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Sample records for reproduction method based

  1. Comparison of Different Recruitment Methods for Sexual and Reproductive Health Research: Social Media–Based Versus Conventional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Yoko; Taguri, Masataka; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Enomoto, Takayuki; Wark, John Dennis; Garland, Suzanne Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background Prior research about the sexual and reproductive health of young women has relied mostly on self-reported survey studies. Thus, participant recruitment using Web-based methods can improve sexual and reproductive health research about cervical cancer prevention. In our prior study, we reported that Facebook is a promising way to reach young women for sexual and reproductive health research. However, it remains unknown whether Web-based or other conventional recruitment methods (ie, face-to-face or flyer distribution) yield comparable survey responses from similar participants. Objective We conducted a survey to determine whether there was a difference in the sexual and reproductive health survey responses of young Japanese women based on recruitment methods: social media–based and conventional methods. Methods From July 2012 to March 2013 (9 months), we invited women of ages 16-35 years in Kanagawa, Japan, to complete a Web-based questionnaire. They were recruited through either a social media–based (social networking site, SNS, group) or by conventional methods (conventional group). All participants enrolled were required to fill out and submit their responses through a Web-based questionnaire about their sexual and reproductive health for cervical cancer prevention. Results Of the 243 participants, 52.3% (127/243) were recruited by SNS, whereas 47.7% (116/243) were recruited by conventional methods. We found no differences between recruitment methods in responses to behaviors and attitudes to sexual and reproductive health survey, although more participants from the conventional group (15%, 14/95) chose not to answer the age of first intercourse compared with those from the SNS group (5.2%, 6/116; P=.03). Conclusions No differences were found between recruitment methods in the responses of young Japanese women to a Web–based sexual and reproductive health survey. PMID:28283466

  2. The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byeongchun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. Results In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p 6 PFU/mL PRRSV vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p Conclusions The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia.

  3. The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunil; Kim, Hye Kwon; Jung, Jung Ho; Choi, Yoo Jung; Kim, Jiho; Um, Chang Gyu; Hyun, Su Bin; Shin, Sungho; Lee, Byeongchun; Jang, Goo; Kang, Bo Kyu; Moon, Hyoung Joon; Song, Dae Sub

    2011-06-27

    There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P) ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN) titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI)-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p inactivated vaccines tested in this study provided weak memory responses with sequential challenge without any obvious active immune responses in the vaccinated pigs. The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia.

  4. Evidence-based Medicine in Animal Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, S P; Heuwieser, W

    2014-09-01

    With new knowledge being generated and published daily, the importance of evidence-based approaches in veterinary medicine is obvious. Clinicians must stay current or risk making poor decisions that clients may challenge. Especially in animal reproduction, several new substances and procedures to diagnose or treat reproductive disorders have been introduced in the last years. On the other hand, a closer look at the quality of published literature on animal reproduction reveals major deficits in methodology and reporting of many clinical trials. We strongly recommend systematically assessing the quality of scientific information when reading journal papers before using the given information in practice. The aim of evidence-based medicine (EBM) is to base the decisions in the practice of medicine on valid, clinically relevant research data. Therefore, we suggest that students should become familiar with the concepts of evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) at the beginning of their veterinary education. Concepts and supporting tools such as checklists for literature assessment have been developed and validated. The purpose of this article is to review and discuss the importance of incorporating EBVM in animal reproduction. The need for further research that produces strong evidence in different fields of animal reproduction and better reporting of relevant study information is obvious.

  5. Cluster randomized trial of an active, multifaceted information dissemination intervention based on The WHO Reproductive health library to change obstetric practices: methods and design issues [ISRCTN14055385

    OpenAIRE

    Lumbiganon Pisake; Grimshaw Jeremy; Piaggio Gilda; Villar José; Gülmezoglu A; Langer Ana

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective strategies for implementing best practices in low and middle income countries are needed. RHL is an annually updated electronic publication containing Cochrane systematic reviews, commentaries and practical recommendations on how to implement evidence-based practices. We are conducting a trial to evaluate the improvement in obstetric practices using an active dissemination strategy to promote uptake of recommendations in The WHO Reproductive Health Library (RHL)....

  6. The potential for new methods to assess human reproductive genotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1987-09-01

    The immediate prospects are not good for practical methods for measuring the human heritable mutation rate. The methods discussed here range from speculative to impractical, and at best are sensitive enough only for large numbers of subjects. Given the rapid development of DNA methods and the current status of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, there is some hope that the intermediate prospects may be better. In contrast, the prospects for useful cellular-based male germinal methods seem more promising and immediate. Effective specific locus methods for sperm are already conceivable and may be practical in a few years. Obviously such methods will not predict heritable effects definitively, but they will provide direct information on reproductive genotoxicity and should contribute significantly to many current medical and environmental situations where genetic damage is suspected. 22 refs.

  7. Improved High Dynamic Range Image Reproduction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Rövid

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available High dynamic range (HDR of illumination may cause serious distortions andother problems in viewing and further processing of digital images. This paper describes anew algorithm for HDR image creation based on merging images taken with differentexposure time. There are many fields, in which HDR images can be used advantageously,with the help of them the accuracy, reliability and many other features of the certain imageprocessing methods can be improved.

  8. reproduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    slow, yet no other field in medicine has integrated new knowledge ... Many countries have introduced tight ethical regulation ... and research, such as human reproductive cloning." Howover ... human pregnancy and birth after embryo donation.

  9. NEW BIOTECHNOLOGICAL METHODS FOR CRYOPRESERVATION OF REPRODUCTIVE CELLS OF STURGEON

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    E. N. Ponomareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to increase the survivability of reproductive cells of sturgeon at cryopreservation and developing reliable technology suitable for use on an industrial scale.Methods. We have used standard methods of freezing, thawing reproductive cells, fertilization and incubation of eggs and larval rearing of sturgeon. Fundamentally new is cryoprotective composition: for sperm we have adjusted the composition of cryoprotective medium (for beluga 3% of dimethyl sulfoxide, for Russian sturgeon 4% of dimethyl sulfoxide; for freezing the eggs we have used cryoprotective mixture of unrefined vegetable and animal oils.Results. Survivability of defrosted sperm sturgeon has been increased: for Beluga it is up to 20%, for Russian sturgeon - 47%. At insemination of cryopreserved eggs of Russian sturgeon with native sperm the fertilization rate has made 41%.Main conclusions. The research proves the effectiveness of reducing the toxic effect of cryoprotective substances, thus leading to increased survivability of reproductive cells of sturgeon. During the insemination of eggs, stored in liquid nitrogen, the resulting offspring were viable and by the reactivity of the central nervous system and receptor complex it does not differ from the young obtained by conventional technology.

  10. Natural methods for increasing reproductive efficiency in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G B; Milton, J T B; Davidson, R H; Banchero Hunzicker, G E; Lindsay, D R; Blache, D

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes three strategies to improve the reproductive performance of small ruminants in ways that lead to "clean, green and ethical" animal production. The first is aimed at control of the timing of reproductive events for which we turn to the socio-sexual inputs of the "male effect" to induce synchronised ovulation in females that would otherwise be anovulatory. The second strategy, "focussed feeding", is based on our knowledge of the responses to nutrition and aims to develop short programs of nutritional supplements that are precisely timed and specifically designed for individual events in the reproductive process, such as gamete production, embryo survival, fetal programming and colostrum production. The third strategy aims to maximise offspring survival by a combination of management, nutrition and genetic selection for behavior (temperament). All of these approaches involve non-pharmacological manipulation of the endogenous control systems of the animals and complement the detailed information from ultrasound that is now becoming available. The use of such clean, green and ethical tools in the management of our animals can be cost-effective, increase productivity and, at the same time, greatly improve the image of meat and milk industries in society and the marketplace.

  11. Introducing reproductive life plan-based information in contraceptive counselling: an RCT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stern, J; Larsson, M; Kristiansson, P; Tydén, T

    2013-01-01

    Can reproductive life plan (RLP)-based information in contraceptive counselling before pregnancy increase women's knowledge of reproduction, and of the importance of folic acid intake in particular...

  12. THE USE OF HORMONAL METHODS ON GILTS REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES

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    SGURĂ IOANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the current research was to conduct the reproductive cycle ongilts, using hormonal methods to induce estrus in non-cycling and late pubertal giltsand to group in a short period of time the breedings and, in the same time, to inductfarrowings. The gilts that have made the object of this experiment were distribute intwo equal lots and they were treated with PG 600 (400 I.U. PMSG and 200 I.U.hCG to induce estrus in two consecutive weeks. The main reproductive objectivesthat we have observed were the percentage of gilts that came into heat, the timerange when the gilts showed signs of estrus and the gestation rate after pregnancycheck at 28 and 56 days from breeding. The percentage of the gilts that were in heatafter PG 600 was 67 %. The majority (44.8 % of gilts were in heat after 72-96hours from PG 600. The gestation rate at 28 days after insemination was 64.6 % andat 56 days after insemination was 53.0%.

  13. THE USE OF HORMONAL METHODS ON GILTS REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA SGURĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the current research was to conduct the reproductive cycle on gilts,using hormonal methods to induce estrus in non-cycling and late pubertal gilts and togroup in a short period of time the breedings and, in the same time, to induct farrowings.The gilts that have made the object of this experiment were distribute in two equal lotsand they were treated with PG 600 (400 I.U. PMSG and 200 I.U. hCG to induce estrusin two consecutive weeks. The main reproductive objectives that we have observed werethe percentage of gilts that came into heat, the time range when the gilts showed signs ofestrus and the gestation rate after pregnancy check at 28 and 56 days from breeding.The percentage of the gilts that were in heat after PG 600 was 67 %. The majority (44.8% of gilts were in heat after 72-96 hours from PG 600. The gestation rate at 28 daysafter insemination was 64.6 % and at 56 days after insemination was 53.0%.

  14. [Thought and method of reproductive toxicity research in traditional Chinese medicine].

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    Han, Jia-Yin; Yan, Yi; Liang, Ai-hua; Zhang, Yu-shi; Li, Chun-ying; Zhao, Yong; Lu, Yu-ting; Cui, Hong-yu; Li, Gui-qin

    2014-11-01

    Reproductive toxicity research takes an important place in traditional Chinese medicine pre-clinical safety evaluation. Modern reproductive toxicity experiment includes drug-related miscarriage, fetal death, teratism, and adverse effects on fertility, genital system, embryonic development and fetus, which is different from contraindicated in pregnancy in traditional Chinese medicine theory. Now the three-phases reproductive toxicity study is the method mainly applied in traditional Chinese medicine reproductive toxicity evaluation. Besides that, alternative methods of whole embryos culture and embryonic stem cell test are also used in traditional Chinese medicine embryo toxicity evaluation. This article reviews research progress and pre-clinical evaluation on reproductive toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine.

  15. The freedom to choose: integrating community- based reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach to community-based conservation and development that reflects the ... Indian Ocean e-Ink. Promoting African ... People living in isolated communities in rural Atsimo-Andrefana have to travel up to ... challenges of unmet reproductive health needs, food insecurity, .... Frequent radio broadcasts featuring songs and ...

  16. Experiments of multichannel least-square methods for sound field reproduction inside aircraft mock-up: Objective evaluations

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    Gauthier, P.-A.; Camier, C.; Lebel, F.-A.; Pasco, Y.; Berry, A.; Langlois, J.; Verron, C.; Guastavino, C.

    2016-08-01

    Sound environment reproduction of various flight conditions in aircraft mock-ups is a valuable tool for the study, prediction, demonstration and jury testing of interior aircraft sound quality and annoyance. To provide a faithful reproduced sound environment, time, frequency and spatial characteristics should be preserved. Physical sound field reproduction methods for spatial sound reproduction are mandatory to immerse the listener's body in the proper sound fields so that localization cues are recreated at the listener's ears. Vehicle mock-ups pose specific problems for sound field reproduction. Confined spaces, needs for invisible sound sources and very specific acoustical environment make the use of open-loop sound field reproduction technologies such as wave field synthesis (based on free-field models of monopole sources) not ideal. In this paper, experiments in an aircraft mock-up with multichannel least-square methods and equalization are reported. The novelty is the actual implementation of sound field reproduction with 3180 transfer paths and trim panel reproduction sources in laboratory conditions with a synthetic target sound field. The paper presents objective evaluations of reproduced sound fields using various metrics as well as sound field extrapolation and sound field characterization.

  17. Reproductive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008270 Conjugated effects of fluorine and aluminum on the sex hormones of male rats. XIA Shuhua(夏曙华), et al. Dept Clin Lab Sci, Guiyang Med Coo, Guiyang 550004. Chin J Endemiol 2008;27(2):134-136.Objective To observe the combined poisonous effects of fluoride and aluminum on sex hormone of male rats.Methods Sixteen weaned SD healthy male rats aged two week were selected and divided into control group,aluminum group,fluoride group,fluorine-aluminum group,four rats in each group.All rats in the experimental

  18. Generations, reproduction and birth outcome. A registry-based cohort study in Norway 1967-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Nordtveit, Tone Irene

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Our aim was to describe associations between birth outcomes across two generations. Hypotheses were proposed about how genetic and environmental, behavioural and socioeconomic factors may act on reproduction and birth outcomes through generations. Methods. Population-based cohort studies for two generations. Data were derived from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) based on all births in Norway between 1967 and 2006 (Paper I 1967-2004), more than 2.3 million b...

  19. Female adolescents' perspective about reproductive health education needs: a mixed methods study with explanatory sequential design.

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    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2015-02-01

    One of the most important and basic needs of adolescent girls is reproductive health services and education, which is different from that required by adults. The aim of this study was to determine reproductive health education needs from the perspective of adolescent girls living in urban and rural areas, as well as to explore adolescents' understanding of reproductive health needs. The first phase was a cross-sectional study conducted on 1274 female adolescents. In the second phase, 77 girls in the form of 11 groups participated in focused group discussions. This sequential explanatory mixed methods study using follow-up variants was conducted in two phases. Questionnaires, including items on socio-demographic characteristics and reproductive health needs from adolescents' perspectives, were completed using the self-administered method. The quantitative results of the study revealed city and village girls' perspectives on reproductive health education needs. These results showed that village adolescents were nearly 1.5-2 times more in favor of a same sex counselor, reproductive health group education, and the need for sexual health education than city adolescents. A review of the transcripts of the qualitative phase led to the extraction of two themes including the characteristics of the reproductive health educator and priorities of reproductive health education, which explains the adolescent girls' understanding of reproductive health education needs. The findings of this study confirm the importance of determining reproductive health education needs from the perspective of adolescent girls. The present study shows how a sequential mixed design can be used for a better understanding of reproductive health needs of adolescent girls. The results of this study can be used in health research, education, policy making, and planning associated with adolescent health.

  20. Social support for women of reproductive age and its predictors: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Baheiraei Azam; Mirghafourvand Mojgan; Mohammadi Eesa; Charandabi Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Nedjat Saharnaz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Social support is an exchange of resources between at least two individuals perceived by the provider or recipient to be intended to promote the health of the recipient. Social support is a major determinant of health. The objective of this study was to determine the perceived social support and its associated sociodemographic factors among women of reproductive age. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multistage random cluster sampling of 1359 w...

  1. Restricted grouper reproductive migrations support community-based management

    KAUST Repository

    Waldie, Peter A.

    2016-03-09

    Conservation commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. For tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally small—the median no-take locally managed marine area (LMMA) area throughout the Pacific is less than 1 km2. This is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. Current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which individuals are drawn) of such aggregations are at spatial scales that preclude effective community-based management with no-take LMMAs. We used acoustic telemetry and tag-returns to examine reproductive migrations and catchment areas of the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus at a spawning aggregation in Papua New Guinea. Protection of the resultant catchment area of approximately 16 km2 using a no-take LMMA is socially untenable here and throughout much of the Pacific region. However, we found that spawning migrations were skewed towards shorter distances. Consequently, expanding the current 0.2 km2 no-take LMMA to 1–2 km2 would protect approximately 30–50% of the spawning population throughout the non-spawning season. Contrasting with current knowledge, our results demonstrate that species with moderate reproductive migrations can be managed at scales congruous with spatially restricted management tools.

  2. Restricted grouper reproductive migrations support community-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, Peter A; Almany, Glenn R; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H; Hamilton, Richard J; Potuku, Tapas; Priest, Mark A; Rhodes, Kevin L; Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Conservation commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. For tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally small-the median no-take locally managed marine area (LMMA) area throughout the Pacific is less than 1 km(2). This is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. Current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which individuals are drawn) of such aggregations are at spatial scales that preclude effective community-based management with no-take LMMAs. We used acoustic telemetry and tag-returns to examine reproductive migrations and catchment areas of the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus at a spawning aggregation in Papua New Guinea. Protection of the resultant catchment area of approximately 16 km(2) using a no-take LMMA is socially untenable here and throughout much of the Pacific region. However, we found that spawning migrations were skewed towards shorter distances. Consequently, expanding the current 0.2 km(2) no-take LMMA to 1-2 km(2) would protect approximately 30-50% of the spawning population throughout the non-spawning season. Contrasting with current knowledge, our results demonstrate that species with moderate reproductive migrations can be managed at scales congruous with spatially restricted management tools.

  3. Contraceptive Use and Method Choice at Initial Sexamong Married Reproductive Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利锋; 钟烨; 丁吟秋; 高尔生

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the contraceptives were used and how effective the contraceptives were at the initial sex among reproductive women.Data & Methods Data employed in this paper were derived from “The national survey on population and reproductive health in 1997”, launched by State Family Planning Commission of China (SFPCC). This paper used only a part of the collected data, namely initial sex of married reproductive women.Results Only 6. 45 percent of married reproductive women used contraceptives at their initial sex. Most contraceptive methods used at initial sex were condom, oral contraceptives and rhythm. Intention of pregnancy, forgetting orignorance of using contraceptive were main reasons for not using contraceptives at initial sex. The married reproductive women with lower proportion of using contraceptives at initial sex were of the following characteristics: living in rural area, aged, with lower education or husband of lower education level, not taking courses for newly married couple, not having heard of HIV/AIDs and with lower contraceptive knowledge marks. Contraceptives choice at initial sex among married reproductive women was associated with women's registered permanent residence, age, education level, contraceptive knowledge, initial marriage age, having taken courses for newly-married, having heard of STDs or HIV/AIDs.Conclusion The key points of maternal and children care are reinforcing contraceptive knowledge education among the unmarried and newly-married women, promoting contraceptive awareness and spreading knowledge to those who have no pregnant intention.

  4. Methods to examine reproductive biology in free-ranging, fully-marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Janet M; Burgess, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Historical overexploitation of marine mammals, combined with present-day pressures, has resulted in severely depleted populations, with many species listed as threatened or endangered. Understanding breeding patterns of threatened marine mammals is crucial to assessing population viability, potential recovery and conservation actions. However, determining reproductive parameters of wild fully-marine mammals (cetaceans and sirenians) is challenging due to their wide distributions, high mobility, inaccessible habitats, cryptic lifestyles and in many cases, large body size and intractability. Consequently, reproductive biologists employ an innovative suite of methods to collect useful information from these species. This chapter reviews historic, recent and state-of-the-art methods to examine diverse aspects of reproduction in fully-aquatic mammals.

  5. Introducing reproductive life plan-based information in contraceptive counselling: an RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J.; Larsson, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Tydén, T.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Can reproductive life plan (RLP)-based information in contraceptive counselling before pregnancy increase women's knowledge of reproduction, and of the importance of folic acid intake in particular? SUMMARY ANSWER The RLP-based information increased women's knowledge of reproduction including knowledge of folic acid intake. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Many women have insufficient knowledge of reproduction, including a health-promoting lifestyle prior to conception, and highly educated women in particular postpone childbearing until an age when their fertile capacity has started to decrease. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The study was an randomized controlled trial with one intervention group (IG) and two control groups (CG1, CG2). A sample size calculation indicated that 82 women per group would be adequate. Recruitment took place during 3 months in 2012 and 299 women were included. The women were randomized in blocks of three. All groups received standard care (contraceptive counselling, Chlamydia testing, cervical screening). In addition, women in the IG were given oral and written RLP-based information about reproduction. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS A total of 299 out of 338 (88%) Swedish-speaking women visiting a Student Health Centre were included (mean age 23 years); response rate was 88%. Before the counselling, women in the IG and the CG1 completed a baseline questionnaire, including questions about lifestyle changes in connection to pregnancy planning, family planning intentions and knowledge of reproduction (e.g. the fecundity of an ovum). At follow-up 2 months after inclusion, a structured telephone interview was performed in all groups (n = 262, 88% participation rate). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE There was no difference between the groups regarding the mean knowledge score at baseline. The IG scored higher at follow-up than at baseline (P < 0.001); the mean increased from 6.4 to 9.0 out of a maximum 20 points. The women in

  6. Community-based study of reproductive tract infections among women of the reproductive age group in the urban health training centre area in Hubli, Karnataka

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    Sangeetha S Balamurugan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs is a global health problem including both sexually transmitted infections (STIs and non-sexually transmitted infections (non-STIs of the reproductive tract. RTI/STI is an important concern, as it possess risk for human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Hence a community study was done in Hubli, in terms of active search of the cases based on the symptoms, clinical examination, and feasible laboratory tests along with providing treatment, counseling, and follow-up. Objectives: The objective was to know the prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women and the socio-demographic factors influencing the occurrence of the disease. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using a simple random sampling technique to select households. A pretested structured pro forma was used to collect data on RTIs from 656 women of 15-45 years, residing in the field practice area. This was followed by clinical examination and collection of samples for laboratory tests in Urban Health Training Centre, attached to Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli. Results: The prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women was 40.4% based on their symptoms, with majority having abnormal vaginal discharge. The prevalence of RTIs based on clinical finding was 37.4% with majority having vaginitis. The laboratory test revealed a prevalence of 34.3% with majority having Candidiasis. The influence of socio-demographic factors like increased parity, poor socio-economic conditions, poor menstrual hygiene, illiteracy has its direct effect on occurrence of RTI in the community. Conclusion: This depicts that whereever possible, clinical and laboratory findings should support self-reported morbidity to know the exact prevalence of any disease in the community.

  7. Natural loblolly and shortleaf pine productivity through 53 years of management under four reproduction cutting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    2001-01-01

    A study was initiated in 1943 to evaluate the long-term productivity of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pines (P. echinata Mill.) when managed under four reproduction cutting methods—clearcut, heavy seedtree, diameter-limit, and selection—on the Upper Coastal Plain of southeastern Arkansas. Early volume production...

  8. Selection of method is crucial for the diagnosis of porcine circovirus type 2 associated reproductive failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    During a 2-month period a newly repopulated Danish pig herd experienced an increase in numbers of stillborn and mummies, caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) associated reproductive failure. Based on recordings of data over time, the progression of the clinical outbreak was studied and the ...... B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. Gender Based Violence and its Effects on Women's Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    and information, education, counselling pertaining to the negative effects of GBV to both males and females. There is need for ... Keywords: physical abuse, sexual violence, forced marriages, Hatcliffe, Zimbabwe .... reproductive age group who are HIV and AIDS positive ...... Khanum N. Forced Marriage, family cohesion and.

  10. Bringing X, Y, Z Generations Together to Facilitate School-Based Sexual and Reproductive Health Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akbari Kamrani, Mahnaz; Yahya, Sharifah Syed

    2016-01-01

    This generic qualitative study explores the perspective of Malaysian teachers regarding the constraints of the current school-based sexual and reproductive health education in secondary schools of Klang-Valley Malaysia...

  11. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women

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    Zadeh-Vakili Azita

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method 1036 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. Following implementation of exclusion criteria, complete data for 907 women remained for analysis. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and its cut off value was defined as the 95th percentile of HOMA-IR value for 129 subjects, without any metabolic abnormality. The optimal cut-off of WC in relation to HOMA-IR was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis using the Youden index and the area under curve (AUC. Results The mean age of the total sample of 907 subjects was 34.4 ± 7.6 years (range, 18 - 45 years. After adjustment for age the odds ratios (OR of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference; the age adjusted OR of IR for women with WC > 95 cm in comparison to those subjects with WC Conclusions Waist circumference is directly related to insulin resistance and the optimal cut-off value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 88.5 cm for reproductive aged Iranian women.

  12. Evaluation of school-based reproductive health education program for adolescent girls.

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    Golbasi, Zehra; Taskin, Lale

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of school-based reproductive health education for adolescent girls on the reproductive knowledge level of the girls. This research was carried out as a quasi-experimental study at two vocational girls high schools, one of which was used as the study school and the other as the control school. The study group (97 students) consisted of three classes representing every grade. The control group consisted of students selected likewise (92 students). Reproductive health education was given to students in the study group for 10 weeks; the control group was not subjected to any educational program. The impact of the program was evaluated with reproductive health knowledge test designed for this study. A pretest evaluated baseline knowledge, and a posttest measured the gain in knowledge. Baseline knowledge score of students in study and control group were similar and low (p > 0.05). We found that the reproductive health knowledge level of students in the study group increased significantly after the program of education. Post-test knowledge scores (75.03 +/- 13.82) of the students in the study group were higher than those of the control group (36.65 +/- 14.17). The results showed students' low baseline knowledge and a good ability to learn. A school-based reproductive health education is needed to promote knowledge and prevention in reproductive health among teenagers.

  13. ReCGiP, a database of reproduction candidate genes in pigs based on bibliomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproduction in pigs is one of the most economically important traits. To improve the reproductive performances, numerous studies have focused on the identification of candidate genes. However, it is hard for one to read all literatures thoroughly to get information. So we have developed a database providing candidate genes for reproductive researches in pig by mining and processing existing biological literatures in human and pigs, named as ReCGiP. Description Based on text-mining and comparative genomics, ReCGiP presents diverse information of reproduction-relevant genes in human and pig. The genes were sorted by the degree of relevance with the reproduction topics and were visualized in a gene's co-occurrence network where two genes were connected if they were co-cited in a PubMed abstract. The 'hub' genes which had more 'neighbors' were thought to be have more important functions and could be identified by the user in their web browser. In addition, ReCGiP provided integrated GO annotation, OMIM and biological pathway information collected from the Internet. Both pig and human gene information can be found in the database, which is now available. Conclusions ReCGiP is a unique database providing information on reproduction related genes for pig. It can be used in the area of the molecular genetics, the genetic linkage map, and the breeding of the pig and other livestock. Moreover, it can be used as a reference for human reproduction research.

  14. Color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Hsuan; Yang, Chih-Yuan

    2000-06-01

    By the progress of computer, computer peripherals such as color monitor and printer are often used to generate color image. However, cross media color reproduction by human perception is usually different. Basically, the influence factors are device calibration and characterization, viewing condition, device gamut and human psychology. In this thesis, a color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping is proposed. It consists of four parts; device characterization, color management technique, color appearance model and gamut mapping.

  15. Ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketevan Beltadze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS particularly is increased in adolescents. Very few longitudinal follow-up for assessment of ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age with previously confirmed PCOS have been conducted, especially after its diagnosis and treatment in adolescence. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS in adolescence. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study in an unselected population was conducted from January to June 2014. A total of 123 women of late reproductive age were included. They had been diagnosed with PCOS between 1984 and 1990 when they were 13-18 yr. From these, first group of the study was consisted of 67 participants who underwent conservative treatment with antiandrogens and combined oral contraceptives and second group of the study was consisted of 56 participants after surgery (34-bilateral ovarian drilling and 22- ovarian wedge resection. At the time of investigation patients were 35-45 yr. The participants were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the investigation analyses of reproductive hormones were conducted. Data were compared between the groups. Results: After conservative treatment PCOS women had higher levels of anti- mullerian hormone and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively. The number of antral follicles and mean ovarian volume were significantly greater also, than in women who underwent surgical treatment (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggest that PCOS patients who underwent conservative treatment have the better ovarian reserve than women who underwent surgical treatment of PCOS in adolescence.

  16. Social support for women of reproductive age and its predictors: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support is an exchange of resources between at least two individuals perceived by the provider or recipient to be intended to promote the health of the recipient. Social support is a major determinant of health. The objective of this study was to determine the perceived social support and its associated sociodemographic factors among women of reproductive age. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multistage random cluster sampling of 1359 women of reproductive age. Data were collected using questionnaires on sociodemographic factors and perceived social support (PRQ85-Part 2). The relationship between the dependent variable (perceived social support) and the independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics) was analyzed using the multivariable linear regression model. Results The mean score of social support was 134.3 ± 17.9. Women scored highest in the “worth” dimension and lowest in the “social integration” dimension. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated that the variables of education, spouse’s occupation, Sufficiency of income for expenses and primary support source were significantly related to the perceived social support. Conclusion Sociodemographic factors affect social support and could be considered in planning interventions to improve social support for Iranian women. PMID:22988834

  17. Intergenerational concepts of adolescent sexuality: implications for community-based reproductive health care with Haitian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, L; Thomas, J T; Sinnett, K

    1999-04-01

    Intergenerational conflict occurs when immigrant parents hold different values from those of their more rapidly acculturating offspring. These conflicts frequently involve disparate views related to sex roles and reproduction. A community-based study of 19 immigrant Haitian parent-adolescent pairs in South Florida compared their attitudes and values about sexuality and reproduction. Data were obtained through focused, open-ended interviews. Content analysis procedures at the level of words and phrases facilitated the categorization of responses. Data revealed considerable differences between parents and adolescents about the sources and types of information learned about reproduction and contraception, when such information is learned, and expectations regarding premarital sexual intercourse. Both parents and adolescents lacked accurate biomedical information about contraception, placed responsibility for contraceptive use primarily on the female partner, considered reproduction a natural rather than a medical event, and believed parents have the major responsibility for educating children about reproduction and contraception. Implications for culturally-appropriate health care center on increasing the role of the public health nurse in health education, minimizing intergenerational and intercultural conflict, and engaging the Haitian immigrant community in the promotion of reproductive health.

  18. Multi-state Beef Reproduction Task Force provides science-based recommendations for the application of reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S K; Funston, R N; Hall, J B; Kesler, D J; Lamb, G C; Lauderdale, J W; Patterson, D J; Perry, G A; Strohbehn, D R

    2011-09-01

    Since its formation, the Beef Reproduction Task Force (BRTF) has worked to enhance productivity and profitability of US beef herds by integrating research and extension efforts with the intent of more effectively transferring the use of reproductive technologies to the field. A key early step was to coordinate efforts in identifying effective breeding management protocols for beef cattle and to clarify their associated acronyms. A short list of recommended protocols and their acronyms for synchronization of estrus and ovulation in beef cattle was developed based on results from peer-reviewed, published research and a comprehensive review of data collected from the field. The list of recommended protocols was developed by the BRTF in cooperation with veterinarians and cattle AI industries. These protocols and their acronyms are presented uniformly in all of the major AI sire directories and are available online at http://www.beefrepro.info. Protocol updates are made annually to incorporate the most recent research findings related to estrous cycle control in beef cattle. The Estrus Synchronization Planner, a software program developed in cooperation with the Iowa Beef Center, now reflects these same recommendations. Beginning in 2002, the BRTF hosted and presented 11 educational workshops to more than 1,900 attendees in key cow-calf states. These Applied Reproductive Strategies in Beef Cattle workshops targeted beef producers, AI industry personnel, veterinarians, allied industry representatives, and academicians. A national media sponsor provided online coverage of the last 3 workshops at http://www.appliedreprostrategies.com. A postmeeting evaluation, developed to assess application of information from 2 recent workshops, was returned by 55% of those contacted (n = 150). Attendees averaged 16 (± 13.4 SD) yr of AI experience, and 80% of respondents represented more than 100 cows. Respondents were asked to estimate the value of AI-sired calves compared with natural

  19. Improving the reproductive efficiency by zoo-technical methods at a dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, F; Gábor, G; Mézes, M; Váradi, E; Ozsvári, L; Sasser, R G; Abonyi-Tóth, Zs

    2006-04-01

    This trial was conducted on a Hungarian dairy farm between July 2001 and December 2004. The objective of this work was to improve the reproductive efficiency with relatively high milk production. At the beginning of this trial blood and fodder samples were taken for checking the metabolic status of the animals in order to determine their health condition. The nutritive value of the daily ration for all groups met with the requirements of the Hungarian National Standard and almost all serum metabolic parameters differed between the milking and pregnant animals. Early pregnancy detection (by ultrasound) and ovulation synchronizing methods were introduced to optimize reproductive performance. The oestrus cycle was also checked by ultrasound and open cows were treated by the appropriate method in order to inseminate them as soon as possible. Efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) followed by a single prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and Ovsynch treatment was similar (30.8% and 29%) and less effective than AI after natural heat detection (37.1%). Provsynch (Pre-synch followed by Ovsynch) was the most effective ovulation synchronization method (conception rate=42.6%; pcow, the calving period decreased by 20 days and the number of AIs per pregnancy was also improved (0.8 AI per conception). These findings are really beneficial economically because the decrease in the calving interval returns profit for the dairy farms; one open day costs euro2.5/cow. Economical analysis showed a high profit ratio from the reproductive 'investment' on this farm. Every invested euro yielded approximately euro10.

  20. Assessment of mammal reproduction for hunting sustainability through community-based sampling of species in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; El Bizri, Hani; Bodmer, Richard E; Bowler, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Wildlife subsistence hunting is a major source of protein for tropical rural populations and a prominent conservation issue. The intrinsic rate of natural increase. (rmax ) of populations is a key reproductive parameter in the most used assessments of hunting sustainability. However, researchers face severe difficulties in obtaining reproductive data in the wild, so these assessments often rely on classic reproductive rates calculated mostly from studies of captive animals conducted 30 years ago. The result is a flaw in almost 50% of studies, which hampers management decision making. We conducted a 15-year study in the Amazon in which we used reproductive data from the genitalia of 950 hunted female mammals. Genitalia were collected by local hunters. We examined tissue from these samples to estimate birthrates for wild populations of the 10 most hunted mammals. We compared our estimates with classic measures and considered the utility of the use of rmax in sustainability assessments. For woolly monkey (Lagothrix poeppigii) and tapir (Tapirus terrestris), wild birthrates were similar to those from captive populations, whereas birthrates for other ungulates and lowland-paca (Cuniculus paca) were significantly lower than previous estimates. Conversely, for capuchin monkeys (Sapajus macrocephalus), agoutis (Dasyprocta sp.), and coatis (Nasua nasua), our calculated reproductive rates greatly exceeded often-used values. Researchers could keep applying classic measures compatible with our estimates, but for other species previous estimates of rmax may not be appropriate. We suggest that data from local studies be used to set hunting quotas. Our maximum rates of population growth in the wild correlated with body weight, which suggests that our method is consistent and reliable. Integration of this method into community-based wildlife management and the training of local hunters to record pregnancies in hunted animals could efficiently generate useful information of life

  1. Reproductive health knowledge and services utilization among rural adolescents in east Gojjam zone, Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background According to World Health Organization, adolescents are people between 10 and 19 years of age; one-fifth of Ethiopian population constitutes adolescents and four-fifth live in rural areas. Local evidence about adolescents’ reproductive health knowledge, services utilization and associated factors are relevant to design age-appropriate program interventions and strategies. Hence, this study assessed the level of reproductive health knowledge and services utilization among rural adolescents in Machakel district, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of reproductive health knowledge and services utilization of rural adolescents in Machakel district. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select 415 adolescents from eligible households. Data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires and in-depth interview guides. The data were entered into Epi Info and analyzed by SPSS software for windows. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were done. Result More than two-third (67%) of the adolescents had knowledge about reproductive health. Age (AOR = 3.77, 95% CI: 3.1-8.98), living arrangement (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.81-6.04) and economic status (AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.65-6.87) were associated with reproductive health knowledge. However, only one-fifth (21.5%) of the adolescents had ever used reproductive health services including family planning, sexually transmitted infections treatment and information, education and communication. Reproductive health services utilization was significantly associated with age (AOR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.13-8.03) and knowledge for reproductive health (AOR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.23-4.21). Parent disapproval, lack of basic information and pressure from partners were found to deter adolescents from accessing and using reproductive health services. Conclusion

  2. Analysis of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) reproductive tract: A methods manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Gill, Verena A.

    2007-01-01

    Reproduction in the female sea otter, Enhydra lutris, was relatively unstudied until Sinha et al. (1966) examined 140 reproductive tracts collected 1955-62 and used their findings to describe sea otter reproductive anatomy and biology. Two years later Sinha and Conaway (1968) published a more detailed paper on the ovary of the sea otter. These descriptive papers have been used as the basis for all subsequent studies of sea otter reproductive tracts.

  3. Midwives' adoption of the reproductive life plan in contraceptive counselling: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J; Bodin, M; Grandahl, M; Segeblad, B; Axén, L; Larsson, M; Tydén, T

    2015-05-01

    How is the reproductive life plan (RLP) adopted in midwifery contraceptive counselling? A majority of midwives adopted the RLP in their counselling, had predominantly positive experiences and considered it a feasible tool for promoting reproductive health. The RLP is a health-promoting tool recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA for improving preconception health. It was recently used in a clinical setting in Sweden and was found to increase women's knowledge about fertility and to influence women's wishes to have their last child earlier in life. An exploratory mixed methods study among 68 midwives who provided contraceptive counselling in primary health care to at least 20 women each during the study period. Midwives received an introduction and materials for using the RLP in contraceptive counselling. Three months later, in the spring of 2014, they were invited to complete a questionnaire and participate in a focus group interview about their adoption of the RLP. Data collection was through a questionnaire (n = 53 out of 68; participation rate 78%) and five focus group interviews (n = 22). Participants included both younger and older midwives with longer and shorter experiences of contraceptive counselling in public and private health care in one Swedish county. Quantitative data were analysed for differences between users and non-users, and qualitative data were analysed by qualitative content analysis to explore the midwives experiences and opinions of using the RLP. Sixty-eight per cent of midwives had used the RLP in their contraceptive counselling. Four categories emerged through the focus group interviews: (i) A predominantly positive experience; (ii) The RLP-a health-promoting tool; (iii) individual and societal factors influence the RLP counselling; and (4) long-term implementation comprises opportunities, risks and needs. The most common reason for not using the RLP was lack of information. There was general lack of

  4. Introducing reproductive life plan-based information in contraceptive counselling: an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J; Larsson, M; Kristiansson, P; Tydén, T

    2013-09-01

    Can reproductive life plan (RLP)-based information in contraceptive counselling before pregnancy increase women's knowledge of reproduction, and of the importance of folic acid intake in particular? The RLP-based information increased women's knowledge of reproduction including knowledge of folic acid intake. Many women have insufficient knowledge of reproduction, including a health-promoting lifestyle prior to conception, and highly educated women in particular postpone childbearing until an age when their fertile capacity has started to decrease. The study was an randomized controlled trial with one intervention group (IG) and two control groups (CG1, CG2). A sample size calculation indicated that 82 women per group would be adequate. Recruitment took place during 3 months in 2012 and 299 women were included. The women were randomized in blocks of three. All groups received standard care (contraceptive counselling, Chlamydia testing, cervical screening). In addition, women in the IG were given oral and written RLP-based information about reproduction. A total of 299 out of 338 (88%) Swedish-speaking women visiting a Student Health Centre were included (mean age 23 years); response rate was 88%. Before the counselling, women in the IG and the CG1 completed a baseline questionnaire, including questions about lifestyle changes in connection to pregnancy planning, family planning intentions and knowledge of reproduction (e.g. the fecundity of an ovum). At follow-up 2 months after inclusion, a structured telephone interview was performed in all groups (n = 262, 88% participation rate). There was no difference between the groups regarding the mean knowledge score at baseline. The IG scored higher at follow-up than at baseline (P planning to get pregnant. At follow-up, 22% in the IG, 3% in CG1 and 1% in CG2 mentioned folic acid intake (P life (P < 0.001) than at baseline, while there was no difference in the CG1. As the study sample consisted of university students, it

  5. Methods of estrus detection and correlates of the reproductive cycle in the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Cheryl; Kyes, Randall; Hunt, Kathleen; Collins, Darin; Durrant, Barbara; Wasser, Samuel K

    2010-10-15

    The objective was to explore multiple methods for detecting and characterizing the reproductive cycle of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus). Thirteen H. m. euryspilus females, loaned from the Malaysian government to US zoos, were used. Fecal metabolite concentrations of estrogen and progesterone were compared to vaginal cytology, changes in genital appearance, and behavior (videotapes and zookeeper observations). Cytology and video behavior were characterized during five hormonally defined states: high, low, and baseline progesterone, estrus, and high estrogen. Among states, there were significant differences in cytology and behavior. Sexual, affiliative, and stereotypic behaviors were highest during estrus, whereas affiliative and social behaviors were lowest during high progesterone. In this captive breeding population, 30.8% of females cycled two or three times a year, 30.8% cycled once a year, and 38.5% did not cycle during this study. Inter-estrus intervals were (mean ± SEM) 115.7 ± 6.3 d (range, 101-131). Spearman rank correlations were significant between both ordinal sexual and affiliative behaviors and vulva swelling and color. Sexual behavior was significantly positively correlated with superficial and keratinized cells, but negatively correlated with parabasal and basophilic cells in cycling females (opposite pattern for appetitive behavior). In conclusion, data for cytology, vulva changes and behavior were consistent with, and complementary to, hormonal data; collectively, they delineated estrus and identified specific reproductive types.

  6. Community Based Study Of Self Reported Morbidity Of Reproductive Tract Among Women Of Reproductive Age In Rural Area Of Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathore Monika

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: What is the prevalence of morbidity of reproductive tract among women in a rural area of Rajasthan? Objectives: 1. To assess the load of reproductive morbidity among the rural women. 2. To study the association of potential risk factors with reproductive tract infection. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A village of Bikaner (rural western Rajasthan. Participants: 1044 rural women aged 15-45. Study period: June 2000 to October 2000. Statistical analysis: Percentages and Chi square test. Results: The prevalence of self reported morbidity related to reproductive tracts was 31.8% and reproductive tract infections (RTIs was 22.3%. Only 12.5% of symptomatic women consulted health personnel for their illness before this survey. Prevalence of RTIs was significantly associated with age, married life, gravida status, invasive contraceptives, gynaecological surgical interventions and type of family. Conclusion: There was a moderately high prevalence of self reported morbidity of reproductive tract, whereas, treatment seeking behavior was low. Many factors were found to be associated with RTIs.

  7. Midwives' adoption of the reproductive life plan in contraceptive counselling: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J.; Bodin, M.; Grandahl, M.; Segeblad, B.; Axén, L.; Larsson, M.; Tydén, T.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How is the reproductive life plan (RLP) adopted in midwifery contraceptive counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER A majority of midwives adopted the RLP in their counselling, had predominantly positive experiences and considered it a feasible tool for promoting reproductive health. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The RLP is a health-promoting tool recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA for improving preconception health. It was recently used in a clinical setting in Sweden and was found to increase women's knowledge about fertility and to influence women's wishes to have their last child earlier in life. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION An exploratory mixed methods study among 68 midwives who provided contraceptive counselling in primary health care to at least 20 women each during the study period. Midwives received an introduction and materials for using the RLP in contraceptive counselling. Three months later, in the spring of 2014, they were invited to complete a questionnaire and participate in a focus group interview about their adoption of the RLP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Data collection was through a questionnaire (n = 53 out of 68; participation rate 78%) and five focus group interviews (n = 22). Participants included both younger and older midwives with longer and shorter experiences of contraceptive counselling in public and private health care in one Swedish county. Quantitative data were analysed for differences between users and non-users, and qualitative data were analysed by qualitative content analysis to explore the midwives experiences and opinions of using the RLP. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Sixty-eight per cent of midwives had used the RLP in their contraceptive counselling. Four categories emerged through the focus group interviews: (i) A predominantly positive experience; (ii) The RLP—a health-promoting tool; (iii) individual and societal factors influence the RLP counselling; and (4) long

  8. Evaluation of contrast reproduction method based on the anatomical guidance of the cerebral images reconstruction in positron emission tomography; Evaluation d'une methode de restitution de contraste basee sur le guidage anatomique de la reconstruction des images cerebrales en tomographie par emission de positons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, F

    2007-04-15

    Positron emission tomography is a medical imaging modality providing in-vivo volumetric images of functional processes of the human body, which is used for the diagnosis and the following of neuro degenerative diseases. PET efficiency is however limited by its poor spatial resolution, which generates a decrease of the image local contrast and leads to an under-estimation of small cerebral structures involved in the degenerative mechanism of those diseases. This so-called partial volume effect degradation is usually corrected in a post-reconstruction processing framework through the use of anatomical information, whose spatial resolution allows a better discrimination between functional tissues. However, this kind of method has the major drawback of being very sensitive to the residual mismatches on the anatomical information processing. We developed in this thesis an alternative methodology to compensate for the degradation, by incorporating in the reconstruction process both a model of the system impulse response and an anatomically-based image prior constraint. This methodology was validated by comparison with a post-reconstruction correction strategy, using data from an anthropomorphic phantom acquisition and then we evaluated its robustness to the residual mismatches through a realistic Monte Carlo simulation corresponding to a cerebral exam. The proposed algorithm was finally applied to clinical data reconstruction. (author)

  9. Risk of congenital heart defects associated with assisted reproductive technologies: a population-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tararbit, Karim; Houyel, Lucile; Bonnet, Damien; De Vigan, Catherine; Lelong, Nathalie; Goffinet, François; Khoshnood, Babak

    2011-02-01

    To estimate the risk of congenital heart defects (CHD) associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). We used data from the Paris Registry of Congenital Malformations on 5493 cases of CHD and 3847 malformed controls for which no associations with ART were reported in the literature. Assisted reproductive technologies included inductors of ovulation only, in vitro fertilization, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Exposure to ART was higher for cases than controls (4.7 vs. 3.6%, P= 0.008) and was associated with a 40% increase in the maternal age, socioeconomic factors, and year of birth-adjusted odds of CHD without chromosomal abnormalities [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.7]. Assisted reproductive technologies were specifically associated with significant increases in the odds of malformations of the outflow tracts and ventriculoarterial connections (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4) and of cardiac neural crest defects and double outlet right ventricle (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7). In general, we found specific associations between methods of ART and subcategories of CHD. Cases with CHD were more likely to have been conceived following ART when compared with malformed controls. This higher risk for CHD varied specifically according to the method of ART and the type of CHD and may be due to ART per se and/or the underlying infertility of couples.

  10. Reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This article explores the reproductive health status of China. Since 1990, China has stepped up its efforts in promoting reproductive health and maternal and child health. Several studies demonstrated a remarkable progress made in this area. By 1997, maternal and infant mortality rates have declined, while the penetration rate for the immunization program and inpatient delivery rate increased. Despite these achievements, however, much remains to be done such as the lack of client-centered approaches to meet the increasingly diverse needs of the population for family planning services. A survey conducted in 1995 showed that the country's family planning program was focused primarily on demographic issues while little attention was given to reproductive health objectives. The situation improved when the State Planning Commission implemented its pilot program called the Quality of Care in Family Planning in China. The program yielded encouraging results including a reoriented philosophy towards reproductive health services, enhanced service facilities, informed choices for family planning methods, and the development of an operational information system. Another strategy adopted to address fertility and reproductive health issues was the implementation of adolescent reproductive health education as a required course for senior middle schools. Lastly, this article provided a brief overview of China's HIV/AIDS situation.

  11. Bringing X, Y, Z Generations Together to Facilitate School-Based Sexual and Reproductive Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrani, Mahnaz Akbari; Yahya, Sharifah Syed

    2016-01-01

    This generic qualitative study explores the perspective of Malaysian teachers regarding the constraints of the current school-based sexual and reproductive health education in secondary schools of Klang-Valley Malaysia. For this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with twenty eight science teachers of government schools. The majority of participants named the teaching strategy and capacity of teachers, the lack of co-operation from the school and parents, limited resources in teaching and students themselves as some of the challenges. We concluded that if sexual health education is to be effective, it needs to be provided by people who have some specialized training. The teachers should be trained to teach sexual reproductive health education classes at the basic level, and in-service training for teachers already in the field should be intensified. Local adaptation to culture, language, religion, and so forth is often necessary.

  12. Bringing X, Y, Z Generations Together to Facilitate School-Based Sexual and Reproductive Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Kamrani, Mahnaz; Yahya, Sharifah Syed

    2016-01-04

    This generic qualitative study explores the perspective of Malaysian teachers regarding the constraints of the current school-based sexual and reproductive health education in secondary schools of Klang-Valley Malaysia. For this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with twenty eight science teachers of government schools. The majority of participants named the teaching strategy and capacity of teachers, the lack of co-operation from the school and parents, limited resources in teaching and students themselves as some of the challenges. We concluded that if sexual health education is to be effective, it needs to be provided by people who have some specialized training. The teachers should be trained to teach sexual reproductive health education classes at the basic level, and in-service training for teachers already in the field should be intensified. Local adaptation to culture, language, religion, and so forth is often necessary.

  13. Methods in Logic Based Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    1999-01-01

    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC-design met......Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  14. Methods in Logic Based Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    1999-01-01

    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  15. Entropy-based benchmarking methods

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We argue that benchmarking sign-volatile series should be based on the principle of movement and sign preservation, which states that a bench-marked series should reproduce the movement and signs in the original series. We show that the widely used variants of Denton (1971) method and the growth preservation method of Causey and Trager (1981) may violate this principle, while its requirements are explicitly taken into account in the pro-posed entropy-based benchmarking methods. Our illustrati...

  16. Activity based costing (ABC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Saveta Tudorache

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the need and advantages are presented of using the Activity BasedCosting method, need arising from the need of solving the information pertinence issue. This issue has occurreddue to the limitation of classic methods in this field, limitation also reflected by the disadvantages ofsuch classic methods in establishing complete costs.

  17. Methods for the induction of reproduction in a tropical species of filamentous ulva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Carl

    Full Text Available The green seaweed Ulva is a major fouling organism but also an edible aquaculture product in Asia. This study quantified for the first time the effect of key factors on the reproduction of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3. The controlled timing of release of swarmers (motile reproductive bodies was achieved when experiments were initiated in the early afternoon by exposing the thalli to a temperature shock (4°C for 10 min and subsequently placing them into autoclaved filtered seawater under a 12 h light: 12 h dark photoperiod at 25°C. The release of swarmers then peaked two days after initiation. In contrast, segmentation, dehydration, salinity or time of initiation of experiments had no effect of any magnitude on reproduction. The released swarmers were predominantly biflagellate (95%, negatively phototactic and germinated without complementary gametes. This indicates that Ulva sp. 3 has a simple asexual life history dominated by biflagellate zoids.

  18. Methods for the induction of reproduction in a tropical species of filamentous ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Christina; de Nys, Rocky; Lawton, Rebecca J; Paul, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    The green seaweed Ulva is a major fouling organism but also an edible aquaculture product in Asia. This study quantified for the first time the effect of key factors on the reproduction of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3). The controlled timing of release of swarmers (motile reproductive bodies) was achieved when experiments were initiated in the early afternoon by exposing the thalli to a temperature shock (4°C) for 10 min and subsequently placing them into autoclaved filtered seawater under a 12 h light: 12 h dark photoperiod at 25°C. The release of swarmers then peaked two days after initiation. In contrast, segmentation, dehydration, salinity or time of initiation of experiments had no effect of any magnitude on reproduction. The released swarmers were predominantly biflagellate (95%), negatively phototactic and germinated without complementary gametes. This indicates that Ulva sp. 3 has a simple asexual life history dominated by biflagellate zoids.

