WorldWideScience

Sample records for research horizons natural

  1. Stewarding the Human Good: Understanding the Nature of Research and Its Ethical Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Research administration and leadership, above all, directly serve the needs of researchers, scientists, research programs, institutions and their leaders, and the public trust itself. Research administration is therefore an expansive and all encompassing profession. It integrates all of the diverse arts and sciences that are foundational to…

  2. Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  3. Visions for Horizon 2020 from Copenhagen Research Forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenneche, Nicolaj Tofte; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2012-01-01

    In January 2012, the Copenhagen Research Forum (CRF) gathered 80 European scientists to discuss the societal chal-lenges to be addressed by Horizon 2020, the next framework programme for European research and innovation, and consider how research could contribute the best solutions. This EFP brie...

  4. Start of new Research and Innovation Programme, Horizon 2020

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The overall EU budget for 2014-2020 was approved on 20 November, with €79 billion allocated for the Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme.   The first calls and final work programmes in Horizon 2020 will be published on 11 December 2013 and the programme will officially start on 1 January 2014. In preparation for the next major programme, the CERN EU Projects Office has launched a redesigned website to keep you informed and to alert you to opportunities in Horizon 2020: cerneu.web.cern.ch. Organised by Euresearch, the Swiss launch event will take place from 14 to 17 January 2014. This four-day conference will offer the possibility to discover the new European Framework Programme for Research and Innovation. The event is open for registration: www.launch-h2020.ch.

  5. Research and development: widening the energy horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmstadter, J.; Landsberg, H.H.; Morton, H.C.

    1984-04-01

    Research and Development (R and D) is not a recent phenomenon. Only the name is new; the substance is old. Such scientists as Alessandro Volta, James Watt, or Thomas Edison would have been surprised to be told that they were in the R and D business, but, of course, they were. In fact, Edison was in the RDD and D business, the extra two D's standing for Demonstration and Deployment. In their lifetime such people were generally called inventors. Today, there are not only multitudes of individuals who engage in R and D, in small or large commercial groups, in government laboratories, or in universities, but there is also a substantial literature on just what R and D is and how it functions. In this article the authors try to identify current trends and where they might lead us and what policies are either in place or are desirable to draw the greatest benefit from R and D endeavors.

  6. Investment horizon heterogeneity and wavelet: Overview and further research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Anindya; De, Anupam; Gunasekaran, Angappa; Dubey, Rameshwar

    2015-07-01

    Wavelet based multi-scale analysis of financial time series has attracted much attention, lately, from both the academia and practitioners from all around the world. The unceasing metamorphosis of the discipline of finance from its humble beginning as applied economics to the more sophisticated depiction as applied physics and applied psychology has revolutionized the way we perceive the market and its complexities. One such complexity is the presence of heterogeneous horizon agents in the market. In this context, we have performed a generous review of different aspects of horizon heterogeneity that has been successfully elucidated through the synergy between wavelet theory and finance. The evolution of wavelet has been succinctly delineated to bestow necessary information to the readers who are new to this field. The migration of wavelet into finance and its subsequent branching into different sub-divisions have been sketched. The pertinent literature on the impact of horizon heterogeneity on risk, asset pricing and inter-dependencies of the financial time series are explored. The significant contributions are collated and classified in accordance to their purpose and approach so that potential researcher and practitioners, interested in this subject, can be benefited. Future research possibilities in the direction of "agency cost mitigation" and "synergy between econophysics and behavioral finance in stock market forecasting" are also suggested in the paper.

  7. How to write a competitive proposal for Horizon 2020 a research manager's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 1: An Overview of Horizon 2020 ; Chapter 2: How the Research Priorities were Selected (How to Lobby) ; Chapter 3: The Research Priorities in Horizon 2020 ; Chapter 4: How Proposals are Evaluated ; Chapter 5: How to Write the ‘Impact’ of the project ; Chapter 6: The One Page Proposal ; Chapter 7: How to Streamline Proposal Writing ; Chapter 8: How to Find the Best Partners ; Chapter 9: How to Write the ‘Implementation' of the project ; Chapter 10: Legal and Financial Rules in Horizon 2020 ; Chapter 11: What is your Strategy for Horizon 2020?

  8. Natural organic matter and the event horizon of mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertkorn, N; Frommberger, M; Witt, M; Koch, B P; Schmitt-Kopplin, Ph; Perdue, E M

    2008-12-01

    Soils, sediments, freshwaters, and marine waters contain natural organic matter (NOM), an exceedingly complex mixture of organic compounds that collectively exhibit a nearly continuous range of properties (size-reactivity continuum). NOM is composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with minor contributions from heteroatoms such as nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Suwannee River fulvic acid (SuwFA) is a fraction of NOM that is relatively depleted in heteroatoms. Ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron (FTICR) mass spectra of SuwFA reveal several thousand molecular formulas, corresponding in turn to several hundred thousand distinct chemical environments of carbon even without accountancy of isomers. The mass difference deltam among adjoining C,H,O-molecules between and within clusters of nominal mass is inversely related to molecular dissimilarity: any decrease of deltam imposes an ever growing mandatory difference in molecular composition. Molecular formulas that are expected for likely biochemical precursor molecules are notably absent from these spectra, indicating that SuwFA is the product of diagenetic reactions that have altered the major components of biomass beyond the point of recognition. The degree of complexity of SuwFA can be brought into sharp focus through comparison with the theoretical limits of chemical complexity, as constrained and quantized by the fundamentals of chemical binding. The theoretical C,H,O-compositional space denotes the isomer-filtered complement of the entire, very vast space of molecular structures composed solely of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The molecular formulas within SuwFA occupy a sizable proportion of the theoretical C,H,O-compositional space. A 100 percent coverage of the theoretically feasible C,H,O-compositional space by SuwFA molecules is attained throughout a sizable range of mass and H/C and O/C elemental ratios. The substantial differences between (and complementarity of) the SuwFA molecular

  9. A view of Wari research: paradigms and perspectives on the Middle Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    In this introductory article, the history of Wari studies is summarized in brief terms. The urban site of Huari is considered, including evidence for its occupation prior to the Middle Horizon, and spatial patterning of Middle Horizon architectural remains. While the hinterland around Huari has received some attention, there is still much to be learned about the heartland of the Wari polity. Most research devoted to Wari has occurred in the provincial regions, primarily at sites exhibiting di...

  10. 1.6 billion euros for nuclear research through the 'Horizon 2020' program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union Council has approved the budget for the future European program for research and innovation called 'Horizon 2020'. A global funding of 77 billion euros has been allocated to 'Horizon 2020' for the 2014 to 2020 years. The share for nuclear sciences will reach 1.6 billion euros and will break down as follows: 316 million euros for fundamental research on fission, 728 million euros for fundamental research on fusion (ITER not included) and 560 million euros for the research projects of the European Joint Research Center (JRC). (A.C.)

  11. Environmental trends and issues at the research horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.H.; Warshaw, C.J.; Stoner, B.; Coerr, S.; O'Neal, J.

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a forecast of environmental trends and issues likely to emerge in the next 5 to 15 years. The report identifies and describes eleven significant emerging tends (i.e., general shifts in environmental policy-making, technology, regulation and public opinion) and - specific environmental issues (i.e., real or perceived environmental problems). The report further describes various debates or key questions that will determine over the next 5 to 15 years the potential government response to these environmental issues. This information is intended to assist the Gas research Institute as a research organization in planning and initiating research projects that will be relevant to important debates in the future

  12. Isolated Horizon, Killing Horizon and Event Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Date, G.

    2001-01-01

    We consider space-times which in addition to admitting an isolated horizon also admit Killing horizons with or without an event horizon. We show that an isolated horizon is a Killing horizon provided either (1) it admits a stationary neighbourhood or (2) it admits a neighbourhood with two independent, commuting Killing vectors. A Killing horizon is always an isolated horizon. For the case when an event horizon is definable, all conceivable relative locations of isolated horizon and event hori...

  13. Calcium Isotope Geochemistry: Research Horizons and Nanoscale Fractionation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J. M.; Depaolo, D. J.; Richter, F. M.; Fantle, M. S.; Simon, J. I.; Ryerson, F. J.; Ewing, S. A.; Turchyn, A. V.; Yang, W.; Owens, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    Interest in studies of calcium isotope variations in nature continues to increase. Investigations span human biology, plants and soils, oceanography and paleoclimate, early solar system processes, aqueous geochemistry, and silicate liquid structure. Variations in the 44Ca/40Ca ratio are generally small, about 5 ‰, but gradual small improvements in analytical capability now yield 0.05 to 0.1 ‰ resolution. The field is still plagued by a lack of universal standards for isotope ratios and data representation, but these are secondary issues. Traditional isotopic systems have been based in equilibrium thermodynamics, which can explain the magnitude and sign of observed mass-dependent fractionation behavior. For Ca isotopes this is not the case. There is still no reliable way to estimate the equilibrium free energy associated with isotopic exchange between most phases of interest. Experiments are difficult to interpret because it is almost impossible to precipitate minerals from aqueous solution at equilibrium at low temperature. Some studies suggest that, for example, there is no equilibrium isotopic fractionation between calcite and dissolved aqueous Ca. There is good evidence that most Ca isotopic fractionation is caused by kinetic effects. The details of the controlling processes are still missing, and without this mechanistic understanding it is difficult to fully understand the implications of natural isotopic variations. Recent work on dissolved Ca, calcite, and sulfates in both laboratory and natural settings is shedding light on where the fractionation may arise. There is emerging evidence for mass dependent fractionation associated with aqueous diffusion, but probably the primary source of the effects is in the details of precipitation of minerals from solution. This makes the fractionation potentially dependent on a number of factors, including solution composition and mineral growth rate. The next challenge is to develop appropriate experimental tests and

  14. Broadening the Horizons of Research on Discovery-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Douglas H.; Joswick, Candace

    2018-01-01

    In reviewing the six articles within this "Instructional Science" special issue, we are reminded of Schoenfeld's ("Educ Res" 45(2):105-111, 2016) review of American Educational Research Association president-authored papers for the centennial celebration of AERA. There, he succinctly unveiled the content focus of AERA research…

  15. Overview of avian toxicity studies for the Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J.; Alexander, C.R.; Cacela, Dave; Cunningham, Fred L.; Dean, Karen M.; Dorr, Brian S.; Ellis, Christine K.; Godard-Codding, Céline A.J.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C.; Harr, Kendall E.; Healy, Katherine A.; Hooper, Michael J.; Horak, Katherine E.; Isanhart, John P.; Kennedy, Lisa V.; Link, Jane E.; Maggini, Ivan; Moye, John K.; Perez, Christina R.; Pritsos, Chris A.; Shriner, Susan A.; Trust, Kinberly A.; Tuttle, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 establishes liability for injuries to natural resources because of the release or threat of release of oil. Assessment of injury to natural resources resulting from an oil spill and development and implementation of a plan for the restoration, rehabilitation, replacement or acquisition of natural resources to compensate for those injuries is accomplished through the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process. The NRDA process began within a week of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which occurred on April 20, 2010. During the spill, more than 8500 dead and impaired birds representing at least 93 avian species were collected. In addition, there were more than 3500 birds observed to be visibly oiled. While information in the literature at the time helped to identify some of the effects of oil on birds, it was not sufficient to fully characterize the nature and extent of the injuries to the thousands of live oiled birds, or to quantify those injuries in terms of effects on bird viability. As a result, the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed various assessment activities to inform NRDA injury determination and quantification analyses associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including avian toxicity studies. The goal of these studies was to evaluate the effects of oral exposure to 1–20 ml of artificially weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 oil kg bw-1 day-1 from one to 28 days or one to five applications of oil to 20% of the bird's surface area. It was thought that these exposure levels would not result in immediate or short-term mortality but might result in physiological effects that ultimately could affect avian survival, reproduction and health. These studies included oral dosing studies, an external dosing study, metabolic and flight performance studies and field-based flight studies. Results of these studies indicated changes in hematologic endpoints including formation of Heinz bodies and changes in cell counts

  16. EuroCirCol - Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Action

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108815; Benedikt, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank; Schulte, Daniel; Tommasini, Davide; Seryi, Andrei; Perez, Francis

    2015-01-01

    EuroCirCol is a conceptual design study for a post-LHC research infrastructure based on an energy-frontier 100 TeV circular hadron collider. ​The award of the 2013 Nobel Prize for Physics acknowledged the leading role of Europe in particle physics, which has a global community of over 10'000 scientists. To reinforce its pole position throughout the 21st century, Europe must be ready to propose an ambitious post-LHC accelerator project by 2018/19. This is one of the main recommendations of the updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, adopted by the CERN Council in May 2013. The EuroCirCol conceptual design study is a direct response to this recommendation, carried out through a collaboration of institutes and universities worldwide. A new research infrastructure of such scale depends on the feasibility of key technologies pushed beyond current state of the art. Innovative designs for accelerator magnets to achieve high-quality fields up to 16 T and for a cryogenic beam vacuum system to cope with unpre...

  17. Horizontal drilling in a natural gas storage horizon of 4 m thickness using reservoir navigation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastert, Thomas [E.ON Gas Storage GmbH, Essen (Germany); Liewert, Mathias; Rohde, Uwe [Baker Hughes INTEQ GmbH, Celle (Germany); Haberland, Joachim

    2010-09-15

    With a working gas capacity of 1,44 billion m{sup 3} (Vn) the natural gas storage facility at Bierwang is one of the largest storage facilities of E.ON Gas Storage (in Germany) and also one of the largest porous rock storages in Germany. The natural gas is stored in the tertiary storage horizons of the Chattian Hauptsand and Nebensand. To increase the storage capacity a second development well was planned for the Chattian Nebensand II (approx. 1680 m below ground). Following a comprehensive technical investigation the BW 502 well was planned as a horizontal well intended to provide a 300 m exposed section length through the reservoir. In a first step a pilot well was drilled to examine the Nebensand II which had been explored only to a limited extent before; the pilot well was also to provide accurate data on depth, thickness and dip. The results obtained indicated that the Nebensand II was only 4 m thick instead of 6 m as originally assumed. An azimuthal LWD resistivity tool was therefore used for reservoir navigation to allow horizontal drilling despite the lower thickness found. The technology allowed drilling of the horizontal well over its entire length of 315 m within a max. 1.5 m corridor relative to the reservoir top. Drilling confirmed that the actual formation found corresponded to the reservoir formation plan. Drilling operations were completed successfully. The well has been commissioned in the spring of 2010. (orig.)

  18. CTD Data from Research Vessel New Horizon in the NE Pacific, 24 April - 01 May 2014 (NCEI Accession 0157699)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two consecutive expeditions by research vessel New Horizon in April/May 2014 (NH1408 and NH1409) had the objective to recover and re-deploy a number of moored...

  19. CTD Data from Research Vessel New Horizon in the NE Pacific, 15-20 December 2009 (NCEI Accession 0156689)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The expedition by research vessel New Horizon from 15 to 20 December 2009 had the objective to recover and re-deploy a number of moored platforms off southern...

  20. Measuring the Impact of the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Consumer Behavior: Evidence from a Natural Experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    O. Ashton Morgan; John C. Whitehead; William L. Huth; Gregory S. Martin; Richard Sjolander

    2013-01-01

    A natural experiment setting is exploited to develop a unique dataset of oyster consumer actual and anticipated behavior immediately prior to and following the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Using data from a repeat sample of oyster consumers, a pre and post-spill revealed and stated preference model allows both a short and longer-term response to the spill to be investigated. Findings indicate that, as expected, the BP spill had a negative impact on oyster demand in terms of short-run actua...

  1. HORIZON SENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine

  2. Perspectives for environment and health research in Horizon 2020: dark ages or golden era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Roel; De Boever, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    The European Commission recently published the first calls for proposals for the Horizon 2020 (H2020) work programme for research and innovation. When browsing through the Health programme, it became apparent that the work programme made little reference to environmental health research. In this commentary we describe major milestones of environmental health research in previous European Framework Programmes and the policy shift that took place when preparing H2020. We introduce mobile health technologies as a niche innovation to reconcile the environmental health research arena with the H2020 programme that has a clear focus on ICT. The recent economic crises urged strong policy action to reinforce Europe's economic and innovation leadership. Market-driven and job-creating ambitions became primary goals of H2020. Environmental health-related keywords referring to, e.g. human biomonitoring, exposure assessment or exposome are absent in the current H2020-calls and this may suggest a lack of opportunities for environmental health researchers. Technologies related to mobile healthcare (mhealth) are rapidly maturing and offer new research and market opportunities. In a typically technology-pushed market, these sensor technologies however require validation by a third-party and implementation in large-scale public health monitoring studies. Also, issues related to data protection need further development to warrant user rights and privacy. If the European environmental health research arena succeeds in embracing these new mhealth sensor technologies, it may not only create an opportunity to play a role as a key innovation partner in health transition technologies, but it may also support authorities to realize a transition in our healthcare with a much bigger emphasis on a preventive and sustainable system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Pb concentrations and isotope ratios of soil O and C horizons in Nord-Trøndelag, central Norway: Anthropogenic or natural sources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, C.; Fabian, K.; Flem, B.; Schilling, J.; Roberts, D.; Englmaier, P.

    2016-01-01

    Soil O and C horizon samples (N = 752) were collected at a sample density of 1 site/36 km"2 in Nord-Trøndelag and parts of Sør-Trøndelag (c. 25,000 km"2), and analysed for Pb and three of the four naturally occurring Pb isotopes ("2"0"6Pb, "2"0"7Pb and "2"0"8Pb) in a HNO_3/HCl extraction. Soil O and C horizons are decoupled in terms of both Pb concentrations and Pb isotope ratios. In the soil C horizon the Grong-Olden Culmination, a continuous exposure of the Precambrian crystalline basement across the general grain of the Caledonian orogen, is marked by a distinct "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio anomaly. No clear regional or even local patterns are detected when mapping the Pb isotope ratios in the soil O horizon samples. Variation in the isotope ratios declines significantly from the soil C to the O horizon. On average, Pb concentrations in the O horizon are four times higher and the "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio is shifted towards a median of 1.15 in comparison to 1.27 in the C horizon. It is demonstrated that natural processes like weathering in combination with plant uptake need to be taken into account in order to distinguish anthropogenic input from natural influences on Pb concentration and the "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio in the soil O horizon. - Highlights: • Lead concentrations are on average higher by a factor of 4 in the soil O than in the C horizon. • The "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio is considerably lower in the soil O than in the C horizon. • The observed shifts are in conflict with exclusive anthropogenic input of Pb. • The hypothesis of natural Pb-isotope invariance can not be hold.

  4. Deepwater Horizon - Baseline Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico and the Natural Resources Damage Assessment (NRDA) was initiated to determine the extent of...

  5. Expanding the Horizon: A Journey to Explore and Share Effective Geoscience Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Indian Natural Resource Science and Engineering Program (INRSEP) has worked diligently over the past 40 + years to ensure the success of Tribal, Indigenous and Underrepresented undergraduate and graduate students in geoscience and natural resources fields of study. Central to this success has been the development of cultural relevant research opportunities directed by Tribal people. The research experiences have been initiated to address culturally relevant challenges on Tribal and non-Tribal lands. It has become critically important to ensure students have multiple research experiences across North America as well as throughout the continent. The INRSEP community has found creating and maintaining relationships with organizations like the Geoscience Alliance, Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MSPHD's) and the Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (LSAMP) program has greatly improved the success of students matriculating to graduate STEM programs. These relationships also serve an immense capacity in tracking students, promoting best practices in research development and assessing outcomes. The presentation will highlight lessons learned on how to 1) Develop a diverse cohort or 'community' of student researchers; 2) Evolve intergenerational mentoring processes and outcomes; 3) Tether to related research and programs; and Foster the broader impact of geoscience research and outcomes.

  6. CTD and Water Sample Data from Research Vessel New Horizon in the NE Pacific, 19-22 September 2008 (NCEI Accession 0156931)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The expedition by research vessel New Horizon from 19 to 22 September 2008 had the objective to deploy a number of moored platforms for the CORC project (Consortium...

  7. Horizon measures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Eugene

    2016-11-28

    In this paper we seek to answer the following question: where do contour lines and visible contour lines (silhouette) tend to occur in a 3D surface. Our study leads to two novel shape descriptors, the horizon measure and the visible horizon measure, which we apply to the visualization of 3D shapes including archeological artifacts. In addition to introducing the shape descriptors, we also provide a closed-form formula for the horizon measure based on classical spherical geometry. To compute the visible horizon measure, which depends on the exact computation of the surface visibility function, we instead of provide an image-based approach which can process a model with high complexity within a few minutes.

  8. The Nature of Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Simon G.

    2011-01-01

    The paper is in two parts. The first part of the paper is a critique of current methodology in educational research: scientific, critical and interpretive. The ontological and epistemological assumptions of those methodologies are described from the standpoint of John Searle's analytic philosophy. In the second part two research papers with…

  9. Liquefied natural gas tender crashworthiness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Research is being conducted to develop technical : information needed to formulate effective natural gas fuel : tender crashworthiness standards. This research is being : performed for the Federal Railroad Administrations (FRAs) : Office of Res...

  10. Diagnostic Biomarkers for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Promising Horizons from Translational Neuroscience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Norrholm, Seth Davin; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a heterogeneous disorder that affects individuals exposed to trauma (e.g., combat, interpersonal violence, and natural disasters). Although its diagnostic features have been recently re-classified with the emergence of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), the disorder remains characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive reminders of the trauma, avoidance of trauma-related cues, and negative cognition and mood. This heterogeneity indicates the presence of multiple neurobiological mechanisms underlying the etiology and maintenance of PTSD. Translational research spanning the past few decades has revealed several potential avenues for the identification of diagnostic biomarkers for PTSD. These include, but are not limited to, monoaminergic transmitter systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, metabolic hormonal pathways, inflammatory mechanisms, psychophysiological reactivity, and neural circuits. The current review provides an update to the literature with regard to the most promising putative PTSD biomarkers with specific emphasis on the interaction between neurobiological influences on disease risk and symptom progression. Such biomarkers will most likely be identified by multi-dimensional models derived from comprehensive descriptions of molecular, neurobiological, behavioral, and clinical phenotypes. PMID:25727177

  11. Diagnostic Biomarkers for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Promising Horizons from Translational Neuroscience Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Norrholm, Seth Davin; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a heterogeneous disorder that affects individuals exposed to trauma (e.g., combat, interpersonal violence, and natural disasters). Although its diagnostic features have been recently reclassified with the emergence of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, the disorder remains characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive reminders of the trauma, avoidance of trauma-related cues, and negative cognition and mood. This heterogeneity indicates the presence of multiple neurobiological mechanisms underlying the etiology and maintenance of PTSD. Translational research spanning the past few decades has revealed several potential avenues for the identification of diagnostic biomarkers for PTSD. These include, but are not limited to, monoaminergic transmitter systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, metabolic hormonal pathways, inflammatory mechanisms, psychophysiological reactivity, and neural circuits. The current review provides an update to the literature with regard to the most promising putative PTSD biomarkers, with specific emphasis on the interaction between neurobiological influences on disease risk and symptom progression. Such biomarkers will most likely be identified by multi-dimensional models derived from comprehensive descriptions of molecular, neurobiological, behavioral, and clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  12. Addressing gender dynamics and engaging men in HIV programs: lessons learned from Horizons research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulerwitz, Julie; Michaelis, Annie; Verma, Ravi; Weiss, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    In the field of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, there has been increasing interest in the role that gender plays in HIV and violence risk, and in successfully engaging men in the response. This article highlights findings from more than 10 studies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America--conducted from 1997 through 2007 as part of the Horizons program--that have contributed to understanding the relationship between gender and men's behaviors, developing useful measurement tools for gender norms, and designing and evaluating the impact of gender-focused program strategies. Studies showed significant associations between support for inequitable norms and risk, such as more partner violence and less condom use. Programmatic lessons learned ranged from insights into appropriate media messages, to strategies to engage men in critically reflecting upon gender inequality, to the qualities of successful program facilitators. The portfolio of work reveals the potential and importance of directly addressing gender dynamics in HIV- and violence-prevention programs for both men and women.

  13. Stringy horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Kutasov, David [EFI and Department of Physics, University of Chicago,5640 S. Ellis Av., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-06-11

    We argue that classical (α{sup ′}) effects qualitatively modify the structure of Euclidean black hole horizons in string theory. While low energy modes experience the geometry familiar from general relativity, high energy ones see a rather different geometry, in which the Euclidean horizon can be penetrated by an amount that grows with the radial momentum of the probe. We discuss this in the exactly solvable SL(2,ℝ)/U(1) black hole, where it is a manifestation of the black hole/Sine-Liouville duality.

  14. Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research and Policy Change in Asia. Couverture du livre Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources: Action Research and Policy Change in. Directeur(s) : Stephen R. Tyler. Maison(s) d'édition : Practical Action Publishing, CRDI. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN :.

  15. When everyday life becomes a storm on the horizon: families' experiences of good mental health while hiking in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklien, Børge; Ytterhus, Borgunn; Bongaardt, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Hiking in nature is often presented as a yearning for lost harmony premised on an alleged divide between nature as authentically healthy and society as polluted. This paper's aim is to question this strict divide and the strong belief in nature as having an innate health-providing effect, the biophilia hypothesis, by examining what Norwegian families with young children experience when walking in the forest. Twenty-four conversations with families during a hiking trip in the forest were recorded, and the data were analysed with Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological research method. The paper introduces the general descriptive meaning structure of the phenomenon 'family-hiking with young children'. It shows that a hiking trip clears space for the family in their everyday lives which is largely dominated by relations with non-family members at both work and leisure. The families experience that they actively generate a different existence with a sense of here-and-now presences that can strengthen core family relations and also provide the opportunity to pass down experiences that can be recollected and realized by future generations. This experience is complex and constituted by social practices, which indicate that the biophilia hypothesis seems to be an insufficient explanation of why families go hiking in nature. Nature rather represents a peaceful background that allows for the perpetuation of the family as a social institution and the recreation of cohesion in everyday life.

  16. Towards a European strategy for medicines research (2014-2020): The EUFEPS position paper on Horizon 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Rogério; Aksu, Buket; Cuine, Alain; Danhof, Meindert; Takac, Milena Jadrijevic-Mladar; Linden, Hans H; Link, Andreas; Muchitsch, Eva-Maria; Wilson, Clive G; Ohrngren, Per; Dencker, Lennart

    2012-12-18

    As to the alignment of "Horizon 2020", ir is a more integrated approach to European science policy than expressed in the proposals previously drafted, and specifically considers: (i) promoting excellence in Science, (ii) establishing a sound industrial leadership and (iii) expressing an ambition to address current and future societal challenges. In this respect, the quest for a knowledge-based economy in Europe should result in proposals for industrial and employment policies that will consolidate the major European advantages in the biomedical, healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors. Horizon 2020 also provides the possibility of adopting a more flexible and simplified management route to drive European research through innovation, research and development. What should be additionally considered? Unmet medical needs, under pressure from demographic changes, await the generation of new medicines and health technologies which will evolve into a driver for a unified European policy. We believe that this should be focused on harnessing pharmaceutical knowledge for clinical use, as part of a response to accommodate patient needs and economic growth based on a robust, scientific approach. The bolder ambition for European research is to unlock key bottlenecks currently undermining European competitiveness. The historical lack of an appropriate business/innovation environment with reduced access to adequate risk finance instruments has severed the path for economic growth and industrial development. These issues are of critical importance and a solution is urgently needed to foster translation from the university to the healthcare sector through the generation and support of start-ups, spin-offs, university-industry consortia, and other platforms, which support translational research. The ultimate goal is implementation of holistic programmes: the 'bench to bedside' paradigm of medicines and other healthcare products. The European Research Council supports the basic

  17. Towards Horizon 2020: challenges and advances for clinical mental health research – outcome of an expert survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis CM

    2014-06-01

    expert survey and expert panel discussion during a scientific workshop.Results: Eighty-nine experts in clinical research and representing most European countries participated in this survey. Identified top priorities were the need for new intervention studies, understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of mechanisms of disease, and research in the field of somatic-psychiatric comorbidity. The “subjectivity gap” between basic neuroscience research and clinical reality for patients with mental disorders is considered the main challenge in psychiatric research, suggesting that a shift in research paradigms is required.Conclusion: Innovations in clinical mental health research should bridge the gap between mechanisms underlying novel therapeutic interventions and the patient experience of mental disorder and, if present, somatic comorbidity. Clinical mental health research is relatively underfunded and should receive specific attention in Horizon 2020 funding programs.Keywords: clinical research, mental health, randomized clinical trials, Horizon 2020, expert survey, challenge, research agenda, Europe

  18. Diagnostic Biomarkers for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Promising Horizons from Translational Neuroscience Research

    OpenAIRE

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Norrholm, Seth Davin; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a heterogeneous disorder that affects individuals exposed to trauma (e.g., combat, interpersonal violence, and natural disasters). Although its diagnostic features have been recently re-classified with the emergence of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), the disorder remains characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive reminders of the trauma, avoidance of trauma-related cues, and negative cognition and mood. T...

  19. Inner and Outer Life at Work. The Roots and Horizon of Psychoanalytically Informed Work Life Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2013-01-01

    identities, conflicts, organisational and societal structuration. Against this background the accounts and conceptualisations of work life involving people to people interactions offered by psychodynamic theories and methods take up a pivotal position. Psychoanalytic organisational and work life research...... of personalised competences and work investments in welfare services, the transformation from subject-object relationships to subject-subject relationships and the emergence of the "learning organisations" and reflexive leadership. All of this has been the subject of critical analyses tracing modern work life...... position and German psychoanalytic social psychology in order to situate and identify how to understand the inner and outer life at work – in a generic display of concepts, methods and epistemology....

  20. Inner and Outer Life at Work. The Roots and Horizon of Psychoanalytically Informed Work Life Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lundgaard Andersen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern labour market has increasingly put the inner working life on the agenda. This stems from a number of societal changes: the knowledge society and its need of personalised competences and work investments in welfare services, the transformation from subject-object relationships to subject-subject relationships and the emergence of the "learning organisations" and reflexive leadership. All of this has been the subject of critical analyses tracing modern work life identities, conflicts, organisational and societal structuration. Against this background the accounts and conceptualisations of work life involving people to people interactions offered by psychodynamic theories and methods take up a pivotal position. Psychoanalytic organisational and work life research explores how work, organisations and individuals are affected by psychic dynamics, the influence of the unconscious in the forms of human development and interaction situated in a societal context. Based on this substantial work I draw upon two influential psychoanalytical positions—the British Tavistock position and German psychoanalytic social psychology in order to situate and identify how to understand the inner and outer life at work—in a generic display of concepts, methods and epistemology. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203232

  1. Seismic Characterization and Continuity Analysis of Gas Hydrate Horizons Near the Mallik Research Wells, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellefleur, G.; Riedel, M.; Brent, T.

    2005-12-01

    Gas hydrate deposits in arctic environment generally lack the BSR signature diagnostic of their presence in marine seismic data. The absence of the BSR signature complicates the estimation of the resources within or below the permafrost and the determination of their potential impact on future energy supplies, geohazard and climate change. We present results from a detailed seismic characterization of three gas hydrate horizons (A, B and C) intersected below the permafrost in five wells of the Mallik gas hydrate field located in the Mackenzie delta (Northwest Territories, Canada). The detailed seismic characterization included attribute analyses, synthetic modeling and acoustic impedance inversion and allowed estimation of the lateral continuity of the three horizons in the vicinity of the wells. Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) data, 3D and 2D industry seismic data and the 5L/2L-38 geophysical logs (density, P-wave sonic velocity) were used for this study. Synthetic modeling using the sonic and density logs reveals that the base of the lower gas hydrate horizons B and C can be identified on the industry 3D and 2D seismic sections as prominent isolated reflections. The uppermost gas hydrate occurrence (horizon A) and potentially other additional smaller-scale layers are identified only on the higher-resolution VSP data. The 3D industry seismic data set processed to preserve the relative true-amplitudes was used for attribute calculations and acoustic impedance inversion. The attribute maps defined areas of continuous reflectivity for horizons B and C and structural features disrupting them. Results from impedance inversion indicate that such continuous reflectivity around the wells is most likely attributable to gas hydrates. The middle gas hydrate occurrence (horizon B) covers an area of approximately 25 000m2. Horizon C, which marks the base of gas hydrate occurrence zone, extends over a larger area of approximately 120 000m2.

  2. Natural and accelerated bioremediation research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This draft plan describes a ten-year program to develop the scientific understanding needed to harness and develop natural and enhanced biogeochemical processes to bioremediate contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at DOE facilities. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) developed this program plan, with advice and assistance from DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The program builds on OHER's tradition of sponsoring fundamental research in the life and environmental sciences and was motivated by OHER's and Office of Energy Research's (OER's) commitment to supporting DOE's environmental management mission and the belief that bioremediation is an important part of the solution to DOE's environmental problems

  3. Nordic cooperation within natural gas research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edna, O.-J.

    1993-01-01

    Nordic cooperation within natural gas research is discussed. A reorganization of this cooperation has recently taken place. It is explained that common Nordic resources are now to be concentrated within 7 areas, one of which is the area of energy/industrial policies, regional policies and agriculture and forestry, all under the common heading of ''Economy''. The plan of activities within this area includes international cooperation within the European Communities, the European Energy Charter, the International Energy Agency and will involve the energy policy situation in eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, the electric power and natural gas markets in the northern countries, energy related environmental questions and Nordic energy research cooperation. Nordic research activities constitute 2% of research resources within the OECD. The basis for Nordic research cooperation (for example a common cultural background) is described, and suggestions are made as to how it should be administrated. The Nordic energy research programme for 1991-1994 embodies bioenergy and the environment, fuel cells, energy and the society, solid fuels, district heating and petroleum technology. The status report for the nordic gas market, which represents the Nordic gas companies' evaluation of the Nordic gas market, is summarized, and Nordic research activities related to gas utilization are shortly commented upon. (AB)

  4. Topology of Event Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Siino, Masaru

    1997-01-01

    The topologies of event horizons are investigated. Considering the existence of the endpoint of the event horizon, it cannot be differentiable. Then there are the new possibilities of the topology of the event horizon though they are excluded in smooth event horizons. The relation between the topology of the event horizon and the endpoint of it is revealed. A torus event horizon is caused by two-dimensional endpoints. One-dimensional endpoints provide the coalescence of spherical event horizo...

  5. Natural and accelerated bioremediation research program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This draft plan describes a ten-year program to develop the scientific understanding needed to harness and develop natural and enhanced biogeochemical processes to bioremediate contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at DOE facilities. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) developed this program plan, with advice and assistance from DOE`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). The program builds on OHER`s tradition of sponsoring fundamental research in the life and environmental sciences and was motivated by OHER`s and Office of Energy Research`s (OER`s) commitment to supporting DOE`s environmental management mission and the belief that bioremediation is an important part of the solution to DOE`s environmental problems.

  6. Stabilising the Integrity of Snake Venom mRNA Stored under Tropical Field Conditions Expands Research Horizons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Whiteley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms contain many proteinaceous toxins that can cause severe pathology and mortality in snakebite victims. Interestingly, mRNA encoding such toxins can be recovered directly from venom, although yields are low and quality is unknown. It also remains unclear whether such RNA contains information about toxin isoforms and whether it is representative of mRNA recovered from conventional sources, such as the venom gland. Answering these questions will address the feasibility of using venom-derived RNA for future research relevant to biomedical and antivenom applications.Venom was extracted from several species of snake, including both members of the Viperidae and Elapidae, and either lyophilized or immediately added to TRIzol reagent. TRIzol-treated venom was incubated at a range of temperatures (4-37°C for a range of durations (0-48 hours, followed by subsequent RNA isolation and assessments of RNA quantity and quality. Subsequently, full-length toxin transcripts were targeted for PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. TRIzol-treated venom yielded total RNA of greater quantity and quality than lyophilized venom, and with quality comparable to venom gland-derived RNA. Full-length sequences from multiple Viperidae and Elapidae toxin families were successfully PCR amplified from TRIzol-treated venom RNA. We demonstrated that venom can be stored in TRIzol for 48 hours at 4-19°C, and 8 hours at 37°C, at minimal cost to RNA quality, and found that venom RNA encoded multiple toxin isoforms that seemed homologous (98-99% identity to those found in the venom gland.The non-invasive experimental modifications we propose will facilitate the future investigation of venom composition by using venom as an alternative source to venom gland tissue for RNA-based studies, thus obviating the undesirable need to sacrifice snakes for such research purposes. In addition, they expand research horizons to rare, endangered or protected snake species and provide

  7. Conformal Killing horizons and their thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Alex B.; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2018-05-01

    Certain dynamical black hole solutions can be mapped to static spacetimes by conformal metric transformations. This mapping provides a physical link between the conformal Killing horizon of the dynamical black hole and the Killing horizon of the static spacetime. Using the Vaidya spacetime as an example, we show how this conformal relation can be used to derive thermodynamic properties of such dynamical black holes. Although these horizons are defined quasi-locally and can be located by local experiments, they are distinct from other popular notions of quasi-local horizons such as apparent horizons. Thus in the dynamical Vaidya spacetime describing constant accretion of null dust, the conformal Killing horizon, which is null by construction, is the natural horizon to describe the black hole.

  8. Horizon 2020 in sight

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    Every tenth member of the CERN personnel participates in an EU-funded project – a strong indication of CERN’s successful relations with the European Commission (EC), coordinated by the CERN EU projects office. The EC director in charge of preparing “Horizon 2020”, the new EU funding programme for research and innovation (2014-2020), will be giving a presentation at CERN on 8 May. He will reveal more about what the new programme has in store.   “It’s a very interesting time in the development of Horizon 2020, which is focusing the attention of all research communities in Europe,” explains Svetlomir Stavrev, head of the EU projects office. “After a long public consultation and drafting process, the Horizon 2020 proposal documents are now being reviewed by the European Parliament and Council.” CERN already participated in the consultation, making good use of the opportunity to contribute to the shaping of wh...

  9. Research of the Nature of Leadership Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Jankurová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Professional literature on leadership mostly states that a leader should be like (personality traits and describes different leadership styles and types. However, very little is known about what leaders do in their everyday practice, or how they do it. Leadership should be seen more widely and should be explored along the characteristics and style of leadership and how leaders are manifested externally through their work, which means to explore the nature of leadership work. The aim of the research project was to gain more knowledge about the activities undertaken by leaders to answer a simple, but yet not too clearly answered question: „What does a leader really do?“ This finding will help reveal important activities on which best leaders focus and determine which elements are really important for leadership. The research project was managed as a combination of interviews conducted with leaders, people on senior management positions along with a questionnaire survey.

  10. Stringy horizons II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Kutasov, David [EFI and Department of Physics, University of Chicago,5640 S. Ellis Av., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2016-10-28

    We show that the spectrum of normalizable states on a Euclidean SL(2, R)/U(1) black hole exhibits a duality between oscillator states and wound strings. This duality generalizes the identification between a normalizable mode of dilaton gravity on the cigar and a mode of the tachyon with winding number one around the Euclidean time circle, which plays an important role in the FZZ correspondence. It implies that normalizable states on a large Euclidean black hole have support at widely separated scales. In particular, localized states that are extended over the cap of the cigar (the Euclidian analog of the black hole atmosphere) have a component that is localized near the tip of the cigar (the analog of the stretched horizon). As a consequence of this duality, the states exhibit a transition as a function of radial excitation level. From the perspective of a low energy probe, low lying states are naturally thought of as oscillator states in the black hole atmosphere, while at large excitation level they are naturally described as wound strings. As the excitation level increases, the size of the states first decreases and then increases. This behavior is expected to be a general feature of black hole horizons in string theory.

  11. Molecular Investigation of the Short-term Sequestration of Natural Abundance 13C -labelled Cow Dung in the Surface Horizons of a Temperate Grassland Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungait, J.; Bol, R.; Evershed, R. P.

    2004-12-01

    An adequate understanding of the carbon (C) sequestration potential of grasslands requires that the quantity and residence times of C inputs be measured. Herbivore dung is largely comprised of plant cell wall material, a significant source of stable C in intensively grazed temperate grassland ecosystems that contributes to the soil carbon budget. Our work uses compound-specific isotope analysis to identify the pattern of input of dung-derived compounds from natural abundance 13C/-labelled cow dung into the surface horizons of a temperate grassland soil over one year. C4 dung (δ 13C \\-12.6 ‰ ) from maize fed cows was applied to a temperate grassland surface (δ 13C \\-29.95 ‰ ) at IGER-North Wyke (Devon, UK), and dung remains and soil cores beneath the treatments collected at ŧ = 7, 14, 28, 56, 112, 224 and 372 days. Bulk dung carbon present in the 0\\-1 cm and 1\\-5 cm surface horizons of a grassland soil over one year was estimated using Δ 13C between C4 dung and C3 dung, after Bol {\\et al.} (2000). The major biochemical components of dung were quantified using proximate forage fibre analyses, after Goering and Van Soest (1970) and identified using `wet' chemical and GC-MS methods. Plant cell wall polysaccharides and lignin were found to account for up to 67 {%} of dung dry matter. Hydrolysed polysaccharides were prepared as alditol acetates for analyses (after Docherty {\\et al.}, 2001), and a novel application of an off-line pyrolysis method applied to measure lignin-derived phenolic compounds (after Poole & van Bergen, 2002). This paper focuses on major events in the incorporation of dung carbon, estimated using natural abundance 13C&-slash;labelling technique. This revealed a major bulk input of dung carbon after a period of significant rainfall with a consequent decline in bulk soil δ 13C values until the end of the experiment (Dungait {\\et al.}, submitted). Findings will be presented revealing contribution of plant cell wall polysaccharides and

  12. New horizons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aspinal, Fiona; Glasby, Jon; Rostgaard, Tine

    2016-01-01

    multi-disciplinary in nature, focussing on supporting people to regain skills around daily activities. It is goal-orientated, holistic and person-centred irrespective of diagnosis, age and individual capacities. Reablement is an inclusive approach that seeks to work with all kinds of frail people......As the overwhelming majority of older people prefer to remain in their own homes and communities, innovative service provision aims to promote independence of older people despite incremental age associated frailty. Reablement is one such service intervention that is rapidly being adopted across...... high-income countries and projected to result in significant cost-savings in public health expenditure by decreasing premature admission to acute care settings and long-term institutionalisation. It is an intensive, time-limited intervention provided in people's homes or in community settings, often...

  13. Expanding horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dear Friends, The debate of whether Stem Cell Therapy is a hype or hope has been raging for quite some time and has been rekindled in the current year. Stem Cell Scientists have been particularly enthused by the bold standard taken by Barack Obama in passing an Executive Order that lifted the ban on federal funding of Research on Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC lines created after August 9, 2001. With the lifting of the ban more money is expected to be poured into ESC and Stem Cell Research in general and this augurs well for this emerging science. This is hope. Amariglio et al have reported the occurrence of a multifocal brain tumor in a boy with ataxia telengectasia four years after he was treated with intracerebella and intrathecal injection of human fetal neural stem cells. Molecular and Cytogenetic studies showed that the tumor was of non host origin raising the possibility of it being derived from transplanted neural stem cell. This is the first report of a donor-derived brain tumor in neural stem cell therapy and opens a Pandora’s Box of questions about the safety of such therapies. This signifies the hype surrounding the therapy. However controversies are a part of any emerging science. Our goals should be to march forward conducting our research under strict ethical principles and rigorous oversight, ironing out even minor flaws, always being on the lookout for adverse events and identifying ways and means of preventing their occurrence in future. JSRM has been in receipt of six articles, which speaks well for the interest people have for stem cell science in general and our journal in particular. The articles we have received for this edition of JSRM cover all aspects necessary for a science. Rosen et al have described the percentage variation of adipose stromal cells isolated from two different inbred mouse strains and Bhonde et al have reported the existence of multipotent stem cells in human fallopian tube. If cells can be identified

  14. Cambodia Rural Livelihoods and Natural Resources Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cambodia is one of the least developed countries in Southeast Asia, with a large poor rural population dependent on natural resources for food and income. Over the past several years, the country has introduced extensive legislation related to the management of natural resources. On paper, the role of local communities ...

  15. Mechanics of apparent horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, W.

    1992-01-01

    An equation for the variation in the surface area of an apparent horizon is derived which has the same form as the thermodynamic relation TdS=dQ. For a stationary vacuum black hole, the expression corresponding to a temperature equals the temperature of the event horizon. Also, if the black hole is perturbed infinitesimally by weak matter and gravitational fields, the area variation of the apparent horizon asymptotically approaches the Hartle-Hawking result for the event horizon. These results support the idea that a local version of black-hole thermodynamics in nonstationary systems can be constructed for apparent horizons

  16. Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Ruckelshaus

    2008-09-30

    The Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming is one of the most active areas of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in the western United States. This resource provides clean energy but raises environmental concerns. Primary among these is the disposal of water that is co-produced with the gas during depressurization of the coal seam. Beginning with a few producing wells in Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) in 1987, CBNG well numbers in this area increased to over 13,600 in 2004, with projected growth to 20,900 producing wells in the PRB by 2010. CBNG development is continuing apace since 2004, and CBNG is now being produced or evaluated in four other Wyoming coal basins in addition to the PRB, with roughly 3500-4000 new CBNG wells permitted statewide each year since 2004. This is clearly a very valuable source of clean fuel for the nation, and for Wyoming the economic benefits are substantial. For instance, in 2003 alone the total value of Wyoming CBNG production was about $1.5 billion, with tax and royalty income of about $90 million to counties, $140 million to the state, and $27 million to the federal government. In Wyoming, cumulative CBNG water production from 1987 through December 2004 was just over 380,000 acre-feet (2.9 billion barrels), while producing almost 1.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of CBNG gas statewide. Annual Wyoming CBNG water production in 2003 was 74,457 acre-feet (577 million barrels). Total production of CBNG water across all Wyoming coal fields could total roughly 7 million acre-feet (55.5 billion barrels), if all of the recoverable CBNG in the projected reserves of 31.7 tcf were produced over the coming decades. Pumping water from coals to produce CBNG has been designated a beneficial water use by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office (SEO), though recently the SEO has limited this beneficial use designation by requiring a certain gas/water production ratio. In the eastern part of the PRB where CBNG water is generally of good

  17. The NMC Horizon Report: 2015 Museum Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Freeman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The internationally recognized series of "Horizon Reports" is part of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming years on a variety of sectors around the globe. This "2015 Horizon…

  18. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ca/index_eng.asp. International Research Initiative on Adaptation to Climate Change. The International Research Initiative on Adaptation to Climate Change aims to help vulnerable populations in Canada and in developing countries adapt to ...

  19. Natural resources research and management issues: 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Vogt; James Absher; Alan Graefe; Bill Hammitt; Linda Kruger; Jerry Vaske

    2008-01-01

    This year (2007) at the Northeastern Recreation Research (NERR) Symposium, we took the opportunity to reflect on the past 15 to 20 years of recreation research and discuss the opportunities and challenges that might face us in the next decade. The session utilized a panel to entertain four primary questions focused on recreation research. Following a panel presentation...

  20. Strengthening Research Capacity to Enhance Natural Resources ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... to Enhance Natural Resources Management and Improve Rural Livelihoods ... and contribute to the food and income security of the rural poor by enhancing the ... of its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South. ... partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that.

  1. Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC): Developing a Data Sharing Culture in the Wake of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, L. M.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon BP Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico, BP committed $500 million (USD) for a research program that investigates the impacts of oil, dispersed oil, and dispersant on the environment and to develop strategies for response to future disasters. This research program, the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI), is mandated to make all the data produced available to the public. To fulfill this goal, GoMRI developed the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC). GRIIDC is the vehicle by which GoMRI is addressing the data and information needs of this large and varied community of more than 3,000 scientists. The mission of GRIIDC is to ensure a data and information legacy that promotes continual scientific discovery and public awareness of the Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem. As part of its effort to encourage data sharing among scientists interested in oil-spill related research in the Gulf of Mexico GRIIDC provides tools to researchers to facilitate all aspects of the data management process, from developing data management plans, to creating robust metadata records, to ensuring the data is made discoverable by the public. GRIIDC also provides a service to ensure that GoMRI funded publications have any associated data linked and available. This cradle to grave approach to data management has been extremely effective in developing data management practices that will ensure better data stewardship and preservation of all the data created in the GoMRI research program.

