for a 3-pass 60-GeV energy recovery linac, including arc optics design, linac cryomodule, splitters and combiners, overall layout, compensation schemes for synchrotron-radiation energy losses either using a higher-harmonic RF system or optimizing the beam phases in the main linacs, coherent energy loss from resistive wall and coherent synchrotron radiation, and simulations of beam break up as a function of HOM frequency spread.

  1. Analysis Of The Effectiveness Of Tax Billingusing A Letter Of Reprimand In Increasing The Acceptance Of Income Tax Year 2011-2014 Agency Study On Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Kemala Dewi Lubis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know the effectiveness of tax billing using a letter of reprimand in increasing the Acceptance of Income Tax on Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East and also to know the effectiveness of the implementation of the tax Billing with a letter of reprimand on Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East. The type of research is descriptive and the research object is the tax billing using a letter of reprimand on Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East. In this research it is to measure the effectiveness of tax billing using a letter of reprimand in increasing the acceptance of the tax ratio of the effectiveness of tax billing with a letter of reprimand and the ratio of tax revenue contribution.The test result shows that the tax billing with a letter of reprimand in 2011 and 2014 classified as ineffective and contributed less to the receipt of income tax in Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East.Head of Taxation Service Offices Pratama Medan East can perform various business both internally and externally to increase the effectiveness and contribution of tax billing in working areas.

  2. The effect of using social pressure in cover letters to improve retention in a longitudinal health study: an embedded randomised controlled retention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Sarah; Howells, Kelly; Rhodes, Sarah; Bower, Peter

    2017-07-20

    Retention of participants in cohort studies is important for validity. One way to promote retention is by sending a persuasive cover letter with surveys. The study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a covering letter containing social pressure with a standard covering letter on retention in a health cohort study. Social pressure involves persuading people to behave in a certain way by the promise that their actions will be made know to others. We implemented a mild form of social pressure, where the recipient was told that information about whether they responded to the current survey would be noted by the research team and printed on future correspondence from the research team to the recipient. The design was an embedded randomised controlled retention trial, conducted between July 2015 and April 2016 in Salford, UK. Participants in the host health cohort study were eligible. They received either: (1) a covering letter with two consecutive surveys (sent six and twelve months after recruitment), containing a social pressure intervention; or (2) a matching letter without the social pressure text. The primary outcome was retention in the host study, defined as return of both surveys. Randomisation was computer-generated, with stratification by household size. Participants were blinded to group assignment. Researchers were blinded for outcome ascertainment. Adults (n = 4447) aged over 65 years, with a long-term condition and enrolled in the host study, were randomly allocated to receive a social pressure covering letter (n = 2223) or control (n = 2224). All 4447 participants were included in the analysis. Both questionnaires were returned by 1577 participants (71%) sent the social pressure letters and 1511 (68%) sent control letters, a risk difference of 3 percentage points (adjusted odds ratio = 1.16 (95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.33)). A mild form of social pressure made a small but significant improvement in retention of older adults in

  3. The Effectiveness of a Multi Sensory Approach in Improving Letter-Sound Correspondence among Mild Intellectual Disabled Students in State of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Amr; Ghani, Mohd Zuri

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the effectiveness of multi sensory approach for the purpose of improving the knowledge on English Letter sound correspondence among mild disabled students in the state of Kuwait. The discussion in this study is based on the multisensory approach that could be applied in the teaching of reading skills as well as phonemic…

  4. Letter-case information and the identification of brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Talero, Fernanda; López-Cañada, Soraya