  19. A Measure Based on Beamforming Power for Evaluation of Sound Field Reproduction Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Ji-ho; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2017-01-01

    to the difference in the amplitude decay rate, whereas the degradation of human localization performance is limited. The measure proposed in this study is based on the beamforming powers of the desired and the reproduced fields. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed measure is less sensitive......This paper proposes a measure to evaluate sound field reproduction systems with an array of loudspeakers. The spatially-averaged squared error of the sound pressure between the desired and the reproduced field, namely the spatial error, has been widely used, which has considerable problems in two...

  20. Towards an internationally harmonized test method for reproductive and developmental effects of endocrine disrupters in marine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Wollenberger, Leah

    2007-01-01

    New and updated methods to detect and characterize endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are urgently needed for the purpose of environmental risk assessment since these substances are often not detected using existing chronic toxicity tests. Numerous reports on the effects of EDCs on crustacean...... development and reproduction have been published and the development of life-cycle tests with crustaceans has been prioritized within the OECD work program for endocrine disrupter testing and assessment. As a result, Sweden, and Denmark initiated a proposal for development of a full life-cycle test...... with marine copepods (Acartia tonsa, Nitocra spinipes, Tisbe battagliai, and Amphiascus tenuiremis). The present paper gives an overview on the endocrine system of crustaceans with special emphasis on development and reproduction, which are targets for endocrine disruption, and reviews available methods...

  1. Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of HIV-Positive People in Tehran, Iran: A Mixed-Method Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saharnaz Nedjat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background People Living with HIV (PLHIV are highly stigmatized and consequently hard-to-access by researchers and importantly, public health outreach in Iran, possibly due to the existing socio-cultural situation in this country. The present study aimed to evaluate the sexual and reproductive health needs of PLHIV in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Methods As a mixed-method descriptive study, this project was conducted in 2012 in Tehran, Iran. In this study, we evaluated and discussed socio-demographic characteristics, family and social support, sexual behaviors, fertility desires and needs, PMTCT services, contraceptive methods, unintended pregnancy and safe abortion, and Pap smear tests among 400 participants referring to the behavioral disorders consulting centers. Results Of the sample 240 (60% were male and 160 (40% were female. About 50% of women and 40% of men were 25-34 years old. More than 60% of men and 96% of women were married, while more than 50% of the participants had HIV-positive spouses at the time of study. According to the results, fertility desire was observed among more than 30% of female and 40% of male participants. Results of the in-depth interviews indicate that the participants are not satisfied with most of the existing services offered to address their sexual and reproductive health needs. Conclusion Despite the availability of services, most of sexual and reproductive health needs of the PLHIV are overlooked by the health system in Iran. Paying attention to sexual and reproductive health needs of PLHIV in Iran not only protects their right to live long and healthy lives, but also may prevent the transmission of HIV from the patients to others within the community.

  2. Reproductive biology of squaretail coralgrouper Plectropomus areolatus using age-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, K L; Taylor, B M; Wichilmel, C B; Joseph, E; Hamilton, R J; Almany, G R

    2013-04-01

    The squaretail coralgrouper Plectropomus areolatus was identified as a fast-growing, early maturing and relatively short-lived aggregation-spawning epinephelid. Examinations of sectioned otoliths found females and males first maturing at 2 and 3 years, respectively, suggesting protogynous hermaphroditism; however, no transitionals were observed in samples. Age distribution for the two sexes was similar and both were represented in the oldest age class; however, significant sex-specific differences in size-at-age were identified. Both sexes fully recruit into the fishery at age 4 years and reach 90% of asymptotic length by age 3 years. Underwater visual assessments, combined with the gonado-somatic indices, revealed a 5 month reproductive season, with interannual variability observed in the month of highest density within the spawning aggregation. Catch restrictions on adults during spawning times and at reproductive sites, combined with gear-based management and enhanced enforcement, are recommended to maintain spawning stocks. Based on the available evidence, the sexual pattern for this species is unresolved.

  3. A reproductive threat-based model of evolved sex differences in jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarin, Brad J; Becker, D Vaughn; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Wilkinson, Wayne W; Nicastle, Lionel D

    2012-08-10

    Although heterosexual women and men consistently demonstrate sex differences in jealousy, these differences disappear among lesbians and gay men as well as among heterosexual women and men contemplating same-sex infidelities (infidelities in which the partner and rival are the same sex). Synthesizing these past findings, the present paper offers a reproductive threat-based model of evolved sex differences in jealousy that predicts that the sexes will differ only when the jealous perceivers' reproductive outcomes are differentially at risk. This model is supported by data from a web-based study in which lesbians, gay men, bisexual women and men, and heterosexual women and men responded to a hypothetical infidelity scenario with the sex of the rival randomly determined. After reading the scenario, participants indicated which type of infidelity (sexual versus emotional) would cause greater distress. Consistent with predictions, heterosexual women and men showed a sex difference when contemplating opposite-sex infidelities but not when contemplating same-sex infidelities, whereas lesbians and gay men showed no sex difference regardless of whether the infidelity was opposite-sex or same-sex.

  4. A Reproductive Threat-Based Model of Evolved Sex Differences in Jealousy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Sagarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although heterosexual women and men consistently demonstrate sex differences in jealousy, these differences disappear among lesbians and gay men as well as among heterosexual women and men contemplating same-sex infidelities (infidelities in which the partner and rival are the same sex. Synthesizing these past findings, the present paper offers a reproductive threat-based model of evolved sex differences in jealousy that predicts that the sexes will differ only when the jealous perceivers' reproductive outcomes are differentially at risk. This model is supported by data from a web-based study in which lesbians, gay men, bisexual women and men, and heterosexual women and men responded to a hypothetical infidelity scenario with the sex of the rival randomly determined. After reading the scenario, participants indicated which type of infidelity (sexual versus emotional would cause greater distress. Consistent with predictions, heterosexual women and men showed a sex difference when contemplating opposite-sex infidelities but not when contemplating same-sex infidelities, whereas lesbians and gay men showed no sex difference regardless of whether the infidelity was opposite-sex or same-sex.

  5. Family planning and reproductive health supply stockouts: problems and remedies for faith-based health facilities in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Metzger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Faith-based organizations (FBOs provide a substantial portion of the health care services in many African countries. FBO facilities do consider family planning and reproductive health services as essential to reducing maternal and child mortality, and to the growth of healthy families. Many health facilities, however, struggle to maintain adequate stocks of reproductive health (RH supplies because of the various RH supply chains and funding sources, which often operate separately from other medicines and supplies. The purpose of this study is to identify the types of supply chain systems used by African faith-based health facilities to acquire reproductive health products (clotrimazole, combined oral contraceptive pills, contraceptive implants, CycleBeads®, emergency contraception, Erythromycin, female condoms, injectable contraceptives, intra-uterine contraceptive devices, magnesium sulfate, male condoms, Methyldopa, Misoprostol, Nifedpine, Oxytocin, and Progestin-only pills, to describe their problems and challenges, and to identify possible corrective actions. Methods: Through email surveys, phone interviews, and on-site visits, we studied the supply chains of 46 faith-based health facilities in 13 African countries. Sixteen RH commodities, including contraceptives, were selected as indicators. Results: Of the 46 facilities surveyed, 55 percent faced stockouts of one or more products in the three months prior to the survey. Stockouts were less common for contraceptives than for other RH products. Significant strengths of the FBO supply chain included creativity in finding other sources of commodities in the face of stockouts, staff designated to monitor quality of the commodities, high capacity for storage, low incidence of expired products, few instances of poor quality, and strong financial sustainability mechanisms, often including patient fees. Weaknesses included unreliable commodity sources and power supplies, long

  6. Health-promoting behaviors and social support of women of reproductive age, and strategies for advancing their health: Protocol for a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Determining the health-promoting behaviors of women during the important period of reproduction provides valuable information for designing appropriate intervention programs for advancing women's health. There is no study on the health-promoting behaviors of women of reproductive age in Iran. Thus, the aim of this study is to explore these health-promoting behaviors for the purpose of developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive health advancement strategies for Iranian women. Methods/Design This study has a sequential explanatory mixed methods design. The follow-up explanation model is used to elaborate the quantitative results by collecting qualitative data from participants who could best assist in elucidating the results. The study is conducted in two sequential phases. The first phase is a population-based cross-sectional survey in which 1350 Iranian women of reproductive age are selected by proportional random multistage cluster sampling of the 22 main municipal sectors of Tehran, Iran. Questionnaires are completed through a face-to-face interview. The second phase is a qualitative study in which participants are selected using purposive sampling in the form of extreme case sampling on the basis of health-promoting behavior scores. The qualitative phase is based on data collected from focus group discussions or individual in-depth interviews. A conventional qualitative content analysis approach is used, and the data are managed with a computer-assisted program. Women's health-promoting strategies are developed using the qualitative and quantitative results, a review of the related literature, and the nominal group technique among experts. Discussion The findings of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study, obtained using a culturally sensitive approach, provide insights into the health behavioral factors that need to be considered if preventive strategies and intervention programs are to be designed to promote women's health in the

  7. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R L; Crayon, J J; Law, M A

    2006-11-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels--black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)--generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  8. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Crayon, J.J.; Law, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels-black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)-generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  9. Social capital in association with health status of women in reproductive age: study protocol for a sequential explanatory mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2014-05-09

    Women's health is a general health priority. Preserving and improving women's health is not only a basic human right, but it is also essential for the health of all nations. Women's health in Reproductive age affects long-term health of theirs, their family members, and community. Origins of health inequalities are very complicated. Health outcomes are influenced by biological, social and political factors, so to improve women's health it is necessary to recognize all these factors. Social capital is one of the social determinants of health that might play a considerable role in health inequalities. The association between social capital and health varies according on the sample studied, the type of health outcome and the context in which it is studied. This mixed methods study was designed to determine and explore of relationship between social capital and health status of women of reproductive age in Tehran (capital city of Iran) with its specific social-cultural characteristics. This study is sequential explanatory mixed methods study, follow-up explanations variant, with two strands (phases). This design will be implemented in two distinct phases. The first phase is a population-based cross-sectional survey on 770 women of reproductive age residing in any of the 22 municipal districts across Tehran. Based on a need to further understand the quantitative results, researchers will implement a second qualitative phase that is designed to help explain the initial quantitative results. Finally, the researchers will present an interpretation about explanation of quantitative results using the qualitative data. This study promotes women's health by determining the priorities and designing evidence-based interventions founded on the basic and insightful information provided on social capital and the status of the health of women.

  10. Progress and gaps in reproductive health services in three humanitarian settings: mixed-methods case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sara E; Chynoweth, Sarah K; Cornier, Nadine; Gallagher, Meghan C; Wheeler, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive health (RH) care is an essential component of humanitarian response. Women and girls living in humanitarian settings often face high maternal mortality and are vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and sexual violence. This study explored the availability and quality of, and access barriers to RH services in three humanitarian settings in Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and South Sudan. Data collection was conducted between July and October 2013. In total, 63 purposively selected health facilities were assessed: 28 in Burkina Faso, 25 in DRC, and nine in South Sudan, and 42 providers completed a questionnaire to assess RH knowledge and attitudes. Thirty-four focus group discussions were conducted with 29 members of the host communities and 273 displaced married and unmarried women and men to understand access barriers. All facilities reported providing some RH services in the prior three months. Five health facilities in Burkina Faso, six in DRC, and none in South Sudan met the criteria as a family planning service delivery point. Two health facilities in Burkina Faso, one in DRC, and two in South Sudan met the criteria as an emergency obstetric and newborn care service delivery point. Across settings, three facilities in DRC adequately provided selected elements of clinical management of rape. Safe abortion was unavailable. Many providers lacked essential knowledge and skills. Focus groups revealed limited knowledge of available RH services and socio-cultural barriers to accessing them, although participants reported a remarkable increase in use of facility-based delivery services. Although RH services are being provided, the availability of good quality RH services was inconsistent across settings. Commodity management and security must be prioritized to ensure consistent availability of essential supplies. It is critical to improve the attitudes, managerial and technical capacity of providers to ensure that RH

  11. Developmental and Reproductive Effects of SE5-OH: An Equol-Rich Soy-Based Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray A. Matulka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of the isoflavones daidzein, genistein, glycitein, and their structural analogues is generally considered beneficial to human health. Equol is not found in soy, but is converted from daidzein by human gut bacterial flora. Research indicates that between 30–50% of the population is capable of converting daidzein to equol; therefore, there has been recent development of a new equol-rich functional food that relies on bacterial conversion of daidzein to equol under strictly controlled conditions. Therefore, a new equol-rich soy product (SE5-OH has been developed, based on the bacterial conversion of daidzein; and its reproductive and developmental toxicity has been evaluated in a two-generation study and a developmental toxicity study with Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 200, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day by gavage. SE5-OH contains approximately 0.65% equol, 0.024% daidzein, 0.022% genistein, and 0.30% glycitein. From the reproductive study, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL for SE5-OH determined for both male and female rats is 1000 mg/kg/day (6.5 mg equol/kg/day. In the developmental toxicity phase of the study, no effects by SE5-OH were found in the embryo-fetus at any of the doses tested. The NOAEL for developmental effects of SE5-OH is 2000 mg/kg/day (13 mg equol/kg/day.

  12. Method for gesture based modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A computer program based method is described for creating models using gestures. On an input device, such as an electronic whiteboard, a user draws a gesture which is recognized by a computer program and interpreted relative to a predetermined meta-model. Based on the interpretation, an algorithm...... is assigned to the gesture drawn by the user. The executed algorithm may, for example, consist in creating a new model element, modifying an existing model element, or deleting an existing model element....

  13. Are introspective reaction times affected by the method of time estimation? A comparison of visual analogue scales and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Donna; Bratzke, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the method of time estimation plays a role in the apparent limits of introspection in dual-task processing. Previous studies showed that when participants reported introspective reaction times after each trial of a dual task by clicking on a visual analogue scale, they appeared to be unaware of the dual-task costs in their performance. However, visual analogue scales have seldom been used in interval estimation, and they may be inappropriate. In the present study, after each dual-task trial, participants reported their introspective reaction times either via a visual analogue scale or via the method of reproduction. The results replicated the previous findings, irrespective of method. That is, even though responses to the second task slowed down with increasing task overlap, this slowing was only very weakly reflected in the introspective reaction times. Thus, the participants' failure to report the objective dual-task costs in their reaction times is a rather robust finding that cannot be attributed to the method employed. However, introspective reaction times reported via visual analogue scales were more closely related to the objective reaction times, suggesting that visual analogue scales are preferable to reproduction. We conclude that introspective reaction times represent the same information regardless of method, but whether that information is temporal in nature is as yet unsettled.

  14. Simulating the Reproductive Behavior of a Region’s Population with an Agent-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Leonidovich Makarov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research analyses the impact of the inequality of demographic transition on socio-demographic characteristics of the regional population and on the dynamics of these characteristics. The study was conducted with the help of computer-based experiments (simulations, which was run on the original agent-based model. The model is an artificial society, and personal characteristics of its members are set so that they could represent age-demographic structure of a simulate region. The agents are divided into two subgroups, which differ in their reproductive strategy. The first group has traditional strategy with high birth rate. The second group has considerably lower birth rate, observed in the modern developed societies. The model uses stochastic approaches to imitate the principle processes of population growth: mortality and morbidity. Mortality is set according to age-sex specific mortality coefficients, which do not differ across the population as a whole. New agents (child births appear as a choice of agents – women of reproductive age, and the choice depends on the subgroup. The overall age and social structure of the region is aggregated across individual agents. A number of experiments has been carried out with the model utilization. This allowed forecasting the size and structure of the population of a given region. The results of the experiments have revealed that despite its simplicity, the developed agent-based model well predicts the initial conditions in the region (e.g. age-demographic and social structure. The model shows good fit in terms of estimating the dynamics of major characteristics of the population.

  15. Curriculum reform for reproductive health | Olatunbosun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Reproductive Health ... A new model of reproductive health care delivery is unfolding, driven by ... A three-pronged approach based on reproductive health, problem-based learning and evidence-based medicine, has much ...

  16. Entropy-based benchmarking methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temurshoev, Umed

    2012-01-01

    We argue that benchmarking sign-volatile series should be based on the principle of movement and sign preservation, which states that a bench-marked series should reproduce the movement and signs in the original series. We show that the widely used variants of Denton (1971) method and the growth pre

  17. Energy-based modeling as a basis for the analysis of reproductive data with the midge (Chironomus riparius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Péry, Alexandre R R; Mons, Raphaël; Garric, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    We propose a biologically based approach to analyze reproductive data for the midge (Chironomus riparius). We showed in a previous study that its larval development can be divided in two distinct phases regarding the use of energy: The somatic growth period and the gametic growth period. We hypothesize here the gametic period to be a crucial period for the energetic investment for reproduction. To test this, we performed several assays with different feeding programs. Our results confirmed that energetic investment for reproduction mainly occurs during the gametic growth period. We could then propose energy-based models to analyze reproductive data. We assumed the effects to result from a perturbation in the use of energy. Two models corresponding to different physiological modes of actions--decreased efficiency of feeding (i.e., feeding decrease model) or increased cost of egg production (i.e., egg-cost increase model)--were built and used for the analysis of data obtained after an exposure to an artificially copper-spiked sediment. During this experiment, different exposure patterns were performed to investigate whether effects on reproduction resulted mainly from an exposure that occurs during the gametic growth period or from an exposure that occurs during the somatic growth period. These exposure patterns led to similar effects on reproduction, which suggests that the toxicant-induced stress persists during the whole life cycle, even in case of exposure occurring only during part of it. Both the feeding decrease model and egg-cost increase model were able to describe the data. We showed that addition of copper in the sediment, even in low quantity (<6.5 mg/kg), might affect reproduction at the individual level. If no-effect concentrations were derived from these results, this may lead to an overprotective value. A relevant no-effect concentration could be derived from further investigations at the population level.

  18. Knowledge, non-use, use and source of information on contraceptive methods among women in various stages of reproductive age in rural Lagos, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi BM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bamgboye M Afolabi,1 Emmanuel NU Ezedinachi,2 Iwara Arikpo,2 Abiodun Ogunwale,3 Damilola Fatimah Ganiyu,1 Rashidat A Abu,1 Adewunmi A Ajibade1 1Health, Environment and Development Foundation, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Institute of Tropical Disease and Research, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; 3Project Hope, Washington, DC, USA Background: Contraceptives are advocated to be used against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as unsafe abortion contributes to high maternal mortality in Nigeria while unwanted pregnancies have terminated the educational development of many females. Objective: This questionnaire-based survey aimed to describe the knowledge, nonuse, and use of various contraceptive methods among women in different child-bearing age groups in rural Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods: Between 2012 and 2013, 816 females in rural communities within Lagos State were surveyed for their knowledge, source of information, and use of contraceptives. They were grouped into early, mid, and late reproductive age. Statistical analysis of data harvested from respondents was carried out using STATA 13 software. Results: In all, 816 females in different stages of reproductive age were involved in the study, among whom 19% were single, 78% married, 3% divorced, and 0.5% widowed. About 6% had no formal education, while the majority (81% were of the Yoruba ethnic group. Married respondents were approximately thrice more likely to know of contraceptives than single respondents (χ2=29.9, P=0.000, odds ratio =2.9, 95% confidence interval =1.9, 4.2. Condom use was the most widely known and used method of contraceptive regardless of marital status and reproductive age status. Information about contraceptives was mainly from health facilities among married and divorced women and from school or educational institution among singles. Overall prevalence of contraceptive use was 51.9%. Nonuse of contraceptives was 43% among married women

  19. Probing the effect of human normal sperm morphology rate on cycle outcomes and assisted reproductive methods selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available Sperm morphology is the best predictor of fertilization potential, and the critical predictive information for supporting assisted reproductive methods selection. Given its important predictive value and the declining reality of semen quality in recent years, the threshold of normal sperm morphology rate (NSMR is being constantly corrected and controversial, from the 4th edition (14% to the 5th version (4%. We retrospectively analyzed 4756 cases of infertility patients treated with conventional-IVF(c-IVF or ICSI, which were divided into three groups according to NSMR: ≥14%, 4%-14% and <4%. Here, we demonstrate that, with decrease in NSMR(≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, in the c-IVF group, the rate of fertilization, normal fertilization, high-quality embryo, multi-pregnancy and birth weight of twins gradually decreased significantly (P<0.05, while the miscarriage rate was significantly increased (p<0.01 and implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, preterm birth rate, live birth rate, sex ratio, and birth weight(Singleton showed no significant change. In the ICSI group, with decrease in NSMR (≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, high-quality embryo rate, multi-pregnancy rate and birth weight of twins were gradually decreased significantly (p<0.05, while other parameters had no significant difference. Considering the clinical assisted methods selection, in the NFMR ≥14% group, normal fertilization rate of c-IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group (P<0.05, in the 4%-14% group, birth weight (twins of c-IVF were significantly higher than the ICSI group, in the <4% group, miscarriage of IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group. Therefore, we conclude that NSMR is positively related to embryo reproductive potential, and when NSMR<4% (5th edition, ICSI should be considered first, while the NSMR≥4%, c-IVF assisted reproduction might be preferred.

  20. Improvement of Adolescent Reproductive Health Understanding by Implementation of Educative, Collaborative, Participative, and Problem Based (ECPPB Learning Strategy in Buleleng District, Bali-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Made Citrawathi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of potential public health issues in Indonesia is the problem of Adolescent Reproduction Health (ARH, particulary the behavior of having sex premaritaly and promiscuity, which is at risk of having unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted deseases such as HIV/AIDS. Increase in student’s knowledge, attitude, and skill by application of education of adolescent reproduction health (EARHis hopefully  will reduce the ARH problem.Method: This was experimental research with randomized pretest-posttest control group design. This research was conducted in Grade VIII of Junior High School with 72 research samples. Data were analysed by using Multivariate Analysis of Variances (Manova. Result: Data analysis showed that ECPPB learning strategy was better to improve students’ knowledge ARH, students’ attitude toward reproduction health, and students’ skill in ARH problem solving than students who were treated by using conventional teaching strategy in which the p = 0.0001(p < 0,05. The Partial Ata Squared (PTA was 87.4 %, which means the learning strategy was able to improve learning achievement as much as 87.4 %. The highest improvement of learning achievement by using ECPPBlearning strategy was on students’ skill in ARH problem solving (PES=80.9%. Improvement of health reproduction attitude was 63.2 %, and improvement of students’ knowledge about reproduction health was 25.1%. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study was suggested in order to students be given EARH was integrated on the subject of science in junior high school by using ECPPB strategy.

  1. Six school-based clinics: their reproductive health services and impact on sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, D; Waszak, C; Ziegler, J

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation of the reproductive health programs of six diverse school-based clinics measured the impact of the clinics on sexual behavior and contraceptive use. All six clinics served low-income populations; at five of them, the great majority of the students served were black. An analysis of student visits by type of care given found that these clinics were not primarily family planning facilities; rather, they provided reproductive health care as one component of a comprehensive health program. Student survey data collected in the clinic schools and nearby comparison schools (four sites) or collected both before the clinic opened and two years later (two sites) indicated that the clinics neither hastened the onset of sexual activity nor increased its frequency. The clinics had varying effects on contraceptive use. Providing contraceptives on site was not enough to significantly increase their use; in only one of the three sites that did so were students in the clinic school significantly more likely than students in the comparison school to have used birth control during last intercourse. However, condom use rose sharply at one clinic school that had a strong AIDS education program and was located in a community where AIDS was a salient issue. At another clinic school, where pregnancy prevention was a high priority and staff issued vouchers for contraceptives, the use of condoms and pills was significantly higher than in the comparison school. A third clinic school--which focused on high-risk youth, emphasized pregnancy prevention and dispensed birth control pills--recorded a significantly higher use of pills than its comparison school. Although the data suggest that the clinics probably prevented small numbers of pregnancies at some schools, none of the clinics had a statistically significant effect on school-wide pregnancy rates.

  2. Maternal mortality ratio in Lebanon in 2008: a hospital-based reproductive age mortality study (RAMOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeika, Elie; Abi Chaker, Samer; Harb, Hilda; Rahbany Saad, Rita; Ammar, Walid; Adib, Salim

    2014-01-01

    International agencies have recently assigned Lebanon to the group H of countries with "no national data on maternal mortality," and estimated a corresponding maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 150 per 100,000 live births. The Ministry of Public Health addressed the discrepancy perceived between the reality of the maternal mortality ratio experience in Lebanon and the international report by facilitating a hospital-based reproductive age mortality study, sponsored by the World Health Organization Representative Office in Lebanon, aiming at providing an accurate estimate of a maternal mortality ratio for 2008. The survey allowed a detailed analysis of maternal causes of deaths. Reproductive age deaths (15-49 years) were initially identified through hospital records. A trained MD traveled to each hospital to ascertain whether recorded deaths were in fact maternal deaths or not. ICD10 codes were provided by the medical controller for each confirmed maternal deaths. There were 384 RA death cases, of which 13 were confirmed maternal deaths (339%) (numerator). In 2008, there were 84823 live births in Lebanon (denominator). The MMR in Lebanon in 2008 was thus officially estimated at 23/100,000 live births, with an "uncertainty range" from 153 to 30.6. Hemorrhage was the leading cause of death, with double the frequency of all other causes (pregnancy-induced hypertension, eclampsia, infection, and embolism). This specific enquiry responded to a punctual need to correct a clearly inadequate report, and it should be relayed by an on-going valid surveillance system. Results indicate that special attention has to be devoted to the management of peri-partum hemorrhage cases. Arab, postpartum hemorrhage, development, pregnancy management, verbal autopsy

  3. Color Reproduction System Based on Color Appearance Model and Gamut Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    perception is usually different. Basically, the influence factors are device calibration and characterization, viewing condition, device gamut and human...Halftone Reproduction", TAGA Proceedings, 65-76 [7] R. W. G. Hunt, "The Reproduction of Color in Photography, Printing, & Televison ". FOUNTAIN PRESS, 4 ed

  4. Cord Blood Karyotyping: A Safe and Non-Invasive Method for Postnatal Testing of Assisted Reproductive Technology Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Zarei Moradi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To verify the hypothesis that the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities increases in babies conceived by different assisted reproduction procedures. The availability of the umbilical cord blood encouraged us to study this hypothesis via this method. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study, umbilical cord blood samples of assisted reproductive technology (ART children were analyzed with standard cytogenetic techniques (G banding. Karyotyping was possible in 109 cases. Results: The number of abnormal cases was four (3.7%, among which, three cases (2.8% were inherited and only 1 case (0.9% was a de novo translocation. In total, the incidence of de novo chromosomal abnormalities was in the range observed in all live births in the general population (0.7-1%. Conclusion: No significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal abnormality was found between ART and naturally conceived babies. To date, several studies have examined the medical and developmental outcome of ART children and still have not reached a definite conclusion. Genetic counseling is recommended as an integral part of planning of treatment strategies for couples wishing to undergo ART.

  5. Activity – based costing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Èuchranová Katarína

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity based costing is a method of identifying and tracking the operating costs directly associated with processing items. It is the practice of focusing on some unit of output, such as a purchase order or an assembled automobile and attempting to determine its total as precisely as poccible based on the fixed and variable costs of the inputs.You use ABC to identify, quantify and analyze the various cost drivers (such as labor, materials, administrative overhead, rework. and to determine which ones are candidates for reduction.A processes any activity that accepts inputs, adds value to these inputs for customers and produces outputs for these customers. The customer may be either internal or external to the organization. Every activity within an organization comprimes one or more processes. Inputs, controls and resources are all supplied to the process.A process owner is the person responsible for performing and or controlling the activity.The direction of cost through their contact to partial activity and processes is a new modern theme today. Beginning of this method is connected with very important changes in the firm processes.ABC method is a instrument , that bring a competitive advantages for the firm.

  6. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  7. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  8. Method of evaluation of wild common tench, Tinca tinca (L., female suitability for artificial reproduction during the spawning season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of females for artificial reproduction of common tench based on an analysis of the size and percentage share of oocytes sampled in vivo. The females were collected from natural waters (lakes during the spawning season, After catching, the selected fish were transported to the hatchery, where the fish were kept under controlled conditions and oocytes were collected from all females. It was found that sampled oocytes were different in size and developmental stages. Oocytes were classified into 3 groups: small, medium and large. The diameter intervals for each group were 0.18-0.22 mm, 0.48-0.57 mm and 0.95-1.01 mm, respectively. Analysis of the percentage of the largest oocytes showed that their numbers decreased in time from over 40% on Day 1 to slightly over 10% on Day 10. A positive correlation was found between the percentage of the largest oocytes in the cathetered egg sample and the weight of the stripped eggs during artificial reproduction. The percentage of the largest oocytes (diameter 0.95-1.01 mm might be used as an indicator of the possibility of reproducing wild tench. No statistical differences were observed in latency time and embryo survival of females showing different quantities of the largest oocytes.

  9. Changes to the law on consent in South Africa: implications for school-based adolescent sexual and reproductive health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuch Melanie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Health Act, No 61, 2003 in South Africa is the first effort made by the government to protect health-related research participants under law. Implemented on March 1, 2012, the law mandates active consent from a parent or legal guardian for all research conducted with research participants under the age of 18 years. This paper focuses on the Act's implications for school-based adolescent sexual and reproductive health research. Discussion Although well intentioned, the added legal protections in the National Health Act may have the unintended consequence of reducing participation rates in school-based adolescent sexual and reproductive health research, thereby excluding the most at-risk students. The Act may also compromise adolescents' right to dignity and privacy, especially considering the personal nature of research on sex and sexuality. Devolved, discretionary decision-making, which empowers local human research ethics committees to permit a wider range of protective measures, including passive consent, independent adolescent consent or community consultation ought to be considered. The continued and direct involvement of young people in their sexual and reproductive health and well-being is an important principle to uphold. Summary This paper calls for a re-examination of section 71's ethical guidelines relating to informed consent in the National Health Act, No 61, 2003 in South Africa in order to better serve the interests of South African adolescents in sexual and reproductive health research.

  10. Female mate choice based on pheromone content may inhibit reproductive isolation between distinct populations of Iberian wall lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne GABIROT, Pilar LÓPEZ, José MARTÍN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanica forms part of a species complex with several morphologically and genetically distinct types and populations, which may or may not be reproductively isolated. We analyzed whether female mate choice based on males’ chemical signals may contribute to a current pre-mating reproductive isolation between two distinct populations of P. hispanica from central Spain. We experimentally examined whether females choose to establish territories on areas scent-marked by males of their own population, versus areas marked by males of the other population. Results showed that females did not prefer scent-marks of males from their own population. In contrast, females seemed to attend mostly to among-individual variation in males’ pheromones that did not differ between populations. Finally, to test for strong premating reproductive isolation, we staged intersexual encounters between males and females. The population of origin of males and females did not affect the probability nor the duration of copulations. We suggest that the different environmental conditions in each population might be selecting for different morphologies and different chemical signals of males that maximize efficiency of communication in each environment. However, females in both populations based mate choice on a similar condition-dependent signal of males. Thus, male signals and female mate choice criteria could be precluding premating reproductive isolation between these phenotypically “distinct” populations [Current Zoology 59 (2: 210 –220, 2013].

  11. Female mate choice based on pheromone content may inhibit reproductive isolation between distinct populations of Iberian wall lizards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marianne GABIROT; Pilar L(O)PEZ; José MART(I)N

    2013-01-01

    The Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanica forms part of a species complex with several morphologically and genetically distinct types and populations,which may or may not be reproductively isolated.We analyzed whether female mate choice based on males' chemical signals may contribute to a current pre-mating reproductive isolation between two distinct populations of P.hispanica from central Spain.We experimentally examined whether females choose to establish territories on areas scent-marked by males of their own population,versus areas marked by males of the other population.Results showed that females did not prefer scent-marks of males from their own population.In contrast,females seemed to attend mostly to among-individual variation in males' pheromones that did not differ between populations.Finally,to test for strong premating reproductive isolation,we staged intersexual encounters between males and females.The population of origin of males and females did not affect the probability nor the duration of copulations.We suggest that the different environmental conditions in each population might be selecting for different morphologies and different chemical signals of males that maximize efficiency of communication in each environment.However,females in both populations based mate choice on a similar condition-dependent signal of males.Thus,male signals and female mate choice criteria could be precluding premating reproductive isolation between these phenotypically “distinct” populations.

  12. DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN METHODS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.WANG,Y.COSTELLO,J.

    2003-07-15

    A research effort was undertaken to determine the need for any changes to USNRC's seismic regulatory practice to reflect the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The research explored the extent to which displacement based seismic design methods, such as given in FEMA 273, could be useful for reviewing nuclear power stations. Two structures common to nuclear power plants were chosen to compare the results of the analysis models used. The first structure is a four-story frame structure with shear walls providing the primary lateral load system, referred herein as the shear wall model. The second structure is the turbine building of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. The models were analyzed using both displacement based (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic analysis. In addition, for the shear wall model an elastic analysis with ductility factors applied was also performed. The objectives of the work were to compare the results between the analyses, and to develop insights regarding the work that would be needed before the displacement based analysis methodology could be considered applicable to facilities licensed by the NRC. A summary of the research results, which were published in NUREGICR-6719 in July 2001, is presented in this paper.

  13. Pilot study of design method for surgical robot using workspace reproduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Hiroto; Kawamura, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yo; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2011-01-01

    Recent development methods for surgical robots have an inherent problem. The user-friendliness of operating robot cannot be revealed until completion of the robot. To assist the design of a surgical robot that is user-friendly in terms of surgeon's operation, we propose a system that considers the operation manner of surgeon during the design phase of the robot. This system includes the following functionality: 1) a master manipulator that measures the operation manner of the surgeon (operator), and 2) a slave simulator in which the mechanical parameters can be configured freely. The operator can use the master manipulator to operate the slave simulator. Using this system, we investigate the necessity of considering the operator's manner when developing a surgical robot. In the experiment, we used three instruments with mechanisms that differed with respect to the length between bending joints and measured the trajectory of each instrument tip position during the surgical task. The results show that there are differences in the trajectories of each mechanism. Based on the results, changes in the mechanism of the surgical robot influenced the operator's manner. Therefore, when designing the mechanism for a surgical robot, there is a need to consider how this influences the operator's manner.

  14. Delivering post-abortion care through a community-based reproductive health volunteer programme in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Shaikh, Babar T; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hameed, Waqas; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2012-11-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in May-June 2010 with women using post-abortion care (PAC) services provided by the Marie Stopes Society in Pakistan during the six month period preceding the study, more than 70% of whom had been referred to the clinics by reproductive health volunteers (RHVs). The aim of the study was to establish the socio-demographic profile of clients, determine their preferred method of treatment, explore their perceptions of the barriers to accessing post-abortion services and to understand the challenges faced by RHVs. The sample women were selected from six randomly selected districts of Sindh and Punjab. Eight focus group discussions were conducted with PAC clients and fifteen in-depth interviews with RHVs. In addition, a quantitative exit interview questionnaire was administered to 76 clients. Medical, rather than surgical, treatment for incomplete and unsafe abortions was preferred because it was perceived to 'cause less pain', was 'easy to employ' and 'having fewer complications'. Household economics influence women's decision-making on seeking post-abortion care. Other restraining factors include objection by husbands and in-laws, restrictions on female mobility, the views of religious clerics and a lack of transport. The involvement of all stakeholders could secure social approval and acceptance of the provision of safe post-abortion care services in Pakistan, and improve the quality of family planning services to the women who want to space their pregnancies.

  15. Evidence-based medicine in bovine, equine and canine reproduction: quality of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, C; Heuwieser, W; Arlt, S

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate deficits and differences of published literature on reproduction in cattle, horses, and dogs. A literature search was conducted in the databases Medline and Veterinary Science. Approximately five times more articles on clinical bovine reproduction (n = 25 910) were found compared to canine (n = 5 015) and equine (n = 5 090) reproduction. For the evaluation of the literature, a checklist was used. A subset of 600 articles published between 1999 and 2008 was randomly selected. After applying exclusion criteria, a total of 268 trials (86 for cattle, 99 for horses, and 83 for dogs) were evaluated and used for further analysis. For the field of canine and equine reproduction, there were fewer clinical trials with a control group compared to bovine reproduction (cattle 66%, horses 41%, and dogs 41%). For all three species investigated, few publications were identified (4%) with the highest level of evidence, i.e., controlled, randomized, and blinded trials, or meta-analyses. In cattle 33% of the publications were graded adequate to draw sound conclusions; however, only 7 and 11% were graded adequate in dogs and horses, respectively. Therefore, the veterinarian should always assess the quality of information before implementing results into practice to provide best available care for the animals. In conclusion, improvement of the quality of well-designed, conducted and reported clinical trails in animal reproduction is required.

  16. Detection of VR-2332 strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus type II using an aptamer-based sandwich-type assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Kwon, Young Seop; Lee, Ji-eun; Choi, Eun-Jin; Lee, Chang-Hee; Song, Jae-Young; Gu, Man Bock

    2013-01-02

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome disease (PRRS), a disease that has a significant and economic impact on the swine industry. In this study, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers with high specificity and affinity against VR-2332 strain of PRRSV type II were successfully obtained. Of 19 candidates, the LB32 aptamer was found to be the most specific and sensitive to VR-2332 strain according to an aptamer-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. The detection of VR-2332 of PRRSV type II was successfully accomplished using the enzyme-linked antibody-aptamer sandwich (ELAAS) method. The detection limit of ELAAS was 4.8 × 10(0) TCID(50)/mL that is comparable to some of the previous reports of the PCR-based detection but does not require any complicated equipment or extra costs. Moreover, this ELAAS-based PRRSV detection showed similar sensitivity for both the VR-2332 samples spiked in diluted swine serum and in buffer. Therefore, this VR-2332 strain-specific aptamer and its assay method with high specificity can be used as an alternative method for the fast and precise detection of PRRSV.

  17. Hematocrit as a simple method to predict and manage ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taswin Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to analyze the hematocrit levels in cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS, syndrome occurring during in-vitro fertilization (IVF, and study its role as a prognostic indicator. Subjects and Methods: Two years data of 66 women at high risk for developing OHSS was analyzed. Twenty-seven women who developed OHSS were further analyzed based on their hematocrit levels on the day of oocyte pick-up (OPU and the day of embryo transfer (ET to see if there was a prognostic trend. Results: Of the total 225 IVF cases, 66 were deemed high risk for developing OHSS. Twenty-seven of these developed OHSS (40.9%. Of these 27, 21 (77.8% had a hematocrit >35% on the day of OPU. The mean hematocrit in women developing OHSS on the day of OPU was 37.39% (standard deviation [SD] 2.66 as against 35.97% (2.80 in those not developing OHSS. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.043. On the day of ET, 23/27 (85.8% who developed OHSS had a hematocrit of >35%. The mean hematocrit was 39.29% (SD 3.85 in those who developed OHSS as against 34.7% (2.88 in those who did not. This difference (4.85 was statistically significant (P 35%. Those who required cancellation of ET had a hematocrit of >35% on the day of ET or showed a significant increase of 3% from OPU to ET.

  18. School-Based Reproductive Health and Safety Education for Students Aged 12-15 Years in UNESCO's (2009) "International Technical Guidance"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Collier-Harris, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, adolescents aged 12-15 years are making sexual and reproductive decisions of profound significance for their future, often based on misguided, inadequate or dangerously wrong information. Very few countries provide evidential and comprehensive education about puberty, sexuality, and reproductive health and safety to children and young…

  19. School-Based Reproductive Health and Safety Education for Students Aged 12-15 Years in UNESCO's (2009) "International Technical Guidance"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Collier-Harris, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, adolescents aged 12-15 years are making sexual and reproductive decisions of profound significance for their future, often based on misguided, inadequate or dangerously wrong information. Very few countries provide evidential and comprehensive education about puberty, sexuality, and reproductive health and safety to children and young…

  20. Digestible energy requirement for females of Rhamdia quelen on reproductive activity fed with ration based on vegetal ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie A Bombardelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the growth and reproductive parameters of Rhamdia quelen females fed with pelleted ration containing different levels of digestible energy, and to evaluate the vigor of their offspring. The breeders were placed in tanks under conditions of photoperiod and natural temperature. The fishes were fed for 255 days with isoproteic rations pelleted containing 35% of crude protein (CP and five levels of the digestible energy (DE (2700, 2950, 3200, 3450, 3700 kcal kg-1. The fishes were distributed in a randomized experimental design compounded by five treatments and three repetitions. A 16-m² tank containing six females and three males was considered as one experimental unit. The weight and weight gain was evaluated. During the reproductive season the females were induced to breeding by hormonal manipulation and were evaluated the percentage of spawning females, the total fecundity, relative fecundity (number of oocytes per gram of spawning females, the fertilization ratio, the time to hatching and the vigor of larvae. The growth and reproductive parameters were not influenced (P > 0.05 by the increasing levels of digestible energy of the rations. The feeding of R. quelen females in breeding fit can be carried out with 2700 kcal kg-1 pelletized ration based on vegetal ingredients, without damage to reproductive performance.

  1. Vouchers for health: A demand side output-based aid approach to reproductive health services in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, C P; Albrecht, M; Wolfschuetz, A; Kundu, F; Klein, S

    2010-01-01

    Reaching the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals has been a focus for many countries and development partners. In Kenya, as in many other countries with low levels of development, access to and equity of basic quality health services is limited, especially for the very poor. Among poor populations, maternal mortality is high as access to medical care and financial means are lacking. In 2005, the Governments of Kenya and Germany in cooperation with KfW Banking Group made funds available for the Reproductive Health OBA Voucher Programme offering vouchers for Safe Motherhood, Family Planning and Gender Violence Recovery Services. This programme, herein referred to as Vouchers for Health, was launched in June of 2006 in five Kenyan districts with the aim of providing health services for safe deliveries, long-term family planning methods and victims of gender violence. The way that the programme is being implemented in Kenya demonstrates that the voucher-based approach comprises a variety of key structural elements of a national health insurance scheme: accreditation; quality assurance; reimbursement system; claims processing; integrating the private sector; client choice; provider competition; and access to and equity of services provided.

  2. Reproductive toxicities of methoxychlor based on estrogenic properties of the compound and its estrogenic metabolite, hydroxyphenyltrichloroethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Hiroaki; Chapin, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Methoxychlor is an organochlorine pesticide having a weak estrogenicity, which is estimated to be approximately 1000- to 14,000-fold less potent to a natural ligand, 17β-estradiol. However, its active metabolite, hydroxyphenyltrichloroethane, has much more potent estrogenic activity and probably acts in the target organs of animals exposed to methoxychlor at least 100 times stronger than the parent compound. A variety of in vivo reproductive toxicity studies have shown that treatment with methoxychlor exerts typical endocrine-disrupting effects manifest as estrogenic effects, such as formation of cystic ovaries resulting in ovulation failures, uterine hypertrophy, hormonal imbalances, atrophy of male sexual organs, and deteriorations of sperm production in rats and/or mice, through which it causes serious reproductive damages in both sexes of animals at sufficient dose levels. However, methoxychlor is not teratogenic. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of methoxychlor among reliable experimental animal studies in terms of the reproductive toxicity is 10 ppm (equivalent to 0.600 mg/kg/day) in a two-generation reproduction toxicity study.

  3. China to Create an Access System for the Reproductive Health Industry Based on Quality Accreditation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Zhang Weiqing, director of the National Population and Family Planning Commission (NPFPC), disclosed at the inaugural meeting of the China Reproductive Health Industry Association (CRIA), held on March 26, 2007, that China will create an inspection system, a quality accreditation system, and an industry access system for better population structure and family planning.

  4. Thiol-based redox regulation in sexual plant reproduction: new insights and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Jose A; Pulido, Amada; Rodríguez-García, María I; Alché, Juan D

    2013-01-01

    The success of sexual reproduction in plants involves (i) the proper formation of the plant gametophytes (pollen and embryo sac) containing the gametes, (ii) the accomplishment of specific interactions between pollen grains and the stigma, which subsequently lead to (iii) the fusion of the gametes and eventually to (iv) the seed setting. Owing to the lack of mobility, plants have developed specific regulatory mechanisms to control all developmental events underlying the sexual plant reproduction according to environmental challenges. Over the last decade, redox regulation and signaling have come into sight as crucial mechanisms able to manage critical stages during sexual plant reproduction. This regulation involves a complex redox network which includes reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), glutathione and other classic buffer molecules or antioxidant proteins, and some thiol/disulphide-containing proteins belonging to the thioredoxin superfamily, like glutaredoxins (GRXs) or thioredoxins (TRXs). These proteins participate as critical elements not only in the switch between the mitotic to the meiotic cycle but also at further developmental stages of microsporogenesis. They are also implicated in the regulation of pollen rejection as the result of self-incompatibility. In addition, they display precise space-temporal patterns of expression and are present in specific localizations like the stigmatic papillae or the mature pollen, although their functions and subcellular localizations are not clear yet. In this review we summarize insights and perspectives about the presence of thiol/disulphide-containing proteins in plant reproduction, taking into account the general context of the cell redox network.

  5. Emerging issues and methodological advances in fisheries reproductive biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Murua, Hilario;

    2011-01-01

    Although incorporating detailed reproductive data into all stock assessments is not a practical goal, the need to understand how reproductive biology affects population productivity is being increasingly recognized.More research focused on reproductive biology—coupled with a shift towards...... development, which is most accurately evaluated with histology. This special section of Marine and Coastal Fisheries contains contributions from a workshop on the gonadal histology of fishes that was held in Cadiz, Spain, during June 2009. These papers cover a wide range of species and reproductive topics...... a resilience perspective in fisheries science—is resulting in challenges to many long-held assumptions; the emergence of important new issues; and identification of the need to improve data and methods used in reproductive studies. Typically, data for reproductive studies are based on an assessment of gonadal...

  6. Effect of Different Aphid I noculation Methods on Aphid Reproduction%不同接蚜方式对烟蚜繁殖效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范才银; 张卓; 颜勋锐; 李天艺; 李建华; 黄景崇; 罗井清; 唐海峰; 詹良; 何永秋; 曾惠宇; 安然; 刘亮; 杨会超

    2016-01-01

    利用盆栽成株法、漂浮盘育苗法两种繁蚜方法,研究了挑接法、抹接法、碎片法3种接蚜方式对烟蚜繁蚜效果的影响。结果表明:盆栽成株法繁蚜3种接蚜方式繁蚜速度(繁蚜量)表现为抹接法>碎片法>挑接法;漂浮盘育苗法繁蚜以碎片法接蚜繁蚜效率最好,其次是挑接法,抹接法效果最差。在相同的繁蚜时间里,采用成株法繁蚜的繁蚜量是漂浮盘育苗法的7.85~18.6倍。%The effects of different aphid Inoculation methods on aphid reproduction were studied with planting of potted plant and floating tray seeding methods. The result showed that:when potted planting method was used,the velocity (a-mount)of aphid reproduction was the highest with picking up method,that of wiping off method was the second,and that of fragment method was the third. When floating tray seeding method was used,the velocity (amount)of aphid reproduction was the highest with fragment method,that of picking up method was the second,and that of wiping off method was the third. During the same time of aphid reproduction,the amount of planting of potted plant was 7. 85 -18. 6 times more than that of floating tray seeding method.

  7. Reproductive Outcomes Following Ectopic Pregnancy: Register-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sohinee; McLernon, David J; Lee, Amanda J; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to compare reproductive outcomes following ectopic pregnancy (EP) versus livebirth, miscarriage, or termination in a first pregnancy. Methods And Findings A retrospective cohort study design was used. Scottish national data on all women whose first pregnancy occurred between 1981 and 2000 were linked to records of a subsequent pregnancy. The exposed cohort comprised women with an EP in their first pregnancy. There were three unexposed cohorts: women with livebirth, miscarriage, and termination of their first pregnancies. Any differences in rates of second pregnancy, livebirth, EP, miscarriage, or terminations and complications of a second ongoing pregnancy and delivery were assessed among the different exposure groups. A total of 2,969 women had an initial EP; 667,299 had a livebirth, 39,705 women miscarried, and 78,697 terminated their first pregnancies. Women with an initial EP had an increased chance of another pregnancy within 2 years (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 2.76 [95% CI 2.58–2.95]) or after 6 years (AHR 1.57 [95% CI 1.29–1.91]) compared to women with a livebirth. In comparison with women with an initial miscarriage, women who had an EP had a lower chance of a second pregnancy (AHR 0.53 [95% CI 0.50–0.56]). Compared to women with an initial termination, women with an EP had an increased chance of a second pregnancy (AHR 2.38 [95% CI 2.23–2.55]) within 2 years. Women with an initial EP suffered an increased risk of another EP compared to women with a livebirth (AHR 13.0 [95% CI 11.63–16.86]), miscarriage (AHR 6.07 [95% CI 4.83–7.62]), or termination (AHR 12.84 [95% CI 10.07–16.37]). Perinatal complications in a pregnancy following EP were not significantly higher than those in primigravidae or in women with a previous miscarriage or termination. Conclusion Women with an initial EP have a lower chance of conception than those who miscarry but an increased risk of a repeat EP in comparison with all three comparison groups. A

  8. [Reproductive health among migrant women in Geneva: what are the challenges for Community-based participatory research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt N C; Fargnoli V

    2014-10-22

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) focuses on inequalities in health by involving community members and researchers in all parts of the research process. The project COMIRES (COmmunity Migrant RESearch), based in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University Hospitals of Geneva, engages academic researchers and migrant communities in Geneva in a co-learning process to understand barriers to reproductive health services and evaluate the role of the community. The article illustrates the methodological approach, but also advantages and challenges of CBPR.

  9. Between Needs and Taboos: Sexuality and Reproductive Health Education for High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Teresa Pakasi; Reni Kartikawati

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents’ knowledge on sexuality and reproductive health is still limited, although there have been initiatives to provide sexual and reproductive health education as indicated by previous studies. This paper examines reproductive health and sexuality education for adolescents that has been conducted by government and non-government at the high school level. This paper is based on a research using mixed methods of quantitative methods that are supported by qualitative. Quantitative methods...

  10. Census techniques and methods for monitoring population trends and reproductive success of marine birds: A preliminary annotated bibliography draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This draft biography draws together 79 published and unpublished sources which are helpful in designing and conducting monitoring population trends and reproductive...

  11. [Reproductibility of the morphological identification of schisocytes and evaluation of non observer-dependent methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesesve, J-F; Lecompte, T; Alla, F; Fenneteau, O; Cynober, T; Siest, J-P; Troussard, X; Flandrin, G

    2005-01-01

    Schistocytes are red blood cell fragments observed on a blood smear. They are a mark of mechanical haemolytic anaemias whose group of the thrombotic micro-angiopathies requires an urgent treatment. The detection of the schistocytes and sometimes their quantification are thus of primary importance. To evaluate this search for schistocytes, several surveys of practice were carried out (1999-2003) including pictures of blood fields (identification of schistocytes among abnormal red blood cells) near biologists of variable level of specialization. The aim was to try to lead to a consensus, in particular for the morphological criterias of identification. Our results indicated that: 1) the biologists are badly sensitized with the importance of this research and the consequences of their response for the diagnosis; 2) the morphological identification of the schistocytes is difficult with an important variability of the criteria according to the observers. An investigation overviewed by the French Group of Cellular Hematology (Delphi method) allowed the development of a morphological consensus (fragments of triangular/crescent/helmet forms with rectilinear zone testifying to the zone of break). In order to cancel the observer-dependent identification of the schistocytes, a software of morphometric analysis (Q-WIN, Leica) was developed for sorting, starting from digitalized microscopic fields, the fragmented - among the normal - red blood cells. The results appeared encouraging, but not yet optimized. An automated analyzer (Bayer ADVIA 120) was also evaluated for the measurement of the schizocytes ("fragmented red blood cells" parameter). The moderate over-estimation of the real schizocytes (+ 0,4%) encouraged to observe the clinical value of the fragmented red blood cells detection in a group of patients that undergone a bone-marrow transplantation. The predictive value of the test (98%) was satisfactory.