  2. Examples of plasma horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanni, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of the plasma horizon, defined as the boundary of the region in which an infinitely thin plasma can be supported against Coulomb attraction by a magnetic field, shows that the argument of selective accretion does not rule out the existence of charged black holes embedded in a conducting plasma. A detailed account of the covariant definition of plasma horizon is given and some examples of plasma horizons are presented. 7 references

  3. Research of the Nature of Leadership Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Jankurová; Ivana Ljudvigová; Klaudia Gubová

    2017-01-01

    Professional literature on leadership mostly states that a leader should be like (personality traits) and describes different leadership styles and types. However, very little is known about what leaders do in their everyday practice, or how they do it. Leadership should be seen more widely and should be explored along the characteristics and style of leadership and how leaders are manifested externally through their work, which means to explore the nature of leadership work. The aim of the...

  4. Pushing the Horizon. Seventy-Five Years of High Stakes Science and Technology at the Naval Research Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amato, Ivan

    2001-01-01

    .... Tracing the Laboratory from its small and often inauspicious origins of today's large, multi disciplinary research center, Amato sets in context many of the important research events and fronts...

  5. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Horizon quantum mechanics of rotating black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadio, Roberto [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, I.S. FLAG, Bologna (Italy); Giugno, Andrea [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Munich (Germany); Giusti, Andrea [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, I.S. FLAG, Bologna (Italy); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Munich (Germany); Micu, Octavian [Institute of Space Science, Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-23, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2017-05-15

    The horizon quantum mechanics is an approach that was previously introduced in order to analyze the gravitational radius of spherically symmetric systems and compute the probability that a given quantum state is a black hole. In this work, we first extend the formalism to general space-times with asymptotic (ADM) mass and angular momentum. We then apply the extended horizon quantum mechanics to a harmonic model of rotating corpuscular black holes. We find that simple configurations of this model naturally suppress the appearance of the inner horizon and seem to disfavor extremal (macroscopic) geometries. (orig.)

  7. VMware horizon view essentials

    CERN Document Server

    von Oven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    If you are a desktop administrator or an end user of a computing project team looking to speed up to the latest VMware Horizon View solution, then this book is perfect for you. It is your ideal companion to deploy a solution to centrally manage and virtualize your desktop estate using Horizon View 6.0.

  8. Pushing the Horizon. Seventy-Five Years of High Stakes Science and Technology at the Naval Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    center of mostly oceano - chapter 1 – the navy’s invention factory ♦ 3 graphic research at NRL’s second largest facility located on the grounds of Stennis...dispersed as vapors and airborne aero- sols , respectively. And those are merely some of the newest pixels of NRL research. Teams of scientists and

  9. Nature Contact and Human Health: A Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Howard; Bratman, Gregory N; Breslow, Sara Jo; Cochran, Bobby; Kahn, Peter H; Lawler, Joshua J; Levin, Phillip S; Tandon, Pooja S; Varanasi, Usha; Wolf, Kathleen L; Wood, Spencer A

    2017-07-31

    At a time of increasing disconnectedness from nature, scientific interest in the potential health benefits of nature contact has grown. Research in recent decades has yielded substantial evidence, but large gaps remain in our understanding. We propose a research agenda on nature contact and health, identifying principal domains of research and key questions that, if answered, would provide the basis for evidence-based public health interventions. We identify research questions in seven domains: a ) mechanistic biomedical studies; b ) exposure science; c ) epidemiology of health benefits; d ) diversity and equity considerations; e ) technological nature; f ) economic and policy studies; and g ) implementation science. Nature contact may offer a range of human health benefits. Although much evidence is already available, much remains unknown. A robust research effort, guided by a focus on key unanswered questions, has the potential to yield high-impact, consequential public health insights. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1663.

  10. Horizon 2020 Priorities in Clinical Mental Health Research: Results of a Consensus-Based ROAMER Expert Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Elfeddali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the ROAMER project, which aims to provide a Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe, a two-stage Delphi survey among 86 European experts was conducted in order to identify research priorities in clinical mental health research. Expert consensus existed with regard to the importance of three challenges in the field of clinical mental health research: (1 the development of new, safe and effective interventions for mental disorders; (2 understanding the mechanisms of disease in order to be able to develop such new interventions; and (3 defining outcomes (an improved set of outcomes, including alternative outcomes to use for clinical mental health research evaluation. Proposed actions involved increasing the utilization of tailored approaches (personalized medicine, developing blended eHealth/mHealth decision aids/guidance tools that help the clinician to choose between various treatment modalities, developing specific treatments in order to better target comorbidity and (further development of biological, psychological and psychopharmacological interventions. The experts indicated that addressing these priorities will result in increased efficacy and impact across Europe; with a high probability of success, given that Europe has important strengths, such as skilled academics and a long research history. Finally, the experts stressed the importance of creating funding and coordinated networking as essential action needed in order to target the variety of challenges in clinical mental health research.

  11. Revisiting event horizon finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Michael I; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Event horizons are the defining physical features of black hole spacetimes, and are of considerable interest in studying black hole dynamics. Here, we reconsider three techniques to find event horizons in numerical spacetimes: integrating geodesics, integrating a surface, and integrating a level-set of surfaces over a volume. We implement the first two techniques and find that straightforward integration of geodesics backward in time is most robust. We find that the exponential rate of approach of a null surface towards the event horizon of a spinning black hole equals the surface gravity of the black hole. In head-on mergers we are able to track quasi-normal ringing of the merged black hole through seven oscillations, covering a dynamic range of about 10 5 . Both at late times (when the final black hole has settled down) and at early times (before the merger), the apparent horizon is found to be an excellent approximation of the event horizon. In the head-on binary black hole merger, only some of the future null generators of the horizon are found to start from past null infinity; the others approach the event horizons of the individual black holes at times far before merger.

  12. New horizons in the implementation and research of comprehensive geriatric assessment: knowing, doing and the 'know-do' gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, John R F; Conroy, Simon Paul; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen; Gordon, Adam Lee

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we outline the relationship between the need to put existing applied health research knowledge into practice (the 'know-do gap') and the need to improve the evidence base (the 'know gap') with respect to the healthcare process used for older people with frailty known as comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). We explore the reasons for the know-do gap and the principles of how these barriers to implementation might be overcome. We explore how these principles should affect the conduct of applied health research to close the know gap. We propose that impaired flow of knowledge is an important contributory factor in the failure to implement evidence-based practice in CGA; this could be addressed through specific knowledge mobilisation techniques. We describe that implementation failures are also produced by an inadequate evidence base that requires the co-production of research, addressing not only effectiveness but also the feasibility and acceptability of new services, the educational needs of practitioners, the organisational requirements of services, and the contribution made by policy. Only by tackling these issues in concert and appropriate proportion, will the know and know-do gaps for CGA be closed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. TU-CD-303-02: Beyond Radiation Induced Double Strand Breaks - a New Horizon for Radiation Therapy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S. [UNC School of Medicine (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Recent advances in cancer research have shed new light on the complex processes of how therapeutic radiation initiates changes at cellular, tissue, and system levels that may lead to clinical effects. These new advances may transform the way we use radiation to combat certain types of cancers. For the past two decades many technological advancements in radiation therapy have been largely based on the hypothesis that direct radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks cause cell death and thus tumor control and normal tissue damage. However, new insights have elucidated that in addition to causing cellular DNA damage, localized therapeutic radiation also initiates cascades of complex downstream biological responses in tissue that extend far beyond where therapeutic radiation dose is directly deposited. For instance, studies show that irradiated dying tumor cells release tumor antigens that can lead the immune system to a systemic anti-cancer attack throughout the body of cancer patient; targeted irradiation to solid tumor also increases the migration of tumor cells already in bloodstream, the seeds of potential metastasis. Some of the new insights may explain the long ago discovered but still unexplained non-localized radiation effects (bystander effect and abscopal effect) and the efficacy of spatially fractionated radiation therapy (microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy) where many “hot” and “cold” spots are intentionally created throughout the treatment volume. Better understanding of the mechanisms behind the non-localized radiation effects creates tremendous opportunities to develop new and integrated cancer treatment strategies that are based on radiotherapy, immunology, and chemotherapy. However, in the multidisciplinary effort to advance new radiobiology, there are also tremendous challenges including a lack of multidisciplinary researchers and imaging technologies for the microscopic radiation-induced responses. A better grasp of the essence of

  14. TU-CD-303-02: Beyond Radiation Induced Double Strand Breaks - a New Horizon for Radiation Therapy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in cancer research have shed new light on the complex processes of how therapeutic radiation initiates changes at cellular, tissue, and system levels that may lead to clinical effects. These new advances may transform the way we use radiation to combat certain types of cancers. For the past two decades many technological advancements in radiation therapy have been largely based on the hypothesis that direct radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks cause cell death and thus tumor control and normal tissue damage. However, new insights have elucidated that in addition to causing cellular DNA damage, localized therapeutic radiation also initiates cascades of complex downstream biological responses in tissue that extend far beyond where therapeutic radiation dose is directly deposited. For instance, studies show that irradiated dying tumor cells release tumor antigens that can lead the immune system to a systemic anti-cancer attack throughout the body of cancer patient; targeted irradiation to solid tumor also increases the migration of tumor cells already in bloodstream, the seeds of potential metastasis. Some of the new insights may explain the long ago discovered but still unexplained non-localized radiation effects (bystander effect and abscopal effect) and the efficacy of spatially fractionated radiation therapy (microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy) where many “hot” and “cold” spots are intentionally created throughout the treatment volume. Better understanding of the mechanisms behind the non-localized radiation effects creates tremendous opportunities to develop new and integrated cancer treatment strategies that are based on radiotherapy, immunology, and chemotherapy. However, in the multidisciplinary effort to advance new radiobiology, there are also tremendous challenges including a lack of multidisciplinary researchers and imaging technologies for the microscopic radiation-induced responses. A better grasp of the essence of

  15. Parity horizons in shape dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    I introduce the notion of a parity horizon, and show that many simple solutions of shape dynamics possess them. I show that the event horizons of the known asymptotically flat black hole solutions of shape dynamics are parity horizons and that this notion of parity implies that these horizons possess a notion of CPT invariance that can in some cases be extended to the solution as a whole. I present three new solutions of shape dynamics with parity horizons and find that not only do event horizons become parity horizons in shape dynamics, but observer-dependent horizons and Cauchy horizons do as well. The fact that Cauchy horizons become (singular) parity horizons suggests a general chronology protection mechanism in shape dynamics that prevents the formation of closed timelike curves. (paper)

  16. [Out of natural order: nature in discourses about cloning and stem cell research in Brazilian newspapers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Flavia Natércia da Silva

    2013-11-30

    Different conceptions of nature influence media coverage and public opinion about biotechnology. This study reports on a discourse analysis of the ideas about nature and what is natural expressed in Brazilian media coverage of cloning and stem cell research. In the discourse against this research, the biotechnologies in question are placed outside the natural order of things and deemed immoral. In the discourse of those who defend it, nature is portrayed as indifferent to the fate of humans or even cruel, or else a barrier to be overcome, while cloning and embryonic stem cells are naturalized and Dolly the sheep is anthropomorphized. The mythifying or transcendental representations of nature do not just influence public opinion, but also have ethical and political implications.

  17. New horizons in the implementation and research of comprehensive geriatric assessment: knowing, doing and the “know-do” gap

    OpenAIRE

    Gladman, John R.F.; Conroy, Simon P.; Ranhoff, Anette H.; Gordon, Adam L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we outline the relationship between the need to put existing applied health research knowledge into practice (the “know-do gap”) and the need to improve the evidence base (the “know gap”) with respect to the health care process used for older people with frailty known as comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA).\\ud We explore the reasons for the know-do gap and the principles of how these barriers to implementation might be overcome. We explore how these principles should affect...

  18. Science beyond fiction. A revolution of knowledge transfer in research, education, and practice is on the horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    "Digitality" (as opposed to "digitalization"--the conversion from the analog domain to the digital domain) will open up a whole new world that does not originate from the analog world. Contemporary research in the field of neural concepts and neuromorphic computing systems will lead to convergences between the world of digitality and the world of neuronality, giving the theme "Knowledge and Culture" a new meaning. The simulation of virtual multidimensional and contextual spaces will transform the transfer of knowledge from a uni- and bidirectional process into an interactive experience. We will learn to learn in a ubiquitous computing environment and will abandon conventional curriculum organization principles. The adaptation of individualized ontologies will result in the emergence of a new world of knowledge in which knowledge evolves from a cultural heritage into a commodity.

  19. Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and development: A situation report ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... tuberculosis (XDR-TB), call for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs to combat this disease.

  20. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process

  1. ERATOSTHENES: excellence research Centre for Earth surveillance and space-based monitoring of the environment, the EXCELSIOR Horizon 2020 teaming project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Kontoes, Haris; Schreier, Gunter; Ansmann, Albert; Komodromos, George; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Mamouri, Rodanthi; Michaelides, Silas; Nisantzi, Argyro; Papoutsa, Christiana; Neocleous, Kyriacos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Tzouvaras, Marios; Evagorou, Evagoras; Christofe, Andreas; Melillos, George; Papoutsis, Ioannis

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the strategy and vision to upgrade the existing ERATOSTHENES Research Centre (ERC) established within the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT) into a sustainable, viable and autonomous Centre of Excellence (CoE) for Earth Surveillance and Space-Based Monitoring of the Environment, which will provide the highest quality of related services on the National, European and International levels. EXCELSIOR is a Horizon 2020 Teaming project which addresses a specific challenge defined by the work program, namely, the reduction of substantial disparities in the European Union by supporting research and innovation activities and systems in low performing countries. It also aims at establishing long-term and strategic partnerships between the Teaming partners, thus reducing internal research and innovation disparities within European Research and Innovation landscape. The proposed CoE envisions the upgrading of the existing ERC into an inspiring environment for conducting basic and applied research and innovation in the areas of the integrated use of remote sensing and space-based techniques for monitoring the environment. Environment has been recognized by the Smart Specialization Strategy of Cyprus as the first horizontal priority for future growth of the island. The foreseen upgrade will regard the expansion of this vision to systematic monitoring of the environment using Earth Observation, space and ground based integrated technologies. Such an approach will lead to the systematic monitoring of all three domains of the Environment (Air, Land, Water). Five partners have united to upgrade the existing ERC into a CoE, with the common vision to become a world-class innovation, research and education centre, actively contributing to the European Research Area (ERA). More specifically, the Teaming project is a team effort between the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT, acting as the coordinator), the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), the

  2. The use of radiotracers in natural rubber research in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, P.F.; Singh, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Five main areas where radiotracers have been used in research on natural rubber are on studies on the uptake of plant nutrients by Hevea brasiliensis using 32 P, 86 Rb and 45 Ca as tracers; biosynthesis of Hevea rubber using 14 C or 3 H labelled intermediates; translocation and metabolism of 14 C. Ethephon in Hevea brasiliensis; use of radiotracers as analytical tools and adsorption of labelled fatty acid soaps on natural rubber lattices. These studies are discussed to show the powerful tool that radiotracers provide in agricultural, biochemical and chemical research on natural rubber. (author)

  3. The nature of qualitative construction partnering research : literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Venselaar; Hans Warmelink

    2017-01-01

    from the publisher's site: "The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of qualitative construction partnering research. Design/methodology/approach. In total, 20 qualitative peer-reviewed papers about construction partnering research are reviewed. Findings: The results show four

  4. Experimental Researches Regarding the Ecological Dyeing with Natural Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budeanu Ramona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ‘environmental awareness’ has recently had a major impact on the textile industry and on the fashion world as well. In this context, the use of natural fibres and the development of natural dyeing processes gradually became important goals of the textile industry. Of all natural textile fibres, hemp is considered to be one of the strongest and most durable. A wide range of natural extracts have been used for natural textile coloration and dyeing. Dyes deriving from natural sources have emerged as an important alternative to synthetic dyes. Ecofriendly, nontoxic, sustainable and renewable natural dyes and pigments have been used for colouring the food substrate, leather, wood, natural fibres and fabrics from the dawn of human history. The purpose of the research is to obtain ecologically coloured fabrics for textiles by using a method of dyeing that relies on natural ingredients extracted from red beet, onion leaves and black tea. The experiments are conducted on three different types of hemp fabrics. This paper presents the results of the studies regarding the dyeing process of hemp fabrics with natural extracts, the colours of the dyed samples inspected with reflectance spectra and the CIE L*a*b* colour space measurements.

  5. Understanding European education landscape on natural disasters - a textbook research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.; Steinführer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of natural-disaster education for social preparedness is presented. Increasing damage caused by natural disasters around the globe draws attention to the fact that even developed societies must adapt to natural processes. Natural-disaster education is a component part of any education strategy for a sustainably oriented society. The purpose of this article is to present the role of formal education in natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, nearly 190 textbooks from 35 European countries were examined. The greatest focus on natural disasters can be found in textbooks published in western Europe (3.8% of pages describing natural disasters), and the smallest in those published in eastern Europe (0.7%). A share of textbook pages exceeding three percent describing natural disasters can also be found in northern Europe (3.6%) and southeast Europe, including Turkey (3.4%). The shares in central and southern Europe exceed two percent (i.e., 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively). The types and specific examples of natural disasters most commonly covered in textbooks as well as the type of natural disasters presented in textbooks according to the number of casualties and the damage caused were analyzed. The results show that the majority of European (secondary-school) education systems are poorly developed in terms of natural-disaster education. If education is perceived as part of natural-disaster management and governance, greater attention should clearly be dedicated to this activity. In addition to formal education, informal education also raises a series of questions connected with the importance of this type of education. Special attention was drawn to the importance of knowledge that locals have about their region because this aspect of education is important in both

  6. VMware Horizon Workspace essentials

    CERN Document Server

    von Oven, Peter; Lindberg, Joel

    2014-01-01

    This book uses a step-by-step approach to teach you how to design, deploy, and manage a Horizon Workspace based on real world experience. Written in an easy-to-follow style, this book explains the terminology in a clear and concise manner. Each feature is explained starting at a high level and then drilling down into the technical detail, using diagrams and screenshots.This book is perfect for IT administrators who want to deploy a solution to centrally manage access to corporate applications, data, and virtual desktops using Horizon Workspace. You need to have some experience in delivering BY

  7. Mastering VMware Horizon 6

    CERN Document Server

    Oven, Peter von

    2015-01-01

    If you are working as a desktop admin, part of a EUC team, an architect, or a consultant on a desktop virtualization project and you are looking to use VMware's Horizon solution, this book is for you. This book will demonstrate the new capabilities of Horizon 6. You should have experience in desktop management using Windows and Microsoft Office, and be familiar with Active Directory, SQL, Windows Remote Desktop Session Hosting, and VMware vSphere infrastructure (ESXi and vCenter Server) technology.

  8. Bootstrap, universality and horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chi-Ming [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94704 (United States); Lin, Ying-Hsuan [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-10-13

    We present a closed form expression for the semiclassical OPE coefficients that are universal for all 2D CFTs with a “weak” light spectrum, by taking the semiclassical limit of the fusion kernel. We match this with a properly regularized and normalized bulk action evaluated on a geometry with three conical defects, analytically continued in the deficit angles beyond the range for which a metric with positive signature exists. The analytically continued geometry has a codimension-one coordinate singularity surrounding the heaviest conical defect. This singularity becomes a horizon after Wick rotating to Lorentzian signature, suggesting a connection between universality and the existence of a horizon.

  9. Cooling Performance of Natural Circulation for a Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Suki; Chun, J. H.; Yum, S. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper deals with the core cooling performance by natural circulation during normal operation and a flow channel blockage event in an open tank-in-pool type research reactor. The cooling performance is predicted by using the RELAP5/ MOD3.3 code. The core decay heat is usually removed by natural circulation to the reactor pool water in open tank-in-pool type research reactors with the thermal power less than several megawatts. Therefore, these reactors have generally no active core cooling system against a loss of normal forced flow. In reactors with the thermal power less than around one megawatt, the reactor core can be cooled down by natural circulation even during normal full power operation. The cooling performance of natural circulation in an open tank-in-pool type research reactor has been investigated during the normal natural circulation and a flow channel blockage event. It is found that the maximum powers without void generation at the hot channel are around 1.16 MW and 820 kW, respectively, for the normal natural circulation and the flow channel blockage event.

  10. Profiling Academic Research on Massively Multiplayer On-line Role-Play Gaming (MMORPG 2000-2009: Horizons for Educational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Castañeda Peña

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Whilst there exists a large body of publications around Massively Multiplayer On-line Role-Play Gaming (MMORPG, there is little profiling academic research on this type of game. This study aims at unveiling what, when, where and who constitute scholarly work in research about MMORPG. A 777-register dataset was configured with primary documents taken from 16 databases and two web-portals. The dataset was drilled down using specialized text-mining software. Findings revealed four main research interests that comprise the games themselves, gaming experiences, systems architecture and educational MMORPG. It was also found that research on this topic started out in 2002 and some milestones of emerging research were charted out. The most prolific organizations and authors were also identified in which the USA, Canada and Italy occupy outstanding places. It is recommended that research profiling studies be carried out to extend more informed literature reviews and support further research questions.

  11. The spatial relation between the event horizon and trapping horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Alex B

    2010-01-01

    The relation between event horizons and trapping horizons is investigated in a number of different situations with emphasis on their role in thermodynamics. A notion of constant change is introduced that in certain situations allows the location of the event horizon to be found locally. When the black hole is accreting matter the difference in area between the two different horizons can be many orders of magnitude larger than the Planck area. When the black hole is evaporating, the difference is small on the Planck scale. A model is introduced that shows how trapping horizons can be expected to appear outside the event horizon before the black hole starts to evaporate. Finally, a modified definition is introduced to invariantly define the location of the trapping horizon under a conformal transformation. In this case the trapping horizon is not always a marginally outer trapped surface.

  12. Box: Natural Language Processing Research Using Amazon Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelrod Amittai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a publicly-available state-of-the-art research and development platform for Machine Translation and Natural Language Processing that runs on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud. This provides a standardized research environment for all users, and enables perfect reproducibility and compatibility. Box also enables users to use their hardware budget to avoid the management and logistical overhead of maintaining a research lab, yet still participate in global research community with the same state-of-the-art tools.

  13. Optimal investment horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, I.; Jensen, M. H.; Johansen, A.

    2002-06-01

    In stochastic finance, one traditionally considers the return as a competitive measure of an asset, i.e., the profit generated by that asset after some fixed time span Δt, say one week or one year. This measures how well (or how bad) the asset performs over that given period of time. It has been established that the distribution of returns exhibits ``fat tails'' indicating that large returns occur more frequently than what is expected from standard Gaussian stochastic processes [1-3]. Instead of estimating this ``fat tail'' distribution of returns, we propose here an alternative approach, which is outlined by addressing the following question: What is the smallest time interval needed for an asset to cross a fixed return level of say 10%? For a particular asset, we refer to this time as the investment horizon and the corresponding distribution as the investment horizon distribution. This latter distribution complements that of returns and provides new and possibly crucial information for portfolio design and risk-management, as well as for pricing of more exotic options. By considering historical financial data, exemplified by the Dow Jones Industrial Average, we obtain a novel set of probability distributions for the investment horizons which can be used to estimate the optimal investment horizon for a stock or a future contract.

  14. Pedogenetic processes in anthrosols with pretic horizon (Amazonian Dark Earth in Central Amazon, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S Macedo

    Full Text Available Anthrosols known as Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE have borne witness to the intensification of sedentary patterns and the demographic increase in Central Amazon. As a result, a recurring pattern has been observed of mounds with ADE arising from domestic activities and the disposal of waste. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the relationship of these anthropic activities with pedogenetic formation processes of ADE in the municipality of Iranduba, Brazil. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were taken from two areas of ADE (pretic horizon and from a non-anthropic pedon. Physical, chemical, micromorphological and SEM-EDS analyses were performed. The coarse material of the pretic horizons consisted predominantly of quartz, iron nodules, ceramics and charcoal fragments, and the fine material is organo-mineral. There was a direct relationship between the color of pretic horizons and the number of charcoal fragments. The thickness of the ADE results from the redistribution of charcoal at depth through bioturbation, transforming subsurface horizons into anthropic horizons. ADE presents granular microaggregates of geochemical and zoogenetic origin. Degradation of iron nodules is intensified in pretic horizons, promoting a reverse pedogenic process contributing to the xanthization process. Surprisingly the anthropic activities also favor clay dispersion and argilluviation; clay coatings on the ceramic fragments and in the pores demonstrate that this is a current process. Processes identified as contributing to ADE genesis included: i addition of organic residues and ceramic artifacts (cumulization with the use of fire; ii mechanical action of humans, roots and macrofauna (bioturbation; iii melanization of deeper horizons as a result of bioturbation; iv argilluviation and degradation of iron nodules. This study offers new support to archaeological research in respect to ADE formation processes in Central Amazon and confirmed the hypothesis

  15. Instability of enclosed horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2015-03-01

    We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.

  16. Natural computing for mechanical systems research: A tutorial overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Keith; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Hensman, James J.

    2011-01-01

    A great many computational algorithms developed over the past half-century have been motivated or suggested by biological systems or processes, the most well-known being the artificial neural networks. These algorithms are commonly grouped together under the terms soft or natural computing. A property shared by most natural computing algorithms is that they allow exploration of, or learning from, data. This property has proved extremely valuable in the solution of many diverse problems in science and engineering. The current paper is intended as a tutorial overview of the basic theory of some of the most common methods of natural computing as they are applied in the context of mechanical systems research. The application of some of the main algorithms is illustrated using case studies. The paper also attempts to give some indication as to which of the algorithms emerging now from the machine learning community are likely to be important for mechanical systems research in the future.

  17. Horse Rock Ridge Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan B. Curtis

    2003-01-01

    Horse Rock Ridge Research Natural Area (HRR RNA) was established in June 1995 to protect the best remaining example of a grassy “bald” (treeless area) on the western margin of the Cascade Range and its associated botanical, wildlife, and scenic values. This bald is surrounded by old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii/Tsuga heterophylla...

  18. Forest Creeks Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Ron Halvorson

    2010-01-01

    This guidebook describes Forest Creeks Research Natural Area, a 164-ha (405-ac) area comprising two geographically distinct canyons and associated drainages. The two units have been established as examples of first- to third-order streams originating within a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) zone. The two riparian areas also represent examples of...

  19. Cherry Creek Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Jennie Sperling; Tim Rodenkirk

    2011-01-01

    This guidebook describes Cherry Creek Research Natural Area, a 239-ha (590-ac) area that supports old-growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock (Pseudotsuga menziesii- Tsuga heterophylla) forest occurring on sedimentary materials in the southern Oregon Coast Range. Major plant associations present within the area include the western hemlock/Oregon oxalis...

  20. Short history of natural product research in the CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walwyn, D

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural product research has been a major component of the CSIR's bioscience activities for its entire history, and particularly in the 1960s and 1970s. This type of work is also strongly aligned with one of the objectives of the CSIR, namely...

  1. Fish Creek Rim Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Ian Grinter

    2016-01-01

    This guidebook describes major biological and physical attributes of the 3531-ha (8,725-ac) Fish Creek Rim Research Natural Area located within the Northern Basin and Range ecoregion and managed by the Bureau of Land Management, Lakeview District (USDI BLM 2003).

  2. Partnerships panel: natural, resource partnerships: literature synthesis and research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Selin; Nancy Myers

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of an annotated bibliography on natural resource partnerships. Resource areas and management functions addressed in the partnership literature are examined. Partnership research is summarized and broken into categories including: Partnership outcomes, assessing the potential for partnerships, characteristics of successful partnerships,...

  3. Profiling Academic Research on Massively Multiplayer On-line Role-Play Gaming (MMORPG 2000-2009: Horizons for Educational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Castañeda Peña

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.38folios75.94 Whilst there exists a large body of publications around Massively Multiplayer On-line Role-Play Gaming (MMORPG, there is little profiling academic research on this type of game. This study aims at unveiling what, when, where and who constitute scholarly work in research about MMORPG. A 777-register dataset was configured with primary documents taken from 16 databases and two web-portals. The dataset was drilled down using specialized text-mining software. Findings revealed four main research interests that comprise the games themselves, gaming experiences, systems architecture and educational MMORPG. It was also found that research on this topic started out in 2002 and some milestones of emerging research were charted out. The most prolific organizations and authors were also identified in which the USA, Canada and Italy occupy outstanding places. It is recommended that research profiling studies be carried out to extendmore informed literature reviews and support further research questions.

  4. Evolution of natural risk: research framework and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufschmidt, G.; Crozier, M.; Glade, T.

    2005-05-01

    This study presents a conceptual framework for addressing temporal variation in natural risk. Numerous former natural risk analyses and investigations have demonstrated that time and related changes have a crucial influence on risk. For natural hazards, time becomes a factor for a number of reasons. Using the example of landslides to illustrate this point, it is shown that: 1. landslide history is important in determining probability of occurrence, 2. the significance of catchment variables in explaining landslide susceptibility is dependent on the time scale chosen, 3. the observer's perception of the geosystem's state changes with different time spans, and 4. the system's sensitivity varies with time. Natural hazards are not isolated events but complex features that are connected with the social system. Similarly, elements at risk and their vulnerability are highly dynamic through time, an aspect that is not sufficiently acknowledged in research. Since natural risk is an amalgam of hazard and vulnerability, its temporal behaviour has to be considered as well. Identifying these changes and their underlying processes contributes to a better understanding of natural risk today and in the future. However, no dynamic models for natural risks are currently available. Dynamic behaviour of factors affecting risk is likely to create increasing connectivity and complexity. This demands a broad approach to natural risk, since the concept of risk encapsulates aspects of many disciplines and has suffered from single-discipline approaches in the past. In New Zealand, dramatic environmental and social change has occurred in a relatively short period of time, graphically demonstrating the temporal variability of the geosystem and the social system. To understand these changes and subsequent interactions between both systems, a holistic perspective is needed. This contribution reviews available frameworks, demonstrates the need for further concepts, and gives research

  5. Spacetimes containing slowly evolving horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, William; Booth, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Slowly evolving horizons are trapping horizons that are ''almost'' isolated horizons. This paper reviews their definition and discusses several spacetimes containing such structures. These include certain Vaidya and Tolman-Bondi solutions as well as (perturbatively) tidally distorted black holes. Taking into account the mass scales and orders of magnitude that arise in these calculations, we conjecture that slowly evolving horizons are the norm rather than the exception in astrophysical processes that involve stellar-scale black holes

  6. Super-horizon primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Tomohiro; Carr, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a new class of solutions to the Einstein equations which describe a primordial black hole (PBH) in a flat Friedmann background. Such solutions arise if a Schwarzschild black hole is patched onto a Friedmann background via a transition region. They are possible providing the black hole event horizon is larger than the cosmological apparent horizon. Such solutions have a number of strange features. In particular, one has to define the black hole and cosmological horizons carefully and one then finds that the mass contained within the black hole event horizon decreases when the black hole is larger than the Friedmann cosmological apparent horizon, although its area always increases. These solutions involve two distinct future null infinities and are interpreted as the conversion of a white hole into a black hole. Although such solutions may not form from gravitational collapse in the same way as standard PBHs, there is nothing unphysical about them, since all energy and causality conditions are satisfied. Their conformal diagram is a natural amalgamation of the Kruskal diagram for the extended Schwarzschild solution and the conformal diagram for a black hole in a flat Friedmann background. In this paper, such solutions are obtained numerically for a spherically symmetric universe containing a massless scalar field, but it is likely that they exist for more general matter fields and less symmetric systems

  7. Factors that impact interdisciplinary natural science research collaboration in academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2005-01-01

    to provide a more comprehensive understanding of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration within the natural sciences in academia. Data analysis confirmed factors previously identified in various literatures and yielded new factors. A total of twenty factors were identified, and classified......Interdisciplinary collaboration occurs when people with different educational and research backgrounds bring complementary skills to bear on a problem or task. The strength of interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration is its capacity to bring together diverse scientific knowledge...... to address complex problems and questions. However, interdisciplinary scientific research can be difficult to initiate and sustain. We do not yet fully understand factors that impact interdisciplinary scientific research collaboration. This study synthesizes empirical data from two empirical studies...

  8. Gravitational pressure, apparent horizon and thermodynamics of FLRW universe in the teleparallel gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Neto, J. F.; Morais, B. R.

    2018-04-01

    In the context of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity the concept of gravitational pressure and gravitational energy-momentum arisen in a natural way. In the case of a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space FLRW we obtain the total energy contained inside the apparent horizon and the radial pressure over the apparent horizon area. We use these definitions to written a thermodynamics relation TAdSA = dEA+PAdVA at the apparent horizon, where EA is the total energy inside the apparent horizon, VA is the areal volume of the apparent horizon, PA is the radial pressure over the apparent horizon area, SA is the entropy which can be assumed as one quarter of the apparent horizon area only for a non stationary apparent horizon. We identify TA as the temperature at the surface of the apparent horizon. We shown that for all expanding accelerated FLRW model of universe the radial pressure is positive.

  9. Locating the Gribov horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D.; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose

    2018-02-01

    We explore whether a tree-level expression for the gluon two-point function, supposed to express effects of an horizon term introduced to eliminate the Gribov ambiguity, is consistent with the propagator obtained in simulations of lattice-regularised quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In doing so, we insist that the gluon two-point function obey constraints that ensure a minimal level of consistency with parton-like behaviour at ultraviolet momenta. In consequence, we are led to a position which supports a conjecture that the gluon mass and horizon scale are equivalent emergent massscales, each with a value of roughly 0.5 GeV; and wherefrom it appears plausible that the dynamical generation of a running gluon mass may alone be sufficient to remove the Gribov ambiguity.

  10. Horizon Scanning for Pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepage-Nefkens, Isabelle; Douw, Karla; Mantjes, GertJan

    for a joint horizon scanning system (HSS).  We propose to create a central “horizon scanning unit” to perform the joint HS activities (a newly established unit, an existing HS unit, or a third party commissioned and financed by the collaborating countries). The unit will be responsible for the identification...... and filtration of new and emerging pharmaceutical products. It will maintain and update the HS database, organise company pipeline meetings, and disseminate the HSS’s outputs.  The HS unit works closely together with the designated national HS experts in each collaborating country. The national HS experts...... will collect country-specific information, liaise between the central HS unit and country-specific clinical and other experts, coordinate the national prioritization process (to select products for early assessment), and communicate the output of the HSS to national decision makers.  The outputs of the joint...

  11. Locating the Gribov horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D.; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose

    2018-02-01

    We explore whether a tree-level expression for the gluon two-point function, supposed to express effects of an horizon term introduced to eliminate the Gribov ambiguity, is consistent with the propagator obtained in simulations of lattice-regularized quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In doing so, we insist that the gluon two-point function obey constraints that ensure a minimal level of consistency with parton-like behavior on the ultraviolet domain. In consequence, we are led to a position which supports a conjecture that the gluon mass and horizon scale are equivalent emergent mass-scales, each with a value of roughly 0.5 GeV; and wherefrom it appears plausible that the dynamical generation of a running gluon mass may alone be sufficient to remove the Gribov ambiguity.

  12. Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.B.

    2002-02-28

    The Environmental Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has established a Field Research Center (FRC) to support the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the DOE Headquarters Office of Biological and Environmental Research within the Office of Science.

  13. Fire Process Research Natural Areas: Managing research and restoration of dynamic ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Ingalsbee

    2001-01-01

    Since 1992 a collaborative group of fire scientists, forest conservationists, and Federal resource specialists have been developing proposals for a Research Natural Area (RNA) in the Warner Creek Fire area on the Willamette National Forest in Oregon. Inspired by these proposals, the Oregon Natural Heritage Plan created the new category of "Fire Process RNAs"...

  14. Political behavior in organizational context: nature, research and paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Jafariani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates political behavior in organization context. In the first section, it studies inappropriate terminology in political behavior arena and recommends that political behaviors are neither positive nor negative in nature. The study also demonstrates that ends and means for influencing others are two criteria for determining faces of political behavior. In the second section, related and important research are reviewed and categorized in terms of content. Finally, we present the dominant paradigm of political behavior as a philosophical infrastructure. The study also presents some guidelines for further research the limitations are discussed in conclusion part.

  15. Research needs on the natural gas field in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutanen, V.

    1992-01-01

    This report deals with the research needs on natural gas sector in Finland during the next 5-10 years. 0n that ground it has also been drafted a proposal for organization of the research and on which fields the research should be directed. The basis and criterium in this study has been on the other hand, the improvement of the possibilities in international trade of finnish companies and on the other hand the improvement of the efficiency and the reduction of the environmental impacts of energy use and production in Finland. As a result of the study it is proposed that a research entireness, which will direct extensively towards the gaseous fuels (gasification of coal and biomass, natural gas, LPG, hydrogen), will be formed. The key topics of the research would be: Production of the gases (gasification), high-efficient power and heat generation with gaseous fuels, improvement of efficiency and reduction of environmental impacts of energy use in industry with direct use of gaseous fuels and gaseous fuels in vehicles

  16. Spacetimes foliated by Killing horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Tomasz; Lewandowski, Jerzy; Jezierski, Jacek

    2004-01-01

    It seems to be expected that a horizon of a quasi-local type, such as a Killing or an isolated horizon, by analogy with a globally defined event horizon, should be unique in some open neighbourhood in the spacetime, provided the vacuum Einstein or the Einstein-Maxwell equations are satisfied. The aim of our paper is to verify whether that intuition is correct. If one can extend a so-called Kundt metric, in such a way that its null, shear-free surfaces have spherical spacetime sections, the resulting spacetime is foliated by so-called non-expanding horizons. The obstacle is Kundt's constraint induced at the surfaces by the Einstein or the Einstein-Maxwell equations, and the requirement that a solution be globally defined on the sphere. We derived a transformation (reflection) that creates a solution to Kundt's constraint out of data defining an extremal isolated horizon. Using that transformation, we derived a class of exact solutions to the Einstein or Einstein-Maxwell equations of very special properties. Each spacetime we construct is foliated by a family of the Killing horizons. Moreover, it admits another, transversal Killing horizon. The intrinsic and extrinsic geometries of the transversal Killing horizon coincide with the one defined on the event horizon of the extremal Kerr-Newman solution. However, the Killing horizon in our example admits yet another Killing vector tangent to and null at it. The geometries of the leaves are given by the reflection

  17. Researching Pacific island livelihoods: mobility, natural resource management and nissology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andreas E; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies. The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales.

  18. Research into the transmission of natural gas by gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1998-12-31

    This paper is the press release of the talk given at the `Gaz de France scientific meeting with the press` by P. Gadonneix, chairman of Gaz de France company, on October 7, 1998. The aim of this talk concerns the new French and European supply link for bringing natural gas from the Norwegian North Sea fields. This new supply link is the first direct link between Norway and France and the NorFra gas pipeline which brings natural gas from the North Sea to France is the longest offshore pipeline in the world. The `Artere des Hauts de France` pipeline (the largest diameter gas pipeline ever laid in France) is devoted to the transfer of natural gas from Dunkerque to the Gournay-sur-Aronde underground storage site. This paper describes successively: the French European gas supply hub, the NorFra project, the Artere des Hauts de France pipeline, the network performance research, the safety and quality guaranties, the reduction of overland natural gas transmission costs (improvement of pipe-laying techniques and optimization of line route and welding operations), the specific techniques used for road and river crossing (micro-tunnel digging, river-crossing ditches) and for anchoring (buoyancy compensation). Finally, the environmental impact of the laying operations is briefly described. (J.S.)

  19. VMware Horizon Mirage essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Von Oven, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a practical, step-by-step approach to teach you how to build a successful infrastructure.This book is perfect for desktop administrators who want to deploy a solution to centrally manage their endpoint images across their entire estate using VMware Horizon Mirage. You need to have some experience in desktop image management using Microsoft Windows operating systems and Windows applications, as well as be familiar with Active Directory, SQL, IIS, and general server infrastructure relating to supporting end users.

  20. Horizons of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Horizons of Cosmology: Exploring Worlds Seen and Unseen is the fourth title published in the Templeton Science and Religion Series, in which scientists from a wide range of fields distill their experience and knowledge into brief tours of their respective specialties. In this volume, highly esteemed astrophysicist Joseph Silk explores the vast mysteries and speculations of the field of cosmology in a way that balances an accessible style for the general reader and enough technical detail for advanced students and professionals. Indeed, while the p

  1. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  2. Research of CO2 concentration in naturally ventilated lecture room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Marta; Dudkiewicz, Edyta

    2017-11-01

    Naturally ventilated buildings especially dedicated for educational purposes need to be design to achieve required level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality. It is crucial in terms of both: health and productivity of the room users. Higher requirements of indoor environment are important due to the level of students concentration, their ability to acquire new knowledge and willingness to interact with the lecturer. The article presents the results of experimental study and surveys undertaken in naturally ventilated lecture room. The data is analysed in terms of CO2 concentration and its possible influence on users. Furthermore the outcome of the research is compared with the CO2 concentration models available in the literature.

  3. Using of Natural Language Processing Techniques in Suicide Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Orooji

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that each year many people, most of whom are teenagers and young adults die by suicide worldwide. Suicide receives special attention with many countries developing national strategies for prevention. Since, more medical information is available in text, Preventing the growing trend of suicide in communities requires analyzing various textual resources, such as patient records, information on the web or questionnaires. For this purpose, this study systematically reviews recent studies related to the use of natural language processing techniques in the area of people’s health who have completed suicide or are at risk. After electronically searching for the PubMed and ScienceDirect databases and studying articles by two reviewers, 21 articles matched the inclusion criteria. This study revealed that, if a suitable data set is available, natural language processing techniques are well suited for various types of suicide related research.

  4. Interdisciplinary researches for potential developments of drugs and natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunrat Chaveerach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Developments of drugs or natural products from plants are possibly made, simple to use and lower cost than modern drugs. The development processes can be started with studying local wisdom and literature reviews to choose the plants which have long been used in diverse areas, such as foods, traditional medicine, fragrances and seasonings. Then those data will be associated with scientific researches, namely plant collection and identification, phytochemical screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, pharmacological study/review for their functions, and finally safety and efficiency tests in human. For safety testing, in vitro cell toxicity by cell viability assessment and in vitro testing of DNA breaks by the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can be performed. When active chemicals and functions containing plants were chosen with safety and efficacy for human uses, then, the potential medicinal natural products will be produced. Based on these procedures, the producing cost will be cheaper and the products can be evaluated for their clinical properties. Thus, the best and lowest-priced medicines and natural products can be distributed worldwide.

  5. Interdisciplinary researches for potential developments of drugs and natural products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arunrat Chaveerach; Runglawan Sudmoon; Tawatchai Tanee

    2017-01-01

    Developments of drugs or natural products from plants are possibly made,simple to use and lower cost than modern drugs.The development processes can be started with studying local wisdom and literature reviews to choose the plants which have long been used in diverse areas,such as foods,traditional medicine,fragrances and seasonings.Then those data will be associated with scientific researches,namely plant collection and identification,phytochemical screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,pharmacological study/review for their functions,and finally safety and efficiency tests in human.For safety testing,in vitro cell toxicity by cell viability assessment and in vitro testing of DNA breaks by the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can be performed.When active chemicals and functions containing plants were chosen with safety and efficacy for human uses,then,the potential medicinal natural products will be produced.Based on these procedures,the producing cost will be cheaper and the products can be evaluated for their clinical properties.Thus,the best and lowest-priced medicines and natural products can be distributed worldwide.

  6. Evaluation of PHI Hunter in Natural Language Processing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Andrew; Pickard, Steve; Meystre, Stephane; Scehnet, Jeffrey; Bolton, Dan; Heavirland, Julia; Weaver, Allison Lynn; Hope, Carol; Garvin, Jennifer Hornung

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and evaluate a new, easily accessible tool using a common statistical analysis and business analytics software suite, SAS, which can be programmed to remove specific protected health information (PHI) from a text document. Removal of PHI is important because the quantity of text documents used for research with natural language processing (NLP) is increasing. When using existing data for research, an investigator must remove all PHI not needed for the research to comply with human subjects' right to privacy. This process is similar, but not identical, to de-identification of a given set of documents. PHI Hunter removes PHI from free-form text. It is a set of rules to identify and remove patterns in text. PHI Hunter was applied to 473 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) text documents randomly drawn from a research corpus stored as unstructured text in VA files. PHI Hunter performed well with PHI in the form of identification numbers such as Social Security numbers, phone numbers, and medical record numbers. The most commonly missed PHI items were names and locations. Incorrect removal of information occurred with text that looked like identification numbers. PHI Hunter fills a niche role that is related to but not equal to the role of de-identification tools. It gives research staff a tool to reasonably increase patient privacy. It performs well for highly sensitive PHI categories that are rarely used in research, but still shows possible areas for improvement. More development for patterns of text and linked demographic tables from electronic health records (EHRs) would improve the program so that more precise identifiable information can be removed. PHI Hunter is an accessible tool that can flexibly remove PHI not needed for research. If it can be tailored to the specific data set via linked demographic tables, its performance will improve in each new document set.

  7. Near horizon structure of extremal vanishing horizon black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sadeghian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the near horizon structure of Extremal Vanishing Horizon (EVH black holes, extremal black holes with vanishing horizon area with a vanishing one-cycle on the horizon. We construct the most general near horizon EVH and near-EVH ansatz for the metric and other fields, like dilaton and gauge fields which may be present in the theory. We prove that (1 the near horizon EVH geometry for generic gravity theory in generic dimension has a three dimensional maximally symmetric subspace; (2 if the matter fields of the theory satisfy strong energy condition either this 3d part is AdS3, or the solution is a direct product of a locally 3d flat space and a d−3 dimensional part; (3 these results extend to the near horizon geometry of near-EVH black holes, for which the AdS3 part is replaced with BTZ geometry. We present some specific near horizon EVH geometries in 3, 4 and 5 dimensions for which there is a classification. We also briefly discuss implications of these generic results for generic (gauged supergravity theories and also for the thermodynamics of near-EVH black holes and the EVH/CFT proposal.

  8. Thermodynamics of event horizons in (2+1)-dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznik, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although gravity in 2+1 dimensions is very different in nature from gravity in 3+1 dimensions, it is shown that the laws of thermodynamics for event horizons can be manifested also for (2+1)-dimensional gravity. The validity of the classical laws of horizon mechanics is verified in general and exemplified for the (2+1)-dimensional analogues of Reissner-Nordstroem and Schwarzschild--de Sitter spacetimes. We find that the entropy is given by 1/4L, where L is the length of the horizon. A consequence of having consistent thermodynamics is that the second law fixes the sign of Newton's constant to be positive

  9. Cauchy horizons in Gowdy spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrusciel, Piotr T; Lake, Kayll

    2004-01-01

    We analyse exhaustively the structure of non-degenerate Cauchy horizons in Gowdy spacetimes, and we establish existence of a large class of non-polarized Gowdy spacetimes with such horizons. Our results here, together with the deep new results of Ringstroem, establish strong cosmic censorship in (toroidal) Gowdy spacetimes

  10. Natural Language Processing Technologies in Radiology Research and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianrun; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Yu, Sheng; Kelil, Tatiana; Ripley, Beth; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; Rybicki, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    The migration of imaging reports to electronic medical record systems holds great potential in terms of advancing radiology research and practice by leveraging the large volume of data continuously being updated, integrated, and shared. However, there are significant challenges as well, largely due to the heterogeneity of how these data are formatted. Indeed, although there is movement toward structured reporting in radiology (ie, hierarchically itemized reporting with use of standardized terminology), the majority of radiology reports remain unstructured and use free-form language. To effectively “mine” these large datasets for hypothesis testing, a robust strategy for extracting the necessary information is needed. Manual extraction of information is a time-consuming and often unmanageable task. “Intelligent” search engines that instead rely on natural language processing (NLP), a computer-based approach to analyzing free-form text or speech, can be used to automate this data mining task. The overall goal of NLP is to translate natural human language into a structured format (ie, a fixed collection of elements), each with a standardized set of choices for its value, that is easily manipulated by computer programs to (among other things) order into subcategories or query for the presence or absence of a finding. The authors review the fundamentals of NLP and describe various techniques that constitute NLP in radiology, along with some key applications. ©RSNA, 2016 PMID:26761536

  11. Natural Language Processing Technologies in Radiology Research and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianrun; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Yu, Sheng; Kelil, Tatiana; Ripley, Beth; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The migration of imaging reports to electronic medical record systems holds great potential in terms of advancing radiology research and practice by leveraging the large volume of data continuously being updated, integrated, and shared. However, there are significant challenges as well, largely due to the heterogeneity of how these data are formatted. Indeed, although there is movement toward structured reporting in radiology (ie, hierarchically itemized reporting with use of standardized terminology), the majority of radiology reports remain unstructured and use free-form language. To effectively "mine" these large datasets for hypothesis testing, a robust strategy for extracting the necessary information is needed. Manual extraction of information is a time-consuming and often unmanageable task. "Intelligent" search engines that instead rely on natural language processing (NLP), a computer-based approach to analyzing free-form text or speech, can be used to automate this data mining task. The overall goal of NLP is to translate natural human language into a structured format (ie, a fixed collection of elements), each with a standardized set of choices for its value, that is easily manipulated by computer programs to (among other things) order into subcategories or query for the presence or absence of a finding. The authors review the fundamentals of NLP and describe various techniques that constitute NLP in radiology, along with some key applications. ©RSNA, 2016.