    2015-02-01

    A central tenet of most current models of visual-word recognition is that lexical units are activated on the basis of case-invariant abstract letter representations. Here, we examined this assumption by using a unique type of words: brand names. The rationale of the experiments is that brand names are archetypically printed either in lowercase (e.g., adidas) or uppercase (e.g., IKEA). This allows us to present the brand names in their standard or non-standard case configuration (e.g., adidas, IKEA vs. ADIDAS, ikea, respectively). We conducted two experiments with a brand-decision task ('is it a brand name?'): a single-presentation experiment and a masked priming experiment. Results in the single-presentation experiment revealed faster identification times of brand names in their standard case configuration than in their non-standard case configuration (i.e., adidas faster than ADIDAS; IKEA faster than ikea). In the masked priming experiment, we found faster identification times of brand names when they were preceded by an identity prime that matched its standard case configuration than when it did not (i.e., faster response times to adidas-adidas than to ADIDAS-adidas). Taken together, the present findings strongly suggest that letter-case information forms part of a brand name's graphemic information, thus posing some limits to current models of visual-word recognition. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Letterform research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks into the history of letterform research and discusses why the discipline has yet to make the big break within design research. By highlighting two of the most popular focus areas (letter distinctiveness and the role of serifs) and by discussing various forms of methodological...... shortcomings, the paper suggests that future research into letterforms should (1) draw on results from the field of reading research (2) be based on test material informed by design knowledge and (3) move away from the former tendency of looking for universal answers....

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  7. The role of sensorimotor learning in the perception of letter-like forms: tracking the causes of neural specialization for letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Karin H; Atwood, Thea P

    2009-02-01

    Functional specialization in the brain is considered a hallmark of efficient processing. It is therefore not surprising that there are brain areas specialized for processing letters. To better understand the causes of functional specialization for letters, we explore the emergence of this pattern of response in the ventral processing stream through a training paradigm. Previously, we hypothesized that the specialized response pattern seen during letter perception may be due in part to our experience in writing letters. The work presented here investigates whether or not this aspect of letter processing-the integration of sensorimotor systems through writing-leads to functional specialization in the visual system. To test this idea, we investigated whether or not different types of experiences with letter-like stimuli ("pseudoletters") led to functional specialization similar to that which exists for letters. Neural activation patterns were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after three different types of training sessions. Participants were trained to recognize pseudoletters by writing, typing, or purely visual practice. Results suggested that only after writing practice did neural activation patterns to pseudoletters resemble patterns seen for letters. That is, neural activation in the left fusiform and dorsal precentral gyrus was greater when participants viewed pseudoletters than other, similar stimuli but only after writing experience. Neural activation also increased after typing practice in the right fusiform and left precentral gyrus, suggesting that in some areas, any motor experience may change visual processing. The results of this experiment suggest an intimate interaction among perceptual and motor systems during pseudoletter perception that may be extended to everyday letter perception.

  8. NCI Research Specialist Award (R50)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Award enables scientists to pursue stable research careers within an existing cancer research program, but not serve as independent investigators. Letter of Intent due: January 2, 2017 Application due: February 2, 2017

  9. Consideration of the linguistic characteristics of letters makes the universal model of reading more universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungil; Lee, Chang H; Lee, Yoonhyoung

    2012-10-01

    We suggest that the linguistic characteristics of letters also need to be considered to fully understand how a reader processes printed words. For example, studies in Korean showed that unambiguity in the assignment of letters to their appropriate onset, vowel, or coda slot is one of the main sources of the letter-transposition effect. Indeed, the cognitive system that processes Korean is tuned to the structure of the Korean writing system.

  10. Independent priming of location and color in identification of briefly presented letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Bundesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Attention shifts are facilitated if the items to be attended remain the same across trials. Some researchers argue that this priming effect is perceptual, whereas others propose that priming is postperceptual, inv olv ing f acilitated response selection. The experimental f indings hav e not been...... was to identify a color-singleton letter among distractors. All stimulus presentation contingencies were randomized, and responses were unspeeded, to av oid ef f ects of observ er expectation and postperceptual ef f ects. Repeating target color and/or position strongly improv ed perf ormance. The ef f ects...... of color and position repetition were independent of one another and were stable across participants. The results argue for a strong perceptual component in priming, which biases selection toward recent target features and positions, showing that perceptual mechanisms are suf f icient to produce priming...

  11. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of..., and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. DATES: The withdrawal is...