  12. Cytogenetic Study of 100 Couples with Reproductive Failure by GTG-Banding Method in the Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Alizadeh Hajikhajehlu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Infertility (abortion & stillbirth is one of the most common medical problems during pregnancy. Approximately 10-15% of all clinically recognized pregnancies are lost before the birth. Pregnancy loss is a multifactorial phenomenon. This study was an attempt to analysis the cytogenetic abnormalities of the parents with frequent spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. Methods: In this study, the samples were analyzed by GTG-banding technique. Results: From a total of 200 reviewed blood samples, 188 persons (94% had natural karyotype and 12 persons (6% had chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosomal aberrations were found in 5 (2.5% females and 7 (3.5% males. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was as follows: 5(41.6% pericentric inversion of chromosome 9, 3 (25% polymorphism 15p+, 1(8.3% translocation, 1 (8.3% polymorphism 15ps+, 1 (8.3% polymorphism 1qh+ and 1 (8.3% unknown chromophil band on the short arm of chromosome 21. Conclusion: Chromosomal analysis is an important etiological investigation in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions and stillbirth, and genetic counseling helps to make a correct decision on further options of reproduction.

  13. Thiol-based redox regulation in sexual plant reproduction: new insights and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Jose A.; Pulido, Amada; Rodríguez-García, María I.; Alché, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    The success of sexual reproduction in plants involves (i) the proper formation of the plant gametophytes (pollen and embryo sac) containing the gametes, (ii) the accomplishment of specific interactions between pollen grains and the stigma, which subsequently lead to (iii) the fusion of the gametes and eventually to (iv) the seed setting. Owing to the lack of mobility, plants have developed specific regulatory mechanisms to control all developmental events underlying the sexual plant reproduction according to environmental challenges. Over the last decade, redox regulation and signaling have come into sight as crucial mechanisms able to manage critical stages during sexual plant reproduction. This regulation involves a complex redox network which includes reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), glutathione and other classic buffer molecules or antioxidant proteins, and some thiol/disulphide-containing proteins belonging to the thioredoxin superfamily, like glutaredoxins (GRXs) or thioredoxins (TRXs). These proteins participate as critical elements not only in the switch between the mitotic to the meiotic cycle but also at further developmental stages of microsporogenesis. They are also implicated in the regulation of pollen rejection as the result of self-incompatibility. In addition, they display precise space-temporal patterns of expression and are present in specific localizations like the stigmatic papillae or the mature pollen, although their functions and subcellular localizations are not clear yet. In this review we summarize insights and perspectives about the presence of thiol/disulphide-containing proteins in plant reproduction, taking into account the general context of the cell redox network. PMID:24294217

  14. Applications of Bayesian Phylodynamic Methods in a Recent U.S. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamis, Mohammad A; Perez, Andres M; Murtaugh, Michael P; Wang, Xiong; Morrison, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Classical phylogenetic methods such as neighbor-joining or maximum likelihood trees, provide limited inferences about the evolution of important pathogens and ignore important evolutionary parameters and uncertainties, which in turn limits decision making related to surveillance, control, and prevention resources. Bayesian phylodynamic models have recently been used to test research hypotheses related to evolution of infectious agents. However, few studies have attempted to model the evolutionary dynamics of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and, to the authors' knowledge, no attempt has been made to use large volumes of routinely collected data, sometimes referred to as big data, in the context of animal disease surveillance. The objective of this study was to explore and discuss the applications of Bayesian phylodynamic methods for modeling the evolution and spread of a notable 1-7-4 RFLP-type PRRSV between 2014 and 2015. A convenience sample of 288 ORF5 sequences was collected from 5 swine production systems in the United States between September 2003 and March 2015. Using coalescence and discrete trait phylodynamic models, we were able to infer population growth and demographic history of the virus, identified the most likely ancestral system (root state posterior probability = 0.95) and revealed significant dispersal routes (Bayes factor > 6) of viral exchange among systems. Results indicate that currently circulating viruses are evolving rapidly, and show a higher level of relative genetic diversity over time, when compared to earlier relatives. Biological soundness of model results is supported by the finding that sow farms were responsible for PRRSV spread within the systems. Such results cannot be obtained by traditional phylogenetic methods, and therefore, our results provide a methodological framework for molecular epidemiological modeling of new PRRSV outbreaks and demonstrate the prospects of phylodynamic models to inform

  15. Applications of Bayesian Phylodynamic Methods in a Recent U.S. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Alkhamis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Classical phylogenetic methods such as neighbor-joining or maximum likelihood trees, provide limited inferences about the evolution of important pathogens and ignore important evolutionary parameters and uncertainties, which in turn limits decision making related to surveillance, control and prevention resources. Bayesian phylodynamic models have recently been used to test research hypothesis related to evolution of infectious agents. However, few studies have attempted to model the evolutionary dynamics of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and, to the authors’ knowledge, no attempt has been made to use large volumes of routinely collected data, sometimes referred to as big data, in the context of animal disease surveillance. The objective of this study was to explore and discuss the applications of Bayesian phylodynamic methods for modeling the evolution and spread of a notable 1-7-4 RFLP-type PRRSV between 2014 and 2015. A convenience sample of 288 ORF5 sequences was collected from 5 swine production systems in the United States between September 2003 and March 2015. Using coalescence and discrete trait phylodynamic models, we were able to infer population growth and demographic history of the virus, identified the most likely ancestral system (root state posterior probability = 0.95 and revealed significant dispersal routes (Bayes factor > 6 of viral exchange among systems. Results indicate that currently circulating viruses are evolving rapidly, and show a higher level of relative genetic diversity over time, when compared to earlier relatives. Biological soundness of model results is supported by the finding that sow farms were responsible for PRRSV spread within the systems. Such results can’t be obtained by traditional phylogenetic methods, and therefore, our results provide a methodological framework for molecular epidemiological modeling of new PRRSV outbreaks and demonstrate the prospects of phylodynamic

  16. COMPANY VALUATION METHODS BASED ON PATRIMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods used for the company valuation can be divided into 3 main groups: methods based on patrimony,methods based on financial performance, methods based both on patrimony and on performance. The companyvaluation methods based on patrimony are implemented taking into account the balance sheet or the financialstatement. The financial statement refers to that type of balance in which the assets are arranged according to liquidity,and the liabilities according to their financial maturity date. The patrimonial methods are based on the principle thatthe value of the company equals that of the patrimony it owns. From a legal point of view, the patrimony refers to allthe rights and obligations of a company. The valuation of companies based on their financial performance can be donein 3 ways: the return value, the yield value, the present value of the cash flows. The mixed methods depend both onpatrimony and on financial performance or can make use of other methods.

  17. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narbada Thapa

    Full Text Available Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age.A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis.National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0, last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7 and last 30 days (current drinking 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1. There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94

  18. A spreadsheet-based model demonstrating the nonuniform economic effects of varying reproductive performance in Ohio dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, C; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Frazer, G S

    2005-03-01

    A spreadsheet-based model was developed to estimate the economic effect of varying reproductive performance in dairy herds. Scenarios were created to model an average cow with respect to production, herd lifetime, and reproductive events. Average milk yield per day of life as well as lifetime calf and replacement heifer production were examined. Additional inputs representing milk, feed, semen, calf, and salvage prices were used to calculate net cash flow for each day of herd life for the average cow in a scenario. Economic comparison of different scenarios was accomplished using an equivalent annual cash flow (annuity) methodology.Herd performance measures and prices representative of Ohio dairy herds were used to establish a baseline average cow that had a 160-d calving-to-conception interval [days open (DO)]. Alternative scenarios that differed from baseline in DO, annual culling rate, and feed and milk prices were created to characterize the effects of changes. Under scenario inputs representative of typical Ohio dairy herds, the model indicated that a lower annual culling rate (25%) was preferable to higher annual culling rates (34 or 45%). The model estimated maximum average milk yield per day of life to occur at 110 DO. At 34% annual culling rate, calves and replacement heifers produced per lifetime declined as DO increased; beyond 150 DO, the modeled cow produced less than 1 replacement heifer per lifetime. The model also estimated a loss of $1.37 per cow per year for a 1-d increase in DO beyond 160 d. At 20% higher feed and milk prices, the model estimated a loss of $1.52 per cow per year; at 20% lower feed and milk prices, the model estimated a loss of $1.23 per cow per year. Furthermore, the model suggested that the loss associated with a 1-d increase in DO changed as DO changed. Using baseline inputs, the model calculated losses for a 1-d increase of $0.44 per cow per year at 130 DO and $1.71 per cow per year at 190 DO. The nonuniform nature of the cost

  19. An interactive segmentation method based on superpixel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Shu; Zhu, Yaping; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an interactive image-segmentation method which is based on superpixel. To achieve fast segmentation, the method is used to establish a Graphcut model using superpixels as nodes, and a new energy function is proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that the authors' method has...... excellent performance in terms of segmentation accuracy and computation efficiency compared with other segmentation algorithm based on pixels....

  20. Digital Autofocusing Method Based on Contourlet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The autofocusing technique based on contourlet transform is discussed in this paper and an autofocusing method is proposed for images with much information in certain directions. The experimental results show that theproposed method can focus accurately and the sensitivity ratio is higher than that of the other autofocusing methods based on conventional image processing

  1. Studies on Dairy Cattle Reproduction Performances in Morocco Based on Analysis of Artificial Insemination Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sraïri, MT.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of 160 to 640 per circuit. Average conception rate was 48.1 %, with a continuous increase from 44.3 to 58.6 %, despite growing number of performed Al. Statistical analysis reveal a significant variation of conception rate between years, in agreement with previous works on cattle reproduction performances in harsh conditions. Mean calving interval was 404.8 days. It was significantly different between circuits (P <0.05. This resuit was explained by Al history in the three circuits (date of implementation and by their structural characteristics (number of cows and length in km. The overall improvement of Al activity (more Al performed and better conception rate could be explained by a greater inseminators' adaptation to their working environment, combined to the progressive elimination of farms with poor dairy cattle reproduction management. This trend was confirmed by discriminant analysis of field survey results, as cattle breeders with real specialisation in milk production (more than 65 % of total land devoted to forages and few sheep have been found to be fervent Al demanders, whereas farms with more interest in cereals and sheep often stop Al. Those observations show that a continuous Al programs evaluation is urgent, in order to select dairy breeders which are really interested in that technique and to avoid the dissipation of the inseminators limited time and resources.

  2. Evaluation of a school-based reproductive health education program in rural South Western, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, Ademola J; Brieger, William R

    2007-08-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared the relative efficacy of teacher instructions alone, peer education alone, and a combination of these two on reproductive health knowledge, attitude, perceived self-efficacy and sexual practices among secondary schools students in the Ibarapa district of Southwestern Nigeria. A baseline questionnaire was administered to a systematic sample of students in four schools that were randomized into four treatment arms: teacher instructions alone (E1), peer education alone (E2), combination of teacher instruction and peer education (E3), and control. The results were used to design the contents of the interventions, which were implemented for one academic session. A follow-up survey using the same sampling procedures as baseline was conducted to measure the outcome of the intervention. The control group had superior reproductive health knowledge at baseline. By follow-up survey however, all three intervention schools showed significant knowledge gains, while the control school students' mean score increased slightly. Increase in knowledge was greatest among E3 (+5.0 points), followed by E2 (+3.4), E1 (+1.4) and C (0.3). The intervention schools showed a significant positive shift in attitude towards use of contraceptives with mean increase of 0.6, 0.5, and 0.9 points in E1, E2 and E3 respectively. Scores that measured the students' perceived self-efficacy for safe sex increased significantly among E1 (from 10.8 to 11.8) and E3 (from 10.4 to 12.6). Reported condom use was significantly higher among E2 (from 16.7 % to 62.8%) (p 0.05) and control (from 25% to 45.8%) (p > 0.05). Overall, the students from E3 showed more improvement in knowledge, attitude and self-efficacy, than their counterparts from E2 and E3 and control. Multiple intervention strategies have greater potential of improving reproductive health of students.

  3. Gender-Based Violence in Rural Uttar Pradesh, India: Prevalence and Association With Reproductive Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jaleel; Khan, M E; Mozumdar, Arupendra; Varma, Deepthi S

    2015-05-06

    This study explores the prevalence of different forms of domestic violence and their impact on women's reproductive health behavior in rural Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. Data were collected as a part of a large household survey carried out in 2009-2010. A multistage stratified systematic sampling design was used. A total of 4,223 married women aged 15 to 49 years and 2,274 husbands of these women were interviewed. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. More than one third of married women in rural UP had experienced one or more forms of violence, such as verbal abuse, physical manhandling, and sexual abuse by their spouse. Nearly 47% of the women had experienced some form of violence during their last pregnancy. Significant associations were found between violence and incorrect reproductive health behaviors, pregnancy complications, poor birth preparedness, poor likelihood of institutional delivery, limited postnatal care, and limited spousal communication for family planning. After controlling for socio-economic variables in multivariate analysis, only pregnancy complications (odds ratio [OR] = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.40, 1.85]) and lack of delivery preparedness (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = [0.68, 0.93]) were found to be significantly associated with violence. Husband's attitude and reporting of violence by their wives in different situations were not significantly associated. This study provides evidence of the association of violence on the reproductive health behavior of married women in rural India. The results argue for frontline health workers to identify and counsel pregnant women experiencing violence during antenatal check-up to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Early smoking initiation, sexual behavior and reproductive health - a large population-based study of Nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo Terning; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health.......To investigate associations between early smoking initiation, risk-taking behavior and reproductive health....

  5. Effect of preservation methods of oil palm sap (Elaeis guineensis) on the reproductive indices of male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegwu, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu; Okafor, Gabriel Ifeanyi; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu Shedrack

    2014-12-01

    Thirty male Wistar rats, split into five groups of six rats each, were administered different forms of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) sap samples by gavage based on 1.5% of their weekly body weights. Group 1 which served as control received only water, group 2 received pasteurized palm sap (PPS), group 3 received market palm wine (MPW), group 4 received frozen palm sap (FPS), whereas group 5 received fresh palm sap (FrPS). Chemical composition of the sap samples was determined. Normal feed and water were fed ad libitum. After 2 months of treatment, each male rat group was allowed 7 days to mate with six female Wistar rats. Thereafter, blood and epididymal samples were collected for testosterone assay and sperm count, respectively, before they were humanely sacrificed and testicular tissues taken for testicular histology. Litter weight and size of the pups produced by the females of each group were determined at birth. The sap samples contained carbohydrate (0.01-11.71%), protein (1.56-1.95%), ash (0.22-0.35%), moisture (92.55-98.24%), and alcohol (0.26-3.50%). PPS-treated rat group had significantly (P<.05) decreased sperm count (42.60±23.64×10(6)), abnormal increase in testosterone level, and necrosis in the histology of the testes with reduced spermatogenetic activity, compared with other treatment groups. The female rats crossed with male rats fed on FrPS or FPS produced the highest number of pups followed by the control group. This study demonstrated that the intake of FrPS improved fertility in male animals, but its administration for a long period led to necrotic changes in the testes, whereas pasteurization of palm sap, impacted negatively on the reproductive indices of male animals.

  6. An evaluation of the sexual system of Garcinia atroviridis L. (Clusiaceae, based on reproductive features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasithorn Pangsuban

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The sexual system of Garcinia atroviridis was evaluated regarding the basic structural specialization and reproductive characters under natural conditions. The species is gynodioecious with females (trees producing pistillate flowers, but hermaphrodites (trees producing perfect flowers co-occurred in the study site.Significant morphological and anatomical variation was found between pure female and hermaphroditic flowers. Hermaphrodites have relatively long-filament flowers and produce abundant fertile pollen grains, whereas the females produce pollenless anthers. They also differ significantly in reproductive characters. Hermaphrodite flowers have more flowers per inflorescence than female flowers, but they gradually drop off before fruit setting. In contrast, female trees had relatively greater ovules per flower, larger fruits and more seeds per fruit than hermaphrodite trees. Moreover, average seed number from female trees was at least 1.7 times higher than that of the hermaphrodite trees. Interestingly, the fruit diameter of hermaphrodites was positively correlated to the number of seeds, whereas it was unrelated in females.

  7. Structure-based modelling in reproductive toxicology: (Q)SARs for the placental barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, M; Madden, J C; Rowe, P H; Cronin, M T D

    2007-01-01

    The replacement of animal testing for endpoints such as reproductive toxicity is a long-term goal. This study describes the possibilities of using simple (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ((Q)SARs) to predict whether a molecule may cross the placental membrane. The concept is straightforward, if a molecule is not able to cross the placental barrier, then it will not be a reproductive toxicant. Such a model could be placed at the start of any integrated testing strategy. To develop these models the literature was reviewed to obtain data relating to the transfer of molecules across the placenta. A reasonable number of data were obtained and are suitable for the modelling of the ability of a molecule to cross the placenta. Clearance or transfer indices data were sought due to their ability to eliminate inter-placental variation by standardising drug clearance to the reference compound antipyrine. Modelling of the permeability data indicates that (Q)SARs with reasonable statistical fit can be developed for the ability of molecules to cross the placental barrier membrane. Analysis of the models indicates that molecular size, hydrophobicity and hydrogen-bonding ability are molecular properties that may govern the ability of a molecule to cross the placental barrier.

  8. A model of myxomatosis based on hormonal control of rabbit-flea reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, P L; Seymour, R M

    1988-01-01

    A two-dimensional first-order nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients is constructed to model the rabbit/flea dynamics of the European rabbit viral disease known as myxomatosis. It is proved that infected fleas induce stable oscillations of small amplitude for a range of coefficient values when the Rothschild coupling coefficient r, which models biochemical control of flea reproduction by the rabbit, attains a critical (Hopf) value rO. These oscillations may lead to rapid local extinction of rabbits depending on the virulence gamma 2 of myxoma. The coefficient gamma 1 = r gamma 2 measures the effect on the fleas. Since the four determining coefficients may change over evolutionary time-scales, the mathematical results together with a natural selection argument proves that virulence gamma 2 attenuates. This has been observed both in Australia and in Great Britain. However, the rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi is not an effective vector for myxoma in Australia, but is the principal vector in Britain, as verified by R. Muirhead-Thomson at the suggestion of M. Rothschild. This preliminary model assumes density-independent rabbit reproductivity pR, but the qualitative results hold for a wider class of density-dependent models. Yet, the former condition is basic for the technique of parameter reduction used to simplify statistical estimation of the more general density-dependent model.

  9. Development of a theory-based sexual and reproductive health promotion and HIV prevention program for Chinese early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingfang; Fongkaew, Warunee; Senaratana, Wilawan; Tonmukayakul, Ouyporn

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a theory-based program for Chinese early adolescents in order to promote their sexual and reproductive health and to prevent HIV infection. The program was designed based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model and a needs assessment among the stakeholders. A technical collaborative action research approach was applied. The study's participants were 102 early adolescents in a public middle school in mainland China, with the involvement of other key stakeholders, including 15 teachers and 12 parents. The results revealed a statistically significant improvement in the scores of sexual and reproductive health promotion and HIV prevention information, motivation, and behavioral skills after the program's implementation. Meanwhile, qualitative data from the early adolescents' reflection indicated that the content was useful and comprehensive, the trainers were friendly and knowledgeable, and participatory learning with an "edutainment" style was especially impressive. Additionally, the early adolescents expressed that they could apply the knowledge and skills in their daily life, which would benefit themselves and their family and peers. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model could be explored in a non-Western context and the program was shown to be acceptable for use in a Chinese middle school setting.

  10. Research on BOM based composable modeling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; He, Q.; Gong, J.

    2013-01-01

    Composable modeling method has been a research hotpot in the area of Modeling and Simulation for a long time. In order to increase the reuse and interoperability of BOM based model, this paper put forward a composable modeling method based on BOM, studied on the basic theory of composable modeling m

  11. The politics of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  12. Reproductive prognosis in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt Hansen, Maj V; Dalsgaard, Torur; Hartwell, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproductive long-term prognosis of women with and without endometriosis, to explore changes over time, and to quantify the contribution of artificial reproductive techniques. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark 1977-2009. SAMPLE: Data retrieved from four national...... registries. Among 15-49-year-old women during the period 1977-82, 24 667 were diagnosed with endometriosis and 98 668 (1:4) women without endometriosis were age-matched. METHODS: To assess long-term reproductive prognosis, all pregnancy outcomes were identified among the women with and without endometriosis......, but this was restricted to pregnancies from assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: Women with endometriosis have slightly fewer children, but this lessened over time due to artificially conceived pregnancies. The risk for miscarriages and ectopic pregnancies was increased compared with women without the disease....

  13. Geodemographic regional system research: information provision and methodical bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Сегіда

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The most reasonable and prudent method to consider the region’s population as a regional geodemographic system and its features lies in its inseparable connection with the general process of regional soсiogeosystem’s development that takes into account many factors including regional development, which influence the geodemographic processes in the region. Geodemographic system is treated as a functional component in soсigeosystem at the heart of social and geographical concepts. Geodemographic system of the region is based on five methodological approaches: geographical, systemic, synergistic, historical and informational. The authors elucidate methodological features of geodemographic study of the region from the perspective of human geography. These methodological approaches to study basic techniques and application features are disclosed in the content. Among the scientific methods we consider probabilistic and statistical methods, methods of organizing, summarizing, comparing, system analysis, modeling. Among specific methods are mapping method, IFV modeling, development trajectory modeling, component analysis of the initial vector, other methods of multivariate analysis and GIS technology. The special research methods of geodemographic system include a system of techniques to study the characteristics of population distribution in the territory, and a number of demographic and geodemographic methods and techniques to establish the demographic characteristics of the territories. The geodemographic software research system of the region is presented; the list of statistical indicators for information database is mentioned. The demographic index groups to characterize the system, including vital factors of speed, intensity of demographic processes, reproduction and structural factors are defined. The key demographic factors and coefficients are presented both in absolute,and relative units. Database features to implement social and

  14. Reproductive health knowledge among African American women enrolled in a clinic-based randomized controlled trial to reduce psychosocial and behavioral risk, Project DC-HOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Robledo, Candace A.; Wallace, Maeve E.; Flores, Katrina F.; Kiely, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Background Washington, D.C. has among the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy in the United States. Increasing women’s reproductive health knowledge may help address these reproductive health issues. This analysis assessed whether high-risk pregnant African American women in Washington, D.C. who participated in an intervention to reduce behavioral and psychosocial risks had greater reproductive health knowledge than women receiving usual care. Methods Project DC-HOPE was a randomized controlled trial that included pregnant African American women in Washington, D.C., recruited during prenatal care. Women in the intervention group were provided reproductive health education and received tailored counseling sessions to address their psychosocial and behavioral risk(s) (cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression, and intimate partner violence). Women in the control group received usual prenatal care. Participants completed a 10-item reproductive knowledge assessment at baseline (n=1,044) and postpartum (n=830). Differences in total reproductive health knowledge scores at baseline and postpartum between groups were examined via chi-squared tests. Differences in postpartum mean total score by group were assessed via multiple linear regression. Results Women in both groups and at both time points scored approximately 50% on the knowledge assessments. At postpartum, women in the intervention group had higher total scores compared to women receiving usual care (mean 5.40 [SD 1.60] vs. 5.03 [SD 1.53] out of 10, respectively; p<0.001). Conclusions While intervention participants increased reproductive health knowledge, overall scores remained low. Development of interventions designed to impart accurate, individually tailored information to women may promote reproductive health knowledge among high-risk pregnant African American women residing in Washington, D.C. PMID:27094910

  15. The goitre rate, its association with reproductive failure, and the knowledge of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD among women in Ethiopia: Cross-section community based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane Yemane

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency is severe public health problem in Ethiopia. Although urinary iodine excretion level (UIE is a better indicator for IDD the goitre rate is commonly used to mark the public health significance. The range of ill effect of IDD is however beyond goitre in Ethiopia. In this study the prevalence of goitre and its association with reproductive failure, and the knowledge of women on Iodine Deficiency were investigated. Methods A cross-section community based study was conducted during February to May 2005 in 10998 women in child bearing age of 15 to 49 years. To assess the state of iodine deficiency in Ethiopia, a multistage "Proportional to Population Size" (PPS sampling methods was used, and WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommended method for goitre classification. Results Total goitre prevalence (weighted was 35.8% (95% CI 34.5–37.1, 24.3% palpable and 11.5% visible goitre. This demonstrates that more than 6 million women were affected by goitre. Goitre prevalence in four regional states namely Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP, Oromia, Bebshandul-Gumuz and Tigray was greater than 30%, an indication of severe iodine deficiency. In the rest of the regions except Gambella, the IDD situation was mild to moderate. According to WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD this is a lucid indication that IDD is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Women with goitre experience more pregnancy failure (X2 = 16.5, p 2 = 67.52; p Conclusion Ethiopia is at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The findings presented in this report emphasis on a sustainable iodine intervention program targeted at population particularly reproductive age women. Nutrition education along with Universal Salt Iodization program and iodized oil capsule distribution in some peripheries where iodine deficiency is severe is urgently required.

  16. Instance Based Methods --- A Brief Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgartner, Peter; 10.1007/s13218-010-0002-x

    2012-01-01

    Instance-based methods are a specific class of methods for automated proof search in first-order logic. This article provides an overview of the major methods in the area and discusses their properties and relations to the more established resolution methods. It also discusses some recent trends on refinements and applications. This overview is rather brief and informal, but we provide a comprehensive literature list to follow-up on the details.

  17. Reliability-based concurrent subspace optimization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hui; LI Wei-ji

    2008-01-01

    To avoid the high computational cost and much modification in the process of applying traditional re-liability-based design optimization method, a new reliability-based concurrent subspace optimization approach is proposed based on the comparison and analysis of the existing muhidisciplinary optimization techniques and reli-ability assessment methods. It is shown through a canard configuration optimization for a three-surface transport that the proposed method is computationally efficient and practical with the least modification to the current de-terministic optimization process.

  18. NGS-Based Assay for the Identification of Individuals Carrying Recessive Genetic Mutations in Reproductive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulí, Anna; Boada, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Santiago, Benjamín; Coroleu, Buenaventura; Veiga, Anna; Armengol, Lluís; Barri, Pedro N; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Estivill, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the capacity of carrier screening in gamete donation (GD) programs. We have developed and validated an NGS carrier-screening test (qCarrier test) that includes 200 genes associated with 368 disorders (277 autosomal recessive and 37 X-linked). Carrier screening is performed on oocyte donation candidates and the male partner of oocyte recipient. Carriers of X-linked conditions are excluded from the GD program, whereas donors are chosen who do not carry mutations for the same gene/disease as the recipients. The validation phase showed a high sensitivity (>99% sensitivity) detecting all single-nucleotide variants, 13 indels, and 25 copy-number variants included in the validation set. A total of 1,301 individuals were analysed with the qCarrier test, including 483 candidate oocyte donors and 635 receptor couples, 105 females receiving sperm donation, and 39 couples seeking pregnancy. We identified 56% of individuals who are carriers for at least one genetic condition and 1.7% of female donors who were excluded from the program due to a carrier state of X-linked conditions. Globally, 3% of a priori assigned donations had a high reproductive risk that could be minimized after testing. Genetic counselling at different stages is essential for helping to facilitate a successful and healthy pregnancy.

  19. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  20. Reproductive History and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N. M.; Jorgensen, K. T.; Stenager, E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that reproductive factors may be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied associations of reproductive history with MS risk in a population-based setting. Methods: Using national databases, we established a cohort comprising 4.4 million...... Danish men and women born between 1935 and 1989 and alive in 1968 or later. We obtained information about their live-born children, pregnancy losses, pregnancy complications, and infertility diagnoses. MS cases in the cohort were identified through 2004 in the Danish Register of Multiple Sclerosis...

  1. Intrauterine Devices and Reproductive Tract Infections: A Cross-sectional Study in Urban Slum

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    "Introduction: The concern that intrauterine devices (IUDs) might cause or facilitate reproductive tract infection has limited its use. Objectives: The study aims to explore the relationship between reproductive tract infections & IUD use. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross sectional study conducted in STI/RTI Clinic located in urban slums of Mumbai, involving total 169 married females of reproductive age group who presented with symptoms of RTI and using atleast o...

  2. Improving reproductive health knowledge in rural China--a web-based strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Songyuan; Tian, Lichuan; Cao, Wei Wei; Zhang, Kaining; Detels, Roger; Li, Virginia C

    2009-01-01

    In China, one of the major problems in upgrading rural health services is the difficulty of communicating between the rural and urban areas. Enabling local agencies to access the Internet in resource-poor areas can provide an efficient means of diffusing current training and information and will have far-reaching policy implications. To test the feasibility of using the Internet to deliver needed health information to the countryside, the UCLA School of Public Health and the Institute of Health Studies of Kunming Medical College (IHS-KMC) collaborated in an experimental website project to improve the quality of reproductive health services to promote women's health in three rural counties of Yunnan. The project involved the county government and the Bureau of Public Health, the Bureau of Family Planning; the Bureau of Education, Women's Federation, and the Maternal and Child Health Station targeting village health workers and teachers; women's cadres. Three counties, matched on socioeconomic status, participated in the study and were randomized to receive three programs. Nanhua County received computer skill training and logistic support including a planning workshop for information diffusion. Mouding County received computers only. Dayao, the control county, did not receive the full program until the conclusion of the project. The study demonstrated that the use of a website to disseminate health information in remote rural areas is not only feasible but that it also will be enthusiastically adopted by local health workers and interested parties. Moreover, the knowledge was diffused from the primary population of village doctors, family planning workers, women's cadres, and teachers to the secondary population of villagers and students.

  3. Decision making based on data analysis methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sirola, Miki; Sulkava, Mika

    2016-01-01

    This technical report is based on four our recent articles:"Data fusion of pre-election gallups and polls for improved support estimates", "Analyzing parliamentary elections based on voting advice application data", "The Finnish car rejection reasons shown in an interactive SOM visualization tool", and "Network visualization of car inspection data using graph layout". Neural methods are applied in political and technical decision making. We introduce decision support schemes based on Self-Org...

  4. Software Testing Method Based on Model Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-dong; LU Yan-sheng; MAO Cheng-yin

    2008-01-01

    A model comparison based software testing method (MCST) is proposed. In this method, the requirements and programs of software under test are transformed into the ones in the same form, and described by the same model describe language (MDL).Then, the requirements are transformed into a specification model and the programs into an implementation model. Thus, the elements and structures of the two models are compared, and the differences between them are obtained. Based on the diffrences, a test suite is generated. Different MDLs can be chosen for the software under test. The usages of two classical MDLs in MCST, the equivalence classes model and the extended finite state machine (EFSM) model, are described with example applications. The results show that the test suites generated by MCST are more efficient and smaller than some other testing methods, such as the path-coverage testing method, the object state diagram testing method, etc.

  5. Establishing the Canadian HIV Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS: Operationalizing Community-based Research in a Large National Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Loutfy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based research has gained increasing recognition in health research over the last two decades. Such participatory research approaches are lauded for their ability to anchor research in lived experiences, ensuring cultural appropriateness, accessing local knowledge, reaching marginalized communities, building capacity, and facilitating research-to-action. While having these positive attributes, the community-based health research literature is predominantly composed of small projects, using qualitative methods, and set within geographically limited communities. Its use in larger health studies, including clinical trials and cohorts, is limited. We present the Canadian HIV Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS, a large-scale, multi-site, national, longitudinal quantitative study that has operationalized community-based research in all steps of the research process. Successes, challenges and further considerations are offered. Discussion Through the integration of community-based research principles, we have been successful in: facilitating a two-year long formative phase for this study; developing a novel survey instrument with national involvement; training 39 Peer Research Associates (PRAs; offering ongoing comprehensive support to PRAs; and engaging in an ongoing iterative community-based research process. Our community-based research approach within CHIWOS demanded that we be cognizant of challenges managing a large national team, inherent power imbalances and challenges with communication, compensation and volunteering considerations, and extensive delays in institutional processes. It is important to consider the iterative nature of community-based research and to work through tensions that emerge given the diverse perspectives of numerous team members. Conclusions Community-based research, as an approach to large-scale quantitative health research projects, is an increasingly viable

  6. Concentrations of steroid hormones, estrous, ovarian and reproductive responses in sheep estrous synchronized with different prostaglandin-based protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, S; Viñoles, C; Olivera-Muzante, J

    2016-04-01

    To determine estrous, ovarian and reproductive responses after different prostaglandin (PG)-based protocols, ewes were assigned to groups PG10, PG12, PG14 or PG16 (twoPG injections administered 10, 12, 14 or 16 days apart; respectively). Experiment I (n=132) was conducted to evaluate the estrous response, ovulation rate (OR), conception and fertility. Experiment II (n=24) was conducted to evaluate ovarian follicle growth, steroid concentrations and the interval from the second PG injection to estrus (PG-estrus) and ovulation (PG-ovulation). Estrous response was less with the PG16 (P0.05). From 8 to 4 days before estrus, progesterone (P4) concentrations were greater for the PG14 and PG16 than for the PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) groups. There were more days where concentrations of P4 were above 3.18 nmol/L with the PG14 and PG16 than PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) treatments. Use of the PG14 and PG16 treatments resulted in greater estradiol (E2) at estrus and 12h later than use of the PG10 and PG12 treatments. A positive correlation was observed between the duration of the luteal phase and maximum E2 concentrations, and between duration of the luteal phase and days with E2 concentrations above 10 pmol/L. Conception and fertility were greater with use of the PG14 compared with PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) treatments. The administration of two PG injections 10, 12, 14 or 16 days apart resulted in different durations of the luteal phase that were positively associated with E2 concentrations and the reproductive outcome. The shorter luteal phases were associated with greater synchrony in time of estrus. The intervals for the variables PG-estrus, PG-ovulation and OR were similar among groups.

  7. Human reproductive issues in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    A review of reproductive functioning in animal species studied during space flight demonstrated that most species were affected significantly by the absence of gravity and/or the presence of radiation. These two factors induced alterations in normal reproductive functioning independently of, as well as in combination with, each other. Based on animal models, several potential problem areas regarding human reproductive physiology and functioning in the space environment were identified. While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier.

  8. Prioritization of candidate genes for cattle reproductive traits, based on protein-protein interactions, gene expression, and text-mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, B.; Woelders, H.; Smits, M.A.; Schokker, D.; Jiang, L.; Sorensen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is of significant economic importance in dairy cattle. Improved understanding of mechanisms that control estrous behavior and other reproduction traits could help in developing strategies to improve and/or monitor these traits. The objective of this study was to predict and rank genes

  9. Reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  10. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  11. Reproductive hacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin Rubinstein, C; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through “hacking” a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  12. Predictors of reducing sexual and reproductive risk behaviors based on the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB model among unmarried rural-to-urban female migrants in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the increase of premarital sex and the lack of reproductive health services, unmarried rural-to-urban female migrants experience more risks of sex and reproductive health (SRH. This study was designed to describe SRH related knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors among unmarried rural-to-urban female migrants and examine the predictors of reducing sexual and reproductive risk behaviors based on information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB model and to describe the relationships between the constructs. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess SRH related information, motivation, behavioral skills and preventive behaviors among unmarried rural-to-urban female migrants in Shanghai, one of the largest importers of migrant laborers in China. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to assess the IMB model. RESULTS: A total of 944 subjects completed their questionnaires. The mean age was 21.2 years old (SD = 2.3; range 16 to 28. Over one-fourth of participants reported having had premarital sex (N = 261, 27.6% and among whom 15.3% reported having had the experience of unintended pregnancy, 14.6% with the experience of abortion. The final IMB model provided acceptable fit to the data (CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.034. Reducing sexual and reproductive risk behaviors was significantly predicted by SRH related information (β = 0.681, P<0.001 and behavioral skills(β = 0.239, P<0.001. Motivation (β = 0.479, P<0.001 was the significant indirect predictor of reducing sexual and reproductive risk behaviors mediated through behavioral skills. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance and necessity of conducting reproductive health promotion among unmarried rural-to-urban female migrants in China. The IMB model could be used to predict reducing sexual and reproductive risk behaviors and it suggests future interventions should focus on improving SRH related information and behavioral skills.

  13. Wavelet-based Multiresolution Particle Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdorf, Michael; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2006-03-01

    Particle methods offer a robust numerical tool for solving transport problems across disciplines, such as fluid dynamics, quantitative biology or computer graphics. Their strength lies in their stability, as they do not discretize the convection operator, and appealing numerical properties, such as small dissipation and dispersion errors. Many problems of interest are inherently multiscale, and their efficient solution requires either multiscale modeling approaches or spatially adaptive numerical schemes. We present a hybrid particle method that employs a multiresolution analysis to identify and adapt to small scales in the solution. The method combines the versatility and efficiency of grid-based Wavelet collocation methods while retaining the numerical properties and stability of particle methods. The accuracy and efficiency of this method is then assessed for transport and interface capturing problems in two and three dimensions, illustrating the capabilities and limitations of our approach.

  14. Effect of improving the knowledge, attitude and practice of reproductive health among female migrant workers: a worksite-based intervention in Guangzhou, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Xu, L.; Lu, C.; Wu, J.; Wang, Z.; Decat, P.; Zhang, W.-H.; Chen, Y.; Moyer, E.; Wu, S.; Minkauskiene, M.; van Braeckel, D.; Temmerman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The sexual and reproductive health (SRH) knowledge and attitudes of female migrant workers are far from optimum in China. A worksite-based intervention program on SRH-related knowledge, attitude and practice (SRH KAP) modification may be an effective approach to improve the SRH status am

  15. Investigating the Effectiveness of an Inquiry-Based Intervention on Human Reproduction in Relation to Students' Gender, Prior Knowledge and Motivation for Learning in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch.; Georgiou, Yiannis; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Kyza, Eleni A.; Mappouras, Demetrios

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of understanding how the human reproductive system works, adolescents worldwide exhibit weak conceptual understanding, which leads to serious risks, such as unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Studies focusing on the development and evaluation of inquiry-based learning interventions, promoting the…

  16. Investigating the Effectiveness of an Inquiry-Based Intervention on Human Reproduction in Relation to Students' Gender, Prior Knowledge and Motivation for Learning in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch.; Georgiou, Yiannis; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Kyza, Eleni A.; Mappouras, Demetrios

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of understanding how the human reproductive system works, adolescents worldwide exhibit weak conceptual understanding, which leads to serious risks, such as unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Studies focusing on the development and evaluation of inquiry-based learning interventions, promoting the…

  17. Scaling up a School-Based Sexual and Reproductive Health Intervention in Rural Tanzania: A Process Evaluation Describing the Implementation Realities for the Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renju, Jenny; Nyalali, Kija; Andrew, Bahati; Kishamawe, Coleman; Kimaryo, Micheal; Remes, Pieter; Changalucha, John; Obasi, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and mechanisms of factors that facilitate or inhibit the scale-up and subsequent implementation of school-based adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) interventions. We present process evaluation findings examining the factors that affected the 10-fold scale-up of such an intervention, focussing on…

  18. Race-ethnicity and medical services for infertility: stratified reproduction in a population-based sample of U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greil, Arthur L; McQuillan, Julia; Shreffler, Karina M; Johnson, Katherine M; Slauson-Blevins, Kathleen S

    2011-12-01

    Evidence of group differences in reproductive control and access to reproductive health care suggests the continued existence of "stratified reproduction" in the United States. Women of color are overrepresented among people with infertility but are underrepresented among those who receive medical services. The authors employ path analysis to uncover mechanisms accounting for these differences among black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white women using a probability-based sample of 2,162 U.S. women. Black and Hispanic women are less likely to receive services than other women. The enabling conditions of income, education, and private insurance partially mediate the relationship between race-ethnicity and receipt of services but do not fully account for the association at all levels of service. For black and Hispanic women, social cues, enabling conditions, and predisposing conditions contribute to disparities in receipt of services. Most of the association between race-ethnicity and service receipt is indirect rather than direct.

  19. Proposed method for evaluating the effects of PCBs in sediment on egg mass viability and reproductive success in frogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.S.; Henning, M.H.; Ebert, E.S. [McLaren/Hart-ChemRisk, Portland, ME (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A proposed study design for evaluating the effect of PCBs in the sediments of a large New England river on reproductive success in frogs is described. Depending on field conditions and species abundance, the study will use either bullfrogs, Rana catesbiana; spring peepers, Hyla pickeringii; or green frogs, Rana claymitans as the study model. A selected number of gravid females will be collected from both the target area and a reference area matched with respect to a number of key variables including, but not limited to, stream flow, temperature, pH, substrate type, depth, surrounding land use, and organic carbon content of sediments. The gravid frogs will be transferred to a laboratory, where the egg masses will be stripped following induced ovulation, and then fertilized using semen from males collected in the field. Egg masses will be maintained under static renewal conditions for a period up to and including 7 days post hatch, during which mortality and gross morphological appearance will be evaluated. In the event that statistically significant differences in these endpoints are noted, a dose response model will be developed to relate observed effects to previously determined PCB concentrations in egg masses and maternal tissues. The results of this study will be of significant utility in evaluating reproductive toxicity of PCBs in ecological risk assessment.

  20. Genetic aspects of female reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.; Diedrich, K.; Franks, S.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Jacobs, P. A.; Karges, B.; Kennedy, S.; Marozzi, A.; Regan, L.; Baird, D. T.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diczfalusy, E.; Evers, J. L. H.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Fraser, L.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Liebaers, I.; Ragni, G.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual reproduction provides the means for preserving genetic identity and in turn, genetic variability may affect the ability to reproduce. This review aims to summarize current research on genetic diagnosis and genetic causes of reproductive disorders.METHODS: Searches were done by sub

  1. Recommendation advertising method based on behavior retargeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; YIN, Xin-Chun; CHEN, Zhi-Min

    2011-10-01

    Online advertising has become an important business in e-commerce. Ad recommended algorithms are the most critical part in recommendation systems. We propose a recommendation advertising method based on behavior retargeting which can avoid leakage click of advertising due to objective reasons and can observe the changes of the user's interest in time. Experiments show that our new method can have a significant effect and can be further to apply to online system.

  2. Cloud Based Development Issues: A Methodical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhpal Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud based development is a challenging task for various software engineering projects, especifically for those which demand extraordinary quality, reusability and security along with general architecture. In this paper we present a report on a methodical analysis of cloud based development problems published in major computer science and software engineering journals and conferences organized by various researchers. Research papers were collected from different scholarly databases using search engines within a particular period of time. A total of 89 research papers were analyzed in this methodical study and we categorized into four classes according to the problems addressed by them. The majority of the research papers focused on quality (24 papers associated with cloud based development and 16 papers focused on analysis and design. By considering the areas focused by existing authors and their gaps, untouched areas of cloud based development can be discovered for future research works.

  3. Personnel Selection Based on Fuzzy Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Cañós

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The decisions of managers regarding the selection of staff strongly determine the success of the company. A correct choice of employees is a source of competitive advantage. We propose a fuzzy method for staff selection, based on competence management and the comparison with the valuation that the company considers the best in each competence (ideal candidate. Our method is based on the Hamming distance and a Matching Level Index. The algorithms, implemented in the software StaffDesigner, allow us to rank the candidates, even when the competences of the ideal candidate have been evaluated only in part. Our approach is applied in a numerical example.

  4. Reproductive history and risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Stenager, Egon

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that reproductive factors may be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied associations of reproductive history with MS risk in a population-based setting.......It has been suggested that reproductive factors may be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied associations of reproductive history with MS risk in a population-based setting....

  5. KNOWLEDGE BASED METHODS FOR VIDEO DATA RETRIEVAL

    OpenAIRE

    S.Thanga Ramya; P. Rangarajan

    2011-01-01

    Large collections of publicly available video data grow day by day, the need to query this dataefficiently becomes significant. Consequently, content-based retrieval of video data turns out to be achallenging and important problem. This paper addresses the specific aspect of inferring semanticsautomatically from raw video data using different knowledge-based methods. In particular, this paperfocuses on three techniques namely, rules, Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), and Dynamic BayesianNetworks (...

  6. The effect of face-to-face with telephone-based counseling on sexual satisfaction among reproductive aged women in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar Shoushtari, Shirin; Afshari, Poorandokht; Abedi, Parvin; Tabesh, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate and compare the effect of face-to-face with telephone-based counseling on sexual satisfaction in women of reproductive age in Iran. This study was a randomized controlled trial in which 46 married women who got married 1-5 years ago were randomly selected and assigned to 1 of 2 groups (face-to-face and telephone-based counseling). Two groups received counseling by a trained midwife once a week for 4 weeks. The sexual satisfaction (using the Sexual Satisfaction Index) score was calculated in the beginning of the study and after 4 weeks. An independent t test, chi-square test, likelihood ratio test, Fisher's exact test, and linear-by-linear test were used for analyzing data. The mean score of sexual satisfaction in the face-to-face group was 93.6 (SD = 7.1) and improved significantly to 108.08 (SD = 5.44) after intervention (p =.001). The mean score of sexual satisfaction in the telephone-based counseling was 93.52 (SD = 5) and increased to 113 (SD = 6.07) after 4 weeks (p =.001). Telephone-based counseling could increase the sexual satisfaction better than face-to-face counseling (mean difference: 20.34 [SD = 7.38] vs. 14.47 [SD = 5.32], p =.003). The telephone-based counseling is an effective and affordable method to solve the sexual problems and could increase the sexual satisfaction. Using this method in public health centers is recommended.

  7. Oil monitoring methods based on information theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yan-chun; HUO Hua

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the Wear condition of machines accurately,oil spectrographic entropy,mutual information and ICA analysis methods based on information theory are presented.A full-scale diagnosis utilizing all channels of spectrographic analysis can be obtained.By measuring the complexity and correlativity,the characteristics of wear condition of machines can be shown clearly.The diagnostic quality is improved.The analysis processes of these monitoring methods are given through the explanation of examples.The availability of these methods is validated and further research fields are demonstrated.

  8. Rough set-based feature selection method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Yanmei; ZENG Xiangyang; SUN Jincai

    2005-01-01

    A new feature selection method is proposed based on the discern matrix in rough set in this paper. The main idea of this method is that the most effective feature, if used for classification, can distinguish the most number of samples belonging to different classes. Experiments are performed using this method to select relevant features for artificial datasets and real-world datasets. Results show that the selection method proposed can correctly select all the relevant features of artificial datasets and drastically reduce the number of features at the same time. In addition, when this method is used for the selection of classification features of real-world underwater targets,the number of classification features after selection drops to 20% of the original feature set, and the classification accuracy increases about 6% using dataset after feature selection.

  9. Factors influencing use of long-acting versus short-acting contraceptive methods among reproductive-age women in a resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaijuka, Leevan; Odongo, Robert; Welikhe, Emma; Mukisa, Wilber; Kugonza, Lilian; Busingye, Imelda; Nabukalu, Phelomena; Ngonzi, Joseph; Asiimwe, Stephen B; Bajunirwe, Francis

    2017-04-04

    Unplanned pregnancy remains a common problem in many resource-limited settings, mostly due to limited access to modern family planning (FP) services. In particular, use of the more effective long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods (i.e., intrauterine devices and hormonal implants) remains low compared to the short-acting methods (i.e., condoms, hormonal pills, injectable hormones, and spermicides). Among reproductive-age women attending FP and antenatal care clinics in Uganda, we assessed perceptions and practices regarding the use of modern contraceptive methods. We specifically aimed to evaluate factors influencing method selection. We performed a mixed-methods cross-sectional study, in which we administered structured interviews to 180 clients, and conducted 4 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 36 clients and 8 in-depth personal qualitative interviews with health service providers. We summarized quantitative data and performed latent content analysis on transcripts from the FGDs and qualitative interviews. The prevalence of ever use for LARC methods was 23%. Method characteristics (e.g., client control) appeared to drive method selection more often than structural factors (such as method availability) or individual client characteristics (such as knowledge and perceptions). The most common reasons for choosing LARC methods were: longer protection; better child-spacing; and effectiveness. The most common reasons for not choosing LARC methods included requiring a client-controlled method and desiring to conceive in the near future. The most common reasons for choosing short-acting methods were ease of access; lower cost; privacy; perceived fewer side effects; and freedom to stop using a method without involving the health provider. The personal characteristics of clients, which appeared to be important were client knowledge and number of children. The structural factor which appeared to be important was method availability. Our results suggest that

  10. Preconception care: promoting reproductive planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Preconception care recognizes that many adolescent girls and young women will be thrust into motherhood without the knowledge, skills or support they need. Sixty million adolescents give birth each year worldwide, even though pregnancy in adolescence has mortality rates at least twice as high as pregnancy in women aged 20-29 years. Reproductive planning and contraceptive use can prevent unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually-transmitted infections in adolescent girls and women. Smaller families also mean better nutrition and development opportunities, yet 222 million couples continue to lack access to modern contraception. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Comprehensive interventions can prevent first pregnancy in adolescence by 15% and repeat adolescent pregnancy by 37%. Such interventions should address underlying social and community factors, include sexual and reproductive health services, contraceptive provision; personal development programs and emphasizes completion of education. Appropriate birth spacing (18-24 months from birth to next pregnancy compared to short intervals adolescent health and preventing adolescent pregnancy; and promotion of birth spacing through increasing correct and consistent use of effective contraception are fundamental to preconception care. Promoting reproductive planning on a wider scale is closely interlinked with the reliable provision of effective contraception, however, innovative strategies will need to be devised, or existing strategies such as community-based

  11. What is the position of Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine in its scholarly journal network based on journal metrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sun

    2014-12-01

    Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine (CERM) converted its language to English only beginning with the first issue of 2011. From that point in time, one of the goals of the journal has been to become a truly international journal. This paper aims to identify the position of CERM in its scholarly journal network based on the journal's metrics. The journal's metrics, including citations, countries of author affiliation, and countries of citing authors, Hirsch index, and proportion of funded articles, were gathered from Web of Science and analyzed. The two-year impact factor of 2013 was calculated at 0.971 excluding self-citation, which corresponds to a Journal Citation Reports ranking of 85.9% in the category of obstetrics and gynecology. In 2012, 2013, and 2014, the total citations were 17, 68, and 85, respectively. Authors from nine countries contributed to CERM. Researchers from 25 countries cited CERM in their articles. The Hirsch index was six. Out of 88 original articles, 35 studies received funds (39.8%). Based on the journal metrics, changing the journal language to English was found to be successful in promoting CERM to international journal status.