  12. On the societal nature of praxis and organic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2016-03-01

    In its focus on social practices, the feature article presents an interesting theoretical framework for rethinking not only where and how knowing and learning in science education exhibit themselves but also we might change our own research practice. The framework is not new to me, as I have advocated it explicitly for more than 15 years. But over time it became apparent to me that some particularities of participation in practice may be grounded more strongly in an orientation towards the societal nature of any human praxis. In this forum contribution, I present a theoretical approach built on societal-historical activity theory that also takes activism as a major category for theorizing participation. This approach not only covers the extent of the social practice framework but also allows us to make thematic the production of inequity and restrictions to access science and engineering that are characteristic of many societies.

  13. Texts of the New Nature: Problems of Interdisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakova E.I.,

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores a new research direction unfolding at the junction of modern textual criticism and modernization challenges in education. It outlines the theoretical basis for constructing a model of the «new literacy» representative of the 21st century. The paper contains an attempt to describe the main trends in the changes of text: rejection of linearity, shrinkage of text volume, orientation to «small text structures», duplicative character of different sign systems in the content reflection, increase of interactivity, feedback forms development, emergence of «new forms of authorship» and a number of other trends. Examples are given of new literature, created in the form of comics, presentations, infographics, drawn notes. The author reveals the scope of «the texts of the new nature» through the provision of its characteristics; describes two main technologies of formation of such texts; provides experimental data that characterize the process of perception of this kind of texts; and, finally, formulates priority research issues.

  14. TU-C-HORIZONS-01: The Expanding Horizons Travel Grant Program: ePosters and Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siewerdsen, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jeraj, R [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Expanding Horizons travel grant program provides opportunity for students and trainees to broaden the scope of scientific meetings they attend and gain insight from research outside traditional domains of medical physics. Through participation in such conferences, early-career researchers are introduced to new topics with relevance to medical physics research as a means to expand the scientific horizons of our discipline. This year, 21 Expanding Horizons travel grants were awarded, granting travel to 17 conferences, including: Radiomics, the World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIS), the 3D Printing Conference and Expo, the GPU Technology Conference, the SIAM Imaging Science Conference, the Human Brain Mapping Conference, the OSA Conference on Clinical and Translational Biophotonics, the Society for Neuroscience, the AACR Conference on Tumor Microenvironment, and the Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. The Expanding Horizons electronic poster session gives a venue for AAPM conference attendees to meet and discuss with awardees, learn the hot topics and emerging research areas presented at these conferences, and understand the relevance to future medical physics research.

  15. TU-C-HORIZONS-01: The Expanding Horizons Travel Grant Program: ePosters and Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siewerdsen, J; Jeraj, R

    2016-01-01

    The Expanding Horizons travel grant program provides opportunity for students and trainees to broaden the scope of scientific meetings they attend and gain insight from research outside traditional domains of medical physics. Through participation in such conferences, early-career researchers are introduced to new topics with relevance to medical physics research as a means to expand the scientific horizons of our discipline. This year, 21 Expanding Horizons travel grants were awarded, granting travel to 17 conferences, including: Radiomics, the World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIS), the 3D Printing Conference and Expo, the GPU Technology Conference, the SIAM Imaging Science Conference, the Human Brain Mapping Conference, the OSA Conference on Clinical and Translational Biophotonics, the Society for Neuroscience, the AACR Conference on Tumor Microenvironment, and the Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. The Expanding Horizons electronic poster session gives a venue for AAPM conference attendees to meet and discuss with awardees, learn the hot topics and emerging research areas presented at these conferences, and understand the relevance to future medical physics research.

  16. Rogue events in the group velocity horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircan, Ayhan; Amiranashvili, Shalva; Brée, Carsten; Mahnke, Christoph; Mitschke, Fedor; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2012-01-01

    The concept of rogue waves arises from a mysterious and potentially calamitous phenomenon of oceanic surfaces. There is mounting evidence that they are actually commonplace in a variety of different physical settings. A set of defining criteria has been advanced; this set is of great generality and therefore applicable to a wide class of systems. The question arises naturally whether there are generic mechanisms responsible for extreme events in different systems. Here we argue that under suitable circumstances nonlinear interaction between weak and strong waves results in intermittent giant waves with all the signatures of rogue waves. To obtain these circumstances only a few basic conditions must be met. Then reflection of waves at the so-called group-velocity horizon occurs. The connection between rogue waves and event horizons, seemingly unrelated physical phenomena, is identified as a feature common in many different physical systems.

  17. Three theorems on near horizon extremal vanishing horizon geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sadeghian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available EVH black holes are Extremal black holes with Vanishing Horizon area, where vanishing of horizon area is a result of having a vanishing one-cycle on the horizon. We prove three theorems regarding near horizon geometry of EVH black hole solutions to generic Einstein gravity theories in diverse dimensions. These generic gravity theories are Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton-Λ theories, and gauged or ungauged supergravity theories with U(1 Maxwell fields. Our three theorems are: (1 The near horizon geometry of any EVH black hole has a three dimensional maximally symmetric subspace. (2 If the energy momentum tensor of the theory satisfies strong energy condition either this 3d part is an AdS3, or the solution is a direct product of a locally 3d flat space and a d−3 dimensional part. (3 These results extend to the near horizon geometry of near-EVH black holes, for which the AdS3 part is replaced with BTZ geometry.

  18. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ON NATURAL NUTRITION OF FRESH-WATER FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Piria

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers the entire review on the research methodology in natural nutrition of fresh-water fish. The data on fresh-water fish nutrition, particularly on fish of lower economic value, is inadequate. Reviewing the literature on assesment of nutritional parameters, the authors obviously use differenet approaches and methods. This paper is about most frequently used parameteres in qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis of food structure is the overall list of determinable taxa (mostlyu species and genera. The quantitative analysis comprises the assessment of particular nutritional categories by nutritional indices and coefficients. Bio-identification and numeric data processing can have numerous drawbacsk such as effect of regurgitation or the degree of digestion of the prey. The analyses of those effects proceed through statistical data processing in order to include spatial distribution of certain prey categories as well. The importance of this data is to determine the nutritional needs of potential species for culture as well as to come up with new insights on a particular aquatic ecosystem.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL NATURE OF PERSONAL HELPLESSNESS: RESULTS OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Aleksandrovna Tsiring

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the nature of personal helplessness. Defining personal helplessness from the position of subject-activity approach as the quality of the subject, which is the unity of certain personal characteristics, resulting from the interaction of internal to external conditions, determines the low level of subjectivity, the question of the environmental factors of its formation in adolescents.The purpose of research – to reveal features of family relationships and their contribution to the formation of personal helplessness in adolescents. From the perspective of systemic approach the authors argue that the communicative processes in the family helpless teen lots of different disorders than family relationships independent teenagers. The study has received the confirmation of the hypothesis that the violation of family relationships are the environmental factors of formation of personal helplessness. Named the major violations of interpersonal communication in the family, determining personal helplessness in adolescents: a dominant giperprotektsiya, increased moral responsibility, abuse, inconsistent parenting style.

  20. Killing Horizons as Equipotential Hypersurfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Smolić, Ivica

    2012-01-01

    In this note we present a new proof that Killing horizons are equipotential hypersurfaces for the electric and the magnetic scalar potential, that makes no use of gravitational field equations or the assumption about the existence of bifurcation surface.

  1. Analysis and research on natural circulation capacity of HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Taozhong; Duan Tianyuan

    2010-01-01

    For the operating characteristics of HFETR, the numerical model of HFETR was established by RELAP5/MOD3 to analysis the maximal natural circulation capacity. Combining with the reactor running condition, the influence of the system pressure was analyzed by ascending power in step method and the pool water temperature on natural circulation characteristics was analyzed by integral power method. The results show that the natural circulation capacity are 0.9 and 2.0 MW separately under low pressure and high pressure, the natural circulation capacity increases as the running pressure increases, however the natural circulation capacity decreases as the coolant temperature increases in the pressure vessel. Based on the computational result and the theoretical deduction, a correlation was proposed to predicate the relationship between the natural circulation mass flow and the core power under different coolant temperatures. (authors)

  2. The Nature of Practitioner Research: Critical Distance, Power and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Researching within one's place of practice allows the researcher to have the unique position of knowing the participants and the research context. The relationship the participants have with the researcher will impact upon the disclosure of information differently than research conducted by someone outside the area of practice. This can be a…

  3. New Horizons Pluto Flyby Guest Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M.; Turney, D.; Fisher, S.; Carr, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    On July 14, 2015, after 9.5 years of cruise, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft flew past the Pluto system to gather first images humankind had ever seen on Pluto and its five moons. While much has been discovered about the Pluto system since New Horizons launch in 2006, the system has never been imaged at high resolution and anticipation of the "First Light" of the Pluto system had been anticipated by planetary enthusiasts for decades. The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), which built and operates New Horizons, was the focal point for gathering three distinct groups: science and engineering team members; media and public affairs representatives; and invited public, including VIP's. Guest operations activities were focused on providing information primarily to the invited public and VIP's. High level objectives for the Guest Operations team was set to entertain and inform the general public, offer media reaction shots, and to deconflict activities for the guests from media activities wherever possible. Over 2000 people arrived at APL in the days surrounding closest approach for guest, science or media operations tracks. Reaction and coverage of the Guest Operations events was universally positive and global in impact: iconic pictures of the auditorium waving flags during the moment of closest approach were published in media outlets on every continent. Media relations activities ensured coverage in all key media publications targeted for release, such as the New York Times, Science, Le Monde, and Nature. Social and traditional media coverage of the events spanned the globe. Guest operations activities are designed to ensure that a guest has a memorable experience and leaves with a lifelong memory of the mission and their partnership in the activity. Results, lessons learned, and other data from the New Horizons guest operations activity will be presented and analyzed.

  4. Electrodynamics of the event horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punsly, B.; Coroniti, F.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of the electrodynamics of the event horizon of a Kerr black hole. It is demonstrated that the event horizon behaves quite generally as an asymptotic vacuum infinity for axisymmetric, charge-neutral, accreting electromagnetic sources. This is in contrast with the general notion that the event horizon can be treated as an imperfect conductive membrane with a surface impedance of 4π/c. The conductive-membrane model has been incorporated into the more sophisticated membrane paradigm of Thorne, Price, and Macdonald by supplementing the model with the full equations of general relativity. In certain situations (in particular those of astrophysical interest), the conductive-membrane interpretation forms the appropriate set of pictures and images in the membrane paradigm. In this paper we reevaluate the specific gedanken experiments that were originally used to motivate the paradigm. We find that great care must be exercised if the detailed interaction of a black hole's external gravitational field with a magnetized plasma is modeled by the electrodynamics of the conductive horizon membrane. For ingoing flows of plasma or electromagnetic waves (when the hole is passively accepting information), the interpretation of the horizon as a vacuum infinity is equivalent to an imperfect conductor with a surface impedance of 4π/c (the impedance of the vacuum). In situations when an imperfect conductor should radiate information (such as a Faraday wheel) the event horizon cannot, since it is an infinity. The event horizon does not behave quite generally as an imperfect conductor, but has electrodynamic properties unique to itself

  5. Proposed cuts to Horizon 2020 are short-sighted

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    When the latest incarnation of Europe’s framework programme for science funding, Horizon 2020, was announced, it was to great acclaim. Horizon 2020 builds on the already considerable success of its forerunners, which have made international research at the European level a reality and have contributed greatly to European competitiveness on the world stage.   We at CERN have benefited considerably, through projects that have enabled us to build on CERN’s core competencies to develop science at the grass-roots level across the continent. Horizon 2020 is more ambitious and more streamlined than its predecessors, and, funded at the level of €70 billion over seven years, it is potentially transformative. All of which makes the Commission’s plan to raid the Horizon 2020 budget to the tune of €2.7 billion rather incomprehensible. Keen to stimulate Europe’s economies, Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker has proposed a €21 billio...

  6. Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-04

    Jun 4, 2014 ... Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Quality Control (MCQC), National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and. Development ..... Anticancer. Cannabis sativa L. ... National Cancer Research Institute (NCI) at Frederick,.

  7. Supercritical water natural circulation flow stability experiment research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Dongliang; Zhou, Tao; Li, Bing [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering; North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Nuclear Thermalhydraulic Safety and Standardization; North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). Beijing Key Lab. of Passive Safety Technology for Nuclear Energy; Huang, Yanping [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu (China). Science and Technology on Reactor System Design Technology Lab.

    2017-12-15

    The Thermal hydraulic characteristics of supercritical water natural circulation plays an important role in the safety of the Generation-IV supercritical water-cooled reactors. Hence it is crucial to conduct the natural circulation heat transfer experiment of supercritical water. The heat transfer characteristics have been studied under different system pressures in the natural circulation systems. Results show that the fluctuations in the subcritical flow rate (for natural circulation) is relatively small, as compared to the supercritical flow rate. By increasing the heating power, it is observed that the amplitude (and time period) of the fluctuation tends to become larger for the natural circulation of supercritical water. This tends to show the presence of flow instability in the supercritical water. It is possible to observe the flow instability phenomenon when the system pressure is suddenly reduced from the supercritical pressure state to the subcritical state. At the test outlet section, the temperature is prone to increase suddenly, whereas the blocking effect may be observed in the inlet section of the experiment.

  8. Federal research natural areas in Oregon and Washington: a guidebook for scientists and educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry F. Franklin; Fredrick C. Hall; C. T. Dyrness; Chris. Maser

    1972-01-01

    A guide to the use of natural scientific preserves, Research Natural Areas, on Federal lands in Oregon and Washington. Detailed descriptions of physical and biological features, maps and photographs are provided for each of the 45 tracts presently reserved. Indices to Research Natural Areas by vegetation type and plant and mammalian species are included.

  9. Data publication activities in the Natural Environment Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, A.; Callaghan, S.; Lowry, R.; Moncoiffé, G.; Donnegan, S.; Pepler, S.; Cunningham, N.; Kirsch, P.; Ault, L.; Bell, P.; Bowie, R.; Harrison, K.; Smith-Haddon, B.; Wetherby, A.; Wright, D.; Thorley, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) is implementing its Science Information Strategy in order to provide a world class service to deliver integrated data for earth system science. One project within this strategy is Data Citation and Publication, which aims to put the promotion and recognition stages of the data lifecycle into place alongside the traditional data management activities of NERC's Environmental Data Centres (EDCs). The NERC EDCs have made a distinction between the serving of data and its publication. Data serving is defined in this case as the day-to-day data management tasks of: • acquiring data and metadata from the originating scientists; • metadata and format harmonisation prior to database ingestion; • ensuring the metadata is adequate and accurate and that the data are available in appropriate file formats; • and making the data available for interested parties. Whereas publication: • requires the assignment of a digital object identifier to a dataset which guarantees that an EDC has assessed the quality of the metadata and the file format and will maintain an unchanged version of the data for the foreseeable future • requires the peer-review of the scientific quality of the data by a scientist with knowledge of the scientific domain in which the data were collected, using a framework for peer-review of datasets such as that developed by the CLADDIER project. • requires collaboration with journal publishers who have access to a well established peer-review system The first of these requirements can be managed in-house by the EDCs, while the remainder require collaboration with the wider scientific and publishing communities. It is anticipated that a scientist may achieve a lower level of academic credit for a dataset which is assigned a DOI but does not follow through to the scientific peer-review stage, similar to publication in a report or other non-peer reviewed publication normally described as grey literature, or

  10. Moving Horizon Estimation and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    successful and applied methodology beyond PID-control for control of industrial processes. The main contribution of this thesis is introduction and definition of the extended linear quadratic optimal control problem for solution of numerical problems arising in moving horizon estimation and control...... problems. Chapter 1 motivates moving horizon estimation and control as a paradigm for control of industrial processes. It introduces the extended linear quadratic control problem and discusses its central role in moving horizon estimation and control. Introduction, application and efficient solution....... It provides an algorithm for computation of the maximal output admissible set for linear model predictive control. Appendix D provides results concerning linear regression. Appendix E discuss prediction error methods for identification of linear models tailored for model predictive control....

  11. Natural Products Research in China from 2015 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haishan; Zhu, Guoliang; Fan, Yaqin; Du, Yuqi; Lan, Mengmeng; Xu, Yibo; Zhu, Weiming

    2018-03-01

    This review covers the literature published by Chinese chemists from 2015 to 2016 on natural products (NPs), with 1,985 citations referring to 6,944 new compounds isolated from marine or terrestrial microorganisms, plants, and animals. The emphasis is on 730 new compounds with a novel skeleton or/and significant bioactivity, together with their source organism and country of origin.

  12. Research in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    how a Concept specializes its subsumer. |C|ANIMAL. |C|PLANT. |C(PERSON, and |C| UNICORN are natural kinds, and so will need a PrimitiveClass. As...build this proof, we must build a proof of p x (p X n) steps. The size of the proofs grows exponentially with the depth of nesting This :s clearly

  13. Plasmonic Horizon in Gold Nanosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Cynthia; Sivun, Dmitry; Ziegler, Johannes; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter; Hrelescu, Calin; Klar, Thomas A

    2018-02-14

    An electromagnetic wave impinging on a gold nanosponge coherently excites many electromagnetic hot-spots inside the nanosponge, yielding a polarization-dependent scattering spectrum. In contrast, a hole, recombining with an electron, can locally excite plasmonic hot-spots only within a horizon given by the lifetime of localized plasmons and the speed carrying the information that a plasmon has been created. This horizon is about 57 nm, decreasing with increasing size of the nanosponge. Consequently, photoluminescence from large gold nanosponges appears unpolarized.

  14. Using natural language processing techniques to inform research on nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja A. Lewinski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature in the field of nanotechnology is exponentially increasing with more and more engineered nanomaterials being created, characterized, and tested for performance and safety. With the deluge of published data, there is a need for natural language processing approaches to semi-automate the cataloguing of engineered nanomaterials and their associated physico-chemical properties, performance, exposure scenarios, and biological effects. In this paper, we review the different informatics methods that have been applied to patent mining, nanomaterial/device characterization, nanomedicine, and environmental risk assessment. Nine natural language processing (NLP-based tools were identified: NanoPort, NanoMapper, TechPerceptor, a Text Mining Framework, a Nanodevice Analyzer, a Clinical Trial Document Classifier, Nanotoxicity Searcher, NanoSifter, and NEIMiner. We conclude with recommendations for sharing NLP-related tools through online repositories to broaden participation in nanoinformatics.

  15. Natural Products Research in China From 2015 to 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Haishan Liu; Haishan Liu; Guoliang Zhu; Guoliang Zhu; Yaqin Fan; Yaqin Fan; Yuqi Du; Yuqi Du; Mengmeng Lan; Mengmeng Lan; Yibo Xu; Yibo Xu; Weiming Zhu; Weiming Zhu

    2018-01-01

    This review covers the literature published by chemists from China during the 2015–2016 on natural products (NPs), with 1,985 citations referring to 6,944 new compounds isolated from marine or terrestrial microorganisms, plants, and animals. The emphasis is on 730 new compounds with a novel skeleton or/and significant bioactivity, together with their source organism and country of origin.

  16. Neighborhoods of isolated horizons and their stationarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, Jerzy; Pawłowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    A distinguished (invariant) Bondi-like coordinate system is defined in the spacetime neighborhood of a non-expanding horizon of arbitrary dimension via geometry invariants of the horizon. With its use, the radial expansion of a spacetime metric about the horizon is provided and the free data needed to specify it up to a given order are determined in spacetime dimension 4. For the case of an electro-vacuum horizon in four-dimensional spacetime, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a Killing field at its neighborhood are identified as differential conditions for the horizon data and data for the null surface transversal to the horizon. (paper)

  17. Horizon scanning for environmental foresight: a review of issues and approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource management organizations carry out a range of activities to examine possible future conditions and trends as part of their planning process, but the distinct approach of formal horizon scanning is often a missing component of strategic thinking and strategy development in these organizations. Horizon scanning is a process for finding and interpreting...

  18. Horizon feedback inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Malcolm; Markkanen, Tommi; Rodriguez Roman, David

    2018-04-01

    We consider the effect of the Gibbons-Hawking radiation on the inflaton in the situation where it is coupled to a large number of spectator fields. We argue that this will lead to two important effects - a thermal contribution to the potential and a gradual change in parameters in the Lagrangian which results from thermodynamic and energy conservation arguments. We present a scenario of hilltop inflation where the field starts trapped at the origin before slowly experiencing a phase transition during which the field extremely slowly moves towards its zero temperature expectation value. We show that it is possible to obtain enough e-folds of expansion as well as the correct spectrum of perturbations without hugely fine-tuned parameters in the potential (albeit with many spectator fields). We also comment on how initial conditions for inflation can arise naturally in this situation.

  19. Event horizon and scalar potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duruisseau, J.P.; Tonnelat, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The introduction of a scalar potential with a more general scheme than General Relativity eliminates the event horizon. Among possible solutions, the Schwarzschild one represents a singular case. A study of the geodesic properties of the matching with an approximated interior solution are given. A new definition of the gravitational mass and chi function is deduced. (author)

  20. New Horizons in Education, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok Keung, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the May and November 2000 issues of "New Horizons in Education," with articles in English and Chinese. The May issue includes the following articles: "A Key to Successful Environmental Education: Teacher Trainees' Attitude, Behaviour, and Knowledge" (Kevin Chung Wai Lui, Eric Po Keung Tsang, Sing Lai…

  1. Killing horizons as equipotential hypersurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolić, Ivica

    2012-01-01

    In this note we present a new proof that Killing horizons are equipotential hypersurfaces for the electric and the magnetic scalar potential, which makes no use of gravitational field equations or the assumption about the existence of a bifurcation surface. (note)

  2. Research in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    interpretation would not be too bad if one were to believe that a frame "is intended to represent a ’ stereotypical situation’" ( [24], p. 48). We...natural kind-like concepts - some form of definitional structuring is necessary. The internal structure of non atomic concepts (e.g., proximate genus ...types of beer, bottles of wine, etc.; <x> need not be any sort of Onatural genus .’ For example, in Dll the definite pronoun Othem" is not meant to I

  3. Exposure-dose research for radionuclides in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNelis, D.N.; Patzer, R.G.

    1969-01-01

    The fate determination of specific radionuclides in natural gas stimulated by underground engineering applications is being examined. An experimental program, now in its initial stages, is using gas artificially labeled with krypton-85 and tritium under simulated domestic situations. The following topics are being investigated in this study: 1. The concentration of the radionuclides in a gas-heated home. 2. The build-up of contamination on appliances in the kitchen environment. 3. The concentration in foods as a function of radionuclide, food type and preparation. 4. The maximum exposure plausible under specified conditions. (author)

  4. Exposure-dose research for radionuclides in natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNelis, D N; Patzer, R G [Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory, U.S. Public Health Service, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The fate determination of specific radionuclides in natural gas stimulated by underground engineering applications is being examined. An experimental program, now in its initial stages, is using gas artificially labeled with krypton-85 and tritium under simulated domestic situations. The following topics are being investigated in this study: 1. The concentration of the radionuclides in a gas-heated home. 2. The build-up of contamination on appliances in the kitchen environment. 3. The concentration in foods as a function of radionuclide, food type and preparation. 4. The maximum exposure plausible under specified conditions. (author)

  5. Aligning European OA policies with Horizon 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Picarra, Mafalda; Angelaki, Marina; Dogan, Guleda; Guy, Marieke; Artusio, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This article considers that the Horizon 2020 (H2020) Open Access (OA) policy can be adopted as a policy model in European Research Area (ERA) countries for the development and increasing alignment of OA policies. Accordingly, the OA policy landscape in five ERA countries – Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Turkey and the UK – is assessed and the extent of alignment or divergence of those policies with the H2020 OA policy is examined. The article concludes by considering some of the impacts that...

  6. Research on Paramecium aurelia sensitivity factors to natural ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croute, F.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Gros, N.; Planel, H.

    1976-01-01

    Previous results have demonstrated that the proliferative activity of Paramecium aurelia is linked to the level of natural ionizing radiations since this activity is decreased under radiation protection (lead cell) and increased under chronic exposure to very low dose of 60 Co gamma rays. The results of this investigation indicate that cell sensitivity in spite of variations in natural irradiation levels can be isolated; they are called 'radioresistant' in opposition to 'radiosensitive' cells which present the other response. These characters are being retained for 9 months after the strains have been isolated. On the other hand, in the case of radiosensitive strains, it has been demonstrated that autogamy affected the cell response to background irradiation; no response at all occured on the very day when autogamy took place, but it reached a maximum level 8 days approximately after autogamy. Moreover, it has been proved that the catalase activity of Paramecium aurelia is higher than those already studied in other cell varieties. This great amount of catalase, which seems to vary with the age of cultures after autogamy, could act on Paramecium sensitivity to very low radiation doses [fr

  7. LLNL 1981: technical horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    Research programs at LLNL for 1981 are described in broad terms. In his annual State of the Laboratory address, Director Roger Batzel projected a $481 million operating budget for fiscal year 1982, up nearly 13% from last year. In projects for the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense, the Laboratory applies its technical facilities and capabilities to nuclear weapons design and development and other areas of defense research that include inertial confinement fusion, nonnuclear ordnances, and particle-beam technology. LLNL is also applying its unique experience and capabilities to a variety of projects that will help the nation meet its energy needs in an environmentally acceptable manner. A sampling of recent achievements by LLNL support organizations indicates their diversity

  8. Horizons of stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 24 (2008), 244027/1-244027/16 ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/1307; GA MŠk LC06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : SYMMETRIC QUANTUM -MECHANICS * NON-HERMITIAN HAMILTONIANS * REAL ENERGY-SPECTRA Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.540, year: 2008

  9. Broadening our horizons

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    There’s more to CERN than the LHC, and there’s more to particle physics than CERN. This has always been true, but with the LHC on the verge of collecting its first data, now is the right time to consider carefully what that means for us. In a couple of weeks’ time, we’ll be hosting a workshop to identify new opportunities in the physics landscape at CERN. As well as embarking upon the LHC research programme, we’re also building up new infrastructure for the future. This has already begun with the civil engineering for Linac 4, and will hopefully continue with a new superconducting proton linac, SPL, and proton synchrotron, PS2, to replace the existing Booster and PS. Will such machines simply serve as an injector for the LHC, or could they support their own research programmes? I don’t know the answer yet, but if there’s valuable research to be done with the SPL and PS2, it would be better to know before we start build...

  10. Information Science Research: The Search for the Nature of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochen, Manfred

    1984-01-01

    High-level scientific research in the information sciences is illustrated by sampling of recent discoveries involving adaptive information processing strategies, computer and information systems, centroid scaling, economic growth of computer and communication industries, and information flow in biological systems. Relationship of information…

  11. Screening stringy horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giribet, Gaston [Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium); Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA-CONICET Ciudad Universitaria, Departamento de Fisica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Ranjbar, Arash [Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium); Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECs), Valdivia (Chile)

    2015-10-15

    It has been argued recently that string theory effects qualitatively modify the effective black hole geometry experienced by modes with radial momentum of order 1/√(α'). At tree level, these α' effects can be explicitly worked out in two-dimensional string theory and have a natural explanation in the T-dual description as coming from the integration of the zero mode of the linear dilaton, which yields a contribution that affects the scattering phase shift in a peculiar manner. It has also been argued that the phase-shift modification has its origin in a region of the moduli space that does not belong to the exterior black hole geometry, leading to the conclusion that at high energy the physics of the problem is better described by the dual model. Here, we elaborate on this argument. We consider the contribution of world-sheet instantons in the two-dimensional Euclidean black hole σ-model and study its influence on the phase shift at high energy. (orig.)

  12. Analogical reasoning and the nature of context: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, K; Webster, D S

    1996-03-01

    Recent theorising about children's reasoning has tended to move towards a 'contextualist' view of cognition and away from the idea of an overall, context-free, mechanism, varying in efficiency, which is the presupposition underlying traditional standardised reasoning tests. An earlier study suggesting improved reasoning performance among children on socio-cognitively meaningful versions of Raven's Matrices tended to support this shift. The main purpose of the study reported here was to observe whether a similar improvement would be found with contextually-based analogical reasoning problems as well. Ten analogy items from a standardised test were administered to 11-year-olds together with 10 structurally-equivalent knowledge-based items. The results reflected improved performance on the latter, overall, and additional analyses led to further suggestions about the nature of the 'contextual advantage' and the origins of item difficulty.

  13. New Horizons in Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Sarah; Neergaard, Helle; Tanggaard, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion about the complexity and heterogeneity of entrepreneurship education. In order to achieve this objective, this paper combines educational psychology with perspectives from entrepreneurship education research to make explicit......’s and the students perspectives on their achievements and course content. Findings – The authors find that it is sometimes advantageous to invoke and combine different learning theories and approaches in order to promote entrepreneurial awareness and mindset. It is also necessary to move away from entrepreneurship...

  14. Cosmological and black hole apparent horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    This book overviews the extensive literature on apparent cosmological and black hole horizons. In theoretical gravity, dynamical situations such as gravitational collapse, black hole evaporation, and black holes interacting with non-trivial environments, as well as the attempts to model gravitational waves occurring in highly dynamical astrophysical processes, require that the concept of event horizon be generalized. Inequivalent notions of horizon abound in the technical literature and are discussed in this manuscript. The book begins with a quick review of basic material in the first one and a half chapters, establishing a unified notation. Chapter 2 reminds the reader of the basic tools used in the analysis of horizons and reviews the various definitions of horizons appearing in the literature. Cosmological horizons are the playground in which one should take baby steps in understanding horizon physics. Chapter 3 analyzes cosmological horizons, their proposed thermodynamics, and several coordinate systems....

  15. Entropy of black holes with multiple horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yun; Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren

    2018-05-01

    We examine the entropy of black holes in de Sitter space and black holes surrounded by quintessence. These black holes have multiple horizons, including at least the black hole event horizon and a horizon outside it (cosmological horizon for de Sitter black holes and "quintessence horizon" for the black holes surrounded by quintessence). Based on the consideration that the two horizons are not independent each other, we conjecture that the total entropy of these black holes should not be simply the sum of entropies of the two horizons, but should have an extra term coming from the correlations between the two horizons. Different from our previous works, in this paper we consider the cosmological constant as the variable and employ an effective method to derive the explicit form of the entropy. We also try to discuss the thermodynamic stabilities of these black holes according to the entropy and the effective temperature.

  16. Hawking radiation from quasilocal dynamical horizons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-06

    Jan 6, 2016 ... Abstract. In completely local settings, we establish that a dynamically evolving spherically symmetric black hole horizon can be assigned a Hawking temperature and with the emission of flux, radius of the horizon shrinks.

  17. Pricing Liquidity Risk with Heterogeneous Investment Horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beber, Alessandro; Driessen, Joost; Neuberger, A.; Tuijp, P

    We develop an asset pricing model with stochastic transaction costs and investors with heterogeneous horizons. Depending on their horizon, investors hold different sets of assets in equilibrium. This generates segmentation and spillover effects for expected returns, where the liquidity (risk)

  18. Review of flow rate estimates of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    OpenAIRE

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Camilli, Rich; Crone, Timothy J.; Guthrie, George D.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Savas, Omer; Shaffer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The unprecedented nature of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill required the application of research methods to estimate the rate at which oil was escaping from the well in the deep sea, its disposition after it entered the ocean, and total reservoir depletion. Here, we review what advances were made in scientific understanding of quantification of flow rates during deep sea oil well blowouts. We assess the degree to which a consensus was reached on the flow rate of the well by comparing in situ ...

  19. An investigation of forecast horizon and observation fit’s influence on an econometric rate forecast model in the liner shipping industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Jiang, Liping; Rytter, Niels Gorm Malý

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of forecast horizon and observation fit on the robustness and performance of a specific freight rate forecast model used in the liner shipping industry. In the first stage of the research, a forecast model used to predict container freight rate development...... of the forecast horizon and observation fit and their interactions on the forecast model's performance. The results underline the complicated nature of creating a suitable forecast model by balancing business needs, a desire to fit a good model and achieve high accuracy. There is strong empirical evidence from...... this study; that a robust model is preferable, that overfitting is a true danger, and that a balance must be achieved between forecast horizon and the number of observations used to fit the model. In addition, methodological guidance has also been provided on how to test, design, and choose the superior...

  20. Event horizon image within black hole shadow

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Nazarova, N. O.

    2018-01-01

    The external border of the black hole shadow is washed out by radiation from matter plunging into black hole and approaching the event horizon. This effect will crucially influence the results of future observations by the Event Horizon Telescope. We show that gravitational lensing of the luminous matter plunging into black hole provides the event horizon visualization within black hole shadow. The lensed image of the event horizon is formed by the last highly red-shifted photons emitted by t...

  1. Quantum horizon fluctuations of an evaporating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roura, Albert

    2007-01-01

    The quantum fluctuations of a black hole spacetime are studied within a low-energy effective field theory approach to quantum gravity. Our approach accounts for both intrinsic metric fluctuations and those induced by matter fields interacting with the gravitational field. Here we will concentrate on spherically symmetric fluctuations of the black hole horizon. Our results suggest that for a sufficiently massive evaporating black hole, fluctuations can accumulate over time and become significant well before reaching Planckian scales. In addition, we provide the sketch of a proof that the symmetrized two-point function of the stress-tensor operator smeared over a null hypersurface is actually divergent and discuss the implications for the analysis of horizon fluctuations. Finally, a natural way to probe quantum metric fluctuations near the horizon is briefly described

  2. Application of phase-trafficking methods to natural products research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan J; Montenegro, Gloria; Mitscher, Lester A; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2010-09-24

    A novel simultaneous phase-trafficking approach using spatially separated solid-supported reagents for rapid separation of neutral, basic, and acidic compounds from organic plant extracts with minimum labor is reported. Acidic and basic ion-exchange resins were physically separated into individual sacks ("tea bags") for trapping basic and acidic compounds, respectively, leaving behind in solution neutral components of the natural mixtures. Trapped compounds were then recovered from solid phase by appropriate suspension in acidic or basic solutions. The feasibility of the proposed separation protocol was demonstrated and optimized with an "artificial mixture" of model compounds. In addition, the utility of this methodology was illustrated with the successful separation of the alkaloid skytanthine from Skytanthus acutus Meyen and the main catechins and caffeine from Camellia sinensis L. (Kuntze). This novel approach offers multiple advantages over traditional extraction methods, as it is not labor intensive, makes use of only small quantities of solvents, produces fractions in adequate quantities for biological assays, and can be easily adapted to field conditions for bioprospecting activities.

  3. Research on Hydrophilic Nature of Polyvinylpyrrolidone on Polysulfone Membrane Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiron, L. G.; Vlad, M.; Baltă, Ş.

    2018-06-01

    The membranes used in wastewater filtration are obtained from polymers, this technique is widely applied because of the small installations and low costs as against conventional systems. The polymeric membranes have high mechanical strength and flexibility, but is a challenge to improve in the same time the permeability and retention capacity of the membranes. A process that can improve the membrane properties is the addition of additives to the polymer solution, resulting in noticeable changes in the resulting membrane structure. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a highly hydrophilic polymer, used as a food additive that acts as stabilizer and thickening agent, which brings improvements in membrane properties. This study analyses the effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the casting solution of the prepared membranes. The polymer solution was prepared from polysulfone (PSf) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) at different concentrations. The membranes were obtained by phase inversion method. The PSf/PVP/NMP membranes with different concentrations were characterized by contact angle measurements, surface roughness, morphological structure and permeation tests. The results show that the hydrophilic nature of PVP improve the pure water flux, the contact angle and exhibit a higher anti-fouling property.

  4. Natural analogue studies as supplements to biomineralization research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    Chemical reactions can alter the chemistry and crystal structure of solid objects over archeological or geological times, while preserving external physical shapes. The reactions resulting in these structures offer natural analogues to laboratory experiments in biomineralization and to biologically influenced alteration of nuclear waste packages, and thus, they offer the only available way of validating models that purport waste package behavior over archaeological or geological times. Potential uses of such analogues in the construction and validation of hypothetical mechanisms of microbiological corrosion and biomineralization are reviewed. Evidence from such analogues suggests that biofilms can control materials alteration in ways usually overlooked. The newly hypothesized mechanisms involve control by biofilms of the cation flow near the solid surface and offer plausible mechanisms for the formation of mixed-cation minerals under conditions that would lead to dealloying in abiotic experiments; they also account for the formation of unusual minerals [such as posnjakite, Cu 4 SO 4 (OH) 6· H 2 O] and mineral morphologies unusual in corrosion [malachite, Cu 2 CO 3 (OH) 2 , rarely forms botryoidally under corrosion conditions and its occasional presence on archaeological objects that appear to have undergone microbiological corrosion may be related to biofilm phenomena

  5. Horizon Detection In The Visible Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    processing units, to the software-based models in [7] and [8]. B. DEFINING THE HORIZON The horizon, according to the Oxford English Dictionary , is “the...Ed. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1978. [10] “horizon,” Oxford English Dictionary Online, 2016.[Online]. Available: http

  6. A Participatory Action Research Study of Nature Education in Nature: Towards Community-Based Eco-Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryaman, Mustafa Yunus; Yalcin-Ozdilek, Sukran; Okur, Emel; Cetinkaya, Zeynep; Uygun, Selcuk

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary nature education is exploring different ways to develop awareness for change and initiate action. Such educational activities go beyond creating understanding and awareness in order to develop a sense of commitment for individual and collective action. This participatory action research study aimed to improve teachers' sensitiveness…

  7. 78 FR 54298 - Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application August 27, 2013. AGENCY... Management (USA) LLC (``Horizons'') and Horizons ETF Trust (the ``Trust''). Summary of Application... of the Trust will be the Horizons Active Global Dividend ETF (the ``Initial Fund''), which will seek...

  8. Cool horizons lead to information loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Borun D.

    2013-10-01

    There are two evidences for information loss during black hole evaporation: (i) a pure state evolves to a mixed state and (ii) the map from the initial state to final state is non-invertible. Any proposed resolution of the information paradox must address both these issues. The firewall argument focuses only on the first and this leads to order one deviations from the Unruh vacuum for maximally entangled black holes. The nature of the argument does not extend to black holes in pure states. It was shown by Avery, Puhm and the author that requiring the initial state to final state map to be invertible mandates structure at the horizon even for pure states. The proof works if black holes can be formed in generic states and in this paper we show that this is indeed the case. We also demonstrate how models proposed by Susskind, Papadodimas et al. and Maldacena et al. end up making the initial to final state map non-invertible and thus make the horizon "cool" at the cost of unitarity.

  9. Cultural horizons for mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Kay; Paraides, Patricia; Jannok Nutti, Ylva; Johansson, Gunilla; Bennet, Maria; Doolan, Pat; Peckham, Ray; Hill, John; Doolan, Frank; O'Sullivan, Dominic; Murray, Libbey; Logan, Patricia; McNair, Melissa; Sunnari, Vappu; Murray, Beatrice; Miller, Alissa; Nolan, John; Simpson, Alca; Ohrin, Christine; Doolan, Terry; Doolan, Michelle; Taylor, Paul

    2011-06-01

    As a result of a number of government reports, there have been numerous systemic changes in Indigenous education in Australia revolving around the importance of partnerships with the community. A forum with our local Dubbo community established the importance of working together and developed a model which placed the child in an ecological perspective that particularly noted the role of Elders and the place of the child in the family. However, there was also the issue of curriculum and mathematics education to be addressed. It was recognised that a colonised curriculum reduces the vision of what might be the potential for Indigenous mathematics education. This paper reports on the sharing that developed between our local community and some researchers and teachers from Sweden, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand. It has implications for recognising the impact of testing regimes, the teaching space, understanding the ways children learn, the curriculum, and teacher education. As a result of these discussions, a critical pedagogy that considers culture and place is presented as an ecocultural perspective on mathematics education. This perspective was seen as critical for the curriculum and learning experiences of Indigenous children.

  10. Microbiomes structure and diversity in different horizons of full soil profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Timofey; Tkhakakhova, Azida; Zhelezova, Alena; Semenov, Mikhail; Kutovaya, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Topsoil is a most common object for soil metagenomic studies; sometimes soil profile is being formally split in layers by depth. However, Russian Soil Science School formulated the idea of soil profile as a complex of soil horizons, which can differ in their properties and genesis. In this research we analyzed 57 genetic soil horizons of 8 different soils from European part of Russia: Albeluvisol, Greyzemic Phaeozem, three Chermozems (different land use - till, fallow, wind-protecting tree line), Rhodic Cambisol, Haplic Kastanozem and Salic Solonetz (WRB classification). Sampling was performed from all genetic horizons in each soil profile starting from topsoil until subsoil. Total DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA sequencing was provided together with chemical analysis of soil (pH measurement, C and N contents, etc.). Structure and diversity of prokaryotic community are significantly different in those soil horizons, which chemical properties and processes of origin are contrasting with nearest horizons: Na-enriched horizon of Solonetz, eluvial horizon of Albeluvisol, plough pan of Agrochernozem. Actinobacteria were abundant in top horizons of soils in warm and dry climate, while Acidobacteria had the highest frequency in soils of moist and cold regions. Concerning Archaea, Thaumarchaeota prevailed in all studied soils. Their rate was higher in microbiomes of upper horizons of steppe soils and it was reducing with depth down the profile. Prokaryotic communities in Chernozems were clustered by soil horizons types: microbiomes of A (organic topsoil) and B (mineral) horizons formed non-overlapping clusters by principal component analysis, cluster formed by prokaryotic communities of transitional soil horizons (AB) take place between clusters of A and B horizons. Moreover, prokaryotic communities of A horizons differ from each other strongly, while microbiomes of B horizons formed a narrow small cluster. It must be explaned by more diverse conditions in upper A horizons

  11. 學校領導研究的新視域:領導的美學實踐 The New Research Horizon in School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    黃宗顯 Tzung-Hsien Huang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available 學校領導不僅要有科學思考,也要有美學的修為和實踐。這可以從領導是一種藝術的說法見其端倪。然而,臺灣學者以往對於與學校領導美學實踐有關的專門研究並不多,此種情形可能與多數學者受教背景較偏於管理科學有關。本文將學校領導的美學實踐界定為:「領導學校的作為,能融入運用美學的思考與原理,或展現出與其相符合的特徵」。本文首先從臺灣有關學校領導的專書、領導研究 的整合性分析以及期刊論文資料,反省此一主題研究的不足狀況。接著,再舉述國內外學校領導美學實踐有關的立論及其啟示。最後,提出「修鍊美學素養」、「展現兼容並蓄、拿捏得宜的作為」、「感知與欣賞領導對象的美」、「具轉化、生成作用的文化與制度」、「領導作為之美學批判與超越」、「領導實踐的精神 性」等十項學校領導的美學實踐作為以供參考。 School leadership requires not only scientific thinking but also aesthetic practice. The claim leadership is a kind of art illustrates the concept. Leaders should pay attention to the aesthetic dimensions of their leadership activities. However, researches related to school leaders’ aesthetic practice are lacking in Taiwan. This condition might be due to the dominant thinking of the scientific management of school administrative scholars’ education. This article defines the aesthetic practice of school leadership as applying aesthetic thinking and rationales, or performing the characteristics of aesthetics in the school leadership process. The author examines the neglect of aesthetic inquiry in Taiwanese leadership literature, reviews some significant aesthetic discourses on school leadership, and provides ten suggestions for school leaders’ aesthetic practice, including disciplining aesthetic capacity, inclusion and just-for-fit decision making

  12. Tunneling from the past horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Subeom; Yeom, Dong-han

    2018-04-01

    We investigate a tunneling and emission process of a thin-shell from a Schwarzschild black hole, where the shell was initially located beyond the Einstein-Rosen bridge and finally appears at the right side of the Penrose diagram. In order to obtain such a solution, we should assume that the areal radius of the black hole horizon increases after the tunneling. Hence, there is a parameter range such that the tunneling rate is exponentially enhanced, rather than suppressed. We may have two interpretations regarding this. First, such a tunneling process from the past horizon is improbable by physical reasons; second, such a tunneling is possible in principle, but in order to obtain a stable Einstein-Rosen bridge, one needs to restrict the parameter spaces. If such a process is allowed, this can be a nonperturbative contribution to Einstein-Rosen bridges as well as eternal black holes.

  13. Losing Information Outside the Horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir D. Mathur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Suppose we allow a system to fall freely from infinity to a point near (but not beyond the horizon of a black hole. We note that in a sense the information in the system is already lost to an observer at infinity. Once the system is too close to the horizon it does not have enough energy to send its information back because the information carrying quanta would get redshifted to a point where they get confused with Hawking radiation. If one attempts to turn the infalling system around and bring it back to infinity for observation then it will experience Unruh radiation from the required acceleration. This radiation can excite the bits in the system carrying the information, thus reducing the fidelity of this information. We find the radius where the information is essentially lost in this way, noting that this radius depends on the energy gap (and coupling of the system. We look for some universality by using the highly degenerate BPS ground states of a quantum gravity theory (string theory as our information storage device. For such systems one finds that the critical distance to the horizon set by Unruh radiation is the geometric mean of the black hole radius and the radius of the extremal hole with quantum numbers of the BPS bound state. Overall, the results suggest that information in gravity theories should be regarded not as a quantity contained in a system, but in terms of how much of this information is accessible to another observer.

  14. Entropy of black holes with multiple horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun He

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine the entropy of black holes in de Sitter space and black holes surrounded by quintessence. These black holes have multiple horizons, including at least the black hole event horizon and a horizon outside it (cosmological horizon for de Sitter black holes and “quintessence horizon” for the black holes surrounded by quintessence. Based on the consideration that the two horizons are not independent each other, we conjecture that the total entropy of these black holes should not be simply the sum of entropies of the two horizons, but should have an extra term coming from the correlations between the two horizons. Different from our previous works, in this paper we consider the cosmological constant as the variable and employ an effective method to derive the explicit form of the entropy. We also try to discuss the thermodynamic stabilities of these black holes according to the entropy and the effective temperature.

  15. Lin Receives 2010 Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Ning Lin has been awarded the Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research, given annually to a recent Ph.D. recipient for outstanding contributions to natural hazards research. Lin's thesis is entitled “Multi-hazard risk analysis related to hurricanes.” She is scheduled to present an invited talk in the Extreme Natural Events: Modeling, Prediction, and Mitigation session (NH20) during the 2010 AGU Fall Meeting, held 13-17 December in San Francisco, Calif. Lin will be formally presented with the award at the Natural Hazards focus group reception on 14 December 2010.

  16. Locating the Environmental in Environmental Education Research: A Review of Research on Nature's Nature, Its Inscription in Language and Recent Memory Work on Relating to the Natural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Memory-work is a feminist research methodology that is used by research collectives to study socialization within the dominant values that make up a particular culture. The power of memory-work lies with its potential to interrupt hegemonic ways of seeing and knowing the world. Consequently, it can open up possibilities for individual and social…

  17. Connecting Self-Efficacy and Views about the Nature of Science in Undergraduate Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Gina M.; Elby, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate research can support students' more central participation in physics. We analyze markers of two coupled shifts in participation: changes in students' views about the nature of science coupled to shifts in self-efficacy toward physics research. Students in the study worked with faculty and graduate student mentors on research projects…

  18. Introductory essay: new horizons in cross cultural management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Ulijn, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this special issue, we present a research forum on current issues in cross cultural management in New Zealand, Australia and the Asian-Pacific Region. Our theme is new horizons in cross cultural management, which is reflected in both topic and approach. Our topics are related to the Asia Pacific

  19. On black hole horizon fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the high angular momentum particles 'atmosphere' near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon suggested that strong gravitational interactions occur at invariant distance of the order of 3 √M [2]. We present a generalization of this result to the Kerr-Newman black hole case. It is shown that the larger charge and angular momentum black hole bears, the larger invariant distance at which strong gravitational interactions occur becomes. This invariant distance is of order 3 √((r + 2 )/((r + - r - ))). This implies that the Planckian structure of the Hawking radiation of extreme black holes is completely broken

  20. Policy indicators for health and nature. 25 years of international research and policy on acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hinsberg, A.; Van der Hoek, D.C.J.; Wiertz, J.; Van Bree, L.

