WorldWideScience

Sample records for reprocessing program criticality

  1. Critical experiment needs and plans of the consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primm, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    An integral part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) plan for the development of breeder reactors is the development of the capability for fuel reprocessing. The Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) was established by the DOE to identify and conduct research and development activities in this area. The DOE is currently proposing that a capability to reprocess fast reactor fuel be established in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. This capability would include conversion of plutonium nitrate to plutonium oxide. The reprocessing line is designated the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET). Criticality safety remains an important critetion in the design of the BRET. The different steps in the reprocessing are reviewed and areas where additional critical experiments are needed have been indentified as also areas where revision or clarification of existing criticality safety standards are desirable

  2. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    A survey of electrochemical methods applications in fuel reprocessing was completed. A dummy fuel assembly shroud was cut using the remotely operated laser disassembly equipment. Operations and engineering efforts have continued to correct equipment operating, software, and procedural problems experienced during the previous uranium compaigns. Fuel cycle options were examined for the liquid metal reactor fuel cycle. In high temperature gas cooled reactor spent fuel studies, preconceptual designs were completed for the concrete storage cask and open field drywell storage concept. These and other tasks operating under the consolidated fuel reprocessing program are examined.

  3. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Noakes, M.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) System consists of three major components: the ASM slave, the dual arm master controller or master, and the control system. The ASM is a remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program of (CFRP). This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, and reliability. It uses an all-gear force transmission system. The master arms were designed as a kinematic replica of ASM and use cable force transmission. Special digital control algorithms were developed to improve the system performance. The system is presently operational and undergoing evaluation. Preliminary testing has been completed and is reported. The system is now undergoing commercialization by transferring the technology to the private sector

  4. Criticality safety evaluation in Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Nobutoshi; Nakajima, Masayoshi; Takaya, Akikazu; Ohnuma, Hideyuki; Shirouzu, Hidetomo; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Yoshikawa, Koji; Suto, Toshiyuki

    2000-04-01

    Criticality limits for equipments in Tokai Reprocessing Plant which handle fissile material solution and are under shape and dimension control were reevaluated based on the guideline No.10 'Criticality safety of single unit' in the regulatory guide for reprocessing plant safety. This report presents criticality safety evaluation of each equipment as single unit. Criticality safety of multiple units in a cell or a room was also evaluated. The evaluated equipments were ones in dissolution, separation, purification, denitration, Pu product storage, and Pu conversion processes. As a result, it was reconfirmed that the equipments were safe enough from a view point of criticality safety of single unit and multiple units. (author)

  5. Statement on the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has chosen the following objectives for future reprocessing plant design: reduced radiation exposure to workers; minimal environmental impact; improved plant operation and maintenance; improved accountability; no plutonium diversion; and reduced overall capital and operating cost. These objectives lead to a plant with totally remote operation. The Breeder Reactor Engineering Test (BRET) has been designed to perform a key role in demonstrating advanced reprocessing technology. It has been scheduled to be available to reprocess spent fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility. The principal features of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program and of the BRET facility are appropriate for all reactor types

  6. Criticality management of Tokai reprocessing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojiri, Ichiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    In fuel cycle centers a number of equipment and vessels of various types and of complex design are used in several processes, i.e. dissolution of spent fuels, separation and storage of uranium and plutonium from fission products and transuranium elements. For each processes, Monte Carlo codes are frequently applied to manage the fuel criticality. Safety design depends largely on specific features of each facilities. The present report describes status of criticality management for main processes in Tokai Reprocessing Facility, JNC, and the criticality conditions specifically existing there. The guiding principle throughout consists of mass control, volume control, design (form) control, concentration control, and control due to employment of neutron poisons. (S. Ohno)

  7. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program. Developments for the future in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    The future reprocessing developments focus on three major areas: (1) the retention of gaseous fission products to reduce off-site doses to very low values; (2) the initial steps of breakdown, shearing, and dissolution of breeder fuels; and (3) advanced facility and equipment concepts, which are expected to lead to a reliable, cost-effective, totally remotely operated and maintained plant. Work in the first area - removal of fission gases (the most important of which is 85 Kr) - is largely completed through tracer and bench-scale engineering equipment. Efforts are now mainly devoted to breeder fuels and advanced remote concepts. A facility, the Integrated Equipment Test Facility, which will be used to carry out much of this work, is nearing completion in Oak Ridge. In it a large, simulated, remote reprocessing cell will house a disassembly-shear machine for either breeder or LWR fuels, a rotary continuous dissolver, a solvent extraction cycle utilizing a new generation of centrifugal contactors, and related equipment