  12. Reproductive and Sexual Health of Chinese Migrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-fang ZHOU; Joanna E Mantell; Xiao-mei RU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the reproductive and sexual health situation,including knowledge,attitudes,and behaviors,among a population-based sample of internal migrant workers in China.Methods A cross-sectional survey of 4 900 rural-to-urban migrants in 6 provinces of China was conducted.Participants completed a 30-min semi-structured questionnaire about contraceptive practices,sexual behavior,and HIV-related knowledge.Results Migrants lacked knowledge of reproductive and sexual health issues.Among those who had heard any sexually transmitted infections(STIs),only 79.1%,46.2%,86.1%,14.5% and 82.2%,respectively,knew that gonorrhea,condyloma,syphilis,chancroid,and AIDS were STIs.About three-quarters of participants had not used any contraceptive method at sexual debut.Among current users of contraceptive methods,85.5% indicated that they were satisfied with the method.Before adoption of a contraceptive method,46.6% of the migrant workers were unaware of the advantages/disadvantages of the method and 75.3% had no knowledge of emergency contraception.Nearly one-quarter(23.4%)reported that they had premarital sex.Among migrants who were sexually active one month prior to the survey,only 14.0% reported that they had used condoms.Conclusion The limited sexual and reproductive health knowledge and unmet reproductive health services of migrant workers in China underscore the need for a comprehensive package of sexual and reproductive health interventions that combine cognitive and behavioral skills training and target both migrants and health care providers.

  13. Computer Animation Based on Particle Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Wcislo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main issues of a computer animation of a set of elastic macroscopic objects based on the particle method. The main assumption of the generated animations is to achieve very realistic movements in a scene observed on the computer display. The objects (solid bodies interact mechanically with each other, The movements and deformations of solids are calculated using the particle method. Phenomena connected with the behaviour of solids in the gravitational field, their defomtations caused by collisions and interactions with the optional liquid medium are simulated. The simulation ofthe liquid is performed using the cellular automata method. The paper presents both simulation schemes (particle method and cellular automata rules an the method of combining them in the single animation program. ln order to speed up the execution of the program the parallel version based on the network of workstation was developed. The paper describes the methods of the parallelization and it considers problems of load-balancing, collision detection, process synchronization and distributed control of the animation.

  14. Factors associated with utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods among married women of reproductive age in Mekelle town, Tigray region, north Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemayehu Mussie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Sub-Saharan Africa. Total Fertility Rate of Ethiopia is 5.4 children per women, population growth rate is estimated to be 2.7% per year and contraceptive prevalence rate is only 15% while the unmet need for family planning is 34%. Overall awareness of Family Planning methods is high, at 87%. The prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs in Tigray region was very low which accounts for 0.1% for implants and no users for intra-uterine contraceptive device (IUCD and female sterilization. Moreover almost all modern contraceptive use in Ethiopia is dependent on short acting contraceptive methods. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPM among married women of reproductive age group in Mekelle town. Methods A cross sectional community based survey was conducted from March 9-20, 2011. Multistage sample technique was used to select the participants for the quantitative methods whereas purposive sampling was used for the qualitative part of the study. Binary descriptive statistics and multiple variable regressions were done. Results The study consisted of quantitative and qualitative data. From the quantitative part of the study the response rate of the study was 95.6%. Of the qualitative part two FGDs were conducted for each married women and married men. 64% of the married women heard about LAPMs. More than half (53.6% of the married women had negative attitude towards practicing of LAPMs. The overall prevalence of LAPMs use was 12.3% however; there were no users for female or male sterilization. The main reason cited by the majority of the married women for not using LAPMs was using another method of contraception 360 (93.3%. Mothers who had high knowledge were 8 times more likely to use LAPMs as compared with those who had low knowledge (AOR = 7.9, 95% CI of (3

  15. Asexual Plant Reproduction. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    These lesson plans are intended for use in conducting classes on asexual plant reproduction. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about asexual plant reproduction/propagation. The following topics are among those discussed: plant reproduction methods,…

  16. Facial Beautification Method Based on Age Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan; DING Shou-hong; HU Gan-le; MA Li-zhuang

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new facial beautification method using facial rejuvenation based on the age evolution. Traditional facial beautification methods only focus on the color of skin and deformation and do the transformation based on an experimental standard of beauty. Our method achieves the beauty effect by making facial image looks younger, which is different from traditional methods and is more reasonable than them. Firstly, we decompose the image into different layers and get a detail layer. Secondly, we get an age-related parameter:the standard deviation of the Gaussian distribution that the detail layer follows, and the support vector machine (SVM) regression is used to fit a function about the age and the standard deviation. Thirdly, we use this function to estimate the age of input image and generate a new detail layer with a new standard deviation which is calculated by decreasing the age. Lastly, we combine the original layers and the new detail layer to get a new face image. Experimental results show that this algo-rithm can make facial image become more beautiful by facial rejuvenation. The proposed method opens up a new way about facial beautification, and there are great potentials for applications.

  17. Maternal mortality in Kassala State - Eastern Sudan: community-based study using Reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdalla A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maternal mortality ratio in Sudan was estimated at 750/100,000 live births. Sudan was one of eleven countries that are responsible for 65% of global maternal deaths according to a recent World Health Organization (WHO estimate. Maternal mortality in Kassala State was high in national demographic surveys. This study was conducted to investigate the causes and contributing factors of maternal deaths and to identify any discrepancies in rates and causes between different areas. Methods A reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS was conducted to study maternal mortality in Kassala State. Deaths of women of reproductive age (WRA in four purposively selected areas were identified by interviewing key informants in each village followed by verbal autopsy. Results Over a three-year period, 168 maternal deaths were identified among 26,066 WRA. Verbal autopsies were conducted in 148 (88.1% of these cases. Of these, 64 (43.2% were due to pregnancy and childbirth complications. Maternal mortality rates and ratios were 80.6 per 100,000 WRA and 713.6 per 100,000 live births (LB, respectively. There was a wide discrepancy between urban and rural maternal mortality ratios (369 and 872100,000 LB, respectively. Direct obstetric causes were responsible for 58.4% of deaths. Severe anemia (20.3% and acute febrile illness (9.4% were the major indirect causes of maternal death whereas obstetric hemorrhage (15.6%, obstructed labor (14.1% and puerperal sepsis (10.9% were the major obstetric causes. Of the contributing factors, we found delay of referral in 73.4% of cases in spite of a high problem recognition rate (75%. 67.2% of deaths occurred at home, indicating under utilization of health facilities, and transportation problems were found in 54.7% of deaths. There was a high illiteracy rate among the deceased and their husbands (62.5% and 48.4%, respectively. Conclusions Maternal mortality rates and ratios were found to be high, with a wide

  18. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, Tesfaye; Lakew, Yihunie; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005) Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS) were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000) and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005) women of reproductive age (15-49 years) were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM). The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change), bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF) with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots. The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds of women

  19. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Setegn

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country.We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005 Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000 and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005 women of reproductive age (15-49 years were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM. The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots.The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds

  20. An Asynchronous Recurrent Network of Cellular Automaton-Based Neurons and Its Reproduction of Spiking Neural Network Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Takashi; Torikai, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Modeling and implementation approaches for the reproduction of input-output relationships in biological nervous tissues contribute to the development of engineering and clinical applications. However, because of high nonlinearity, the traditional modeling and implementation approaches encounter difficulties in terms of generalization ability (i.e., performance when reproducing an unknown data set) and computational resources (i.e., computation time and circuit elements). To overcome these difficulties, asynchronous cellular automaton-based neuron (ACAN) models, which are described as special kinds of cellular automata that can be implemented as small asynchronous sequential logic circuits have been proposed. This paper presents a novel type of such ACAN and a theoretical analysis of its excitability. This paper also presents a novel network of such neurons, which can mimic input-output relationships of biological and nonlinear ordinary differential equation model neural networks. Numerical analyses confirm that the presented network has a higher generalization ability than other major modeling and implementation approaches. In addition, Field-Programmable Gate Array-implementations confirm that the presented network requires lower computational resources.

  1. Efficient production of bioactive metabolites from Antrodia camphorata ATCC 200183 by asexual reproduction-based repeated batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua-Xiang; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Geng, Yan; Gong, Jin-Song; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong; Ma, Yan-He

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale submerged fermentation (SmF) of Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) usually encounters challenges including tedious preparation of mycelial inoculum, long fermentation period (10-14 d), and poor repeatability. Here we developed an asexual reproduction-based repeated batch fermentation (RBF) process for bioactive metabolites production by A. camphorata ATCC 200183. Compared with traditional batch fermentation, production time was shortened to 58 d from 80 d (overall time for eight cycles) using the RBF process established in this study, and accordingly, the productivities of bioactive metabolites (including antrodins) were improved by 40-60%. Kinetic parameters (α is 2.1-18.7 times as β) indicated that the cell growth was the major contribution for bioactive metabolites production. The RBF shows excellent batch-repeatability (Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.998±0.001), together with advantages of energy-efficient, low cost, and labor-saving, RBF process can be implemented to SmF by other filamentous fungi.

  2. National Implementation of an Evidence-Based HIV Prevention and Reproductive Health Program for Bahamian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Valerie; Kaljee, Linda; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Rolle, Glenda; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of behavioral prevention interventions have been demonstrated through longitudinal, randomized controlled trials to reduce sexual risk behaviors. Many of these interventions have been made available at little cost for implementation on a public health scale. However, efforts to utilize such programs typically have been met with a range of problems to be addressed, leading to the recognition that new processes must be identified and integrated into the emerging field of implementation science. A randomized, controlled trial conducted among Bahamian grade six students attending fifteen elementary schools found the sexual risk-reduction intervention "Focus on Youth in the Caribbean (FOYC) and Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together (CImPACT)" to be effective through three years of follow-up. Based on these results, the Bahamian Ministry of Education decided to implement FOYC-CImPACT throughout all government grade six classes in The Bahamas. This manuscript describes the considerations, approaches, and actions taken regarding national implementation of this evidence-based intervention. The implementation process included active data-gathering, observation and feedback components to inform subsequent intervention phases. This manuscript reviewed the success and challenges to date within this framework and described changes made to enable next stages of the national implementation effort.

  3. AN SVAD ALGORITHM BASED ON FNNKD METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Dong; Zhang Yan; Kuang Jingming

    2002-01-01

    The capacity of mobile communication system is improved by using Voice Activity Detection (VAD) technology. In this letter, a novel VAD algorithm, SVAD algorithm based on Fuzzy Neural Network Knowledge Discovery (FNNKD) method is proposed. The performance of SVAD algorithm is discussed and compared with traditional algorithm recommended by ITU G.729B in different situations. The simulation results show that the SVAD algorithm performs better.

  4. The use of new field methods of semen analysis in the study of occupational hazards to reproduction: the example of ethylene dibromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, S M; Ratcliffe, J M; Turner, T W; Hornung, R W

    1987-12-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to the use of semen analysis as an indicator of exposure to potential mutagenic and reproductive hazards. In the infertility clinic setting, semen evaluations include the measurement of sperm concentration, volume, pH, motility, velocity and morphology, the analysis of seminal plasma to evaluate accessory sex gland function and, in some cases, the in vitro evaluation of fertilization capacity and sperm-cervical mucus interaction (Ann Intern Med 1985;103:906-919). To date, however, the study of semen characteristics of occupationally exposed populations has been confined principally to the measurement of sperm concentration and sperm morphology. This has been largely due to the unavailability of portable equipment suitable for the measurement of other semen characteristics and the difficulty of obtaining fresh semen samples in the field setting. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health researchers have developed mobile laboratory facilities which enable us to evaluate fresh samples, in the field, for semen characteristics in addition to concentration and morphology. This paper describes the application of these methods using the example of our recent cross-sectional study of workers occupationally exposed to ethylene dibromide in the papaya fumigation industry. We discuss our findings in the context of the usefulness of semen analysis as an indicator of occupational hazards to male reproduction.

  5. Accuracy evaluation of a new three-dimensional reproduction method of edentulous dental casts, and wax occlusion rims with jaw relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Song Yuan; Yu-Chun Sun; Yong Wang; Pei-Jun Lu

    2013-01-01

    The article introduces a new method for three-dimensional reproduction of edentulous dental casts, and wax occlusion rims with jaw relation by using a commercial high-speed line laser scanner and reverse engineering software and evaluates the method’s accuracy in vitro. The method comprises three main steps:(i) acquisition of the three-dimensional stereolithography data of maxillary and mandibular edentulous dental casts and wax occlusion rims;(ii) acquisition of the three-dimensional stereolithography data of jaw relations;and (iii) registration of these data with the reverse engineering software and completing reconstruction. To evaluate the accuracy of this method, dental casts and wax occlusion rims of 10 edentulous patients were used. The lengths of eight lines between common anatomic landmarks were measured directly on the casts and occlusion rims by using a vernier caliper and on the three-dimensional computerized images by using the software measurement tool. The direct data were considered as the true values. The paired-samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. The mean differences between the direct and the computerized measurements were mostly less than 0.04 mm and were not significant (P.0.05). Statistical significance among 10 patients was assessed using one-way analysis of variance (P,0.05). The result showed that the 10 patients were considered statistically no significant. Therefore, accurate three-dimensional reproduction of the edentulous dental casts, wax occlusion rims, and jaw relations was achieved. The proposed method enables the visualization of occlusion from different views and would help to meet the demand for the computer-aided design of removable complete dentures.

  6. 基于互联网的生殖健康指导系统的建立%Establishment of Reproductive Health Guidance System Based on the Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书汉; 龙肖玉; 黄颖冰

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To realize automated management and guidance of reproductive health through the development of prenatal and postnatal care information service platform based on ASP mode. Method: Relevant information of couple is obtained with questionnaire. Through classification, query and other logic operation, abnormal information is sorted out. Based on the abnormal information, with professional medical knowledge, necessary advices are given to the users. Multimedia communication technology is used to realize service development function. Customer service telephone, SMS, E-mail and other methods are used to realize the function of service development. Through management of customers and sales statistics, marketing is managed. Results: The system developed gives a targeted and personalized guidance report for reproductive health problem of couples with the specific guidance database from time biology, medical genetics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychology, nutrition, sports medicine, preventive medicine, and other professional perspectives. Conclusion: After 1 year of market operation, it proves that operation mode of this system is feasible. There is plenty of reasonable content. The purpose of management and guidance of reproductive health has been achieved.%目的:通过“基于ASP模式的优生优育信息服务平台”的开发,实现对生殖健康部分环节的自动化管理和指导.方法:以调查问卷的方式获取夫妇双方的相关信息,通过一定的分类、查询等逻辑运算分拣出异常信息,并针对这些异常信息根据医学专业知识对使用者给出必要的建议,并运用客服电话、手机短信、电子邮件等方式实现其服务拓展功能,通过对客户的管理和销售统计两大功能实现对市场营销的管理.结果:开发出的系统通过针对性的指导数据库从时间生物学、遗传医学、妇产科学、心理学、营养学、运动医学、预防医学等专业角度对夫妇生殖

  7. Treecode-Based Generalized Born Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenli [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai; Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL; Yang, Shihui [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a treecode-based O(Nlog N) algorithm for the generalized Born (GB) implicit solvation model. Our treecode-based GB (tGB) is based on the GBr6 [J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 3055 (2007)], an analytical GB method with a pairwise descreening approximation for the R6 volume integral expression. The algorithm is composed of a cutoff scheme for the effective Born radii calculation, and a treecode implementation of the GB charge charge pair interactions. Test results demonstrate that the tGB algorithm can reproduce the vdW surface based Poisson solvation energy with an average relative error less than 0.6% while providing an almost linear-scaling calculation for a representative set of 25 proteins with different sizes (from 2815 atoms to 65456 atoms). For a typical system of 10k atoms, the tGB calculation is three times faster than the direct summation as implemented in the original GBr6 model. Thus, our tGB method provides an efficient way for performing implicit solvent GB simulations of larger biomolecular systems at longer time scales.

  8. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Jenna E.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Lee, Kathy E.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Mayasich, Joe; Eid, Evan P.; Nelson, Krysta R.; Milsk, Rebecca Y.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Berninger, Jason P.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Blanskma, Chad; Jicha, Terri M.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Johnson, Rodney C.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, which can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined reproductive effects in fathead minnows exposed for 21 d to a historically estrogenic WWTP effluent. Fathead minnow breeding pairs were held in control water or 1 of 3 effluent concentrations (5%, 20%, and 100%) in a novel onsite, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. The authors examined molecular and biochemical endpoints representing key events along adverse outcome pathways linking estrogen receptor activation and other molecular initiating events to reproductive impairment. In addition, the authors used chemical analysis of the effluent to construct a chemical-gene interaction network to aid in targeted gene expression analyses and identifying potentially impacted biological pathways. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100% effluent but increased in those exposed to 20% effluent, the approximate dilution factor in the receiving waters. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males increased in a dose-dependent manner with effluent concentration; however, male fertility was not impacted. Although in vitro analyses, analytical chemistry, and biomarker responses confirmed the effluent was estrogenic, estrogen receptor agonists were unlikely the primary driver of impaired reproduction. The results provide insights into the significance of pathway-based effects with regard to predicting adverse reproductive outcomes.

  9. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Jenna E; Jensen, Kathleen M; Kahl, Michael D; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Lee, Kathy E; Schroeder, Anthony L; Mayasich, Joe; Eid, Evan P; Nelson, Krysta R; Milsk, Rebecca Y; Blackwell, Brett R; Berninger, Jason P; LaLone, Carlie A; Blanksma, Chad; Jicha, Terri; Elonen, Colleen; Johnson, Rodney; Ankley, Gerald T

    2016-03-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, which can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined reproductive effects in fathead minnows exposed for 21 d to a historically estrogenic WWTP effluent. Fathead minnow breeding pairs were held in control water or 1 of 3 effluent concentrations (5%, 20%, and 100%) in a novel onsite, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. The authors examined molecular and biochemical endpoints representing key events along adverse outcome pathways linking estrogen receptor activation and other molecular initiating events to reproductive impairment. In addition, the authors used chemical analysis of the effluent to construct a chemical-gene interaction network to aid in targeted gene expression analyses and identifying potentially impacted biological pathways. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100% effluent but increased in those exposed to 20% effluent, the approximate dilution factor in the receiving waters. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males increased in a dose-dependent manner with effluent concentration; however, male fertility was not impacted. Although in vitro analyses, analytical chemistry, and biomarker responses confirmed the effluent was estrogenic, estrogen receptor agonists were unlikely the primary driver of impaired reproduction. The results provide insights into the significance of pathway-based effects with regard to predicting adverse reproductive outcomes.

  10. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  11. Evaluation of the reproductive performance of rabbits does fed a half-simplified diet based on cassava byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Fróes Galuci Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 70 five-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits were assigned in a completely randomized design, over three reproductive cycles, with two treatments: a reference diet and a half-simplified diet containing 79.83% cassava byproduct. The study evaluated body weight and feed intake of does, feed cost, number and total body weight of kits at kindling and weaning per female during three cycles, number and percentage of mortality/female/cycle, and weight gain of kits from birth to weaning. No interaction was observed between the diets and among the reproductive cycles for any evaluated characteristics. The body weight of does at the moment of weaning was similar in both groups for all three reproductive cycles. However, does fed the half-simplified diet had lower feed intake during the three reproductive cycles and, consequently, more reproductive flaws. The number of kits at weaning, body weight of kits at kindling and weaning, weight gain of kits from birth to weaning, and total body weight of kits at weaning were lower for the group of does fed the half-simplified diet and, consequently, there was a higher number and percentage of dead kits in this group. The total numbers of kits at kindling and weaning and total body weight of kits at birth during all three reproductive cycles were similar between the groups; however, total body weight of weaning rabbits was higher for the animals receiving the reference diet. It is possible to conclude that although the use of the half-simplified diet decreases the reproductive performance of does, it reduces feed cost per kg of body weight by 23.63% compared with the reference diet, proving to be a viable nutritional option for rabbit production.

  12. Hazard identification by methods of animal-based toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, S M; Greig, J B; Bridges, J W; Carere, A; Carpy, A J M; Galli, C L; Kleiner, J; Knudsen, I; Koëter, H B W M; Levy, L S; Madsen, C; Mayer, S; Narbonne, J-F; Pfannkuch, F; Prodanchuk, M G; Smith, M R; Steinberg, P

    2002-01-01

    This paper is one of several prepared under the project "Food Safety In Europe: Risk Assessment of Chemicals in Food and Diet" (FOSIE), a European Commission Concerted Action Programme, organised by the International Life Sciences Institute, Europe (ILSI). The aim of the FOSIE project is to review the current state of the science of risk assessment of chemicals in food and diet, by consideration of the four stages of risk assessment, that is, hazard identification, hazard characterisation, exposure assessment and risk characterisation. The contribution of animal-based methods in toxicology to hazard identification of chemicals in food and diet is discussed. The importance of first applying existing technical and chemical knowledge to the design of safety testing programs for food chemicals is emphasised. There is consideration of the presently available and commonly used toxicity testing approaches and methodologies, including acute and repeated dose toxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity and food allergy. They are considered from the perspective of whether they are appropriate for assessing food chemicals and whether they are adequate to detect currently known or anticipated hazards from food. Gaps in knowledge and future research needs are identified; research on these could lead to improvements in the methods of hazard identification for food chemicals. The potential impact of some emerging techniques and toxicological issues on hazard identification for food chemicals, such as new measurement techniques, the use of transgenic animals, assessment of hormone balance and the possibilities for conducting studies in which common human diseases have been modelled, is also considered.

  13. Reproduction Diversity of Enteromorpha prolifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Apeng Lin; Songdong Shen; Jianwei Wang; Binlun Yan

    2008-01-01

    Enteromorpha prolifera (Muell.) J. Agardh (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae), which is distributed widely in the Inter-tidal zone of the ocean, is one of the most common fouling green algae. However, the present understandings of the life history of E. prolifera have been insufficient to explain their seasonal abundances. Thus it is essential to investigate how many.reproductive strategies are likely to contribute to the successful colonization and flourishing of the green alga. In the present study the reproduction diversity of E. prolifera was observed and studied systematically by culturing chopped tissues. Our results showed that there are in total seven pathways of reproduction for E. prolifera including sexual, asexual and vegetative reproduction. It was Indicated that the variety of the reproductive ways and the large quantity of reproductive cells produced and released during the reproductive season are the two key factors that facilitate colonization of E. prolifera. The reproduction of the alga E. prolifera mainly depends on asexual methods. The results presented here contribute to increasing our understanding about how the opportunistic macroalgae successfully maintain colonization and excessive growth.

  14. An attribute-based image segmentation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. de Andrade

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses a new image segmentation method founded on Digital Topology and Mathematical Morphology grounds. The ABA (attribute based absorptions transform can be viewed as a region-growing method by flooding simulation working at the scale of the main structures of the image. In this method, the gray level image is treated as a relief flooded from all its local minima, which are progressively detected and merged as the flooding takes place. Each local minimum is exclusively associated to one catchment basin (CB. The CBs merging process is guided by their geometric parameters as depth, area and/or volume. This solution enables the direct segmentation of the original image without the need of a preprocessing step or the explicit marker extraction step, often required by other flooding simulation methods. Some examples of image segmentation, employing the ABA transform, are illustrated for uranium oxide samples. It is shown that the ABA transform presents very good segmentation results even in presence of noisy images. Moreover, it's use is often easier and faster when compared to similar image segmentation methods.

  15. Lagrangian based methods for coherent structure detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allshouse, Michael R., E-mail: mallshouse@chaos.utexas.edu [Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Peacock, Thomas, E-mail: tomp@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    There has been a proliferation in the development of Lagrangian analytical methods for detecting coherent structures in fluid flow transport, yielding a variety of qualitatively different approaches. We present a review of four approaches and demonstrate the utility of these methods via their application to the same sample analytic model, the canonical double-gyre flow, highlighting the pros and cons of each approach. Two of the methods, the geometric and probabilistic approaches, are well established and require velocity field data over the time interval of interest to identify particularly important material lines and surfaces, and influential regions, respectively. The other two approaches, implementing tools from cluster and braid theory, seek coherent structures based on limited trajectory data, attempting to partition the flow transport into distinct regions. All four of these approaches share the common trait that they are objective methods, meaning that their results do not depend on the frame of reference used. For each method, we also present a number of example applications ranging from blood flow and chemical reactions to ocean and atmospheric flows.

  16. Public perceptions of reproductive biotechnologies: the case of farm animal breeding and reproduction in France and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Arouna P

    2004-01-01

    Results of previous qualitative and quantitative stages of the research project demonstrated that, although consumers had poor knowledge about breeding and reproduction procedures, they were concerned about the impact of breeding practices on their food items. They acknowledged breeding and reproduction to be at the very core of animal-based food chain process. Since however modern breeding programmers beg so much for genetics, their practices increasingly raised consumer concerns. This paper presents results of a research addressing this issue and based on interviews of livestock breeders and specialized scientists. This research was undertaken within the frame of an EU funded project (Sustainable Farm Animal Breeding and Reproduction Project, 2000-2003). Interviews were performed according to the methodology of focus groups and results were used to prepare a discussion guide, including definitions of breeding techniques such as artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and molecular genetics. Farm animal breeding and reproduction methods raised high level of concerns in conventional terms like safety, healthiness and quality of food, factory farming and related consequences on environment, international issues, and cost. Several propositions were presented that deal with modern farm animal breeding and reproduction, EU regulation of breeding procedures, education of consumers on breeding methods, and labelling of products on breeding and reproduction grounds.

  17. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  18. Reproductive function in the sons of women who experienced stress due to bereavement before and during pregnancy: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Li, Jiong; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Parner, Erik; Olsen, Jørn; Basso, Olga

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the association between prenatal exposure to maternal stress and reproductive disorders in Danish men, where prenatal stress exposure was defined as the mother's loss of a close relative during pregnancy or in the 12 months before conception. Population-based cohort study. Not applicable. All males born in Denmark between 1973 and 2008 (n = 1,217,576) and observed for up to 39 years. None. Male reproductive function, defined using a composite outcome including congenital malformations of genital organs, testicular cancer, diagnosis of male infertility, or assisted conception use due to male factor infertility. In total, 28,986 men (2.4%) had been exposed to prenatal stress, and 62,929 (5.2%) experienced the composite outcome during the follow-up period. Prenatal exposure to stress was associated with an elevated risk of reproductive problems (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.15). The association was stronger when the exposure occurred during the first trimester of pregnancy, and for congenital malformations of genital organs. When focusing on infertility alone, we saw no evidence of increased risk (HR 0.90; 95% CI, 0.77-1.06). In addition, the probability of marrying a woman was lower for exposed men (HR 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98). Prenatal stress in the form of the mother's bereavement during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of reproductive disorders from congenital malformations of the genital organs in the male offspring. The lack of an association between maternal bereavement and later infertility in the exposed male offspring may be due in part to the men's lower probability of attempting to have children. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reproductive System en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. The female needs a ... like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of themselves ...

  20. Custom Fusion Methode Based on Borda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Abdelbaki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Searching for information on the Internet is not only an activity newly rediscovered, but also a strategic tool to achieve a wide variety of information. Indeed, it’s extremely important to know how to find the information quickly and efficiently. Unfortunately, the Web is so huge and so little structured, that gathering precise, fair and useful information becomes an expensive task. In order to define an information retrieval tool (meta search engine that brings together multiple sources of information search, interest must be credited to the merger phase of search engines results. On the other hand, information search systems tend primarily to model the user with a profile and then to integrate it into the information access chain, to better meet its specific needs. This paper presents a custom fusion method based on Borda method and values retrieved from the user profile. We evaluated our approach on multiple domains and we present some experimental results.

  1. Facilitators and barriers to accessing reproductive health care for migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam: A mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webber Gail

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the research was to assess access to sexual and reproductive health services for migrant women who work as beer promoters. This mixed methods research was conducted in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Bangkok, Thailand, Vientiane, Laos, and Hanoi, Vietnam during 2010 to 2011. Methods Focus groups were held with beer promoters and separate focus groups or interviews with key informants to explore the factors affecting beer promoters’ access to health care institutions for reproductive health care. The findings of the focus groups were used to develop a survey for beer promoters. This survey was conducted in popular health institutions for these women in each of the four Asian cities. Results Several common themes were evident. Work demands prevented beer promoters from accessing health care. Institutional factors affecting care included cost, location, environmental factors (e.g. waiting times, cleanliness and confidentiality and service factors (e.g. staff attitudes, clinic hours, and availability of medications. Personal factors affecting access were shyness and fear, lack of knowledge, and support from family and friends. The survey of the beer promoters confirmed that cost, location and both environmental and service factors impact on access to health care services for beer promoters. Many beer promoters are sexually active, and a significant proportion of those surveyed rely on sex work to supplement their income. Many also drink with their clients. Despite a few differences amongst the surveyed population, the findings were remarkably similar across the four research sites. Conclusions Recommendations from the research include the provision of evening and weekend clinic hours to facilitate access, free or low cost clinics, and health insurance through employer or government plans which are easy to access for migrants. Other improvements that would facilitate the access of beer promoters to these services include

  2. Trinocular Calibration Method Based on Binocular Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Dan-Dan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the self-occlusion problem in plane-based multi-camera calibration system and expand the measurement range, a tri-camera vision system based on binocular calibration is proposed. The three cameras are grouped into two pairs, while the public camera is taken as the reference to build the global coordinate. By calibration of the measured absolute distance and the true absolute distance, global calibration is realized. The MRE (mean relative error of the global calibration of the two camera pairs in the experiments can be as low as 0.277% and 0.328% respectively. Experiment results show that this method is feasible, simple and effective, and has high precision.

  3. Kernel method-based fuzzy clustering algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhongdong; Gao Xinbo; Xie Weixin; Yu Jianping

    2005-01-01

    The fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm(FCM) to the fuzzy kernel C-means clustering algorithm(FKCM) to effectively perform cluster analysis on the diversiform structures are extended, such as non-hyperspherical data, data with noise, data with mixture of heterogeneous cluster prototypes, asymmetric data, etc. Based on the Mercer kernel, FKCM clustering algorithm is derived from FCM algorithm united with kernel method. The results of experiments with the synthetic and real data show that the FKCM clustering algorithm is universality and can effectively unsupervised analyze datasets with variform structures in contrast to FCM algorithm. It is can be imagined that kernel-based clustering algorithm is one of important research direction of fuzzy clustering analysis.

  4. On Task-based English Learning Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱蕾

    2010-01-01

    @@ Task-Based learning(TBL)is becoming a catchword in English circles.The new national English Curricular Syllabus also recommends the use of the TBL approach in classroom teaching.The purpose of learning a foreign language is the most direct communicative in the target language,and speaking is the most direct communicative method.In recent years,with the publication of the New Curriculum Standard by the State Education Department,the teaching reform in middle and primary schools has been being implemented step by step.

  5. Male reproduction and environmental and occupational exposures: a review of epidemiologic methods Reproducción masculina y exposiciones ambientales u ocupacionales: una revisión de métodos epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L. Golden

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Concerns that chemical exposures in the environment have been detrimental to male sexual development and fertility have been heightened by reports of declining sperm counts over the past 50 years. Marked geographic variation has been found in semen quality and in the incidence of testicular cancer and certain urogenital defects. Debate continues over the existence, magnitude and significance of these trends, and how best to evaluate the hypothesis that in utero and childhood exposures to estrogenic compounds may be to blame. Epidemiologic methods for assessing the impact of hazardous substances on male reproductive health have been developed mainly in the area of occupational medicine, and this paper will review the currently recommended methods. These include questionnaires to determine reproductive history and sexual function; reproductive hormone profiles; and semen analyses such as sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. New research tools that show significant promise from the fields of clinical reproductive medicine and reproductive toxicology are discussed as possible additions to epidemiologic studies, including assays of sperm function and genetic integrity, and biomarkers of DNA damage. For population-based studies involving occupational groups or communities with environmental exposures, issues related to the cost, validity, precision and utility of these methods must be carefully considered.Varios artículos publicados informan acerca de una declinación en la concentración de espermatozoides durante los últimos 50 años; lo anterior ha motivado una preocupación creciente en el sentido de que las exposiciones ambientales a diversos químicos actúen en detrimento del desarrollo sexual y de la fertilidad masculina. Se ha observado una marcada variación geográfica en la calidad del semen y en la incidencia del cáncer testicular y diversas malformaciones urogenitales. Persiste un debate acerca de la existencia, magnitud y

  6. Accuracy evaluation of a new three-dimensional reproduction method of edentulous dental casts, and wax occlusion rims with jaw relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fu-Song; Sun, Yu-Chun; Wang, Yong; Lü, Pei-Jun

    2013-09-01

    The article introduces a new method for three-dimensional reproduction of edentulous dental casts, and wax occlusion rims with jaw relation by using a commercial high-speed line laser scanner and reverse engineering software and evaluates the method's accuracy in vitro. The method comprises three main steps: (i) acquisition of the three-dimensional stereolithography data of maxillary and mandibular edentulous dental casts and wax occlusion rims; (ii) acquisition of the three-dimensional stereolithography data of jaw relations; and (iii) registration of these data with the reverse engineering software and completing reconstruction. To evaluate the accuracy of this method, dental casts and wax occlusion rims of 10 edentulous patients were used. The lengths of eight lines between common anatomic landmarks were measured directly on the casts and occlusion rims by using a vernier caliper and on the three-dimensional computerized images by using the software measurement tool. The direct data were considered as the true values. The paired-samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. The mean differences between the direct and the computerized measurements were mostly less than 0.04 mm and were not significant (P>0.05). Statistical significance among 10 patients was assessed using one-way analysis of variance (Pdental casts, wax occlusion rims, and jaw relations was achieved. The proposed method enables the visualization of occlusion from different views and would help to meet the demand for the computer-aided design of removable complete dentures.

  7. Bus Based Synchronization Method for CHIPPER Based NoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Muralidharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network on Chip (NoC reduces the communication delay of System on Chip (SoC. The main limitation of NoC is power consumption and area overhead. Bufferless NoC reduces the area complexity and power consumption by eliminating buffers in the traditional routers. The bufferless NoC design should include live lock freeness since they use hot potato routing. This increases the complexity of bufferless NoC design. Among the available propositions to reduce this complexity, CHIPPER based bufferless NoC is considered as one of the best options. Live lock freeness is provided in CHIPPER through golden epoch and golden packet. All routers follow some synchronization method to identify a golden packet. Clock based method is intuitively followed for synchronization in CHIPPER based NoCs. It is shown in this work that the worst-case latency of packets is unbearably high when the above synchronization is followed. To alleviate this problem, broadcast bus NoC (BBus NoC approach is proposed in this work. The proposed method decreases the worst-case latency of packets by increasing the golden epoch rate of CHIPPER.

  8. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  9. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  10. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  11. My Reproductive Life Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Information For... Media Policy Makers My Reproductive Life Plan Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... to achieve those goals is called a reproductive life plan . There are many kinds of reproductive life plans. ...

  12. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn

    2015-06-11

    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights.

  13. Concise and broadly applicable method for determining the genomic sequences of North-American-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in various clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, Takeya; Iseki, Hiroshi; Toki, Daisuke; Takagi, Michihiro; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi; Uenishi, Hirohide

    2014-09-01

    We developed a concise and broadly applicable method for accurate genomic sequencing of North American genotype (NA-type) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs) that overcomes high genetic variability of the viruses. The method, designated "combination of consensus oligonucleotide reverse transcription and multiple displacement amplification" (CORT-MDA), involves reverse-transcription of viral RNA followed by shotgun sequencing after amplification using only 11 degenerate oligonucleotide primers; these primers were designed against consensus regions within the open reading frames of the 124 NA-type PRRSV strains with reported full-length genomic sequences. Sequencing of the 192 shotgun clones generated per virus showed 80% to 94% coverage on the reported PRRSV genomic sequence, such that only 2 or 3 unread regions had to be resequenced after PCR amplification using custom primers. Direct sequencing of RT-PCR products confirmed absolute consistency between sequences determined by the CORT-MDA method and those from RT-PCR. These results suggest that our method is applicable to diverse NA-type viruses.

  14. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  15. Cardiovascular risk management after reproductive and pregnancy-related disorders : A Dutch multidisciplinary evidence-based guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Karst Y.; Bots, Michiel L.; De Groot, Christianne J M; Van Dunné, Frederique M.; Hammoud, Nurah M.; Hoek, Annemiek; Laven, Joop S E; Maas, Angela H E M; Roeters Van Lennep, Jeanine E.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Franx, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Background In the past decades evidence has accumulated that women with reproductive and pregnancy-related disorders are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the future. Up to now there is no standardised follow-up of these women becausee guidelines on cardiovascular risk

  16. Developing confidence in adverse outcome pathway-based toxicity predictions effects of the fungicide imazalil on fathead minnow reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) description linking inhibition of aromatase (cytochrome P450 [cyp] 19) to reproductive dysfunction was reviewed for scientific and technical quality and endorsed by the OECD (https://aopwiki.org/wiki/index.php/Aop:25). An intended application of t...

  17. Developing confidence in adverse outcome pathway-based toxicity predictions effects of the fungicide imazalil on fathead minnow reproduction (Poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) description linking inhibition of aromatase (cytochrome P450 [cyp] 19) to reproductive dysfunction was reviewed for scientific and technical quality and endorsed by the OECD. An intended application of the AOP framework is to support the use of me...

  18. Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone on the swine reproductive failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive failure in swine is often a difficult diagnostic problem. If diagnoses of infectious disease or management related problems are not obtained, feed quality and safety may be questioned. Mycotoxins are often present in swine feed in the amount that can have detrimental impact on production and reproduction. Problems are expressed only as alterations of the reproductive cycle, reduced feed intake, slow growth or impaired feed efficiency. In Serbia, generally speaking, high concentrations of mycotoxins were noticed, especially mycotoxin zearalenone. High presence of zearalenone in swine feed is probably due to climatic influence and should be monitored constantly. This paper includes field observations regarding the influence of moldy feed containing mycotoxin zearalenone on the occurrence of the reproductive failure in swine breeding categories (sows, gilts and boars. The material for this research was obtained from four swine farms where certain reproductive disorders and health problems in breeding animals were detected. Depending on the specificity of each evaluated case and available material, the applied research methods included: anamnestic and clinical evaluation, pathomorphological examination, standard laboratory testing for detection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and microbiological feed testing, in order to examine the presence of fungi and mycotoxins by applying the method of thin layer chromatography. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that mycotoxin zearalenone was detected in all examined feed samples. The presence of mycotoxin in feed was directly related to the reproductive failures in the examined swine categories (vulvovaginitis, endometritis, rebreeding, infertility. Swine reproduction represents the base for intensive swine production. The presence of mycotoxins in swine feed have influence on the reproduction and health status of pigs and under certain conditions may significantly

  19. Graph-based Methods for Orbit Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagherjeiran, A; Kamath, C

    2005-09-29

    An important step in the quest for low-cost fusion power is the ability to perform and analyze experiments in prototype fusion reactors. One of the tasks in the analysis of experimental data is the classification of orbits in Poincare plots. These plots are generated by the particles in a fusion reactor as they move within the toroidal device. In this paper, we describe the use of graph-based methods to extract features from orbits. These features are then used to classify the orbits into several categories. Our results show that existing machine learning algorithms are successful in classifying orbits with few points, a situation which can arise in data from experiments.

  20. Pose measurement method based on geometrical constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zimiao Zhang; Changku Sun; Pengfei Sun; Peng Wang

    2011-01-01

    @@ The pose estimation method based on geometric constraints is studied.The coordinates of the five feature points in the camera coordinate system are calculated to obtain the pose of an object on the basis of the geometric constraints formed by the connective lines of the feature points and the coordinates of the feature points on the CCD image plane; during the solution process,the scaling and orthography projection model is used to approximate the perspective projection model.%The pose estimation method based on geometric constraints is studied. The coordinates of the five feature points in the camera coordinate system are calculated to obtain the pose of an object on the basis of the geometric constraints formed by the connective lines of the feature points and the coordinates of the feature points on the CCD image plane; during the solution process, the scaling and orthography projection model is used to approximate the perspective projection model. The initial values of the coordinates of the five feature points in the camera coordinate system are obtained to ensure the accuracy and convergence rate of the non-linear algorithm. In accordance with the perspective projection characteristics of the circular feature landmarks, we propose an approach that enables the iterative acquisition of accurate target poses through the correction of the perspective projection coordinates of the circular feature landmark centers. Experimental results show that the translation positioning accuracy reaches ±0.05 mm in the measurement range of 0-40 mm, and the rotation positioning accuracy reaches ±0.06° in the measurement range of 4°-60°.

  1. Evaluation of a reproductive index to estimate grasshopper sparrow and eastern meadowlark reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, D.P.; Gipson, P.S.; Pontius, J.S.; Japuntich, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    We compared an index of reproductive success based on breeding behavior to actual nest fates of grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) and eastern meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) on 12 plots (4-ha). Concordance of results between the two methods was 58% for grasshopper sparrows and 42% for eastern meadowlarks on a plot-by-plot basis. The indirect method yielded higher estimates of reproductive activity than nest monitoring for the balance of the plots,. There was little evidence that brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism influenced the estimates of reproductive success using the indirect method. We concluded that nests and about-to-fledge nestlings were missed during searches on some plots. It may be appropriate to use an indirect method to more efficiently survey territories and/or plots for species with hard-to-find nests or when monitoring large areas. Use of a reproductive index may be appropriate and more time-efficient than nest searching and monitoring for comparing management effects such as burning, grazing, haying, military training, and other localized disturbances that are likely to affect reproductive success of grasshopper sparrows and eastern meadowlarks. However, nest monitoring may be necessary for more precise estimates of productivity necessary for long-term monitoring. Nest monitoring results are also likely to allow for direct comparisons to results from other studies because the index method requires intimate knowledge of the species being evaluated - a factor that could lead to reduced precision because the experience level of technicians relying only on behavioral cues from study-to-study is likely to vary considerably.

  2. Evaluation of a Reproductive Index to Estimate Grasshopper Sparrow and Eastern Meadowlark Reproductive Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Althoff

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared an index of reproductive success based on breeding behavior to actual nest fates of grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum and eastern meadowlarks (Sturnella magna on 12 plots (4-ha. Concordance of results between the two methods was 58% for grasshopper sparrows and 42% for eastern meadowlarks on a plot-by-plot basis. The indirect method yielded higher estimates of reproductive activity than nest monitoring for the balance of the plots,. There was little evidence that brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater parasitism influenced the estimates of reproductive success using the indirect method. We concluded that nests and about-to-fledge nestlings were missed during searches on some plots. It may be appropriate to use an indirect method to more efficiently survey territories and/or plots for species with hard-to-find nests or when monitoring large areas. Use of a reproductive index may be appropriate and more time-efficient than nest searching and monitoring for comparing management effects such as burning, grazing, haying, military training, and other localized disturbances that are likely to affect reproductive success of grasshopper sparrows and eastern meadowlarks. However, nest monitoring may be necessary for more precise estimates of productivity necessary for long-term monitoring. Nest monitoring results are also likely to allow for direct comparisons to results from other studies because the index method requires intimate knowledge of the species being evaluated - a factor that could lead to reduced precision because the experience level of technicians relying only on behavioral cues from study-to-study is likely to vary considerably.

  3. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: Influence of Gestation Length and Timing of Neonatal Examinations on Litter Data in Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies with rodents use varied protocols for determining the timing of neonatal litter examinations and subsequent measurements. Most laboratories determine timing based on the day of birth (DOB); l.e., gestation le...

  4. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: Influence of Gestation Length and Timing of Neonatal Examinations on Litter Data in Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies with rodents use varied protocols for determining the timing of neonatal litter examinations and subsequent measurements. Most laboratories determine timing based on the day of birth (DOB); l.e., gestation le...

  5. Satellite Formation based on SDDF Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The technology of satellite formation flying has being a research focus in flight application. The relative position and velocity between satellites are basic parameters to achieve the control of formation flight during the satellite formation flying mission. In order to improve the navigation accuracy, a new filter different from Extended Kalman Filter (EKF should be adopted to estimate the errors of relative position and velocity, which is based on the nonlinearity of the kinetic model for the satellite formation flying. A nonlinear Divided Difference Filter (DDF based on Stirling interpolation formula was proposed in this paper. According to the linearity of the measurement equation for the filter, a simplified differential filter was designed by means of expanding the polynomial of the nonlinear system equation and linear approximating of the finite differential interpolation. Digital simulation experiment for the relative positioning of satellite formation flying was carried out. The result demonstrates that the filter proposed in this paper has a higher filtering accuracy, faster convergence speed and better stability. Compared with the EKF, the estimation accuracy of the relative position and velocity has improved by 77.1%and 47% respectively in the method of simplified DDF, which indicates the significance for practical applications. 

  6. Growth and reproductive potential of Eisenia foetida (Sav) on various zoo animal dungs after two methods of pre-composting followed by vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Godínez, Edmundo Arturo; Lagunes-Zarate, Jorge; Corona-Hernández, Juan; Barajas-Aceves, Martha

    2017-06-01

    Disposal of animal manure without treatment can be harmful to the environment. In this study, samples of four zoo animal dungs and one horse dung were pre-composted in two ways: (a) traditional composting and (b) bokashi pre-composting for 1month, followed by vermicomposting for 3months. The permanence (PEf) and reproductive potential (RP) of Eisenia foetida as well as the quality of vermicompost were evaluated. The PEf values and RP index of E. foetida were higher for samples pre-composted using the traditional composting method (98.7-88% and 31.85-16.27%, respectively) followed by vermicomposting (92.7-72.7% and 22.96-13.51%, respectively), when compared with those for bokashi pre-composted samples followed by vermicomposting, except for the horse dung sample (100% for both the parameters). The values of electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic C, total N, available P, C/N ratio, and pH showed that both treatments achieved the norms of vermicompost (bokashi pre-composting followed by vermicomposting produced the highest values (98.7-70.7%, 97.67-96.65%, and 2.7-1.97%, respectively), when compared with the other method adapted in this study. Nevertheless, further studies with plants for plant growth evaluation are needed to assess the benefits and limitations of these two pre-composting methods prior to vermicomposting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic-evolution-based optimization methods for engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. S.; Pan, T. S.; Dhingra, A. K.; Venkayya, V. B.; Kumar, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the applicability of a biological model, based on genetic evolution, for engineering design optimization. Algorithms embodying the ideas of reproduction, crossover, and mutation are developed and applied to solve different types of structural optimization problems. Both continuous and discrete variable optimization problems are solved. A two-bay truss for maximum fundamental frequency is considered to demonstrate the continuous variable case. The selection of locations of actuators in an actively controlled structure, for minimum energy dissipation, is considered to illustrate the discrete variable case.

  8. Genetic-evolution-based optimization methods for engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. S.; Pan, T. S.; Dhingra, A. K.; Venkayya, V. B.; Kumar, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the applicability of a biological model, based on genetic evolution, for engineering design optimization. Algorithms embodying the ideas of reproduction, crossover, and mutation are developed and applied to solve different types of structural optimization problems. Both continuous and discrete variable optimization problems are solved. A two-bay truss for maximum fundamental frequency is considered to demonstrate the continuous variable case. The selection of locations of actuators in an actively controlled structure, for minimum energy dissipation, is considered to illustrate the discrete variable case.

  9. Uterine disease and its effect on subsequent reproductive performance of dairy cattle: a comparison of two cow-side diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šavc, Miha; Duane, Mary; O'Grady, Luke E; Somers, Joris R; Beltman, Marijke E

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare vaginal mucus scoring and ultrasonographic assessment of uterine content as predictors of future reproductive performance of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 493) from seven commercial dairy farms were enrolled in this study. All cows received one prebreeding examination (PBE) between 21 and 38 days after parturition. During the PBE, vaginal mucus was scored (MS) and the transrectal ultrasonographic examination of the uterus to assess content (UTS) took place. The MS was scored on a scale of 0 to 3 using a Metricheck device and appearance of the uterus on transrectal ultrasound was scored on a scale of 0 to 4 based on the presence and consistency of intraluminal fluid. Other data collected from each cow included the farm ID (F_ID), conception rate to first service, length of breeding window, lactation number, calving month, body condition score (BCS) at calving, BCS loss after calving, BCS at PBE, days in milk at PBE, 305 day milk yield, economic breeding index (EBI), EBI fertility subindex and EBI health subindex. For each cow these parameters were analyzed using univariate Cox proportional hazard model to evaluate the effect of variables on the reproductive performance, measured as positive pregnancy status (PS) at the end of the breeding season. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis of the diagnostic tests compared with each other took place as well. Cows with positive UTS were 7.75 times more likely to have a positive MS as well (P < 0.01). The PS hazard ratios for cows with UTS0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 1; 0.84; 0.53; 0.78; 0.28, respectively (P < 0.001). For the cows with MS0, 1, 2, and 3, the PR hazard ratios were 1; 1.02; 0.51; 0.75; respectively (P = 0.01). Conception rate to first service, breeding window, and PS were significantly better for the cows with UTS0, 1 and 2 compared with the cows with UTS3-4 and MS2+3 (68%; 18%, [P = 0.020]; 29; 75 days, [P = 0.001]; 95%; 55%; [P = 0

  10. Differential Estimates of Southern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys volans) Population Structure Based on Capture Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laves, Kevin S.; Loeb, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT.—It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success. Southern flying squirrels were captured at and removed from 30 red-cockaded woodpecker cluster sites during March to July 1994 and 1995 using Sherman traps placed in a grid encompassing a red-cockaded woodpecker nest tree and by hand from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities. Totals of 195 (1994) and 190 (1995) red-cockaded woodpecker cavities were examined at least three times each year. Trappability of southern flying squirrels in Sherman traps was significantly greater in 1995 (1.18%; 22,384 trap nights) than in 1994 (0.42%; 20,384 trap nights), and capture rate of southern flying squirrels in cavities was significantly greater in 1994 (22.7%; 502 cavity inspections) than in 1995 (10.8%; 555 cavity inspections). However, more southern flying squirrels were captured per cavity inspection than per Sherman trap night in both years. Male southern flying squirrels were more likely to be captured from cavities than in Sherman traps in 1994, but not in 1995. Both male and female juveniles were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps in both years. In 1994 males in reproductive condition were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps and in 1995 we captured significantly more reproductive females in cavities than in traps. Our data suggest that population estimates based solely on one trapping method may not represent true population size or structure of southern flying squirrels.

  11. Interlaboratory testing of 42-d Hyalella azteca survival, growth and reproduction method with sediment and water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past four years, USEPA-Duluth, USGS-Columbia, the Illinois Natural History Survey, and Environment Canada have conducted studies to refine the USEPA/ASTM International methods for conducting 10- to 42-d water or sediment toxicity exposures with Hyalella azteca. In advanc...

  12. Interlaboratory testing of 42-d Hyalella azteca survival, growth and reproduction method with sediment and water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past four years, USEPA-Duluth, USGS-Columbia, the Illinois Natural History Survey, and Environment Canada have conducted studies to refine the USEPA/ASTM International methods for conducting 10- to 42-d water or sediment toxicity exposures with Hyalella azteca. In advanc...