    2004-01-01

    25 years of international cooperation between research and policy resulted in effect indicators for health and nature by means of which environmental targets can be adjusted. At the same time those indicators increased the coherence of targets in the field of nature and health [nl

  1. Tourism and natural resource management: a general overview of research and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, growing awareness among tourism researchers of the relations between tourism and natural resource management has resulted in a substantial body of academic literature examining tourism issues under a relatively new set of tourism concepts. Seemingly new forms of tourism, such as nature-based tourism, ecotourism, and sustainable tourism, now are...

  2. Natural Products Research in South Africa: End of an Era on Land or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    single era of natural product chemistry research in South Africa but rather three ... The Specialization Era (ca. 1960–1990) ... South African Natural Products in the International Drug. Discovery .... subsequently proposed that 24 was formed through an initial ... complete elimination of M. grisea infestation by the commercial.

  3. Variable horizon in a peridynamic medium.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Littlewood, David John; Seleson, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    A notion of material homogeneity is proposed for peridynamic bodies with vari- able horizon but constant bulk properties. A relation is derived that scales the force state according to the position-dependent horizon while keeping the bulk properties un- changed. Using this scaling relation, if the horizon depends on position, artifacts called ghost forces may arise in a body under homogeneous deformation. These artifacts de- pend on the second derivative of horizon and can be reduced by use of a modified equilibrium equation using a new quantity called the partial stress . Bodies with piece- wise constant horizon can be modeled without ghost forces by using a technique called a splice between the regions. As a limiting case of zero horizon, both partial stress and splice techniques can be used to achieve local-nonlocal coupling. Computational examples, including dynamic fracture in a one-dimensional model with local-nonlocal coupling, illustrate the methods.

  4. Holography beyond the horizon and cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, Thomas S.; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the description of the region behind the event horizon in rotating black holes in the AdS conformal field theory correspondence, using the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole as a concrete example. We extend a technique introduced by Kraus, Ooguri, and Shenker, based on analytically continuing amplitudes defined in a Euclidean space, to include rotation. In the rotating case, boundary amplitudes again have two different bulk descriptions, involving either integration only over the regions outside the black holes' event horizon, or integration over this region and the region between the event horizon and the Cauchy horizon (inner horizon). We argue that generally, the holographic map will relate the field theory to the region bounded by the Cauchy horizons in spacetime. We also argue that these results suggest that the holographic description of black holes will satisfy strong cosmic censorship

  5. Black hole versus cosmological horizon entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Tamara M; Davies, P C W; Lineweaver, Charles H

    2003-01-01

    The generalized second law of thermodynamics states that entropy always increases when all event horizons are attributed with an entropy proportional to their area. We test the generalized second law by investigating the change in entropy when dust, radiation and black holes cross a cosmological event horizon. We generalize for flat, open and closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes by using numerical calculations to determine the cosmological horizon evolution. In most cases, the loss of entropy from within the cosmological horizon is more than balanced by an increase in cosmological event horizon entropy, maintaining the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics. However, an intriguing set of open universe models shows an apparent entropy decrease when black holes disappear over the cosmological event horizon. We anticipate that this apparent violation of the generalized second law will disappear when solutions are available for black holes embedded in arbitrary backgrounds

  6. Smooth horizons and quantum ripples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovnev, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Black holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old black holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is the neglect of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large black hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge distances from the near-horizon zone of old black holes to the early radiation. We give simple estimates to support this viewpoint and show how the Page time and (somewhat more speculative) scrambling time do appear. (orig.)

  7. Smooth horizons and quantum ripples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovnev, Alexey [Saint Petersburg State University, High Energy Physics Department, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    Black holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old black holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is the neglect of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large black hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge distances from the near-horizon zone of old black holes to the early radiation. We give simple estimates to support this viewpoint and show how the Page time and (somewhat more speculative) scrambling time do appear. (orig.)

  8. Cartan invariants and event horizon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D.; Chavy-Waddy, P. C.; Coley, A. A.; Forget, A.; Gregoris, D.; MacCallum, M. A. H.; McNutt, D. D.

    2018-04-01

    We show that it is possible to locate the event horizon of a black hole (in arbitrary dimensions) by the zeros of certain Cartan invariants. This approach accounts for the recent results on the detection of stationary horizons using scalar polynomial curvature invariants, and improves upon them since the proposed method is computationally less expensive. As an application, we produce Cartan invariants that locate the event horizons for various exact four-dimensional and five-dimensional stationary, asymptotically flat (or (anti) de Sitter), black hole solutions and compare the Cartan invariants with the corresponding scalar curvature invariants that detect the event horizon.

  9. Observational signature of high spin at the Event Horizon Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Lupsasca, Alexandru; Strominger, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    We analytically compute the observational appearance of an isotropically emitting point source on a circular, equatorial orbit near the horizon of a rapidly spinning black hole. The primary image moves on a vertical line segment, in contrast to the primarily horizontal motion of the spinless case. Secondary images, also on the vertical line, display a rich caustic structure. If detected, this unique signature could serve as a `smoking gun' for a high spin black hole in nature.

  10. An optimization approach to selecting research natural areas in National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Lucy E. Tyrrell; Robert G. Haight

    1999-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service has a long-established program to identify areas in national forests for designation as protected Research Natural Areas (RNAs). One of the goals is to protect high quality examples of regional ecosystems for the purposes of maintaining biological diversity, conducting nonmanipulative research and monitoring, and fostering education. When RNA...

  11. Natural Products Research in South Africa: End of an Era on Land or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African organic chemistry is deeply rooted in a rich history of natural product chemistry research with the secondary metabolites emanating from South Africa's unique floral kingdoms dominating this research for nearly a century. However, South Africa's terrestrial biodiversity is exceeded by an even greater diversity of ...

  12. Earth, Meet Pluto: The New Horizons Education and Communications Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, M.

    2015-12-01

    The unique partnership between the NASA New Horizons education/communications and public affairs programs tapped into the excitement of visiting an unexplored planet in a new region of the solar system - resulting in unprecedented public participation in and coverage of a planetary mission. With a range of hands-on learning experiences, Web materials and online , the program provided opportunities for students, educators, museums, science centers, the media, Web surfers and other members of the public to ride along on the first mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt. The programs leveraged resources, materials and expertise to address a wide range of traditional and nontraditional audiences while providing consistent messages and information on this historic NASA endeavor. The E/C program included a variety of formal lesson plans and learning materials — based on New Horizons science and engineering goals, and aligned with National Research Council's National Science Education Standards — that continue to help students in grades K-12 learn more about science, technology, engineering and mathematics. College students designed and built an actual flight instrument on New Horizons and held internships with the spacecraft integration and test team. New Horizons E/C programs went well beyond the classroom, from a chance for people to send their names to Pluto on board the New Horizons spacecraft before launch, to opportunities for the public to access milestone events and the first-ever close-up views of Pluto in places such as museums, science centers and libraries, TV and the Web — as well as thousands who attended interactive "Plutopalooza" road shows across the country. Teamed with E/C was the public affairs strategy to communicate New Horizons news and messages to media, mission stakeholders, the scientific community and the public. These messages include various aspects of New Horizons, including the progress of the mission and key milestones and achievements

  13. Reducing Losses from Wind-Related Natural Perils: Research at the IBHS Research Center

    OpenAIRE

    Standohar-Alfano, Christine D.; Estes, Heather; Johnston, Tim; Morrison, Murray J.; Brown-Giammanco, Tanya M.

    2017-01-01

    The capabilities of the Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety (IBHS) Research Center full-scale test chamber are described in detail. This research facility allows complete full-scale structures to be tested. Testing at full-scale allows vulnerabilities of structures to be evaluated with fewer assumptions than was previously possible. Testing buildings under realistic elevated wind speeds has the potential to isolate important factors that influence the performance of components, pot...

  14. Optical geometry across the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Rickard

    2006-01-01

    In a recent paper (Jonsson and Westman 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 61), a generalization of optical geometry, assuming a non-shearing reference congruence, is discussed. Here we illustrate that this formalism can be applied to (a finite four-volume) of any spherically symmetric spacetime. In particular we apply the formalism, using a non-static reference congruence, to do optical geometry across the horizon of a static black hole. While the resulting geometry in principle is time dependent, we can choose the reference congruence in such a manner that an embedding of the geometry always looks the same. Relative to the embedded geometry the reference points are then moving. We discuss the motion of photons, inertial forces and gyroscope precession in this framework

  15. Case history of natural analogue research on sandstone type uranium occurrences, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamaki, Y.; Kanai, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Previous fundamental studies on the ore genesis of uranium occurrences chiefly in Cenozoic sandstone formations in Japan, have been re-examined as the case history on natural analogue of radionuclides in high-level radioactive wastes (HLRW). Two principal mode of occurrences have been distinguished among Cenozoic uranium localities in Japan. In the Setouchi (Inland Sea) subregion, hot-spots are found in lacustrine to shallow sea facies of calm environment, corresponding to the first stage of formation of tectonic basins. As observed in Ningyo-toge and Tono area, stratabound ore bodies are generally arranged into paleo-channels. Another type of sporadic uranium indications are found within collapse basins in the 'Green-tuff' subregion, where intense volcanisms and block movements had been taken places throughout Middle miocene age. Well-developed fractures were to be favorable paths for uraniferous groundwater, as well as the suitable site for deposition of uranium. In both cases, the source material of uranium is granitic basement. Under oxidizing environment, uranium anomalies have been occasionally detected in surface- or fracture waters which passing through decomposed granite. In contrast to the behavior of uranium, one of the adequate analogues for mobile nuclides, thorium and REE are relatively immobile even under the same geologic and geochemical circumstances. In ore horizon, where reducing condition has still been kept, geochronological age of tetravalent uranium mineral is in concordance with the age of the host rock. Analysis of structural control shows that the principal factors for uranium concentration are the layout of redox front related to paleo-water tables. 234U/238U disequilibrium method has been proved to be the powerful tool for detecting mobility of uranium in the host rock throughout diagenesis and weathering process. The result of field and laboratory works on this is reported as an example. (author)

  16. Proceedings of the natural gas research and development contractors review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, R.D.; Shoemaker, H.D.; Byrer, C.W. (eds.)

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to present results of the research in the DOE-sponsored Natural Gas Program, and simultaneously to provide a forum for real-time technology transfer, to the active research community, to the interested public, and to the natural gas industry, who are the primary users of this technology. The current research focus is to expand the base of near-term and mid-term economic gas resources through research activities in Eastern Tight Gas, Western Tight Gas, Secondary Gas Recovery (increased recovery of gas from mature fields); to enhance utilization, particularly of remote gas resources through research in Natural Gas to Liquids Conversion; and to develop additional, long term, potential gas resources through research in Gas Hydrates and Deep Gas. With the increased national emphasis on the use of natural gas, this forum has been expanded to include summaries of DOE-sponsored research in energy-related programs and perspectives on the importance of gas to future world energy. Thirty-two papers and fourteen poster presentations were given in seven formal, and one informal, sessions: Three general sessions (4 papers); Western Tight Gas (6 papers); Eastern Tight Gas (8 papers); Conventional/Speculative Resources (8 papers); and Gas to Liquids (6 papers). Individual reports are processed separately on the data bases.

  17. Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC), Oak Ridge Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, David; Jardine, Philip; Gu, Baohua; Parker, Jack; Brandt, Craig; Holladay, Susan; Wolfe, Amy; Bogle, Mary Anna; Lowe, Kenneth; Hyder, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    The Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge (Fig. 1), Tennessee supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) goal of understanding the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites for new solutions to environmental remediation and long-term stewardship. In particular, the FRC provides the opportunity for researchers to conduct studies that promote the understanding of the processes that influence the transport and fate of subsurface contaminants, the effectiveness and long-term consequences of existing remediation options, and the development of improved remediation strategies. It offers a series of contaminated sites around the former S-3 Waste Disposal Ponds and uncontaminated sites in which investigators and students conduct field research or collect samples for laboratory analysis. FRC research also spurs the development of new and improved characterization and monitoring tools. Site specific knowledge gained from research conducted at the FRC also provides the DOE-Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM) the critical scientific knowledge needed to make cleanup decisions for the S-3 Ponds and other sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

  18. Competition, Time Horizon and Corporate Social Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Smid, H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper develops and tests a conceptual framework on the relationships between competition, time horizon and corporate social performance (CSP). We hypothesize that more intense competition discourages CSP by lowering the time horizon of companies. We test the hypothesis on a sample of

  19. Maximal indecomposable past sets and event horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of maximal indecomposable past sets MIPs is demonstrated using the Kuratowski-Zorn lemma. A criterion for the existence of an absolute event horizon in space-time is given in terms of MIPs and a relation to black hole event horizon is shown. (author)

  20. Experimental study on the safety of Kyoto University Research Reactor at natural circulation cooling mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian; Shen, Xiuzhong; Fujihara, Yasuyuki; Sano, Tadafumi; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The natural circulation cooling capacity of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) was experimentally investigated. • The distributions of the outlet temperature of the fuel elements under natural circulation operations were measured. • The average temperature rise and the average natural circulation flow velocity in core were calculated. • The safety of KUR under all of the normal operations with natural circulation cooling mode has been analyzed. • The natural circulation flow after the reactor shutdown was confirmed. - Abstract: In this study, the natural circulation cooling capacity of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) is experimentally investigated by measuring the inlet and outlet temperatures of the core under natural circulation operation at various thermal powers ranging from 10 kW to 100 kW and the shutdown state. In view of the uneven power distribution and the resultant inconsistent coolant outlet temperature in the core, eight measuring points located separately in the outlet of the fuel elements were chosen to investigate the distribution of the outlet temperature of the core. The natural circulation cooling capacity represented by the average natural circulation flow velocity in the core is calculated from the temperature difference between the outlet and inlet temperature of the core. The measured outlet temperature of the fuel elements shows a cross-sectional distribution agreeing with the distribution of the thermal output of the fuel elements in the core. Since the measured outlet temperatures decrease quickly in the flow direction in a small local region above the outlet of the core, the mixing of the hot water out of the core with the cold water around the core outlet is found to happen in the small region not more than 5 cm far from the core outlet. The natural circulation flow velocity in the core increases non-linearly with the thermal power. The safety of KUR has been analysed by conservatively estimating the

  1. Hydrogen research and development in Hawaii: Hawaii natural energy institute's hydrogen from renewable resources research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, K.R.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Takahashi, P.K.; Jensen, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Hawaii, an energy-vulnerable state, has launched a Renewable Resources Research Program, focusing on hydrogen production and storage; the main tasks of this effort are: photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen through the use of coated silicon electrodes; solar conversion and the production of hydrogen with cyanobacteria; improved hydrogen storage through the use of nonclassical poly-hydride metal complexes. 10 refs

  2. The Multilevel Nature of Customer Experience Research: An Integrative Review and Research Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranzbuhler, A.M.; Kleijnen, M.H.P.; Morgan, Robert; Teerling, Marije

    2017-01-01

    Over the last three decades, customer experience (CE) has developed from a burgeoning concept to a widely recognized phenomenon in terms of both research and practice. To account for the complexity of consumption decisions, the CE literature encompasses both the rational information processing

  3. Contributions of natural and sexual selection to the evolution of premating reproductive isolation: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Rebecca J; Scordato, Elizabeth S C; Symes, Laurel B; Rodríguez, Rafael L; Mendelson, Tamra C

    2013-11-01

    Speciation by divergent natural selection is well supported. However, the role of sexual selection in speciation is less well understood due to disagreement about whether sexual selection is a mechanism of evolution separate from natural selection, as well as confusion about various models and tests of sexual selection. Here, we outline how sexual selection and natural selection are different mechanisms of evolutionary change, and suggest that this distinction is critical when analyzing the role of sexual selection in speciation. Furthermore, we clarify models of sexual selection with respect to their interaction with ecology and natural selection. In doing so, we outline a research agenda for testing hypotheses about the relative significance of divergent sexual and natural selection in the evolution of reproductive isolation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of distraction in natural environments on user experience research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Laboratories have long been seen as reasonable proxies for user experience research. Yet, this assumption may have become unreliable. The trend toward multiple activities in the users' natural environment, where people simultaneously use a digital library, join a chat or read an incoming Facebook....... The existence and impact of distraction is measured in a standard laboratory setting and in a remote setting that explicitly allows users to work in their own natural environment. The data indicates that there are significant differences between results from the laboratory and natural environment setting...

  5. Spontaneous ignition of natural uranium in Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    At P.M. 7:23, May 30, 1989, a fire alarm functioned in the uranium enrichment laboratory building, and immediately investigation was carried out, as the result, smoke was confirmed in the nuclear fuel storage. In the nuclear fuel storage, there were five plastic bottles containing natural uranium chips, and smoke arose from three of them. Immediately fire fighting was carried out with powder extinguishers and others, the uranium chips which were regarded as the heat generating source were moved into stainless steel cans, and air was cut off with extinguishing sand, as the result, around P.M. 9:50, heat generation ceased. At present the detailed cause is being investigated, but it is considered that the uranium chips contained in plastic bottles reacted with air by some cause, and generated heat in the form of spontaneous ignition, as the result, the plastic bottles and the vinyl sheets placed under them smoked. The stack dust monitor in the uranium enrichment laboratory building showed the normal value, and there was not the effect to surrounding environment. The workers who did fire fighting with whole face masks were not affected by smoke. (K.I.)

  6. Connecting self-efficacy and views about the nature of science in undergraduate research experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Gina M.; Elby, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Undergraduate research can support students' more central participation in physics. We analyze markers of two coupled shifts in participation: changes in students' views about the nature of science coupled to shifts in self-efficacy toward physics research. Students in the study worked with faculty and graduate student mentors on research projects while also participating in a seminar where they learned about research and reflected on their experiences. In classroom discussions and in clinical interviews, students described gaining more nuanced views about the nature of science, specifically related to who can participate in research and what participation in research looks like. This shift was coupled to gains in self-efficacy toward their ability to contribute to research; they felt like their contributions as novices mattered. We present two case studies of students who experienced coupled shifts in self-efficacy and views about nature-of-science shifts, and a case study of a student for whom we did not see either shift, to illustrate both the existence of the coupling and the different ways it can play out. After making the case that this coupling occurs, we discuss some potential underlying mechanisms. Finally, we use these results to argue for more nuanced interpretations of self-efficacy measurements.

  7. Connecting horizon pixels and interior voxels of a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolini, Piero; Singleton, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss to what extent one can infer details of the interior structure of a black hole based on its horizon. Recalling that black hole thermal properties are connected to the non-classical nature of gravity, we circumvent the restrictions of the no-hair theorem by postulating that the black hole interior is singularity free due to violations of the usual energy conditions. Further these conditions allow one to establish a one-to-one, holographic projection between Planckian areal “bits” on the horizon and “voxels”, representing the gravitational degrees of freedom in the black hole interior. We illustrate the repercussions of this idea by discussing an example of the black hole interior consisting of a de Sitter core postulated to arise from the local graviton quantum vacuum energy. It is shown that the black hole entropy can emerge as the statistical entropy of a gas of voxels

  8. Analysis of the Research Status and Topics on the Radionuclide Migration and Retardation in Natural Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Park, Chung Kyun; Kim, Seung Soo; Lee, Seung Yeop; Lee, Jae Kwang

    2008-12-01

    In this report, recent research status for major developed countries in the high-level radioactive waste disposal including international organizations was investigated and analyzed in research topics for the radionuclide migration and retardation in natural barriers. Besides, recent research trends and future prospects were investigated for selected major 10 topics about the radionuclide migration and retardation processes. Based upon these investigations and analyses, future research goals and topics to be concentrated were presented. This report will be helpful for understanding our current research status and technical position and establishing future research direction and topics by analyzing domestic and foreign research status and trends. The results will also be utilized as basic information for establishing future policy and plans of the government for the high-level radioactive waste disposal

  9. Analysis of the Research Status and Topics on the Radionuclide Migration and Retardation in Natural Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Park, Chung Kyun; Kim, Seung Soo; Lee, Seung Yeop; Lee, Jae Kwang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    In this report, recent research status for major developed countries in the high-level radioactive waste disposal including international organizations was investigated and analyzed in research topics for the radionuclide migration and retardation in natural barriers. Besides, recent research trends and future prospects were investigated for selected major 10 topics about the radionuclide migration and retardation processes. Based upon these investigations and analyses, future research goals and topics to be concentrated were presented. This report will be helpful for understanding our current research status and technical position and establishing future research direction and topics by analyzing domestic and foreign research status and trends. The results will also be utilized as basic information for establishing future policy and plans of the government for the high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  10. Nurture or nature? The growth paradox of research-based spin-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbinati, S.; Souitaris, V.; Moray, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the effect of institutional origin (‘nurture’) and economic context (‘nature’) on the financial resource endowment and subsequent early employment growth of research-based spin-offs (RBSOs). The nurture dimensions capture the relationship between the parent research institution and the RBSO during the start-up phase: the type of incubation model, the formal vs informal transfer of technology and the extent of inventors’ involvement with the firm. The nature dimensions incl...

  11. Symmetries of cosmological Cauchy horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncrief, V.; Isenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    We consider analytic vacuum and electrovacuum spacetimes which contain a compact null hypersurface ruled by closed null generators. We prove that each such spacetime has a non-trivial Killing symmetry. We distinguish two classes of null surfaces, degenerate and non-degenerate ones, characterized by the zero or non-zero value of a constant analogous to the ''surface gravity'' of stationary black holes. We show that the non-degenerate null surfaces are always Cauchy heizons across which the Killing fields change from spacelike (in the globally hyperbolic regions) to timelike (in the acausal, analytic extensions). For the special case of a null surface diffeomorphic to T 3 we characterize the degenerate vacuum solutions completely. These consists of an infinite dimensional family of ''plane wave'' spacetimes which are entirely foliated by compact null surfaces. Previous work by one of us has shown that, when one dimensional Killing symmetries are allowed, then infinite dimensional families of non-degenerate, vacuum solutions exist. We recall these results for the case of Cauchy horizons diffeomorphic to T 3 and prove the generality of the previously constructed non-degenerate solutions. We briefly discuss the possibility of removing the assumptions of closed generators and analyticity and proving an appropriate generalization of our main results. Such a generalization would provide strong support for the cosmic censorship conjecture by showing that causality violating, cosmological solutions of Einstein's equations are essentially an artefact of symmetry. (orig.)

  12. New perspectives for European climate services: HORIZON2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Claus; Tilche, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The developing of new end-to-end climate services was one of the core priorities of 7th Framework for Research and Technological Development of the European Commission and will become one of the key strategic priorities of Societal Challenge 5 of HORIZON2020 (the new EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation 2014-2020). Results should increase the competitiveness of European businesses, and the ability of regional and national authorities to make effective decisions in climate-sensitive sectors. In parallel, the production of new tailored climate information should strengthen the resilience of the European society to climate change. In this perspective the strategy to support and foster the underpinning science for climate services in HORIZON2020 will be presented.

  13. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation. IV. Research in radioactive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire-Maia, A [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    1974-01-01

    A review is made on researches performed in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. Some considerations are made on the importance and difficulties involved in projects of this kind. Although there is no doubt that natural radioactivity is one of the causes of the so-called spontaneous mutations, the practical demonstration of this assertion is extremely complex. Projects trying to correlate high levels of natural radioactivity with the occurrence of cancer (in general, or specific), leukemia, congenital malformations (in general or specific), neuro-vegetative disturbs, sex ratio, mortality, and physical development, as well as other characteristics. Some researches with animals are also mentioned, and references are given for plant studies. A critical analysis is made of some works relating to human populations.

  14. CIRCUS and DESIRE: Experimental facilities for research on natural-circulation-cooled boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruijf, W.J.M. de; Haden, T.H.J.J. van der; Zboray, R.; Manera, A.; Mudde, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    At the Delft University of Technology two thermohydraulic test facilities are being used to study the characteristics of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) with natural circulation core cooling. The focus of the research is on the stability characteristics of the system. DESIRE is a test facility with freon-12 as scaling fluid in which one fuel bundle of a natural-circulation BWR is simulated. The neutronic feedback can be simulated artificially. DESIRE is used to study the stability of the system at nominal and beyond nominal conditions. CIRCUS is a full-height facility with water, consisting of four parallel fuel channels and four parallel bypass channels with a common riser or with parallel riser sections. It is used to study the start-up characteristics of a natural-circulation BWR at low pressures and low power. In this paper a description of both facilities is given and the research items are presented. (author)

  15. Human genetics studies in areas of high natural radiation.IV. Research in radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Maia, A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is made on researches performed in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. Some considerations are made on the importance and difficulties involved in projects of this kind. Although there is no doubt that natural radioactivity is one of the causes of the so-called spontaneous mutations, the practical demonstration of this assertion is extremely complex. Projects trying to correlate high levels of natural radioactivity with the occurrence of cancer (in general, or specific), leukemia, congenital malformations (in general or specific), neuro-vegetative disturbs, sex ratio, mortality, and physical development, as well as other characteristics. Some researches with animals are also mentioned, and references are given for plant studies. A critical analysis is made of some works relating to human populations [pt

  16. Classical Natural History: the importance of volunteers in collection management and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reumer, J.W.F.; Post, K.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of increasing budget constraints and decreasing interest in classical natural history, the work effort of volunteer researchers and the need for private funding are of growing importance. A brief historical background is provided, showing the decreasing interest in the subject shown by

  17. Two decades of research in the Brazilian areas of high natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, T.L.; Paschoa, A.S.; Franca, E.P.; Costa-Ribeiro, C.; Barcinski, M.; Eisenbud, M.

    1980-01-01

    A review is made of the most important findings obtained in the decades 1960-1980 in the Brazilian regions of high natural radioactivity. The research was carried out by three university groups: Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro and New York Universisity. (Author) [pt

  18. Social-ecological research in urban natural areas: an emergent process for integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle L. Johnson; D. S. Novem Auyeung; Nancy F. Sonti; Clara C. Pregitzer; Heather L. McMillen; Richard Hallett; Lindsay K. Campbell; Helen M. Forgione; Mina Kim; Sarah Charlop-Powers; Erika S. Svendsen

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the structure and function of urban landscapes requires integrating social and ecological research. Here, we integrate parallel social and ecological assessments of natural areas within New York City. We examined social data (from a rapid assessment of park use and meaning, collected at a park zone level) alongside ecological data (froma plot-based...

  19. Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Collaborative Research Support Program(SANREM CRSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Keith M.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation describes the history and current program of the Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Collaborative Research Support Program (SANREM CRSP). SANREM Objectives include increasing stakeholder income generation capacity, empowering stakeholders, particularly women, enhancing decentralized resource management, strengthening local institutions, improving market access for smallholders and communities, and promoting sustainable and environmentally sound developme...

  20. Dynamical symmetry enhancement near IIA horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, University; Gutowski, J.; Kayani, University; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-01-01

    We show that smooth type IIA Killing horizons with compact spatial sections preserve an even number of supersymmetries, and that the symmetry algebra of horizons with non-trivial fluxes includes an sl(2,ℝ) subalgebra. This confirms the conjecture of http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2013)104 for type IIA horizons. As an intermediate step in the proof, we also demonstrate new Lichnerowicz type theorems for spin bundle connections whose holonomy is contained in a general linear group.

  1. Across-horizon scattering and information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, V. A.; Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2018-06-01

    We address the question whether or not two electrically charged elementary particles can Coulomb scatter if one of these particles is inside the Schwarzschild black-hole horizon and the other outside. It can be shown that the quantum process is consistent with the local energy–momentum conservation law. This result implies that across-horizon scattering is a physical effect, relevant to astrophysical black holes. We propose a Gedankenexperiment which uses the quantum scattering process to transfer information from inside the black-hole horizon to outside.

  2. Black hole entropy, universality, and horizon constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, Steven

    2006-01-01

    To ask a question about a black hole in quantum gravity, one must restrict initial or boundary data to ensure that a black hole is actually present. For two-dimensional dilaton gravity, and probably a much wider class of theories, I show that the imposition of a 'stretched horizon' constraint modifies the algebra of symmetries at the horizon, allowing the use of conformal field theory techniques to determine the asymptotic density of states. The result reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy without any need for detailed assumptions about the microscopic theory. Horizon symmetries may thus offer an answer to the problem of universality of black hole entropy

  3. Black hole entropy, universality, and horizon constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlip, Steven [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-03-01

    To ask a question about a black hole in quantum gravity, one must restrict initial or boundary data to ensure that a black hole is actually present. For two-dimensional dilaton gravity, and probably a much wider class of theories, I show that the imposition of a 'stretched horizon' constraint modifies the algebra of symmetries at the horizon, allowing the use of conformal field theory techniques to determine the asymptotic density of states. The result reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy without any need for detailed assumptions about the microscopic theory. Horizon symmetries may thus offer an answer to the problem of universality of black hole entropy.

  4. Tropospheric radiowave propagation beyond the horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Du Castel, François

    1966-01-01

    Tropospheric Radiowave Propagation Beyond the Horizon deals with developments concerning the tropospheric propagation of ultra-short radio waves beyond the horizon, with emphasis on the relationship between the theoretical and the experimental. Topics covered include the general conditions of propagation in the troposphere; general characteristics of propagation beyond the horizon; and attenuation in propagation. This volume is comprised of six chapters and begins with a brief historical look at the various stages that have brought the technique of transhorizon links to its state of developmen

  5. Stretched horizons, quasiparticles, and quasinormal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Norihiro; Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lowe, David A.

    2003-01-01

    We propose that stretched horizons can be described in terms of a gas of noninteracting quasiparticles. The quasiparticles are unstable, with a lifetime set by the imaginary part of the lowest quasinormal mode frequency. If the horizon arises from an AdS-CFT style duality the quasiparticles are also the effective low-energy degrees of freedom of the finite-temperature CFT. We analyze a large class of models including Schwarzschild black holes, nonextremal Dp-branes, the rotating BTZ black hole and de Sitter space, and we comment on degenerate horizons. The quasiparticle description makes manifest the relationship between entropy and area

  6. Implementing VMware Horizon View 5.2

    CERN Document Server

    Ventresco, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial covering all components of the View Horizon suite in detail, to ensure that you can utilize all features of the platform, and discover all of the possible ways that it can be used within your own environment.If you are a newcomer in system administration, and you wish to implement a small to midsized Horizon View environment, then this book is for you. It will also benefit individuals who wish to administrate and manage Horizon View more efficiently or are studying for the VCP5-DT.

  7. The pedogeochemical segregation a few horizons in soils from glass houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgariu, Dumitru; Rusu, Constantin; Filipov, Feodor; Buzgar, Nicolae; Bulgariu, Laura

    2010-05-01

    inferior horizons (situated below the segregation horizon), and in global evolution of degradation processes of soils from glasshouses. The results obtained by as have shown that together by mobile forms of Si, Al and Fe, at the formation of segregation horizons (frangipane), an important role has the phosphorus (organic. in special) and the organic-mineral complexes, respectively. The experimental results indicate a strong accumulation tendency, at the level of pedogeochemical segregation horizons - Ahok(x) horizons, of fin grain-size fractions and of amorphous forms of mineral components. Also, was observed that in the composition of soil aggregates from frangipane horizon, and important weight have the smectites, amorphous iron oxides and oxy-hydroxides, amorphous silica and organic matter. The particularity of pedogeochemical segregation horizon (frangipane) from Copou-Iaşi glass house is given by the relatively high contents of: (i) phosphorus - organic, in special, as inositol-phosphoric esters; (ii) fulvic acids; (iii) organic-mineral complexes - with special composition and structure, and (iv) poly-metha-phosphate associated with aluminosilicated gel - from chemical point of view has the characteristics of a pseudo-solid solution by (SiO2)x(Al2O3)y(PO4)z type, where x / z = (10-16) / 1, and y / z = (3-5) / 1); this appear as nodular depositions ( = 3-5 mm) covered with thin iron-carbonated crust. Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Romanian Ministry of Education and Research (Project PNCDI 2-D5 no. 51-045/07).

  8. Invasion science: a horizon scan of emerging challenges and opportunities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riccardi, A.; Blackburn, T. M.; Carlton, J. T.; Dick, J. T. A.; Hulme, P. E.; Iacarella, J. C.; Jeschke, J.M.; Liebhold, A. M.; Lockwood, J. L.; MacIsaac, H. J.; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, D. M.; Ruiz, G. M.; Simberloff, D.; Sutherland, W. J.; Wardle, D. A.; Aldridge, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 6 (2017), s. 464-474 ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invsions * research topics * horizon scanning Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 15.268, year: 2016

  9. Social and natural sciences differ in their research strategies, adapted to work for different knowledge landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different fields of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed two diverging optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in many journals containing a small number of articles. The natural sciences seem to adapt their research strategies to landscapes with large concentrated knowledge clusters, whereas social sciences seem to have adapted to search in landscapes with many small isolated knowledge clusters. Similar bipolar distributions were obtained when comparing levels of insularity estimated by indicators of international collaboration and levels of country-self citations: researchers in academic areas with many journals such as social sciences, arts and humanities, were the most isolated, and that was true in different regions of the world. The work shows that quantitative measures estimating differences between academic disciplines improve our understanding of different research strategies, eventually helping interdisciplinary research and may be also help improve science policies worldwide.

  10. New Horizons Reconnaissance of the Pluto-Charon System and the Kuiper Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, C. T

    2009-01-01

    The New Horizons mission provides the first in situ reconnaissance of the Pluto-Charon System and the Kuiper belt, arguably the last frontier of solar system exploration. This book describes the mission, its objectives, expected results, and instruments in articles written by the scientists and engineers most closely involved. The New Horizons mission is expected to return unique observations and discoveries, which will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of the solar system. This volume is aimed at researchers and graduate students active in planetary science and space exploration, and all other potential users of data obtained by the instruments on board the New Horizons mission.

  11. Top 40 questions in coupled human and natural systems (CHANS research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boyd. Kramer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and managing coupled human and natural systems (CHANS is a central challenge of the 21st century, but more focus is needed to pursue the most important questions within this vast field given limited research capacity and funding. We present 40 important questions for CHANS research, identified through a two-part crowdsourcing exercise within the CHANS community. We solicited members of the International Network of Research on Coupled Human and Natural Systems (CHANS-Net to submit up to three questions that they considered transformative, receiving 540 questions from 207 respondents. After editing for clarity and consistency, we asked the network's members to each evaluate a random subset of 20 questions in importance on a scale from 1 (least important to 7 (extremely important. Questions on land use and agriculture topped the list, with a median importance ranking of 5.7, followed by questions of scale, climate change and energy, sustainability and development, adaptation and resilience, in addition to seven other categories. We identified 40 questions with a median importance of 6.0 or above, which we highlight as the current view of researchers active in the field as research questions to pursue in order to maximize impact on understanding and managing coupled human and natural systems for achieving sustainable development goals and addressing emerging global challenges.

  12. Evaluating information in multiple horizon forecasts. The DOE's energy price forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Dwight R.; Manfredo, Mark R.; Boris, Keith

    2009-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy's (DOE) quarterly price forecasts for energy commodities are examined to determine the incremental information provided at the one-through four-quarter forecast horizons. A direct test for determining information content at alternative forecast horizons, developed by Vuchelen and Gutierrez [Vuchelen, J. and Gutierrez, M.-I. 'A Direct Test of the Information Content of the OECD Growth Forecasts.' International Journal of Forecasting. 21(2005):103-117.], is used. The results suggest that the DOE's price forecasts for crude oil, gasoline, and diesel fuel do indeed provide incremental information out to three-quarters ahead, while natural gas and electricity forecasts are informative out to the four-quarter horizon. In contrast, the DOE's coal price forecasts at two-, three-, and four-quarters ahead provide no incremental information beyond that provided for the one-quarter horizon. Recommendations of how to use these results for making forecast adjustments is also provided. (author)

  13. Manipulation of natural subsurface processes: Field research and validation. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1994-11-01

    Often the only alternative for treating deep subsurface contamination is in situ manipulation of natural processes to change the mobility or form of contaminants. However, the complex interactions of natural subsurface physical, chemical, and microbial processes limit the predictability of the system-wide impact of manipulation based on current knowledge. This report is a summary of research conducted to examine the feasibility of controlling the oxidation-reduction (redox) potential of the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State by introducing chemical reagents and microbial nutrients. The experiment would allow the testing of concepts and hypotheses developed from fundamental research in the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Subsurface Science Program. Furthermore, the achievement of such control is expected to have implications for in situ remediation of dispersed aqueous contaminants in the subsurface environment at DOE sites nationwide, and particularly at the Hanford Site. This interim report summarizes initial research that was conducted between July 1990 and October 1991

  14. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  15. Visualized analysis of developing trends and hot topics in natural disaster research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shi; Cheng, Changxiu; Yang, Jing; Yang, Shanli

    2018-01-01

    This study visualized and analyzed the developing trends and hot topics in natural disaster research. 19694 natural disaster-related articles (January 1900 to June 2015) are indexed in the Web of Science database. The first step in this study is using complex networks to visualize and analyze these articles. CiteSpace and Gephi were employed to generate a countries collaboration network and a disciplines collaboration network, and then attached hot topics to countries and disciplines, respectively. The results show that USA, China, and Italy are the three major contributors to natural disaster research. "Prediction model", "social vulnerability", and "landslide inventory map" are three hot topics in recent years. They have attracted attention not only from large countries like China but also from small countries like Panama and Turkey. Comparing two hybrid networks provides details of natural disaster research. Scientists from USA and China use image data to research earthquakes. Indonesia and Germany collaboratively study tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. However, Indonesian studies focus on modeling and simulations, while German research focuses on early warning technology. This study also introduces an activity index (AI) and an attractive index (AAI) to generate time evolution trajectories of some major countries from 2000 to 2013 and evaluate their trends and performance. Four patterns of evolution are visible during this 14-year period. China and India show steadily rising contributions and impacts, USA and England show relatively decreasing research efforts and impacts, Japan and Australia show fluctuating activities and stable attraction, and Spain and Germany show fluctuating activities and increasing impacts.

  16. Visualized analysis of developing trends and hot topics in natural disaster research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Shen

    Full Text Available This study visualized and analyzed the developing trends and hot topics in natural disaster research. 19694 natural disaster-related articles (January 1900 to June 2015 are indexed in the Web of Science database. The first step in this study is using complex networks to visualize and analyze these articles. CiteSpace and Gephi were employed to generate a countries collaboration network and a disciplines collaboration network, and then attached hot topics to countries and disciplines, respectively. The results show that USA, China, and Italy are the three major contributors to natural disaster research. "Prediction model", "social vulnerability", and "landslide inventory map" are three hot topics in recent years. They have attracted attention not only from large countries like China but also from small countries like Panama and Turkey. Comparing two hybrid networks provides details of natural disaster research. Scientists from USA and China use image data to research earthquakes. Indonesia and Germany collaboratively study tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. However, Indonesian studies focus on modeling and simulations, while German research focuses on early warning technology. This study also introduces an activity index (AI and an attractive index (AAI to generate time evolution trajectories of some major countries from 2000 to 2013 and evaluate their trends and performance. Four patterns of evolution are visible during this 14-year period. China and India show steadily rising contributions and impacts, USA and England show relatively decreasing research efforts and impacts, Japan and Australia show fluctuating activities and stable attraction, and Spain and Germany show fluctuating activities and increasing impacts.

  17. Visualized analysis of developing trends and hot topics in natural disaster research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shi; Cheng, Changxiu; Yang, Jing; Yang, Shanli

    2018-01-01

    This study visualized and analyzed the developing trends and hot topics in natural disaster research. 19694 natural disaster-related articles (January 1900 to June 2015) are indexed in the Web of Science database. The first step in this study is using complex networks to visualize and analyze these articles. CiteSpace and Gephi were employed to generate a countries collaboration network and a disciplines collaboration network, and then attached hot topics to countries and disciplines, respectively. The results show that USA, China, and Italy are the three major contributors to natural disaster research. “Prediction model”, “social vulnerability”, and “landslide inventory map” are three hot topics in recent years. They have attracted attention not only from large countries like China but also from small countries like Panama and Turkey. Comparing two hybrid networks provides details of natural disaster research. Scientists from USA and China use image data to research earthquakes. Indonesia and Germany collaboratively study tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. However, Indonesian studies focus on modeling and simulations, while German research focuses on early warning technology. This study also introduces an activity index (AI) and an attractive index (AAI) to generate time evolution trajectories of some major countries from 2000 to 2013 and evaluate their trends and performance. Four patterns of evolution are visible during this 14-year period. China and India show steadily rising contributions and impacts, USA and England show relatively decreasing research efforts and impacts, Japan and Australia show fluctuating activities and stable attraction, and Spain and Germany show fluctuating activities and increasing impacts. PMID:29351350

  18. Horizon Entropy from Quantum Gravity Condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Daniele; Pranzetti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2016-05-27

    We construct condensate states encoding the continuum spherically symmetric quantum geometry of a horizon in full quantum gravity, i.e., without any classical symmetry reduction, in the group field theory formalism. Tracing over the bulk degrees of freedom, we show how the resulting reduced density matrix manifestly exhibits a holographic behavior. We derive a complete orthonormal basis of eigenstates for the reduced density matrix of the horizon and use it to compute the horizon entanglement entropy. By imposing consistency with the horizon boundary conditions and semiclassical thermodynamical properties, we recover the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula for any value of the Immirzi parameter. Our analysis supports the equivalence between the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy interpretation and the Boltzmann (statistical) one.

  19. Nonlinear optics of fibre event horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Karen E; Erkintalo, Miro; Xu, Yiqing; Broderick, Neil G R; Dudley, John M; Genty, Goëry; Murdoch, Stuart G

    2014-09-17

    The nonlinear interaction of light in an optical fibre can mimic the physics at an event horizon. This analogue arises when a weak probe wave is unable to pass through an intense soliton, despite propagating at a different velocity. To date, these dynamics have been described in the time domain in terms of a soliton-induced refractive index barrier that modifies the velocity of the probe. Here we complete the physical description of fibre-optic event horizons by presenting a full frequency-domain description in terms of cascaded four-wave mixing between discrete single-frequency fields, and experimentally demonstrate signature frequency shifts using continuous wave lasers. Our description is confirmed by the remarkable agreement with experiments performed in the continuum limit, reached using ultrafast lasers. We anticipate that clarifying the description of fibre event horizons will significantly impact on the description of horizon dynamics and soliton interactions in photonics and other systems.

  20. Deepwater Horizon Seafood Safety Oracle Database (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico. In response to this spill, the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated a data collection...

  1. Deep Water Horizon (HB1006, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monitor and measure the biological, chemical, and physical environment in the area of the oil spill from the deep water horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico. A wide...

  2. Physiological Effects of Nature Therapy: A Review of the Research in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2016-08-03

    Humans have evolved into what they are today after the passage of 6-7 million years. If we define the beginning of urbanization as the rise of the industrial revolution, less than 0.01% of our species' history has been spent in modern surroundings. Humans have spent over 99.99% of their time living in the natural environment. The gap between the natural setting, for which our physiological functions are adapted, and the highly urbanized and artificial setting that we inhabit is a contributing cause of the "stress state" in modern people. In recent years, scientific evidence supporting the physiological effects of relaxation caused by natural stimuli has accumulated. This review aimed to objectively demonstrate the physiological effects of nature therapy. We have reviewed research in Japan related to the following: (1) the physiological effects of nature therapy, including those of forests, urban green space, plants, and wooden material and (2) the analyses of individual differences that arise therein. The search was conducted in the PubMed database using various keywords. We applied our inclusion/exclusion criteria and reviewed 52 articles. Scientific data assessing physiological indicators, such as brain activity, autonomic nervous activity, endocrine activity, and immune activity, are accumulating from field and laboratory experiments. We believe that nature therapy will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future.

  3. Physiological Effects of Nature Therapy: A Review of the Research in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorong Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans have evolved into what they are today after the passage of 6–7 million years. If we define the beginning of urbanization as the rise of the industrial revolution, less than 0.01% of our species’ history has been spent in modern surroundings. Humans have spent over 99.99% of their time living in the natural environment. The gap between the natural setting, for which our physiological functions are adapted, and the highly urbanized and artificial setting that we inhabit is a contributing cause of the “stress state” in modern people. In recent years, scientific evidence supporting the physiological effects of relaxation caused by natural stimuli has accumulated. This review aimed to objectively demonstrate the physiological effects of nature therapy. We have reviewed research in Japan related to the following: (1 the physiological effects of nature therapy, including those of forests, urban green space, plants, and wooden material and (2 the analyses of individual differences that arise therein. The search was conducted in the PubMed database using various keywords. We applied our inclusion/exclusion criteria and reviewed 52 articles. Scientific data assessing physiological indicators, such as brain activity, autonomic nervous activity, endocrine activity, and immune activity, are accumulating from field and laboratory experiments. We believe that nature therapy will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future.

  4. The Impact of Natural Disasters on Youth: A Focus on Emerging Research beyond Internalizing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Lai, Betty; Patterson, Alexandria; Glasheen, Theresa

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews youth outcomes following exposure to natural disaster, with a focus on three relatively understudied outcomes: externalizing behavior problems, physical health, and posttraumatic growth. Recent, high-impact studies focusing on each outcome are summarized. Studies highlighted in this review utilize innovative and comprehensive approaches to improve our current understanding of youth broad-based physical and mental health outcomes beyond PTSD. The review concludes with recommendations to advance the field of youth disaster research by exploring how disasters may impact children across multiple domains, as well as using cutting edge ecobiological approaches and advanced modeling strategies to better understand how youth adjust and thrive following natural disaster.

  5. Subjective Life Horizon and Portfolio Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Spaenjers , Christophe; Spira, Sven Michael

    2013-01-01

    Using data from a U.S. household survey, we examine the empirical relation between subjective life horizon (i.e., the self-reported expectation of remaining life span) and portfolio choice. We find that equity portfolio shares are higher for investors with longer horizons, ceteris paribus, in line with theoretical predictions. This result is robust to controlling for optimism and health status, accounting for the endogeneity of equity market participation, or instrumenting subjective life hor...

  6. VMware Horizon View 6 desktop virtualization cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ventresco, Jason

    2014-01-01

    If you want a more detailed explanation concerning the implementation of several different core features of VMware Horizon View, this is the book for you. Whether you are new to VMware Horizon View or an existing user, this book will provide you with the knowledge you need to successfully deploy several core features and get introduced to the latest features of version 6.0 as well.

  7. Peering beyond the horizon with standard sirens and redshift drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Raul; Raccanelli, Alvise; Verde, Licia; Matarrese, Sabino

    2018-04-01

    An interesting test on the nature of the Universe is to measure the global spatial curvature of the metric in a model independent way, at a level of |Ωk|limit of |Ωk|<10‑4 would yield stringent tests on several models of inflation. Further, improving the constraint by an order of magnitude would help in reducing "model confusion" in standard parameter estimation. Moreover, if the curvature is measured to be at the value of the amplitude of the CMB fluctuations, it would offer a powerful test on the inflationary paradigm and would indicate that our Universe must be significantly larger than the current horizon. On the contrary, in the context of standard inflation, measuring a value above CMB fluctuations will lead us to conclude that the Universe is not much larger than the current observed horizon; this can also be interpreted as the presence of large fluctuations outside the horizon. However, it has proven difficult, so far, to find observables that can achieve such level of accuracy, and, most of all, be model-independent. Here we propose a method that can in principle achieve that; this is done by making minimal assumptions and using distance probes that are cosmology-independent: gravitational waves, redshift drift and cosmic chronometers. We discuss what kind of observations are needed in principle to achieve the desired accuracy.

  8. Isolated Horizons and Black Hole Entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Diaz-Polo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We review the black hole entropy calculation in the framework of Loop Quantum Gravity based on the quasi-local definition of a black hole encoded in the isolated horizon formalism. We show, by means of the covariant phase space framework, the appearance in the conserved symplectic structure of a boundary term corresponding to a Chern-Simons theory on the horizon and present its quantization both in the U(1 gauge fixed version and in the fully SU(2 invariant one. We then describe the boundary degrees of freedom counting techniques developed for an infinite value of the Chern-Simons level case and, less rigorously, for the case of a finite value. This allows us to perform a comparison between the U(1 and SU(2 approaches and provide a state of the art analysis of their common features and different implications for the entropy calculations. In particular, we comment on different points of view regarding the nature of the horizon degrees of freedom and the role played by the Barbero-Immirzi parameter. We conclude by presenting some of the most recent results concerning possible observational tests for theory.