  8. Optimal installation program for reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubokawa, Toshihiko; Kiyose, Ryohei

    1976-01-01

    Optimization of the program of installation of reprocessing plants is mathematically formulated as problem of mixed integer programming, which is numerically solved by the branch-and-bound method. A new concept of quasi-penalty is used to obviate the difficulties associated with dual degeneracy. The finiteness of the useful life of the plant is also taken into consideration. It is shown that an analogous formulation is possible for the cases in which the demand forecasts and expected plant lives cannot be predicted with certainty. The scale of the problem is found to have kN binary variables, (k+2)N continuous variables, and (k+3)N constraint conditions, where k is the number of intervals used in the piece-wise linear approximation of a nonlinear objective function, and N the overall duration of the period covered by the installation program. Calculations are made for N=24 yr and k=3, with the assumption that the plant life is 15 yr, the plant scale factor 0.5, and the maximum plant capacity 900 (t/yr). The results are calculated and discussed for four different demand forecasts. The difference of net profit between optimal and non-optimal installation programs is found to be in the range of 50 -- 100 M$. The pay-off matrix is calculated, and the optimal choice of action when the demand cannot be forecast with certainty is determined by applying Bayes' theory. The optimal installation program under such conditions of uncertainty is obtained also with a stochastic mixed integer programming model. (auth.)

  9. Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, J.; Rougeau, J.-P.

    1987-01-01

    The course of development of a comprehensive nuclear power industry has its own pace which implies the timely progressive and consistent mastery of each industrial step. In the nuclear fuel it is not surprising that the back-end services have lastly reached the industrial stage. In France, we have now fully completed the industrial demonstration of the closed fuel cycle. Our experience covers all necessary steps : transportation of spent fuel, storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, recovered uranium recycling, plutonium recycling in thermal MOX fuels, plutonium-based fuel for FBR. While FBR development is a long term target, recycling of fissile materials in present LWR reactors appears to be a source of noticable savings. In the meantime rational management of waste material is the key for increased safety and better environment protection. Reprocessing activity is certainly the major achievement of the back-end strategy. The proven efficiency of this technique as it is implemented at La Hague facility gives the full assurance of a smooth operation of the under completion UP3 unit. The base-load management system which applies during the first ten years of its operation will make possible a noticable reduction of the commercial price for reprocessing services by the end of the century. Industrial maturity being confirmed, economic maturity is now the outstanding merit of the reprocessing and recycling strategy. It is a permanent challenge, to which the response is definitely positive in the sense of reducing the nuclear KWh production cost. (author)

  10. Development of PSA procedure for a criticality in reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Shigeki; Takanashi, Mitsuhiro; Ueda, Yoshinori

    2012-08-01

    Utilization of risk information for the nuclear safety regulation is being discussed in Japan. The development of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) procedure is indispensable for the utilization of risk information. The Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) has been conducting trial PSA to a model plant for major events, i.e. hydrogen explosion, solution boiling, rapid decomposition of TBP complexes, criticality, solvent fire, leakage of molten glass, leakage of high active concentrated liquid waste, loss of all AC electricity, drop of a fuel assembly, for the purpose of developing the PSA procedure for reprocessing facilities. For criticality events results of trial PSA were summarized as a report in which how to evaluate an amount of radioactive materials released from a facility and a health effect on the public were emphasized. Therefore, for criticality events the results of trial PSA were summarized in this report to emphasize procedures from making event progression scenarios to quantifying event sequences, which were not handled in the previous report, in a style of a document describing PSA procedures. (author)

  11. Status of the decommissioning program of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilleux, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Reprocessing operations at the Eurochemic demonstration plant stopped in December 1974, after 8 years of operation. Immediately thereafter, cleaning and decontamination were begun as the first phase of the decommissioning program. The facility and reprocessing program are described to indicate the magnitude of the problem, and the requirements of the local authorities are reviewed. The technical decommissioning program consists of several phases: (1) plant cleaning and rinsing, (2) establishment of the final fissile-material balance, (3) plant decontamination for access to process equipment, (4) equipment dismantling, and (5) conditioning and storage of newly generated wastes. The two first phases have been completed, and the third one is nearing completion. Some dismantling has been performed, including the plutonium dioxide production unit. Waste-conditioning and surface-storage facilities have been built to meet the dismantling requirements. Since reprocessing may be resumed in the future, decontamination has been performed with ''smooth'' reagents to limit corrosion and dismantling has been limited to subfacilities