  13. The influence of different mixing methods on the dimensional stability and surface detail reproduction of two different brands of irreversible hydrocolloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kursad Culhaoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials are some of the most common impression materials in dentistry. Preparation of alginate is critical for dental appliance fabricated upon the cast made directly from the impression. This study compared the effect of two mixing methods i.e. hand mixing or device mixing on the physical properties of two different brands of irreversible hydrocolloid. Materials and Methods: Two alginate impression materials: Cavex Tulip (Tulip, Cavex Holland BV, Haarlem, Holland and Hydrogum Soft (Zhermack, Rovigo, Italy, were mixed according to manufacturers instroductions with two mixing methods. Mixing was performed at room temperature using tap water. The material was allowed to set in a water bath at 35°C (±1°C, simulating intra-oral setting conditions. For each tested material, nine standardized samples were used. The first method was hand mixing; the other method was with a device. Detail reproduction and dimensional changes of impressions were compared. One-way analysis of variance was performed to compare the dimensional differences between the four groups. Results: The device mixed speciemens showed better surface detail than hand-mixed samples. Cavex alginate demonstrated better surface detail than Hydrogum. Cavex Tulip alginate showed better dimensional stability than Hydrogum Soft in both hand-mixed and device-mixed samples. Furthermore, all device mixed samples were better than hand-mixed in terms of dimensional stability. A two-way analysis of variance and Fisher′s protected least significant difference test at the 0.05 level of significance were used to analyze the data. Conclusion: Of the two mixing methods, the vacuum mixer had the best performance overall in reducing the number, percent and volume of porosities in the mixed alginate.

  14. Female Adolescents' Educational Choices about Reproductive Health Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Melanie A.; Chiappetta, Laurel; Young, Amanda J.; Zuckoff, Allan; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess girls' reproductive educational choices, satisfaction with choice, and relationship between demographics, module choice, and satisfaction. Methods: We recruited 286 girls, aged 13 to 21 years, from a hospital-based adolescent clinic, from advertisements, and by word of mouth. At enrollment, participants completed a 60-minute…

  15. Female Adolescents' Educational Choices about Reproductive Health Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Melanie A.; Chiappetta, Laurel; Young, Amanda J.; Zuckoff, Allan; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess girls' reproductive educational choices, satisfaction with choice, and relationship between demographics, module choice, and satisfaction. Methods: We recruited 286 girls, aged 13 to 21 years, from a hospital-based adolescent clinic, from advertisements, and by word of mouth. At enrollment, participants completed a 60-minute…

  16. Premature birth and low birthweight are associated with a lower rate of reproduction in adulthood: a Swedish population-based registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deKeyser, N; Josefsson, A; Bladh, M; Carstensen, J; Finnström, O; Sydsjö, G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if individuals born with sub-optimal birth characteristics have reduced probability of reproducing in adulthood. Using population-based registries, the authors included 522 216 males and 494 692 females born between 1973 and 1983 and examined their reproductive status as of 2006. Outcome measure was the hazard ratio (HR) of reproducing. Adjustments were made for socio-economic factors. Males and females born very premature displayed a reduced probability of reproducing [HR = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-0.86 for males; HR = 0.81, CI: 0.75-0.88 for females]. Likewise for very low birthweight (HR = 0.83, CI: 0.71-0.95 for males; HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.72-0.89 for females). Individuals born large for gestational age (LGA) displayed no significant changes. Males born small for gestational age (SGA) had a 9% lower reproductive rate (CI: 0.89-0.94) and that reduction increased as the individuals aged. Women born SGA tended to start reproducing at an earlier age. The results suggest that being born with low birthweight, premature or SGA (for males) is associated with a reduced probability of reproducing as an adult. LGA shows no statistically significant relationship with future reproduction.

  17. Optimization of effects-assessment of greenside darter (Etheostoma blennioides) exposed to tertiary treated municipal wastewater based on seasonal changes of reproductive endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Gerald R; Bennett, Charles J; Servos, Mark Roy; McMaster, Mark E

    2014-05-01

    The present study describes the seasonal changes in reproductive endpoints of the greenside darter (Etheostoma blennioides) and its implications for environmental monitoring. Fish collections conducted at the appropriate time for the site-specific sentinel fish species can provide a wide variety of population-level information including recruitment, reproduction, and energy storage. The objectives of the present study were to: 1) characterize seasonal changes in reproductive endpoints of the greenside darter (both sexes) to determine the appropriate period for monitoring of this sentinel species; and 2) evaluate the effect of exposure of this sentinel species to tertiary treated municipal effluent at the selected monitoring period. Based on the selected parameters (gonadosomatic index [GSI], liver somatic index [LSI], condition factor, and in vitro gonadal steroid production [testosterone (T) in both sexes; estradiol (E2) in females; and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) in males]), the present study provides evidence for the value of collecting darters during recrudescence (late fall/early winter) to ensure temporal stability, minimum variability, and stable steroid production capacity. Darters exposed to tertiary treated municipal effluent tended to be larger and heavier relative to reference fish but did not demonstrate any consistent responses in terms of condition or relative liver size. No effect on gonadal development was observed, even though these tertiary-effluent-exposed fish demonstrated a significant reduction in the ability to produce hormones. The present study suggests that although fish exposed to tertiary treated effluent demonstrate no population-level effects, they are still responding at a physiological level. Documentation of the reproductive cycle of sentinel species allows for selection of the most appropriate sampling period to reduce variability and greatly enhances the reliability and interpretation of biological responses.

  18. Knowledge and practice of family planning methods among married women of reproductive age of Kakani VDC, Nuwakot district, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sushmita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family Planning is a way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily to contribute effectively to the social development of a country. CPR of Nuwakot district is less than that of National level. The Objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and practice on family planning methods among married women of Kakani VDC. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study design was done with quantitative methods. Likewise, PPS sampling procedure was used and sample size was 109. Structured questionnaires as a tool and Interview technique was used to obtain necessary information. Data was entered and analysed through SPSS, and computed mean, standard deviation, tables, cross tabulation and chi – square. Results: The study shows that more than one fifth of the respondents (23.9% were of age group 28-32 years and more than half of the respondents (51.4% had marriage at the age of 15-19 years. Depo-Provera was the device known by all respondents and Implant was the least known device. However, more than half (56.9% MWRAs had good knowledge on family planning and 51.38% of respondents were currently using FP devices. Despite more good knowledge towards family planning use of FP devices is low. Conclusion: The study population had good knowledge towards FP devices; however the use of FP devices was low. It was mainly due to husband being abroad and side effects of the devices.

  19. Sexual and reproductive health and rights: integration as a holistic and rights-based response to HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Carmen; Sippel, Serra

    2011-11-01

    For decades, donors, governments, and civil society have recognized the importance of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in efforts to alleviate poverty and advance gender equality and women's rights. More recently, in the battle against HIV/AIDS--and given the unique challenges the pandemic presents for health and development--the global community has acknowledged the benefits of synergizing sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS interventions. However, the United States has been slow to incorporate lessons learned from the international experience when it comes to integrating HIV/AIDS, SRHR, and gender equality in the fight against HIV/AIDS. This article highlights the importance of SRHR and lessons learned from SRHR-HIV integration to inform U.S. domestic and global AIDS strategies and interventions. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparisons of european populations of the cerastoderma-glaucum c-lamarcki complex based on reproductive physiology and biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, V; Wolowicz, M.

    1994-01-01

    Five European populations of the Cerastoderma glaucum/C. lamarcki complex were studied to elucidate differences between Mediterranean, Western European and Baltic populations: one from the French Mediterranean; two from the west coast of France; one from the Limfjord, Denmark; and one from the metal contaminated Gdansk Bay, Poland. The biochemical tissue composition related to five reproductive stages was analysed, and the results for the five populations were compared. The comparison showed ...

  1. Effect of two virus inactivation methods. Electron beam irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment on determination of reproductive hormones in equine plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyvsgaard, N.C.; Nansen, P. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Hoeier, R.; Brueck, I. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Clinical Studies, Section of Reproduction, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Ionizing irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment have previously been shown to be effective for in-vitro inactivation of virus in biological material. In the present study the 2 methods were tested for possible effects on measurable concentrations of reproductive hormones in equine plasma (luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone (P{sub 4}), and oestradiol-17 {beta} (E{sub 2})). The inactivation methods were electron beam irradiation with a dose from 11 to 44 kGy or treatment with binary ethylenimine (BEI) in concentrations of 1 and 5 mmol/L. Generally, there was a close correlation (r>0.8, p<0.001) between pre- and post-treatment hormone levels. Thus, the different phases of the oestrous cycle could be distinguished on the basis of measured hormone concentrations of treated samples. However, both treatments significantly changed hormone concentrations of the plasma samples. For LH, FSH, and E{sub 2} the effect of irradiation and BEI treatment was depressive and dose-dependant. For P{sub 4} the effect of irradiation was also depressive and dose-dependant. However, the highest dose of BEI resulted in an increase of measured P{sub 4} concentration, which may be attributed to changes in the plasma matrix due to the treatment. Although the treatments affected measured hormone concentrations, the close correlation between pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements means that the diagnostic value will remain unchanged. (au). 17 refs.

  2. A performance -based method for granular based method for granular -paste mix design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornahad, H.; Koenders, E.A.B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a performance-based method for the design of granular-paste mixtures will be proposed. Focus will be on the selection and proportioning of constituents to produce a mixture with a pre-defined shape holding ability. Shape holding ability of mixtures will be characterized by the shape

  3. Reproduction and structure of the population of the Chaetognath Parasagitta friderici in Guanabara Bay (Brazil) based on short term sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fabiana; Figueiredo, Gisela M de; Valentin, Jean L

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the total density, densities of developmental stages and the reproduction period of Parasagitta friderici. Weekly samples were collected at one station in the channel of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, during one year. Three vertical hauls were made for each sample, and P. friderici was separated, the developmental stages were identified, and body length (BL), ovary length (OL) and seminal vesicle width (SVW) were measured. Throughout the year P. friderici was the most abundant chaetognath species occurring in all four developmental stages, the densities of which varied from week to week. Higher densities of adults occurred in the spring, followed by peaks of juveniles in the summer. Although P. friderici seems to reproduce continuously in Guanabara Bay, a reproductive peak was apparent during the spring. The intensification of reproduction during the spring, with juveniles occurring in the summer, seems to be related to the period of higher food supply during the rainy season and intrusions of the South Atlantic Central Water.

  4. Effectiveness of reproductive health education among rural adolescent girls: a school based intervention study in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R S P; Lena, A; Nair, N S; Kamath, V; Kamath, A

    2008-11-01

    Adolescence is the most important and sensitive period of one's life [1] . According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee, adolescence is defined as the period between 10 and 19 years, the second decade of life. To determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention program on knowledge of reproductive health among adolescent girls. This educational intervention study was carried out over a period of one year. A total of 791 rural girls in the age group 16-19 years were randomly selected from coastal villages in Udupi District, Karnataka. Adolescent girls were educated regarding reproductive health and their awareness levels were evaluated immediately following intervention. Data was tabulated and analyzed using SPSS version 11.0 for Windows. Findings were described in terms of proportions and percentages. Chi square test was used to test the effect of the intervention. A significant increase in overall knowledge after the intervention (from 14.4 to 68%, P educational intervention program can bring about a desirable change in knowledge among adolescent girls regarding reproductive health.

  5. 基于分区分空间的多色打印机通道信号复制方案%The Channel-Signal Reproduction of Multi-Color Printer Based on Gamut Partition Iterative Subdivision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘攀; 刘真; 朱明

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the nonlinear and inconsistent problem of printer in CIE color space ,a new channel-signal repro-duction method based on gamut partition iterative subdivision was proposed .First ,the theory of gamut partition was modified ,then the“neighborhood” concept was introduced in modified partition .With the adjustment of“neighborhood” ,the calibration range of object color signal was optimized ,and the precision of reproduction color signal could meet requirement .The experiment result showed the new method has higher precision and stability .%针对打印机在CIE空间的非线性和不一致问题,提出了一种分区分空间的色彩校正方法,首先修正理想分区理论,然后在修正分区中引入“邻域”概念,通过调整“邻域”,优化目标信号的处理范围,使得复制信号满足精度要求。实验表明新方法具有很高的精度和稳定性。

  6. Region-based multisensor image fusion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Image fusion should consider the priori knowledge of the source images to be fused, such as the characteristics of the images and the goal of image fusion, that is to say, the knowledge about the input data and the application plays a crucial role. This paper is concerned on multiresolution (MR) image fusion. Considering the characteristics of the multisensor (SAR and FLIR etc) and the goal of fusion, which is to achieve one image in possession of the contours feature and the target region feature. It seems more meaningful to combine features rather than pixels. A multisensor image fusion scheme based on K-means cluster and steerable pyramid is presented. K-means cluster is used to segment out objects in FLIR images. The steerable pyramid is a multiresolution analysis method, which has a good property to extract contours information at different scales. Comparisons are made with the relevant existing techniques in the literature. The paper concludes with some examples to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  7. Subjective evidence based ethnography: method and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlou, Saadi; Le Bellu, Sophie; Boesen-Mariani, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Subjective Evidence Based Ethnography (SEBE) is a method designed to access subjective experience. It uses First Person Perspective (FPP) digital recordings as a basis for analytic Replay Interviews (RIW) with the participants. This triggers their memory and enables a detailed step by step understanding of activity: goals, subgoals, determinants of actions, decision-making processes, etc. This paper describes the technique and two applications. First, the analysis of professional practices for know-how transferring purposes in industry is illustrated with the analysis of nuclear power-plant operators' gestures. This shows how SEBE enables modelling activity, describing good and bad practices, risky situations, and expert tacit knowledge. Second, the analysis of full days lived by Polish mothers taking care of their children is described, with a specific focus on how they manage their eating and drinking. This research has been done on a sub-sample of a large scale intervention designed to increase plain water drinking vs sweet beverages. It illustrates the interest of SEBE as an exploratory technique in complement to other more classic approaches such as questionnaires and behavioural diaries. It provides the detailed "how" of the effects that are measured at aggregate level by other techniques.

  8. DNA-based methods of geochemical prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Matthew

    2011-12-06

    The present invention relates to methods for performing surveys of the genetic diversity of a population. The invention also relates to methods for performing genetic analyses of a population. The invention further relates to methods for the creation of databases comprising the survey information and the databases created by these methods. The invention also relates to methods for analyzing the information to correlate the presence of nucleic acid markers with desired parameters in a sample. These methods have application in the fields of geochemical exploration, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental analysis, clinical microbiology, forensic science and medicine.

  9. The effect of sugar cane molasses on the immune and male reproductive systems using in vitro and in vivo methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Rahiman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Sugar cane molasses is a commonly used ingredient in several food products. Contrasting reports suggest that molasses may have potential adverse or beneficial effects on human health. However, little evidence exists that examines the effects of molasses on the different physiological systems. This study investigated the effects of sugar cane molasses on various physiological systems using in vivo and in vitro methods. Materials and Methods: Molasses was administered orally to BALB/c, male mice and animals were randomly assigned into either a treatment or control group. General physiological changes, body weight and molasses intake of animals were monitored. At the end of the exposure period, collected blood samples were evaluated for potential toxicity using plasma biomarkers and liver enzyme activity. Immunised treated and untreated mice were evaluated for antibody titre to determine the effect of molasses on the immune response. To investigate the impact of molasses on testicular steroidogenesis, testes from both treated and control groups were harvested, cultured and assayed for testosterone synthesis.  Results: Findings suggest that fluid intake by molasses-treated animals was significantly increased and these animals showed symptoms of loose faeces. Molasses had no significant effect on body weight, serum biomarkers or liver enzyme activity (P>0.05.  Immunoglobulin-gamma anti-antigen levels were significantly suppressed in molasses-treated groups (P=0.004. Animals subjected to molasses exposure also exhibited elevated levels of testosterone synthesis (P=0.001. Conclusion: Findings suggests that molasses adversely affects the humoral immune response. The results also promote the use of molasses as a supplement to increase testosterone levels.

  10. Triptycene-based ladder monomers and polymers, methods of making each, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-02-05

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a method of making a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a triptycene-based ladder polymer, a method of making a triptycene-based ladder polymers, a method of using triptycene-based ladder polymers, a structure incorporating triptycene-based ladder polymers, a method of gas separation, and the like.

  11. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed.

  12. Costs of integrating demand-based reproductive health commodity model into the Government and NGO service delivery systems in Bangladesh: a supply side perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ziaul; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Anwar, Shahela; Kabir, Humayun; Gazi, Rukhsana

    2015-01-01

    To estimate additional total cost and average cost of integrating the demand-based reproductive health commodity model into the existing Government and NGO facilities in Bangladesh. Activity based cost analysis was conducted during 2006-2008 in two low performing rural sub-districts (Nabigong and Raipur sub-district) and one urban slum area in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Activity-based cost data were collected using ingredient approach, which comprised of listing all types of inputs by activity, quantities and prices for each input. Total cost was presented according to capital and recurrent items. The supply side perspective was considered for entire analysis. The total cost of integrating demand-based reproductive health commodity (DBRHC) model into the Government and NGO service delivery system was estimated to BDT 18,667,634 (US$274,524). The proportion of capital cost was 59 % and the recurrent cost was 41 % of the total cost. The average cost per beneficiaries was BDT 230 (US$3.38) only for introducing this model into the existing health system. The built-in interventions of DBRHC model were doable at low-cost at the selected Government and NGO settings at the grass-root level. The model has potential of further cost containment during scaling up-if the intervention costs are adjusted with the existing functionaries of the Government and NGOs.

  13. Male behavior toward reproductive responsibilities in Sikkim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chankapa Yalley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Failure to assess the impact of men′s perceptions on reproductive health decisions has weakened reproductive health care programmes. Objectives: We evaluated husbands′ knowledge and practices with regard to the use of conventional contraceptives as manifested through reproductive health and sexual decisions. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural setting of Sang PHC and Pakyong PHC area in Sikkim, India. Five hundred and ninety-six currently married men whose names were included in the eligible couple registers were selected by multistage random sampling. Information regarding knowledge and practice of contraceptive use was obtained from the participants by interview. Results: Out of the 596 male participants, the majority (55.87% opined that they were in favor of using a contraceptive method after one child. Most participants (55.54% said that their main source of information on contraceptive methods were the government health staff, while 24.84% acknowledged that most of their information came from the mass media. Eighty-two percent reported currently using some kind of the contraceptive method. Condom was used as a temporary method by only 16.27% of the responders, with the permanent method of vasectomy being opted for by only 4.87%. The method most widely used by their partners was the oral contraceptive pill (43.41%, followed by tubectomy (15.77% and IUD (4.19%. Conclusions: This research found that awareness and prevalence of contraceptive use among married men in a rural community in the East District of Sikkim were quite high. Nevertheless, female contraceptive methods continue to be the dominant method used in the community. Researchers and health care providers often ignore the sociodemographic significance of men and their role in the acceptance of contraceptive practices in the community.

  14. REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION INDICATORS COUPLES BRYANSK REGION, INFERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekhnich Svetlana Nikolaevna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research - the study of the dynamics and trends of the major reproductive health Bryansk region. Novelty: established medical-social aspects of reproductive health at the regional level. The methodology of the work. Direct observation of the state of the reproductive health, clinical tools, functional methods, statistical methods, data from vykopirovka "outpatient medical card" applied to autonomous public institutions Bryansk Regional Health Center for Family Planning and Reproduction (Gause BOTSPSR from 2008 to 2012. Results. Revealed a high incidence of infertility, high frequency tube-peritoneal and endocrine factors of the disease. Among patients with infertility, most suffered various gynecological surgeries, which significantly reduced ovarian reserve and the quality of oocytes during IVF. Field of application of the results. The data obtained can be used in reproductive medicine clinics, which will allow a more considered approach to the appointment of surgical interventions in patients with infertility, greater use of assisted reproduction techniques.

  15. New deghosting method based on generalized triangulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Jing; Wang Guohong; Xiu Jianjuan; Wang Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    A new deghosting method baaed on the generalized triangulation is presented. First, two intersection points corresponding to the emitter position are obtained by utilizing two azimuth angles and two elevation angles from two jammed 3-D radars (or 2-D passive sensors). Then, hypothesis testing baaed deghosting method in the multiple target scenarios is proposed using the two intersection points. In order to analyze the performance of the proposed method, the correct association probability of the true targets and the incorrect association probability of the ghost targets are defined. Finally, the Monte Carlo simulations are given for the proposed method compared with the hinge angle method in the cases of both two and three radars. The simulation results show that the proposed method has better performance than the hinge angle method in three radars case.

  16. Multifractal Framework Based on Blanket Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskaš, Milorad P.; Reljin, Irini S.; Reljin, Branimir D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes two local multifractal measures motivated by blanket method for calculation of fractal dimension. They cover both fractal approaches familiar in image processing. The first two measures (proposed Methods 1 and 3) support model of image with embedded dimension three, while the other supports model of image embedded in space of dimension three (proposed Method 2). While the classical blanket method provides only one value for an image (fractal dimension) multifractal spectrum obtained by any of the proposed measures gives a whole range of dimensional values. This means that proposed multifractal blanket model generalizes classical (monofractal) blanket method and other versions of this monofractal approach implemented locally. Proposed measures are validated on Brodatz image database through texture classification. All proposed methods give similar classification results, while average computation time of Method 3 is substantially longer. PMID:24578664

  17. Flower diversity and bee reproduction in an arid ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Dorado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diverse flower communities are more stable in floral resource production along the flowering season, but the question about how the diversity and stability of resources affect pollinator reproduction remains open. High plant diversity could favor short foraging trips, which in turn would enhance bee fitness. In addition to plant diversity, greater temporal stability of floral resources in diverse communities could favor pollinator fitness because such communities are likely to occupy the phenological space more broadly, increasing floral availability for pollinators throughout the season. In addition, this potential effect of flower diversity on bee reproduction could be stronger for generalist pollinators because they can use a broader floral spectrum. Based on above arguments we predicted that pollinator reproduction would be positively correlated to flower diversity, and to temporal stability in flower production, and that this relationship would be stronger for the most generalized pollinator species. Materials and Methods: Using structural equation models, we evaluated the effect of these variables and other ecological factors on three estimates of bee reproduction (average number of brood cells per nest per site, total number of brood cells per site, and total number of nests per site, and whether such effects were modulated by bee generalization on floral resources. Results: Contrary to our expectations, flower diversity had no effect on bee reproduction, stability in flower production had a weakly negative effect on one of the bee reproductive variables, and the strength of the fitness-diversity relationship was unrelated to bee generalization. In contrast, elevation had a negative effect on bee reproduction, despite the narrow elevation range encompassed by our sites. Discussion: Flower diversity did not affect the reproduction of the solitary bees studied here. This result could stem from the context dependence of the

  18. Integrating systematic screening for gender-based violence into sexual and reproductive health services: results of a baseline study by the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A; Bott, S; Cuca, Y

    2002-09-01

    Three Latin American affiliates of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, Inc. (IPPF/WHR) have begun to integrate gender-based violence screening and services into sexual and reproductive health programs. This paper presents results of a baseline study conducted in the affiliates. Although most staff support integration and many had already begun to address violence in their work, additional sensitization and training, as well as institution-wide changes are needed to provide services effectively and to address needs of women experiencing violence.

  19. Noninvasive monitoring of reproductive activity based on fecal progestagen profiles and sexual behavior in Koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Hashikawa, Hisashi; Takeda, Masato; Takeda, Kazuhito; Ito, Hideki; Ogata-Kobayashi, Yuka; Hashimoto, Masako; Ogata, Mitsuaki; Morikaku, Koki; Araki, Sayaka; Makino, Tsubasa; Doi, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Studies on the reproductive endocrinology of koalas have been performed mainly by using blood samples; however, in practice it is difficult to collect blood periodically because koalas are easily stressed. The purposes of the present study were to establish a noninvasive endocrine monitoring technique and to investigate the reproductive physiology of female koalas. Feces were collected from female northern and southern koalas, and progestagen was extracted from lyophilized fecal samples and determined by enzyme immunoassay. In nonpregnant northern and southern koalas, fecal progestagen markedly increased after copulation and remained high for 36.3 +/- 2.5 days and 38.9 +/- 1.4 days (luteal phase, mean +/- SEM), respectively. Mean (+/-SEM) progestagen levels (6.34 +/- 0.49 microg/g) during the luteal phase in northern koalas were significantly higher than in southern koalas (4.19 +/- 0.24 microg/g). Fecal progestagen in parturient northern koalas remained high for 36.2 +/- 1.9 days (gestation period, 34.1 +/- 0.3 days). In northern koalas, the mean levels and profiles of progestagen during pregnancy (6.44 +/- 0.37 microg/g) were consistent with those during nonpregnancy after copulation (6.34 +/- 0.49 microg/g). The duration of behavioral estrus in northern koalas was 13.5 +/- 0.9 days without copulation. In contrast, when estrous females mated, the estrous sign disappeared just after copulation. The mean (+/-SEM) length of the estrous cycle in northern koalas, as determined by behavioral estrus intervals, was 33.5 +/- 2.2 days without the luteal phase and 69.2 +/- 7.6 days with the luteal phase. Fecal progestagen analysis is a helpful and noninvasive tool to monitor ovulatory activity in northern and southern koalas and could help us to understand the reproductive activity of koalas by the combination approach with behavioral estrus.

  20. Sponge budding is a spatiotemporal morphological patterning process: Insights from synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography into the asexual reproduction of Tethya wilhelma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickel Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary agametic-asexual reproduction mechanisms such as budding and fission are present in all non-bilaterian and many bilaterian animal taxa and are likely to be metazoan ground pattern characters. Cnidarians display highly organized and regulated budding processes. In contrast, budding in poriferans was thought to be less specific and related to the general ability of this group to reorganize their tissues. Here we test the hypothesis of morphological pattern formation during sponge budding. Results We investigated the budding process in Tethya wilhelma (Demospongiae by applying 3D morphometrics to high resolution synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography (SR-μCT image data. We followed the morphogenesis of characteristic body structures and identified distinct morphological states which indeed reveal characteristic spatiotemporal morphological patterns in sponge bud development. We discovered the distribution of skeletal elements, canal system and sponge tissue to be based on a sequential series of distinct morphological states. Based on morphometric data we defined four typical bud stages. Once they have reached the final stage buds are released as fully functional juvenile sponges which are morphologically and functionally equivalent to adult specimens. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that budding in demosponges is considerably more highly organized and regulated than previously assumed. Morphological pattern formation in asexual reproduction with underlying genetic regulation seems to have evolved early in metazoans and was likely part of the developmental program of the last common ancestor of all Metazoa (LCAM.

  1. Specific LED-based red light photo-stimulation procedures improve overall sperm function and reproductive performance of boar ejaculates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposing liquid-stored boar semen to different red light LED regimens on sperm quality and reproductive performance. Of all of the tested photo-stimulation procedures, the best pattern consisted of 10 min light, 10 min rest and 10 min of further light (10-10-10 pattern). This pattern induced an intense and transient increase in the majority of motility parameters, without modifying sperm viability and acrosome integrity. While incubating non-photo-st...

  2. Estimates of reproductive potential of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in East Greenland based on an update of maturity status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, James; Hedeholm, Rasmus B.; Gundersen, Agnes C.

    2014-01-01

    ), respectively. Combining the maturity data with abundance data of Greenland halibut in East Greenland, spawning stock biomass (SSB) and total egg production (TEP) was estimated in four quadrants between 1998 and 2012 using both the previous and current interpretation of the maturity scale. Using the new...... interpretation of the scale led to a decrease in SSB estimates of 28–92% in specific areas and years, with an average of 56%. Estimates of TEP were directly proportional to SSB so this approach did not offer any advantages over SSB as a measure of reproductive potential. Length composition of Greenland halibut...

  3. Vitamin D, men's health and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the literary review the modern data proving an important physiological role of vitamin D and its deficiency for man's health in whole and the male reproduction, in particular is presented. For today these proofs are based basically on experimental works with animals and on clinical observant researches which demonstrative base while is insufficient for a formulation of the general concept of vitamin D deficiency for modern medicine. However, there are some encouraging results deserving a complex estimation and the further basic researches. Considering high prevalence of male infertility, not diagnosed androgen deficiency and vitamin D at men, which have intime authentic pathophysiological communications, it is possible to assume that the further researches in area endocrinology of vitamin D can come to new methods of an estimation of men's reproductive function and working out of new pathogenetic therapeutic approaches in male infertility treatment. These prospects are especially important if to consider that infertility suffers not less than 10–20 % of married couples, and this figure constantly increases. In spite of the fact that vitamin D is not included yet into the list of preparations for treatment of male infertility, but its influence at male androgen status which is endocrinological basis of sexual and reproductive functions, and positive effects at spermatogenesis in experimental researches is necessary to consider proved. Besides, large-scale clinical randomized researches are necessary for definition of an optimal 25(OH-vitamin D level for prevention and treatment of male fertility's disorders.

  4. Vitamin D, men's health and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literary review the modern data proving an important physiological role of vitamin D and its deficiency for man's health in whole and the male reproduction, in particular is presented. For today these proofs are based basically on experimental works with animals and on clinical observant researches which demonstrative base while is insufficient for a formulation of the general concept of vitamin D deficiency for modern medicine. However, there are some encouraging results deserving a complex estimation and the further basic researches. Considering high prevalence of male infertility, not diagnosed androgen deficiency and vitamin D at men, which have intime authentic pathophysiological communications, it is possible to assume that the further researches in area endocrinology of vitamin D can come to new methods of an estimation of men's reproductive function and working out of new pathogenetic therapeutic approaches in male infertility treatment. These prospects are especially important if to consider that infertility suffers not less than 10–20 % of married couples, and this figure constantly increases. In spite of the fact that vitamin D is not included yet into the list of preparations for treatment of male infertility, but its influence at male androgen status which is endocrinological basis of sexual and reproductive functions, and positive effects at spermatogenesis in experimental researches is necessary to consider proved. Besides, large-scale clinical randomized researches are necessary for definition of an optimal 25(OH-vitamin D level for prevention and treatment of male fertility's disorders.

  5. A microfluidic based optical particle detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, James; Chen, Lu; Nayyar, Rakesh; Aitchison, Stewart

    2012-03-01

    An optical particle detection and analysis method is presented. This method combines the capillary microfluidics, integrated optics and novel image acquisition and analysis algorithms to form the basis of a portable or handheld cytometer instrument. Experimental results provided shows the testing results are closely matched with conventional flow cytometer data.

  6. Knowledge of reproductive physiology and modern contraceptives in rural Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard-Tucker, G

    1989-01-01

    This report is based on fieldwork conducted in a Peruvian community in 1986, which investigated Quechua-speaking Indians' knowledge of the female reproductive organs, perceptions of the way contraceptives work in the body, folk beliefs about conception and menstruation, and opinions about modern contraceptives. The findings reveal that the men have a more accurate knowledge of the female reproductive organs than the women do. However, the women are more knowledgeable about the action of modern contraceptives in the body. Most respondents perceived modern contraceptive methods as the best methods available, but the majority reported using the calendar rhythm method. This preference for rhythm is based on its economic advantage and on its adaptability to folk beliefs about physiology. The men's dominant role in reproductive behavior is related to cultural norms that emphasize traditional gender roles and that prohibit communication about sexual matters between men and women. Educational material, based on the respondents' knowledge of reproduction and taking into account their folk beliefs, might help to decrease the fear of contraceptive side effects and increase understanding of the function of contraceptives.

  7. Caregiver awareness of reproductive health issues for women with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited attention has been paid to the issue of reproductive health as it affects women with intellectual disabilities, despite reproductive health being a vital issue in public health policy for women in the general population. This paper describes caregiver awareness of reproductive health issues relative to women with intellectual disabilities who are being cared for in welfare institutions in Taiwan. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study which recruited 1,152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87% from 32 registered disability welfare institutions in Taiwan. We classified their understanding/awareness of reproductive health issues into four domains: menstrual (1 and menopause (2 issues, sex education (3, and reproductive health services (4. Each domain had five associated yes/no questions and the total score for the four domains was out of a maximum of 20. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software. Results We found that most of the caregivers were familiar with matters concerning sex education, menopause, and reproductive health services, but they lacked adequate understanding of issues associated with menstruation in women with ID. Many aspects of reproductive health such as "menstrual pain", "age at menarche", "masturbation", "diet during perimenopause", and "publicly available reproductive health services" were issues in which caregivers lacked adequate knowledge and required further instruction. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female caregivers with a university degree, and those who had experience assisting with reproductive health care were more inclined to have higher reproductive health awareness scores than their counterparts. Conclusions This study highlights that service providers should offer appropriate reproductive health education to institutional caregivers, and that more attention be focused on the personal experiences and concerns of intellectually disabled

  8. Season- and age-related reproductive changes based on fecal androgen concentrations in male koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Hashikawa, Hisashi; Takeda, Masato; Ito, Hideki; Goto, Atsushi; Oguchi, Jun; Doi, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to clarify age- and season- related androgen patterns, and to compare the reproductive physiology between Japanese captive koala populations and Australian populations. To measure fecal androgens, feces were collected from male koalas (4.2 to 13.8 years of age) kept in Japanese zoos. Fecal androgens were extracted with methanol from the lyophilized samples and determined by enzyme immunoassay using 4-androstene-3,17-dione antibody. Fecal androgen concentration in male koalas increased after sexual maturation and remained relatively high until old age. In the survey with the Japanese zoo studbook of koalas, copulation (conception) month showed a pyramid shape with a peak in March to June (60.7%) in koalas born and reared in Japanese zoos and from July to April with the highest concentration in September to January (69.7%) in Australian institutes. Japanese zoo koala populations have a characteristic physiological cycle adapted to Japan's seasonal changes. The suitable month of year for copulation or conception in Japan is diametrically opposed to that in Australia. Mean fecal androgen concentrations by month in the males born and reared in Japan indicated annual changes with the highest concentration in May and the lowest value in November. Fecal androgen analysis may be a noninvasive alternative tool to monitor circulating testosterone and may be helpful in understanding reproductive activity and physiology in male koalas.

  9. Bacterial communities in the gut and reproductive organs of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae based on 454 pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailin Wang

    Full Text Available The citrus fruit fly Bactrocera minax is associated with diverse bacterial communities. We used a 454 pyrosequencing technology to study in depth the microbial communities associated with gut and reproductive organs of Bactrocera minax. Our dataset consisted of 100,749 reads with an average length of 400 bp. The saturated rarefaction curves and species richness indices indicate that the sampling was comprehensive. We found highly diverse bacterial communities, with individual sample containing approximately 361 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs. A total of 17 bacterial phyla were obtained from the flies. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA revealed that Proteobacteria was dominant in all samples (75%-95%. Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were also commonly found in the total clones. Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia were the major genera. However, bacterial diversity (Chao1, Shannon and Simpson indices and community structure (PCA analysis varied across samples. Female ovary has the most diverse bacteria, followed by male testis, and the bacteria diversity of reproductive organs is richer than that of the gut. The observed variation can be caused by sex and tissue, possibly to meet the host's physiological demands.

  10. portfolio optimization based on nonparametric estimation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahsa ghandehari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues investors are facing with in capital markets is decision making about select an appropriate stock exchange for investing and selecting an optimal portfolio. This process is done through the risk and expected return assessment. On the other hand in portfolio selection problem if the assets expected returns are normally distributed, variance and standard deviation are used as a risk measure. But, the expected returns on assets are not necessarily normal and sometimes have dramatic differences from normal distribution. This paper with the introduction of conditional value at risk ( CVaR, as a measure of risk in a nonparametric framework, for a given expected return, offers the optimal portfolio and this method is compared with the linear programming method. The data used in this study consists of monthly returns of 15 companies selected from the top 50 companies in Tehran Stock Exchange during the winter of 1392 which is considered from April of 1388 to June of 1393. The results of this study show the superiority of nonparametric method over the linear programming method and the nonparametric method is much faster than the linear programming method.

  11. Comparison of histological, genetic, metabolomics, and lipid-based methods for sex determination in marine mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Adam; Yeung, Wai Ho; Craft, John; Brown, Margaret; Kennedy, Jill; Bignell, John; Stentiford, Grant D; Viant, Mark R

    2007-10-15

    Omics technologies are increasingly being used to monitor organismal responses to environmental stressors. Previous studies have shown that species identification, an appreciation of life history traits, and organism phenotype (e.g., gender) are essential for the accurate interpretation of omics data from field samples. As marine mussels are increasingly being used in ecotoxicogenomics and monitoring, a technique to determine mussel gender throughout their annual reproductive cycle is urgently needed. This study examines four methods for sex determination in the two mussel species found in the United Kingdom, Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, and their hybrid. Each of these methods-histology, a lipid-based assay, a new reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics-initially was evaluated using sexually mature ("ripe") mussels whose gender was clearly distinguishable using histology. The methods subsequently were tested on spawned ("spent") mussels. For ripe animals, all techniques yielded high classification accuracies: histology, 100%; RT-PCR, 94.6%; lipid analysis, 90.6%; and metabolomics, 89.5%. The gender of spent animals, however, could not be determined by histology (0%) or lipid analysis (55.6%), but RT-PCR (100%) and metabolomics (88.9%) both proved to be successful. In addition, the RT-PCR, metabolomics, and lipid-based methods identified animals of mixed sex. Our findings highlight the application of a novel RT-PCR method as a robust technique for gender determination of ripe and spent mussels.

  12. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A Patient's Guide to Assisted Reproductive Technology Frequently Asked ...

  13. Reproductive performance in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) may be affected by organohalogen contaminants as shown by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Rigét, Frank F.

    2009-01-01

    quotient (RQ) evaluation to more quantitatively evaluate the effect risk on reproduction (embryotoxicity and teratogenicity) based on the critical body residue (CBR) concept and using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. We applied modelling approaches to PCBs, p,p′-DDE, dieldrin......, oxychlordane, HCHs, HCB, PBDEs and PFOS in East Greenland polar bears based on known OHC pharmacokinetics and dynamics in laboratory rats (Rattus rattus). The results showed that subcutaneous adipose tissue concentrations of dieldrin (range: 79–1271 ng g−1 lw) and PCBs (range: 4128–53 923 ng g−1 lw) reported...... and for dieldrin (range: 43–640 ng g−1 lw), PCBs (range: 3491–13 243 ng g−1 lw) and PFOS (range: 1332–6160 ng g−1 ww) in the year 2006. The concentrations of oxychlordane, DDTs, HCB and HCHs in polar bears resulted in RQs

  14. Model-based methods for linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John P; Saccone, Nancy L; Corbett, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The logarithm of an odds ratio (LOD) score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential so that pedigrees or LOD curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders where the maximum LOD score statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional LOD score approach, but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the LOD score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  15. New ITF measure method based on fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qiaoran; Liu, Shijie; Gao, Wanrong; Zhou, You; Liu, HuanHuan

    2016-01-01

    With the unprecedented developments of the intense laser and aerospace projects', the interferometer is widely used in detecting middle frequency indicators of the optical elements, which put forward very high request towards the interferometer system transfer function (ITF). Conventionally, the ITF is measured by comparing the power spectra of known phase objects such as high-quality phase step. However, the fabrication of phase step is complex and high-cost, especially in the measurement of large-aperture interferometer. In this paper, a new fringe method is proposed to measure the ITF without additional objects. The frequency was changed by adjusting the number of fringes, and the normalized transfer function value was measured at different frequencies. The ITF value measured by fringe method was consistent with the traditional phase step method, which confirms the feasibility of proposed method. Moreover, the measurement error caused by defocus was analyzed. The proposed method does not require the preparation of a step artifact, which greatly reduces the test cost, and is of great significance to the ITF measurement of large aperture interferometer.

  16. LEVEL SET METHODS BASED ON DISTANCE FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德军; 唐云; 于洪川; 唐泽圣

    2003-01-01

    Some basic problems on the level set methods were discussed, such as the method used to preserve the distance function, the existence and uniqueness of solution for the level set equations. The main contribution is to prove that in a neighborhood of the initial zero level set, the level set equations with the restriction of the distance function have a unique solution, which must be the signed distance function with respect to the evolving surface. Some skillful approaches were used: Noticing that any solution for the original equation was a distance function, the original level set equations were transformed into a simpler alternative form. Moreover, since the new system was not a classical one, the system was transforned into an ordinary one, for which the implicit function method was adopted.

  17. AN EVEN COMPONENT BASED FACE RECOGNITION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel face recognition algorithm. To provide additional variations to training data set, even-odd decomposition is adopted, and only the even components (half-even face images) are used for further processing. To tackle with shift-variant problem,Fourier transform is applied to half-even face images. To reduce the dimension of an image,PCA (Principle Component Analysis) features are extracted from the amplitude spectrum of half-even face images. Finally, nearest neighbor classifier is employed for the task of classification. Experimental results on ORL database show that the proposed method outperforms in terms of accuracy the conventional eigenface method which applies PCA on original images and the eigenface method which uses both the original images and their mirror images as training set.

  18. Topology-Based Methods in Visualization 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Garth, Christoph; Weinkauf, Tino

    2017-01-01

    This book presents contributions on topics ranging from novel applications of topological analysis for particular problems, through studies of the effectiveness of modern topological methods, algorithmic improvements on existing methods, and parallel computation of topological structures, all the way to mathematical topologies not previously applied to data analysis. Topological methods are broadly recognized as valuable tools for analyzing the ever-increasing flood of data generated by simulation or acquisition. This is particularly the case in scientific visualization, where the data sets have long since surpassed the ability of the human mind to absorb every single byte of data. The biannual TopoInVis workshop has supported researchers in this area for a decade, and continues to serve as a vital forum for the presentation and discussion of novel results in applications in the area, creating a platform to disseminate knowledge about such implementations throughout and beyond the community. The present volum...

  19. Valuing Convertible Bonds Based on LSRQM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convertible bonds are one of the essential financial products for corporate finance, while the pricing theory is the key problem to the theoretical research of convertible bonds. This paper demonstrates how to price convertible bonds with call and put provisions using Least-Squares Randomized Quasi-Monte Carlo (LSRQM method. We consider the financial market with stochastic interest rates and credit risk and present a detailed description on calculating steps of convertible bonds value. The empirical results show that the model fits well the market prices of convertible bonds in China’s market and the LSRQM method is effective.

  20. A numerical method based on probability theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐立; 邹捷中; 杨文胜

    2003-01-01

    By using the connections between Brownian family with drift and elliptic differential equations, an efficient probabilistic computing method is given. This method is applied to a wide-range Diriehlet problem. Detail analysis and deduction of solving the problem are offered. The stochastic representation of the solution to the problem makes a 3-dimensional problem turned into a 2-dimensional problem. And an auxiliary ball is constructed. The strong Markov property and the joint distributions of the time and place of hitting spheres for Brownian family with drift are employed. Finally, good convergence of the numerical solution to the problem over domain with arbitrary boundary is obtained.

  1. Reproduction and structure of the population of the Chaetognath Parasagitta friderici in Guanabara Bay (Brazil based on short term sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Mendes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the total density, densities of developmental stages and the reproduction period of Parasagitta friderici. Weekly samples were collected at one station in the channel of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, during one year. Three vertical hauls were made for each sample, and P. friderici was separated, the developmental stages were identified, and body length (BL, ovary length (OL and seminal vesicle width (SVW were measured. Throughout the year P. friderici was the most abundant chaetognath species occurring in all four developmental stages, the densities of which varied from week to week. Higher densities of adults occurred in the spring, followed by peaks of juveniles in the summer. Although P. friderici seems to reproduce continuously in Guanabara Bay, a reproductive peak was apparent during the spring. The intensification of reproduction during the spring, with juveniles occurring in the summer, seems to be related to the period of higher food supply during the rainy season and intrusions of the South Atlantic Central Water.O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a densidade total, densidades dos estágios de desenvolvimento e o período reprodutivo de Parasagitta friderici. As coletas foram realizadas semanalmente durante um ano em uma estação no canal da Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro. Foram realizados três arrastos verticais em cada amostragem e, P. friderici foi separada, os estágios de desenvolvimento identificados e o comprimento do corpo, comprimento dos ovários e a largura da vesícula seminal foram medidos. Ao longo do ano, P. friderici foi a espécie de Chaetognatha mais abundante, ocorrendo em todos os quatro estágios de desenvolvimento, dos quais as densidades variaram entre as semanas. As densidades mais altas de adultos ocorreram na primavera seguidas de picos de juvenis no verão. Embora, P. friderici se reproduza continuamente na baía de Guanabara, um pico reprodutivo foi aparente

  2. QSAR Models for Reproductive Toxicity and Endocrine Disruption Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Vračko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive toxicity is an important regulatory endpoint, which is required in registration procedures of chemicals used for different purposes (for example pesticides. The in vivo tests are expensive, time consuming and require large numbers of animals, which must be sacrificed. Therefore an effort is ongoing to develop alternative In vitro and in silico methods to evaluate reproductive toxicity. In this review we describe some modeling approaches. In the first example we describe the CAESAR model for prediction of reproductive toxicity; the second example shows a classification model for endocrine disruption potential based on counter propagation artificial neural networks; the third example shows a modeling of relative binding affinity to rat estrogen receptor, and the fourth one shows a receptor dependent modeling experiment.

  3. Lifecycle-Based Swarm Optimization Method for Numerical Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioinspired optimization algorithms have been widely used to solve various scientific and engineering problems. Inspired by biological lifecycle, this paper presents a novel optimization algorithm called lifecycle-based swarm optimization (LSO. Biological lifecycle includes four stages: birth, growth, reproduction, and death. With this process, even though individual organism died, the species will not perish. Furthermore, species will have stronger ability of adaptation to the environment and achieve perfect evolution. LSO simulates Biological lifecycle process through six optimization operators: chemotactic, assimilation, transposition, crossover, selection, and mutation. In addition, the spatial distribution of initialization population meets clumped distribution. Experiments were conducted on unconstrained benchmark optimization problems and mechanical design optimization problems. Unconstrained benchmark problems include both unimodal and multimodal cases the demonstration of the optimal performance and stability, and the mechanical design problem was tested for algorithm practicability. The results demonstrate remarkable performance of the LSO algorithm on all chosen benchmark functions when compared to several successful optimization techniques.

  4. HMM-Based Gene Annotation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haussler, David; Hughey, Richard; Karplus, Keven

    1999-09-20

    Development of new statistical methods and computational tools to identify genes in human genomic DNA, and to provide clues to their functions by identifying features such as transcription factor binding sites, tissue, specific expression and splicing patterns, and remove homologies at the protein level with genes of known function.

  5. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies.

  6. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  7. Evidence-based management of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome using surgery or assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael F; Ledger, William L

    2012-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been managed surgically since the development of wedge resection in the 1930s. Second-line surgical interventions for anovulation associated with PCOS include laparoscopic ovarian diathermy, which is as effective as medical induction of ovulation with gonadotropins, with a much reduced risk of multiple pregnancy. Bariatric surgery may be considered for morbidly obese patients with PCOS, although further research assessing such surgery specifically in PCOS patients is needed. Assisted reproduction, in the form of IVF with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection, is usually indicated as third-line medical treatment or in the presence of other infertility factors. There is an ongoing debate concerning the relative merits of IVF and ovulation induction in PCOS, comparing the higher multiple pregnancy rate of ovulation induction with the greater cost and psychological stress of IVF.

  8. Prioritization of candidate genes for cattle reproductive traits, based on protein-protein interactions, gene expression, and text-mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulsegge, Ina; Woelders, Henri; Smits, Mari

    2013-01-01

    and processes in brain areas and pituitary involved in reproductive traits in cattle using information derived from three different data sources: gene expression, protein-protein interactions, and literature. We identified 59, 89, 53, 23, and 71 genes in bovine amygdala, dorsal hypothalamus, hippocampus......, pituitary, and ventral hypothalamus, respectively, potentially involved in processes underlying estrus and estrous behavior. Functional annotation of the candidate genes points to a number of tissue-specific processes of which the "neurotransmitter/ion channel/synapse" process in the amygdala, "steroid...... hormone receptor activity/ion binding" in the pituitary, "extracellular region" in the ventral hypothalamus, and "positive regulation of transcription/metabolic process" in the dorsal hypothalamus are most prominent. The regulation of the functional processes in the various tissues operate at different...

  9. Reproductive health issues in rural Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouma Peter

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe reproductive health issues among pregnant women in a rural area of Kenya with a high coverage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs and high prevalence of HIV (15%. Methods We conducted a community-based cross-sectional survey among rural pregnant women in western Kenya. A medical, obstetric and reproductive history was obtained. Blood was obtained for a malaria smear and haemoglobin level, and stool was examined for geohelminths. Height and weight were measured. Results Of 673 participants, 87% were multigravidae and 50% were in their third trimester; 41% had started antenatal clinic visits at the time of interview and 69% reported ITN-use. Malaria parasitemia and anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusion In this rural area with a high HIV prevalence, the reported use of condoms before pregnancy was extremely low. Pregnancy health was not optimal with a high prevalence of malaria, geohelminth infections, anaemia and underweight. Chances of losing a child after birth were high. Multiple interventions are needed to improve reproductive health in this area.

  10. Prevention and Treatment of Reproductive Tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangLifang

    2005-01-01

    Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) prevention and treatment is one of the three major projects organized by the National Population and Family Planning Commission. The author, based on the practice of this project and the China/UNFPA reproductive health and family planning project, made some suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of the efforts made to prevent and treat RTIs.

  11. Scope-Based Method Cache Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Benedikt; Hepp, Stefan; Schoeberl, Martin

    2014-01-01

    , as it requests memory transfers at well-defined instructions only. In this article, we present a new cache analysis framework that generalizes and improves work on cache persistence analysis. The analysis demonstrates that a global view on the cache behavior permits the precise analyses of caches which are hard......The quest for time-predictable systems has led to the exploration of new hardware architectures that simplify analysis and reasoning in the temporal domain, while still providing competitive performance. For the instruction memory, the method cache is a conceptually attractive solution...

  12. Use of evidence-based practices in pregnancy and childbirth: South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing Countries project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Laopaiboon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The burden of mortality and morbidity related to pregnancy and childbirth remains concentrated in developing countries. SEA-ORCHID (South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health In Developing countries is evaluating whether a multifaceted intervention to strengthen capacity for research synthesis, evidence-based care and knowledge implementation improves adoption of best clinical practice recommendations leading to better health for mothers and babies. In this study we assessed current practices in perinatal health care in four South East Asian countries and determined whether they were aligned with best practice recommendations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We completed an audit of 9550 medical records of women and their 9665 infants at nine hospitals; two in each of Indonesia, Malaysia and The Philippines, and three in Thailand between January-December 2005. We compared actual clinical practices with best practice recommendations selected from the Cochrane Library and the World Health Organization Reproductive Health Library. Evidence-based components of the active management of the third stage of labour and appropriately treating eclampsia with magnesium sulphate were universally practiced in all hospitals. Appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis for caesarean section, a beneficial form of care, was practiced in less than 5% of cases in most hospitals. Use of the unnecessary practices of enema in labour ranged from 1% to 61% and rates of episiotomy for vaginal birth ranged from 31% to 95%. Other appropriate practices were commonly performed to varying degrees between countries and also between hospitals within the same country. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Whilst some perinatal health care practices audited were consistent with best available evidence, several were not. We conclude that recording of clinical practices should be an essential step to improve quality of care. Based on these findings, the SEA-ORCHID project team

  13. [Culture based diagnostic methods for tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylan, Orhan

    2005-01-01

    Culture methods providing isolates for identification and drug susceptibility testing, still represent the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis, although the delay in obtaining results still remains a problem. Traditional solid media are recommended for use along with liquid media in primary isolation of mycobacteria. At present, a number of elaborate culture systems are available commercially. They range from simple bottles and tubes such as MGIT (BD Diagnostic Systems, USA), Septi-Chek AFB (BD, USA) and MB Redox (Biotest Diagnostics, USA) to semiautomated system (BACTEC 460TB, BD, USA) and fully automated systems (BACTEC 9000 MB [BD, USA], BACTEC MGIT 960 [BD, USA], ESP Culture System II [Trek Diagnostics, USA], MB/BacT ALERT 3D System [BioMérieux, NC], TK Culture System [Salubris Inc, Turkey]). Culture methods available today are sufficient to permit laboratories to develop an algoritm that is optimal for patients and administrative needs. In this review article, the culture systems used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis, their mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages have been discussed under the light of recent literature.