  9. Cosmological event horizons, thermodynamics, and particle creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.W.; Hawking, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the close connection between event horizons and thermodynamics which has been found in the case of black holes can be extended to cosmological models with a repulsive cosmological constant. An observer in these models will have an event horizon whose area can be interpreted as the entropy or lack of information of the observer about the regions which he cannot see. Associated with the event horizon is a surface gravity kappa which enters a classical ''first law of event horizons'' in a manner similar to that in which temperature occurs in the first law of thermodynamics. It is shown that this similarity is more than an analogy: An observer with a particle detector will indeed observe a background of thermal radiation coming apparently from the cosmological event horizon. If the observer absorbs some of this radiation, he will gain energy and entropy at the expense of the region beyond his ken and the event horizon will shrink. The derivation of these results involves abandoning the idea that particles should be defined in an observer-independent manner. They also suggest that one has to use something like the Everett-Wheeler interpretation of quantum mechanics because the back reaction and hence the spacetime metric itself appear to be observer-dependent, if one assumes, as seems reasonable, that the detection of a particle is accompanied by a change in the gravitational field

  10. Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Natural and Social Sciences – Status and Trends Exemplified in Groundwater Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social sciences, is perceived as crucial to solving the significant challenges facing humanity. However, despite the need for such collaboration being expressed more frequently and intensely, it remains unclear to what degree such collaboration actually takes place, what trends and developments there are and which actors are involved. Previous studies, often based on bibliometric analysis of large bodies of literature, partly observed an increase in interdisciplinary collaboration in general, but in particular, the collaboration among distant fields was less explored. Other more qualitative studies found that interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly between natural and social scientists was not well developed, and obstacles abounded. To shed some light on the actual status and developments of this collaboration, we performed an analysis based on a sample of articles on groundwater research. We first identified journals and articles therein that potentially combined natural and social science aspects of groundwater research. Next, we analysed the disciplinary composition of their authors’ teams, cited references, titles and keywords, making use of our detailed personal expertise in groundwater research and its interdisciplinary aspects. We combined several indicators developed from this analysis into a final classification of the degree of multidisciplinarity of each article. Covering the period between 1990 and 2014, we found that the overall percentage of multidisciplinary articles was in the low single-digit range, with only slight increases over the past decades. The interdisciplinarity of individuals plays a major role compared to interdisciplinarity involving two or more researchers. If collaboration with natural sciences takes place, social science is represented most often by economists. As a side result, we found that journals publishing multidisciplinary research had lower impact

  11. Unconventional natural gas development and public health: toward a community-informed research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Elam, Sarah; Gray, Kathleen M.; Haynes, Erin; Hughes, Megan Hoert

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production in recent years. However, the rapid expansion of UNGD has also raised concerns about its potential impacts on public health. Academics and government agencies are developing research programs to explore these concerns. Community involvement in activities such as planning, conducting, and communicating research is widely recognized as having an important role in promoting environmental health. Historically, however, communities most often engage in research after environmental health concerns have emerged. This community information needs assessment took a prospective approach to integrating community leaders' knowledge, perceptions, and concerns into the research agenda prior to initiation of local UNGD. We interviewed community leaders about their views on environmental health information needs in three states (New York, North Carolina, and Ohio) prior to widespread UNGD. Interviewees emphasized the cumulative, long-term, and indirect determinants of health, as opposed to specific disease outcomes. Responses focused not only on information needs, but also on communication and transparency with respect to research processes and funding. Interviewees also prioritized investigation of policy approaches to effectively protect human health over the long term. Although universities were most often cited as a credible source of information, interviewees emphasized the need for multiple strategies for disseminating information. By including community leaders' concerns, insights, and questions from the outset, the research agenda on UNGD is more likely to effectively inform decision making that ultimately protects public health. PMID:25204212

  12. Does horizon entropy satisfy a quantum null energy conjecture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zicao; Marolf, Donald

    2016-12-01

    A modern version of the idea that the area of event horizons gives 4G times an entropy is the Hubeny-Rangamani causal holographic information (CHI) proposal for holographic field theories. Given a region R of a holographic QFTs, CHI computes A/4G on a certain cut of an event horizon in the gravitational dual. The result is naturally interpreted as a coarse-grained entropy for the QFT. CHI is known to be finitely greater than the fine-grained Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) entropy when \\partial R lies on a Killing horizon of the QFT spacetime, and in this context satisfies other non-trivial properties expected of an entropy. Here we present evidence that it also satisfies the quantum null energy condition (QNEC), which bounds the second derivative of the entropy of a quantum field theory on one side of a non-expanding null surface by the flux of stress-energy across the surface. In particular, we show CHI to satisfy the QNEC in 1  +  1 holographic CFTs when evaluated in states dual to conical defects in AdS3. This surprising result further supports the idea that CHI defines a useful notion of coarse-grained holographic entropy, and suggests unprecedented bounds on the rate at which bulk horizon generators emerge from a caustic. To supplement our motivation, we include an appendix deriving a corresponding coarse-grained generalized second law for 1  +  1 holographic CFTs perturbatively coupled to dilaton gravity.

  13. Summary and status of the Horizons ephemeris system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, J.

    2011-10-01

    Since 1996, the Horizons system has provided searchable access to JPL ephemerides for all known solar system bodies, several dozen spacecraft, planetary system barycenters, and some libration points. Responding to 18 400 000 requests from 300 000 unique addresses, the system has recently averaged 420 000 ephemeris requests per month. Horizons is accessed and automated using three interfaces: interactive telnet, web-browser form, and e-mail command-file. Asteroid and comet ephemerides are numerically integrated from JPL's database of initial conditions. This small-body database is updated hourly by a separate process as new measurements and discoveries are reported by the Minor Planet Center and automatically incorporated into new JPL orbit solutions. Ephemerides for other objects are derived by interpolating previously developed solutions whose trajectories have been represented in a file. For asteroids and comets, such files may be dynamically created and transferred to users, effectively recording integrator output. These small-body SPK files may then be interpolated by user software to reproduce the trajectory without duplicating the numerically integrated n-body dynamical model or PPN equations of motion. Other Horizons output is numerical and in the form of plain-text observer, vector, osculating element, or close-approach tables, typically expected be read by other software as input. About one hundred quantities can be requested in various time-scales and coordinate systems. For JPL small-body solutions, this includes statistical uncertainties derived from measurement covariance and state transition matrices. With the exception of some natural satellites, Horizons is consistent with DE405/DE406, the IAU 1976 constants, ITRF93, and IAU2009 rotational models.

  14. Horizons of hermeneutics: Intercultural hermeneutics in a globalizing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Mul (Jos)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractStarting from the often-used metaphor of the "horizon of experience" this article discusses three different types of intercultural hermeneutics, which respectively conceive hermeneutic interpretation as a widening of horizons, a fusion of horizons, and a dissemination of horizons. It is

  15. Implementation of Research and Development Based on Patent Natural Ingredients and Potential Utilization of Tradition Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Hendrix

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of research and development based on natural ingredients for traditional medicines become an interesting topic to discuss at this point; it’s shown from increasing number in utilization. The use of traditional medicine especially on natural ingredients at this moment becomes effective solution to increase the level of market acceptance in herbal extracts, including an affordable purchase from potential utilization of natural resources which are owned. By using Matheo Patent XE Ver 10.2 as methodology of searching, we can know potentials useful through strategy, research and development, patent analysis and patent collaboration among users in utilization of Natural Ingredient for Traditional Medicine. From the data result shows majority in the field of chemistry for human necessity related to Health; Amusement; Medical or Veterinary Science; Hygiene sectors with total patent 108, family 65. The use of patent analysis is a way to find how the development of technology and products that have been produced and how commercial processes connecting with technology users, especially in traditional medicine. From the data that exist in particular of patents, it is critical to identify the number of patents that has been registered through the innovation process development including technology dissemination is used.

  16. Scientific research in the natural sciences in South Africa: A scientometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhamany Sooryamoorthy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a leading producer of scientific publications on the African continent, South Africa has made remarkable progress. However, attempts are yet to be made to comprehend the empirical reality of scientific production in South Africa. One way to do this is to analyse specific science disciplines (such as the natural sciences, publication outputs and their features. A bibliometric study was undertaken of the publication trends and patterns of South African researchers in the natural sciences from 1975 to 2005 (choosing selected sample years, using the Thomson Reuters� Web of Knowledge database of selected indexed natural science journals. Characteristics of natural science publications, such as the trends over the years, were revealed as well as the collaborative dimensions involved in the production of scientific papers in these disciplines in South Africa. The connection between collaboration and publication, as well as between collaboration and sectors of authors was evident. The key findings of this study were that authors were based mostly in universities and were collaborative in their research endeavours. In addition, the participation of international collaborators has increased.

  17. Feasibility of maintaining natural convection mode core cooling in research reactor power upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, J.J.; Belhadj, M.; Aldemir, T.; Christensen, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    Two operational concerns for natural convection coooled research reactors using plate type fuels are: 1) pool top 16 N activity (PTNA), and 2) nucleate boiling in core channels. The feasibility assessment of a power upgrade while maintaining natural convection mode core cooling requires addressing these operational concerns. Previous studies have shown that: a) The conventional technique for reducing PTNA by plume dispersion may not be effective in a large power upgrade of research reactors with small pools. b) Currently used correlations to predict onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) in thin, rectangular core channels are not valid for low-velocity, upward flows such as encountered in natural convection cooling. The PTNA depends on the velocity distribution in the reactor pool. COMMIX-1A code is used to determine the three-dimensional velocity fields in The Ohio State University Research Reactor (OSURR) pool as a function of varying design conditions, following a power upgrade to 500 kW with LEU fuel. It is shown that a sufficiently deep stagnant water layer can be created below the pool top by properly choosing the disperser flow rate. The ONB heat flux is experimentally determined for channel gaps and upward flow velocities in the range 2mm-4mm and 3-16 cm/sec., respectively. Two alternatives to plume dispersion for reducing PTNA and a new correlation to determine the ONB heat flux in thin, rectangular channels under low-velocity, upward flow conditions are proposed. (Author)

  18. Natural products against cancer: A comprehensive bibliometric study of the research projects, publications, patents and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze multi-source data including awards, publications, patents and drugs, and try to draw the whole landscape of the research and development community in the area of natural products (NPs against cancer. Materials and Methods: Awards, publications, patents and drugs data from National Institute of Health/Natural Science Foundation of China (NIH/NSFC, PubMed, Derwent Innovation Index and Cortellis were collected. Bibliometric methodologies and technology are used to investigate publications/patents/drugs, their contents and relationships. Results: NIH and NSFC respectively demonstrated a stable and sustained expenditure growth in this area. The number of publications is continuously increasing. Yet the annual patent applications worldwide and FDA drug approvals were little changed or not obviously fluctuated in 2003-2013. USA and several Asia-pacific countries/territories are important contributing powers. We described the evolution of major research topics by those MeSH Major Topics indexed in PubMed with the largest growth range in three intervals, and analyzed hot research topics in the recent 10 years which include NPs or NPs derivatives, cell line/animal model, laboratory technologies and activation mechanisms. Conclusions: China published the most publications and received the most patent applications, but drug discovery performance is no better than USA and Japan. Research on anti-neoplastic structures and compounds originated from Chinese traditional medicine (TCM, medicinal plants, herbal medicine and marine NPs are major research topics in the recent 10 years. There still exits translational gap between basic research and drug discovery. Translational research should be undertaken to strengthen the applicability of NPs.

  19. Research priorities for conservation and natural resource management in Oceania's small-island developing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, R; Adams, V M

    2018-02-01

    For conservation science to effectively inform management, research must focus on creating the scientific knowledge required to solve conservation problems. We identified research questions that, if answered, would increase the effectiveness of conservation and natural resource management practice and policy in Oceania's small-island developing states. We asked conservation professionals from academia, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations across the region to propose such questions and then identify which were of high priority in an online survey. We compared the high-priority questions with research questions identified globally and for other regions. Of 270 questions proposed by respondents, 38 were considered high priority, including: What are the highest priority areas for conservation in the face of increasing resource demand and climate change? How should marine protected areas be networked to account for connectivity and climate change? What are the most effective fisheries management policies that contribute to sustainable coral reef fisheries? High-priority questions related to the particular challenges of undertaking conservation on small-island developing states and the need for a research agenda that is responsive to the sociocultural context of Oceania. Research priorities for Oceania relative to elsewhere were broadly similar but differed in specific issues relevant to particular conservation contexts. These differences emphasize the importance of involving local practitioners in the identification of research priorities. Priorities were reasonably well aligned among sectoral groups. Only a few questions were widely considered answered, which may indicate a smaller-than-expected knowledge-action gap. We believe these questions can be used to strengthen research collaborations between scientists and practitioners working to further conservation and natural resource management in this region. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology

  20. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately

  1. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked

  2. Review on research of suppression male fertility and male contraceptive drug development by natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Radhey S

    2013-08-01

    Male contraceptive development in the present scenario is most viable aspect of research due to uncontrolled population growth in the world. In this respect investigators are busy to find out a safe male contraceptive drug. Researchers have started their finding for a suitable drug from natural sources because these are safe and easily acceptable for common man, most of natural sources are plants and their products. In this review 137 plants and their effects on reproduction and reproductive physiology are summarized. Some of them have intense effect on male reproductive system and do not produce any side effects. Reproductive toxicological studies are also important aspects of these kinds of researches, so it is important that drugs are safe and widely acceptable. An ideal male contraceptive can influence semen, testes, hormone level, accessory reproductive organs and general physiology of animals and produced some alterations. Many plants in this review are showing antifertility as well as antispermatogenic effects, so these may be used for further study for contraceptives development but it is important to find out the mechanism of reaction and further laboratory and clinical research on some plants are needed for final male contraceptive drug development. In conclusion this review will help for finding suitable plant products for male contraceptive clinical and laboratory studies.

  3. HORIZON 2020 - Project SITEX-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachmilner, L.

    2016-01-01

    In the mid of 2015 a coordination action SITEX-II was initiated within the EC programme Horizon 2020. It aims at implementing in practice activities along with the interaction models issued by the SITEX project (carried out within FP7 programme in 2012-13), in view of developing an Expertise function network. This network is expected to ensure sustainable capacity of developing and coordination joint and harmonised activities related to the independent technical expertise in the field of safety of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. SITEX-II tasks include: • The definition of the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) based on the common R orientations defined by SITEX, the definition of ToR for the implementation of specific topics of from the SRA, and the interaction with IGD-TP and other external entities mandated to implement research on radioactive waste disposal regarding the potential setting up of a respective European Joint Programming; • The production of a guidance on the technical review of the safety case at its different phases of development, fostering a common understanding on the interpretation and proper implementation of safety requirements for developing, operating and closing a geological repository and on then verification of compliance with these requirements; • The commitment of a Civil Society (CS) in the definition of the SRA mentioned above, considering the expectations and technical questions to be considered when developing R for the purpose of Expert function. Close interactions between experts conducting the review work and CS representatives will enhance establishing the safety culture and, more globally, proposing governance patterns with CS in the framework of geological disposal; • The preparation of the ‚administrative‘ framework for creating a sustainable network of Technical Safety Organisations from EU members states by addressing the legal organisational and management aspects. (author)

  4. General Relativity: horizons for tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatskiv, Ya. S.; Alexandrov, A. N.; Vavilova, I. B.; Zhdanov, V. I.; Zhuk, A. I.; Kudrya, Yu. N.; Parnovsky, S. L.; Fedorova, E. V.; Khmil, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical basis of the General Relativity Theory (GRT), its experimental tests as well as GRT applications are briefly summarized taking into account the results of the last decade. The monograph addresses scientists, post-graduated students, and students specialized in the natural sciences as well as everyone who takes an interest in GRT.

  5. Delivering the Goods: Scaling out Results of Natural Resource Management Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Harrington

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To help integrated natural resource management (INRM research "deliver the goods" for many of the world's poor over a large area and in a timely manner, the authors suggest a problem-solving approach that facilitates the scaling out of relevant agricultural practices. They propose seven ways to foster scaling out: (1 develop more attractive practices and technologies through participatory research (2 balance supply-driven approaches with resource user demands, (3 use feedback to redefine the research agenda, (4 encourage support groups and networks for information sharing, (5 facilitate negotiation among stakeholders, (6 inform policy change and institutional development, and (7 make sensible use of information management tools, including models and geographic information systems (GIS. They also draw on experiences in Mesoamerica, South Asia, and southern Africa to describe useful information management tools, including site similarity analyses, the linking of simulation models with GIS, and the use of farmer and land type categories.

  6. Using Action Research to Engage K-6 Teachers in Nature of Science Inquiry as Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Theresa A.; Akerson, Valarie L.; Hanson, Deborah L.

    2010-12-01

    Teachers are required to work with data on a daily basis to assess the effectiveness of their teaching strategies, but may not approach it as research. This paper presents a reflective discussion of how and when a professional development team used an action research project to help 12 K-6 teachers explore the effectiveness of reform based Nature of Science (NOS) teaching strategies in their classrooms. The team encouraged community development and provided “just in time” supports to scaffold the steps of the action research process for teachers. The discussion includes concerns they addressed and issues related to management and support of the professional development model. Evaluation results are shared to suggest how this approach can be improved in the future.

  7. A roadmap for knowledge exchange and mobilization research in conservation and natural resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Young, Nathan; Cooke, Steven J

    2017-08-01

    Scholars across all disciplines have long been interested in how knowledge moves within and beyond their community of peers. Rapid environmental changes and calls for sustainable management practices mean the best knowledge possible is needed to inform decisions, policies, and practices to protect biodiversity and sustainably manage vulnerable natural resources. Although the conservation literature on knowledge exchange (KE) and knowledge mobilization (KM) has grown in recent years, much of it is based on context-specific case studies. This presents a challenge for learning cumulative lessons from KE and KM research and thus effectively using knowledge in conservation and natural resources management. Although continued research on the gap between knowledge and action is valuable, overarching conceptual frameworks are now needed to enable summaries and comparisons across diverse KE-KM research. We propose a knowledge-action framework that provides a conceptual roadmap for future research and practice in KE/KM with the aim of synthesizing lessons learned from contextual case studies and guiding the development and testing of hypotheses in this domain. Our knowledge-action framework has 3 elements that occur at multiple levels and scales: knowledge production (e.g., academia and government), knowledge mediation (e.g., knowledge networks, actors, relational dimension, and contextual dimension), and knowledge-based action (e.g., instrumental, symbolic, and conceptual). The framework integrates concepts from the sociology of science in particular, and serves as a guide to further comprehensive understanding of knowledge exchange and mobilization in conservation and sustainable natural resource management. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. A phytotron for plant stress research: how far can artificial lighting compare to natural sunlight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, S.; Döhring, T.; Köfferlein, M.; Kosak, A.; Martin, P.; Seidlitz, H.K.

    1996-01-01

    Plants have adapted very efficiently to their natural light habitat. Artificial plant illumination, therefore, requires careful design. Not only the quantity of radiation per area or volume (intensity) but also the spectral quality has to match seasonal and diurnal variations of natural global radiation as close as possible. The GSF Research Center has developed a phytotron system especially devoted to plant stress research, where these requirements are of particular importance. The phytotron consists of seven closed chambers (4 walk-in size chambers, two medium and one small sun simulator). Our contribution outlines the basic design of the lighting and presents spectral data. A good approximation of terrestrial global radiation is achieved if several commercially available lamp types are combined and adequate filters are applied to reject unwanted infrared and harmful ultraviolet radiation. A programmable switch control for the individual lamp banks allows a variation of both spectrum and intensity of the illumination. Spectroradiometric measurements show that the maximum level of illumination in the small and in the medium size chambers can compete both in spectral distribution and in intensity with outdoor global radiation for solar elevations up to 60°. The maximum light level available inside the large walk-in chambers reaches an irradiance corresponding to solar elevation of 50°. The UV-B: UV-A: PAR ratio, which mirrors the spectral balance of plant lighting, can be adjusted to values following the diurnal variation of natural global radiation.(author)

  9. Quantum-corrected geometry of horizon vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, I.Y. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Philander Smith College, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2017-12-15

    We study the deformation of the horizon-vicinity geometry caused by quantum gravitational effects. Departure from the semi-classical picture is noted, and the fact that the matter part of the action comes at a higher order in Newton's constant than does the Einstein-Hilbert term is crucial for the departure. The analysis leads to a Firewall-type energy measured by an infalling observer for which quantum generation of the cosmological constant is critical. The analysis seems to suggest that the Firewall should be a part of such deformation and that the information be stored both in the horizon-vicinity and asymptotic boundary region. We also examine the behavior near the cosmological horizon. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. A global string with an event horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, D.; Polychronakos, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    An idealized infinite straight global string in flat space-time has a logarithmically divergent energy per unit length. With gravity included, the standard field theoretical model for a straight global string has been shown to give rise to a repulsive gravitational field, and to develop a curvature singularity at a finite proper distance off the string core. Here we point out that alternative (although probably unrealistic) equations of state for the core of the global string produce a non-singular cylindrically symmetric metric with an event horizon at a finite proper distance off the core, such that timelike observers beyond the horizon are bound to move away from the string. The same geometric structure applies to the standard field theoretical model for a vortex in (2+1)-dimensional gravity. Thermal effects in a quantum field theory around the string due to the presence of the horizon are also calculated. (orig.)

  11. Quantum-corrected geometry of horizon vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I.Y.

    2017-01-01

    We study the deformation of the horizon-vicinity geometry caused by quantum gravitational effects. Departure from the semi-classical picture is noted, and the fact that the matter part of the action comes at a higher order in Newton's constant than does the Einstein-Hilbert term is crucial for the departure. The analysis leads to a Firewall-type energy measured by an infalling observer for which quantum generation of the cosmological constant is critical. The analysis seems to suggest that the Firewall should be a part of such deformation and that the information be stored both in the horizon-vicinity and asymptotic boundary region. We also examine the behavior near the cosmological horizon. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Horizon thermodynamics in fourth-order gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Sen Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of horizon thermodynamics, the field equations of Einstein gravity and some other second-order gravities can be rewritten as the thermodynamic identity: dE=TdS−PdV. However, in order to construct the horizon thermodynamics in higher-order gravity, we have to simplify the field equations firstly. In this paper, we study the fourth-order gravity and convert it to second-order gravity via a so-called “Legendre transformation” at the cost of introducing two other fields besides the metric field. With this simplified theory, we implement the conventional procedure in the construction of the horizon thermodynamics in 3 and 4 dimensional spacetime. We find that the field equations in the fourth-order gravity can also be written as the thermodynamic identity. Moreover, we can use this approach to derive the same black hole mass as that by other methods.

  13. On Long Memory Origins and Forecast Horizons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera-Valdés, J. Eduardo

    Most long memory forecasting studies assume that the memory is generated by the fractional difference operator. We argue that the most cited theoretical arguments for the presence of long memory do not imply the fractional difference operator, and assess the performance of the autoregressive...... fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model when forecasting series with long memory generated by nonfractional processes. We find that high-order autoregressive (AR) models produce similar or superior forecast performance than ARFIMA models at short horizons. Nonetheless, as the forecast horizon...... increases, the ARFIMA models tend to dominate in forecast performance. Hence, ARFIMA models are well suited for forecasts of long memory processes regardless of the long memory generating mechanism, particularly for medium and long forecast horizons. Additionally, we analyse the forecasting performance...

  14. Restoration in Its Natural Context: How Ecological Momentary Assessment Can Advance Restoration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Beute

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available More and more people use self-tracking technologies to track their psychological states, physiology, and behaviors to gain a better understanding of themselves or to achieve a certain goal. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA also offers an excellent opportunity for restorative environments research, which examines how our physical environment (especially nature can positively influence health and wellbeing. It enables investigating restorative health effects in everyday life, providing not only high ecological validity but also opportunities to study in more detail the dynamic processes playing out over time on recovery, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory (i.e., short-term effects and epidemiological (long-term effects research. We have identified four main areas in which self-tracking could help advance restoration research: (1 capturing a rich set of environment types and restorative characteristics; (2 distinguishing intra-individual from inter-individual effects; (3 bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological research; and (4 advancing theoretical insights by measuring a more broad range of effects in everyday life. This paper briefly introduces restorative environments research, then reviews the state of the art of self-tracking technologies and methodologies, discusses how these can be implemented to advance restoration research, and presents some examples of pioneering work in this area.

  15. Purification of natural gas using membrane - the current status and research trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq Ahmad; Mukhtar, H.; Man, Z.; Dutta, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    Separation of acid gases and lower hydrocarbon from raw natural gas has been a challenging problem in a gas processing unit. Despite the availability of chemical and cryogenic routes, search for a better alternative has been on for the last several decades. Considerable success has been achieved in the recent years by use of polymeric membrane and many units are operating using hollow fiber and spirally wound modules. The initial success notwithstanding the quest for better membrane and strategically designed modules has gained more momentum in the recent years. While research inputs to modify rubbery membranes or to develop new glassy membranes are continuing, inorganic membrane have attracted a lot of attention because of a number of reasons such as thermal and chemical stability, mechanical strength and the advantage of engineered pores. In the above perspective it appears necessary to make a review of the present status of research as well as applications in relation to both polymeric and inorganic membranes for raw natural gas processing. The present paper is an attempt in this direction. Experimental findings reported in the literature together with novel theories that will eventually help in tailoring membranes both chemically and physically have been critically analyzed and the trends in the future direction of research have been identified. A survey of application of membrane technology for acid gas separation in industries world wide has been made

  16. A summary of research-based assessment of students' beliefs about the nature of experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2018-03-01

    Within the undergraduate physics curriculum, students' primary exposure to experimental physics comes from laboratory courses. Thus, as experimentation is a core component of physics as a discipline, lab courses can be gateways in terms of both recruiting and retaining students within the physics major. Physics lab courses have a wide variety of explicit and/or implicit goals for lab courses, including helping students to develop expert-like beliefs about the nature and importance of experimental physics. To assess students' beliefs, attitudes, and expectations about the nature of experimental physics, there is currently one research-based assessment instrument available—the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Since its development, the E-CLASS has been the subject of multiple research studies aimed at understanding and evaluating the effectiveness of various laboratory learning environments. This paper presents a description of the E-CLASS assessment and a summary of the research that has been done using E-CLASS data with a particular emphasis on the aspects of this work that are most relevant for instructors.

  17. Hair-brane ideas on the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinec, Emil J.; Niehoff, Ben E.

    2015-01-01

    We continue an examination of the microstate geometries program begun in arXiv:1409.6017, focussing on the role of branes that wrap the cycles which degenerate when a throat in the geometry deepens and a horizon forms. An associated quiver quantum mechanical model of minimally wrapped branes exhibits a non-negligible fraction of the gravitational entropy, which scales correctly as a function of the charges. The results suggest a picture of AdS_3/CFT_2 duality wherein the long string that accounts for BTZ black hole entropy in the CFT description, can also be seen to inhabit the horizon of BPS black holes on the gravity side.

  18. Aspects of Global Health Issues: Diseases, Natural Disasters, and Pharmaceutical Corporations and Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Global health issues are concerns of all public health officials throughout the world. This entails reviewing aspects such as the impact of poverty and the lack of access to quality health care, ignored global killers such as Diseases (Infectious diseases-Malaria, HIV/AIDS), Natural Disasters (Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Floods, and Armed Conflict), Health in the Media, and the Involvement of Pharmaceutical Corporations and Medical Research. These issues are challenges to many needless deaths. Global initiatives are not advancing as they should, such as access to drugs and medications, which some are political.

  19. Expanding Horizons Teachers and Scientists Collabortaing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teres, A.

    2017-12-01

    As a participant in PolarTrec, I joined the crew of NASA's Operation IceBridge in Greenland for the month of April 2017. As an active member of the team I learned the ins and outs of field research, and I learned about the work done by Operation IceBridge. As a result of participating in this project, I grew as a teacher and a scientist. I took my experiences and shared them with my classroom through stories, pictures, videos, and my lesson plans. By seeing the Artic through my experiences the class became enraptured by the subject matter. I was no longer talking about a distant or abstract place instead I was talking about an experience. This enabled my students to take an active part in the discussion and to feel like the cryosphere was part of their life too. Not only did I learn about the science but I leaned about logistics of field research. I reached out to my community and local communications outlets before and after my trip to Greenland to familiarize whomever I could connect with about my experience. I contacted a local news station and they did an interview with me about my trip. I emailed a local newspaper about my trip and was interviewed before I left and after I returned. Due to the newscast, I was contacted by my college sorority and was interviewed for the sorority's national newsletter which is distributed throughout the United States. Each connection helped to spread the word. I'm continuing to spread the word by volunteering to present my experience to schools throughout Broward County in Florida. I've already connected with teachers and schools to set up my presentation in the calendar. Having these types of experiences is critical for teachers to continue their growth within the scientific field and education. Effective teachers are those not constrained by the walls of their classroom. Having the opportunity to work with scientists and do research in the field has expanded my horizons. The people I met I am still in contact with and I am

  20. Classification of Near-Horizon Geometries of Extremal Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduri, Hari K; Lucietti, James

    2013-01-01

    Any spacetime containing a degenerate Killing horizon, such as an extremal black hole, possesses a well-defined notion of a near-horizon geometry. We review such near-horizon geometry solutions in a variety of dimensions and theories in a unified manner. We discuss various general results including horizon topology and near-horizon symmetry enhancement. We also discuss the status of the classification of near-horizon geometries in theories ranging from vacuum gravity to Einstein-Maxwell theory and supergravity theories. Finally, we discuss applications to the classification of extremal black holes and various related topics. Several new results are presented and open problems are highlighted throughout.

  1. Near-Optimal Tracking Control of Mobile Robots Via Receding-Horizon Dual Heuristic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Chuanqiang; Xu, Xin; Chen, Hong; He, Haibo

    2016-11-01

    Trajectory tracking control of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) has been an important research topic in control theory and robotics. Although various tracking control methods with stability have been developed for WMRs, it is still difficult to design optimal or near-optimal tracking controller under uncertainties and disturbances. In this paper, a near-optimal tracking control method is presented for WMRs based on receding-horizon dual heuristic programming (RHDHP). In the proposed method, a backstepping kinematic controller is designed to generate desired velocity profiles and the receding horizon strategy is used to decompose the infinite-horizon optimal control problem into a series of finite-horizon optimal control problems. In each horizon, a closed-loop tracking control policy is successively updated using a class of approximate dynamic programming algorithms called finite-horizon dual heuristic programming (DHP). The convergence property of the proposed method is analyzed and it is shown that the tracking control system based on RHDHP is asymptotically stable by using the Lyapunov approach. Simulation results on three tracking control problems demonstrate that the proposed method has improved control performance when compared with conventional model predictive control (MPC) and DHP. It is also illustrated that the proposed method has lower computational burden than conventional MPC, which is very beneficial for real-time tracking control.

  2. Natural science research of the Bulgar fortified settlement site (preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golyeva Alexandra A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first results of the comprehensive scientific research conducted on the Bulgar fortified settlement site in 2011. Samples for analysis were selected in the form of series of vertical columns from excavation walls. The species of trees used in the construction, the composition of the mud bricks and the bonding mortar, as well as the genesis of individual cultural layers have been identified. It has been found out that the settlement development and functioning had been reciprocating in nature: periods of intense habitation of its individual sections were followed by short stages of desolation. In all investigated soil columns with the cultural layers there are streaks consisting solely of phytoliths and cuticle casts. A possible explanation of the phenomenon may be that the plot was covered with layers of manure of significant length and capacity. This conclusion is debatable and requires further research.

  3. An Integrative Research Framework to Unravel the Interplay of Natural Hazards and Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Nohrstedt, Daniel; Mârd, Johanna; Burchardt, Steffi; Albin, Cecilia; Bondesson, Sara; Breinl, Korbinian; Deegan, Frances M.; Fuentes, Diana; Lopez, Marc Girons; Granberg, Mikael; Nyberg, Lars; Nyman, Monika Rydstedt; Rhodes, Emma; Troll, Valentin; Young, Stephanie; Walch, Colin; Parker, Charles F.

    2018-03-01

    Climate change, globalization, urbanization, social isolation, and increased interconnectedness between physical, human, and technological systems pose major challenges to disaster risk reduction (DRR). Subsequently, economic losses caused by natural hazards are increasing in many regions of the world, despite scientific progress, persistent policy action, and international cooperation. We argue that these dramatic figures call for novel scientific approaches and new types of data collection to integrate the two main approaches that still dominate the science underpinning DRR: the hazard paradigm and the vulnerability paradigm. Building from these two approaches, here we propose a research framework that specifies the scope of enquiry, concepts, and general relations among phenomena. We then discuss the essential steps to advance systematic empirical research and evidence-based DRR policy action.

  4. Researcher-driven Campaigns Engage Nature's Notebook Participants in Scientific Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Elmore, Andrew J.; Huete, Alfredo; Keller, Stephen; Levetin, Estelle; Luvall, Jeffrey; Meyers, Orrin; Stylinski, Cathlyn D.; Van De Water, Peter K.; Vukovic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    One of the many benefits of citizen science projects is the capacity they hold for facilitating data collection on a grand scale and thereby enabling scientists to answer questions they would otherwise not been able to address. Nature's Notebook, the plant and animal phenology observing program of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) suitable for scientists and non-scientists alike, offers scientifically-vetted data collection protocols and infrastructure and mechanisms to quickly reach out to hundreds to thousands of potential contributors. The USA-NPN has recently partnered with several research teams to engage participants in contributing to specific studies. In one example, a team of scientists from NASA, the New Mexico Department of Health, and universities in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and California are using juniper phenology observations submitted by Nature's Notebookparticipants to improve predictions of pollen release and inform asthma and allergy alerts. In a second effort, researchers from the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science are engaging Nature's Notebookparticipants in tracking leafing phenophases of poplars across the U.S. These observations will be compared to information acquired via satellite imagery and used to determine geographic areas where the tree species are most and least adapted to predicted climate change. Researchers in these partnerships receive benefits primarily in the form of ground observations. Launched in 2010, the juniper pollen effort has engaged participants in several western states and has yielded thousands of observations that can play a role in model ground validation. Periodic evaluation of these observations has prompted the team to improve and enhance the materials that participants receive, in an effort to boost data quality. The poplar project is formally launching in spring of 2013 and will run for three years; preliminary findings from 2013 will be presented. Participants in these

  5. Managing Watersheds as Couple Human-Natural Systems: A Review of Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.

    2011-12-01

    Many watersheds around the world are impaired with severe social and environmental problems due to heavy anthropogenic stresses. Humans have transformed hydrological and biochemical processes in watersheds from a stationary to non-stationary status through direct (e.g., water withdrawals) and indirect (e.g., altering vegetation and land cover) interferences. It has been found that in many watersheds that socio-economic drivers, which have caused increasingly intensive alteration of natural processes, have even overcome natural variability to become the dominant factor affecting the behavior of watershed systems. Reversing this trend requires an understanding of the drivers of this intensification trajectory, and needs tremendous policy reform and investment. As stressed by several recent National Research Council (NRC) reports, watershed management will pose an enormous challenge in the coming decades. Correspondingly, the focus of research has started an evolution from the management of reservoir, stormwater and aquifer systems to the management of integrated watershed systems, to which policy instruments designed to make more rational economic use of water resources are likely to be applied. To provide a few examples: reservoir operation studies have moved from a local to a watershed scale in order to consider upstream best management practices in soil conservation and erosion control and downstream ecological flow requirements and water rights; watersheds have been modeled as integrated hydrologic-economic systems with multidisciplinary modeling efforts, instead of traditional isolated physical systems. Today's watershed management calls for a re-definition of watersheds from isolated natural systems to coupled human-natural systems (CHNS), which are characterized by the interactions between human activities and natural processes, crossing various spatial and temporal scales within the context of a watershed. The importance of the conceptual innovation has been

  6. Teacher training on the nature of science through action-research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vázquez-Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature of science teaching is essential for scientific and technological literacy, but teacher training is poor due to the lack of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK of topics on the nature of science and technology (NS&,T. This article addresses the development of the PCK through the self-training of a teacher, by describing the process of curriculum ownership, change and self-regulation, to teach the students the topic “observation in science”. Since action-research is the frame of this study, the teacher reflects and researches his own practice, with the help of some tools to make explicit the developed PCK. The results show the features of the PCK developed by the teacher, and how the teacher becomes aware that the PCK-NS&,T integrative model, the different teaching contexts in the classroom, and the reflective and explicit teaching processes are effective to teach NS&,T, as they improve students’ understanding of the theory-laden of observations and develop motivation towards consensus argumentation and decision making, autonomous learning, sharing team work, self-reflection and dialogue.

  7. A lumped parameter core dynamics model for MTR type research reactors under natural convection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardaneh, Kazem; Zaferanlouei, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A model is presented to simulate the reactivity insertion transient in MTR reactors. ► Transient dynamics of IAEA 10 MW MTR type research reactor are evaluated. ► Maximum unprotected reactivity insertion for safe condition is calculated. ► The model predictions are validated with corresponding results in the literature. - Abstract: On the basis of lumped parameter modeling of both the kinetic and thermal–hydraulic effects, a reasonably accurate simplified model has been developed to predict the dynamic response of MTR reactors following to an unprotected reactivity insertion under natural convection regime. By this model the reactor transient behavior at a given initial steady-state can be solved by a set of ordinary differential equations. The model predictions have an acceptable consent with corresponding results of reactivity insertion transients analyzed in the literature. The inherent safety characteristics of MTR research reactors utilizing natural convection is clearly demonstrated by the expanded model. The safety margin of reactor operating is selected ONB condition and thereby the proposed model determines that any slight increase in the value of $0.73 for inserted reactivity will cause the maximum cladding surface temperature to exceed the ONB condition

  8. Coupled human and natural systems approach to wildlife research and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil H. Carter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Conserving wildlife while simultaneously meeting the resource needs of a growing human population is a major sustainability challenge. As such, using combined social and environmental perspectives to understand how people and wildlife are interlinked, together with the mechanisms that may weaken or strengthen those linkages, is of utmost importance. However, such integrated information is lacking. To help fill this information gap, we describe an integrated coupled human and natural systems (CHANS approach for analyzing the patterns, causes, and consequences of changes in wildlife population and habitat, human population and land use, and their interactions. Using this approach, we synthesize research in two sites, Wolong Nature Reserve in China and Chitwan National Park in Nepal, to explicate key relationships between people and two globally endangered wildlife conservation icons, the giant panda and the Bengal tiger. This synthesis reveals that local resident characteristics such as household socioeconomics and demography, as well as community-level attributes such as resource management organizations, affect wildlife and their habitats in complex and even countervailing ways. Human impacts on wildlife and their habitats are in turn modifying the suite of ecosystem services that they provide to local residents in both sites, including access to forest products and cultural values. These interactions are further complicated by human and natural disturbance (e.g., civil wars, earthquakes, feedbacks (including policies, and telecouplings (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances that increasingly link the focal systems with other distant systems. We highlight several important implications of using a CHANS approach for wildlife research and conservation that is useful not only in China and Nepal but in many other places around the world facing similar challenges.

  9. Sighting Horizons of Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ronald; Guzmán-Valenzuela, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    This conceptual paper tackles the matter of teaching in higher education and proposes a concept of "horizons of teaching." It firstly offers an overview of the considerable empirical literature around teaching--especially conceptions of teaching, approaches to teaching and teaching practices--and goes on to pose some philosophical and…

  10. Falling through the black hole horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the fate of a small classical object, a “stick”, as it falls through the horizon of a large black hole (BH). Classically, the equivalence principle dictates that the stick is affected by small tidal forces, and Hawking’s quantum-mechanical model of BH evaporation makes essentially the same prediction. If, on the other hand, the BH horizon is surrounded by a “firewall”, the stick will be consumed as it falls through. We have recently extended Hawking’s model by taking into account the quantum fluctuations of the geometry and the classical back-reaction of the emitted particles. Here, we calculate the strain exerted on the falling stick for our model. The strain depends on the near-horizon state of the Hawking pairs. We find that, after the Page time when the state of the pairs deviates significantly from maximal entanglement (as required by unitarity), the induced strain in our semiclassical model is still parametrically small. This is because the number of the disentangled pairs is parametrically smaller than the BH entropy. A firewall does, however, appear if the number of disentangled pairs near the horizon is of order of the BH entropy, as implicitly assumed in previous discussions in the literature.

  11. The Horizon Is An Imaginary Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, Bani; Mahendru, Radha

    The Horizon Is An Imaginary Line (THIAI) is a semi-fictional illustrated account of a young Somali woman's encounters as a refugee in India. Through Maryam, we reflect on the lived experiences of alienation and marginalization as an 'outsider' on the fringes of an increasingly bordered world...

  12. Expanding Your Horizons Conference in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Chromek-Burckhart, Doris

    2011-01-01

    CERN and its experiments participated in Expanding Your Horizons (EYH) in Science and Mathematics conference in Geneva on 12th November. EYH nurture girls' interest in science and math courses to encourage them to consider careers in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  13. Agriculture’s Ethical Horizon, book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughly 6.5 billion people inhabit the earth, but over 1 billion people regularly go hungry. This food shortfall poses an ethical dilemma for agriculture, and Agriculture's Ethical Horizon grapples with this dilemma. It argues that agricultural productivity has been the quintessential value of agr...

  14. The NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Museum Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Freeman, A.

    2013-01-01

    The "NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Museum Edition," is a co-production with the Marcus Institute for Digital Education in the Arts (MIDEA), and examines six emerging technologies for their potential impact on and use in education and interpretation within the museum environment: BYOD (Bring Your Own Device), crowdsourcing, electronic…

  15. Pricing Liquidity Risk with Heterogeneous Investment Horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beber, A.; Driessen, J.; Tuijp, P.F.A.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a new asset pricing model with stochastic transaction costs and investors with heterogenous horizons. Short-term investors hold only liquid assets in equilibrium. This generates segmentation effects in the pricing of liquid versus illiquid assets. Specifically, the liquidity (risk) premia

  16. Casimir effect and thermodynamics of horizon instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a dual thermodynamic description of a classical instability of generalized black hole spacetimes. From a thermodynamic perspective, the instability is due to negative compressibility in regions where the Casimir pressure is large. The argument indicates how the correspondence between thermodynamic and classical instability for horizons may be extended to cases without translational invariance

  17. Acceleration of a Static Observer Near the Event Horizon of a Static Isolated Black Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Noel A.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the magnitude of the proper acceleration of a static observer in a static, isolated, spherically symmetric space-time region with the Newtonian result including the situation in the interior of a perfect-fluid star. This provides a simple physical interpretation of surface gravity and illustrates the global nature of the event horizon.…

  18. Investigation of the transition from forced to natural convection in the research reactor Munich II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skreba, S.; Adamek, J.; Unger, H.

    1999-01-01

    The new research reactor Munich II (FRM-II), which is under construction at the Technical University Munich, Germany, makes use of a newly developed compact reactor core consisting of a single fuel element, which is assembled of two concentric pipes. Between the fuel element's inner and outer pipe 113 involutely bent fuel plates are placed rotationally symmetric, forming 113 cooling channels of a constant width of 2.2 mm. After a shut down of the reactor, battery supported cooling pumps are started by the reactor safety system in order to remove the decay heat by a downwards directed forced flow. Three hours after they have been started, the cooling pumps are shut down and so-called 'natural convection flaps' are opened by their own weight. Through a flow path, which is provided by the opening of the natural convection flaps, the decay heat is given off to the water in the reactor pool after the direction of the flow has changed and an upwards directed natural convection flow has developed. At the Department for Nuclear and New Energy Systems of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany, a test facility has been built in order to confirm the concept of the decay heat removal in the FRM-II, to acquire data of single and two phase natural convection flows and to detect the dry out in a narrow channel. The thermohydraulics of the FRM-II are simulated by an electrically heated test section, which represents one cooling channel of the fuel element. At first experiments have been performed, which simulated the transition from forced to natural convection in the core of the FRM-II, both at normal operation and at a complete loss of the decay heat removal pumps. In case of normal operation, the transition from forced to natural convection takes place single phased. If a complete loss of the active decay heat removal system occurs, the decay heat removal is ensured by a quasi-steady two phase flow. In a second test series minimum heat flux densities leading to pressure pulsations

  19. New Horizons in Pediatric Psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarah; Rathore, Vijaylaxmi; Khan, Shahida

    2016-12-01

    Preclinical Research Recent advances in pediatric psychopharmacology have been rather uneven. Increased use of psychotropic drugs among the pediatric population has raised concerns regarding their inappropriate use and safety. While clinical trials have been conducted on various pediatric psychopharmacological drugs, there has been an insignificant amount of importance to innovation in holistic treatment. A rational approach toward elucidating the various challenges would be contingent on the convergence of the development of novel efficacious psychotropic drugs with concrete conceptual frameworks and guidelines fostering enhanced outcomes. A research infrastructure concerning the relevance of the clinician's perspective, combining drugs with alternative therapies, the need for pediatric specific formulations and relevance of these in developing countries provides a basis on which innovative treatment/development can be constructed. The current commentary highlights these comprehensive and targeted treatment guidelines as aspects necessary for building the future of the field. Drug Dev Res 77 : 474-478, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Schizophrenia: Hope on the Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Patrick F.

    2015-01-01

    Editor?s Note: In July 2014, an international consortium of schizophrenia researchers co-founded by the author mounted the largest biological experiment in the history of psychiatry and found eighty new regions in the genome associated with the illness. With many more avenues for exploring the biological underpinnings of schizophrenia now available to neuroscientists, hope may be on the way for the estimated 2.4 million Americans and 1 in 100 people worldwide affected by the illness, one in w...

  1. Structure of diagnostics horizons and humus classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanella A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The classification of the main humus forms is generally based on the morpho-genetic characters of the A and OH diagnostic horizons. This is the case in the new European key of classification presented in Freiburg on September 2004 (Eurosoil Congress. Among the morpho-genetic characters, the soil structure covers a very important role. In this work, the structure of the diagnostic A and OH horizons has been analysed in terms of aggregation force, diameter and composition of the soil lumps (peds. In order to study the aggregation force, two disaggregating tools have been conceived and used. The diameter of the lumps has been measured by sieving the soil samples with standardised webs. Observing the samples thanks to a binocular magnifying 10X and 50X, the organic or/and mineral composition of the soil aggregates has been determined, data being investigated with ANOVA and Factorial Analysis. The article examines the argument from two points of view: crashing tools for estimating the soil structure (part 1 and the dimensions of the peds given in European key of humus forms classification (part 2. The categories of soil peds diameter and composition seem to be linked to the main humus forms. For instance, aggregates having a diamater larger than 1 mm and well amalgamate organo-mineral composition are more present in the A horizons of the Mull forms than in which of the other forms; contrary to the OH horizon of the Moder or Mor, the OH horizon of the Amphi forms shows an important percent of small organic lumps. Some propositions have been given in order to improve the European key of humus forms classification.

  2. What happens at the horizon(s) of an extreme black hole?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Keiju; Reall, Harvey S; Tanahashi, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    A massless scalar field exhibits an instability at the event horizon of an extreme black hole. We study numerically the nonlinear evolution of this instability for spherically symmetric perturbations of an extreme Reissner–Nordstrom (RN) black hole. We find that generically the endpoint of the instability is a non-extreme RN solution. However, there exist fine-tuned initial perturbations for which the instability never decays. In this case, the perturbed spacetime describes a time-dependent extreme black hole. Such solutions settle down to extreme RN outside, but not on, the event horizon. The event horizon remains smooth but certain observers who cross it at late time experience large gradients there. Our results indicate that these dynamical extreme black holes admit a C 1 extension across an inner (Cauchy) horizon. (paper)

  3. Deepwater Horizon Seafood Safety Response - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Seafood Safety Response

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood from the...

  4. On the horizon for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    ALICE – the LHC experiment specifically designed to study the physics of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) and, more generally, of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy densities – is planning a series of upgrades during the long shutdowns of the accelerator in the coming years. The new ALICE will have enhanced read-out capabilities and improved efficiency when tracking particles and identifying the vertex of the interactions.     Corrado Gargiulo, ALICE's Project Engineer with ITS prototype. The new ITS will consist of 7 layers of silicon sensors supported by a ultra-light carbon fibre structure.  The LHC has been operated with lead ions for only about two months, but this has been sufficient for ALICE and other LHC experiments to produce results that previous accelerators took several years of operation to produce. “Prior to the start-up of the LHC heavy-ion programme, the nature of the QGP as an almost-perfect liquid had already...