  12. Operations monitoring concept. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    Operations monitoring is a safeguards concept which could be applied in future fuel cycle facilities to significantly enhance the effectiveness of an integrated safeguards system. In general, a variety of operations monitoring techniques could be developed for both international and domestic safeguards application. The goal of this presentation is to describe specific examples of operations monitoring techniques as may be applied in a fuel reprocessing facility. The operations monitoring concept involves monitoring certain in-plant equipment, personnel, and materials to detect conditions indicative of the diversion of nuclear material. An operations monitoring subsystem should be designed to monitor operations only to the extent necessary to achieve specified safeguards objectives; there is no intent to monitor all operations in the facility. The objectives of the operations monitoring subsystem include: verification of reported data; detection of undeclared uses of equipment; and alerting the inspector to potential diversion activities. 1 fig

  13. Consolidated fuel reprocessing. Program progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    This progress report is compiled from major contributions from three programs: (1) the Advanced Fuel Recycle Program at ORNL; (2) the Converter Fuel Reprocessing Program at Savannah River Laboratory; and (3) the reprocessing components of the HTGR Fuel Recycle Program, primarily at General Atomic and ORNL. The coverage is generally overview in nature; experimental details and data are limited.

  14. Role of the consolidated fuel reprocessing program in the United States Breeder Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, W.W.; Burch, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    While present US policy precludes the commercial reprocessing of LWR fuels and the recycle of plutonium, the policy does encompass the need to continue a program to develop the technology for reprocessing breeder fuels. Some questions have again risen this year as to the pace of the entire breeder program, including recycle, and the answers are evolving. This paper and the other companion papers which describe several aspects of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program take a longer-range perspective on the total program. Whether the program is implemented in the general time frame described is dependent on future government actions dedicated to carrying out a systematic program that would permit breeders to be commercialized early in the next century

  15. Critical experiments facility and criticality safety programs at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Iwao; Tachimori, Shoichi; Takeshita, Isao; Suzaki, Takenori; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Nomura, Yasushi

    1985-10-01

    The nuclear criticality safety is becoming a key point in Japan in the safety considerations for nuclear installations outside reactors such as spent fuel reprocessing facilities, plutonium fuel fabrication facilities, large scale hot alboratories, and so on. Especially a large scale spent fuel reprocessing facility is being designed and would be constructed in near future, therefore extensive experimental studies are needed for compilation of our own technical standards and also for verification of safety in a potential criticality accident to obtain public acceptance. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is proceeding a construction program of a new criticality safety experimental facility where criticality data can be obtained for such solution fuels as mainly handled in a reprocessing facility and also chemical process experiments can be performed to investigate abnormal phenomena, e.g. plutonium behavior in solvent extraction process by using pulsed colums. In FY 1985 detail design of the facility will be completed and licensing review by the government would start in FY 1986. Experiments would start in FY 1990. Research subjects and main specifications of the facility are described. (author)

  16. In-depth analysis of accidental criticality in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.; Gmal, B.

    1989-01-01

    An in-depth-analysis including probabilistic considerations has been performed for a potential criticality excursion in two large vessels in a planned reprocessing plant. Criticality safety of these components is based on limitation of uranium and plutonium concentration. The main intention of this study was to investigate the potential and probable magnitude of a criticality in greater detail and to detect possible weaknesses of criticality safety provisions. The results of the analysis show, that the calculated probability of less than 5 · 10 -4 /a a for a criticality excursion in the most relevant rework tank may be further reduced. The peak power rework tank may be further reduced by design modifications. The peak power and total fissions of the critical excursion as assessed in a preceding analysis for licensing are conservative by factors of 10 and 4, respectively

  17. Advanced teleoperation in nuclear applications: consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.; Feldman, M.J.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of integrated remote maintenance systems is being developed to meet the needs of future nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Development activities cover all aspects of an advanced teleoperated maintenance system with particular emphasis on a new force-reflecting servomanipulator concept. The new manipulator, called the advanced servomanipulator, is microprocessor controlled and is designed to achieve force-reflection performance near that of mechanical master/slave manipulators. The advanced servomanipulator uses a gear-drive transmission which permits modularization for remote maintainability (by other advanced servomanipulators) and increases reliability. Human factors analysis has been used to develop an improved man/machine interface concept based upon colographic displays and menu-driven touch screens. Initial test and evaluation of two advanced servomanipulator slave arms and several other development components have begun. 9 references, 5 figures