  14. Proposal for Scrambled Method based on NTRU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tariq Sadiq

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scrambling is widely used to protect the security of data files such as text, image, video or audio files; however, it is not the most efficient method to protect the security of the data files. This article uses NTRU public key cryptosystem to increase the robustness of scrambling of sound files. In this work, we convert the sound file into text, and then scramble it in the following way: first, we encrypt the header of the sound file then, scramble the data of the file after the header in three stages. In each stage we scramble the data of the sound file and keep the original order of data in an array then, the three arrays are encrypted by the sender and sent with the encrypted header to the receiver in one file, while the scrambled data of the sound file is sent to the receiver in another file. We have tested the proposed method on several sound files; the results show that the time of encryption and decryption is reduced to approximately one-third, or less, compared to encrypting the file using NTRU.

  15. Triptycene-based dianhydrides, polyimides, methods of making each, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bader

    2015-12-30

    A triptycene-based monomer, a method of making a triptycene-based monomer, a triptycene-based aromatic polyimide, a method of making a triptycene- based aromatic polyimide, methods of using triptycene-based aromatic polyimides, structures incorporating triptycene-based aromatic polyimides, and methods of gas separation are provided. Embodiments of the triptycene-based monomers and triptycene-based aromatic polyimides have high permeabilities and excellent selectivities. Embodiments of the triptycene-based aromatic polyimides have one or more of the following characteristics: intrinsic microporosity, good thermal stability, and enhanced solubility. In an exemplary embodiment, the triptycene-based aromatic polyimides are microporous and have a high BET surface area. In an exemplary embodiment, the triptycene-based aromatic polyimides can be used to form a gas separation membrane.

  16. GALERKIN MESHLESS METHODS BASED ON PARTITION OF UNITY QUADRATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-hong; LU De-tang

    2005-01-01

    Numerical quadrature is an important ingredient of Galerkin meshless methods. A new numerical quadrature technique, partition of unity quadrature (PUQ),for Galerkin meshless methods was presented. The technique is based on finite covering and partition of unity. There is no need to decompose the physical domain into small cell. It possesses remarkable integration accuracy. Using Element-free Galerkin methods as example, Galerkin meshless methods based on PUQ were studied in detail. Meshing is always not required in the procedure of constitution of approximate function or numerical quadrature, so Galerkin meshless methods based on PUQ are "truly"meshless methods.

  17. Adaptive Mixture Methods Based on Bregman Divergences

    CERN Document Server

    Donmez, Mehmet A; Kozat, Suleyman S

    2012-01-01

    We investigate adaptive mixture methods that linearly combine outputs of $m$ constituent filters running in parallel to model a desired signal. We use "Bregman divergences" and obtain certain multiplicative updates to train the linear combination weights under an affine constraint or without any constraints. We use unnormalized relative entropy and relative entropy to define two different Bregman divergences that produce an unnormalized exponentiated gradient update and a normalized exponentiated gradient update on the mixture weights, respectively. We then carry out the mean and the mean-square transient analysis of these adaptive algorithms when they are used to combine outputs of $m$ constituent filters. We illustrate the accuracy of our results and demonstrate the effectiveness of these updates for sparse mixture systems.

  18. Beam Parameters Measurement Based On Tv Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Klimenkov, E; Milichenko, Yu; Voevodin, V

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes hardware and software used to control TV-cameras and to process TV-images of luminescent screens placed along the beam transfer lines. Industrial devices manually control the movements and focusing of the cameras. All devices are linked to PC via PCI interfaces with homemade drivers for Linux OS and provide both selection of camera and digitizing of video signal synchronized with beam. One part of software provides means to set initial parameters using PC consol. Thus an operator can choose contrast, brightness, some number of significant points on TV-image to calculate beam position and its size. Second part supports remote TV controls and data processing from Control Rooms of U-70 complex using set initial parameters. First experience and results of the method realization are discussed.

  19. Exploring the Feasibility of Service Integration in a Low-Income Setting: A Mixed Methods Investigation into Different Models of Reproductive Health and HIV Care in Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Church

    Full Text Available Integrating reproductive health (RH with HIV care is a policy priority in high HIV prevalence settings, despite doubts surrounding its feasibility and varying evidence of effects on health outcomes. The process and outcomes of integrated RH-HIV care were investigated in Swaziland, through a comparative case study of four service models, ranging from fully integrated to fully stand-alone HIV services, selected purposively within one town. A client exit survey (n=602 measured integrated care received and unmet family planning (FP needs. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the degree of integration per clinic and client demand for services. Logistic regression modelling was used to test the hypothesis that clients at more integrated sites had lower unmet FP needs than clients in a stand-alone site. Qualitative methods included in-depth interviews with clients and providers to explore contextual factors influencing the feasibility of integrated RH-HIV care delivery; data were analysed thematically, combining deductive and inductive approaches. Results demonstrated that clinic models were not as integrated in practice as had been claimed. Fragmentation of HIV care was common. Services accessed per provider were no higher at the more integrated clinics compared to stand-alone models (p>0.05, despite reported demand. While women at more integrated sites received more FP and pregnancy counselling than stand-alone models, they received condoms (a method of choice less often, and there was no statistical evidence of difference in unmet FP needs by model of care. Multiple contextual factors influenced integration practices, including provider de-skilling within sub-specialist roles; norms of task-oriented routinised HIV care; perceptions of heavy client loads; imbalanced client-provider interactions hindering articulation of RH needs; and provider motivation challenges. Thus, despite institutional support, factors related to the social context of

  20. Exploring the Feasibility of Service Integration in a Low-Income Setting: A Mixed Methods Investigation into Different Models of Reproductive Health and HIV Care in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Kathryn; Wringe, Alison; Lewin, Simon; Ploubidis, George B.; Fakudze, Phelele; Mayhew, Susannah H.

    2015-01-01

    Integrating reproductive health (RH) with HIV care is a policy priority in high HIV prevalence settings, despite doubts surrounding its feasibility and varying evidence of effects on health outcomes. The process and outcomes of integrated RH-HIV care were investigated in Swaziland, through a comparative case study of four service models, ranging from fully integrated to fully stand-alone HIV services, selected purposively within one town. A client exit survey (n=602) measured integrated care received and unmet family planning (FP) needs. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the degree of integration per clinic and client demand for services. Logistic regression modelling was used to test the hypothesis that clients at more integrated sites had lower unmet FP needs than clients in a stand-alone site. Qualitative methods included in-depth interviews with clients and providers to explore contextual factors influencing the feasibility of integrated RH-HIV care delivery; data were analysed thematically, combining deductive and inductive approaches. Results demonstrated that clinic models were not as integrated in practice as had been claimed. Fragmentation of HIV care was common. Services accessed per provider were no higher at the more integrated clinics compared to stand-alone models (p>0.05), despite reported demand. While women at more integrated sites received more FP and pregnancy counselling than stand-alone models, they received condoms (a method of choice) less often, and there was no statistical evidence of difference in unmet FP needs by model of care. Multiple contextual factors influenced integration practices, including provider de-skilling within sub-specialist roles; norms of task-oriented routinised HIV care; perceptions of heavy client loads; imbalanced client-provider interactions hindering articulation of RH needs; and provider motivation challenges. Thus, despite institutional support, factors related to the social context of care inhibited

  1. Algebraic Verification Method for SEREs Properties via Groebner Bases Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an efficient solution using computer algebra system to perform linear temporal properties verification for synchronous digital systems. The method is essentially based on both Groebner bases approaches and symbolic simulation. A mechanism for constructing canonical polynomial set based symbolic representations for both circuit descriptions and assertions is studied. We then present a complete checking algorithm framework based on these algebraic representations by using Groebner bases. The computational experience result in this work shows that the algebraic approach is a quite competitive checking method and will be a useful supplement to the existent verification methods based on simulation.

  2. Assisted reproduction and distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitch, Vida

    2015-02-01

    The Canadian province of Quebec recently amended its Health Insurance Act to cover the costs of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The province of Ontario recently de-insured IVF. Both provinces cited cost-effectiveness as their grounds, but the question as to whether a public health insurance system ought to cover IVF raises the deeper question of how we should understand reproduction at the social level, and whether its costs should be a matter of individual or collective responsibility. In this article I examine three strategies for justifying collective provisions in a liberal society and assess whether public reproductive assistance can be defended on any of these accounts. I begin by considering, and rejecting, rights-based and needs-based approaches. I go on to argue that instead we ought to address assisted reproduction from the perspective of the contractarian insurance-based model for public health coverage, according to which we select items for inclusion based on their unpredictability in nature and cost. I argue that infertility qualifies as an unpredictable incident against which rational agents would choose to insure under ideal conditions and that assisted reproduction is thereby a matter of collective responsibility, but only in cases of medical necessity or inability to pay. The policy I endorse by appeal to this approach is a means-tested system of coverage resembling neither Ontario nor Quebec's, and I conclude that it constitutes a promising alternative worthy of serious consideration by bioethicists, political philosophers, and policy-makers alike.

  3. Effect of stocking rate on pasture production, milk production, and reproduction of dairy cows in pasture-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Penno, J W; Lancaster, J A S; Roche, J R

    2008-05-01

    Ninety-four cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 stocking rates (2.2, 2.7, 3.1, 3.7, and 4.3 cows/ha) in a completely randomized design for 3 years. Herds were seasonal calving, with only minor differences in grazing management to optimize the profitability of each stocking rate (SR). Pasture production and quality data, milk and milk component data, and reproduction data were collected, averaged for SR treatment, and linear and quadratic contrasts on SR were evaluated. In addition, the Wilmink exponential model (y(t) = a + b x e((-0.05t) )+ c x t) was fitted to milk yield within lactation, and the parameters were averaged by SR treatment and analyzed as above. The median variation explained by the function for individual lactations was 84%. The amount of pasture grown tended to increase, and the quality of the pasture on offer increased linearly with increasing SR, reducing some of the negative impact of SR on the availability of pasture per cow. Milk production per cow declined linearly with increasing SR, although there was a tendency for most production variables to decline quadratically, with the negative effect of SR declining with increasing SR. The effect on milk production per cow was primarily because of a lower peak milk yield and a greater post-peak decline (less persistent milk profile), although a decline in lactation length with increasing SR was responsible for 24% of the effect of SR on milk yield. Milk production per hectare increased linearly with increasing SR, and there was only a small difference (approximately 3%/cow per ha) in the efficiency of converting feed dry matter into milk energy. Stocking rate did not affect reproductive success. The data are consistent with the need for a more robust measure of SR than cows per hectare because farms will differ in the genetic merit of their cows and in the potential to produce pasture. We introduce the concept of a comparative SR, whereby the carrying capacity of the farm is defined by the BW of

  4. Educational Needs of Adult Men regarding Sexual and Reproductive Health in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hajizadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Men’s sexual and reproductive health is one of the most important public health issues. However, less attention has been paid to this matter, compared to women’s health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 1,068 adult men (aged 20-60 years, selected via random cluster sampling in Ahvaz city in 2014. In order to determine the educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health, a questionnaire consisting of three major sections (i.e., demographic data, sexual and reproductive health needs, and men’s attitudes was designed. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by content and face validity. Its reliability was assessed by internal consistency (α=85% and test-retest. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, t-test and ANOVA were performed, using SPSS version 19. Results: The majority of men (75.1% had poor knowledge and a moderate attitude (67.3% towards sexual and reproductive health. The three most important educational needs of men regarding sexual and reproductive health were cancers of male reproductive system (83.8%, sexually transmitted diseases (STD/HIV (77.4% and religious attitudes toward sex (77%, respectively. Friends were the most important source of information in all aspects of sexual and reproductive health, while men preferred to receive information from a male physician or counselor. According to the results, men were dissatisfied with the amount of information they received about sexual and reproductive health. Conclusion: Based on the findings, men felt the need for sexual and reproductive health education; these needs were influenced by social and demographic factors, except marital status. If health policymakers pay attention to these educational needs, it is possible to implement suitable programs for improving men's sexual health and

  5. A New Method for Identifying Essential Proteins Based on Network Topology Properties and Protein Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Sun, Yongqi; Dong, Yadong

    2016-01-01

    Essential proteins are indispensable to the viability and reproduction of an organism. The identification of essential proteins is necessary not only for understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular life but also for disease diagnosis, medical treatments and drug design. Many computational methods have been proposed for discovering essential proteins, but the precision of the prediction of essential proteins remains to be improved. In this paper, we propose a new method, LBCC, which is based on the combination of local density, betweenness centrality (BC) and in-degree centrality of complex (IDC). First, we introduce the common centrality measures; second, we propose the densities Den1(v) and Den2(v) of a node v to describe its local properties in the network; and finally, the combined strategy of Den1, Den2, BC and IDC is developed to improve the prediction precision. The experimental results demonstrate that LBCC outperforms traditional topological measures for predicting essential proteins, including degree centrality (DC), BC, subgraph centrality (SC), eigenvector centrality (EC), network centrality (NC), and the local average connectivity-based method (LAC). LBCC also improves the prediction precision by approximately 10 percent on the YMIPS and YMBD datasets compared to the most recently developed method, LIDC. PMID:27529423

  6. Development of a vaccine vector based on a subgenomic replicon of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinfeng; Yao, Qingxia; Fan, Huiying; Xiao, Shaobo; Si, Youhui; Chen, Huanchun

    2009-09-01

    In this study, a DNA-launched subgenomic replicon of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was developed for use as a vaccine vector. This replicon plasmid contained a PRRSV subgenome without structural genes ORF2-ORF6, and was under the transcriptional control of the immediate-early promoter of cytomegalovirus (CMV). Using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as a reporter gene, the DNA-launched subgenomic replicon of PRRSV, named pOK-Clone20-rep, could express heterologous genes in vitro. After direct inoculation of pOK-Clone20-rep, mice developed antibody responses that were specific for both the EGFP and the N gene in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, mice immunized with pOK-Clone20-rep at a dose of 100microg showed significantly enhanced levels of IFN-gamma compared with those inoculated with 100microg of pcD-EGFP, a conventional DNA vaccine that encodes EGFP. In summary, the results show that the DNA-launched subgenomic replicon of PRRSV could not only mediate foreign gene expression in vitro but also induced an immune response in vivo. Similarly, expression and immunogenicity of the N gene also strengthened the potential of the replicon to serve as a vaccine vector expressing multiple genes. It therefore provides a useful tool for vaccine development and the study of the transcription and replication of PRRSV.

  7. Specific LED-based red light photo-stimulation procedures improve overall sperm function and reproductive performance of boar ejaculates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Codony, Francesc; Estrada, Efrén; Lleonart, Miquel; Balasch, Sam; Peña, Alejandro; Bonet, Sergi; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

    2016-03-02

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposing liquid-stored boar semen to different red light LED regimens on sperm quality and reproductive performance. Of all of the tested photo-stimulation procedures, the best pattern consisted of 10 min light, 10 min rest and 10 min of further light (10-10-10 pattern). This pattern induced an intense and transient increase in the majority of motility parameters, without modifying sperm viability and acrosome integrity. While incubating non-photo-stimulated sperm at 37 °C for 90 min decreased all sperm quality parameters, this reduction was prevented when the previously-described light procedure was applied. This effect was concomitant with an increase in the percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential. When sperm were subjected to 'in vitro' capacitation, photo-stimulation also increased the percentage of sperm with capacitation-like changes in membrane structure. On the other hand, treating commercial semen doses intended for artificial insemination with the 10-10-10 photo-stimulation pattern significantly increased farrowing rates and the number of both total and live-born piglets for parturition. Therefore, our results indicate that a precise photo-stimulation procedure is able to increase the fertilising ability of boar sperm via a mechanism that could be related to mitochondrial function.

  8. Genital tract infections, bacterial vaginosis, HIV, and reproductive health issues among Lima-based clandestine female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, M E; Ghee, Annette E; Sánchez, Sixto; McClelland, R Scott; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Suárez-Ognio, Luis; Lama, Javier R; Sánchez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs) were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs) and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%). Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%), but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%). In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR = 0.63, 95% CI, 0.42-0.96). Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.). Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57%) and induced abortion was common (68%). High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended.

  9. Genital Tract Infections, Bacterial Vaginosis, HIV, and Reproductive Health Issues among Lima-Based Clandestine Female Sex Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Perla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%. Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%, but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%. In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR=0.63, 95% CI, 0.42–0.96. Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.. Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57% and induced abortion was common (68%. High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended.

  10. Differential estimates of southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) population structure based on capture method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin S. Laves; Susan C. Loeb

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucmrtys volam) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides bumah) reproductive success. Southern flying...

  11. An assessment of attitudes toward gender inequitable sexual and reproductive health norms in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Jennifer; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna Merport; Hacker, Michele; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2013-01-01

    .... This study, conducted prior to the country's 2011 independence, aimed to assess attitudes toward gender inequitable norms related to sexual relationships and reproductive health and the effects...

  12. New method of contour-based mask-shape compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Onizawa, Akira; Sato, Hidetoshi; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2007-10-01

    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, it is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method for a DFM solution in which two dimensional data are extracted for an error free practical simulation by precise reproduction of a real mask shape in addition to the mask data simulation. The flow centering around the design data is fully automated and provides an environment where optimization and verification for fully automated model calibration with much less error is available. It also allows complete consolidation of input and output functions with an EDA system by constructing a design data oriented system structure. This method therefore is regarded as a strategic DFM approach in the semiconductor metrology.

  13. Evaluating bull fertility based on non-return method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prka Igor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the results of reproductive cows and heifers, different parameters of fertility are used, such as the service period, insemination index, intercalving time and others, and of the breeding bulls the values obtained through non-return. An ejaculate is taken up for further processing by veterinary centres only provided it meets the prescribed quality parameters. Rating semen parameters includes a macroscopic (volume, colour, consistency, smell and pH and a microscopic evaluation (mobility, density, percentage of live sperm and abnormal and damaged sperm. In addition to sperm quality and the fertility of the female animal, the results of the non-return method are also influenced by a number of exogenous causes (season, age, race, insemination techniques that have no small impact on the end result of insemination - pregnancy. In order to obtain more objective results of the fertility of bulls the following tasks were undertaken, namely: 1. to calculate with the non-return method the fertility of bulls in over 10,000 cows inseminated for the first time during a period of 6 years; and 2. to analyze the impact of semen quality, season, age of cow and bull, and the bull breed on the results of fertility.

  14. AN IMAGE RETRIEVAL METHOD BASED ON SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF COLOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Color histogram is now widely used in image retrieval. Color histogram-based image retrieval methods are simple and efficient but without considering the spatial distribution information of the color. To overcome the shortcoming of conventional color histogram-based image retrieval methods, an image retrieval method based on Radon Transform (RT) is proposed. In order to reduce the computational complexity,wavelet decomposition is used to compress image data. Firstly, images are decomposed by Mallat algorithm.The low-frequency components are then projected by RT to generate the spatial color feature. Finally the moment feature matrices which are saved along with original images are obtained. Experimental results show that the RT based retrieval is more accurate and efficient than traditional color histogram-based method in case that there are obvious objects in images. Further more, RT based retrieval runs significantly faster than the traditional color histogram methods.

  15. A New Color-based Lawn Weed Detection Method and Its Integration with Texture-based Methods: A Hybrid Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchareeruetai, Ukrit; Ohnishi, Noboru

    We propose a color-based weed detection method specifically designed for detecting lawn weeds in winter. The proposed method exploits fuzzy logic to make inference from color information. Genetic algorithm is adopted to search for the optimal combination of color information, fuzzy membership functions, as well as fuzzy rules used in the method. Experimental results show that the proposed color-based method outperforms the conventional texture-based methods when testing with a winter dataset. In addition, we propose a hybrid system that incorporates both texture-based and color-based weed detection methods. It can automatically select a better method to perform weed detection, depending on an input image. The results show that the use of the hybrid system can significantly improve weed control performances for the overall datasets.

  16. Systems and methods for interpolation-based dynamic programming

    KAUST Repository

    Rockwood, Alyn

    2013-01-03

    Embodiments of systems and methods for interpolation-based dynamic programming. In one embodiment, the method includes receiving an object function and a set of constraints associated with the objective function. The method may also include identifying a solution on the objective function corresponding to intersections of the constraints. Additionally, the method may include generating an interpolated surface that is in constant contact with the solution. The method may also include generating a vector field in response to the interpolated surface.

  17. Modeling reproductive decisions with simple heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Todd

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Many of the reproductive decisions that humans make happen without much planning or forethought, arising instead through the use of simple choice rules or heuristics that involve relatively little information and processing. Nonetheless, these heuristic-guided decisions are typically beneficial, owing to humans' ecological rationality - the evolved fit between our constrained decision mechanisms and the adaptive problems we face. OBJECTIVE This paper reviews research on the ecological rationality of human decision making in the domain of reproduction, showing how fertility-related decisions are commonly made using various simple heuristics matched to the structure of the environment in which they are applied, rather than being made with information-hungry mechanisms based on optimization or rational economic choice. METHODS First, heuristics for sequential mate search are covered; these heuristics determine when to stop the process of mate search by deciding that a good-enough mate who is also mutually interested has been found, using a process of aspiration-level setting and assessing. These models are tested via computer simulation and comparison to demographic age-at-first-marriage data. Next, a heuristic process of feature-based mate comparison and choice is discussed, in which mate choices are determined by a simple process of feature-matching with relaxing standards over time. Parental investment heuristics used to divide resources among offspring are summarized. Finally, methods for testing the use of such mate choice heuristics in a specific population over time are then described.

  18. Subpixel edge detection method based on low-frequency filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylinsky, Yosip Y.; Kotyra, Andrzej; Gromaszek, Konrad; Iskakova, Aigul

    2016-09-01

    A method of edge detection in images is proposed basing that based on low-frequency filtering. The method uses polynomial interpolation to determine the coordinates of the edge point with subpixel accuracy. Some experiments have been results also have been provided.

  19. An improved bit shuffling pixels-based image scrambling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong; WANG Hong-xia; WANG Jin

    2011-01-01

    @@ Compared with the Arnold transform, the image scrambling method based on bit shuffling pixels is much more secure, and has higher efficiency and speed.However, the key space of this bit shuffling pixels based method is too small to resist exhaustive search attack.Therefore, an improved method based on chaos is proposed in this paper.The security of the improved scheme is enhanced by increasing the number of the keys.Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and has higher security.

  20. Online Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Nonlinear Spectral Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Rui-xuan; WU Li-xun; WANG Yong-chang; HAN Chong-zhao

    2005-01-01

    The fault diagnosis based on nonlinear spectral analysis is a new technique for the nonlinear fault diagnosis, but its online application could be limited because of the enormous compution requirements for the estimation of general frequency response functions. Based on the fully decoupled Volterra identification algorithm, a new online fault diagnosis method based on nonlinear spectral analysis is presented, which can availably reduce the online compution requirements of general frequency response functions. The composition and working principle of the method are described, the test experiments have been done for damping spring of a vehicle suspension system by utilizing the new method, and the results indicate that the method is efficient.

  1. Reproductive performance of dairy cows managed with a program aimed at increasing insemination of cows in estrus based on increased physical activity and fertility of timed artificial inseminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J O; Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Chandler, W C; Watters, R D

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows using a treatment (TRT) program for second and subsequent artificial insemination (AI) services aimed at (1) increasing AI upon estrus detection based on increased physical activity (AIAct) and (2) increasing fertility of timed AI (TAI) services for cows not AIAct through presynchronization of the estrous cycle and improved physiological milieu before TAI. Cows in the control (CON) group were managed with a program that combined AIAct and TAI after the Ovsynch protocol. After nonpregnancy diagnosis (NPD) by transrectal ultrasonography at 31 ± 3 d after AI, cows received the following treatments: (1) CON (n=634), AIAct any time after a previous AI and resynchronization with the Ovsynch-56 protocol (GnRH-7d-PGF2α-56 h-GnRH-16 h-TAI) 1d after NPD, or (2) TRT (n = 616): cows with a corpus luteum (CL) ≥ 20 mm (TRT-CL) received a PGF2α injection 1d after NPD, whereas cows with no CL or a CL insemination after NPD were greater for cows in the TRT (17 d) than the CON (10 d) group, which coupled with similar fertility to AIAct, and TAI failed to improve overall reproductive performance. A low proportion of cows with a CL at NPD (65.2%) and a poor response to PGF2α may explain the poor estrus detection efficiency in the TRT group. We concluded that, when compared with a typical estrus detection and TAI program for cows failing to conceive to previous AI services, a program aimed at increasing the proportion of cows AIAct after NPD and fertility of TAI services increased the proportion of cows AIAct but failed to reduce days to pregnancy during lactation because of greater days to AI after NPD.

  2. Photosynthesis in reproductive structures: costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-04-01

    The role of photosynthesis by reproductive structures during grain-filling has important implications for cereal breeding, but the methods for assessing the contribution by reproductive structures to grain-filling are invasive and prone to compensatory changes elsewhere in the plant. A technique analysing the natural abundance of stable carbon isotopes in soluble carbohydrates has significant promise. However, it depends crucially on there being no more than two sources of organic carbon (leaf and ear/awn), with significantly different (13)C:(12)C ratios and no secondary fractionation during grain-filling. The role of additional peduncle carbohydrate reserves represents a potential means for N remobilization, as well as for hydraulic continuity during grain-filling. The natural abundance of the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen are also useful for exploring the influence of reproduction on whole plant carbon and water relations and have been used to examine the resource costs of reproduction in females and males of dioecious plants. Photosynthesis in reproductive structures is widespread among oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, including many clades of algae and embryophytes of different levels of complexity. The possible evolutionary benefits of photosynthesis in reproductive structures include decreasing the carbon cost of reproduction and 'use' of transpiratory loss of water to deliver phloem-immobile calcium Ca(2+) and silicon [Si(OH)4] via the xylem. The possible costs of photosynthesis in reproductive structures are increasing damage to DNA from photosynthetically active, and hence UV-B, radiation and the production of reactive oxygen species.

  3. Asexual Reproduction in Holothurians

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Yu. Dolmatov

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holot...

  4. Reproductive strategies and seeds behavior of Betula platyphylla Suk. population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By the methods of morphological anatomy and investigation in the sample fields, the main studies were carried out such as morphological anatomy of reproductive organs, birch population's reproductive ages, reproductive allotment value and seed behavior. The relationship between birch population and their surroundings was studied. The results showed that birch's flower organs and its seeds were suitable well for spreading by wind. The seeds by wind can fly far away in a short time. The quantity of seed spreading greatly varied with different communities. Birch's reproduction age can be changed in different ecological surroundings. The reproductive allotment value of birch was obviously different at different reproductive stages. In the mesic habitat, birch can grow well. The lowest reproductive age of them was 12, average age 15. In most cases the age of branches to bearing fruits was more than 18. The order of reproductive allotment values was as follows: a flowering phase > flower bud phase > fruit phase.

  5. A New Robust Image Matching Method Based on Distance Reciprocal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春江; 施文康; 邓勇

    2004-01-01

    Object matching between two-dimensional images is an important problem in computer vision. The purpose of object matching is to decide the similarity between two objects. A new robust image matching method based on distance reciprocal was presented. The distance reciprocal is based on human visual perception. This method is simple and effective. Moreover, it is robust against noise. The experiments show that this method outperforms the Hausdorff distance, when the images with noise interfered need to be recognized.

  6. Wind Turbine Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Riemannian Manifold

    OpenAIRE

    Shoubin Wang; Xiaogang Sun; Chengwei Li

    2014-01-01

    As multivariate time series problems widely exist in social production and life, fault diagnosis method has provided people with a lot of valuable information in the finance, hydrology, meteorology, earthquake, video surveillance, medical science, and other fields. In order to find faults in time sequence quickly and efficiently, this paper presents a multivariate time series processing method based on Riemannian manifold. This method is based on the sliding window and uses the covariance mat...

  7. Method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Mosdorf

    2012-01-01

    Presented paper evaluates method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis of trace log generated by software execution. Described method for detecting software anomalies is based on windowed recurrence quantification analysis for selected measures (e.g. Recurrence rate - RR or Determinism - DET). Initial results show that proposed method is useful in detecting silent software anomalies that do not result in typical crashes (e.g. exceptions).

  8. Method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Mosdorf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper evaluates method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis of trace log generated by software execution. Described method for detecting software anomalies is based on windowed recurrence quantification analysis for selected measures (e.g. Recurrence rate - RR or Determinism - DET. Initial results show that proposed method is useful in detecting silent software anomalies that do not result in typical crashes (e.g. exceptions.

  9. Droplet-based microfluidic method for synthesis of microparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbanjwa, MB

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Droplet-based microfluidics has, in recent years, received increased attention as an important tool for performing numerous methods in modern day chemistry and biology such as the synthesis of hydrogel microparticles. Hydrogels have been used in many..., in recent years, received increased attention as an important tool for performing numerous methods in modern day chemistry and biology, such as synthesis of hydrogel microparticles. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK The droplet-based microfluidic method offers...

  10. Power quality events recognition using a SVM-based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Ferreira, Danton Diego; Ribeiro, Moises Vidal; Duque, Carlos Augusto [Department of Electrical Circuits, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitario, 36036 900, Juiz de Fora MG (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    In this paper, a novel SVM-based method for power quality event classification is proposed. A simple approach for feature extraction is introduced, based on the subtraction of the fundamental component from the acquired voltage signal. The resulting signal is presented to a support vector machine for event classification. Results from simulation are presented and compared with two other methods, the OTFR and the LCEC. The proposed method shown an improved performance followed by a reasonable computational cost. (author)

  11. Efficient Option Pricing Methods Based on Fourier Series Expansions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng DING; Sio Chong U

    2011-01-01

    A novel option pricing method based on Fourier-cosine series expansion was proposed by Fang and Oosterlee. Developing their idea, three new option pricing methods based on Fourier, Fourier-cosine and Fourier-sine series expansions are presented in this paper, which are more efficient when the option prices are calculated with many strike prices. A series of numerical experiments under different exp-Lévy models are also given to compare these new methods with the Fang and Oosterlee's method and other methods.

  12. Correlation theory-based signal processing method for CMF signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan-lin; Tu, Ya-qing

    2016-06-01

    Signal processing precision of Coriolis mass flowmeter (CMF) signals affects measurement accuracy of Coriolis mass flowmeters directly. To improve the measurement accuracy of CMFs, a correlation theory-based signal processing method for CMF signals is proposed, which is comprised of the correlation theory-based frequency estimation method and phase difference estimation method. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed method eliminates the effect of non-integral period sampling signals on frequency and phase difference estimation. The results of simulations and field experiments demonstrate that the proposed method improves the anti-interference performance of frequency and phase difference estimation and has better estimation performance than the adaptive notch filter, discrete Fourier transform and autocorrelation methods in terms of frequency estimation and the data extension-based correlation, Hilbert transform, quadrature delay estimator and discrete Fourier transform methods in terms of phase difference estimation, which contributes to improving the measurement accuracy of Coriolis mass flowmeters.

  13. Understanding the Broader Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Female Sex Workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Karen R; McDowell, Misti; Green, Mackenzie; Jahan, Shamim; Johnson, Laura; Chen, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the sexual and reproductive health care needs of female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Survey data were collected from 354 hotel-based and 323 street-based female sex workers using a venue-based stratified cluster sampling approach. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers recruited from drop-in centers. We calculated unmet need for family planning and examined fertility desires, use of condoms and other contraceptive methods, experiences with gender-based violence, sexual and reproductive health service needs, and preferences on where to receive services. The prevalence of unmet need was 25% among hotel-based female sex workers and 36% among street-based female sex workers. Almost all participants reported having used condoms in the past 30 days, and 44% of hotel-based sex workers and 30% of street-based sex workers reported dual method use during that period. Condom use was inconsistent, however, and condom breakage and nonuse for extra money were common. Many women reported experiencing gender-based violence. Sexual and reproductive health services had been obtained by 64% of hotel-based and 89% of street-based sex workers in the past six months; drop-in centers were their preferred site for receiving health services. Female sex workers in Dhaka need family planning and other sexual and reproductive health services and prefer receiving them from drop-in centers.

  14. Neuropeptidomics applied to studies of mammalian reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thao T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptidomics, a mass spectrometry-based technique which aims to uncover the complete suite of neuropeptides present in a tissue, organ or cell from the brain or nervous system, has found application in studies examining physiological responses (e.g. food intake, appetite and reproduction. Neuropeptides (and peptide hormones have long been known as regulators of mammalian physiological processes, particularly reproduction. These peptides are derived from precursor proteins and become active via proteolytic processes and post-translational modifications. A relatively large number of neuropeptides, mainly formed in the hypothalamus or the anterior pituitary of mammals, have been specifically associated with reproduction, including GnRH, NPY, PYY and kisspeptin. Here, we will present an overview of neuropeptides, their roles in reproduction and the application of neuropeptidomics in this field. We address the advantages of neuropeptidomics in reproductive studies including the high throughput identification, profiling and quantification of neuropeptides present in reproductive tissues and also discuss some of the challenges. The application of neuropeptidomics to the field of reproduction will provide the foundation for a greater understanding of how neuropeptides act to regulate reproductive function.

  15. Reproduction of Realistic Background Noise for Testing Telecommunications Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil Corrales, Juan David; Song, Wookeun; MacDonald, Ewen

    2015-01-01

    A method for reproduction of sound, based on crosstalk cancellation using inverse filters, was implemented in the context of testing telecommunications devices. The effect of the regularization parameter, number of loudspeakers, type of background noise, and a technique to attenuate audible...... artifacts, were investigated. The quality of the reproduced sound was evaluated both objectively and subjectively with respect to the reference sounds, at points where telecommunications devices would be potentially placed around the head. The highest regularization value gave the best results...

  16. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  17. Development of an EvaGreen-based multiplex real-time PCR assay with melting curve analysis for simultaneous detection and differentiation of six viral pathogens of porcine reproductive and respiratory disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pinbin; Wu, Haigang; Jiang, Yonghou; Opriessnig, Tanja; Zheng, Xiaowen; Mo, Yecheng; Yang, Zongqi

    2014-11-01

    Concurrent infection of pigs with two or more pathogens is common in pigs under intensive rearing conditions. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) are all associated with reproductive or respiratory disorders or both and can cause significant economic losses in pig production worldwide. An EvaGreen-based multiplex real-time PCR (EG-mPCR) with melting curve analysis was developed in this study for simultaneous detection and differentiation of these six viruses in pigs. This method is able to detect and distinguish PCV2, PPV, PRRSV, CSFV, JEV and PRV with the limits of detection ranging from 100 to 500 copies/μL, high reproducibility, and intra-assay and inter-assay variation ranging from 0.11 to 3.20%. After validation, a total of 118 field samples were tested by the newly developed EG-mPCR. PCV2 was identified in 23%, PPV in 15%, PRRSV in 17% and PRV in 5% of the samples. Concurrent PCV2 and PRRSV infection was detected in 6.7%, PCV2 and PPV in 5% and PPV2 and PRRSV infection was detected in 5% of the cases. The agreement of the EG-mPCR and conventional PCR tests was 99.2%. This EG-mPCR will be a useful, rapid, reliable and cost-effective alternative for routine surveillance testing of viral infections in pigs.

  18. Limitations to reproductive success in the dioecious tree Rhamnus davurica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    Full Text Available The reproductive success of a female plant in a dioecious species may be affected by pollen limitation and resource limitation. This study presents evidence that the reproductive success of the dioecious understorey tree species, Rhamnus davurica, is affected by the distance to the nearest male. The sex ratios were female-biased, although showing fluctuations in the three years of conducting the study. The mortality rate of females was higher than that of males indicating a trade-off between reproduction and survival. Altogether 49 females, designated as "focal females", were randomly selected for monitoring their reproductive status between April and October in 2010. But successful reproduction (meaning that the flowering female trees had fruit in the fruiting season was observed only in 28 females in 2011 and 16 females in 2012. The method of path analysis was applied to determine the effect of topography, local competition and proximity to the nearest male on the fruit set of the females. In the three years of the study, elevation, competition and female size had no significant effect on the fruit set. The distance to the nearest male, however, had a significant effect on fruit set. Number of fruits and fruit set were decreased with increasing distance to the nearest male. It was possible to estimate maximum fruit set, based on the comparatively large dataset. The number of fruits and the fruit set are exponentially related to the distance to the nearest male and the relationships are described by an exponential model. The results of this study support the importance of pollen limitation on the reproductive success in Rhamnus davurica.

  19. Language Practitioners' Reflections on Method-Based and Post-Method Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Abdul Fattah; Almalki, Mansoor S.

    2017-01-01

    Method-based pedagogies are commonly applied in teaching English as a foreign language all over the world. However, in the last quarter of the 20th century, the concept of such pedagogies based on the application of a single best method in EFL started to be viewed with concerns by some scholars. In response to the growing concern against the…

  20. Highly sensitive methods for electroanalytical chemistry based on nanotubule membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y; Martin, C R

    1999-09-01

    Two new methods of electroanalysis are described. These methods are based on membranes containing monodisperse Au nanotubules with inside diameters approaching molecular dimensions. In one method, the analyte species is detected by measuring the change in trans-membrane current when the analyte is added to the nanotubule-based cell. The second method entails the use of a concentration cell based on the nanotubule membrane. In this case, the change in membrane potential is used to detect the analyte. Detection limits as low as 10(-11) M have been achieved. Hence, these methods compete with even the most sensitive of modern analytical methodologies. In addition, excellent molecular-sized-based selectivity is observed.

  1. Kernel based eigenvalue-decomposition methods for analysing ham

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Møller, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    conditions and finding useful additives to hinder the color to change rapidly. To be able to prove which methods of storing and additives work, Danisco wants to monitor the development of the color of meat in a slice of ham as a function of time, environment and ingredients. We have chosen to use multi...... methods, such as PCA, MAF or MNF. We therefore investigated the applicability of kernel based versions of these transformation. This meant implementing the kernel based methods and developing new theory, since kernel based MAF and MNF is not described in the literature yet. The traditional methods only...... have two factors that are useful for segmentation and none of them can be used to segment the two types of meat. The kernel based methods have a lot of useful factors and they are able to capture the subtle differences in the images. This is illustrated in Figure 1. You can see a comparison of the most...

  2. Map-based control method for vehicle stability enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moon-Young Yoon; Seung-Hwan Baek; Kwang-Suk Boo; Heung-Seob Kim

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes a map-based control method to improve a vehicle’s lateral stability, and the performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the conventional model-referenced control method. Model-referenced control uses the sliding mode method to determine the compensated yaw moment;in contrast, the proposed map-based control uses the compensated yaw moment map acquired by vehicle stability analysis. The vehicle stability region is calculated by a topological method based on the trajectory reversal method. A 2-DOF vehicle model and Pacejka’s tire model are used to evaluate the proposed map-based control method. The properties of model-referenced control and map-based control are compared under various road conditions and driving inputs. Model-referenced control uses a control input to satisfy the linear reference model, and it generates unnecessary tire lateral forces that may lead to worse performance than an uncontrolled vehicle with step steering input on a road with a low friction coefficient. However, map-based control determines a compensated yaw moment to maintain the vehicle within the stability region, so the typical responses of vehicle enable to converge rapidly. The simulation results with sine and step steering show that map-based control provides better the tracking responsibility and control performance than model-referenced control.

  3. A New Method for Riccati Differential Equations Based on Reproducing Kernel and Quasilinearization Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Z. Geng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new method for solving Riccati differential equations, which is based on reproducing kernel method and quasilinearization technique. The quasilinearization technique is used to reduce the Riccati differential equation to a sequence of linear problems. The resulting sets of differential equations are treated by using reproducing kernel method. The solutions of Riccati differential equations obtained using many existing methods give good approximations only in the neighborhood of the initial position. However, the solutions obtained using the present method give good approximations in a larger interval, rather than a local vicinity of the initial position. Numerical results compared with other methods show that the method is simple and effective.

  4. Conceptual bases of the brand valuation by cost method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Y. Studinska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of valuing intangible assets in accordance with international trends is substantiated. The brand is seen as more important component of intangible assets, as an effective management tool company. The benefits and uses of brand evaluation results are investigated. System monocriterion cost brand evaluation methods is analyzed. In particular, methods that require evaluation by the time factor (current and forecast methods and methods for factor comparison base (relative and absolute. The cost method of brand valuation through market transactions in accordance J.Common’s classification is considered in detail. The explanation of the difference between method a summation of all costs and method of brand valuation through market transactions is provided. The advantages and disadvantages considered cost method of brand valuation are investigated. The cost method as the relative-predicted of the brand valuation, «The method of determining the proportion of the brand from the discounted total costs» is grounded

  5. Luteal-phase support in assisted reproduction treatment: real-life practices reported worldwide by an updated website-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisbuch, Edi; de Ziegler, Dominique; Leong, Milton; Weissman, Ariel; Shoham, Zeev

    2014-03-01

    An updated worldwide web-based survey assessed the real-life clinical practices regarding luteal-phase supplementation (LPS) in assisted reproduction. This survey looked for changes since a former survey conducted nearly 3years earlier. The survey questions were: If you support the luteal phase, when do you start the regimen you are using?; Which agent/route is your treatment of choice to support the luteal phase?; If you use vaginal progesterone, which formulation do you use?; and How long you continue progesterone supplementation if the patient conceived? Data were obtained from 408 centres (82 countries) representing 284,600 IVF cycles/year. The findings were: (i) most practitioners (80% of cycles) start LPS on the day of egg collection; (ii) in >90%, a vaginal progesterone product is used (77% as a single agent and 17% in combination with i.m. progesterone), while human chorionic gonadotrophin as a single agent for LPS is not being used at all; and (iii) in 72% of cycles, LPS is administered until 8-10weeks' gestation or beyond. When compared with the initial survey, the results of this survey are encouraging as there is a clear shift towards a more unified and evidence-based approach to LPS in IVF cycles. This updated worldwide web-based survey assessed the actual real-life clinical practices regarding luteal-phase supplementation (LPS) in assisted reproduction. Specifically, this survey looked for changes since an initial survey conducted nearly 3years earlier. The survey included the following questions: If you support the luteal phase, when do you start the regimen you are using?; Which agent/route is your treatment of choice to support the luteal phase?; If you use vaginal progesterone, which formulation do you use?; and How long you continue progesterone supplementation if the patient conceived? Data from 408 centres in 82 countries representing a total of 284,600 IVF cycles/year were included. Most practitioners (80% of cycles) start LPS on the day of

  6. Multi-pattern Matching Methods Based on Numerical Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-pattern matching methods based on numerical computation are advanced in this paper. Firstly it advanced the multiple patterns matching algorithm based on added information. In the process of accumulating of information, the select method of byte-accumulate operation will affect the collision odds , which means that the methods or bytes involved in the different matching steps should have greater differences as much as possible. In addition, it can use balanced binary tree to manage index to reduce the average searching times, and use the characteristics of a given pattern set by setting the collision field to eliminate collision further. In order to reduce the collision odds in the initial step, the information splicing method is advanced, which has greater value space than added information method, thus greatly reducing the initial collision odds. Multiple patterns matching methods based on numerical computation fits for large multi-pattern matching.

  7. A Spatialization-based Method for Checking and Updating Metadata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the application of spatialization technology on metadata quality check and updating was discussed. A new method based on spatialization was proposed for checking and updating metadata to overcome the deficiency of text based methods with the powerful functions of spatial query and analysis provided by GIS software. This method employs the technology of spatialization to transform metadata into a coordinate space and the functions of spatial analysis in GIS to check and update spatial metadata in a visual environment. The basic principle and technical flow of this method were explained in detail, and an example of implementation using ArcMap of GIS software was illustrated with a metadata set of digital raster maps. The result shows the new method with the support of interaction of graph and text is much more intuitive and convenient than the ordinary text based method, and can fully utilize the functions of GIS spatial query and analysis with more accuracy and efficiency.

  8. Evaluation of Female Youth Educational Needs about Reproductive Health in Non-Medical Students in the City of Qom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Seyed Abdolvahab; Hekmatzadeh, Fatemeh; Sarviye, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate reproductive health education which is essential to the prevention of sexual risk behavior and its associated adverse outcomes of unwanted pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted disease in adolescents. Little is known about youth educational needs about reproductive health in Iran. The aim of this study is evaluation of female youth educational needs about reproductive health in non-medical universities in the city of Qom, north central of Iran. Materials and methods The study was descriptive-analytical type conducted in nine non-medical universities (400 students). A questionnaire was constructed to meet the purpose of the study based on similar studies of knowledge and attitude in different countries, yet it was modified according to Iranian culture and social norms. Results The findings showed that a majority of participants have moderate knowledge about all components of reproductive health. Approximately, one - third of the participants reported difficulties to discuss about sexual health with mothers. The most of the participants believed insufficient female youth reproductive health services and low knowledge about reproductive health were the main barriers for female youth reproductive health aims. Conclusion The participants in this study are representatives of an important subgroup in Iran in order to evaluate female youth reproductive health educational needs. The study identified many misconception and negative attitude that need to be addressed. A health education program through parents, peers, mass media campaign and more comprehensive family planning curriculum in universities are recommended to overcome misconception and spread awareness. PMID:24971106

  9. Theory-Based Lexicographical Methods in a Functional Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of some of the methods used in relation to the function theory. It starts with a definition of the concept of method and the relation existing between theory and method. It establishes an initial distinction between artisanal and theory-based methods...... of various methods used in the different sub-phases of the overall dictionary compilation process, from the making of the concept to the preparation for publication on the chosen media, with focus on the Internet. Finally, it briefly discusses some of the methods used to create and test the function theory...

  10. Fuzzy Clustering Method for Web User Based on Pages Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Li-qiang; LIU Da-xin

    2004-01-01

    A new method for Web users fuzzy clustering based on analysis of user interest characteristic is proposed in this article.The method first defines page fuzzy categories according to the links on the index page of the site, then computes fuzzy degree of cross page through aggregating on data of Web log.After that, by using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, the method constructs user interest vectors according to page viewing times and frequency of hits, and derives the fuzzy similarity matrix from the interest vectors for the Web users.Finally, it gets the clustering result through the fuzzy clustering method.The experimental results show the effectiveness of the method.

  11. Prevalence of reproductive morbidity amongst males in an urban slum of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of reproductive morbidity among males in India have chiefly focused on prevalence of Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs/STIs among males attending Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics, blood donors and other selected population groups, with only few focused on the magnitude and the type of reproductive morbidity amongst Indian males at community level. Objective: To estimate prevalence of reproductive morbidity including (RTIs/STIs among males in the age group of 20-50 years residing in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods: Out of 268 males in the targeted age group, selected by systematic random sampling, residing in an urban sum of Delhi, 260 males were subjected to clinical examination and laboratory investigations for diagnosis of reproductive morbidity. Laboratory investigations were done for diagnosis of Hepatitis B and C, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Non gonococcal urethritis and urinary tract infection. Results: A total of 90 (33.6% of 268 study subjects reported one or more perceived symptoms of reproductive tract / sexual morbidity in last six months. Overall reproductive morbidity based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis was present in 76 (29.2% study subjects and of this sexually acquired morbidity accounted for 21.2% cases. Hepatitis B was most common (10.3% reproductive morbidity followed by Urinary Tract Infection (5.0%, scabies (3.5% and congenital anomalies (3.5%. Conclusion: High prevalence of reproductive morbidity (29.2% amongst males in an urban slum highlights the need for more studies in different settings. There is a need for developing interventions in terms of early diagnosis and treatment and prevention.

  12. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Interlaboratory ring trial to evaluate real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dauber, Malte

    2012-01-01

    To compare the real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays used for the diagnosis of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a Europe-wide interlaboratory ring trial was conducted. A variety of PRRSV strains including North American...... (NA) and European (EU) genotype isolates were analyzed by the participants. Great differences regarding qualitative diagnostics as well as analytical sensitivity were observed between the individual RT-qPCR systems, especially when investigating strains from the EU genotype. None of the assays...

  13. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery via Logic-Based Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Triantaphyllou, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    There are many approaches to data mining and knowledge discovery (DM&KD), including neural networks, closest neighbor methods, and various statistical methods. This monograph, however, focuses on the development and use of a novel approach, based on mathematical logic, that the author and his research associates have worked on over the last 20 years. The methods presented in the book deal with key DM&KD issues in an intuitive manner and in a natural sequence. Compared to other DM&KD methods, those based on mathematical logic offer a direct and often intuitive approach for extracting easily int

  14. Network Traffic Anomalies Identification Based on Classification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Račys

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A problem of network traffic anomalies detection in the computer networks is analyzed. Overview of anomalies detection methods is given then advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are analyzed. Model for the traffic anomalies detection was developed based on IBM SPSS Modeler and is used to analyze SNMP data of the router. Investigation of the traffic anomalies was done using three classification methods and different sets of the learning data. Based on the results of investigation it was determined that C5.1 decision tree method has the largest accuracy and performance and can be successfully used for identification of the network traffic anomalies.

  15. Image mosaic method based on SIFT features of line segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Ren, Mingwu

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel image mosaic method based on SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) feature of line segment, aiming to resolve incident scaling, rotation, changes in lighting condition, and so on between two images in the panoramic image mosaic process. This method firstly uses Harris corner detection operator to detect key points. Secondly, it constructs directed line segments, describes them with SIFT feature, and matches those directed segments to acquire rough point matching. Finally, Ransac method is used to eliminate wrong pairs in order to accomplish image mosaic. The results from experiment based on four pairs of images show that our method has strong robustness for resolution, lighting, rotation, and scaling.

  16. Liquid-base cytology: a new method for oestral cycle study in wistar's rats Citologia de base líquida: um novo método para o estudo do ciclo estral em ratas Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Rand Randall Martins; Ney Moura Lemos Pereira; Telma Maria Araújo Silva

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was the standardization of a collection technique and staining in liquid-base that allies the pratical and cytological wealth, making possible a larger reproductibility and microscopic easiness. METHODS: Female wistar rats (n=20) were submitted to the daily vaginal collection in saline and fastened washed (ether/alcohol) and stained in suspension with a solution of Evans Blue 0.025%. The sample was pondered by centrifugation and observed under lens of 4...

  17. A Precise-Mask-Based Method for Enhanced Image Inpainting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanxu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mask of damage region is the pretreatment step of the image inpainting, which plays a key role in the ultimate effect. However, state-of-the-art methods have attached significance to the inpainting model, and the mask of damage region is usually selected manually or by the conventional threshold-based method. Since manual method is time-consuming and the threshold-based method does not have the same precision for different images, we herein report a new method for automatically constructing the precise mask by the joint filtering of guided filtering and L0 smoothing. It can accurately locate the boundary of damaged region in order to effectively segment the damage region and then greatly improves the ultimate effect of image inpainting. The experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to state-of-the-art methods in the step of constructing inpainting mask, especially for the damaged region with inconspicuous boundary.

  18. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    selective reproduction has been placed under the aegis of science and expertise in novel ways. New laboratory and clinical techniques allow for the selective fertilization of gametes, implantation of embryos, or abortion of fetuses. Although they will often overlap with assisted reproductive technologies...

  19. Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2009-01-01

    1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality.