  12. The distributed neural system for top-down letter processing: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Feng, Lu; Li, Ling; Tian, Jie

    2011-03-01

    This fMRI study used Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) to investigate top-down letter processing with an illusory letter detection task. After an initial training that became increasingly difficult, participant was instructed to detect a letter from pure noise images where there was actually no letter. Such experimental paradigm allowed for isolating top-down components of letter processing and minimizing the influence of bottom-up perceptual input. A distributed cortical network of top-down letter processing was identified by analyzing the functional connectivity patterns of letter-preferential area (LA) within the left fusiform gyrus. Such network extends from the visual cortex to high level cognitive cortexes, including the left middle frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, left superior parietal gyrus, bilateral precuneus, and left inferior occipital gyrus. These findings suggest that top-down letter processing contains not only regions for processing of letter phonology and appearance, but also those involved in internal information generation and maintenance, and attention and memory processing.

  13. National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: A Glimpse of the Legal Background and Recent Amendments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Charles

    2006-01-01

    .... These National Security Letters (NSLs) seek customer and consumer transaction information in national security investigations from communications providers, financial institutions, and credit agencies...

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  16. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories.

  17. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume 1. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories. This document is Volume I of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation

  18. Refuting feminism: Brazilian lettered culture's complacency/complicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Terezinha Schmidt

    Full Text Available In appraising the power of antifeminist discourse in Brazil, I examine how this discourse appears in the realm of cultural journalism in order to make some connections to Brazilian social history, in the light of which it may be possible to understand why feminism as transforming praxis seems so alien to the habits of the country. To sustain my arguments I draw on the readings of Brazilian historical and cultural thinkers considered "leftists". At the same time, I point out the limits of their analyses, that is, their silence regarding women's oppression and gender issues. Finally, I examine the persistence of various forms of antifeminism in the lettered milieu so as to understand the statute of feminist critique in the field of literary studies and the reasons for its invisibility, including considerations on its achievements and the limitations of its practices.

  19. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories

  20. Lost and Found, Letters and Methods: Assessing Attitudes toward Chiropractic and Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kern

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward traditional and chiropractic medicine were compared using Milgram's lost letter technique. A total of 192 letters were placed on the windshields of vehicles in parking lots at six restaurants and department stores in each of four quadrants of a medium-sized, Southeastern city. These letters were addressed to "Admissions" at either a fictitious Institute of Medicine or Institute of Chiropractic Care. Return addresses included either a male or a female name. Thus, those who found a lost letter were faced with the option of returning or not returning a letter from either a male or a female, addressed to an Institute of traditional or non-traditional medicine. After examining previous studies which had used the lost letter technique, numerous methodological improvements were implemented. For example, letters were randomly assigned to potential drop spots for each of 24 study locations (six study locations in each of four city quadrants, and a Latin square design was used to control for possible order effects in the four study conditions that were implemented. Nearly 65% of the letters (124 of 192 were returned. We found: 1 letters addressed to a fictitious Institute of Chiropractic Care were just as likely to be returned as those addressed to a fictitious Institute of Medicine; 2 letters with female return addresses were as likely to be returned as those with male return addresses; 3 there was no interaction between study conditions; 4 based on what was essentially a replication study, a comparison of the pattern of returns using the first and second cycle of lost letters (n = 96 for each cycle revealed an equivalent pattern of no-difference findings. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.78

  1. IDRC Doctoral Research Awards

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    test

    Example of the letter required by IDRC: Reference: IDRC Awards competition: John Smith (Please indicate the title of the award.) a) As research supervisor of Mr. John Smith, I confirm that I approve and support the research proposal submitted by the candidate. b) Mr. Smith has successfully completed the following course(s):.

  2. The temporal dynamics of implicit processing of non-letter, letter, and word-forms in the human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Gregory Appelbaum