  18. Review of design criteria for Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) used in Fuel Reprocessing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, S.; Basu, Pew; Sivasubramaniyan, K.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Though fuel cycle facilities handling fissile materials are designed with careful criticality safety analysis, the criticality accident cannot be ruled out completely. Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) is being installed as part of criticality safety management in fuel cycle facilities. CAAS system being used in India, is ECIL make, ionization chamber based gamma detector, which houses three identical detectors and works on 2/3 logic. As per ISO 7753 and ANSI/ANS-8.3, the CAAS must be designed to be capable of detecting any minimum accident occurs which could be of concern. Based on this, alarm limit used in CAAS is: 4 R/h (fast transient excursion) and 3 mR in 0.5 sec (slow excursion). In case of reprocessing facilities wherein process tanks located in heavy shielding, identification of CAAS installation locations require detailed radiation transport calculations. A study has been taken to estimate the gamma dose rate from thick concrete hot cells in order to determine the locations of CAAS to meet the present design criteria of alarm limit

  19. Replacement of the criticality accident alarm system in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Momose, Takumaro; Suzuki, Kei; Kawai, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    A Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) was installed as part of criticality safety management for use in reducing the radiation workers could be exposed to in the rare case of a criticality accident. The initial CAAS version was installed the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) in the 1980s. It includes units that can detect gamma-rays or neutron-rays released in criticality accidents (CADs), one of which consists of three plastic scintillation gamma detectors and three solid state neutron detectors with fissile material, and in being highly reliable utilizes the 2 out of 3 voting system. The purpose of this study is to give the design principles and procedures for determining the adequate relocation of the CADs within the TRP. The optimal places for the CADs to be relocated to were determined using a conservative evaluation method. Firstly, equipment needing to be monitored for criticality accidents was selected with consideration given to the risk of excessive exposure to workers. Secondly, the detection threshold of a minimum accident was set to be an increase in power of 10 15 fissions/s occurring within a rise-time of between 0.5 ms and 1 s. The sum of neutron and gamma doses of a minimum accident (10 15 fissions) was 0.3 Gy at an unshielded distance of 1 m. Finally, doses at where the CADs were installed were evaluated using parameters calculated with MCNP and ANISN. As a result, the alarm trip level of both the gamma detector and the neutron detector being set at 2.0 mGy/h enabled minimum criticality accidents to be conservatively detected. These results were then applied to the new CAD positions. (author)

  20. An outcome of nuclear safety research in JAERI. Case study for LOCA, FP, criticality and reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Ito, Keishiro; Kawashima, Kei; Katsuki, Chisato; Shirabe, Masashi

    2009-09-01

    An outcome of nuclear safety research done by JAERI was case studied by the bibliometric method. (1) For LOCA (loss-of-coolant accident) a domestic share of JAERI in monoclinic research paper was 63% at the past (20) 1978-1982 but was decreased to 40% at the present 1998-2002. For co-authored papers a domestic share between JAERI and PS (public sectors) is almost zero at past (20) but increased to 4% at the present. Research cooperation is active between Tokyo University and JAERI or between JAERI and Nagoya University. (2) Project-type research is to have a large monopolization in papers and that of basic-type research is to have a large development of research networking (DRN). (3) For FP, a share of co-authored paper is high due to an enhanced cooperation among JAERI-PO (Public Organization)-PS. For criticality, research activity was enhanced after JCO accident, especially at NUCEF. (4) For reprocessing, PS had a monopolistic position with a domestic share of 71% and a share of JAERI was about 20%. (5) LOCA and RIA outputs born by NSR-JAERI coincided partly to those of the Safety Licensing Guidelines but a share of contribution done by JAERI was ambiguous due to the lack of necessary information. (author)

  1. Nuclear-fuel-cycle costs. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel-cycle costs are given for the pressurized-water reactor once-through and fuel-recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor system. These calculations show that fuel-cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel-cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder-reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment

  2. Development of a simulation program to study error propagation in the reprocessing input accountancy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfilippo, L.