  20. How to measure reproductive success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Gillespie, Brenda

    2003-01-01

    To date there have been few empirical comparisons between alternative methods for measuring reproductive success (RS). We consider the pros and cons of alternative measures of RS to provide guidance for the design of field studies in human behavioral ecology. We compare cross-sectional measures that count offspring alive at the time of the interview and retrospective measures that require data on offspring age at death or censoring. We consider analyses that include adult women (yielding age-specific estimates of RS) as well as analyses restricted to postreproductive women (yielding data on lifetime RS). These methods are applied to reproductive data for the Dogon of Mali, West Africa. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. A youth-led reproductive health program in a university setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Malekafzali, Hossein; Hashemi, Zeynab; Peykari, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive health problems affect youths in all countries. There is an urgent need to enhance youths reproductive health services to provide a healthy life for this group. In this regard, the present study aimed to evaluate the Reproductive Health Peer Education Program based on the opinion of university students. Methods: This interventional study was conducted in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences through the peer education method. The participants of this study were 24 peer educators who received training in a 40 hour peer educator training course. The peer education program was implemented in the university. In order to evaluate this community- based intervention, 329 students were selected through the stratified sampling method and their opinion was assessed. Descriptive statistical methods were used by SPSS software for data analysis. Results: The results of the study revealed that peer education was accepted by 64.7% (n= 213) of the students, according to their opinion. The educational priorities of the students were as follows: pre-marriage counseling (78%, n= 166); STI/AIDS (17%, n= 36); and contraception (5%, n= 11). The peer education program was recognized as the most required reproductive health service in the university by 55.3% (n= 118) of the students. They believed that the most important duties of the peer educators were: education (33.5%, n= 71); counseling (30.4%, n= 65); referring to a counseling center (21.6%, n= 46) and referring to a therapeutic center (14.5%, n= 31). Also, the students stated that confidentiality (53%, n= 113), suitable communication (26%, n= 55) and sufficient knowledge (21%, n= 45) were desired characteristics for the peer educators. Conclusion: According to the students' opinion, peer education could provide suitable reproductive health services and could also be beneficial for reproductive health promotion and might reinforce positive behaviors in youths. Reproductive health peer- counseling is a

  2. OptisampleTM: Open web-based application to optimize sampling strategies for active surveillance activities at the herd level illustrated using Porcine Respiratory Reproductive Syndrome (PRRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Anna; Morrison, Robert E; Cheeran, Ann; Rovira, Albert; Alvarez, Julio; Perez, Andres M

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection causes a devastating economic impact to the swine industry. Active surveillance is routinely conducted in many swine herds to demonstrate freedom from PRRSv infection. The design of efficient active surveillance sampling schemes is challenging because optimum surveillance strategies may differ depending on infection status, herd structure, management, or resources for conducting sampling. Here, we present an open web-based application, named 'OptisampleTM', designed to optimize herd sampling strategies to substantiate freedom of infection considering also costs of testing. In addition to herd size, expected prevalence, test sensitivity, and desired level of confidence, the model takes into account the presumed risk of pathogen introduction between samples, the structure of the herd, and the process to select the samples over time. We illustrate the functionality and capacity of 'OptisampleTM' through its application to active surveillance of PRRSv in hypothetical swine herds under disparate epidemiological situations. Diverse sampling schemes were simulated and compared for each herd to identify effective strategies at low costs. The model results show that to demonstrate freedom from disease, it is important to consider both the epidemiological situation of the herd and the sample selected. The approach illustrated here for PRRSv may be easily extended to other animal disease surveillance systems using the web-based application available at http://stemma.ahc.umn.edu/optisample.

  3. The harmonics detection method based on neural network applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), p-q theory, (SAPF), Harmonics, Total Harmonic Distortion. 1. ... Recently, some methods based on artificial intelligence have been applied In order to improve ..... The effect is the reduction of.

  4. Peer Tutoring with QUICK Method vs. Task Based Method on Reading Comprehension Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indrawati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is a quasi-experimental research analyzing the reading comprehension achievement of the eleventh graders of Senior High School in Surabaya. This experimental research is comparing the effects of peer tutoring with QUICK method and task-based method to help the students to increase the students’ reading achievement. Besides for increasing the students’ reading achievement, this study has the main purpose to give a variation in teacher’s teaching reading techniques. This study uses independent samples t-test and paired samples t-test to indicate the students’ significant difference in achieving the reading comprehension in peer tutoring with QUICK method and task based method. Keywords: Peer tutoring with QUICK method, Task-based method, T-test, Reading achievement

  5. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  6. Gender and Women's Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Akyuz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: According to the “rights to equality” in reproductive and sexual rights, “no persons should be discriminated against their sexual and reproductive lives, in their access to health care and/or services on the grounds of race, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family position, age, language, religion, political, or other opinion; national or social origin, property, birth, or other status” In this context, health professionals devoted to reproductive health are responsible for the provision of services to individuals equally and should maintain equality rights. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of gender on the reproductive health of women and utilization of reproductive health services. METHODS: The study population consisted of 250 married women at their reproductive ages of 15 to 49, who applied to the obstetrics and gynecology service of a university hospital and a gynecology clinic of a training hospital dedicated to obstetrics and gynecology between 1 February 2007 and 30 April 2007. The data collection form was developed by researchers after evaluation of the relevant literature which relevance of gender discrimination could show where the questions. RESULTS: 52% of Women’ have graduated from primary school. Education levels of women with men (her husband between level of education is statistically significant difference, and women were receive less education than men (her husband (²=34.231, p<0.001. The study was determined that women who received training secondary school and above, worked and decision maker to domestic that they get prenatal care of a high percentage and deliver their babies in the hospital with the aid of a health care professional, and they go to medical center from gynecological problems and they need to obtain permission from their husbands in order to seek aid at a medical center of a low percentage (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Women's reproductive health, gender discrimination status

  7. Ellipse-based shape description and retrieval method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向阳; 潘云鹤

    2002-01-01

    Using a group of ellipses to approach the shape contour, a new shape retrieval method is presented in this paper. In order to keep shape-based retrieval invariant to its position, orientation and size, the shape normalization method is presented. From our research, any closed shape contour can be uniquely decomposed into a group of ellipses, and the original shape contour can be re-constructed using the decomposed ellipses. The ellipse-based shape description and similar retrieval method is introduced in this paper. Based on ellipse's contribution to shape contour, the decomposed ellipses are parted into low-order ellipses and high-order ellipses. The low-order ellipses measure the macroscopic feature of a shape contour, and the high-order ellipses measure the microscopic feature. The two-phase shape matching method is given. Through the experiment test, our method has better shape retrieval effect.

  8. A mixture of dioxins, furans, and non-ortho PCBs based upon consensus toxic equivalency factors produces dioxin-like reproductive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J T; Chen, C-Y; Birnbaum, L S

    2003-07-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin) and related polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) alter the reproductive development of laboratory animals. Therefore, we exposed animals to a mixture of dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that included TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PeCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1-PeCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB169). The mixture composition approximated the relative abundance of these compounds in foodstuff (L. S. Birnbaum and M. J. DeVito, 1995, Toxicology Vol. 105, pp. 391-401). Following the work of Gray et al. with TCDD (1997, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology Vol. 146, pp. 11-20), we exposed time-pregnant dams on gestation day (GD) 15 at doses up to 1.0 microgram TCDD toxic equivalency (TEQ)/kg and the development of offspring was monitored. This mixture significantly increased the time to puberty in both male and female offspring. At postnatal day (PND) 32 seminal vesicle weights were decreased; however, only ventral prostate weight was affected at PND 49 and no effects were seen at PND 63. In female offspring, the mixture caused dose-dependent increases in the incidence of vaginal thread. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was higher than with TCDD the comparable TEQ exposure. Based on the slightly lowered responsiveness to the mixture, we used 2.0 microgram TEQ/kg to examine reproductive effects. This dose elicited the responses observed with 1.0 microgram TCDD/kg. Results indicate that the mixture causes a similar spectrum of effects seen with TCDD and the slightly lowered degree of response based on administered dose appears to be due to decreased transfer of mixture components to the offspring. Thus, the use of the WHO consensus TEFs (M. Van

  9. Effectiveness of a clinically integrated e-learning course in evidence-based medicine for reproductive health training: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulier, Regina; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin; Zamora, Javier; Plana, M Nieves; Carroli, Guillermo; Cecatti, Jose G; Germar, Maria J; Pisake, Lumbiganon; Mittal, Sunneeta; Pattinson, Robert; Wolomby-Molondo, Jean-Jose; Bergh, Anne-Marie; May, Win; Souza, Joao Paulo; Koppenhoefer, Shawn; Khan, Khalid S

    2012-12-05

    For evidence-based practice to embed culturally in the workplace, teaching of evidence-based medicine (EBM) should be clinically integrated. In low-middle-income countries (LMICs) there is a scarcity of EBM-trained clinical tutors, lack of protected time for teaching EBM, and poor access to relevant databases in languages other than English. To evaluate the effects of a clinically integrated e-learning EBM course incorporating the World Health Organization (WHO) Reproductive Health Library (RHL) on knowledge, skills, and educational environment compared with traditional EBM teaching. International cluster randomized trial conducted between April 2009 and November 2010 among postgraduate trainees in obstetrics-gynecology in 7 LMICs (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, India, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand). Each training unit was randomized to an experimental clinically integrated course consisting of e-modules using the RHL for learning activities and trainee assessments (31 clusters, 123 participants) or to a control self-directed EBM course incorporating the RHL (29 clusters, 81 participants). A facilitator with EBM teaching experience was available at all teaching units. Courses were administered for 8 weeks, with assessments at baseline and 4 weeks after course completion. The study was completed in 24 experimental clusters (98 participants) and 22 control clusters (68 participants). Primary outcomes were change in EBM knowledge (score range, 0-62) and skills (score range, 0-14). Secondary outcome was educational environment (5-point Likert scale anchored between 1 [strongly agree] and 5 [strongly disagree]). At baseline, the study groups were similar in age, year of training, and EBM-related attitudes and knowledge. After the trial, the experimental group had higher mean scores in knowledge (38.1 [95% CI, 36.7 to 39.4] in the control group vs 43.1 [95% CI, 42.0 to 44.1] in the experimental group; adjusted difference, 4.9 [95% CI, 2.9 to 6

  10. Danish registers on aspects of reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenstrup, Lene Tølbøll; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2011-01-01

    on births, abortions and assisted reproduction as well as selected characteristics of the women (and men) involved. Validity and Coverage: Both the validity and coverage of each register is considered of high quality. Conclusions: These registers provide, both individually and in combination, unique......Introduction: The establishing of three Danish population based registers, namely the Fertility Database, the Register of Legally Induced Abortions and the In Vitro Fertilisation register aimed at providing data for surveying of reproductive outcome. Content: The registers include information...... opportunities for undertaking detailed and comprehensive research in the field of reproduction....

  11. Transgender Reproductive Choice and Fertility Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitu, Khadija

    2016-11-01

    Increasing numbers of young transgender people are now using medical technologies to achieve a physical gender transition. However, the procedures of physical gender transition might cause temporary or permanent sterility. Thus many transgender people are now using fertility preservation technologies. Nonetheless, they can experience dilemmas in making reproductive and family-building decisions and face challenges in gaining access to and utilizing fertility preservation services. Based on qualitative research conducted with transgender men and women who used reproductive technologies for preserving their fertility before or during their physical transition, this paper contributes to the discourse of reproductive choice by the inclusion of transgender people's experience.

  12. Convergence of a residual based artificial viscosity finite element method

    KAUST Repository

    Nazarov, Murtazo

    2013-02-01

    We present a residual based artificial viscosity finite element method to solve conservation laws. The Galerkin approximation is stabilized by only residual based artificial viscosity, without any least-squares, SUPG, or streamline diffusion terms. We prove convergence of the method, applied to a scalar conservation law in two space dimensions, toward an unique entropy solution for implicit time stepping schemes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Two Distance Based Alignment Method in Medical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    very helpful to register large datasets of contours or surfaces, commonly encountered in medical imaging . They do not require special ordering or...COMPARISON OF TWO DISTANCE BASED ALIGNMENT METHOD IN MEDICAL IMAGING G. Bulan, C. Ozturk Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Bogazici University...Two Distance Based Alignment Method in Medical Imaging Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number

  14. Memristor Crossbar-based Hardware Implementation of IDS Method

    OpenAIRE

    Merrikh-Bayat, Farnood; Bagheri-Shouraki, Saeed; Rohani, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Ink Drop Spread (IDS) is the engine of Active Learning Method (ALM), which is the methodology of soft computing. IDS, as a pattern-based processing unit, extracts useful information from a system subjected to modeling. In spite of its excellent potential in solving problems such as classification and modeling compared to other soft computing tools, finding its simple and fast hardware implementation is still a challenge. This paper describes a new hardware implementation of IDS method based o...

  15. A New Nonlinear Compound Forecasting Method Based on ANN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the compound-forecasting method is discussed. The compound-forecasting method is one of the hotspots in the current predication. Firstly, the compound-forecasting method is introduced and various existing compound-forecasting methods arediscussed. Secondly, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is brought in compound-prediction research and a nonlinear compound-prediction model based on ANN is presented. Finally, inorder to avoid irregular weight, a new method is presented which uses principal component analyses to increase the availability of compound-forecasting information. Higherforecasting precision is achieved in practice.

  16. Calibration aspects of binaural sound reproduction over insert earphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2012-01-01

    in earphone-based reproduction, binaural reproduction can be applied directly. This paper is concerned with the theoretical and practical aspects relevant to the correct reproduction of binaural signals over insert earphones. To this purpose, a theoretical model originally developed to explain the acoustic......Earphones are nowadays widely adopted for the reproduction of audio material in mobile multimedia and communication platforms, e.g. smartphones. Reproduction of high-quality spatial sound on such platforms can dramatically improve their applicability, and since two channels are always available...

  17. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease.

  18. Calibration aspects of binaural sound reproduction over insert earphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2012-01-01

    Earphones are nowadays widely adopted for the reproduction of audio material in mobile multimedia and communication platforms, e.g. smartphones. Reproduction of high-quality spatial sound on such platforms can dramatically improve their applicability, and since two channels are always available...... in earphone-based reproduction, binaural reproduction can be applied directly. This paper is concerned with the theoretical and practical aspects relevant to the correct reproduction of binaural signals over insert earphones. To this purpose, a theoretical model originally developed to explain the acoustic...

  19. Gender, sexuality and communication issues that constitute barriers to the use of natural family planning and other fertility awareness-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M

    1997-01-01

    Fertility awareness-based methods of family planning are rarely offered through reproductive health services in Latin America, despite evidence that many women use them. Providers state that clients do not want these methods, but provider-bias is evident. Providers overestimate the difficulty of learning and using fertility awareness-based methods, and they underestimate their efficacy. Both providers and clients have difficulty dealing with sexuality (which is central to fertility awareness-based methods). Many providers lack gender sensitivity, 'worsening' the unequal relationship between providers and clients. Experience has shown that when fertility awareness-based methods are well provided, they can have a positive effect on sexuality, self-understanding, and equality in the couple's relationship.

  20. Effects of cancer treatment on reproduction and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Janice S; Case, Allison M

    2002-08-01

    (1) To review the effects of cancer treatment on reproduction and fertility in both women and men and (2) to review current and new techniques that could be used to preserve fertility and hormone production in women who have undergone cancer treatment. Entries to MEDLINE and CANCERLIT through to October 2001 were searched for evidence relevant to this article. This document is primarily based on large retrospective cohort series and case reports, as no randomized trials were available. The first part of this review article focuses on the effects of radiation and chemotherapy on reproductive function and innovative medical and surgical techniques employed to minimize these effects. The second part of this article describes conservative methods of managing cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancer for women who wish to preserve their fertility. Over the last decade, there has been a trend toward trying to preserve reproductive function in young patients with malignancy. Information acquired over the last century on the reproductive effects of radiation and chemo-therapy has enabled us to tailor our treatment of various malignancies affecting young patients. As we learn more about the biology and clinical behaviour of gynaecologic malignancies, we are able to modify surgical management to preserve fertility in select cases. All of these trends are in keeping with our goal to optimize quality of life in cancer care without compromising safety or survival.

  1. An Adaptive Background Subtraction Method Based on Kernel Density Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mignon Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a pixel-based background modeling method, which uses nonparametric kernel density estimation, is proposed. To reduce the burden of image storage, we modify the original KDE method by using the first frame to initialize it and update it subsequently at every frame by controlling the learning rate according to the situations. We apply an adaptive threshold method based on image changes to effectively subtract the dynamic backgrounds. The devised scheme allows the proposed method to automatically adapt to various environments and effectively extract the foreground. The method presented here exhibits good performance and is suitable for dynamic background environments. The algorithm is tested on various video sequences and compared with other state-of-the-art background subtraction methods so as to verify its performance.

  2. Competition assignment problem algorithm based on Hungarian method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Chao; REN Yongtai; GE Huiling; DENG Hualing

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Hungarian method can only solve standard assignment problems, while can not solve competition assignment problems. This article emphatically discussed the difference between standard assignment problems and competition assignment problems. The kinds of competition assignment problem algorithms based on Hungarian method and the solutions of them were studied.

  3. A Channelization-Based DOA Estimation Method for Wideband Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Yue; Lin, Qianqiang; Chen, Zengping

    2016-07-04

    In this paper, we propose a novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method for wideband signals with sensor arrays. The proposed method splits the wideband array output into multiple frequency sub-channels and estimates the signal parameters using a digital channelization receiver. Based on the output sub-channels, a channelization-based incoherent signal subspace method (Channelization-ISM) and a channelization-based test of orthogonality of projected subspaces method (Channelization-TOPS) are proposed. Channelization-ISM applies narrowband signal subspace methods on each sub-channel independently. Then the arithmetic mean or geometric mean of the estimated DOAs from each sub-channel gives the final result. Channelization-TOPS measures the orthogonality between the signal and the noise subspaces of the output sub-channels to estimate DOAs. The proposed channelization-based method isolates signals in different bandwidths reasonably and improves the output SNR. It outperforms the conventional ISM and TOPS methods on estimation accuracy and dynamic range, especially in real environments. Besides, the parallel processing architecture makes it easy to implement on hardware. A wideband digital array radar (DAR) using direct wideband radio frequency (RF) digitization is presented. Experiments carried out in a microwave anechoic chamber with the wideband DAR are presented to demonstrate the performance. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Noise reduction method based on weighted manifold decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Jian-Chao; Xiao Xian-Ci

    2004-01-01

    A noise reduction method based on weighted manifold decomposition is proposed in this paper, which does not need knowledge of the chaotic dynamics and choosing number of eigenvalues. The simulation indicates that the performance of this method can increase the signal-to-noise ratio of noisy chaotic time series.

  5. A CT Image Segmentation Algorithm Based on Level Set Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jing-yi; SHI Hao-shan

    2006-01-01

    Level Set methods are robust and efficient numerical tools for resolving curve evolution in image segmentation. This paper proposes a new image segmentation algorithm based on Mumford-Shah module. The method is used to CT images and the experiment results demonstrate its efficiency and veracity.

  6. A Hybrid Positioning Method Based on Hypothesis Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiot, Nicolas; Pedersen, Troels; Laaraiedh, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    maxima. We propose to first estimate the support region of the two peaks of the likelihood function using a set membership method, and then decide between the two regions using a rule based on the less reliable observations. Monte Carlo simulations show that the performance of the proposed method...

  7. A Channelization-Based DOA Estimation Method for Wideband Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel direction of arrival (DOA estimation method for wideband signals with sensor arrays. The proposed method splits the wideband array output into multiple frequency sub-channels and estimates the signal parameters using a digital channelization receiver. Based on the output sub-channels, a channelization-based incoherent signal subspace method (Channelization-ISM and a channelization-based test of orthogonality of projected subspaces method (Channelization-TOPS are proposed. Channelization-ISM applies narrowband signal subspace methods on each sub-channel independently. Then the arithmetic mean or geometric mean of the estimated DOAs from each sub-channel gives the final result. Channelization-TOPS measures the orthogonality between the signal and the noise subspaces of the output sub-channels to estimate DOAs. The proposed channelization-based method isolates signals in different bandwidths reasonably and improves the output SNR. It outperforms the conventional ISM and TOPS methods on estimation accuracy and dynamic range, especially in real environments. Besides, the parallel processing architecture makes it easy to implement on hardware. A wideband digital array radar (DAR using direct wideband radio frequency (RF digitization is presented. Experiments carried out in a microwave anechoic chamber with the wideband DAR are presented to demonstrate the performance. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Trends in perinatal health after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Gissler, M.; Skjaerven, R.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTIONS Has the perinatal outcome of children conceived after assisted reproductive technology (ART) improved over time? SUMMARY ANSWER The perinatal outcomes in children born after ART have improved over the last 20 years, mainly due to the reduction of multiple births. WHAT IS KNOWN...... AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS A Swedish study has shown a reduction in unwanted outcomes over time in children conceived after ART. Our analyses based on data from more than 92 000 ART children born in four Nordic countries confirm these findings. STUDY DESIGN Nordic population-based matched cohort study...... with ART outcome and health data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING AND METHODS We analysed the perinatal outcome of 62 379 ART singletons and 29 758 ART twins, born from 1988 to 2007 in four Nordic countries. The ART singletons were compared with a control group of 362 215...

  9. Role-based Integration Method of Enterprise Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ming-hui; FEI Qi; CHEN Xue-guang

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the current situation of enterprise information system and methods of system integration at first. Then a role-based analyzing method is proposed. It can help confirm the keystone of the construction of information system and the direction of system integration. At last, a case study on theintegration of material dispatching information system in a large-scale project is presented briefly. It shows that this new method is more effective than the others are.

  10. Reliability-based design optimization with Cross-Entropy method

    OpenAIRE

    Ghidey, Hiruy

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of the Cross-entropy (CE) method to solve reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) problems was investigated. The emphasis of this implementation method was to solve independently both the reliability and optimization sub-problems within the RBDO problem; therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Cross-entropy method in terms of efficiency and accuracy to solve RBDO problems. A numerical approach was followed in which the implementatio...

  11. A New Video Coding Method Based on Improving Detail Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Moving Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) and H.263 standard coding method is widely used in video compression. However, the visual quality of detail regions such as eyes and mouth is not content in people at the decoder, as far as the conference telephone or videophone is concerned. A new coding method based on improving detail regions is presented in this paper. Experimental results show that this method can improve the visual quality at the decoder.

  12. The future of human reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overall, Christine

    1989-01-01

    ... Contradictions III SOCIAL POLICY QUESTIONS Pregnancy as Justification for Loss of Juridical Autonomy Sanda Rodgers 174 Prenatal Diagnosis: Reproductive Choice? Reproductive Control? Abby Lippman ...

  13. Reproductive health needs and the reproductive health behaviour of the youth in Mangaung in the Free State province: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Seekoe

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available From the community profiles conducted by nursing students in Mangaung, the following observation was prevalent: an increase in the prevalence of teenage pregnancy together with a high prevalence of HIV infection was demonstrated. The relationship between young people’s reproductive behavior and the prevalence of HIV is well documented. To address this problem, a community -based education programme is required. Developing a successful community-based educational programme that addresses the needs of youth requires that such a programme be based on the needs of such a group. The research question is applicable: How do youth in Mangaung in the Free State province in South Africa perceive their reproductive health needs and their reproductive health behavior? The aim of this article is to explore and describe the reproductive health needs and the reproductive health behaviour of the youth in Mangaung. A quantitative research design that is descriptive and explorative in nature was conducted. The reproductive health needs and the reproductive health behaviour of the youth were collected by means of a structured questionnaire with open-ended and closed questions. A purposive non - probability sampling method was utilized and (n=250 drawn from the youth. The justification of the sample was further enhanced by collecting data from youth aged 13-25 at three high schools in Mangaung and at the health centre of MUCPP. Qualitative data obtained from open-ended questionnaires was coded and analyzed by using Tech’s (1990 content analysis approach. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed on the quantitative data from closed questions. A descriptive analysis of the participant’s ages and their perceived reproductive health needs and reproductive health behaviour was done. The mean age of the participants was 18.6, which could be because all the respondents were of school- going age. The results indicated that the youth received insufficient

  14. A Semantic Retrieval Method Based on the Fuzzy Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives a semantic fuzzy retrieval method of multimedia object,discusses the principle of fuzzy semantic retrieval technique,presents a fuzzy reasoning mechanism based on the knowledge base,and designs the relevant reasoning algorithms.Researchful results have innovative significance.

  15. Evaluation of reproductive health intervention based on IMB model among female migrants in Shanghai%基于IMB模型的上海市女性流动人口生殖健康干预效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑾; 严胜; 王英; 马进; 蔡泳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of reproductive health intervention based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model (IMB) among female migrants in Shanghai. Methods A total of 200 female migrants from Pudong New Area were randomly recruited and divided into intervention group and control group, with 100 female migrants in each group, and questionnaire survey was conducted in two groups before intervention and 2 weeks after intervention. Reproductive health intervention based on IMB model was carried out in intervention group, which included reproductive health and acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDS) related information, motivation and behavior skills. Results Ninety-six female migrants in intervention group and 92 female migrants in control group completed the questionnaire survey. After intervention, the score of reproductive health information increased from 9. 12 ±1.91 to 12. 22 ±1.51 in intervention group (P < 0. 05) , the scores of knowledge of AIDS non-transmission, sexual transmitted infection and disease prevention by using condom significantly improved, more female migrants held the attitude against premarital sex and extramarital affair, and more agreed with condom use and discussion about condom use with sexual partner (P <0.05) . The condom use rate increased from 35.0% to 53. 1% in the recent sexual intercourse, and the consistent condom use rate in two weeks also improved from 8.0% to 27. 1% in intervention group (P <0.05). Conclusion The reproductive health intervention based on IMB model is effective, which may improve the reproductive health information, reduce high risk behavior motivation and improve the preventive behavior techniques among female migrants in Shanghai.%目的 评价基于信息-动机-行为技巧(IMB)模型对女性流动人口生殖健康的干预效果.方法 在上海市浦东新区随机选择200名女性外来务工人员,随机分为干预组和对照组(n=L00),在干预前和干预后2周分

  16. A method for selecting training samples based on camera response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leihong; Li, Bei; Pan, Zilan; Liang, Dong; Kang, Yi; Zhang, Dawei; Ma, Xiuhua

    2016-09-01

    In the process of spectral reflectance reconstruction, sample selection plays an important role in the accuracy of the constructed model and in reconstruction effects. In this paper, a method for training sample selection based on camera response is proposed. It has been proved that the camera response value has a close correlation with the spectral reflectance. Consequently, in this paper we adopt the technique of drawing a sphere in camera response value space to select the training samples which have a higher correlation with the test samples. In addition, the Wiener estimation method is used to reconstruct the spectral reflectance. Finally, we find that the method of sample selection based on camera response value has the smallest color difference and root mean square error after reconstruction compared to the method using the full set of Munsell color charts, the Mohammadi training sample selection method, and the stratified sampling method. Moreover, the goodness of fit coefficient of this method is also the highest among the four sample selection methods. Taking all the factors mentioned above into consideration, the method of training sample selection based on camera response value enhances the reconstruction accuracy from both the colorimetric and spectral perspectives.

  17. Method of designing developable surface based on engineering requirement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ji-xin; LIU Zhe; LIU Jian

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the principle of envelope of a one-parameter plane family to design developable surfaces. Three methods of designing developable surfaces are presented. They are designing a developable surface based on one curve on it and its normal line, designing a developable surface based on two curves on it and designing a developable surface based on one curve and one surface. They meet the requirements of engineering fields.

  18. An Efficient Method for Reliability-based Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Hui; Li Weiji

    2008-01-01

    Design for modem engineering system is becoming multidisciplinary and incorporates practical uncertainties; therefore, it is necessary to synthesize reliability analysis and the multidiscipLinary design optimization (MDO) techniques for the design of complex engineering system. An advanced first order second moment method-based concurrent subspace optimization approach is proposed based on the comparison and analysis of the existing multidisciplinary optimization techniques and the reliability analysis methods. It is seen through a canard configuration optimization for a three-surface transport that the proposed method is computationally efficient and practical with the least modification to the current deterministic optimization process.

  19. Predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area in Ogun State, Western Nigeria: A community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran; Olurinde O Oni; Albert A Salako

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Worldwide, it has been estimated that violence against women is as serious a cause of death and incapacity among women of reproductive age as cancer, and a greater cause of ill health as traffic accidents and malaria combined. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area (SLGA) of Ogun State, Nigeria. Settings: The study was conducted in SLGA Ogun...

  20. Reproductive Health Knowledge among African American Women Enrolled in a Clinic-Based Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Psychosocial and Behavioral Risk: Project DC-HOPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Robledo, Candace A; Wallace, Maeve E; Flores, Katrina F; Kiely, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Washington, DC, has among the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy in the United States. Increasing women's reproductive health knowledge may help to address these reproductive health issues. This analysis assessed whether high-risk pregnant African American women in Washington, DC, who participated in an intervention to reduce behavioral and psychosocial risks had greater reproductive health knowledge than women receiving usual care. Project DC-HOPE was a randomized, controlled trial that included pregnant African American women in Washington, DC, recruited during prenatal care (PNC). Women in the intervention group were provided reproductive health education and received tailored counseling sessions to address their psychosocial and behavioral risk(s) (cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression, and intimate partner violence). Women in the control group received usual PNC. Participants completed a 10-item reproductive knowledge assessment at baseline (n = 1,044) and postpartum (n = 830). Differences in total reproductive health knowledge scores at baseline and postpartum between groups were examined via χ(2) tests. Differences in postpartum mean total score by group were assessed via multiple linear regression. Women in both groups and at both time points scored approximately 50% on the knowledge assessments. At postpartum, women in the intervention group had higher total scores compared with women receiving usual care (mean 5.40 [SD 1.60] vs. 5.03 [SD 1.53] out of 10, respectively; p < .001). Although intervention participants increased reproductive health knowledge, overall scores remained low. Development of interventions designed to impart accurate, individually tailored information to women may promote reproductive health knowledge among high-risk pregnant African American women residing in Washington, DC. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Intimate partner violence and constraints to reproductive autonomy and reproductive health among women seeking abortion services in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Erin; Andersen, Kathryn L; Biswas, Kamal; Chowdhury, Rezwana; Sherman, Susan G; Decker, Michele R

    2017-03-01

    To understand intersections between intimate partner violence (IPV) and other constraints to women's reproductive autonomy, and the influence of IPV on reproductive health. A secondary analysis examined cross-sectional data from a facility-based sample of women seeking abortion care (for spontaneous or induced abortion) between March 1 and October 31, 2013. Women aged 18-49 years, who received abortion services and selected a short-acting contraceptive method or no contraception completed an interviewer-administered survey after treatment. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were calculated for associations between IPV experience and potential constraints to reproductive autonomy and health outcomes. There were 457 participants included in the present analysis and 118 (25.8%) had experienced IPV in the preceding year. IPV was associated with discordance in fertility intentions with husbands/partners and in-laws, with in-law opposition to contraception, with perceived religious prohibition of contraception, and with presenting unaccompanied (all Ppost-abortion care after an induced abortion compared with accessing legal menstrual regulation, and with the use of medication abortion compared with manual vacuum aspiration (both Pabortion unaccompanied and using medication abortion could be strategies to access abortion covertly among women experiencing IPV. Ensuring women's reproductive freedom requires addressing IPV and related constraints. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  2. Brazilian adolescents' knowledge and beliefs about abortion methods: a school-based internet inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ellen M H; Heumann, Silke; Araujo, Ana; Adesse, Leila; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2014-02-13

    Internet surveys that draw from traditionally generated samples provide the unique conditions to engage adolescents in exploration of sensitive health topics. We examined awareness of unwanted pregnancy, abortion behaviour, methods, and attitudes toward specific legal indications for abortion via a school-based internet survey among 378 adolescents aged 12-21 years in three Rio de Janeiro public schools. Forty-five percent knew peers who had undergone an abortion. Most students (66.0%) did not disclose abortion method knowledge. However, girls (aOR 4.2, 95% CI 2.4-7.2), those who had experienced their sexual debut (aOR1.76, 95% CI 1.1-3.0), and those attending a prestigious magnet school (aOR 2.7 95% CI 1.4-6.3) were more likely to report methods. Most abortion methods (79.3%) reported were ineffective, obsolete, and/or unsafe. Herbs (e.g. marijuana tea), over-the-counter medications, surgical procedures, foreign objects and blunt trauma were reported. Most techniques (85.2%) were perceived to be dangerous, including methods recommended by the World Health Organization. A majority (61.4%) supported Brazil's existing law permitting abortion in the case of rape. There was no association between gender, age, sexual debut, parental education or socioeconomic status and attitudes toward legal abortion. However, students at the magnet school supported twice as many legal indications (2.7, SE.27) suggesting a likely role of peers and/or educators in shaping abortion views. Abortion knowledge and attitudes are not driven simply by age, religion or class, but rather a complex interplay that includes both social spaces and gender. Prevention of abortion morbidity and mortality among adolescents requires comprehensive sexuality and reproductive health education that includes factual distinctions between safe and unsafe abortion methods.

  3. A new earthquake location method based on the waveform inversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hao; Huang, Xueyuan; Yang, Dinghui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new earthquake location method based on the waveform inversion is proposed. As is known to all, the waveform misfit function is very sensitive to the phase shift between the synthetic waveform signal and the real waveform signal. Thus, the convergence domain of the conventional waveform based earthquake location methods is very small. In present study, by introducing and solving a simple sub-optimization problem, we greatly expand the convergence domain of the waveform based earthquake location method. According to a large number of numerical experiments, the new method expands the range of convergence by several tens of times. This allows us to locate the earthquake accurately even from some relatively bad initial values.

  4. Patch nearfield acoustic holography based on the equivalent source method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) based on the equivalent source method (ESM), patch NAH based on the ESM is proposed. The method overcomes the shortcoming in the conventional NAH that the hologram surface should be larger than the source surface. It need not to discretize the whole source and its measurement need not to cover the whole source. The measurement may be performed over the region of interest, and the reconstruction can be done in the region directly. The method is flexible in applications, stable in computation, and very easy to implement. It has good potential applications in engineering. The nu- merical simulations show the invalidity of the conventional NAH based on the ESM and prove the validities of the proposed method for reconstructing a partial source and the regularization for reducing the error effect of the pressure measured on the hologram surface.

  5. Evaluation of read count based RNAseq analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Li, Chung-I; Ye, Fei; Shyr, Yu

    2013-01-01

    RNAseq technology is replacing microarray technology as the tool of choice for gene expression profiling. While providing much richer data than microarray, analysis of RNAseq data has been much more challenging. To date, there has not been a consensus on the best approach for conducting robust RNAseq analysis. In this study, we designed a thorough experiment to evaluate six read count-based RNAseq analysis methods (DESeq, DEGseq, edgeR, NBPSeq, TSPM and baySeq) using both real and simulated data. We found the six methods produce similar fold changes and reasonable overlapping of differentially expressed genes based on p-values. However, all six methods suffer from over-sensitivity. Based on the evaluation of runtime using real data and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) using simulated data, we found that edgeR achieves a better balance between speed and accuracy than the other methods.

  6. WLAN indoor location method based on artificial neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Mu; Sun Ying; Xu Yubin; Deng Zhian; Meng Weixiao

    2010-01-01

    WLAN indoor location method based on artificial neural network (ANN) is analyzed.A three layer feed-forward ANN model offers the benefits of reducing time cost of the layout of an indoor location system, saving storage cost of the radio map establishment and enhancing real-time capacity in the on-line phase.According to the analysis of SNR distributions of recorded beacon signal samples and discussion about the multi-mode phenomenon, the one map method is proposed for the purpose of simplifying ANN input values and increasing location performances.Based on the simulations and comparison analysis with other two typical indoor location methods, K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and probability, the feasibility and effectiveness of ANN-based indoor location method are verified with average location error of 2.37m and location accuracy of 78.6% in 3m.

  7. A HMM-Based Method for Vocal Fold Pathology Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Majidnezhad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic analysis is a proper method in vocal fold pathology diagnosis so that it can complement and in some cases replace the other invasive, based on direct vocal fold observations methods. There are different approaches for vocal fold pathology diagnosis. This paper presents a method based on hidden markov model which classifies speeches into two classes: the normal and the pathological. Two hidden markov models are trained based on these two classes of speech and then the trained models are used to classify the dataset. The proposed method is able to classify the speeches with an accuracy of 93.75%. The results of this algorithm provide insights that can help biologists and computer scientists design high-performance system for detection of vocal fold pathology diagnosis.

  8. Distance Based Method for Outlier Detection of Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a distance based method for the outlier detection of body sensor networks. Firstly, we use a Kernel Density Estimation (KDE to calculate the probability of the distance to k nearest neighbors for diagnosed data. If the probability is less than a threshold, and the distance of this data to its left and right neighbors is greater than a pre-defined value, the diagnosed data is decided as an outlier. Further, we formalize a sliding window based method to improve the outlier detection performance. Finally, to estimate the KDE by training sensor readings with errors, we introduce a Hidden Markov Model (HMM based method to estimate the most probable ground truth values which have the maximum probability to produce the training data. Simulation results show that the proposed method possesses a good detection accuracy with a low false alarm rate.

  9. Key Updating Methods for Combinatorial Design Based Key Management Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghuan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN has become one of the most promising network technologies for many useful applications. However, for the lack of resources, it is different but important to ensure the security of the WSNs. Key management is a corner stone on which to build secure WSNs for it has a fundamental role in confidentiality, authentication, and so on. Combinatorial design theory has been used to generate good-designed key rings for each sensor node in WSNs. A large number of combinatorial design based key management schemes have been proposed but none of them have taken key updating into consideration. In this paper, we point out the essence of key updating for the unital design based key management scheme and propose two key updating methods; then, we conduct performance analysis on the two methods from three aspects; at last, we generalize the two methods to other combinatorial design based key management schemes and enhance the second method.

  10. Patch nearfield acoustic holography based on the equivalent source method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) based on the equivalent source method (ESM), patch NAH based on the ESM is proposed. The method overcomes the shortcoming in the conventional NAH that the hologram surface should be larger than the source surface. It need not to discretize the whole source and its measurement need not to cover the whole source. The measurement may be performed over the region of interest, and the reconstruction can be done in the region directly. The method is flexible in applications, stable in computation, and very easy to implement. It has good potential applications in engineering. The numerical simulations show the invalidity of the conventional NAH based on the ESM and prove the validities of the proposed method for reconstructing a partial source and the regularization for reducing the error effect of the pressure measured on the hologram surface.

  11. Danish registers on aspects of reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenstrup, Lene Tølbøll; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The establishing of three Danish population based registers, namely the Fertility Database, the Register of Legally Induced Abortions and the In Vitro Fertilisation register aimed at providing data for surveying of reproductive outcome. Content: The registers include information...... on births, abortions and assisted reproduction as well as selected characteristics of the women (and men) involved. Validity and Coverage: Both the validity and coverage of each register is considered of high quality. Conclusions: These registers provide, both individually and in combination, unique...

  12. Environmental Factors Affecting Avian Reproduction and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Darcy Fay Kato

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate timing of reproduction is crucial to animals’ reproductive success and fitness. Animals living in unpredictable environments do not constrain their breeding to one season, but rather breed any time of the year in which good conditions occur. These animals, termed “opportunistic” breeders, cannot predict when good conditions will occur based on the seasons, and must instead respond quickly to proximate environmental factors to successfully breed and raise young. Animals may resp...

  13. An overview of modal-based damage identification methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Engineering Analysis Group

    1997-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of methods that examine changes in measured vibration response to detect, locate, and characterize damage in structural and mechanical systems. The basic idea behind this technology is that modal parameters (notably frequencies, mode shapes, and modal damping) are functions of the physical properties of the structure (mass, damping, and stiffness). Therefore, changes in the physical properties will cause detectable changes in the modal properties. The motivation for the development of this technology is first provided. The methods are then categorized according to various criteria such as the level of damage detection provided, model-based vs. non-model-based methods and linear vs. nonlinear methods. This overview is limited to methods that can be adapted to a wide range of structures (i.e., are not dependent on a particular assumed model form for the system such as beam-bending behavior and methods and that are not based on updating finite element models). Next, the methods are described in general terms including difficulties associated with their implementation and their fidelity. Past, current and future-planned applications of this technology to actual engineering systems are summarized. The paper concludes with a discussion of critical issues for future research in the area of modal-based damage identification.

  14. Integrated navigation method based on inertial navigation system and Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyue; Shi, Haitao; Pan, Jianye; Zhang, Chunxi

    2016-04-01

    An integrated navigation method based on the inertial navigational system (INS) and Lidar was proposed for land navigation. Compared with the traditional integrated navigational method and dead reckoning (DR) method, the influence of the inertial measurement unit (IMU) scale factor and misalignment was considered in the new method. First, the influence of the IMU scale factor and misalignment on navigation accuracy was analyzed. Based on the analysis, the integrated system error model of INS and Lidar was established, in which the IMU scale factor and misalignment error states were included. Then the observability of IMU error states was analyzed. According to the results of the observability analysis, the integrated system was optimized. Finally, numerical simulation and a vehicle test were carried out to validate the availability and utility of the proposed INS/Lidar integrated navigational method. Compared with the test result of a traditional integrated navigation method and DR method, the proposed integrated navigational method could result in a higher navigation precision. Consequently, the IMU scale factor and misalignment error were effectively compensated by the proposed method and the new integrated navigational method is valid.

  15. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    selective reproduction has been placed under the aegis of science and expertise in novel ways. New laboratory and clinical techniques allow for the selective fertilization of gametes, implantation of embryos, or abortion of fetuses. Although they will often overlap with assisted reproductive technologies...... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...

  16. Wind Turbine Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Riemannian Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As multivariate time series problems widely exist in social production and life, fault diagnosis method has provided people with a lot of valuable information in the finance, hydrology, meteorology, earthquake, video surveillance, medical science, and other fields. In order to find faults in time sequence quickly and efficiently, this paper presents a multivariate time series processing method based on Riemannian manifold. This method is based on the sliding window and uses the covariance matrix as a descriptor of the time sequence. Riemannian distance is used as the similarity measure and the statistical process control diagram is applied to detect the abnormity of multivariate time series. And the visualization of the covariance matrix distribution is used to detect the abnormity of mechanical equipment, leading to realize the fault diagnosis. With wind turbine gearbox faults as the experiment object, the fault diagnosis method is verified and the results show that the method is reasonable and effective.

  17. [Reconstituting evaluation methods based on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Okubo, Suguru; Yoshie, Satoru; Kai, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Debate about the relationship between quantitative and qualitative paradigms is often muddled and confusing and the clutter of terms and arguments has resulted in the concepts becoming obscure and unrecognizable. In this study we conducted content analysis regarding evaluation methods of qualitative healthcare research. We extracted descriptions on four types of evaluation paradigm (validity/credibility, reliability/credibility, objectivity/confirmability, and generalizability/transferability), and classified them into subcategories. In quantitative research, there has been many evaluation methods based on qualitative paradigms, and vice versa. Thus, it might not be useful to consider evaluation methods of qualitative paradigm are isolated from those of quantitative methods. Choosing practical evaluation methods based on the situation and prior conditions of each study is an important approach for researchers.

  18. NONLINEAR DATA RECONCILIATION METHOD BASED ON KERNEL PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In the industrial process situation, principal component analysis (PCA) is a general method in data reconciliation.However, PCA sometime is unfeasible to nonlinear feature analysis and limited in application to nonlinear industrial process.Kernel PCA (KPCA) is extension of PCA and can be used for nonlinear feature analysis.A nonlinear data reconciliation method based on KPCA is proposed.The basic idea of this method is that firstly original data are mapped to high dimensional feature space by nonlinear function, and PCA is implemented in the feature space.Then nonlinear feature analysis is implemented and data are reconstructed by using the kernel.The data reconciliation method based on KPCA is applied to ternary distillation column.Simulation results show that this method can filter the noise in measurements of nonlinear process and reconciliated data can represent the true information of nonlinear process.

  19. NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION METHOD BASED ON RS-MSVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yun; Han Chongzhao; Zheng Qinghua; Zhang Junjie

    2006-01-01

    A new method called RS-MSVM (Rough Set and Multi-class Support Vector Machine) is proposed for network intrusion detection. This method is based on rough set followed by MSVM for attribute reduction and classification respectively. The number of attributes of the network data used in this paper is reduced from 41 to 30 using rough set theory. The kernel function of HVDM-RBF (Heterogeneous Value Difference Metric Radial Basis Function), based on the heterogeneous value difference metric of heterogeneous datasets, is constructed for the heterogeneous network data. HVDM-RBF and one-against-one method are applied to build MSVM. DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) intrusion detection evaluating data were used in the experiment. The testing results show that our method outperforms other methods mentioned in this paper on six aspects: detection accuracy, number of support vectors, false positive rate, false negative rate, training time and testing time.

  20. Predicting Modeling Method of Ship Radiated Noise Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the forming mechanism of underwater acoustic signal is complex, it is difficult to establish the accurate predicting model. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear predicting modeling method of ship radiated noise based on genetic algorithm. Three types of ship radiated noise are taken as real underwater acoustic signal. First of all, a basic model framework is chosen. Secondly, each possible model is done with genetic coding. Thirdly, model evaluation standard is established. Fourthly, the operation of genetic algorithm such as crossover, reproduction, and mutation is designed. Finally, a prediction model of real underwater acoustic signal is established by genetic algorithm. By calculating the root mean square error and signal error ratio of underwater acoustic signal predicting model, the satisfactory results are obtained. The results show that the proposed method can establish the accurate predicting model with high prediction accuracy and may play an important role in the further processing of underwater acoustic signal such as noise reduction and feature extraction and classification.

  1. A Novel Method for Solving KdV Equation Based on Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Inc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a reproducing kernel method for solving the KdV equation with initial condition based on the reproducing kernel theory. The exact solution is represented in the form of series in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space. Some numerical examples have also been studied to demonstrate the accuracy of the present method. Results of numerical examples show that the presented method is effective.

  2. Parthenogenesis and Human Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bos-Mikich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes obtained from infertility treatments has gained new interest in recent years as an alternative approach to create embryos with no reproductive purpose for research in areas such as assisted reproduction technologies itself, somatic cell, and nuclear transfer experiments and for derivation of clinical grade pluripotent embryonic stem cells for regenerative medicine. Different activating methods have been tested on human and nonhuman oocytes, with varying degrees of success in terms of parthenote generation rates, embryo development stem cell derivation rates. Success in achieving a standardized artificial activation methodology for human oocytes and the subsequent potential therapeutic gain obtained from these embryos depends mainly on the availability of gametes donated from infertility treatments. This review will focus on the creation of parthenotes from clinically unusable oocytes for derivation and establishment of human parthenogenetic stem cell lines and their potential applications in regenerative medicine.

  3. A perceptual hashing method based on luminance features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Siqing

    2011-02-01

    With the rapid development of multimedia technology, content based searching and image authentication has become strong requirements. Image hashing technique has been proposed to meet them. In this paper, an RST (Rotation, Scaling, and Translation) resistant image hash algorithm is presented. In this method, the geometric distortions are extracted and adjusted by normalization. The features of the image are generated from the high-rank moments of luminance distribution. With the help of the efficient image representation capability of high-rank moments, the robustness and discrimination of proposed method are improved. The experimental results show that the proposed method is better than some existing methods in robustness under rotation attack.

  4. Color Restoration Method Based on Spectral Information Using Normalized Cut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuro Morimoto; Tohru Mihashi; Katsushi Ikeuchi

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for color restoration that can effectively apply accurate color based on spectral information to a segmented image using the normalized cut technique. Using the proposed method, we can obtain a digital still camera image and spectral information in different environments. Also, it is not necessary to estimate reflectance spectra using a spectral database such as other methods. The synthesized images are accurate and high resolution. The proposed method effectively works in making digital archive contents. Some experimental results are demonstrated in this paper.

  5. FUZZY IDENTIFICATION METHOD BASED ON A NEW OBJECTIVE FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A method of fuzzy identification based on a new objective function is proposed. The method could deal with the issue that input variables of a system have an effect on the input space while output variables of the system do not exert an influence on the input space in the proposed objective functions of fuzzy clustering. The method could simultaneously solve the problems about structure identification and parameter estimation; thus it makes the fuzzy model become optimal. Simulation example demonstrates that the method could identify non-linear systems and obviously improve modeling accuracy.

  6. Between Needs and Taboos: Sexuality and Reproductive Health Education for High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Teresa Pakasi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents’ knowledge on sexuality and reproductive health is still limited, although there have been initiatives to provide sexual and reproductive health education as indicated by previous studies. This paper examines reproductive health and sexuality education for adolescents that has been conducted by government and non-government at the high school level. This paper is based on a research using mixed methods of quantitative methods that are supported by qualitative. Quantitative methods are surveys conducted to 918 students and 128 high school teachers and supported by focus group discussions and in-depth interviews in eight cities in Indonesia. Focus group discussions conducted to civil society organizations, teacher forums, and youth groups, while in-depth interviews conducted to local government, parents, school committees, and religious/community leaders. The results show that the reproductive and sexual health education does not match the reality of sexual behavior and sexual risk faced by teenagers because: (1 reproductive health and sexuality education that is given to the high school level is more focused on the biological aspects alone, (2 There is still a notion that sexuality is a taboo to be given at school, (3 the sexuality education tends to emphasize the dangers of premarital sex from the moral and religious point of view, (4 the sexuality education has not looked at the importance of aspects of gender relations and rights of adolescents in adolescent reproductive and sexual health. The construction of adolescent sexuality and the discourse on sexuality education contribute to the content and methods of sexuality and reproductive health education for adolescents.

  7. Screening of Surface-Sterilizing Methods for Radopholus similis and Their Influences on Its Reproduction%相似穿孔线虫消毒方法筛选及其对线虫繁殖量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁莎; 徐春玲; 谢辉; 李静; 俞璐; 张建峰; 袁月

    2014-01-01

    通过比较不同消毒方法对相似穿孔线虫的消毒效果和对其活力的影响,筛选出5种消毒方法,再通过接种胡萝卜愈伤组织繁殖线虫的方法,测定了这些消毒方法对相似穿孔线虫繁殖量的影响。结果表明:供试的5个相似穿孔线虫种群,用硫酸链霉素进行消毒后的雌虫平均繁殖量最大,用次氯酸钠处理后的雌虫平均繁殖量最小,而用氯化汞、洗必泰+氯化汞和硫酸链霉素+氯化汞进行处理后的雌虫平均繁殖量介于上述两者之间,综合消毒效果和对繁殖量的影响2个因素,其中洗必泰+氯化汞是最合适的消毒方法。%By comparing the sterilizing effects of different surface-sterilizing methods and their impacts on the vitality of Radopholus similis ,five were chosen to study their influences on the reproduction of R. si-milis cultured on carrot disks .The results showed that of the 5 similar nematode populations used for sur-face sterilization ,the one sterilized with streptomycin sulfate had the greatest average reproduction amount per female and that sterilized with sodium hypochlorite had the smallest ,and the average reproduction a-mount per female in the populations sterilized with mercuric chloride ,hibitane plus with mercuric chloride or streptomycin sulfate plus mercuric chloride appeared in between .Thus considering the two factors of sterilizing effects and influences on the reproduction amount ,hibitane plus with mercuric chloride is the most appropriate sterilizing method on R. similis .