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The decoding of visually presented line segments into letters, and letters into words, is critical to fluent reading abilities. Here we investigate the temporal dynamics of visual orthographic processes, focusing specifically on right hemisphere contributions and interactions between the hemispheres involved in the implicit processing of visually presented words, consonants, false fonts, and symbolic strings. High-density EEG was recorded while participants detected infrequent, simple, perceptual targets (dot strings embedded amongst a of character strings. Beginning at 130ms, orthographic and non-orthographic stimuli were distinguished by a sequence of ERP effects over occipital recording sites. These early latency occipital effects were dominated by enhanced right-sided negative-polarity activation for non-orthographic stimuli that peaked at around 180ms. This right-sided effect was followed by bilateral positive occipital activity for false-fonts, but not symbol strings. Moreover the size of components of this later positive occipital wave was inversely correlated with the right-sided ROcc180 wave, suggesting that subjects who had larger early right-sided activation for non-orthographic stimuli had less need for more extended bilateral (e.g. interhemispheric processing of those stimuli shortly later. Additional early (130-150ms negative-polarity activity over left occipital cortex and longer-latency centrally distributed responses (>300ms were present, likely reflecting implicit activation of the previously reported ‘visual-word-form’ area and N400-related responses, respectively. Collectively, these results provide a close look at some relatively unexplored portions of the temporal flow of information processing in the brain related to the implicit processing of potentially linguistic information and provide valuable information about the interactions between hemispheres supporting visual orthographic processing.

  3. 78 FR 29159 - Electric Power Research Institute; Seismic Evaluation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0038] Electric Power Research Institute; Seismic... U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing an endorsement letter of Electric Power Research... Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. Enclosure 1 to the 50.54(f) letter requests licensees...

  4. About illegality determination of the validity of evidence through forensic examination Information letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova S.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This letter prepared in connection with a growing number of complaints of investigators and making decisions on the appointment of psychological examination of the credibility of the video recording of interrogations and dictated by the need to arrange expert practice on the study of video footage of carrying out certain investigative actions with various actors in the criminal process. The newsletter discusses the purpose of such examinations and grounds the studies, in accordance with scientific principles of professional activity of experts. The letter was prepared under the supervision of the Director of the FBI, Federal center of forensic expertise under the Ministry of justice of Russia, doctor of legal Sciences, Professor, honored lawyer of the Russian Federation, honorary worker of justice of Russia of S. A. Smirnova, Deputy General Director for science of Federal State Budgetary Institution "V. Serbsky Federal Medical Research Centre for Psychiatry and Narcology" of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, doctor of medical Sciences, Professor E. V., Makushkina (doctor of juridical science A. Ya. Asnis, doctor of psychological Sciences, Vaske E. V., doctor of psychological Sciences, Professor E. G. Dozortseva, doctor of psychological Sciences, Professor F. S. Safuanov, PhD, associate Professor S. N. Shishkov, PhD, Professor S. S. Shipshin, PhD, associate Professor D. S. Oshevsky, PhD V. Berdnikov, PhD, associate Professor T. N. Sekerazh, PhD A. N. Kalinin. For investigators, judges, prosecutors, heads of Federal budgetary establishments of the Ministry of justice, judicial psychologists. For investigators, judges, prosecutors, heads of Federal budgetary establishments of the Ministry of justice, judicial psychologists.

  5. I like Cities; Do You like Letters? Introducing Urban Typography in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Ricard

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a study of the letters and graphics found in the city, while at the same time opening up unusual spaces linked to the cultural arena and visual geographies for the creation of learning spaces in art education, introducing urban typography for training teachers. The letters in urban spaces can help us reinterpret the…

  6. A 2004 unanswered letter to the Economist magazine requesting a retraction (and apology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2012-01-01

    This is a copy of (the bulk of) a letter I mailed on May 13, 2004 to Sir Robert P. Wilson, President, and three editors of the magazine, the Economist. With the letter, I also sent each recipient a copy of my latest book, "Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level" as a gesture of good will.

  7. 31 CFR 500.406 - Drafts under irrevocable letters of credit; documentary drafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drafts under irrevocable letters of credit; documentary drafts. 500.406 Section 500.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 500.406 Drafts under irrevocable letters of credit...

  8. 31 CFR 515.406 - Drafts under irrevocable letters of credit; documentary drafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drafts under irrevocable letters of credit; documentary drafts. 515.406 Section 515.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.406 Drafts under irrevocable letters of credit; documentary...

  9. 75 FR 75453 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Technical Data Letter of Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Request; Technical Data Letter of Explanation AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security. ACTION: Notice....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract These technical data letters of explanation will assure the Bureau of Industry and Security that U.S.-origin technical data will be exported only for...