    1987-01-01

    A physical model and a computer program have been developed to simulate all the measurement operations involved with the Isotopic Dilution Analysis technique currently applied in the Volume - Concentration method for the Reprocessing Input Accountancy, together with their errors or uncertainties. The simulator is apt to easily solve a number of problems related to the measurement sctivities of the plant operator and the inspector. The program, written in Fortran 77, is based on a particular Montecarlo technique named ''Random Sampling''; a full description of the code is reported

  3. Why reprocess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, M.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of whether to reprocess spent nuclear fuel elements has been studied already in the early days of the commercial utilization of nuclear power and has been answered positively. This also, and in particular, applies to the United States. Under the new American nuclear policy reprocessing is rejected only for reasons of non-proliferation. Although these are valid reasons, the effectiveness of a ban on reprocessing, as fas as the non-profileration of nuclear weapons is concerned, is not accepted worldwide because the necessary knowledge either already exists in many countries or can be obtained. Only if there had been a realistic chance to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, also the other industrialized countries would have seconded the policy of the United States. A country like the Federal Republic of Germany, with a substantial long-term nuclear power program based initially on light water reactors, subsequently on advanced reactor systems, cannot do without a complete nuclear fuel cycle. This reasoning is outlined in the light of economic and radioecological aspects. Extensive experience on a technical scale is available in the reprocessing sector. The technical problems associated with this activity have been solved in principle and have largely been demonstrated to function in practice. (orig.) [de

  4. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. Operating experience with pulsed-column holdup estimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for estimating pulsed-column holdup are being investigated as part of the Safeguards Assessment task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The CFRP was a major sponsor of test runs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel plant (BNFP) in 1980 and 1981. During these tests, considerable measurement data were collected for pulsed columns in the plutonium purification portion of the plant. These data have been used to evaluate and compare three available methods of holdup estimation

  5. Selection of critical group in relation to the release of radionuclides from nuclear spent fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Y.

    1980-01-01

    In respect of internal radiation due to the coastal release of radionuclides, survey on marine food consumption is most useful for the selection of critical group. Species of marine organisms they usually eat is fully over 100 in the coastal area of Ibaraki prefecture where the fuel reprocessing plant is located. Though it gives only a spot datum, one day's consumption survey a season is of convenience to obtain cooperation from housewives and is of use to pick up critical organisms and those who eat much of them. However, long-term survey is required to estimate ordinary intake of the critical foods or those who are supposed critical people. One day's consumption survey makes it easy to perform the subsequent long-term one

  6. Prospects of Using Reprocessed Uranium in CANDU Reactors, in the U.S. GNEP Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Ronald James

    2007-01-01

    Current Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) plans envision reprocessing spent fuel (SF) with view to minimizing high-level waste (HLW) repository use and recovering actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) for transmutation in reactors as fuel and targets. The reprocessed uranium (RU), however, is to be disposed of. This paper presents a limited-scope analysis of possible reuse of RU in CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) Reactors, within the context of the US GNEP program. Other papers on this topic submitted to this conference discuss the possibility of RU reuse in light-water reactors (LWRs) (with enrichment) and offer an independent economic analysis of RU reuse. A representative RU uranium 'vector', from reprocessed spent LWR fuel, comprises 98.538 wt% 238U, 0.46 wt% 236 U, 0.986 wt% 235 U, and 0.006 wt% 234 U. After multiple recyclings, the concentration of 234 U can approach 0.02 wt%. The presence of 234 U and 236 U in RU reduces the reactivity and fuel lifetime (exit burnup), which is particularly an issue in LWRs. While in PWR analyses, the burnup penalty caused by the concentration of 236 U in RU needs to be offset by additional 235 U enrichment in the amount of ∼25% to 30% of the weight percentage of the 236 U; however, the effect in CANDU is much smaller. Furthermore, since the 235 U content in RU exceeds that of natural uranium, CANDU offers the advantageous option of uranium recycling without reenrichment. The exit burnup of CANDU RU-derived fuel is considerably larger than that for natural uranium-fueled scenario, despite the presence of 234 U and 236 U.