  8. Interface for Barge-in Free Spoken Dialogue System Based on Sound Field Reproduction and Microphone Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinamoto Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A barge-in free spoken dialogue interface using sound field control and microphone array is proposed. In the conventional spoken dialogue system using an acoustic echo canceller, it is indispensable to estimate a room transfer function, especially when the transfer function is changed by various interferences. However, the estimation is difficult when the user and the system speak simultaneously. To resolve the problem, we propose a sound field control technique to prevent the response sound from being observed. Combined with a microphone array, the proposed method can achieve high elimination performance with no adaptive process. The efficacy of the proposed interface is ascertained in the experiments on the basis of sound elimination and speech recognition.

  9. Orchestration of avian reproductive effort: an integration of the ultimate and proximate bases for flexibility in clutch size, incubation behaviour, and yolk androgen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockman, Keith W; Sharp, Peter J; Schwabl, Hubert

    2006-11-01

    How much effort to expend in any one bout of reproduction is among the most important decisions made by an individual that breeds more than once. According to life-history theory, reproduction is costly, and individuals that invest too much in a given reproductive bout pay with reduced reproductive output in the future. Likewise, investing too little does not maximize reproductive potential. Because reproductive effort relative to output can vary with predictable and unpredictable challenges and opportunities, no single level of reproductive effort maximizes fitness. This leads to the prediction that individuals possessing behavioural mechanisms to buffer challenges and take advantage of opportunities would incur fitness benefits. Here, we review evidence in birds, primarily of altricial species, for the presence of at least two such mechanisms and evidence for and against the seasonal coordination of these mechanisms through seasonal changes in plasma concentrations of the pituitary hormone prolactin. First, the seasonal decline in clutch size of most bird species may partially offset a predictable seasonal decline in the reproductive value of offspring. Second, establishing a developmental sibling-hierarchy among offspring may hedge against unpredictable changes in resource availability and offspring viability or quality, and minimize energy expenditure in raising a brood. The hierarchy may be a product, in part, of the timing of incubation onset relative to clutch completion and the rate of yolk androgen deposition during the laying cycle. Because clutch size should influence the effects of both these traits on the developmental hierarchy, we predicted and describe evidence in some species that females adjust the timing of incubation onset and rate of yolk androgen deposition to match clutch size. Studies on domesticated precocial species reveal an inhibitory effect of the pituitary hormone prolactin on egg laying, suggesting a possible hormonal basis for the

  10. The Efficacy of Assisted Reproduction in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the Impact of Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, S; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Fedder, Jens;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, we analyze the chance of a live birth and the impact of inflammatory bowel disease surgery in women with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) who have undergone assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. METHODS: This is a nationwide cohort study base...

  11. A reservoir skeleton-based multiple point geostatistics method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Traditional stochastic reservoir modeling,including object-based and pixel-based methods,cannot solve the problem of reproducing continuous and curvilinear reservoir objects. The paper first dives into the various stochastic modeling methods and extracts their merits,then proposes the skeleton-based multiple point geostatistics(SMPS) for the fluvial reservoir. The core idea is using the skeletons of reservoir objects to restrict the selection of data patterns. The skeleton-based multiple point geostatistics consists of two steps. First,predicting the channel skeleton(namely,channel centerline) by using the method in object-based modeling. The paper proposes a new method of search window to predict the skeleton. Then forecasting the distributions of reservoir objects using multiple point geostatistics with the restriction of channel skeleton. By the restriction of channel centerline,the selection of data events will be more reasonable and the realization will be achieved more really. The checks by the conceptual model and the real reservoir show that SMPS is much better than Sisim(sequential indicator simulation) ,Snesim(Single Normal Equation Simulation) and Simpat(simulation with patterns) in building the fluvial reservoir model. This new method will contribute to both the theoretical research of stochastic modeling and the oilfield developments of constructing highly precise reservoir geological models.

  12. NOVEL RADAR SIGNAL SORTING METHOD BASED ON GEOMETRIC COVERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万建; 国强; 宋文明

    2013-01-01

    With the increase of complexity of electromagnetic environment and continuous appearance of advanced system radars ,signals received by radar reconnaissance receivers become even more intensive and complex .There-fore ,traditional radar sorting methods based on neural network algorithms and support vector machine (SVM ) cannot process them effectively .Aiming at solving this problem ,a novel radar signal sorting method based on the cloud model theory and the geometric covering algorithm is proposed .By applying the geometric covering algo-rithm to divide input signals into different covering domains based on their distribution characteristics ,the method can overcome a typical problem that it is easy for traditional sorting algorithms to fall into the local extrema due to the use of complex nonlinear equation to describe input signals .The method uses the cloud model to describe the membership degree between signals to be sorted and their covering domains ,thus it avoids the disadvantage that traditional sorting methods based on hard clustering cannot deinterleave the signal samples with overlapped param-eters .Experimental results show that the presented method can effectively sort advanced system radar signals with overlapped parameters in complex electromagnetic environment .

  13. International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies world report: Assisted Reproductive Technology 2008, 2009 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, S; Chambers, G M; de Mouzon, J; Nygren, K G; Zegers-Hochschild, F; Mansour, R; Ishihara, O; Banker, M; Adamson, G D

    2016-07-01

    What were utilization, outcomes and practices in assisted reproductive technology (ART) globally in 2008, 2009 and 2010? Global utilization and effectiveness remained relatively constant despite marked variations among countries, while the rate of single and frozen embryo transfers (FETs) increased with a concomitant slight reduction in multiple birth rates. ART is widely practised in all regions of the world. Monitoring utilization, an approximation of availability and access, as well as effectiveness and safety is an important component of universal access to reproductive health. This is a retrospective, cross-sectional survey on utilization, effectiveness and safety of ART procedures performed globally from 2008 to 2010. Between 58 and 61 countries submitted data from a total of nearly 2500 ART clinics each year. Aggregate country data were processed and analyzed based on forms and methods developed by the International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART). Results are presented at country, regional and global level. For the years 2008, 2009 and 2010, >4 461 309 ART cycles were initiated, resulting in an estimated 1 144 858 babies born. The number of aspirations increased by 6.4% between 2008 and 2010, while FET cycles increased by 27.6%. Globally, ART utilization remained relatively constant at 436 cycles/million in 2008 and 474 cycles/million population in 2010, but with a wide country range of 8-4775 cycles/million population. ICSI remained constant at around 66% of non-donor aspiration cycles. The IVF/ICSI combined delivery rate (DR) per fresh aspiration was 19.8% in 2008; 19.7% in 2009 and 20.0% in 2010, with corresponding DRs for FET of 18.8, 19.7 and 20.7%. In fresh non-donor cycles, single embryo transfer increased from 25.7% in 2008 to 30.0% in 2010, while the average number of embryos transferred fell from 2.1 to 1.9, again with wide regional variation. The rates of twin deliveries following fresh non-donor transfers

  14. A flower image retrieval method based on ROI feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪安祥; 陈刚; 李均利; 池哲儒; 张亶

    2004-01-01

    Flower image retrieval is a very important step for computer-aided plant species recognition. In this paper, we propose an efficient segmentation method based on color clustering and domain knowledge to extract flower regions from flower images. For flower retrieval, we use the color histogram of a flower region to characterize the color features of flower and two shape-based features sets, Centroid-Contour Distance (CCD) and Angle Code Histogram (ACH), to characterize the shape features of a flower contour. Experimental results showed that our flower region extraction method based on color clustering and domain knowledge can produce accurate flower regions. Flower retrieval results on a database of 885 flower images collected from 14 plant species showed that our Region-of-Interest (ROI) based retrieval approach using both color and shape features can perform better than a method based on the global color histogram proposed by Swain and Ballard (1991) and a method based on domain knowledge-driven segmentation and color names proposed by Das et al.(1999).

  15. A flower image retrieval method based on ROI feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪安祥; 陈刚; 李均利; 池哲儒; 张亶

    2004-01-01

    Flower image retrieval is a very important step for computer-aided plant species recognition.In this paper,we propose an efficient segmentation method based on color clustering and domain knowledge to extract flower regions from flower images.For flower retrieval,we use the color histogram of a flower region to characterize the color features of flower and two shape-based features sets,Centroid-Contour Distance(CCD)and Angle Code Histogram(ACH),to characterize the shape features of a flower contour.Experimental results showed that our flower region extraction method based on color clustering and domain knowledge can produce accurate flower regions.Flower retrieval results on a database of 885 flower images collected from 14 plant species showed that our Region-of-Interest(ROD based retrieval approach using both color and shape features can perform better than a method based on the global color histogram proposed by Swain and Ballard(1991)and a method based on domain knowledge-driven segmentation and color names proposed by Das et al.(1999).

  16. A hybrid method for pancreas extraction from CT image based on level set methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huiyan; Tan, Hanqing; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel semiautomatic method to extract the pancreas from abdominal CT images. Traditional level set and region growing methods that request locating initial contour near the final boundary of object have problem of leakage to nearby tissues of pancreas region. The proposed method consists of a customized fast-marching level set method which generates an optimal initial pancreas region to solve the problem that the level set method is sensitive to the initial contour location and a modified distance regularized level set method which extracts accurate pancreas. The novelty in our method is the proper selection and combination of level set methods, furthermore an energy-decrement algorithm and an energy-tune algorithm are proposed to reduce the negative impact of bonding force caused by connected tissue whose intensity is similar with pancreas. As a result, our method overcomes the shortages of oversegmentation at weak boundary and can accurately extract pancreas from CT images. The proposed method is compared to other five state-of-the-art medical image segmentation methods based on a CT image dataset which contains abdominal images from 10 patients. The evaluated results demonstrate that our method outperforms other methods by achieving higher accuracy and making less false segmentation in pancreas extraction.

  17. Dynamics of asexual reproduction in planarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoetz, Eva-Maria; Lincoln, Bryan; Quinodoz, Sofia

    2011-03-01

    Planaria research is experiencing a resurgence due to the development of molecular tools, the Planarian genome project and database resources. Despite the resulting progress in planarian biology research, an extensive study of their physical properties remains to be undertaken. We developed a method to collect a large amount of data on the dynamics of clonal reproduction in the freshwater planarian S.mediterranea. The capability of planarians to regenerate an entire organism from a minuscule body part is based on a homogeneously distributed stem cell population that comprises 25-30% of all cells. Due to this stem cell contingent, planarians can reproduce spontaneously by dividing into a larger head and a smaller tail piece, which then will rebuild the missing body parts, including a central nervous system, within about a week. Time-lapse imaging allows us to characterize the fission process in detail, revealing the stages of the process as well as capturing the nature of the rupture itself. A traction force measurement setup is being developed to allow us to quantify the forces planarians exert on the substrate during reproduction, a macroscopic analog to the Traction Force Microscopy setups used to determine local cellular forces. We are particularly interested in the molecular processes during division and the interplay between tissue mechanics and cell signaling.

  18. Facial Feature Extraction Method Based on Coefficients of Variances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Xi Song; David Zhang; Cai-Kou Chen; Jing-Yu Yang

    2007-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) are two popular feature ex- traction techniques in statistical pattern recognition field. Due to small sample size problem LDA cannot be directly applied to appearance-based face recognition tasks. As a consequence, a lot of LDA-based facial feature extraction techniques are proposed to deal with the problem one after the other. Nullspace Method is one of the most effective methods among them. The Nullspace Method tries to find a set of discriminant vectors which maximize the between-class scatter in the null space of the within-class scatter matrix. The calculation of its discriminant vectors will involve performing singular value decomposition on a high-dimensional matrix. It is generally memory- and time-consuming. Borrowing the key idea in Nullspace method and the concept of coefficient of variance in statistical analysis we present a novel facial feature extraction method, i.e., Discriminant based on Coefficient of Variance (DCV) in this paper. Experimental results performed on the FERET and AR face image databases demonstrate that DCV is a promising technique in comparison with Eigenfaces, Nullspace Method, and other state-of-the-art facial feature extraction methods.

  19. The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Hyunil; Kim, Hye Kwon; Jung, Jung Ho; Choi, Yoo Jung; Kim, Jiho; Um, Chang Gyu; Hyun, Su Bin; Shin, Sungho; Lee, Byeongchun; Jang, Goo; Kang, Bo Kyu; Moon, Hyoung Joon; Song, Dae Sub

    2011-01-01

    ...). Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved...

  20. Physiologie de la reproduction = Physiology of reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Legendre, Marc; JALABERT, B.

    1988-01-01

    Apart from a few species on which specific studies have been conducted (e.g. on the sexual cycle), most research on the physiology of reproduction in African inland waters fishes deals with four families : Cichlidae, Mugilidae, Clariidae and Anguillidae, due to their economic importance in fisheries and fishiculture. A detailed review of date on these four families is given after a brief summary of general knowledge concerning Teleostean fishes

  1. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below are links to publications authored by ASRM and its affiliated societies. Latest Additions: Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility Robotic surgery The Intrauterine Device (IUD): A Long-acting ...

  2. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  3. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  4. Reproductive data for groundfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ROCKFISH database houses data from rockfish species collected by the SWFSC FED along the California coast as part of a reproductive study originating in the...

  5. Testability integrated evaluation method based on testability virtual test data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guanjun; Zhao Chenxu; Qiu Jing; Zhang Yong

    2014-01-01

    Testability virtual test is a new test method for testability verification, which has the advantages such as low cost, few restrictions and large sample of test data. It can be used to make up the deficiency of testability physical test. In order to take the advantage of testability virtual test data effectively and to improve the accuracy of testability evaluation, a testability integrated eval-uation method is proposed in this paper based on testability virtual test data. Considering the char-acteristic of testability virtual test data, the credibility analysis method for testability virtual test data is studied firstly. Then the integrated calculation method is proposed fusing the testability vir-tual and physical test data. Finally, certain helicopter heading and attitude system is presented to demonstrate the proposed method. The results show that the testability integrated evaluation method is feasible and effective.

  6. A Method of Image Symmetry Detection Based on Phase Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun; YANG Zhaoxuan; FENG Dengchao

    2005-01-01

    Traditional methods for detecting symmetry in image suffer greatly from the contrast of image and noise, and they all require some preprocessing. This paper presents a new method of image symmetry detection. This method detects symmetry with phase information utilizing logGabor wavelets, because phase information is stable and significant, while symmetric points produce patterns easy to be recognised and confirmable in local phase. Phase method does not require any preprocessing, and its result is accurate or invariant to contrast, rotation and illumination conditions. This method can detect mirror symmetry, rotating symmetry and curve symmetry at one time. Results of experiment show that, compared with pivotal element algorithm based on intensity information, phase method is more accurate and robust.

  7. Data from the PALS (Pregnancy and Lifestyle Study, a Community-Based Study of Lifestyle on Fertility and Reproductive Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Helen Ford

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the possible effects of lifestyle on fertility and pregnancy outcome, the PALS (Pregnancy and Lifestyle study collected extensive data on a broad range of parameters termed ‘lifestyle’ from couples who were planning a natural (non-assisted pregnancy in the coming months. There was no intervention. Participants were recruited over a six year period from 1988 to 1993 in response to extensive promotion in the local media. Male and female partners were interviewed independently and all interviews were conducted prospectively before the couple attempted to conceive. The result of each month of ‘trying’ was recorded and pregnancies were confirmed by urine tests and by ultrasound. The length of gestation of each pregnancy was recorded and pregnancies at term were classified with respect to weight. Multiple pregnancies and/or babies with congenital abnormalities have been excluded from the dataset. The data is stored as an xls file and each variable has a codename. For each of 582 couples there are 355 variables, the codes for which are described in a separate metadata file. The questionnaire based data includes information about households, occupation, chemical exposures at work and home, diet, smoking, alcohol use, hobbies, exercise and health. Recorded observations include monthly pregnancy tests and pregnancy outcomes.

  8. Is religiosity a barrier to sexual and reproductive health? Results from a population-based study of young Croatian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzek, Ivan; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Božičević, Ivana

    2012-12-01

    Following the demise of socialism in 1989, religious identification substantially increased in most countries of Central, East, and Southeast Europe. Considering that there is evidence that religiosity is associated with reduced sexual risk taking among young people, this study explored associations between religiosity--assessed at three different levels (religious upbringing, personal religiosity, and social network religiosity)--and sexual risks among young Croatian adults. In addition, we examined whether religiosity predicted chlamydial infection among women and men aged 18-25. The data were collected in a national probability survey carried out in 2010 (n = 1,005). Overall, the effects of religiosity were sporadic, present primarily among women, and of small size. This lack of a sizeable impact of religiosity on young adults' sexuality was likely related to a particular type of religiosity, characterized by individualized morality, found among young people in the country. Although Croatia seems to be one of the most religious countries in Europe, our findings suggest that promoting religious morality--as recently attempted by an abstinence-based educational program--may not be an efficient tool in reducing sexual risks.

  9. Prevalence of water pipe use and its correlates in Iranian women of reproductive age in Tehran: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of water pipe smoking and its associated sociodemographic factors among Iranian women of reproductive age in Tehran. This was a population-based cross-sectional study of 1,359 Iranian women aged 15-49 years. The multistage random cluster technique was used to obtain the sample. Questionnaire-based interviews with questions relating to water pipe smoking and sociodemographic variables were used to collect the data. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyse the relationships between the dependent variable (water pipe smoking) and the independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics). The prevalence of water pipe smoking was 6.3% among Iranian women. Water pipe smoking was more likely in the age range of 15-24 years [odds ratio (OR) = 4.8, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 2.7-8.6] compared to the age range of 35 years or older, in women with a university education (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-3.0) compared to women with a high-school diploma or lower, and in women with an average crowding index score (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.1-10.6) compared to women living in small families. The findings of this study show that Iranian women with a university education and the younger age group (15-24 years) were at most risk of water pipe smoking. The findings of this study about associated factors may contribute to the development of efficient health promotion programmes for the prevention and cessation of water pipe smoking. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Araújo Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI, bacterial vaginosis (BV, and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR for human papillomavirus (HPV, ligase chain reaction (LCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592. The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7, chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6, trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1, gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6, syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1, and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6 and 12.5% (10.0-15.5, respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic.

  11. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective: This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women’s reproductive health in develo...

  12. PPA BASED PREDICTION-CORRECTION METHODS FOR MONOTONE VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bingsheng; Jiang Jianlin; Qian Maijian; Xu Ya

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the proximal point algorithm (PPA) based predictioncorrection (PC) methods for monotone variational inequalities. Each iteration of these methods consists of a prediction and a correction. The predictors are produced by inexact PPA steps. The new iterates are then updated by a correction using the PPA formula. We present two profit functions which serve two purposes: First we show that the profit functions are tight lower bounds of the improvements obtained in each iteration. Based on this conclusion we obtain the convergence inexactness restrictions for the prediction step. Second we show that the profit functions are quadratically dependent upon the step lengths, thus the optimal step lengths are obtained in the correction step. In the last part of the paper we compare the strengths of different methods based on their inexactness restrictions.

  13. International Conference on Robust Rank-Based and Nonparametric Methods

    CERN Document Server

    McKean, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The contributors to this volume include many of the distinguished researchers in this area. Many of these scholars have collaborated with Joseph McKean to develop underlying theory for these methods, obtain small sample corrections, and develop efficient algorithms for their computation. The papers cover the scope of the area, including robust nonparametric rank-based procedures through Bayesian and big data rank-based analyses. Areas of application include biostatistics and spatial areas. Over the last 30 years, robust rank-based and nonparametric methods have developed considerably. These procedures generalize traditional Wilcoxon-type methods for one- and two-sample location problems. Research into these procedures has culminated in complete analyses for many of the models used in practice including linear, generalized linear, mixed, and nonlinear models. Settings are both multivariate and univariate. With the development of R packages in these areas, computation of these procedures is easily shared with r...

  14. Three Methods for Occupation Coding Based on Statistical Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gweon Hyukjun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Occupation coding, an important task in official statistics, refers to coding a respondent’s text answer into one of many hundreds of occupation codes. To date, occupation coding is still at least partially conducted manually, at great expense. We propose three methods for automatic coding: combining separate models for the detailed occupation codes and for aggregate occupation codes, a hybrid method that combines a duplicate-based approach with a statistical learning algorithm, and a modified nearest neighbor approach. Using data from the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS, we show that the proposed methods improve on both the coding accuracy of the underlying statistical learning algorithm and the coding accuracy of duplicates where duplicates exist. Further, we find defining duplicates based on ngram variables (a concept from text mining is preferable to one based on exact string matches.

  15. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  16. Robust Speech Recognition Method Based on Discriminative Environment Feature Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jiqing; GAO Wen

    2001-01-01

    It is an effective approach to learn the influence of environmental parameters,such as additive noise and channel distortions, from training data for robust speech recognition.Most of the previous methods are based on maximum likelihood estimation criterion. However,these methods do not lead to a minimum error rate result. In this paper, a novel discrimina-tive learning method of environmental parameters, which is based on Minimum ClassificationError (MCE) criterion, is proposed. In the method, a simple classifier and the Generalized Probabilistic Descent (GPD) algorithm are adopted to iteratively learn the environmental parameters. Consequently, the clean speech features are estimated from the noisy speech features with the estimated environmental parameters, and then the estimations of clean speech features are utilized in the back-end HMM classifier. Experiments show that the best error rate reduction of 32.1% is obtained, tested on a task of 18 isolated confusion Korean words, relative to a conventional HMM system.

  17. Image Mosaic Method Based on SIFT Features of Line Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel image mosaic method based on SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform feature of line segment, aiming to resolve incident scaling, rotation, changes in lighting condition, and so on between two images in the panoramic image mosaic process. This method firstly uses Harris corner detection operator to detect key points. Secondly, it constructs directed line segments, describes them with SIFT feature, and matches those directed segments to acquire rough point matching. Finally, Ransac method is used to eliminate wrong pairs in order to accomplish image mosaic. The results from experiment based on four pairs of images show that our method has strong robustness for resolution, lighting, rotation, and scaling.

  18. Analysis of Dynamic Modeling Method Based on Boundary Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Sheng Gan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study an improved dynamic modeling method based on a Boundary Element Method (BEM. The dynamic model was composed of the elements such as the beam element, plate element, joint element, lumped mass and spring element by the BEM. An improved dynamic model of a machine structure was established based on plate-beam element system mainly. As a result, the dynamic characteristics of a machine structure were analyzed and the comparison of computational results and experimental’s showed the modeling method was effective. The analyses indicate that the introduced method inaugurates a good way for analyzing dynamic characteristics of a machine structure efficiently.

  19. Simple noise-reduction method based on nonlinear forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, James P. L.

    2017-03-01

    Nonparametric detrending or noise reduction methods are often employed to separate trends from noisy time series when no satisfactory models exist to fit the data. However, conventional noise reduction methods depend on subjective choices of smoothing parameters. Here we present a simple multivariate noise reduction method based on available nonlinear forecasting techniques. These are in turn based on state-space reconstruction for which a strong theoretical justification exists for their use in nonparametric forecasting. The noise reduction method presented here is conceptually similar to Schreiber's noise reduction method using state-space reconstruction. However, we show that Schreiber's method has a minor flaw that can be overcome with forecasting. Furthermore, our method contains a simple but nontrivial extension to multivariate time series. We apply the method to multivariate time series generated from the Van der Pol oscillator, the Lorenz equations, the Hindmarsh-Rose model of neuronal spiking activity, and to two other univariate real-world data sets. It is demonstrated that noise reduction heuristics can be objectively optimized with in-sample forecasting errors that correlate well with actual noise reduction errors.

  20. Asexual reproduction in holothurians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmatov, Igor Yu

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed.

  1. Local coding based matching kernel method for image classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Song

    Full Text Available This paper mainly focuses on how to effectively and efficiently measure visual similarity for local feature based representation. Among existing methods, metrics based on Bag of Visual Word (BoV techniques are efficient and conceptually simple, at the expense of effectiveness. By contrast, kernel based metrics are more effective, but at the cost of greater computational complexity and increased storage requirements. We show that a unified visual matching framework can be developed to encompass both BoV and kernel based metrics, in which local kernel plays an important role between feature pairs or between features and their reconstruction. Generally, local kernels are defined using Euclidean distance or its derivatives, based either explicitly or implicitly on an assumption of Gaussian noise. However, local features such as SIFT and HoG often follow a heavy-tailed distribution which tends to undermine the motivation behind Euclidean metrics. Motivated by recent advances in feature coding techniques, a novel efficient local coding based matching kernel (LCMK method is proposed. This exploits the manifold structures in Hilbert space derived from local kernels. The proposed method combines advantages of both BoV and kernel based metrics, and achieves a linear computational complexity. This enables efficient and scalable visual matching to be performed on large scale image sets. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed LCMK method, we conduct extensive experiments with widely used benchmark datasets, including 15-Scenes, Caltech101/256, PASCAL VOC 2007 and 2011 datasets. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the relatively efficient LCMK method.

  2. Singularity-sensitive gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment methods for urban hydrological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-P. Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment techniques have been widely used to improve the applicability of radar rainfall estimates to large-scale hydrological modelling. However, their use for urban hydrological applications is limited as they were mostly developed based upon Gaussian approximations and therefore tend to smooth off so-called "singularities" (features of a non-Gaussian field that can be observed in the fine-scale rainfall structure. Overlooking the singularities could be critical, given that their distribution is highly consistent with that of local extreme magnitudes. This deficiency may cause large errors in the subsequent urban hydrological modelling. To address this limitation and improve the applicability of adjustment techniques at urban scales, a method is proposed herein which incorporates a local singularity analysis into existing adjustment techniques and allows the preservation of the singularity structures throughout the adjustment process. In this paper the proposed singularity analysis is incorporated into the Bayesian merging technique and the performance of the resulting singularity-sensitive method is compared with that of the original Bayesian (non singularity-sensitive technique and the commonly-used mean field bias adjustment. This test is conducted using as case study four storm events observed in the Portobello catchment (53 km2 (Edinburgh, UK during 2011 and for which radar estimates, dense rain gauge and sewer flow records, as well as a recently-calibrated urban drainage model were available. The results suggest that, in general, the proposed singularity-sensitive method can effectively preserve the non-normality in local rainfall structure, while retaining the ability of the original adjustment techniques to generate nearly unbiased estimates. Moreover, the ability of the singularity-sensitive technique to preserve the non-normality in rainfall estimates often leads to better reproduction of the urban

  3. Supplier selection based on multi-criterial AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Pócsová

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case-study of supplier selection based on multi-criterial Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method.It is demonstrated that using adequate mathematical method can bring us “unprejudiced” conclusion, even if the alternatives (suppliercompanies are very similar in given selection-criteria. The result is the best possible supplier company from the viewpoint of chosen criteriaand the price of the product.

  4. Propagator-based methods for recursive subspace model identification

    OpenAIRE

    Mercère, Guillaume; Bako, Laurent; Lecoeuche, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The problem of the online identification of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) state-space models in the framework of discrete-time subspace methods is considered in this paper. Several algorithms, based on a recursive formulation of the MIMO output error state-space (MOESP) identification class, are developed. The main goals of the proposed methods are to circumvent the huge complexity of eigenvalues or singular values decomposition techniques used by the offline algorit...

  5. Hybrid Fundamental Solution Based Finite Element Method: Theory and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Changyong Cao; Qing-Hua Qin

    2015-01-01

    An overview on the development of hybrid fundamental solution based finite element method (HFS-FEM) and its application in engineering problems is presented in this paper. The framework and formulations of HFS-FEM for potential problem, plane elasticity, three-dimensional elasticity, thermoelasticity, anisotropic elasticity, and plane piezoelectricity are presented. In this method, two independent assumed fields (intraelement filed and auxiliary frame field) are employed. The formulations for...

  6. A lattice Boltzmann method based on generalized polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, Rodrigo C V; Doria, Mauro M

    2015-01-01

    We propose a lattice Boltzmann method based on the expansion of the equilibrium distribution function in powers of generalized orthonormal polynomials which are weighted by the equilibrium distribution function itself. The D-dimensional Euclidean space Hermite polynomials correspond to the particular weight of a gaussian function. The proposed polynomials give a general method to obtain an expansion of the equilibrium distribution function in powers of the ratio between the displacement velocity and the local scale velocity of the fluid.

  7. A robust tolerance design method based on process capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹衍龙; 杨将新; 吴昭同; 吴立群

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a method for robust tolerance design in terms of Process Capability Indices (PCI) . The component tolerance and the suitable manufacturing processes can be selected based on the real manufacturing context. The robustness of design feasibility under the effect of uncertainties is also discussed. A comparison between the results obtained by the proposed model and other methods indicates that robust and reliable tolerance can be obtained.

  8. A robust tolerance design method based on process capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yan-long(曹衍龙); YANG Jiang-xin(杨将新); WU Zhao-tong(吴昭同); WU Li-qun(吴立群)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a method for robust tolerance design in terms of Process Capability Indices (PCI). The component tolerance and the suitable manufacturing processes can be selected based on the real manufacturing context. The robustness of design feasibility under the effect of uncertainties is also discussed. A comparison between the results obtained by the proposed model and other methods indicates that robust and reliable tolerance can be obtained.

  9. Progress of DNA-based Methods for Species Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhen; ZHANG Su-hua; WANG Zheng; BIAN Ying-nan; LI Cheng-tao

    2015-01-01

    Species identification of biological samples is widely used in such fields as forensic science and food industry. A variety of accurate and reliable methods have been developed in recent years. The cur-rent reviewshows common target genes and screening criteria suitable for species identification, and de-scribed various DNA-based molecular biology methods about species identification. Additionally, it dis-cusses the future development of species identification combined with real-time PCR and sequencing technologies.

  10. New de-interlacing method based on adaptive weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建伟; 古雪丰; 王朋; 刘重庆

    2004-01-01

    De-interlacing is very important when converting interlaced pictures to progressive pictures in format conversion.Multi-formats digital broadcast and progressive display requires the de-interlacing technique. An adaptive weight deinterlacing method is proposed. It combines motion compensation technique with directional-based spatio-temporal filter efficiently. Experiment results indicate that the method can keep edge continuity and sharpness effectively, reduce the artifacts in motion areas, and shows better visual performance when the estimated motion vectors are inaccurate.

  11. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  12. Genomic comparisons of Brucella spp. and closely related bacteria using base compositional and proteome based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohlin, Jon; Snipen, Lars; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2010-01-01

    , genomic codon and amino acid frequencies based comparisons) and proteomes (all-against-all BLAST protein comparisons and pan-genomic analyses). RESULTS: We found that the oligonucleotide based methods gave different results compared to that of the proteome based methods. Differences were also found...... than proteome comparisons between species in genus Brucella and genus Ochrobactrum. Pan-genomic analyses indicated that uptake of DNA from outside genus Brucella appears to be limited. CONCLUSIONS: While both the proteome based methods and the Markov chain based genomic signatures were able to reflect...

  13. IDEF method-based simulation model design and development framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Jeong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an IDEF method-based integrated framework for a business process simulation model to reduce the model development time by increasing the communication and knowledge reusability during a simulation project. In this framework, simulation requirements are collected by a function modeling method (IDEF0 and a process modeling method (IDEF3. Based on these requirements, a common data model is constructed using the IDEF1X method. From this reusable data model, multiple simulation models are automatically generated using a database-driven simulation model development approach. The framework is claimed to help both requirement collection and experimentation phases during a simulation project by improving system knowledge, model reusability, and maintainability through the systematic use of three descriptive IDEF methods and the features of the relational database technologies. A complex semiconductor fabrication case study was used as a testbed to evaluate and illustrate the concepts and the framework. Two different simulation software products were used to develop and control the semiconductor model from the same knowledge base. The case study empirically showed that this framework could help improve the simulation project processes by using IDEF-based descriptive models and the relational database technology. Authors also concluded that this framework could be easily applied to other analytical model generation by separating the logic from the data.

  14. Genetic variation of male reproductive success in a laboratory population of Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voordouw Maarten J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For Anopheline mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria, genetic variation in male reproductive success can have important consequences for any control strategy based on the release of transgenic or sterile males. Methods A quantitative genetics approach was used to test whether there was a genetic component to variation in male reproductive success in a laboratory population of Anopheles gambiae. Swarms of full sibling brothers were mated with a fixed number of females and their reproductive success was measured as (1 proportion of ovipositing females, (2 proportion of ovipositing females that produced larvae, (3 proportion of females that produced larvae, (4 number of eggs laid per female, (5 number of larvae per ovipositing female and (6 number of larvae per female. Results The proportion of ovipositing females (trait 1 and the proportion of ovipositing females that produced larvae (trait 2 differed among full sib families, suggesting a genetic basis of mating success. In contrast, the other measures of male reproductive success showed little variation due to the full sib families, as their variation are probably mostly due to differences among females. While age at emergence and wing length of the males were also heritable, they were not associated with reproductive success. Larger females produced more eggs, but males did not prefer such partners. Conclusion The first study to quantify genetic variation for male reproductive success in A. gambiae found that while the initial stages of male reproduction (i.e. the proportion of ovipositing females and the proportion of ovipositing females that produced larvae had a genetic basis, the overall reproductive success (i.e. the mean number of larvae per female did not.

  15. The Natural Reproduction and Economic Reproduction of Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the perspective of Marx’s materialism,the thesis expounds the natural reproduction and economic reproduction of agriculture,and analyzes the relationship between the two production processes.The natural reproduction of agriculture,the contradicted unification of agricultural organism and natural environment,conforms to natural law and has the specific objective environmental requirements.The economic reproduction of agriculture is the process of people’s production and labor which takes keeping the life vitality of agricultural organism as objective,including the reproduction of agricultural productivity and the reproduction of agricultural production relations.The agricultural productivity comprises social productivity and natural productivity.The process of agricultural economic reproduction must conform to the objective natural law and economic law.The relationship of agricultural natural reproduction and economic reproduction is that the agricultural natural reproduction process is intertwined with economic reproduction process;the variation trend of agricultural natural reproduction ability and economic reproduction ability is identical;the agricultural economic reproduction dominates over the natural reproduction.

  16. Potential Energy Surfaces Using Algebraic Methods Based on Unitary Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lemus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the recent advances to estimate the potential energy surfaces through algebraic methods based on the unitary groups used to describe the molecular vibrational degrees of freedom. The basic idea is to introduce the unitary group approach in the context of the traditional approach, where the Hamiltonian is expanded in terms of coordinates and momenta. In the presentation of this paper, several representative molecular systems that permit to illustrate both the different algebraic approaches as well as the usual problems encountered in the vibrational description in terms of internal coordinates are presented. Methods based on coherent states are also discussed.

  17. Research of Stamp Forming Simulation Based on Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xaio-ping; XU Lian

    2008-01-01

    We point out that the finite element method offers a greta functional improvement for analyzing the stamp forming process of an automobile panel. Using the finite element theory and the simulation method of sheet stamping forming, the element model of sheet forming is built based on software HyperMesh,and the simulation of the product's sheet forming process is analyzed based on software Dynaform. A series of simulation results are obtained. It is clear that the simulation results from the theoretical basis for the product's die design and are useful for selecting process parameters.

  18. CONSTRUCTION METHOD OF KNOWLEDGE MAP BASED ON DESIGN PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Hai; JIANG Zuhua

    2007-01-01

    Due to the increasing amount and complexity of knowledge in product design, the knowledge map based on design process is presented as a tool to reuse product design process, promote the product design knowledge sharing. The relationship between design task flow and knowledge flow is discussed; A knowledge organizing method based on design task decomposition and a visualization method to support the knowledge retrieving and sharing in product design are proposed. And a knowledge map system to manage the knowledge in product design process is built with Visual C++ and SVG. Finally, a brief case study is provided to illustrate the construction and application of knowledge map in fuel pump design.

  19. A Robust Digital Watermark Extracting Method Based on Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOLihua; YANGShutang; LIJianhua

    2003-01-01

    Since watermark removal software, such as StirMark, has succeeded in washing watermarks away for most of the known watermarking systems, it is necessary to improve the robustness of watermarking systems. A watermark extracting method based on the error Back propagation (BP) neural network is presented in this paper, which can efficiently improve the robustness of watermarking systems. Experiments show that even if the watermarking systems are attacked by the StirMark software, the extracting method based on neural network can still efficiently extract the whole watermark information.

  20. Method of infrared image enhancement based on histogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang; YAN Jie

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the problem in infrared image enhancement, a new method is given based on histogram. Using the gray character- istics of target, the upper-bouod threshold is selected adaptively and the histogram is processed by the threshold. After choosing the gray transform function based on the gray level distribution of image, the gray transformation is done during histogram equalization. Finally, the enhanced image is obtained. Compared with histogram equalization (HE), histogram double equalization (HDE) and plateau histogram equalization (PE), the simulation results demonstrate that the image enhancement effect of this method has obvious superiority. At the same time, its operation speed is fast and real-time ability is excellent.

  1. Designing fuzzy inference system based on improved gradient descent method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Liquan; Shao Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of sampling data influences completeness of rule base so that extrapolating missing rules is very difficult. Based on data mining, a self-learning method is developed for identifying fuzzy model and extrapolating missing rules, by means of confidence measure and the improved gradient descent method. The proposed approach can not only identify fuzzy model, update its parameters and determine optimal output fuzzy sets simultaneously, but also resolve the uncontrollable problem led by the regions that data do not cover. The simulation results show the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed approach with the classical truck backer-upper control problem verifying.

  2. How to Reach Evidence-Based Usability Evaluation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Peute, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses how and why to build evidence-based knowledge on usability evaluation methods. At each step of building evidence, requisites and difficulties to achieve it are highlighted. Specifically, the paper presents how usability evaluation studies should be designed to allow capitalizing evidence. Reciprocally, it presents how evidence-based usability knowledge will help improve usability practice. Finally, it underlines that evaluation and evidence participate in a virtuous circle that will help improve scientific knowledge and evaluation practice.

  3. Spatial processing in color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yongyi; Stark, Henry

    2005-08-01

    We consider the reproduction of color subject to material and neighborhood constraints. By 'material constraints,' we mean any constraints that are applied to the amount of ink, lights, voltages, and currents that are used in the generation of color. In the first instance we consider the problem of reproducing a target color constrained by maximum additive color signals, such as in the phosphorescence process in a cathode ray tube. In the second instance we consider the more difficult problem of reproducing color subject to constraints on the maximum primary color variations in a (spatial) neighborhood. We introduce the idea of adjacent color variance (ACV) and then attempt to reproduce colors subject to an upper bound on the ACV. An algorithm that is suitable for this task is the method of vector space projections (VSP). In order to use VSP for constrained color reproduction, we use a novel approach to linearize nonlinear CIE-Lab space constraints. Experimental results are furnished that demonstrate that using the ACV as a bound helps to reduce reproduction artifacts in a color image.

  4. Improved method for pulse sorting based on PRI transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chunhui; Cao, Junqing; Fu, Yusheng; Barner, Kenneth E.

    2014-06-01

    To solve the problem of pulse sorting in complex electromagnetic environment, we propose an improved method for pulse sorting through in-depth analysis of the PRI transform algorithm principle and the advantages and disadvantages in this paper. The method is based on the traditional PRI transform algorithm, using spectral analysis of PRI transform spectrum to estimate the PRI centre value of jitter signal. Simulation results indicate that, the improved sorting method overcome the shortcomings of the traditional PRI jitter separation algorithm which cannot effectively sort jitter pulse sequence, in addition to the advantages of simple and accurate.

  5. Optimal Route Selection Method Based on Vague Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Rui; DU Li min; WANG Chun

    2015-01-01

    Optimal route selection is an important function of vehicle trac flow guidance system. Its core is to determine the index weight for measuring the route merits and to determine the evaluation method for selecting route. In this paper, subjective weighting method which relies on driver preference is used to determine the weight and the paper proposes the multi-criteria weighted decision method based on vague sets for selecting the optimal route. Examples show that, the usage of vague sets to describe route index value can provide more decision-making information for route selection.

  6. A online credit evaluation method based on AHP and SPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingtao; Zhang, Ying

    2009-07-01

    Online credit evaluation is the foundation for the establishment of trust and for the management of risk between buyers and sellers in e-commerce. In this paper, a new credit evaluation method based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the set pair analysis (SPA) is presented to determine the credibility of the electronic commerce participants. It solves some of the drawbacks found in classical credit evaluation methods and broadens the scope of current approaches. Both qualitative and quantitative indicators are considered in the proposed method, then a overall credit score is achieved from the optimal perspective. In the end, a case analysis of China Garment Network is provided for illustrative purposes.

  7. A method for density estimation based on expectation identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Joaquín; Loyola, Claudia; Loguercio, Humberto; Davis, Sergio

    2017-06-01

    We present a simple and direct method for non-parametric estimation of a one-dimensional probability density, based on the application of the recent conjugate variables theorem. The method expands the logarithm of the probability density ln P(x|I) in terms of a complete basis and numerically solves for the coefficients of the expansion using a linear system of equations. No Monte Carlo sampling is needed. We present preliminary results that show the practical usefulness of the method for modeling statistical data.

  8. An Improved Minimum Distance Method Based on Artificial Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    MDM (minimum distance method) is a very popular algorithm in state recognition. But it has a presupposition, that is, the distance within one class must be shorter enough than the distance between classes. When this presupposition is not satisfied, the method is no longer valid. In order to overcome the shortcomings of MDM, an improved mi nimum distance method (IMDM) based on ANN (artificial neural networks) is presented. The simulation results demonstrate that IMDM has two advantages, that is, the rate of recognition is faster and the accuracy of recognition is higher compared with MDM.

  9. A Method of Attribute Reduction Based on Rough Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang-biao; SONG Jian-ping

    2005-01-01

    The logging attribute optimization is an important task in the well-logging interpretation.A method of attribute reduction is presented based on rough set. Firstly, the core information of the sample by a general reductive method is determined. Then, the significance of dispensable attribute in the reduction-table is calculated. Finally, the minimum relative reduction set is achieved. The typical calculation and quantitative computation of reservoir parameter in oil logging show that the method of attribute reduction is greatly effective and feasible in logging interpretation.

  10. A Design Method of Business Application Framework Based on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses design and implementation method of BusinessAppl ication Framework based on software patterns, and then presents MVC pattern of a rchitecture and the method of dynamical update promulgation for Business Applica tion Framework. We discuss adaptation of Abstract Factory for the kern el functionality of Business Application Framework, such as data creation, manip ulation, composition, etc. It also presents class model and its class st ructure of Abstract Factory pattern. Finally, we briefly discuss the update, mod ification, and reconstruction method of Business Application Framework.

  11. A Clustering Method Based on the Maximum Entropy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Aldana-Bobadilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is an unsupervised process to determine which unlabeled objects in a set share interesting properties. The objects are grouped into k subsets (clusters whose elements optimize a proximity measure. Methods based on information theory have proven to be feasible alternatives. They are based on the assumption that a cluster is one subset with the minimal possible degree of “disorder”. They attempt to minimize the entropy of each cluster. We propose a clustering method based on the maximum entropy principle. Such a method explores the space of all possible probability distributions of the data to find one that maximizes the entropy subject to extra conditions based on prior information about the clusters. The prior information is based on the assumption that the elements of a cluster are “similar” to each other in accordance with some statistical measure. As a consequence of such a principle, those distributions of high entropy that satisfy the conditions are favored over others. Searching the space to find the optimal distribution of object in the clusters represents a hard combinatorial problem, which disallows the use of traditional optimization techniques. Genetic algorithms are a good alternative to solve this problem. We benchmark our method relative to the best theoretical performance, which is given by the Bayes classifier when data are normally distributed, and a multilayer perceptron network, which offers the best practical performance when data are not normal. In general, a supervised classification method will outperform a non-supervised one, since, in the first case, the elements of the classes are known a priori. In what follows, we show that our method’s effectiveness is comparable to a supervised one. This clearly exhibits the superiority of our method.

  12. Reproductive factors and Parkinson's disease risk in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greene, N; Lassen, C F; Rugbjerg, K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parkinson's disease is more common in men than women by a ratio of about 1.5:1 and yet there is no consensus to date as to whether female reproductive factors including hormone use affect Parkinson's disease risk. Our objective was to examine the relationship between...... and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for smoking, caffeine and alcohol use, education, age, and family Parkinson's disease history, inverse associations between Parkinson's disease and early menarche (first period at ≤11 years), oral contraceptives, high parity (≥4 children) and bilateral...... Parkinson's disease and female reproductive factors in the largest population-based Parkinson's disease case-control study to date. METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-three female Parkinson's disease cases diagnosed between 1996 and 2009 were selected from the Danish National Hospital Register, diagnoses...

  13. Comparative study, based on metamodels, of methods for controlling performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitouche Samia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing evolution of technology and human behavior puts the company in an uncertain and evolving environment. The company must be responsive and even proactive; therefore, control performance becomes increasingly difficult. Choosing the best method of ensuring control by the management policy of the company and its strategy is also a decision problem. The aim of this paper is the comparative study of three methods: the Balanced Scorecard, GIMSI and SKANDIAs NAVIGATOR for choosing the best method for ensuring the orderly following the policy of the company while maintaining its durability. Our work is divided into three parts. We firstly proposed original structural and kinetic metamodels for the three methods that allow an overall view of a method. Secondly, based on the three metamodels, we have drawn a generic comparison to analyze completeness of the method. Thirdly, we performed a restrictive comparison based on a restrictive set of criteria related to the same aspect example organizational learning, which is one of the bricks of knowledge management for a reconciliation to a proactive organization in an environment disturbed and uncertain, and the urgent needs. We note that we applied the three methods are applied in our precedent works. [1][23

  14. A Localization Method for Multistatic SAR Based on Convex Optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuqi Zhong

    Full Text Available In traditional localization methods for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR, the bistatic range sum (BRS estimation and Doppler centroid estimation (DCE are needed for the calculation of target localization. However, the DCE error greatly influences the localization accuracy. In this paper, a localization method for multistatic SAR based on convex optimization without DCE is investigated and the influence of BRS estimation error on localization accuracy is analysed. Firstly, by using the information of each transmitter and receiver (T/R pair and the target in SAR image, the model functions of T/R pairs are constructed. Each model function's maximum is on the circumference of the ellipse which is the iso-range for its model function's T/R pair. Secondly, the target function whose maximum is located at the position of the target is obtained by adding all model functions. Thirdly, the target function is optimized based on gradient descent method to obtain the position of the target. During the iteration process, principal component analysis is implemented to guarantee the accuracy of the method and improve the computational efficiency. The proposed method only utilizes BRSs of a target in several focused images from multistatic SAR. Therefore, compared with traditional localization methods for SAR, the proposed method greatly improves the localization accuracy. The effectivity of the localization approach is validated by simulation experiment.

  15. A Localization Method for Multistatic SAR Based on Convex Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xuqi; Wu, Junjie; Yang, Jianyu; Sun, Zhichao; Huang, Yuling; Li, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    In traditional localization methods for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), the bistatic range sum (BRS) estimation and Doppler centroid estimation (DCE) are needed for the calculation of target localization. However, the DCE error greatly influences the localization accuracy. In this paper, a localization method for multistatic SAR based on convex optimization without DCE is investigated and the influence of BRS estimation error on localization accuracy is analysed. Firstly, by using the information of each transmitter and receiver (T/R) pair and the target in SAR image, the model functions of T/R pairs are constructed. Each model function's maximum is on the circumference of the ellipse which is the iso-range for its model function's T/R pair. Secondly, the target function whose maximum is located at the position of the target is obtained by adding all model functions. Thirdly, the target function is optimized based on gradient descent method to obtain the position of the target. During the iteration process, principal component analysis is implemented to guarantee the accuracy of the method and improve the computational efficiency. The proposed method only utilizes BRSs of a target in several focused images from multistatic SAR. Therefore, compared with traditional localization methods for SAR, the proposed method greatly improves the localization accuracy. The effectivity of the localization approach is validated by simulation experiment.

  16. Study on UPF Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H J [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Pang, Y F [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Qiu, Z M [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Chen, M [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Unity power factor (UPF) harmonic current detection method applied to active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The intention of this method is to make nonlinear loads and active power filter in parallel to be an equivalent resistance. So after compensation, source current is sinusoidal, and has the same shape of source voltage. Meanwhile, there is no harmonic in source current, and the power factor becomes one. The mathematic model of proposed method and the optimum project for equivalent low pass filter in measurement are presented. Finally, the proposed detection method applied to a shunt active power filter experimental prototype based on DSP TMS320F2812 is developed. Simulation and experiment results indicate the method is simple and easy to implement, and can obtain the real-time calculation of harmonic current exactly.

  17. [Segmentation Method for Liver Organ Based on Image Sequence Context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiyun; Fang, Bin; Wang, Yi; Zhong, Nanchang

    2015-10-01

    In view of the problems of more artificial interventions and segmentation defects in existing two-dimensional segmentation methods and abnormal liver segmentation errors in three-dimensional segmentation methods, this paper presents a semi-automatic liver organ segmentation method based on the image sequence context. The method takes advantage of the existing similarity between the image sequence contexts of the prior knowledge of liver organs, and combines region growing and level set method to carry out semi-automatic segmentation of livers, along with the aid of a small amount of manual intervention to deal with liver mutation situations. The experiment results showed that the liver segmentation algorithm presented in this paper had a high precision, and a good segmentation effect on livers which have greater variability, and can meet clinical application demands quite well.

  18. Nonlinear fault diagnosis method based on kernel principal component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Weiwu; Zhang Chunkai; Shao Huihe

    2005-01-01

    To ensure the system run under working order, detection and diagnosis of faults play an important role in industrial process. This paper proposed a nonlinear fault diagnosis method based on kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). In proposed method, using essential information of nonlinear system extracted by KPCA, we constructed KPCA model of nonlinear system under normal working condition. Then new data were projected onto the KPCA model. When new data are incompatible with the KPCA model, it can be concluded that the nonlinear system isout of normal working condition. Proposed method was applied to fault diagnosison rolling bearings. Simulation results show proposed method provides an effective method for fault detection and diagnosis of nonlinear system.

  19. SET OPERATOR-BASED METHOD OF DENOISING MEDICAL VOLUME DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程兵; 郑南宁; 袁泽剑

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate impulsive noise suppression of medical volume data. Methods The volume data is represented as level sets and a special set operator is defined and applied to filtering it. The small connected components, which are likely to be produced by impulsive noise, are eliminated after the filtering process. A fast algorithm that uses a heap data structure is also designed. Results Compared with traditional linear filters such as a Gaussian filter, this method preserves the fine structure features of the medical volume data while removing noise, and the fast algorithm developed by us reduces memory consumption and improves computing efficiency. The experimental results given illustrate the efficiency of the method and the fast algorithm. Conclusion The set operator-based method shows outstanding denoising properties in our experiment, especially for impulsive noise. The method has a wide variety of applications in the areas of volume visualization and high dimensional data processing.

  20. A Matrix Pencil Algorithm Based Multiband Iterative Fusion Imaging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yong Qiang; Gao, Xun Zhang; Li, Xiang; Liu, Yong Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Multiband signal fusion technique is a practicable and efficient way to improve the range resolution of ISAR image. The classical fusion method estimates the poles of each subband signal by the root-MUSIC method, and some good results were get in several experiments. However, this method is fragile in noise for the proper poles could not easy to get in low signal to noise ratio (SNR). In order to eliminate the influence of noise, this paper propose a matrix pencil algorithm based method to estimate the multiband signal poles. And to deal with mutual incoherent between subband signals, the incoherent parameters (ICP) are predicted through the relation of corresponding poles of each subband. Then, an iterative algorithm which aimed to minimize the 2-norm of signal difference is introduced to reduce signal fusion error. Applications to simulate dada verify that the proposed method get better fusion results at low SNR.