  5. The cosmological model with a wormhole and Hawking temperature near apparent horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Won

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a cosmological model with an isotropic form of the Morris-Thorne type wormhole was derived in a similar way to the McVittie solution to the black hole in the expanding universe. By solving Einstein's field equation with plausible matter distribution, we found the exact solution of the wormhole embedded in Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. We also found the apparent cosmological horizons from the redefined metric and analyzed the geometric natures, including causal and dynamic structures. The Hawking temperature for thermal radiation was obtained by the WKB approximation using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and Hamilton's equation, near the apparent cosmological horizon.

  6. Schizophrenia: Hope on the Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick F

    2015-01-01

    In July 2014, an international consortium of schizophrenia researchers co-founded by the author mounted the largest biological experiment in the history of psychiatry and found eighty new regions in the genome associated with the illness. With many more avenues for exploring the biological underpinnings of schizophrenia now available to neuroscientists, hope may be on the way for the estimated 2.4 million Americans and 1 in 100 people worldwide affected by the illness, one in which drugs have limited impact and there is no known cure.

  7. New horizons in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents the state-of-the-art in selected topics across modern nuclear physics, covering fields of central importance to research and illustrating their connection to many different areas of physics. It describes recent progress in the study of superheavy and exotic nuclei, which is pushing our knowledge to ever heavier elements and neutron-richer isotopes. Extending nuclear physics to systems that are many times denser than even the core of an atomic nucleus, one enters the realm of the physics of neutron stars and possibly quark stars, a topic that is intensively investigated with many ground-based and outer-space research missions as well as numerous theoretical works. By colliding two nuclei at very high ultra-relativistic energies one can create a fireball of extremely hot matter, reminiscent of the universe very shortly after the big bang, leading to a phase of melted hadrons and free quarks and gluons, the so-called quark-gluon plasma. These studies tie up with effects of crucial importance...

  8. Thermo-fluid analysis of water cooled research reactors in natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora Fortini

    2004-01-01

    The STHIRP-1 computer program, which fundamentals are described in this work, uses the principles of the subchannels analysis and has the capacity to simulate, under steady state and transient conditions, the thermal and hydraulic phenomena which occur inside the core of a water-refrigerated research reactor under a natural convection regime. The models and empirical correlations necessary to describe the flow phenomena which can not be described by theoretical relations were selected according to the characteristics of the reactor operation. Although the primary objective is the calculation of research reactors, the formulation used to describe the fluid flow and the thermal conduction in the heater elements is sufficiently generalized to extend the use of the program for applications in power reactors and other thermal systems with the same features represented by the program formulations. To demonstrate the analytical capacity of STHIRP-l, there were made comparisons between the results calculated and measured in the research reactor TRIGA IPR-R1 of CDTN/CNEN. The comparisons indicate that the program reproduces the experimental data with good precision. Nevertheless, in the future there must be used more consistent experimental data to corroborate the validation of the program. (author)

  9. Argumentation, critical thinking, nature of science and socioscientific issues: a dialogue between two researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Hagop A.; Khishfe, Rola

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast between two theoretical frameworks for addressing nature of science (NOS) and socioscientific issues (SSI) in school science. These frameworks are critical thinking (CT) and argumentation (AR). For the past years, the first and second authors of this paper have pursued research in this area using CT and AR as theoretical frameworks, respectively. Yacoubian argues that future citizens need to develop a critical mindset as they are guided to (1) practice making judgments on what views of NOS to acquire and (2) practice making decisions on SSI through applying their NOS understandings. Khishfe asserts that AR is an important component of decision making when dealing with SSI and the practice in AR in relation to controversial issues is needed for informed decision making. She argues that AR as a framework may assist in the development of more informed understandings of NOS. In this paper, the authors delve into a dialogue for (1) elucidating strengths and potential of each framework, (2) highlighting challenges that they face in their research using the frameworks in question, (3) exploring the extent to which the frameworks can overlap, and (4) proposing directions for future research.

  10. Reflection, radiation, and interference near the black hole horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchiev, M.Yu.

    2004-01-01

    The event horizon of black holes is capable of reflection: there is a finite probability for any particle that approaches the horizon to bounce back. The albedo of the horizon depends on the black hole temperature and the energy of the incoming particle. The reflection shares its physical origins with the Hawking process of radiation; both of them arise as consequences of the mixing of the incoming and outgoing waves that takes place due to quantum processes on the event horizon

  11. Status of the IAEA coordinated research project on natural circulation phenomena, modelling, and reliability of passive systems that utilize natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, J.N. Jr.; Cleveland, J.; Aksan, N.

    2004-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) titled ''Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems that Utilize Natural Circulation. '' This work has been organized within the framework of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Groups for Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors and Heavy Water Reactors (the TWG-LWR and the TWG-HWR). This CRP is part of IAEA's effort to foster international collaborations that strive to improve the economic performance of future water-cooled nuclear power plants while meeting stringent safety requirements. Thus far, IAEA has established 12 research agreements with organizations from industrialized Member States and 3 research contracts with organizations from developing Member States. The objective of the CRP is to enhance our understanding of natural circulation phenomena in water-cooled reactors and passive safety systems. The CRP participants are particularly interested in establishing a natural circulation and passive safety system thermal hydraulic database that can be used to benchmark computer codes for advanced reactor systems design and safety analysis. An important aspect of this CRP relates to developing methodologies to assess the reliability of passive safety systems in advanced reactor designs. This paper describes the motivation and objectives of the CRP, the research plan, and the role of each of the participating organizations. (author)

  12. Using social-network research to improve outcomes in natural resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, Julie E; Farrelly, Megan A; Jorgensen, Bradley S; Cook, Carly N

    2018-05-08

    The conservation and management of natural resources operates within social-ecological systems, in which resource users are embedded in social and environmental contexts that influence their management decisions. Characterizing social networks of resource users has received growing interest as an approach for understanding social influences on decision-making, and social network analysis (SNA) has emerged as a useful technique to explore these relationships. In this review, we synthesize how SNA has been used in studies of natural resource management. To present our findings, we developed a theory of change which outlines the influence between social networks and social processes (e.g., interactions between individuals), which in turn influence social outcomes (e.g., decisions or actions) that impact environmental outcomes (e.g., improved condition). Our review of 85 studies demonstrate frequent use of descriptive methods to characterize social processes, yet few studies considered social outcomes or examined network structure relative to environmental outcomes. Only 4 studies assessed network interventions intended to impact relevant processes or outcomes. The heterogeneity in case studies, methods, and analyses preclude general lessons. Thus, we offer a typology of appropriate measures for each stage of our theory of change, to structure and progress our learning about the role of social networks in achieving environmental outcomes. In addition, we suggest shifts in research foci towards intervention studies, to aid in understanding causality and inform the design of conservation initiatives. We also identify the need for developing clearer justification and guidance around the proliferation of network measures. The use of SNA in natural resource management is expanding rapidly, thus now is the ideal time for the conservation community to build a more rigorous evidence base to demonstrate the extent to which social networks can play a role in achieving desired

  13. Retracing liberalism and remaking nature: designer children, research embryos, and featherless chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Dov

    2010-05-01

    Liberal theory seeks to achieve toleration, civil peace, and mutual respect in pluralistic societies by making public policy without reference to arguments arising from within formative ideals about what gives value to human life. Does it make sense to set aside such conceptions of the good when it comes to controversies about stem cell research and the genetic engineering of people or animals? Whether it is reasonable to bracket our world-views in such cases depends on how we answer the moral questions that the use of these biotechnologies presuppose. I argue that the moral language of liberal justice - of rights and duties, interests and opportunities, freedom and consent, equality and fairness - cannot speak to these underlying concerns about what the human embryo is, why the natural lottery matters to us, and whether 'animal nature' is worth preserving. I conclude that liberal theory is incapable of furnishing a coherent or desirable account to govern the way we use our emerging powers of biotechnology.

  14. Research and Development of Natural Draft Ultra-Low Emissions Burners for Gas Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sholes, Darren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Combustion systems used in residential and commercial cooking appliances must be robust and easy to use while meeting air quality standards. Current air quality standards for cooking appliances are far greater than other stationary combustion equipment. By developing an advanced low emission combustion system for cooking appliances, the air quality impacts from these devices can be reduced. This project adapted the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Ring-Stabilizer Burner combustion technology for residential and commercial natural gas fired cooking appliances (such as ovens, ranges, and cooktops). LBNL originally developed the Ring-Stabilizer Burner for a NASA funded microgravity experiment. This natural draft combustion technology reduces NOx emissions significantly below current SCAQMD emissions standards without post combustion treatment. Additionally, the Ring-Stabilizer Burner technology does not require the assistance of a blower to achieve an ultra-low emission lean premix flame. The research team evaluated the Ring-Stabilizer Burner and fabricated the most promising designs based on their emissions and turndown.

  15. Investigation of efficient {sup 131}I production from natural uranium at Tehran research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalafi, H. [Nuclear Research Center, AEOI, No. 54 North Kargar Avenue, P.O. Box 14155/1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: hossein_khalafi@yahoo.com; Nazari, K. [Jaber-Ibne-Hayan Research laboratories, AEOI, P.O. Box 11365/8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghannadi-Maragheh, M. [Jaber-Ibne-Hayan Research laboratories, AEOI, P.O. Box 11365/8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-05-15

    Iodine-131, which has a half-life of 8.05 days, is the one of the most widely used radionuclides in medical diagnosis and treats some diseases of thyroid gland. Optimization of {sup 131}I production in Tehran research reactor (TRR) was studied by two different methods. Primarily, standard nuclear codes such as ORIGEN, WIMS and CITATION were applied and then analytical solutions technique was followed. Calculated results and experimental works in the bench scale indicate that, by irradiation of 100 g natural Uranium (UO{sub 2}) for 100 h at 3.5 x 10{sup 13} (n's/cm{sup 2} s) thermal neutron flux in the TRR, one can produce about 5 Ci of {sup 131}I for medical purposes, on the other hand can produce very useful radionuclides like {sup 99}Mo and {sup 133}Xe in one batch irradiation in the unique production line.

  16. Investigation of efficient 131I production from natural uranium at Tehran research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalafi, H.; Nazari, K.; Ghannadi-Maragheh, M.

    2005-01-01

    Iodine-131, which has a half-life of 8.05 days, is the one of the most widely used radionuclides in medical diagnosis and treats some diseases of thyroid gland. Optimization of 131 I production in Tehran research reactor (TRR) was studied by two different methods. Primarily, standard nuclear codes such as ORIGEN, WIMS and CITATION were applied and then analytical solutions technique was followed. Calculated results and experimental works in the bench scale indicate that, by irradiation of 100 g natural Uranium (UO 2 ) for 100 h at 3.5 x 10 13 (n's/cm 2 s) thermal neutron flux in the TRR, one can produce about 5 Ci of 131 I for medical purposes, on the other hand can produce very useful radionuclides like 99 Mo and 133 Xe in one batch irradiation in the unique production line

  17. Hydrological classification of orthic A horizons in Weatherley, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orthic A horizons carry little interpretive, especially hydrological, value. This paper aims to elucidate the hydrological interpretation of orthic A horizons. Measured water contents in the orthic A horizons of 28 profiles in the Weatherley catchment of South Africa were used to classify the topsoils into wetness classes. The very ...

  18. Nitrogen isotope ratios in surface and sub-surface soil horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennie, D.A.; Paul, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    Nitrogen isotope analysis of surface soils and soil-derived nitrate for selected chernozemic and luvisolic soils showed mean delta 15 N values of 11.7 and 11.3, respectively. Isotope enrichment of the total N reached a maximum in the lower B horizon. Sub-soil parent material samples from the one deep profile included in the study indicated a delta 15 N value (NO 3 -N) of 1/3 that of the Ap horizon, at a depth of 180 cm. The delta 15 N of sub-surface soil horizons containing residual fertilizer N were low (-2.2) compared to the surface horizon (9.9). The data reported from this preliminary survey suggest that the natural variations in 15 N abundance between different soils and horizons of the same soil reflect the cumulative effects of soil genesis and soil management. More detailed knowledge and understanding of biological and other processes which control N isotope concentrations in these soils must be obtained before the data reported can be interpreted. (author)

  19. Event Horizon Telescope observations as probes for quantum structure of astrophysical black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Steven B.; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2018-04-01

    The need for a consistent quantum evolution for black holes has led to proposals that their semiclassical description is modified not just near the singularity, but at horizon or larger scales. If such modifications extend beyond the horizon, they influence regions accessible to distant observation. Natural candidates for these modifications behave like metric fluctuations, with characteristic length scales and timescales set by the horizon radius. We investigate the possibility of using the Event Horizon Telescope to observe these effects, if they have a strength sufficient to make quantum evolution consistent with unitarity, without introducing new scales. We find that such quantum fluctuations can introduce a strong time dependence for the shape and size of the shadow that a black hole casts on its surrounding emission. For the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, detecting the rapid time variability of its shadow will require nonimaging timing techniques. However, for the much larger black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy, a variable black-hole shadow, if present with these parameters, would be readily observable in the individual snapshots that will be obtained by the Event Horizon Telescope.

  20. Thermodynamics of interacting holographic dark energy with the apparent horizon as an IR cutoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheykhi, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    As soon as an interaction between holographic dark energy and dark matter is taken into account, the identification of an IR cutoff with the Hubble radius H -1 , in a flat universe, can simultaneously drive accelerated expansion and solve the coincidence problem. Based on this, we demonstrate that in a non-flat universe the natural choice for the IR cutoff could be the apparent horizon radius, r-tilde A =1/√(H 2 +k/a 2 ). We show that any interaction of dark matter with holographic dark energy, whose infrared cutoff is set by the apparent horizon radius, implies an accelerated expansion and a constant ratio of the energy densities of both components thus solving the coincidence problem. We also verify that for a universe filled with dark energy and dark matter, the Friedmann equation can be written in the form of the modified first law of thermodynamics, dE = T h dS h + WdV, at the apparent horizon. In addition, the generalized second law of thermodynamics is fulfilled in a region enclosed by the apparent horizon. These results hold regardless of the specific form of dark energy and interaction term. Our study might reveal that in an accelerating universe with spatial curvature, the apparent horizon is a physical boundary from the thermodynamical point of view.

  1. Minimal incorporation of Deepwater Horizon oil by estuarine filter feeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, Brian; Anderson, Laurie C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill entered Louisiana bays in mid-2010. • Oil was used minimally (<1%) in diets of mussels and barnacles. • Also, oil did not enhance planktonic respiration rates. • Use of oil carbon was relatively small in these productive estuarine food webs. - Abstract: Natural abundance carbon isotope analyses are sensitive tracers for fates and use of oil in aquatic environments. Use of oil carbon in estuarine food webs should lead to isotope values approaching those of oil itself, −27‰ for stable carbon isotopes reflecting oil origins and −1000‰ for carbon-14 reflecting oil age. To test for transfer of oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill into estuarine food webs, filter-feeding barnacles (Balanus sp.) and marsh mussels (Geukensia demissa) were collected from Louisiana estuaries near the site of the oil spill. Carbon-14 analyses of these animals from open waters and oiled marshes showed that oil use was <1% and near detection limits estimated at 0.3% oil incorporation. Respiration studies showed no evidence for enhanced microbial activity in bay waters. Results are consistent with low dietary impacts of oil for filter feeders and little overall impact on respiration in the productive Louisiana estuarine systems

  2. Black Hole Event Horizons and Advection-Dominated Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Jeffrey; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The work supported in part by this grant is part of a larger program on the detection of black hole event horizons, which is also partially supported by NASA grant GO0-1105A. This work has been carried out primarily in collaboration with Dr. M. Garcia and Prof. R. Narayan at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and with D. Barret and J. Hameury at Centre d'Etude Spoliate des Rayonnements, France. Our purpose is to confirm the existence of black-hole event horizons by comparing accreting black holes to secreting neutron stars in quiescent X-ray novae. Such a comparison is feasible because black holes and neutron stars are both present in similar environments in X-ray novae. Our second purpose is to assess the nature of accretion flows onto black holes at very low mass transfer rates. Observations of some XMM targets are still pending, whereas most of the Chandra observations have been completed. We anticipate further publications on this work in the future.

  3. New horizons in fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Stephen R; Close, Jacqueline C T

    2018-04-25

    Falls pose a major threat to the well-being and quality of life of older people. Falls can result in fractures and other injuries, disability and fear and can trigger a decline in physical function and loss of autonomy. This article synthesises recent published findings on fall risk and mobility assessments and fall prevention interventions and considers how this field of research may evolve in the future. Fall risk topics include the utility of remote monitoring using wearable sensors and recent work investigating brain activation and gait adaptability. New approaches for exercise for fall prevention including dual-task training, cognitive-motor training with exergames and reactive step training are discussed. Additional fall prevention strategies considered include the prevention of falls in older people with dementia and Parkinson's disease, drugs for fall prevention and safe flooring for preventing fall-related injuries. The review discusses how these new initiatives and technologies have potential for effective fall prevention and improved quality of life. It concludes by emphasising the need for a continued focus on translation of evidence into practice including robust effectiveness evaluations of so that resources can be appropriately targeted into the future.

  4. Numerical Tests of the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture via Event-Horizon Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okounkova, Maria; Ott, Christian; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela

    2015-04-01

    We present the current state of our research on the possibility of naked singularity formation in gravitational collapse, numerically testing both the cosmic censorship conjecture and the hoop conjecture. The former of these posits that all singularities lie behind an event horizon, while the later conjectures that this is true if collapse occurs from an initial configuration with all circumferences C <= 4 πM . We reconsider the classical Shapiro & Teukolsky (1991) prolate spheroid naked singularity scenario. Using the exponentially error-convergent Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) we simulate the collapse of collisionless matter and probe for apparent horizons. We propose a new method to probe for the existence of an event horizon by following characteristic from regions near the singularity, using methods commonly employed in Cauchy characteristic extraction. This research was partially supported by NSF under Award No. PHY-1404569.

  5. Influences upon the lead isotopic composition of organic and mineral horizons in soil profiles from the National Soil Inventory of Scotland (2007–09)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, John G., E-mail: J.G.Farmer@ed.ac.uk [School of GeoSciences, The University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3FF Scotland (United Kingdom); Graham, Margaret C. [School of GeoSciences, The University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3FF Scotland (United Kingdom); Eades, Lorna J. [School of Chemistry, The University of Edinburgh, Joseph Black Building, David Brewster Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3FJ Scotland (United Kingdom); Lilly, Allan; Bacon, Jeffrey R. [James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Some 644 individual soil horizons from 169 sites in Scotland were analyzed for Pb concentration and isotopic composition. There were three scenarios: (i) 36 sites where both top and bottom (i.e. lowest sampled) soil horizons were classified as organic in nature, (ii) 67 with an organic top but mineral bottom soil horizon, and (iii) 66 where both top and bottom soil horizons were mineral. Lead concentrations were greater in the top horizon relative to the bottom horizon in all but a few cases. The top horizon {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio was lesser (outside analytical error) than the corresponding bottom horizon {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio at (i) 64%, (ii) 94% and (iii) 73% of sites, and greater at only (i) 8%, (ii) 3% and (iii) 8% of sites. A plot of {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb vs. {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb ratios showed that the Pb in organic top (i, ii) and bottom (i) horizons was consistent with atmospherically deposited Pb of anthropogenic origin. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio of the organic top horizon in (ii) was unrelated to the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio of the mineral bottom horizon as demonstrated by the geographical variation in the negative shift in the ratio, a result of differences in the mineral horizon values arising from the greater influence of radiogenic Pb in the north. In (iii), the lesser values of the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio for the mineral top horizon relative to the mineral bottom horizon were consistent with the presence of anthropogenic Pb, in addition to indigenous Pb, in the former. Mean anthropogenic Pb inventories of 1.5 and 4.5 g m{sup −2} were obtained for the northern and southern halves of Scotland, respectively, consistent with long-range atmospheric transport of anthropogenic Pb (mean {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio ~ 1.16). For cultivated agricultural soils (Ap), this corresponded to about half of the total Pb inventory in the top 30 cm of the soil column. - Highlights: • Pb isotope ratios were determined for 644

  6. Hair-brane ideas on the horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinec, Emil J. [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637-1433 (United States); Niehoff, Ben E. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge,Centre for Mathematical Sciences,Wilberforce Rd., Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-27

    We continue an examination of the microstate geometries program begun in arXiv:1409.6017, focussing on the role of branes that wrap the cycles which degenerate when a throat in the geometry deepens and a horizon forms. An associated quiver quantum mechanical model of minimally wrapped branes exhibits a non-negligible fraction of the gravitational entropy, which scales correctly as a function of the charges. The results suggest a picture of AdS{sub 3}/CFT{sub 2} duality wherein the long string that accounts for BTZ black hole entropy in the CFT description, can also be seen to inhabit the horizon of BPS black holes on the gravity side.

  7. [Review and analysis of transplant biological research projects funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weihua; Sun, Ruijuan; Dong, Erdan

    2015-08-01

    To study the funding and achievements in the field of organ transplantation support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). A search of NSFC database was made by using the key word "transplantation" and excluding "bone marrow transplantation" for the projects funded between 1988 and 2013. SCI indexed publications that marked with NSFC project number were collected by searching each grant number in the database of the Web of Science. Six hundreds fifty-five projects were identified and received about 220 million yuan in grant funding. These funded research projects were distributed among 25 provinces and autonomous regions, however, which were mainly in the developed coastal areas; of them, 43 (6.56%) projects were granted in xenotransplantation and 17 projects (2.60%) were funded in the field of traditional Chinese medicine-related organ transplantation; Transplantation on blood vessels, heart, kidney, liver, lung, small intestine, pancreatic, cornea, trachea, skin, etc. were primarily performed in research. Nine hundreds and sixty-one SCI-indexed publications were achieved. Magnitude and intensity of NSFC funding, output of SCI publications have been increasing, suggesting that NSFC positively promotes the development of organ transplantation. Although a great progress of transplantation has been made, basic and translational studies should be vigorously strengthened.

  8. Ball lightning. What nature is trying to tell the plasma research community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Ball lightning has been extensively observed in atmospheric air, usually in association with thunderstorms, by untrained observers who were not in a position to make careful observations. These chance sightings have been documented by polling observers, who constitute perhaps 5% of the adult U.S. population. Unfortunately, ball lightning is not accessible to scientific analysis because it cannot be reproduced in the laboratory under controlled conditions. Natural ball lightning has been observed to last longer than 90 s and to have diameters from 1 cm to several meters. The energy density of a few lightning balls has been observed to be as high as 20000 J/cm 3 , well above the limit of chemical energy storage of, for example, TNT at 2000 J/cm 3 . Such observations suggest a plasma-related phenomenon with significant magnetic energy storage. If this is the case, ball lightning should have very interesting implications for fusion research, industrial plasma engineering, and military applications, as well as being of great theoretical and practical interest to the plasma research community. 20 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Integration of Activities in the natural environment as contents of education trhough collaborative action-research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Guillén Correas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The different values †given to Activities in the Natural Environment have become a mandated content block within the area of Physical Education. This research is based on the urging of its practical development of a school in the city of Zaragoza. So far, the analysis of these practices in this school, refers to some specific experiences focused on the volunteer activities done during the «snow week», which means less participant students. Collaborative action-research is the methodology used for this purpose, therefore team-work is demanded to overcome the limitations presented by this block of contents: teacher training as well as both facilities and materials must be provided. Thus, we found two groups of conclusions: firstly, the factors necessary to establish a dynamic collaborative work among teachers of this school. Secondly, the aspects required to design and strengthen the proposed contents of environmental Activities in the school, adapting them to its own physical contextual characteristics

  10. VMware Horizon 6 desktop virtualization solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cartwright, Ryan; Langone, Jason; Leibovici, Andre

    2014-01-01

    If you are a desktop architect, solution provider, end-user consultant, virtualization engineer, or anyone who wants to learn how to plan and design the implementation of a virtual desktop solution based on Horizon 6, then this book is for you. An understanding of VMware vSphere fundamentals coupled with experience in the installation or administration of a VMware environment would be a plus during reading.

  11. Extending the horizons advances in computing, optimization, and decision technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Anito; Mehrotra, Anuj; Trick, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Computer Science and Operations Research continue to have a synergistic relationship and this book represents the results of cross-fertilization between OR/MS and CS/AI. It is this interface of OR/CS that makes possible advances that could not have been achieved in isolation. Taken collectively, these articles are indicative of the state-of-the-art in the interface between OR/MS and CS/AI and of the high caliber of research being conducted by members of the INFORMS Computing Society. EXTENDING THE HORIZONS: Advances in Computing, Optimization, and Decision Technologies is a volume that presents the latest, leading research in the design and analysis of algorithms, computational optimization, heuristic search and learning, modeling languages, parallel and distributed computing, simulation, computational logic and visualization. This volume also emphasizes a variety of novel applications in the interface of CS, AI, and OR/MS.

  12. Fiber-optical analog of the event horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Thomas G; Kuklewicz, Chris; Robertson, Scott; Hill, Stephen; König, Friedrich; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2008-03-07

    The physics at the event horizon resembles the behavior of waves in moving media. Horizons are formed where the local speed of the medium exceeds the wave velocity. We used ultrashort pulses in microstructured optical fibers to demonstrate the formation of an artificial event horizon in optics. We observed a classical optical effect: the blue-shifting of light at a white-hole horizon. We also showed by theoretical calculations that such a system is capable of probing the quantum effects of horizons, in particular Hawking radiation.

  13. Turnpike phenomenon and infinite horizon optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    This book is devoted to the study of the turnpike phenomenon and describes the existence of solutions for a large variety of infinite horizon optimal control classes of problems.  Chapter 1 provides introductory material on turnpike properties. Chapter 2 studies the turnpike phenomenon for discrete-time optimal control problems. The turnpike properties of autonomous problems with extended-value intergrands are studied in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on large classes of infinite horizon optimal control problems without convexity (concavity) assumptions. In Chapter 5, the turnpike results for a class of dynamic discrete-time two-player zero-sum game are proven. This thorough exposition will be very useful  for mathematicians working in the fields of optimal control, the calculus of variations, applied functional analysis, and infinite horizon optimization. It may also be used as a primary text in a graduate course in optimal control or as supplementary text for a variety of courses in other disciplines. Resea...

  14. Isolated and Dynamical Horizons and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Abhay

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, black holes have played an important role in quantum gravity, mathematical physics, numerical relativity and gravitational wave phenomenology. However, conceptual settings and mathematical models used to discuss them have varied considerably from one area to another. Over the last five years a new, quasi-local framework was introduced to analyze diverse facets of black holes in a unified manner. In this framework, evolving black holes are modelled by dynamical horizons and black holes in equilibrium by isolated horizons. We review basic properties of these horizons and summarize applications to mathematical physics, numerical relativity, and quantum gravity. This paradigm has led to significant generalizations of several results in black hole physics. Specifically, it has introduced a more physical setting for black hole thermodynamics and for black hole entropy calculations in quantum gravity, suggested a phenomenological model for hairy black holes, provided novel techniques to extract physics from numerical simulations, and led to new laws governing the dynamics of black holes in exact general relativity.

  15. Some considerations on the attractiveness of participatory processes for researchers from natural science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Roland

    2013-04-01

    Participatory modeling and participatory scenario development have become an essential part of environmental impact assessment and planning in the field of water resources management. But even if most people agree that participation is required to solve environmental problems in a way that satisfies both the environmental and societal needs, success stories are relatively rare, while many attempts to include stakeholders in the development of models are still reported to have failed. This paper proposes the hypothesis, that the lack of success in participatory modeling can partly be attributed to a lack of attractiveness of participatory approaches for researchers from natural sciences (subsequently called 'modelers'). It has to be pointed out that this discussion is mainly concerned with natural scientists in academia and not with modelers who develop models for commercial purposes or modelers employed by public agencies. The involvement of modelers and stakeholders in participatory modeling has been intensively studied during recent years. However, such analysis is rarely made from the viewpoint of the modelers themselves. Modelers usually don't see participatory modeling and scenario development as scientific targets as such, because the theoretical foundations of such processes usually lie far outside their own area of expertise. Thus, participatory processes are seen mainly as a means to attract funding or to facilitate the access to data or (relatively rarely) as a way to develop a research model into a commercial product. The majority of modelers very likely do not spend too much time on reflecting whether or not their new tools are helpful to solve real world problems or if the results are understandable and acceptable for stakeholders. They consider their task completed when the model they developed satisfies the 'scientific requirements', which are essentially different from the requirements to satisfy a group of stakeholders. Funding often stops before a

  16. From biomedicine to natural history research: EST resources for ambystomatid salamanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Susan V

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing genomic resources for closely related species will provide comparative insights that are crucial for understanding diversity and variability at multiple levels of biological organization. We developed ESTs for Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and Eastern tiger salamander (A. tigrinum tigrinum, species with deep and diverse research histories. Results Approximately 40,000 quality cDNA sequences were isolated for these species from various tissues, including regenerating limb and tail. These sequences and an existing set of 16,030 cDNA sequences for A. mexicanum were processed to yield 35,413 and 20,599 high quality ESTs for A. mexicanum and A. t. tigrinum, respectively. Because the A. t. tigrinum ESTs were obtained primarily from a normalized library, an approximately equal number of contigs were obtained for each species, with 21,091 unique contigs identified overall. The 10,592 contigs that showed significant similarity to sequences from the human RefSeq database reflected a diverse array of molecular functions and biological processes, with many corresponding to genes expressed during spinal cord injury in rat and fin regeneration in zebrafish. To demonstrate the utility of these EST resources, we searched databases to identify probes for regeneration research, characterized intra- and interspecific nucleotide polymorphism, saturated a human – Ambystoma synteny group with marker loci, and extended PCR primer sets designed for A. mexicanum / A. t. tigrinum orthologues to a related tiger salamander species. Conclusions Our study highlights the value of developing resources in traditional model systems where the likelihood of information transfer to multiple, closely related taxa is high, thus simultaneously enabling both laboratory and natural history research.

  17. From biomedicine to natural history research: EST resources for ambystomatid salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putta, Srikrishna; Smith, Jeramiah J; Walker, John A; Rondet, Mathieu; Weisrock, David W; Monaghan, James; Samuels, Amy K; Kump, Kevin; King, David C; Maness, Nicholas J; Habermann, Bianca; Tanaka, Elly; Bryant, Susan V; Gardiner, David M; Parichy, David M; Voss, S Randal

    2004-01-01

    Background Establishing genomic resources for closely related species will provide comparative insights that are crucial for understanding diversity and variability at multiple levels of biological organization. We developed ESTs for Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and Eastern tiger salamander (A. tigrinum tigrinum), species with deep and diverse research histories. Results Approximately 40,000 quality cDNA sequences were isolated for these species from various tissues, including regenerating limb and tail. These sequences and an existing set of 16,030 cDNA sequences for A. mexicanum were processed to yield 35,413 and 20,599 high quality ESTs for A. mexicanum and A. t. tigrinum, respectively. Because the A. t. tigrinum ESTs were obtained primarily from a normalized library, an approximately equal number of contigs were obtained for each species, with 21,091 unique contigs identified overall. The 10,592 contigs that showed significant similarity to sequences from the human RefSeq database reflected a diverse array of molecular functions and biological processes, with many corresponding to genes expressed during spinal cord injury in rat and fin regeneration in zebrafish. To demonstrate the utility of these EST resources, we searched databases to identify probes for regeneration research, characterized intra- and interspecific nucleotide polymorphism, saturated a human – Ambystoma synteny group with marker loci, and extended PCR primer sets designed for A. mexicanum / A. t. tigrinum orthologues to a related tiger salamander species. Conclusions Our study highlights the value of developing resources in traditional model systems where the likelihood of information transfer to multiple, closely related taxa is high, thus simultaneously enabling both laboratory and natural history research. PMID:15310388

  18. Deepwater Horizon - baseline fisheries surveys conducted in the Gulf of Mexico from 1987-04-16 to 2010-08-01 (NCEI Accession 0150631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico and the Natural Resources Damage Assessment (NRDA) was initiated to determine the extent of...

  19. Soil "ecosystem" services and natural capital: Critical appraisal of research on uncertain ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe C. Baveye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, considerable attention has been devoted in the scientific literature and in the media to the concept of ecosystem services of soils. The monetary valuation of these services, demanded by many governments and international agencies, is often depicted as a necessary condition for the preservation of the natural capital that soils represent. This focus on soil services is framed in the context of a general interest in ecosystem services that allegedly started in 1997, and took off in earnest after 2005. The careful analysis of the literature proposed in this article shows that, in fact, interest in the multifunctionality of soils emerged already in the mid-60s, at a time when hundreds of researchers worldwide were trying, and largely failing, to figure out how to put price tags meaningfully on nature's services. Soil scientists, since, have tried to better understand various functions/services of soils, as well as their possible relation with key soil characteristics, like biodiversity. They have also tried to make progress on the challenging quantification of soil functions/services. However, researchers have shown very little interest in monetary valuation, undoubtedly in part because it is not clear what economic and financial markets might do with prices of soil functions/services, even if we could somehow come up with such numbers, and because there is no assurance at all, based on neoclassical economic theory, that markets would manage soil resources optimally. Instead of monetary valuation, focus in the literature has been put on decision-making methods, like Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA and Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN, which do not require the systematic monetization of soil functions/services and easily accommodate deliberative approaches involving a variety of stakeholders. A prerequisite to progress in such public deliberations is that participants be very cognizant of the extreme relevance of soils

  20. Narrowing the Insurance Protection Gap: The important role of Natural Hazards Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghnani, V.

    2016-12-01

    The Insurance industry is a key component of the economic engine. It allows businesses to reduce uncertainty in their operations, and individuals to rebound from unanticipated events. A thriving insurance industry efficiently transfers risk from individuals and businesses to the capital markets. It allows society to function smoothly and fosters growth. In areas where the private insurance is not a viable option, the outcome is suboptimal - the society ends up carrying the burden. Higher insurance penetration increases disaster resiliency. The long term viability of an insurance product depends on the ability of the insurance provider to accurately assess risks, which is critical to pricing insurance and risk monitoring. Insurance payouts are typically incurred during extreme events, therefore the industry is very interested in extreme events research. There are several examples where the insurance industry has stepped away from a market or severely limited its appetite because of lack of data or proper understanding of the underlying risks - such as, flood. Further, the insurance Industry has seen a rising trend of natural hazard related losses over the past few decades. The trends have been particularly strong in hydro meteorological hazards. While a good part of this increasing trend can been explained by increase in exposures, there is also concern that underlying hazard landscape may be evolving. The industry would really benefit from research that identifies secular and long term trends in hydro-meteorological hazards, particularly in the extremes. Insight into non-stationarity in the climate system at a regional level would be very informative of risk management decisions. One can envision a scenario where in the industry stops insuring certain risk (such as storm surge), because of a lack of understanding of the trends in the underlying risk and a consequent poor performance record. In sum, the ability of the industry to assess complex and emerging natural

  1. Gender disparities in high-quality research revealed by Nature Index journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendels, Michael H K; Müller, Ruth; Brueggmann, Doerthe; Groneberg, David A

    2018-01-01

    The present study aims to elucidate the state of gender equality in high-quality research by analyzing the representation of female authorships in the last decade (from 2008 to 2016). Based on the Gendermetrics platform, 293,557 research articles from 54 journals listed in the Nature Index were considered covering the categories Life Science, Multidisciplinary, Earth & Environmental and Chemistry. The core method was the combined analysis of the proportion of female authorships and the female-to-male odds ratio for first, co- and last authorships. The distribution of prestigious authorships was measured by the Prestige Index. 29.8% of all authorships and 33.1% of the first, 31.8% of the co- and 18.1% of the last authorships were held by women. The corresponding female-to-male odds ratio is 1.19 (CI: 1.18-1.20) for first, 1.35 (CI: 1.34-1.36) for co- and 0.47 (CI: 0.46-0.48) for last authorships. Women are underrepresented at prestigious authorships compared to men (Prestige Index = -0.42). The underrepresentation accentuates in highly competitive articles attracting the highest citation rates, namely, articles with many authors and articles that were published in highest-impact journals. More specifically, a large negative correlation between the 5-Year-Impact-Factor of a journal and the female representation at prestigious authorships was revealed (r(52) = -.63, P authorships) and are underrepresented at productivity levels of more than 2 articles per author. Articles with female key authors are less frequently cited than articles with male key authors. The gender-specific differences in citation rates increase the more authors contribute to an article. Distinct differences at the journal, journal category, continent and country level were revealed. The prognosis for the next decades forecast a very slow harmonization of authorships odds between the two genders.

  2. Replicative nature of Indian research, essence of scientific temper, and future of scientific progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2004-01-01

    A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters.The second part of this paper deals with the essence of scientific temper,which need not have any basic friendship, or animosity, with religion, faith, superstition and other such entities. A true scientist follows two cardinal rules. He is never unwilling to accept the worth of evidence, howsoever damning to the most favourite of his theories. Second, and perhaps more important, for want of evidence, he withholds comment. He says neither yes nor no.Where will Science ultimately lead Man is the third part of this essay. One argument is that the conflict between Man and Science will continue tilleither of them is exhausted or wiped out. The other believes that it is Science which has to be harnessed for Man and not Man used for Science. And with the numerous checks and balances in place, Science will remain an effective tool for man's progress. The essential value-neutrality of Science will have to be supplemented by the values that man has upheld for centuries as fundamental, and which religious thought and moral philosophy have continuously professed.

  3. From Rindler horizon to mini black holes at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaffary, Tooraj [Islamic Azad University, Department of Science, Shiraz Branch, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Recently researchers (A. Sepehri et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 344, 79 (2013)) have considered the signature of superstring balls near mini black holes at LHC and calculate the information loss for these types of strings. Motivated by their work, we consider the evolution of events in high energy experiments from lower energies for which the Rindler horizon is formed to higher energies in which mini black holes and string balls are emerged. Extending the Gottesman and Preskill method to string theory, we find the information loss for excited strings ''string balls'' in mini black holes at LHC and calculate the information transformation from the collapsing matter to the state of outgoing Hawking radiation for strings. We come to the conclusion that information transformation for high energy strings is complete. Then the thermal distribution of excited strings near mini black holes at LHC is calculated. In order to obtain the total string cross section near black holes produced in proton-proton collision, we multiply the black hole production cross section by the thermal distribution of strings. It is observed that many high energy excited strings are produced near the event horizon of TeV black holes. These excited strings evaporate to standard model particles like Higgs boson and top quark at Hagedorn temperature. We derive the production cross section for these particles due to string ball decay at LHC and consider their decay to light particles like bottom quarks and gluons. (orig.)

  4. 2017 NMC Technology Outlook for Nordic Schools A Horizon Project Regional Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    research effort between the New Media Consortium (NMC) and the Norwegian Centre for ICT in Education to inform Nordic school leaders and decision-makers about significant developments in technologies supporting teaching, learning, and creative inquiry in primary and secondary education across Denmark......Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Freeman, A., and Rose, K. (2017). 2017 NMC Technology Outlook for Nordic Schools: A Horizon Project Regional Report. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. The 2017 NMC Technology Outlook for Nordic Schools: A Horizon Project Regional Report reflects a collaborative...

  5. Research on the reliability of measurement of natural radioactive nuclide concentration of U-238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seok Ki; Kim, Gee Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear engineering, Univ. of SeJong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Sun Dong; Lee, Hoon [KoFONS, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Naturally occurred radioactive materials (NORM) can be found all around us and people are exposed to this no matter what they do or where they live. In this study, two indirect measurement methods of NORM U-238 has been reviewed; one that has used HPGe on the basis of the maintenance, and the other is disequilibrium theory of radioactive equilibrium relationships of mother and daughter nuclide at Decay-chain of NORM U-238. For this review, complicated pre-processing process (Breaking->Fusion->Chromatography->Electron deposit) has been used , and then carried out a comparative research with direct measurement method that makes use of and measures Alpha spectrometer. Through the experiment as above, we could infer the daughter nuclide whose radioactive equilibrium has been maintained with U-238. Therefore, we could find out that the daughter nuclide suitable to be applied to Gamma indirect measurement method was Th-234. Due to Pearson Correlation statistics, we could find out the reliability of the result value that has been analyzed by using Th-234.

  6. CEGB research on the effects of fouling of plastic packings on natural draught cooling tower performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Plastic film packings were first used in CEGB natural draught cooling towers in 1985. Since then, cooling towers at seven power stations have been repacked using various commercial designs of plastic packing, with generally satisfactory results in economic terms. However, fouling of all the packings has occurred to some extent, ranging from very thin films on the surface of the sheets, which actually enhances performance, to heavy and voluminous formations which severely constrict the inter-sheet passages, causing performance loss and threatening the structural integrity of the whole fill. At CERL, methods have been developed to relate the degree of fouling to the thermal performance loss. This information is enabling accurate calculations to be made of the economics of repacking. Samples of fouled packing from operation towers are tested using the Experimental Cooling Tower at the Central Electricity Research Laboratories at Leatherhead. A systematic investigation is also underway of the changes in pressure drop and mass transfer coefficients which take place as fouling develops, using progressively-fouled packing samples from a purpose-built Packing Fouling Facility located at one of the power stations. The performance data obtained is fed-back into models by which the effect of high fouling loadings on various packings is calculated, enabling packing economic life to be predicted

  7. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Bolten, Alan B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J.; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  8. Extending the Technological, Discursive, and Rhetorical Horizons of Academic Research Libraries' Information Architectures: An Analysis of North Carolina State University's James B. Hunt Jr. Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes how North Carolina State University's (NCSU) James B. Hunt Jr. Library extends the ways in which the information architectures of academic research libraries can function as a technology, as discourse, and as rhetoric. The starting point for the analysis is the libraries of antiquity, which functioned technologically as…

  9. Research of decision-making support in the management of natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Маряна Антоніївна Шуфнарович

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing mathematical methods of modeling and forecasting of conditions of the natural resources under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors is shown. It is revealed that the more effective is modeling using artificial intelligence methods. The methods of modeling and forecasting of conditions of the natural resources are developed. They are based on theory of artificial neural networks and ideas of genetic algorithms

  10. Experimental research on the indoor temperature and humidity fields in radiant ceiling air-conditioning system under natural ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Xiang, Yutong; Wang, Yonghong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the indoor temperature and humidity fields of the air in a metal ceiling radiant panel air conditioning system with fresh air under natural ventilation were researched. The temperature and humidity distributions at different height and different position were compared. Through the computation analysis of partial pressure of water vapor, the self-recovery characteristics of humidity after the natural ventilation was discussed.

  11. Quantum chaos and the black hole horizon

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to AdS/CFT, the analogy between black holes and thermal systems has become a practical tool, shedding light on thermalization, transport, and entanglement dynamics. Continuing in this vein, recent work has shown how chaos in the boundary CFT can be analyzed in terms of high energy scattering right on the horizon of the dual black hole. The analysis revolves around certain out-of-time-order correlation functions, which are simple diagnostics of the butterfly effect. We will review this work, along with a general bound on these functions that implies black holes are the most chaotic systems in quantum mechanics. (NB Room Change to Main Auditorium)

  12. What's on the horizon for macroecology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Jan; Ballesteros-Mejia, Liliana; Buchmann, Carsten M.

    2012-01-01

    employed as a main approach, but new developments are due to be utilized. Scanning the horizon of macroecology, we identified four challenges that will probably play a major role in the future. We support our claims by examples and bibliographic analyses. 1) Integrating the past into macroecological...... to be tapped and new, small-grain large-extent data need to be collected. 4) Although macroecology already lead to mainstreaming cutting-edge statistical analysis techniques, we find that more sophisticated methods are needed to account for the biases inherent to sampling at large scale. Bayesian methods may...

  13. The horizon of the lightest black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, Xavier [University of Sussex, Physics and Astronomy, Falmer, Brighton (United Kingdom); Casadio, Roberto [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    We study the properties of the poles of the resummed graviton propagator obtained by resumming bubble matter diagrams which correct the classical graviton propagator. These poles have been previously interpreted as black holes precursors. Here, we show using the horizon wave-function formalism that these poles indeed have properties which make them compatible with being black hole precursors. In particular, when modeled with a Breit-Wigner distribution, they have a well-defined gravitational radius. The probability that the resonance is inside its own gravitational radius, and thus that it is a black hole, is about one half. Our results confirm the interpretation of these poles as black hole precursors. (orig.)

  14. Stringy horizons and UV/IR mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Israel, Roy [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University Israel,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan; Liram, Lior [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University Israel,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2015-11-24

    The target-space interpretation of the exact (in α{sup ′}) reflection coefficient for scattering from Euclidean black-hole horizons in classical string theory is studied. For concreteness, we focus on the solvable SL(2,ℝ){sub k}/U(1) black hole. It is shown that it exhibits a fascinating UV/IR mixing, dramatically modifying the late-time behavior of general relativity. We speculate that this might play an important role in the black-hole information puzzle, as well as in clarifying features related with the non-locality of Little String Theory.

  15. New horizons in biomagnetics and bioimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Shogo; Sekino, Masaki

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews recently developed techniques in biomagnetics and bioimaging such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cancer therapy based on magnetic stimulation. The technique of localized and vectorial TMS has made it possible to obtain non-invasive functional mapping of the human brain, and the development of new bioimaging technologies such as current distribution MRI and conductivity MRI may make it possible to understand the dynamics of brain functions, which include millisecond-level changes in functional regions and dynamic relations between brain neuronal networks. These techniques are leading medicine and biology toward new horizons through novel applications of magnetism. (author)

  16. An uneventful horizon in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almheiri, Ahmed; Sully, James

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the possibility of firewalls in the Einstein-dilaton gravity model of CGHS. We use the results of the numerical simulation carried out by Ashtekar et al. to demonstrate that firewalls are absent and the horizon is drama free. We show that the lack of a firewall is consistent because the model does not satisfy one of the postulates of black hole complementarity. In particular, we elaborate on previous work showing that the Hawking radiation is not pure, and is completely entangled with a long-lived remnant beyond the last ray.

  17. An uneventful horizon in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almheiri, Ahmed; Sully, James

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of firewalls in the Einstein-dilaton gravity model of CGHS. We use the results of the numerical simulation carried out by Ashtekar et al. to demonstrate that firewalls are absent and the horizon is drama free. We show that the lack of a firewall is consistent because the model does not satisfy one of the postulates of black hole complementarity. In particular, we elaborate on previous work showing that the Hawking radiation is not pure, and is completely entangled with a long-lived remnant beyond the last ray

  18. Technical report on natural evaporation system for radioactive liquid waste treatment arising from TRIGA research reactors' decontamination and decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J. S.; Jung, K. J.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, U. S.; Park, S. K.; Jung, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    This technical report described that radioactive liquid waste treatment for dismantling/decontamination of TRIGA Mark research reactor in Seoul. That is, we try safety treatment of operation radioactive liquid waste during of operating TRIGA Mark research reactor and dismantling radioactive liquid waste during R and D of research reactor hereafter, and by utilizing of new natural evaporation facility with describing design criteria of new natural evaporation facility. Therefore, this technical report described the quantity of present radioactive liquid waste and dismantling radioactive liquid waste hereafter, analysis the status of radial-rays/radioactivity, and also treatment method of this radioactive liquid waste. Also, we derived the method that the safeguard of outskirts environment and the cost down of radioactive liquid waste treatment by minimize of the radioactive liquid waste quantities, through-out design/operation of new natural evaporation facility for treatment of operation radioactive liquid waste and dismantling radioactive liquid waste. (author). 6 refs., 12 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Barriers and opportunities for integrating social science into natural resource management: lessons from National Estuarine Research Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patrick; Genskow, Ken; Shaw, Bret; Shepard, Robin

    2012-12-01

    The need for cross-disciplinary scientific inquiries that facilitate improved natural resource management outcomes through increased understanding of both the biophysical and human dimensions of management issues has been widely recognized. Despite this broad recognition, a number of obstacles and barriers still sometimes challenge the successful implementation of cross-disciplinary approaches. Improving understanding of these challenges and barriers will help address them and thereby foster appropriate and effective utilization of cross-disciplinary approaches to solve natural resource management challenges. This research uses a case study analysis of the United States National Estuarine Research Reserve System to improve understanding of the critical factors that influence practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science into their natural resource management work. The case study research is analyzed and evaluated within a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to (1) determine and describe the factors that predict practitioners' intent to incorporate social science into their natural resource related activities and (2) recommend potential strategies for encouraging and enabling cross-disciplinary approaches to natural resource management. The results indicate that National Estuarine Research Reserve practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science are primarily influenced by (1) confidence in their own capability to incorporate social science into their work and (2) beliefs about whether the outcomes of incorporating social science into their work would be valuable or beneficial.