  10. 29 CFR 1621.3 - Procedure for requesting an opinion letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1621.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES-THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1621.3 Procedure for requesting an opinion letter. (a) A request for an opinion letter should be submitted in writing to the Chairman, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission...

  11. An Analysis of English Business Letters from the Perspective of Interpersonal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to find out the features of English business letters. Halliday's systemic functional linguistics is used as the theoretical framework, mainly, interpersonal fucntion. The English business letter (EBL) is an important written text used for international business communication and it has its own features of text.…

  12. Morphology and Spelling in French Students with Dyslexia: The Case of Silent Final Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quémart, Pauline; Casalis, Séverine

    2017-01-01

    Spelling is a challenge for individuals with dyslexia. Phoneme-to-grapheme correspondence rules are highly inconsistent in French, which make them very difficult to master, in particular for dyslexics. One recurrent manifestation of this inconsistency is the presence of silent letters at the end of words. Many of these silent letters perform a…

  13. 39 CFR 320.4 - Suspension for certain letters of college and university organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... universities to carry in their internal mail systems the letters of their bona fide student or faculty... university. Colleges and universities choosing to provide their student or faculty organizations access to their internal mail systems are responsible for assuring that only letters of bona fide student or...

  14. The Presentation of Self in Letters of Application: A Mixed-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroko, Emilia

    2012-01-01

    The application letter, as the first phase of employment-seeking, is an opportunity for a job applicant to make a favorable impression on a potential employer. In the current study, the author used a mixed-method approach to empirically explore strategies for self-presentation in job application letters and determine the methods used in the…

  15. Letter-Sound Reading: Teaching Preschool Children Print-to-Sound Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gail Marie

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study investigated the growth of letter sound reading and growth of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word decoding abilities for a representative sample of 41 US children in preschool settings. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness of a 3-step letter-sound teaching intervention in teaching preschool children to…

  16. 21 CFR 570.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opinion letters on food additive status. 570.6... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...

  17. 21 CFR 170.6 - Opinion letters on food additive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Opinion letters on food additive status. 170.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...

  18. DOCUMENTARY LETTER OF CREDIT IN THE REGULATION OF 600-PARIS PUBLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE NEMES

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2007 was adopted the Publication no. 600 of Paris regarding the Rules and the Uniform Practices for documentary letters of credit which replaced the Publication no. 500. Publication no. 600 (UCP 600 is applied to all the irrevocable documentary letters of credit when the parties make express reference to these Rules. The Publication no. 600 includes uniform rules, international practices and standards of irrevocable documentary letters of credit. The new Publication has brought a number of changes on the issues regarding the performance of the letters of credit, both in the relationship with the nonbanking institutions participants and in the relationship between the credit institutions participating in the performance of the letter of credit. This study, without being exhaustive, aims to capture the main aspects of novelty brought by the publication no. 600 and their legal approach to the new perspective of the international trade relations. It has in view, in particular, the irrevocable character of the letter of credit, the elaboration method and procedure of the letter of credit, the participants to the unfolding of the specific relationship of the letter of credit and the main duties of the involved credit institutions.

  19. Impaired Letter-String Processing in Developmental Dyslexia: What Visual-to-Phonology Code Mapping Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In…

  20. Some Influences of Greek and Roman Rhetoric on Early Letter Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Herbert W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes how letter writing, especially business letters, was influenced by Greek and Roman oral rhetoricians. Discusses three precepts of oral rhetoric--inventio, dispositio, and style--and notes that the classical theories' reflection in written communication can be seen in selected Italian, German, and English epistolographic works. (MM)

  1. Beginners Remember Orthography when They Learn to Read Words: The Case of Doubled Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donna-Marie; Ehri, Linnea C.

    2007-01-01

    Sight word learning and memory were studied to clarify how early during development readers process visual letter patterns that are not dictated by phonology, and whether their word learning is influenced by the legality of letter patterns. Forty kindergartners and first graders were taught to read 12 words containing either single consonants…

  2. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 23, Number 1, January-February 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Response to Intervention: A New Approach to Reading Instruction Aims to Catch Struggling Readers Early (Nancy Walser); (2) Getting Advisory Right: Focus and…

  3. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 24, Number 1, January-February 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Leadership Lessons From Schools Becoming "Data Wise" (Jennifer L. Steele and Kathryn Parker Boudett); (2) A Guide on the Side: Mentors Help New Leaders Prepare for Life in the…

  4. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 26, Number 2, March-April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Online Testing, Version 1.0: Oregon's Adaptive Computer-Based Accountability Test Offers a Peek at a Brave New Future (Robert Rothman); (2) Beyond…

  5. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 26, Number 5, September-October 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Nancy, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Scenes from the School Turnaround Movement: Passion, Frustration, Mid-Course Corrections Mark Rapid Reforms (Laura Pappano); (2) The Media Savvy Educator:…

  6. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 23, Number 3, May-June 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) The Road to School Improvement: It's Hard, It's Bumpy, and It Takes as Long as It Takes (Richard F. Elmore and Elizabeth A. City); (2) Better Teaching with Web Tools: How…

  7. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 25, Number 5, September-October 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) The Invisible Hand in Education Policy: Behind the Scenes, Economists Wield Unprecedented Influence (David McKay Wilson); (2) Bonding and Bridging: Schools Open Doors for…

  8. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 26, Number 1, January-February 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Charters and Unions: What's the Future for This Unorthodox Relationship? (Alexander Russo); (2) From Special Ed to Higher Ed: Transition Planning for Disabled Students Focuses…

  9. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 28, Number 2, March-April 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Course Credits on the Quick: Controversial Online Recovery Programs Speed the Path to Graduation (Andrew Brownstein); (2) Collaborating to Make Schools More Inclusive…

  10. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 25, Number 2, March-April 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Money and Motivation: New Initiatives Rekindle Debate over the Link between Rewards and Student Achievement (David McKay Wilson); (2) An Inexact Science: What Are the Technical…

  11. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 24, Number 6, November-December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) When Worlds Collide: Universal PreK Brings New Challenges for Public Elementary Schools (David McKay Wilson); (2) Answers and Questions: Schools Survey Their Students--and…

  12. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 27, Number 5, September-October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Teaching Students to Ask Their Own Questions: One Small Change Can Yield Big Results (Dan Rothstein and Luz Santana); (2) Voice of Experience: Jerry Weast--Leading a System…

  13. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 25, Number 3, May-June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Improving Teaching and Learning through Instructional Rounds (Lee Teitel); (2) Developmentally Appropriate Practice in the Age of Testing: New Reports Outline Key Principles…

  14. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 25, Number 6, November-December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) "Platooning" Instruction: Districts Weigh Pros and Cons of Departmentalizing Elementary Schools (Lucy Hood); (2) Behind the Classroom Door: A Rare Glimpse Indicates the…

  15. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 23, Number 2, March-April 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) More Than "Making Nice": Getting Teachers to (Truly) Collaborate (Laura Pappano); (2) "Doing the Critical Things First": An Aligned Approach to PreK and Early Elementary Math;…

  16. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 23, Number 6, November-December 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Charting a New Course toward Racial Integration: Districts Seek Legal Routes to Capture the Benefits of Diversity (Brigid Schulte); (2) Voluntary Integration: Two Views--(a)…

  17. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 24, Number 5, September-October 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Teaching 21st Century Skills: What Does It Look Like in Practice? (Nancy Walser); (2) Getting and Spending: Schools and Districts Share Lessons on the Effective Uses of…

  18. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 26, Number 4, July-August 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline T., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Learning Progressions in Science: A New Approach Emphasizes Sustained Instruction in Big Ideas (Patti Hartigan); (2) Putting the "Boy Crisis" in…

  19. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 23, Number 4, July-August 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Meeting of the Minds: The Parent-Teacher Conference Is the Cornerstone of School-Home Relations. How Can It Work for All Families? (Laura Pappano); (2) In Search of That "Third…

  20. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 24, Number 4, July-August 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) Taking the Measure of New Teachers: California Shifts from Standardized Tests to Performance-Based Assessment as a Condition of Licensure (Robert Rothman);…