  20. Getting Alice through the door: social science research and natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Ewert

    1995-01-01

    A number of trends are altering the role of science in natural resource management. These trends include the growing political power of science, the recognition that most natural resource problems are extremely complex and not prone to uni-dimensional solutions, and the increasing need to integrate an understanding of the human component into the planning and decision-...

  1. Hawking radiation of an apparent horizon in a FRW universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Cao Liming; Hu Yapeng

    2009-01-01

    Hawking radiation is an important quantum phenomenon of a black hole, which is closely related to the existence of an event horizon of a black hole. The cosmological event horizon of de Sitter space is also of Hawking radiation with a thermal spectrum. By use of the tunneling approach, we show that there is indeed a Hawking radiation with temperature, T=1/(2πr-tilde A , for a locally defined apparent horizon of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with any spatial curvature, where r-tilde A is the apparent horizon radius. Thus we fill in the gap existing in the literature investigating the relation between the first law of thermodynamics and Friedmann equations; there the apparent horizon is assumed to have such a temperature without any proof. In addition, we stress the implication of the Hawking temperature associated with the apparent horizon.

  2. Hawking radiation from the cosmological horizon in a FRW universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yapeng

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that there is a Hawking radiation from the cosmological horizon of the de Sitter spacetime, and the de Sitter spacetime can be a special case of a FRW universe. Therefore, there may be a corresponding Hawking radiation in a FRW universe. Indeed, there have been several clues showing that there is a Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of a FRW universe. In our Letter, however, we find that the Hawking radiation may come from the cosmological horizon. Moreover, we also find that the Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of a FRW universe in some previous works can be a special case in our result, and the condition is that the variation rate of cosmological horizon r . H is zero. Note that, this condition is also consistent with the underlying integrable condition in these works from the apparent horizon.

  3. Redshift of a photon emitted along the black hole horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toporensky, A.V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kazan Federal University, Kazan (Russian Federation); Zaslavskii, O.B. [Kazan Federal University, Kazan (Russian Federation); Kharkov V.N. Karazin National University, Department of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2017-03-15

    In this work we derive some general features of the redshift measured by radially moving observers in the black hole background. Let observer 1 cross the black hole horizon emitting a photon, while observer 2 crossing the same horizon later receives it. We show that if (i) the horizon is the outer one (event horizon) and (ii) it is nonextremal, the received frequency is redshifted. This generalizes recent results in the literature. For the inner horizon (like in the Reissner-Nordstroem metric) the frequency is blueshifted. If the horizon is extremal, the frequency does not change. We derive explicit formulas describing the frequency shift in generalized Kruskal- and Lemaitre-like coordinates. (orig.)

  4. Classification of Near-Horizon Geometries of Extremal Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari K. Kunduri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Any spacetime containing a degenerate Killing horizon, such as an extremal black hole, possesses a well-defined notion of a near-horizon geometry. We review such near-horizon geometry solutions in a variety of dimensions and theories in a unified manner. We discuss various general results including horizon topology and near-horizon symmetry enhancement. We also discuss the status of the classification of near-horizon geometries in theories ranging from vacuum gravity to Einstein–Maxwell theory and supergravity theories. Finally, we discuss applications to the classification of extremal black holes and various related topics. Several new results are presented and open problems are highlighted throughout.

  5. Functional assays and metagenomic analyses reveals differences between the microbial communities inhabiting the soil horizons of a Norway spruce plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Uroz

    Full Text Available In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France. The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource

  6. Near-horizon brane-scan revived

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    In 1987 two versions of the brane-scan of D-dimensional super p-branes were put forward. The first pinpointed those (p,D) slots consistent with kappa-symmetric Green-Schwarz type actions; the second generalized the membrane at the end of the universe idea to all those superconformal groups describing p-branes on the boundary of AdS p+2 xS D-p-2 . Although the second version predicted D3- and M5-branes in addition to those of the first, it came unstuck because the 1/2 BPS solitonic branes failed to exhibit the required symmetry enhancement in the near-horizon limit, except in the non-dilatonic cases (p=2,D=11), (p=3,D=10) and (p=5,D=11). Just recently, however, it has been argued that the fundamental D=10 heterotic string does indeed display a near-horizon enhancement to OSp(8|2) as predicted by the brane-scan, provided α' corrections are taken into account. If this logic could be extended to the other strings and branes, it would resolve this 21-year-old paradox and provide a wealth of new AdS/CFT dualities, which we tabulate

  7. THE EVENT HORIZON OF SAGITTARIUS A*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, Avery E.; Loeb, Abraham; Narayan, Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    Black hole event horizons, causally separating the external universe from compact regions of spacetime, are one of the most exotic predictions of general relativity. Until recently, their compact size has prevented efforts to study them directly. Here we show that recent millimeter and infrared observations of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, all but require the existence of a horizon. Specifically, we show that these observations limit the luminosity of any putative visible compact emitting region to below 0.4% of Sgr A*'s accretion luminosity. Equivalently, this requires the efficiency of converting the gravitational binding energy liberated during accretion into radiation and kinetic outflows to be greater than 99.6%, considerably larger than those implicated in Sgr A*, and therefore inconsistent with the existence of such a visible region. Finally, since we are able to frame this argument entirely in terms of observable quantities, our results apply to all geometric theories of gravity that admit stationary solutions, including the commonly discussed f(R) class of theories.

  8. THE EVENT HORIZON OF SAGITTARIUS A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Avery E [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Loeb, Abraham; Narayan, Ramesh [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard University, Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2009-08-20

    Black hole event horizons, causally separating the external universe from compact regions of spacetime, are one of the most exotic predictions of general relativity. Until recently, their compact size has prevented efforts to study them directly. Here we show that recent millimeter and infrared observations of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, all but require the existence of a horizon. Specifically, we show that these observations limit the luminosity of any putative visible compact emitting region to below 0.4% of Sgr A*'s accretion luminosity. Equivalently, this requires the efficiency of converting the gravitational binding energy liberated during accretion into radiation and kinetic outflows to be greater than 99.6%, considerably larger than those implicated in Sgr A*, and therefore inconsistent with the existence of such a visible region. Finally, since we are able to frame this argument entirely in terms of observable quantities, our results apply to all geometric theories of gravity that admit stationary solutions, including the commonly discussed f(R) class of theories.

  9. Energy and information near black hole horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freivogel, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The central challenge in trying to resolve the firewall paradox is to identify excitations in the near-horizon zone of a black hole that can carry information without injuring a freely falling observer. By analyzing the problem from the point of view of a freely falling observer, I arrive at a simple proposal for the degrees of freedom that carry information out of the black hole. An infalling observer experiences the information-carrying modes as ingoing, negative energy excitations of the quantum fields. In these states, freely falling observers who fall in from infinity do not encounter a firewall, but freely falling observers who begin their free fall from a location close to the horizon are ''frozen'' by a flux of negative energy. When the black hole is ''mined,'' the number of information-carrying modes increases, increasing the negative energy flux in the infalling frame without violating the equivalence principle. Finally, I point out a loophole in recent arguments that an infalling observer must detect a violation of unitarity, effective field theory, or free infall

  10. Gribov's horizon and the ghost dressing function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2009-01-01

    We study a relation recently derived by K. Kondo at zero momentum between the Zwanziger's horizon function, the ghost dressing function and Kugo's functions u and w. We agree with this result as far as bare quantities are considered. However, assuming the validity of the horizon gap equation, we argue that the solution w(0)=0 is not acceptable since it would lead to a vanishing renormalized ghost dressing function. On the contrary, when the cutoff goes to infinity, u(0)→∞, w(0)→-∞ such that u(0)+w(0)→-1. Furthermore w and u are not multiplicatively renormalizable. Relaxing the gap equation allows w(0)=0 with u(0)→-1. In both cases the bare ghost dressing function, F(0,Λ), goes logarithmically to infinity at infinite cutoff. We show that, although the lattice results provide bare results not so different from the F(0,Λ)=3 solution, this is an accident due to the fact that the lattice cutoffs lie in the range 1-3 GeV -1 . We show that the renormalized ghost dressing function should be finite and nonzero at zero momentum and can be reliably estimated on the lattice up to powers of the lattice spacing; from published data on a 80 4 lattice at β=5.7 we obtain F R (0,μ=1.5 GeV)≅2.2.

  11. Radiation from quantum weakly dynamical horizons in loop quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranzetti, Daniele

    2012-07-06

    We provide a statistical mechanical analysis of quantum horizons near equilibrium in the grand canonical ensemble. By matching the description of the nonequilibrium phase in terms of weakly dynamical horizons with a local statistical framework, we implement loop quantum gravity dynamics near the boundary. The resulting radiation process provides a quantum gravity description of the horizon evaporation. For large black holes, the spectrum we derive presents a discrete structure which could be potentially observable.

  12. The perspectives of research in the construction field in Romania during the 2014-2020 period

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai VRABIE; Sergiu-Andrei BĂETU

    2013-01-01

    The construction field represents an important part of the Romanian economy (and of UE), with a strong social impact on the quality of citizen life. Naturally, the research from the construction field should be a priority in research and innovation activity. However, the research programs recently launched (Horizon 2020, from EU, and the Strategy of Research and Innovation 2014-2020 in Romania), don’t mention the construction field as an explicit priority. Under these conditions, we can speak...

  13. New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2010-01-01

    .... Based on a broad and comprehensive survey of scientific opportunities, infrastructure, and organization in a national and international context, New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysic...

  14. QFT holography near the horizon of Schwarzschild-like spacetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Valter; Pinamonti, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    It is argued that free QFT can be defined on the event horizon of a Schwarzschild-like spacetime and that this theory is unitarily and algebraically equivalent to QFT in the bulk (near the horizon). Under that unitary equivalence the bulk hidden SL(2,R) symmetry found in a previous work becomes manifest on the event horizon, it being induced by a group of horizon diffeomorphisms. The class of generators of that group can be enlarged to include a full Virasoro algebra of fields which are defin...

  15. Nuclear waste disposal research and studies on natural groundwater colloids in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.

    1995-01-01

    In Finland there are two programmes carrying out studies on the safe disposal of nuclear fuel. One programme is funded by the nuclear power producing companies and the other one is publicly financed. Different natural sites are being investigated within the two programme of the nuclear power producing companies, while the publicly financed programme is concentrating its investigations on the Finnish natural analogue site at Palmottu. Both programmes are briefly discussed. Within both programmes some studies on natural groundwater colloids have been performed. However, a characterization of organic colloids has been performed on only one occasion so far. The colloid studies and results are discussed. (authors). 8 refs

  16. A laboratory analogue of the event horizon using slow light in an atomic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2002-01-24

    Singularities underlie many optical phenomena. The rainbow, for example, involves a particular type of singularity-a ray catastrophe-in which light rays become infinitely intense. In practice, the wave nature of light resolves these infinities, producing interference patterns. At the event horizon of a black hole, time stands still and waves oscillate with infinitely small wavelengths. However, the quantum nature of light results in evasion of the catastrophe and the emission of Hawking radiation. Here I report a theoretical laboratory analogue of an event horizon: a parabolic profile of the group velocity of light brought to a standstill in an atomic medium can cause a wave singularity similar to that associated with black holes. In turn, the quantum vacuum is forced to create photon pairs with a characteristic spectrum, a phenomenon related to Hawking radiation. The idea may initiate a theory of 'quantum' catastrophes, extending classical catastrophe theory.

  17. On the near horizon rotating black hole geometries with NUT charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galajinsky, Anton; Orekhov, Kirill [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The near horizon geometries are usually constructed by implementing a specific limit to a given extreme black hole configuration. Their salient feature is that the isometry group includes the conformal subgroup SO(2, 1). In this work, we turn the logic around and use the conformal invariants for constructing Ricci-flat metrics in d = 4 and d = 5 where the vacuum Einstein equations reduce to a coupled set of ordinary differential equations. In four dimensions the analysis can be carried out in full generality and the resulting metric describes the d = 4 near horizon Kerr-NUT black hole. In five dimensions we choose a specific ansatz whose structure is similar to the d = 5 near horizon Myers-Perry black hole. A Ricci-flat metric involving five arbitrary parameters is constructed. A particular member of this family, which is characterized by three parameters, seems to be a natural candidate to describe the d = 5 near horizon Myers- Perry black hole with a NUT charge. (orig.)

  18. On the near horizon rotating black hole geometries with NUT charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galajinsky, Anton; Orekhov, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    The near horizon geometries are usually constructed by implementing a specific limit to a given extreme black hole configuration. Their salient feature is that the isometry group includes the conformal subgroup SO(2, 1). In this work, we turn the logic around and use the conformal invariants for constructing Ricci-flat metrics in d = 4 and d = 5 where the vacuum Einstein equations reduce to a coupled set of ordinary differential equations. In four dimensions the analysis can be carried out in full generality and the resulting metric describes the d = 4 near horizon Kerr-NUT black hole. In five dimensions we choose a specific ansatz whose structure is similar to the d = 5 near horizon Myers-Perry black hole. A Ricci-flat metric involving five arbitrary parameters is constructed. A particular member of this family, which is characterized by three parameters, seems to be a natural candidate to describe the d = 5 near horizon Myers- Perry black hole with a NUT charge. (orig.)

  19. New insights into microbial responses to oil spills from the Deepwater Horizon incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, O.U.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-06-15

    On April 20, 2010, a catastrophic eruption of methane caused the Deepwater Horizon exploratory drill rig drilling the Macondo Well in Mississippi Canyon Block 252 (MC252) to explode. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was unprecendeted for several reasons: the volume of oil released; the spill duration; the well depth; the distance from the shore-line (77 km or about 50 miles); the type of oil (light crude); and the injection of dispersant directly at the wellhead. This study clearly demonstrated that there was a profound and significant response by certain members of the in situ microbial community in the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. In particular putative hydrocarbon degrading Bacteria appeared to bloom in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, even though the temperature at these depths is never >5 C. As the plume aged the shifts in the microbial community on a temporal scale suggested that different, yet metabolically important members of the community were able to respond to a myriad of plume constituents, e.g. shifting from propane/ethane to alkanes and finally to methane. Thus, the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the plume by Bacteria was a highly significant process in the natural attenuation of many compounds released during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

  20. Salt Marsh Bacterial Communities before and after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annette Summers; Liu, Chang; Paterson, Audrey T; Anderson, Laurie C; Turner, R Eugene; Overton, Edward B

    2017-10-15

    Coastal salt marshes along the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline received varied types and amounts of weathered oil residues after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. At the time, predicting how marsh bacterial communities would respond and/or recover to oiling and other environmental stressors was difficult because baseline information on community composition and dynamics was generally unavailable. Here, we evaluated marsh vegetation, physicochemistry, flooding frequency, hydrocarbon chemistry, and subtidal sediment bacterial communities from 16S rRNA gene surveys at 11 sites in southern Louisiana before the oil spill and resampled the same marshes three to four times over 38 months after the spill. Calculated hydrocarbon biomarker indices indicated that oil replaced native natural organic matter (NOM) originating from Spartina alterniflora and marine phytoplankton in the marshes between May 2010 and September 2010. At all the studied marshes, the major class- and order-level shifts among the phyla Proteobacteria , Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes , and Actinobacteria occurred within these first 4 months, but another community shift occurred at the time of peak oiling in 2011. Two years later, hydrocarbon levels decreased and bacterial communities became more diverse, being dominated by Alphaproteobacteria ( Rhizobiales ), Chloroflexi ( Dehalococcoidia ), and Planctomycetes Compositional changes through time could be explained by NOM source differences, perhaps due to vegetation changes, as well as marsh flooding and salinity excursions linked to freshwater diversions. These findings indicate that persistent hydrocarbon exposure alone did not explain long-term community shifts. IMPORTANCE Significant deterioration of coastal salt marshes in Louisiana has been linked to natural and anthropogenic stressors that can adversely affect how ecosystems function. Although microorganisms carry out and regulate most biogeochemical reactions, the diversity of bacterial

  1. Terrestrial Soundscapes: Status of Ecological Research in Natural and Human-Dominated Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijanowski, Bryan Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Soundscape ecological research in terrestrial systems is relatively new. In this paper, I present a brief summary of the origins of this research area, describe research questions related to several research thrusts that are ongoing, summarize several soundscape projects that exist and how these relate to the research thrusts, and briefly describe the work of a global network of scientists, musicians, and engineers that are attempting to move this new field forward.

  2. [Overview of research projects funding in traditional Chinese medicine oncology field supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dong-Xin; Chen, Lian-Yu; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Han, Li-Wei; Zhang, Feng-Zhu

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the funding situation of traditional Chinese medicine oncology research projects supported by National Natural Science Fund from 1986-2016 was reviewed. The characteristics of funded projects were summarized from funding amount, funding expenses, funding category, and the main research contents of projects, etc. At the same time, the main problems in the projects were analyzed in this paper, in order to provide reference for the relevant fund applicants. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Research, values, and ethics in organic agriculture - examples from sustainability, precaution, nature quality, and animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Kristensen, Erik Steen

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural systems are characterised by involving both natural and social systems. Organic farming, in particular, has developed as part of a wider organic movement incorporating producers, manufacturers and consumers. The organic movement is based on explicit rules as well as broader formulated principles and goals for farming and manufacturing, which are connected to underlying values and perceptions of the relationship between human and nature. This paper is concerned with the challenges...

  4. Entropy of nonrotating isolated horizons in Lovelock theory from loop quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Bo; Huang, Chao-Guang; Li, Lin

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the BF theory method is applied to the nonrotating isolated horizons in Lovelock theory. The final entropy matches the Wald entropy formula for this theory. We also confirm the conclusion obtained by Bodendorfer et al. that the entropy is related to the flux operator rather than the area operator in general diffeomorphic-invariant theory. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275207)

  5. The Research as Natural Sciences Teaching Strategy: Pedagogical Conceptions of Secondary Education Teachers at Instituto Pedagógico Nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Milena Bejarano Muñoz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This text is a look to the research as a transformation and generation axis of knowledge among middle school students, based on the analysis of teachers’ pedagogical conceptions at Instituto Pedagógico Nacional around natural sciences research and teaching. A qualitative methodology from the interpretive approach was implemented, which allowed, from case study, to establish pedagogical conceptions of secondary education teachers in natural sciences about research. In addition, pedagogical elements are proposed about inclusion of school research in secondary education as natural sciences teaching strategy, which contributes to the construction and transformation of educational experiences. As a conclusion, teachers’ trend of conceptions was towards positivism, which is part of disciplinary and quantitative researches, looking at science from the application of scientific method. Even though, pedagogical interpretive and critical-social current begins to be included, by socializing quantitative findings obtained generating social changes from the intervention with the community. Likewise, teachers recognize the academic, social, interpersonal and working benefits obtained in a research process, such as generating and deepening of knowledge, monitoring of methodical processes in search of information and data collection, interpretation and reasoning about phenomena, and critical development from their daily lives, all leading students to be actors of transformation processes from their own interest.

  6. Research into the Physiology of Cerebrospinal Fluid Reaches a New Horizon: Intimate Exchange between Cerebrospinal Fluid and Interstitial Fluid May Contribute to Maintenance of Homeostasis in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumae, Mitsunori; Sato, Osamu; Hirayama, Akihiro; Hayashi, Naokazu; Takizawa, Ken; Atsumi, Hideki; Sorimachi, Takatoshi

    2016-07-15

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis of the central nervous system. The functions of CSF include: (1) buoyancy of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; (2) volume adjustment in the cranial cavity; (3) nutrient transport; (4) protein or peptide transport; (5) brain volume regulation through osmoregulation; (6) buffering effect against external forces; (7) signal transduction; (8) drug transport; (9) immune system control; (10) elimination of metabolites and unnecessary substances; and finally (11) cooling of heat generated by neural activity. For CSF to fully mediate these functions, fluid-like movement in the ventricles and subarachnoid space is necessary. Furthermore, the relationship between the behaviors of CSF and interstitial fluid in the brain and spinal cord is important. In this review, we will present classical studies on CSF circulation from its discovery over 2,000 years ago, and will subsequently introduce functions that were recently discovered such as CSF production and absorption, water molecule movement in the interstitial space, exchange between interstitial fluid and CSF, and drainage of CSF and interstitial fluid into both the venous and the lymphatic systems. Finally, we will summarize future challenges in research. This review includes articles published up to February 2016.

  7. Exploring How Research Experiences for Teachers Changes Their Understandings of the Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn R.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of science is a prevalent theme across United States national science education standards and frameworks as well as other documents that guide formal and informal science education reform. To support teachers in engaging their students in authentic scientific practices and reformed teaching strategies, research experiences for teachers…

  8. Story Telling: Research and Action to Improve 6th Grade Students' Views about Certain Aspects of Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Feray; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    This study is a four-week section of ongoing attempts that aim to improve 6th grade students' understandings of the nature of science. The study was carried out in a sixth grade science and technology class at a rural middle school with 15 students on the basis of action research methodology. During the study, four different stories based on the…

  9. Integration of Field Studies and Undergraduate Research into an Interdisciplinary Course: Natural History of Tropical Carbonate Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, Robert L.; Davis, Larry E.; Brown, D. Gordon; Lamberts, William L.

    2007-01-01

    According to Carl Sagan (1987), "Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge." Field studies and undergraduate research provide students with the best opportunities for "thinking" about science, while at the same time acquiring a body of knowledge. Natural History of Tropical Carbonate Ecosystems is a…

  10. Using the History of Research on Sickle Cell Anemia to Affect Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Eric M.

    This paper examines how using a series of lessons developed from the history of research on sickle cell anemia affects preservice teacher conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The importance of a pedagogy that has students do science through an integral use of the history of science is effective at enriching students' NOS views is presented.…

  11. Theoretical research for natural circulation operational characteristic of ship nuclear machinery under ocean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Binghuo [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)], E-mail: yanbh1986@163.com; Yu Lei [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)], E-mail: yulei301@163.com

    2009-06-15

    Based on the two-phase drift flux model and the multi-pressure nodes matrix solving method, natural circulation thermal hydraulic analysis models for the Nuclear Machinery (NM) under ocean conditions are developed. The neutron physical activities and the responses of the reactivity control systems are described by the two-group, 3-dimensional space and time dependent neutron kinetics model. Reactivity feedback is calculated by coupling the neutron physics and thermal hydraulic codes, and is tested by comparison with experiments. Using the models developed, the natural circulation operating characteristics of NM in rolling and pitching motions and the transitions between forced circulation (FC) to natural circulation (NC) are analyzed. The results show that the influence of the rolling motion increases as the rolling amplitude is increased, and as the rolling period becomes shorter. The results also show that for this NM, with the same rolling period and rolling angle, the influence of pitching motion on natural circulation is greater than that of rolling motion. Furthermore, the oscillation period for pitching motion is the same as the pitching period, while the oscillation period for rolling is one half of the rolling period. In the ocean environment, excessive flow oscillation of the natural circulation may cause the control rods to respond so frequently that the NM would not be able to realize the transition from the FC to NC steadily. However, the influence of ocean environment on the transition from NC to FC is limited.

  12. Research on Factors Affecting the Optimal Exploitation of Natural Gas Resources in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an optimizing model for the long-term exploitation of limited natural gas reserves in China. In addition to describing the life cycle characteristics of natural gas production and introducing the inter-temporal allocation theory, this paper builds the optimal exploitation model of natural gas resources within a gas field in the Ordos Basin as an example to analyze its exploitation scale and how influence factors, such as recovery rate, discount rate and the gas well exhausting cycle, affect the optimal exploration path of this gas field. We determine that an increase in the discount rate stimulates investors to invest more aggressively in natural gas exploitation in the early period due to the lower discounted value, thereby increasing the pace of the exploitation of natural gas and the exhaustion of gas fields. A higher recoverable factor implies more recoverable reserves and greater potential of increasing the output of gas fields. The exhaustion rate of gas wells affects the capability of converting capacity to output. When exhaustion occurs quickly in gas wells, the output will likely increase in the output rising period, and the output will likely decrease at a faster rate in the output reduction period. Price reform affects the economic recoverable reserves of gas fields.

  13. Portrait of the Artist/Researcher/Teacher: A Reflection on the Nature of Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Codack

    2010-01-01

    This research paints a portrait–both literally and figuratively–of the practice of an artist/researcher/teacher. Arts-based inquiry is used as a methodology for self-examination into the art, research, and teaching practice of the author, using the critical theology of unschooling and a/r/tography as a contextual platform.

  14. Sense of place in natural resource recreation and tourism: an evaluation and assessment of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Farnum; Troy Hall; Linda E. Kruger

    2005-01-01

    Understanding sense of place and related concepts often presents challenges for both managers and researchers. Inconsistent application of terms, questions regarding their origin, and a lack of awareness of research findings contribute to the ambiguity of these concepts. This integrative review of research provides relevant, current information on the role of sense of...

  15. Quantum field theory, horizons and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciama, D.W.; Candelas, P.; Deutsch, D.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the article is to obtain an intuitive understanding of the recently explored deep connections between thermal physics, quantum field theory and general relativity. A special case in which a detector moves with constant acceleration through a quantum vacuum is examined to clarify the fact that such a detector becomes thermally excited, with a temperature proportional to its acceleration. An elementary physical explanation of this fundamental result is provided. The uniformly accelerated observer finds his space-time manifold bounded by an event horizon and so realizes a 'model' black hole. Real black holes also have thermal properties when quantum effects are taken into account; these are described and the correspondences with the accelerated case are pointed out. In particular, an elementary account is given of the thermal Hawking radiation emitted by the black holes formed by collapsed stars. (author)

  16. CERN encourages girls to "expand their horizons"

    CERN Document Server

    François Briard

    2015-01-01

    On 14 November, CERN took part for the fourth time in "Élargis tes horizons" (see here), a conference organised every two years at Geneva University for girls from the local region aged 11 to 14 aiming to encourage them to take up studies and careers in the scientific and technical domains.   Claude Sanz (left), a fellow in the EN Department, explaining to three girls how to build a particle accelerator in a salad bowl. This year, young physicists and engineers from ATLAS and CMS ran three workshops: "Seeing the invisible using a cloud chamber", "Great cold fun and treats with liquid nitrogen" and "Build your own accelerator in a salad bowl!" CERN was also represented at the Forum de Découverte, represented by the Diversity Office and the Medialab team, presenting the "Higgnite" interactive experiment, which illustrates the principle of the Higgs field. More...

  17. Lovelock black holes with maximally symmetric horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hideki; Willison, Steven; Ray, Sourya, E-mail: hideki@cecs.cl, E-mail: willison@cecs.cl, E-mail: ray@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios CientIficos (CECs), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

    2011-08-21

    We investigate some properties of n( {>=} 4)-dimensional spacetimes having symmetries corresponding to the isometries of an (n - 2)-dimensional maximally symmetric space in Lovelock gravity under the null or dominant energy condition. The well-posedness of the generalized Misner-Sharp quasi-local mass proposed in the past study is shown. Using this quasi-local mass, we clarify the basic properties of the dynamical black holes defined by a future outer trapping horizon under certain assumptions on the Lovelock coupling constants. The C{sup 2} vacuum solutions are classified into four types: (i) Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution; (ii) Nariai-type solution; (iii) special degenerate vacuum solution; and (iv) exceptional vacuum solution. The conditions for the realization of the last two solutions are clarified. The Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution is studied in detail. We prove the first law of black-hole thermodynamics and present the expressions for the heat capacity and the free energy.

  18. Horizons of semiclassical black holes are cold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate, using our recently proposed semiclassical framework, the quantum state of the Hawking pairs that are produced during the evaporation of a black hole (BH). Our framework adheres to the standard rules of quantum mechanics and incorporates the quantum fluctuations of the collapsing shell spacetime in Hawking’s original calculation, while accounting for back-reaction effects. We argue that the negative-energy Hawking modes need to be regularly integrated out; and so these are effectively subsumed by the BH and, as a result, the number of coherent negative-energy modes N_c_o_h at any given time is parametrically smaller than the total number of the Hawking particles N_t_o_t_a_l emitted during the lifetime of the BH. We find that N_c_o_h is determined by the width of the BH wavefunction and scales as the square root of the BH entropy. We also find that the coherent negative-energy modes are strongly entangled with their positive-energy partners. Previously, we have found that N_c_o_h is also the number of coherent outgoing particles and that information can be continually transferred to the outgoing radiation at a rate set by N_c_o_h. Our current results show that, while the BH is semiclassical, information can be released without jeopardizing the nearly maximal inside-out entanglement and imply that the state of matter near the horizon is approximately the vacuum. The BH firewall proposal, on the other hand, is that the state of matter near the horizon deviates substantially from the vacuum, starting at the Page time. We find that, under the usual assumptions for justifying the formation of a firewall, one does indeed form at the Page time. However, the possible loophole lies in the implicit assumption that the number of strongly entangled pairs can be of the same order of N_t_o_t_a_l

  19. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF THE POTENTIAL REPOSITORY HORIZON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. BEAN

    2004-09-27

    The primary purpose of this report is to assess the spatial variability and uncertainty of bulk thermal conductivity in the host horizon for the repository at Yucca Mountain. More specifically, the lithostratigraphic units studied are located within the Topopah Spring Tuff (Tpt) and consist of the upper lithophysal zone (Tptpul), the middle nonlithophysal zone (Tptpmn), the lower lithophysal zone (Tptpll), and the lower nonlithophysal zone (Tptpln). Design plans indicate that approximately 81 percent of the repository will be excavated in the Tptpll, approximately 12 percent in the Tptpmn, and the remainder in the Tptul and Tptpln (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168370]). This report provides three-dimensional geostatistical estimates of the bulk thermal conductivity for the four stratigraphic layers of the repository horizon. The three-dimensional geostatistical estimates of matrix and lithophysal porosity, dry bulk density, and matrix thermal conductivity are also provided. This report provides input to various models and calculations that simulate heat transport through the rock mass. These models include the ''Drift Degradation Analysis, Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model, Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms, Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'', and ''Drift Scale THM Model''. These models directly or indirectly provide input to the total system performance assessment (TSPA). The main distinguishing characteristic among the lithophysal and nonlithophysal units is the percentage of large-scale (centimeters-meters) voids within the rock. The Tptpul and Tptpll, as their names suggest, have a higher percentage of lithophysae than the Tptpmn and the Tptpln. Understanding the influence of the lithophysae is of great importance to understanding bulk thermal conductivity.

  20. Horizons of semiclassical black holes are cold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brustein, Ram [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); CAS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München,80333 München (Germany); Medved, A.J.M. [Department of Physics & Electronics, Rhodes University,Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)

    2014-06-10

    We calculate, using our recently proposed semiclassical framework, the quantum state of the Hawking pairs that are produced during the evaporation of a black hole (BH). Our framework adheres to the standard rules of quantum mechanics and incorporates the quantum fluctuations of the collapsing shell spacetime in Hawking’s original calculation, while accounting for back-reaction effects. We argue that the negative-energy Hawking modes need to be regularly integrated out; and so these are effectively subsumed by the BH and, as a result, the number of coherent negative-energy modes N{sub coh} at any given time is parametrically smaller than the total number of the Hawking particles N{sub total} emitted during the lifetime of the BH. We find that N{sub coh} is determined by the width of the BH wavefunction and scales as the square root of the BH entropy. We also find that the coherent negative-energy modes are strongly entangled with their positive-energy partners. Previously, we have found that N{sub coh} is also the number of coherent outgoing particles and that information can be continually transferred to the outgoing radiation at a rate set by N{sub coh}. Our current results show that, while the BH is semiclassical, information can be released without jeopardizing the nearly maximal inside-out entanglement and imply that the state of matter near the horizon is approximately the vacuum. The BH firewall proposal, on the other hand, is that the state of matter near the horizon deviates substantially from the vacuum, starting at the Page time. We find that, under the usual assumptions for justifying the formation of a firewall, one does indeed form at the Page time. However, the possible loophole lies in the implicit assumption that the number of strongly entangled pairs can be of the same order of N{sub total}.

  1. Statistical Research on the Bioactivity of New Marine Natural Products Discovered during the 28 Years from 1985 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yiwen; Chen, Jiahui; Hu, Guping; Yu, Jianchen; Zhu, Xun; Lin, Yongcheng; Chen, Shengping; Yuan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Every year, hundreds of new compounds are discovered from the metabolites of marine organisms. Finding new and useful compounds is one of the crucial drivers for this field of research. Here we describe the statistics of bioactive compounds discovered from marine organisms from 1985 to 2012. This work is based on our database, which contains information on more than 15,000 chemical substances including 4196 bioactive marine natural products. We performed a comprehensive statistical analysis to understand the characteristics of the novel bioactive compounds and detail temporal trends, chemical structures, species distribution, and research progress. We hope this meta-analysis will provide useful information for research into the bioactivity of marine natural products and drug development. PMID:25574736

  2. Research of Distribution of Elements in Natural Waters of the Selenga River Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Ganbold, G; Gerbish, S; Dalhsuren, B; Bayarmaa, Z; Maslov, O D; Sevastiyanov, D V

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of heavy metals in natural waters of the Selenga river pool was investigated. The contents of elements were determined using X-ray analysis with complete external reflection (XRACER). The zones with excess of the average contents of elements in comparison with reference samples were found out, that specifies their pollution by metals. It is offered in these zones to organize the regular water quality monitoring for supervision over the condition of the water ecosystems and to carry out actions on decrease of anthropogenous load and pollution of natural waters.

  3. Review of research on impacts to biota of discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides in produced water to the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Ali; Brown, Justin E.; Gwynn, Justin P.; Dowdall, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Produced water has been described as the largest volume waste stream in the exploration and production process of oil and gas. It is accompanied by discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides raising concerns over the potential radiological impacts of produced water on marine biota. In the Northern European marine environment, radioactivity in produced water has received substantial attention owing to the OSPAR Radioactive Substances Strategy which aims at achieving ‘concentrations in the environment near background values for naturally occurring radioactive substances’. This review provides an overview of published research on the impacts to biota from naturally occurring radionuclides discharged in produced water by the offshore oil and gas industry. In addition to summarising studies and data that deal directly with the issue of dose and effect, the review also considers studies related to the impact of added chemicals on the fate of discharged radionuclides. The review clearly illustrates that only a limited number of studies have investigated possible impacts on biota from naturally occurring radionuclides present in produced water. Hence, although these studies indicate that the risk to the environment from naturally occurring radionuclides discharged in produced water is negligible, the substantial uncertainties involved in the assessments of impact make it difficult to be conclusive. With regard to the complexity involved in the problem under consideration there is a pressing need to supplement existing data and acquire new knowledge. Finally, the present work identifies some knowledge gaps to indicate future research requirements. -- Highlights: ► Produced water from offshore oil industry contains naturally occurring radionuclides. ► Published research on the impacts to biota from these radionuclides is reviewed. ► Review includes impact of added chemicals on the fate of discharged radionuclides. ► Studies indicate negligible risk to biota

  4. Conference Offers Girls Opportunity to Expand Career Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offers Girls Opportunity to Expand Career Horizons For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., Feb. 11, 1997 -- Expanding Your Horizons, a conference for girls grades 6 - 9 and Employed Women, Girls Incorporated of Metro Denver, King Soopers, McDonalds, the TCI Adult Program and the

  5. Thermal and nonthermal particle production without event horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, N.

    1979-01-01

    Usually, particle production in accelerated frames is discussed in connection with the presence of event horizons and with a planckian spectrum. Accelerated frames without event horizons, where particle production takes place with thermal as well as nonthermal distributions, are constructed. (Auth.)

  6. Nearly extremal apparent horizons in simulations of merging black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark; Owen, Robert; Giesler, Matthew; Katebi, Reza; Szilagyi, Bela; Chu, Tony; Demos, Nicholas; Hemberger, Daniel; Kidder, Lawrence; Pfeiffer, Harald; Afshari, Nousha; SXS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The spin S of a Kerr black hole is bounded by the surface area A of its apparent horizon: 8 πS A and e0 > 1 , but these surfaces are always surrounded by apparent horizons with 8 πS < A and e0 < 1 .

  7. Research and Development in Natural Language Understanding as Part of the Strategic Computing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    facilities. BBN is developing a series of increasingly sophisticated natural language understanding systems which will serve as an integrated interface...Haas, A.R. A Syntactic Theory of Belief and Action. Artificial Intelligence. 1986. Forthcoming. [6] Hinrichs, E. Temporale Anaphora im Englischen

  8. New study shows normally helpful natural bacteria may also trigger lupus | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR scientists have discovered that a protein produced by bacteria that naturally inhabit our bodies may trigger the autoimmune disease lupus. The results of the study could unveil an entirely new set of drug targets for treating lupus and other autoimmune diseases. Read more…

  9. Contextualization of Nature of Science within the Socioscientific Issues Framework: A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisan, Dilek; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the importance of contextualization of Nature of Science (NOS) within the Socioscientific Issues (SSI) framework, because of the importance to science education. The emphasis on advancing scientific literacy is contingent upon a robust understanding and appreciation of NOS, as well as the acquisition of…

  10. Human migration and natural resources: implications for land managers and challenges for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. McCool; Linda E. Kruger

    2003-01-01

    Rural areas of the Pacific Northwest experienced a dramatic growth in population during the late 1980s to early 1990s. This growth was fueled by both push and pull factors, including environmental and natural resource based amenities. Such growth has not only stressed the capacity of rural counties and communities to cope with change but also has raised important...

  11. "Place" as an integrating concept in natural resource politics: propositions for a social science research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony S. Cheng; Linda E. Kruger; Steven E. Daniels

    2003-01-01

    This article lays out six propositions centering on a relationship between peopleplace connections and strategic behavior in natural resource politics. The first two propositions suggest a strong and direct connection between self-identity, place, and how individuals perceive and value the environment. The third, fourth, and fifth propositions tie together social group...

  12. Nature of the Nucleosomal Barrier to RNA Polymerase II | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the cell, RNA polymerase II (pol II) efficiently transcribes DNA packaged into nucleosomes, but in vitro encounters with the nucleosomes induce catalytic inactivation (arrest) of the pol II core enzyme. To determine potential mechanisms making nucleosomes transparent to transcription in vivo, we analyzed the nature of the nucleosome-induced arrest. We found that the arrests

  13. Pedagogical Knowledge and the Changing Nature of the Teaching Profession. Educational Research and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Sonia, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Highly qualified and competent teachers are fundamental for equitable and effective education systems. Teachers today are facing higher and more complex expectations to help students reach their full potential and become valuable members of 21st century society. The nature and variety of these demands imply that teachers, more than ever before,…

  14. The case for increasing returns (2: the methods of planning horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic B. Jennings Jr.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In neoclassical economics, substitution assumptions support equilibrium models in closed systems shunning interdependence. On these grounds an array of frames show outcomes as stable, efficient, unique and determinate. Heterodox economists say equilibrium models sidestep practical knowledge and the rich reality of economic behavior. Rigor or realism, mainstream or radical, ecological, institutional, socio-cultural: economics invites a wide diversity of assumptions, once short-term models of substitution are opened to question. The answers are blurred by applications; there is clarity in a simplicity shielded from mundane detail. This paper addresses the methodological impact of planning horizons, increasing returns and complementarity, and their proper representation in economic constructions. Horizonal economics can be construed as extending orthodox standards into a realm of time, but for its subtler ramifications. Increasing returns make our relations complementary and not substitutional, loosening the tight deductions from mainstream models of choice. The horizonal extension of our received theory of price applies time to cost and demand curves, showing Marshallian scissors (supply and demand cut outward and downward with expanded horizons. Static conceptions appear in horizonal groups, suggesting complete theories of price should specify agents’ horizons, with no further radical impact: the trouble emerges with increasing returns and complementarity. Horizons stem from unbounded causality; if all we do ripples outward forever in nature and society, the relevant field of inquiry for economics is interdependent: this is the case for bounded rationality as an analytical limit to economic conceptions. In turn, interdependence suggests a use of network constructs to frame complex systemic cascades, and networks open a door to complementarity and increasing returns in transport and information exchange. The gaping maw of increasing returns and

  15. Documentation on the interlinked sponsorship programme of the BMFT for basic research in the natural sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The reports from the individual research teams working at various places in Germany show their particular achievements on the one hand, and at the same time illustrate the effectiveness of the interlinked sponsorship concept adopted by the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology (BMFT). There is an annex giving statistical data on the scope and organisation of state sponsorship of basic research bound to large-scale research equipment. (DG) [de

  16. Wider horizons, wiser choices: horizon scanning for public health protection and improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Graham J; Saunders, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Systematic continuous thinking about the future helps organizations, professions and communities to both prepare for, and shape, the future. This becomes ever more critical given the accelerating rate at which new data emerge, and in some cases uncertainties around their reliability and interpretation. Businesses with the capability to filter and analyse vast volumes of data to create knowledge and insights requiring action have a competitive advantage. Similarly Government and the public sector, including public health can be more effective and efficient through the early identification of emerging issues (both threats and opportunities). Horizon scanning approaches, and the use of resulting intelligence related to health protection and improvement were reviewed. Public health horizon scanning systems have to date focussed on health technologies and infectious diseases. While these have been successful there is a major gap in terms of non-infectious hazards and health improvement. Any system to meet this need must recognize the changed environment for delivering front line public health services and the critical role of local authorities and the local democratic process. This presents opportunities and challenges and this paper explores those dynamics describing an existing environment and health horizon scanning system which could readily and rapidly be re-engineered to provide a national service. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cosmological horizons as new examples of the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tower

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we aim to provide new examples of the application and the generality of the membrane paradigm. The membrane paradigm is a formalism for studying the event horizon of black holes. After analyzing it with some technical details and realizing it in the Reissner–Nordström black hole, we apply the paradigm to cosmological horizons, first to the pure de Sitter horizon, and then to the trapping horizon of the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker Universe. In the latter case, the cosmological stretched horizon is oblique, thus the running of the renormalization parameter is nonzero in the timelike direction and gives a correction to the membrane pressure. In this paradigm, the cosmological equations come from continuity equations of the membrane fluid and the bulk fluid respectively. (paper)

  18. Birth of plant proteomics in India: a new horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Kanika; Pandey, Aarti; Gayali, Saurabh; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2015-09-08

    In the post-genomic era, proteomics is acknowledged as the next frontier for biological research. Although India has a long and distinguished tradition in protein research, the initiation of proteomics studies was a new horizon. Protein research witnessed enormous progress in protein separation, high-resolution refinements, biochemical identification of the proteins, protein-protein interaction, and structure-function analysis. Plant proteomics research, in India, began its journey on investigation of the proteome profiling, complexity analysis, protein trafficking, and biochemical modeling. The research article by Bhushan et al. in 2006 marked the birth of the plant proteomics research in India. Since then plant proteomics studies expanded progressively and are now being carried out in various institutions spread across the country. The compilation presented here seeks to trace the history of development in the area during the past decade based on publications till date. In this review, we emphasize on outcomes of the field providing prospects on proteomic pathway analyses. Finally, we discuss the connotation of strategies and the potential that would provide the framework of plant proteome research. The past decades have seen rapidly growing number of sequenced plant genomes and associated genomic resources. To keep pace with this increasing body of data, India is in the provisional phase of proteomics research to develop a comparative hub for plant proteomes and protein families, but it requires a strong impetus from intellectuals, entrepreneurs, and government agencies. Here, we aim to provide an overview of past, present and future of Indian plant proteomics, which would serve as an evaluation platform for those seeking to incorporate proteomics into their research programs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Controls and occurance of interflow over a restrictive argillic horizon in a low gradient hillslope.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greco, James, L. III

    2008-02-01

    Interflow (throughflow or lateral flow), is shallow lateral subsurface flow that moves over a horizon that restricts percolation. Interflow is important for a number of reasons. First, rapid saturated interflow through macropores can travel to streams and alluvial aquifers with high celerity. Also, experimental studies have shown that interflow can be an important source of baseflow and stormflow. Because interflow travels through a biologically active region of soil with roots and relatively high OM content, the final outcome is the potential contamination of surface water bodies from subsurface water. Many of the soils in the southeastern US are characterized by an argillic, or clay horizon, that largely parallels the soil surface at depths ranging from a few centimeters to hundreds of centimeters. The degree to which these argillic horizons alter subsurface movement of infiltrated water is not well known. This research investigates how often and under what conditions a relatively deep (20-150+cm) argillic horizon on low slope (2-12%) hillsides causes interflow to occur.

  20. The complex nature of mixed farming systems requires multidimensional actions supported by integrative research and development efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, E; Gourdine, J L; Alexandre, G; Archimède, H; Vaarst, M

    2012-05-01

    Mixed farming systems (MFS) have demonstrated some success by focusing on the use of integrative and holistic mechanisms, and rationally building on and using the natural and local resource base without exhausting it, while enhancing biodiversity, optimizing complementarities between crops and animal systems and finally increasing opportunities in rural livelihoods. Focusing our analysis and discussion on field experiences and empirical knowledge in the Caribbean islands, this paper discusses the opportunities for a change needed in current MFS research-development philosophy. The importance of shifting from fragile/specialized production systems to MFS under current global conditions is argued with an emphasis on the case of Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) and the Caribbean. Particular vulnerable characteristics as well as the potential and constraints of SIDS and their agricultural sectors are described, while revealing the opportunities for the 'richness' of the natural and local resources to support authentic and less dependent production system strategies. Examples are provided of the use of natural grasses, legumes, crop residues and agro-industrial by-products. We analyse the requirement for a change in research strategies and initiatives through the development of a complex but necessary multi-/inter-/trans-disciplinary teamwork spirit. We stress as essential the collaboration and active participation of local and regional actors, stakeholders and end-users in the identification of research priorities, as well as the generation, exchange and dissemination of knowledge and technology innovations, while strengthening the leadership roles in the conduct of integrative and participative research and development projects.

  1. Thermo-fluid analysis of water cooled research reactors in natural convection; Analise termofluidodinamica de reatores nucleares de pesquisa refrigerados a agua em regime de conveccao natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora Fortini

    2004-07-01

    The STHIRP-1 computer program, which fundamentals are described in this work, uses the principles of the subchannels analysis and has the capacity to simulate, under steady state and transient conditions, the thermal and hydraulic phenomena which occur inside the core of a water-refrigerated research reactor under a natural convection regime. The models and empirical correlations necessary to describe the flow phenomena which can not be described by theoretical relations were selected according to the characteristics of the reactor operation. Although the primary objective is the calculation of research reactors, the formulation used to describe the fluid flow and the thermal conduction in the heater elements is sufficiently generalized to extend the use of the program for applications in power reactors and other thermal systems with the same features represented by the program formulations. To demonstrate the analytical capacity of STHIRP-l, there were made comparisons between the results calculated and measured in the research reactor TRIGA IPR-R1 of CDTN/CNEN. The comparisons indicate that the program reproduces the experimental data with good precision. Nevertheless, in the future there must be used more consistent experimental data to corroborate the validation of the program. (author)

  2. The effects of conducting authentic field-geology research on high school students' understanding of the nature of science, and their views of themselves as research scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millette, Patricia M.

    Authentic field geology research is a inquiry method that encourages students to interact more with their local environment, and by solving genuine puzzles, begin to increase their intuitive understanding of the nature and processes of science. The goal of the current study was to determine if conducting authentic field research and giving high school students the opportunity to present findings to adult audiences outside of the school setting 1) enhances students' understanding of the nature of science, and 2) affects students views of themselves as researchers. To accomplish this, ninth-grade students from a public school in northern New England engaged in a community-initiated glacial geology problem, completed a field research investigation, and presented their findings at several professional conferences. Following the completion of this student-centered field research, I investigated its effects by using a mixed methods approach consisting of qualitative and quantitative data from two sources. These included selected questions from an open-response survey (VNOS-c), and interviews that were conducted with fifteen of the students of different ages and genders. Findings show that conducting original field research seems to have a positive influence on these students' understanding of the NOS as well as the processes of science. Many of the students reported feelings of accomplishment, acceptance of responsibility for the investigation, a sense of their authentic contribution to the body of scientific knowledge in the world, and becoming scientists. This type of authentic field investigation is significant because recent reforms in earth-science education stress the importance of students learning about the nature and processes of scientific knowledge along with science content.

  3. 78 FR 41047 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... fields in an environmentally sustainable way. Offshore, research on Ultra-Deepwater emphasizes improved understanding of systems risk, reducing risk through the acquisition of real-time information, and reducing risk... production value chain ensures that the Department of Energy's research program leverages relevant emerging...

  4. Educational Research: Educational Purposes, the Nature of Knowledge and Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alvarado, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Educational research should aim at improving educational practice by analysing the world of Education to understand it and make it better. It should be a critical, reflective and professionally oriented activity. Educational research should have three objectives: to explore issues and find answers to questions (for academics), to share policy…

  5. Assessing the public's views in research ethics controversies: deliberative democracy and bioethics as natural allies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Scott Y H; Wall, Ian F; Stanczyk, Aimee; De Vries, Raymond

    2009-12-01

    In a liberal democracy, policy decisions regarding ethical controversies, including those in research ethics, should incorporate the opinions of its citizens. Eliciting informed and well-considered ethical opinions can be challenging. The issues may not be widely familiar and they may involve complex scientific, legal, historical, and ethical dimensions. Traditional surveys risk eliciting superficial and uninformed opinions that may be of dubious quality for policy formation. We argue that the theory and practice of deliberative democracy (DD) is especially useful in overcoming such inadequacies. We explain DD theory and practice, discuss the rationale for using DD methods in research ethics, and illustrate in depth the use of a DD method for a longstanding research ethics controversy involving research based on surrogate consent. The potential pitfalls of DD and the means of minimizing them as well as future research directions are also discussed.

  6. Teleology and randomness in the development of natural sciences research: systems, ontology and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pereira Martins Júnior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This is an investigation on the subject of  Teleology, which has been dealt with all along the history of the human thought with special emphasis to the interval related to the development of scientific theories referring to the study of Nature.  The presentation of the subject starts with the conceptual definitions of Teleology. Following, this subject is revisited all along the historical application of the concept in the development of science. In this respect, the first approach is about teleology in Biology and life sciences, with emphasis on the repercussion over the vitalist conception and natural selection.  Hence, the discussion turns around the dialectic conceptions of teleological systems and random systems. Finally, this paper finishes with a thought about how these themes may be pertinent within the environmental studies whereon physical, biological and human systems are in co-operation, with the various applications of nuances and uses of the teleological concept.

  7. 21st century natural product research and drug development and traditional medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Linh T; Okogun, Joseph I; Folk, William R

    2013-04-01

    Natural products and related structures are essential sources of new pharmaceuticals, because of the immense variety of functionally relevant secondary metabolites of microbial and plant species. Furthermore, the development of powerful analytical tools based upon genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, bioinformatics and other 21st century technologies are greatly expediting identification and characterization of these natural products. Here we discuss the synergistic and reciprocal benefits of linking these 'omics technologies with robust ethnobotanical and ethnomedical studies of traditional medicines, to provide critically needed improved medicines and treatments that are inexpensive, accessible, safe and reliable. However, careless application of modern technologies can challenge traditional knowledge and biodiversity that are the foundation of traditional medicines. To address such challenges while fulfilling the need for improved (and new) medicines, we encourage the development of Regional Centres of 'omics Technologies functionally linked with Regional Centres of Genetic Resources, especially in regions of the world where use of traditional medicines is prevalent and essential for health.

  8. Numerical simulation and experimental research for the natural convection in an annular space in LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhou; Luo Rui; Yang Xianyong; Liang Taofeng

    1999-01-01

    In a pool fast reactor, the roof structure is penetrated by a number of pumps and heat exchanger units to form some annular spaces with various sizes. The natural convection of argon gas happens in the pool sky and the small annular gaps between those components and the roof containment due to thermosiphonic effects. The natural convection is studied experimentally and numerically to predict the temperature distributions inside the annular space and its surrounding structure. Numerical simulation is performed by using LVEL turbulence model and extending computational domain to the entire pool sky. The predicted results are in fair agreement with the experimental data. In comparison with commonly used k-ε model, LVEL model has better accuracy for the turbulent flow in a gap space

  9. Research on calculation of mixing fraction for natural uranium equivalent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shien; Wang Lianjie; Wei Yanqin; Li Qing; Zheng Jiye

    2013-01-01

    Based on the first-order perturbation theory and reasonable approximations, the calculation method of recycled uranium (RU) and depleted uranium (DU) mixing fraction for natural uranium equivalent (NUE) fuel was studied, so the equivalence between NUE fuel and natural uranium (NU) fuel was assured. The adopted calculation method accurately takes the variation of micro cross sections alone with fuel depletion into account. A computer code named ALPHA was programmed to execute the calculation procedure. Then the ALPHA code and the WIMS-AECL code compose a processing system, which is applicable to the mixing fraction calculation for heavy water reactor NUE fuel. The validation shows that the processing system can accurately calculate the mixing fraction for NUE fuel. (authors)

  10. Simulation of natural convection cooling phenomena for research reactors using the code PARET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainoun, A.; Al-Habit, E.

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with testing the capacity of the code PARET to simulate natural circulation phenomena under different boundary conditions in addition to assessment of some new options related to simulation of control rod movement and the reactivity effect of thermal expansion fuel elements. the experiments of the simple thermal hydraulic loop of Missouri University about natural circulation phenomena in narrow parallel channel were used to validate the code. The results indicate good agreements regarding the evolution of coolant velocity and clad temperature. In particular the heat transfer coefficient of natural convection has been calculated in good agreement with the experiment. On the other hand, the core of MNSR reactor has been modelled to stimulate the reactor dynamic behaviour under natural circulation condition for different initial power level. The observed oscillations during the initial phase vanish gradually with passing time. In this context three experiment of step reactivity insertion were calculated using two different options of boundary conditions, either using initial velocity or pressure drop along the core. The results indicate good agreement with the experiments regarding the evolution of relative power. The validations included also sensitivity analysis against some important parameters like initial velocity and radial distance of fuel rod. The new option for simulation of control rod movement was also tested. For this purpose the MNSR experiment of all control rod withdraw was selected. This means control rod velocity was estimated using experimental measurement. The simulation result of relative power evolution shows good agreement with the experiment during the first phase of the transient. However, an increased deviation is observed in the following phase due to the effect of closed hydrodynamics loop, which can be modelled with the code PARET. (Authors)

  11. Defra Soil Protection Research in the Context of the Soil Natural Capital / Ecosystem Services Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, David A.; Cooper, David; Emmett, Bridget A.; Evans, Chris D.; Keith, Aidan; Lebron, Inma; Lofts, Stephen; Norton, Lisa; Reynolds, Brian; Tipping, Edward; Rawlins, Barry G.; Tye, Andrew M.; Watts, Chris W.; Whalley, W. Richard; Black, Helaina I.J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: "A Nation that destroys its soil destroys itself." This quote from, F.D. Roosevelt, 1937, from a letter written to all state Governors in the USA following the dust bowl, encapsulates the importance of soil protection. The dust bowl brought about legislation to protect and conserve soils as a fundamental natural resource in the USA between 1930 and 1936. In current times we are facing unprecedented pressure on land resources from multiple uses here in the UK and across Euro...

  12. Natural convection cooling of LEU cores for Pakistan research reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, L.A.; Bokhari, I.H.; Akhtar, K.M.

    1991-08-01

    The first high power and equilibrium LEU cores of PARR-1 have been analysed to assess the maximum operating power based on natural convection cooling, need for forced cooling to remove the decay heat and to estimate safety margins that commensurate with the predetermined power limit. Computer code NATCON and standard correlations have been used for the analysis. The parameters studied includes coolant velocity, temperature distribution in the core, heat fluxes at onset of nucleate boiling, pulsed boiling and burnup. (author)

  13. Radiation Protection Research: Radon in the Indoor Environment and enhanced natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridaens, J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of R and D on epidemiological studies concerning radon related to health risks at SCK-CEN is to (1) to apply new techniques for retrospective radon measurements in real field conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques; and (2) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation. Progress and main achievements in 1999 are reported on

  14. Observing nature in the Gorleben salt dome geosystem. Making the invisible visible. Research, insights, reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A.G.; Roethemeyer, H.

    2007-01-01

    Reliable safety assessments of underground deposits require the respective geological systems to be observed and evaluated in their entirety. Important objects to be studied for this purpose are observations of nature providing information about the natural isolation potential. The study under review presents 5 such observations of nature in the geosystem of the Gorleben salt dome. They include the absolute Br-distribution in carnallite rock and in Stassfurt-type rock salt (in a profile and in space), the quantitative chemical compositions of minor fluid inclusions in salt crystals and of residual fluid inside evaporates. All findings agree in one respect: In the central part of the salt dome explored so far, no influences have been active, from the origins of the evaporates some 250 million years ago to this day, which were imposed from the outside (such as solutions from the caprock, the adjoining rock) and/or have given rise to large-scale changes in the mineralogical and chemical compositions of the saline rock. (orig.)

  15. Specimens as records: scientific practice and recordkeeping in natural history research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilerbaig, Juan

    2010-01-01

    For the past two decades, scholars in archival science have begun to question traditional assumptions about the nature of the record. Drawing on theories from fields such as sociology, organization theory, and science studies, and on their own ethnographic studies, they propose more inclusive definitions and widening the contexts of analysis of record making and recordkeeping. This paper continues this critical consideration of the concept of record by examining the nature of nonprototypical records in the scientific world. The paper focuses on the system of specimens and field notes established by biologist Joseph Grinnell at the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (University of California, Berkeley) as a means of examining several aspects of the nature of the scientific record: materiality, representation, and the triad evidence/memory/accountability. Focusing on the creation and management of these scientific records, the paper argues that further analyses of scientific record making and recordkeeping are bound to benefit both scientific work, which depends more and more on databases and archives, as well as archival science, which is becoming more relevant beyond its traditional realm of the legal/business/administrative world.

  16. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  17. Computational simulation of the natural circulation occurring in an experimental test section of a pool type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Francisco R.T. do; Lima Junior, Carlos A.S.; Oliveira, Andre F.S. de; Affonso, Renato R.W.; Faccini, Jose L.H.; Moreira, Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    The present work presents a computational simulation of the natural circulation phenomenon developing in an experimental test section of a pool type research reactor. The test section has been designed using a reduced scale in height 1:4.7 in relation to a pool type 30 MW research reactor prototype. It comprises a cylindrical vessel, which is opened to atmosphere, and representing the reactor pool; a natural circulation pipe, a lower plenum, and a heater containing electrical resistors in rectangular plate format, which represents the fuel elements, with a chimney positioned on the top of the resistor assembly. In the computational simulation, it was used a commercial CFD software, without any turbulence model. Besides, in the presence of the natural circulation, a laminar flow has been assumed and the equations of the mass conservation, momentum and energy were solved by the finite element method. In addition, the results of the simulation are presented in terms of velocities and temperatures differences, respectively: at inlet and outlet of the heater and of the natural circulation pipe. (author)

  18. Computational simulation of the natural circulation occurring in an experimental test section of a pool type research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Francisco R.T. do; Lima Junior, Carlos A.S.; Oliveira, Andre F.S. de; Affonso, Renato R.W.; Faccini, Jose L.H.; Moreira, Maria L., E-mail: rogerio.tdn@gmail.com, E-mail: souzalima_ca@ien.gov.br, E-mail: oliveira.afelipe@gmail.com, E-mail: raoniwa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The present work presents a computational simulation of the natural circulation phenomenon developing in an experimental test section of a pool type research reactor. The test section has been designed using a reduced scale in height 1:4.7 in relation to a pool type 30 MW research reactor prototype. It comprises a cylindrical vessel, which is opened to atmosphere, and representing the reactor pool; a natural circulation pipe, a lower plenum, and a heater containing electrical resistors in rectangular plate format, which represents the fuel elements, with a chimney positioned on the top of the resistor assembly. In the computational simulation, it was used a commercial CFD software, without any turbulence model. Besides, in the presence of the natural circulation, a laminar flow has been assumed and the equations of the mass conservation, momentum and energy were solved by the finite element method. In addition, the results of the simulation are presented in terms of velocities and temperatures differences, respectively: at inlet and outlet of the heater and of the natural circulation pipe. (author)

  19. Supporting Latino communities' natural helpers: a case study of promotoras in a research capacity building course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otiniano, Angie Denisse; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Toy, Peggy; Wallace, Steven P

    2012-08-01

    Promotores have unique access to underserved and hard-to-reach Latino communities facing health disparities. Although promotores are involved in community change, they rarely receive training that gives them the skills to be partners in research. We present a case study of promotoras who participated in a research capacity building course focused on assessing community health needs. Data comes from course application surveys, follow-up notes, and narratives from qualitative phone interviews of eight promotoras. Content analysis drawing from grounded theory was conducted to identify and describe emerging themes. Four themes emerged as promotoras discussed their experience learning basic research skills and teaching others: (1) challenges, (2) support, (3) building capacity, and (4) using research. Promotores play an important role in the health of Latino communities and are increasingly asked to participate in research processes; however they have few opportunities for training and professional development in this area. Capacity building opportunities for promotores need to be tailored to their needs and provide them with support. Fostering collaboration between promotores and partnering with local community-based organizations can help facilitate needed research skill-building among promotores.

  20. Real-time moving horizon estimation for a vibrating active cantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahpouri, Mohammad; Takács, Gergely; Rohaľ-Ilkiv, Boris

    2017-03-01

    Vibrating structures may be subject to changes throughout their operating lifetime due to a range of environmental and technical factors. These variations can be considered as parameter changes in the dynamic model of the structure, while their online estimates can be utilized in adaptive control strategies, or in structural health monitoring. This paper implements the moving horizon estimation (MHE) algorithm on a low-cost embedded computing device that is jointly observing the dynamic states and parameter variations of an active cantilever beam in real time. The practical behavior of this algorithm has been investigated in various experimental scenarios. It has been found, that for the given field of application, moving horizon estimation converges faster than the extended Kalman filter; moreover, it handles atypical measurement noise, sensor errors or other extreme changes, reliably. Despite its improved performance, the experiments demonstrate that the disadvantage of solving the nonlinear optimization problem in MHE is that it naturally leads to an increase in computational effort.

  1. Study of Yang–Mills–Chern–Simons theory in presence of the Gribov horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Gomez, Arturo; Sorella, Silvio Paolo; Vercauteren, David

    2014-01-01

    The two-point gauge correlation function in Yang–Mills–Chern–Simons theory in three dimensional Euclidean space is analysed by taking into account the non-perturbative effects of the Gribov horizon. In this way, we are able to describe the confinement and de-confinement regimes, which naturally depend on the topological mass and on the gauge coupling constant of the theory. -- Highlights: •We implement the Gribov quantization to the Topologically massive Yang–Mills theory. •We find a modified propagator at strong coupling by the Gribov horizon. •The gauge propagator depends on the topological mass and the coupling constant. •By studying the gauge propagator we describe the confined–deconfined regimes

  2. Study of Yang–Mills–Chern–Simons theory in presence of the Gribov horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canfora, Fabrizio, E-mail: canfora@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECs), Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 440, Santiago (Chile); Gomez, Arturo, E-mail: arturo.gomez@proyectos.uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar. (Chile); Sorella, Silvio Paolo, E-mail: sorella@uerj.br [UERJ, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Instituto de Física Teórica, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-013, Maracaná, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vercauteren, David, E-mail: vercauteren.uerj@gmail.com [UERJ, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Instituto de Física Teórica, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-013, Maracaná, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-06-15

    The two-point gauge correlation function in Yang–Mills–Chern–Simons theory in three dimensional Euclidean space is analysed by taking into account the non-perturbative effects of the Gribov horizon. In this way, we are able to describe the confinement and de-confinement regimes, which naturally depend on the topological mass and on the gauge coupling constant of the theory. -- Highlights: •We implement the Gribov quantization to the Topologically massive Yang–Mills theory. •We find a modified propagator at strong coupling by the Gribov horizon. •The gauge propagator depends on the topological mass and the coupling constant. •By studying the gauge propagator we describe the confined–deconfined regimes.

  3. Resolved magnetic-field structure and variability near the event horizon of Sagittarius A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D; Fish, Vincent L; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Marrone, Daniel P; Plambeck, Richard L; Wardle, John F C; Akiyama, Kazunori; Asada, Keiichi; Beaudoin, Christopher; Blackburn, Lindy; Blundell, Ray; Bower, Geoffrey C; Brinkerink, Christiaan; Broderick, Avery E; Cappallo, Roger; Chael, Andrew A; Crew, Geoffrey B; Dexter, Jason; Dexter, Matt; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Gold, Roman; Gurwell, Mark A; Ho, Paul T P; Honma, Mareki; Inoue, Makoto; Kosowsky, Michael; Krichbaum, Thomas P; Lamb, James; Loeb, Abraham; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacMahon, David; McKinney, Jonathan C; Moran, James M; Narayan, Ramesh; Primiani, Rurik A; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Rogers, Alan E E; Rosenfeld, Katherine; SooHoo, Jason; Tilanus, Remo P J; Titus, Michael; Vertatschitsch, Laura; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wright, Melvyn; Young, Ken H; Zensus, J Anton; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2015-12-04

    Near a black hole, differential rotation of a magnetized accretion disk is thought to produce an instability that amplifies weak magnetic fields, driving accretion and outflow. These magnetic fields would naturally give rise to the observed synchrotron emission in galaxy cores and to the formation of relativistic jets, but no observations to date have been able to resolve the expected horizon-scale magnetic-field structure. We report interferometric observations at 1.3-millimeter wavelength that spatially resolve the linearly polarized emission from the Galactic Center supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*. We have found evidence for partially ordered magnetic fields near the event horizon, on scales of ~6 Schwarzschild radii, and we have detected and localized the intrahour variability associated with these fields. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Remarks on non-Gaussian fluctuations of the inflaton and constancy of ζ outside the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, N; Rangarajan, R

    2014-01-01

    We have pointed out that the non-Gaussianity arising from cubic self interactions of the inflaton field is proportional to ξN e . For scales of interest N e = 60, and for models such as new inflation, natural inflation, and running mass inflation ξ is large compared to the slow roll parameter. Therefore, the contribution from self interactions should not be outrightly ignored while retaining other terms in the non-Gaussianity parameter f NL . But the N e dependent term seems to imply the growth of non-Gaussianities outside the horizon. Therefore, we have briefly discussed the issue of the constancy of correlations of the curvature perturbation ζ outside the horizon. We have then presented our results on the 3-point function of ζ k , and found that the N e dependent contribution to f NL from self interactions of the inflaton field is cancelled by contributions from other terms associated with non-linearities in cosmological perturbation theory

  5. A 2018 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and Biological Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J; Butchart, Stuart H M; Connor, Ben; Culshaw, Caroline; Dicks, Lynn V; Dinsdale, Jason; Doran, Helen; Entwistle, Abigail C; Fleishman, Erica; Gibbons, David W; Jiang, Zhigang; Keim, Brandon; Roux, Xavier Le; Lickorish, Fiona A; Markillie, Paul; Monk, Kathryn A; Mortimer, Diana; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Peck, Lloyd S; Pretty, Jules; Seymour, Colleen L; Spalding, Mark D; Tonneijck, Femke H; Gleave, Rosalind A

    2018-01-01

    This is our ninth annual horizon scan to identify emerging issues that we believe could affect global biological diversity, natural capital and ecosystem services, and conservation efforts. Our diverse and international team, with expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, as well as conservation science, practice, and policy, reviewed 117 potential issues. We identified the 15 that may have the greatest positive or negative effects but are not yet well recognised by the global conservation community. Themes among these topics include new mechanisms driving the emergence and geographic expansion of diseases, innovative biotechnologies, reassessments of global change, and the development of strategic infrastructure to facilitate global economic priorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. There's no such thing as a free launch: A status report on natural gas research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    In a recent speech to the Natural Gas Roundtable in Washington, DC, Deputy Energy Secretary Charles Curtis warned that the future of natural gas research is in plain jeopardy. Curtis said, Competitive pressures in the private sector and budget pressures in the governmental sector are combining to cause a pulling back or deferral of needed investment that could provide the nation with important tools to blunt the effects of a growing dependency on Middle East oil. Curtis urged the gas executives in his audience to get involved with the budgets of both the Department of Energy (DOE) and The Gas Research Institute (GRI), the industry's research funding arm. He noted that the two budgets are interrelated, arguing that if Congress concludes that the industry is not willing to support its own R and D, it will be hard for DOE to argue on behalf of federal support of gas research. Still, it may be important, before sounding too loud an alarm, to note that what's being considered here is basic-research R and D. There is of course another element to R and D--the next phase in the product development pipeline, demonstration and deployment. Demonstration and deployment have assumed a higher priority. This trend could well be a positive one for local distribution companies, bringing on line some attractive new products for current and future customers

  7. Area and Entropy Spectrum of Gauss—Bonnet Gravity in de Sitter Space-Times for Black Hole Event Horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Ren Ji-Rong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use the modified Hod's treatment and the Kunstatter's method to study the horizon area spectrum and entropy spectrum in Gauss—Bonnet de-Sitter space-time, which is regarded as the natural generalization of Einstein gravity by including higher derivative correction terms to the original Einstein—Hilbert action. The horizon areas have some properties that are very different from the vacuum solutions obtained from the frame of Einstein gravity. With the new physical interpretation of quasinormal modes, the area/entropy spectrum for the event horizon for near-extremal Gauss—Bonnet de Sitter black holes are obtained. Meanwhile, we also extend the discussion of area/entropy quantization to the non-extremal black holes solutions. (general)

  8. Vehicular fleet operation on natural gas and propane: An overview. Final research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.; Euritt, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    The report attempts to contribute to the timely area of alternative vehicular fuels. It addresses the analysis of fleet operation on alternative fuels, specifically compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane, in terms of both fleet economics and societal impacts. Comprehensive information on engine technology, fueling infrastructure design, and societal impacts are presented. An evaluation framework useful for decisions between any vehicular fuels is developed. The comprehensive fleet cost-effectiveness analysis framework used in previous Project 983 reports is discussed in great detail. This framework/model is flexible enough to allow substantial sensitivity and scenario analysis. The model is used to perform sample analyses of both fleet economic and societal impacts

  9. Estimation of "9"9Mo production rates from natural molybdenum in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauw, M.; Chakrova, Y.; Jacimovic, R.; Kling, A.

    2017-01-01

    Molybdenum-99 is one of the most important radionuclides for medical diagnostics. In 2015, the International Atomic Energy Agency organized a round-robin exercise where the participants measured and calculated specific saturation activities achievable for the "9"8Mo(n,γ)"9"9Mo reaction. This reaction is of interest as a means to locally, and on a small scale, produce "9"9Mo from natural molybdenum. The current paper summarises a set of experimental results and reviews the methodology for calculating the corresponding saturation activities. Activation by epithermal neutrons and also epithermal neutron self-shielding are found to be of high importance in this case. (author)

  10. An Analysison Provincial Medical Science Basic Research Competitiveness Based on the National Natural Science Foundation of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] The National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC is one of the most important channels to support basic research in China. Competition for funding by the NSFC has been a very important indicator to measure the basic research level of various province and scientific research institutions. [Method/process] By combing and analyzing the status quo of NSFC in medical science, it is helpful to narrow the provincial gap and improve the basic research of medical science in China. Based on the project information of NSFC and previous scholars’ research, the paper update the index of basic research competitiveness, and analyzes project number and project funding of medical science during 2006-2016. At the same time, the competitiveness of medical science basic research and its changing trend in 31 provinces of China are analyzed. [Result/conclusion] The result shows that, in recent years, China’s basic scientific research has greatly improved, but there is a large gap between the provinces.

  11. Horizon shells and BMS-like soldering transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Matthias [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics,Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); O’Loughlin, Martin [University of Nova Gorica,Vipavska 13, 5000 Nova Gorica (Slovenia)

    2016-03-07

    We revisit the theory of null shells in general relativity, with a particular emphasis on null shells placed at horizons of black holes. We study in detail the considerable freedom that is available in the case that one solders two metrics together across null hypersurfaces (such as Killing horizons) for which the induced metric is invariant under translations along the null generators. In this case the group of soldering transformations turns out to be infinite dimensional, and these solderings create non-trivial horizon shells containing both massless matter and impulsive gravitational wave components. We also rephrase this result in the language of Carrollian symmetry groups. To illustrate this phenomenon we discuss in detail the example of shells on the horizon of the Schwarzschild black hole (with equal interior and exterior mass), uncovering a rich classical structure at the horizon and deriving an explicit expression for the general horizon shell energy-momentum tensor. In the special case of BMS-like soldering supertranslations we find a conserved shell-energy that is strikingly similar to the standard expression for asymptotic BMS supertranslation charges, suggesting a direct relation between the physical properties of these horizon shells and the recently proposed BMS supertranslation hair of a black hole.

  12. Does the black hole shadow probe the event horizon geometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Pedro V. P.; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2018-04-01

    There is an exciting prospect of obtaining the shadow of astrophysical black holes (BHs) in the near future with the Event Horizon Telescope. As a matter of principle, this justifies asking how much one can learn about the BH horizon itself from such a measurement. Since the shadow is determined by a set of special photon orbits, rather than horizon properties, it is possible that different horizon geometries yield similar shadows. One may then ask how sensitive is the shadow to details of the horizon geometry? As a case study, we consider the double Schwarzschild BH and analyze the impact on the lensing and shadows of the conical singularity that holds the two BHs in equilibrium—herein taken to be a strut along the symmetry axis in between the two BHs. Whereas the conical singularity induces a discontinuity of the scattering angle of photons, clearly visible in the lensing patterns along the direction of the strut's location, it produces no observable effect on the shadows, whose edges remain everywhere smooth. The latter feature is illustrated by examples including both equal and unequal mass BHs. This smoothness contrasts with the intrinsic geometry of the (spatial sections of the) horizon of these BHs, which is not smooth, and provides a sharp example on how BH shadows are insensitive to some horizon geometry details. This observation, moreover, suggests that for the study of their shadows, this static double BH system may be an informative proxy for a dynamical binary.

  13. Engaging Students in Authentic Microbiology Research in an Introductory Biology Laboratory Course is Correlated with Gains in Student Understanding of the Nature of Authentic Research and Critical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany J. Gasper

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent recommendations for biology education highlight the role of authentic research experiences early in undergraduate education as a means of increasing the number and quality of biology majors. These experiences will inform students on the nature of science, increase their confidence in doing science, as well as foster critical thinking skills, an area that has been lacking despite it being one of the desired outcomes at undergraduate institutions and with future employers. With these things in mind, we have developed an introductory biology laboratory course where students design and execute an authentic microbiology research project. Students in this course are assimilated into the community of researchers by engaging in scholarly activities such as participating in inquiry, reading scientific literature, and communicating findings in written and oral formats. After three iterations of a semester-long laboratory course, we found that students who took the course showed a significant increase in their understanding of the nature of authentic research and their level of critical thinking skills.

  14. Open Access Centre at the Nature Research Centre: a facility for enhancement of scientific research, education and public outreach in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šerpenskienė, Silvija; Skridlaitė, Gražina

    2014-05-01

    Open Access Centre (OAC) was established in Vilnius, Lithuania in 2013 as a subdivision of the Nature Research Centre (NRC) operating on the principle of open access for both internal and external users. The OAC consists of 15 units, i.e. 15 NRC laboratories or their branches. Forty four sets of research equipment were purchased. The OAC cooperates with Lithuanian science and studies institutions, business sector and other governmental and public institutions. Investigations can be carried in the Geosciences, Biotaxonomy, Ecology and Molecular Research, and Ecotoxicology fields. Environmental radioactivity, radioecology, nuclear geophysics, microscopic and chemical composition of natural compounds (minerals, rocks etc.), paleomagnetic, magnetic and environmental investigations, as well as ground and water contamination by oil products and other organic environment polluting compounds, identification of fossils, rocks and minerals can be studied in the Georesearch field. Ecosystems and identification of plants, animals and microorganisms are main subjects of the Biotaxonomy, Ecology and Molecular Research field. The Ecotoxicologal Research deals with toxic and genotoxic effects of toxic substances and other sources of pollution on macro- and microorganisms and cell cultures. Open access is guaranteed by: (1) providing scientific research and experimental development services; (2) implementing joint business and science projects; (3) using facilities for the training of specialists of the highest qualifications; (4) providing properly qualified and technically trained users with opportunities to carry out their scientific research and/or experiments in the OAC laboratories by themselves. Services provided in the Open Access Centre can be received by both internal and external users: persons undertaking innovative economic activities, students of other educational institutions, interns, external teams of researchers engaged in scientific research activities, teachers

  15. Bio-edafology of the Coleoptera order, in three Colombia Natural Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camero R, Edgar; Chamorro B, Clara

    1997-01-01

    The characterization of Coleoptera families is showed to three different Colombian Natural Regions. This is given in relation with biological and environmental factors, different vegetation covers and soil uses. In addition to it, susceptible Coleoptera taxa are determined when natural conditions are disturbed. Methodically, a literature subject research was made, and Barber and Berlesse traps were used to organism extractions from superficial and under superficial soil. Horizons diversity, riches and constancy index were determined to each family. Results show different diversity, riches and constancy values to each family, as much in each natural region, such as to each soil use

  16. Building clinicians-researchers partnerships: lessons from diverse natural settings and practice-oriented initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G; Youn, Soo Jeong; Xiao, Henry; Muran, J Christopher; Barber, Jacques P

    2015-01-01

    In this concluding paper, we identify the type of studies conducted by 11 teams of contributors to a special issue on building clinicians-researchers partnerships. Those studies were conducted across a variety of clinical settings. We also integrate the lessons that have emerged from their collaborative initiatives in terms of obstacles faced, strategies adopted to address these challenges, benefits gained, and general recommendations offered to facilitate studies conducted with or by clinicians. The paper ends with the authors' thoughts about the future success of practice-oriented research in general.

  17. Perturbative string thermodynamics near black hole horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Thomas G.; Verschelde, Henri; Zakharov, Valentin I.

    2015-01-01

    We provide further computations and ideas to the problem of near-Hagedorn string thermodynamics near (uncharged) black hole horizons, building upon our earlier work http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2014)086. The relevance of long strings to one-loop black hole thermodynamics is emphasized. We then provide an argument in favor of the absence of α ′ -corrections for the (quadratic) heterotic thermal scalar action in Rindler space. We also compute the large k limit of the cigar orbifold partition functions (for both bosonic and type II superstrings) which allows a better comparison between the flat cones and the cigar cones. A discussion is made on the general McClain-Roth-O’Brien-Tan theorem and on the fact that different torus embeddings lead to different aspects of string thermodynamics. The black hole/string correspondence principle for the 2d black hole is discussed in terms of the thermal scalar. Finally, we present an argument to deal with arbitrary higher genus partition functions, suggesting the breakdown of string perturbation theory (in g s ) to compute thermodynamical quantities in black hole spacetimes.

  18. New geometries for black hole horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas, Jay [Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Blau, Matthias [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-07-10

    We construct several classes of worldvolume effective actions for black holes by integrating out spatial sections of the worldvolume geometry of asymptotically flat black branes. This provides a generalisation of the blackfold approach for higher-dimensional black holes and yields a map between different effective theories, which we exploit by obtaining new hydrodynamic and elastic transport coefficients via simple integrations. Using Euclidean minimal surfaces in order to decouple the fluid dynamics on different sections of the worldvolume, we obtain local effective theories for ultraspinning Myers-Perry branes and helicoidal black branes, described in terms of a stress-energy tensor, particle currents and non-trivial boost vectors. We then study in detail and present novel compact and non-compact geometries for black hole horizons in higher-dimensional asymptotically flat space-time. These include doubly-spinning black rings, black helicoids and helicoidal p-branes as well as helicoidal black rings and helicoidal black tori in D≥6.

  19. Grids Today, Clouds on the Horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, J

    2008-01-01

    By the time of CCP 2008, the world’s largest scientific machine – the Large Hadron Collider – should have been cooled down to its operational temperature of below 20K and injection tests should have started. Collisions of proton beams at 5 + 5 TeV are expected within one to two months of the initial tests, with data taking at design energy (7 + 7 TeV) now foreseen for 2009. In order to process the data from this world machine, we have put our â€ワHiggs in one basket” – that of Grid computing. After many years of preparation, 2008 has seen a final â€ワCommon Computing Readiness Challenge” (CCRC’08) – aimed at demonstrating full readiness for 2008 data taking, processing and analysis. By definition, this relies on a world‐wide production Grid infrastructure. But change – as always – is on the horizon. The current funding model for Grids – which in Europe has been through 3 generations of EGEE projects, together with related projects in other part...

  20. Grids Today, Clouds on the Horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, J

    2008-01-01

    By the time of CCP 2008, the largest scientific machine in the world -– the Large Hadron Collider -– had been cooled down as scheduled to its operational temperature of below 2 degrees Kelvin and injection tests were starting. Collisions of proton beams at 5 + 5 TeV were expected within one to two months of the initial tests, with data taking at design energy (7 + 7 TeV) foreseen for 2009. In order to process the data from this world machine, we have put our "Higgs in one basket" -– that of Grid computing. After many years of preparation, 2008 saw a final "Common Computing Readiness Challenge" (CCRC’08) -– aimed at demonstrating full readiness for 2008 data taking, processing and analysis. By definition, this relied on a world-wide production Grid infrastructure. But change – as always – is on the horizon. The current funding model for Grids – which in Europe has been through 3 generations of EGEE projects, together with related projects in other parts of the world, inc...

  1. Grid today, clouds on the horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    By the time of CCP 2008, the largest scientific machine in the world – the Large Hadron Collider – had been cooled down as scheduled to its operational temperature of below 2 degrees Kelvin and injection tests were starting. Collisions of proton beams at 5+5 TeV were expected within one to two months of the initial tests, with data taking at design energy (7+7 TeV) foreseen for 2009. In order to process the data from this world machine, we have put our “Higgs in one basket” – that of Grid computing [The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), in: Proceedings of the Conference on Computational Physics 2006 (CCP 2006), vol. 177, 2007, pp. 219–223]. After many years of preparation, 2008 saw a final “Common Computing Readiness Challenge” (CCRC'08) – aimed at demonstrating full readiness for 2008 data taking, processing and analysis. By definition, this relied on a world-wide production Grid infrastructure. But change – as always – is on the horizon. The current funding model for Grids – which...

  2. New Horizons for Hydrogen: Producing Hydrogen from Renewable Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    Recent events have reminded us of the critical need to transition from crude oil, coal, and natural gas toward sustainable and domestic sources of energy. One reason is we need to strengthen our economy. In 2008 we saw the price of oil reach a record $93 per barrel. With higher oil prices, growing demand for gasoline, and increasing oil imports, an average of $235 billion per year, has left the United States economy to pay for foreign oil since 2005, or $1.2 trillion between 2005 and 2009. From a consumer perspective, this trend is seen with an average gasoline price of $2.50 per gallon since 2005, compared to an average of $1.60 between 1990 and 2004 (after adjusting for inflation). In addition to economic impacts, continued reliance on fossil fuels increases greenhouse gas emissions that may cause climate change, health impacts from air pollution, and the risk of disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Energy efficiency in the form of more efficient vehicles and buildings can help to reduce some of these impacts. However, over the long term we must shift from fossil resources to sustainable and renewable energy sources.

  3. The Nature and Outcomes of Students' Longitudinal Participatory Research on Literacy Motivations and Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfather, Penny; Thomas, Sally; Eckert, Lizz; Garcia, Florencia; Grannis, Nicki; Kilgore, John; Newman-Gonchar, Andy; Petersen, Brian; Rodriguez, Paul; Tjioe, Marcel

    1999-01-01

    Describes outcomes of a six-year study of students' participatory research on literacy motivations and schooling. Suggests the need for a fundamental shift of the dominant epistemology in society and schools to one based on trusting, listening to, and respecting the integrity of the minds of all participants in schooling. (NH)

  4. NMR-based metabolomics and hyphenated NMR techniques – a perfect match in natural products research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Joachim Møllesøe; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Stærk, Dan

    2015-01-01

    therapeutics across a range of conditions including CNS disorders, cancer, bone and joint health and parasitic diseases. The final part is devoted to regional perspectives covering all continents, providing a state-of-the –art assessment of the status of ethnopharmacological research globally....

  5. Qualitative Research and the Radical Right: Cats and Dogs and Other Natural Enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Cannella, Gaile S.

    This investigation was conducted to explore contemporary critiques that challenge the growing body of scholarly research that would reveal and support diverse understandings of the world. Principal methods for this deconstruction of contemporary critiques include document analysis of writing that examines content and author location and context…

  6. Measuring Item Fill-Rate Performance in a Finite Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The standard treatment of fill rate relies on stationary and serially independent demand over an infinite horizon. Even if demand is stationary, managers are held accountable for performance over a finite horizon. In a finite horizon, the fill rate is a random variable. Studying the distribution is relevant because a vendor may be subject to financial penalty if she fails to achieve her target fill rate over a specified finite period. It is known that for a zero lead time, base-stock model, t...

  7. Quantum black holes: the event horizon as a fuzzy sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Brian P.

    2005-01-01

    Modeling the event horizon of a black hole by a fuzzy sphere leads us to modify some suggestions in the literature concerning black hole mass spectra. We derive a formula for the mass spectrum of quantum black holes in terms of four integers which define the area, angular momentum, electric and magnetic charge of the black hole. Although the event horizon becomes a commutative sphere in the classical limit a vestige of the quantum theory still persists in that the event horizon stereographically projects onto the non-commutative plane. We also suggest how the classical bounds on extremal black holes might be modified in the quantum theory. (author)

  8. Quantum correlations through event horizons: Fermionic versus bosonic entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Leon, Juan

    2010-01-01

    We disclose the behavior of quantum and classical correlations among all the different spatial-temporal regions of a space-time with an event horizon, comparing fermionic with bosonic fields. We show the emergence of conservation laws for entanglement and classical correlations, pointing out the crucial role that statistics plays in the information exchange (and more specifically, the entanglement tradeoff) across horizons. The results obtained here could shed new light on the problem of information behavior in noninertial frames and in the presence of horizons, giving better insight into the black-hole information paradox.

  9. Apparent violation of the principle of equivalence and Killing horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.L.; Farhoosh, H.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1980-01-01

    By means of the principle of equivalence it is deduced that the qualitative behavior of the Schwarzschild horizon about a uniformly accelerating particle. This result is confirmed for an exact solution of a uniformly accelerating object in the limit of small accelerations. For large accelerations the Schwarzschild horizon appears to violate the qualitative behavior established via the principle of equivalence. When similar arguments are extended to an observable such as the red shift between two observers, there is no departure from the results expected from the principle of equivalence. The resolution of the paradox is brought about by a compensating effect due to the Rindler horizon. (author)

  10. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Extreme Man-Made and Natural Hazards in Dynamics of Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahimbegovic, Adnan

    2007-01-01

    The book provides a critical assessment of the current knowledge and indicates new challenges which are brought about at present times by fighting man-made and natural hazards in transient analysis of structures. The latter concerns both permanently fixed structures, such as those built to protect people and/or sensitive storage material (e.g. military installations) or special structures found in transportation systems (e.g. bridges, tunnels), and moving structures (such as trains, planes, ships or cars). The present threat of terrorist attacks or accidental explosions, the climate change which brings strong stormy winds or even the destructive earthquake motion that occurs in previously inactive regions or brings about tsunamis, are a few examples of the kind of applications addressed in this work. Problems of such diversity cannot be placed within a single traditional scientific discipline, but call for the expertise in probability theory for quantifying the cause, interaction problems for better understan...

  11. Natural Experiments: An Overview of Methods, Approaches, and Contributions to Public Health Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Peter; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Leyland, Alastair; Popham, Frank

    2017-03-20

    Population health interventions are essential to reduce health inequalities and tackle other public health priorities, but they are not always amenable to experimental manipulation. Natural experiment (NE) approaches are attracting growing interest as a way of providing evidence in such circumstances. One key challenge in evaluating NEs is selective exposure to the intervention. Studies should be based on a clear theoretical understanding of the processes that determine exposure. Even if the observed effects are large and rapidly follow implementation, confidence in attributing these effects to the intervention can be improved by carefully considering alternative explanations. Causal inference can be strengthened by including additional design features alongside the principal method of effect estimation. NE studies often rely on existing (including routinely collected) data. Investment in such data sources and the infrastructure for linking exposure and outcome data is essential if the potential for such studies to inform decision making is to be realized.

  12. [Research on lateral shearing interferometer for field monitoring of natural gas pipeline leak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Feng; Gao, Yu-Bin

    2012-09-01

    Aimed at the mechanical scanning spectroscopy equipment with poor anti-interference and anti-jamming ability, which affects the accuracy of its natural gas pipeline leak detection in the wild, a new type of lateral shearing interferometer system was designed. The system uses a beam splitter to get optical path difference by a mechanical scanning part, and it cancel the introduction of external vibration interference through the linkage between the two beam splitterw. The interference intensity of interference fringes produced was calculated, and analysis of a rotating beam splitter corresponds to the angle of the optical path difference function, solving for the maximum angle of the forward rotation and reverse rotation, which is the maximum optical path range. Experiments using the gas tank deflated simulated natural gas pipeline leak process, in the interference conditions, and the test data of the type WQF530 spectrometer and the new type of lateral shearing interferometer system were comparedt. The experimental results show that the relative error of both systems is about 1% in indoor conditions without interference. However, in interference environment, the error of WQF530 type spectrometer becomes larger, more than 10%, but the error of the new type of lateral shearing interferometer system is still below 5%. The detection accuracy of the type WQF530 spectrometer decreased significantly due to the environment. Therefore, the seismic design of the system can effectively offset power deviation and half-width increases of center wavelength caused by external interference, and compared to conventional mechanical scanning interferometer devices the new system is more suitable for field detection.

  13. Study of the application potential of synthetic and natural polymeric coatings in stem cell research

    OpenAIRE

    Perestrelo, Ana Rubina

    2014-01-01

    Self-renewability and the ability to differentiate into various functional cells are characteristics of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that make them attractive for applications in biomedical field, namely in restoring the function of damaged cells/tissues. In research, ESCs are usually cultured in gelatin or over a monolayer of mitotically inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFsi). The latter is the gold standard to maintain pluripotent ESCs in culture. A variety of alterna...

  14. Ethnobotany as a pharmacological research tool and recent developments in CNS-active natural products from ethnobotanical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, Will C; Mahady, Gail B; Bennett, Bradley C; Shiels, Laura; Savo, Valentina

    2009-08-01

    The science of ethnobotany is reviewed in light of its multi-disciplinary contributions to natural product research for the development of pharmaceuticals and pharmacological tools. Some of the issues reviewed involve ethical and cultural perspectives of healthcare and medicinal plants. While these are not usually part of the discussion of pharmacology, cultural concerns potentially provide both challenges and insight for field and laboratory researchers. Plant evolutionary issues are also considered as they relate to development of plant chemistry and accessing this through ethnobotanical methods. The discussion includes presentation of a range of CNS-active medicinal plants that have been recently examined in the field, laboratory and/or clinic. Each of these plants is used to illustrate one or more aspects about the valuable roles of ethnobotany in pharmacological research. We conclude with consideration of mutually beneficial future collaborations between field ethnobotanists and pharmacologists.

  15. Research on natural lighting in reading spaces of university libraries in Jinan under the perspective of energy-efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zengzhang

    2017-11-01

    The natural lighting design in the reading spaces of university libraries not only influences physical and mental health of readers but also concerns the energy consumption of the libraries. The scientific and rational design of natural lighting is the key to the design of energy saving for physical environment of the reading space. The paper elaborates the present situation and existed problems of natural lighting in reading spaces of university libraries across Jinan region based on characteristics of light climate of Jinan region and concrete utilization of reading spaces in university libraries, and combining field measurement, survey, research and data analysis of reading spaces in Shandong Women’s University’s library. The paper, under the perspective of energy-efficiency, puts forward proposals to improve natural lighting in the reading spaces of university libraries from five aspects, such as adjustment of interior layout, optimization of outer windows design, employment of the reflector panel, design lighting windows on inner walls and utilization of adjustable sun shading facilities.

  16. Operation modes research of liquefied natural gas storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Korolev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG in the space-rocket equipment is motivated by some advantages. That is why a lot of tests and works are actively carried out now on rocket engines using liquefied natural gas.To provide the engine tests and subsequent rocket complex operation a creation of LNG storages is demanded as a part of ground processing equipment and support for their safe operation conditions.One of LNG danger factor is its low boiling temperature, and also changing the condition, density and LNG boiling temperature at storage due to evaporation of light component, namely methane. At refill of the storages having fuel remains with a new LNG portion these factors can lead to formation of the stratified macro-layers and cause a mode of the intensive mixing that is called "rollover", with almost instant evaporation of LNG big mass and sharp pressure boost, capable to result in the storage distraction with catastrophic effects.The work objectives are formulated such as a technique development for forecasting of the LNG parameters in operating storages including the rollover mode, a comparison of calculated results of the LNG parameters with the experimental data, and a definition of possible recommendations for safe operation of LNG storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment.The paper reviews 12 publications concerning the issues and proceeding processes at operation of LNG storages, including the rollover mode.To verify the reliability of process simulation results in the LNG, represented in models by the binary methane-ethane mixture the calculated values have been compared with the experimental data for a LNG storage mode in the reservoir of a ground test complex.The reliability of developed models of the heat-mass-exchange processes in stratified on density and temperature in LNG storage with emergence of conditions for the rollover mode has been verified by comparing the settlement characteristics to the published

  17. Two decades of research in the Brazilian areas of high natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, T.L.; Paschoa, A.S.; Barcinski, M.; Eisenbud, M.; Franca, E.P.; Ribeiro, C.C.

    1980-01-01

    The geology of Brazil results in several areas of high natural radioactivity. The three areas studied were Guarapari, Araxa-Tapira and Morro do Ferro. In Guarapari, the possibility that internal contamination might arise from inhaled dust or from thoron and radon in the air was studied; however analysis of placentae showed low values of internal contamination. Nevertheless a higher rate of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes was observed compared to controls. In Araxa-Tapira, high concentrations of Ra-226 and Ra-228 were found in manioc, flour, potatoes and citrus fruits. Some inhabitants were shown to have daily intakes of 20-40 pCi of Ra-226 and 120-240 pCi of Ra-228. On the mountain of Morro do Ferro, measurements of the uptake of Ra-228, Ra-226 and Th-228 by plants ranged from 7 to 10,303 pCi/kg. The concentrations of thoron and radon in rat holes and termite mounds ranged from 5 to 55,400 pCi/1. Since the mountain is estimated to hold 12,000 tons of thorium, the deposit is now being used as an analogue for modelling the transport of plutonium over geological time. (UK)

  18. NATO Advanced Research Workshop: Application of Natural Microporous Materials to the Environmental Technology. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this proceedings About 80 people from Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, U.K., Turkey, Ukraine, U.S.A. and Slovakia took part in the workshop. 56 reports had been presented. from which 19 reports deals with the scope of INIS. The purpose of the workshop was the critical assessment of the current developments in the field of utilization of natural microporous materials (zeolites, clays, oxides) for the solution of problems related to the toxic and nuclear waste management, the water pollution control and decontamination, the environmental catalysis associated to the atmospheric pollution, the creation of new materials for energy storage and agricultural management including the development of artificial soils for plant growth in the space. Of especial importance for this meeting was the exchange of information and know-how among specialists working in institutions of NATO and Cooperation Partner countries aiming in the development of common strategies for the solution of environmental problems and the promotion of the further scientific and technological collaboration. Nineteen papers deals with the using of microporous materials for separation of radionuclides

  19. Fermions tunneling from apparent horizon of FRW universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ran; Ren Jirong; Shi Dunfu

    2009-01-01

    In the paper [R.-G. Cai, L.-M. Cao, Y.-P. Hu, (arXiv: 0809.1554)], the scalar particles' Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe was investigated by using the tunneling formalism. They obtained the Hawking temperature associated with the apparent horizon, which was extensively applied in investigating the relationship between the first law of thermodynamics and Friedmann equations. In this Letter, we calculate fermions' Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of FRW universe via tunneling formalism. Applying WKB approximation to the general covariant Dirac equation in FRW spacetime background, the radiation spectrum and Hawking temperature of apparent horizon are correctly recovered, which supports the arguments presented in the paper [R.-G. Cai, L.-M. Cao, Y.-P. Hu, (arXiv: 0809.1554)

  20. Dividend taxation in an infinite-horizon general equilibrium model

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Ngoc-Sang

    2017-01-01

    We consider an infinite-horizon general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents and financial market imperfections. We investigate the role of dividend taxation on economic growth and asset price. The optimal dividend taxation is also studied.