  7. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    Progress and activities are reported on process development, laboratory R and D, engineering research, engineering systems, Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility operations, and HTGR fuel reprocessing

  8. Automatic programming for critical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganantharaj, Raj L.

    1988-01-01

    The important phases of a software life cycle include verification and maintenance. Usually, the execution performance is an expected requirement in a software development process. Unfortunately, the verification and the maintenance of programs are the time consuming and the frustrating aspects of software engineering. The verification cannot be waived for the programs used for critical applications such as, military, space, and nuclear plants. As a consequence, synthesis of programs from specifications, an alternative way of developing correct programs, is becoming popular. The definition, or what is understood by automatic programming, has been changed with our expectations. At present, the goal of automatic programming is the automation of programming process. Specifically, it means the application of artificial intelligence to software engineering in order to define techniques and create environments that help in the creation of high level programs. The automatic programming process may be divided into two phases: the problem acquisition phase and the program synthesis phase. In the problem acquisition phase, an informal specification of the problem is transformed into an unambiguous specification while in the program synthesis phase such a specification is further transformed into a concrete, executable program.

  9. Worldwide reprocessing supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to broadly examine the current situation in the LWR fuel reprocessing services market on a worldwide basis through 2010. The main factors influencing this market (nuclear programs, fuel discharges, reprocessing capacities, buyer philosophies, etc.) are identified in the paper and the most important are highlighted and discussed in more detail. Emphasis has been placed on the situation with respect to reprocessing in those countries having a significant influence on the reprocessing market

  10. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    Technical progress is reported in overview fashion in the following areas: process development, laboratory R and D, engineering research, engineering systems, integrated equipment test facility (IET) operations, and HTGR fuel reprocessing

  11. Why reprocess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, T.

    1977-01-01

    Prospective costs of reprocessing, waste management, and mixed oxide fuel fabrication have risen so much that the costs of U/P recycle and of spent fuel storage are nearly equal. This paper reviews the current state of the reprocessing industry, with a list of facilities all over the world, and examines the incentives and disincentives other than short-term economics that will affect the decision of states to acquire their own reprocessing facilities. Finally, it examines the possibility of avoiding a widespread commercial reprocessing industry

  12. Division of Waste Management, Production, and Reprocessing programs progress report for January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.

    1977-04-01

    Development of the acid digestion process for treating combustible nuclear wastes has progressed to design and construction of the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU). Tests were continued in the nonradioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (ADTU) in an effort to improve the performance of the system. Nitric acid consumption has been decreased from 8.8 to 4.5 kg HNO 3 /kg digested waste by adding the nitric acid deep below the liquid surface in the annular heating vessel instead of at the surface of the tray digester. A highly successful 70-hr continuous processing run was completed in the ADTU to confirm the operating experience in shorter runs and to test the use of air (instead of nitrogen) in the airlift pump. Initial studies were completed on fixation of acid digestion residue following recovery and drying. A variety of solidification and testing equipment was assembled to prepare and test immobilized waste products. Studies were continued on immobilization of salts and wet wastes. Salt residue-cement systems characterized include calcium sulfate, ferric sulfate, sodium sulfate, sodium nitrate, calcium chloride, and sodium chloride. Anion and cation exchange resin immobilization in cement has also been studied, as well as immobilization of sodium silicate in cement. A new program on Intermediate Level Liquid Waste (ILLW) Solidification was started with the purpose of developing and demonstrating immobilization technologies for liquid and particulate solid ILW within the fuel cycle. The four primary fuel cycle operations (reactors, spent fuel storage basins, fuel reprocessing plants, and MOX fuel fabrication plants) were reviewed and a list of sources and quantities of waste was formulated. The annual accumulation of radioactive waste materials at the six commercial waste burial sites was updated through 1976. The total accumulated volume at the end of 1976 was about 434,000 m 3

  13. Case outsourcing medical device reprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Deborah

    2004-04-01

    IN THE INTEREST OF SAVING MONEY, many hospitals are considering extending the life of some single-use medical devices by using medical device reprocessing programs. FACILITIES OFTEN LACK the resources required to meet the US Food and Drug Administration's tough quality assurance standards. BY OUTSOURCING, hospitals can reap the benefits of medical device reprocessing without assuming additional staffing and compliance burdens. OUTSOURCING enables hospitals to implement a medical device reprocessing program quickly, with no capital investment and minimal effort.

  14. Status of the joint United States/Japanese criticality data development program for the Fast Breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.; Kishimoto, Y.; Matsumoto, T.; Haire, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental program is described to accumulate the basic criticality data on uranium-plutonium aqueous solution systems, including pin and water systems. This experimental program, managed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, utilized existing critical experiment facilities. However, Japan at least for the near future, does not have a facility for conducting critical experiments where fissible solution can be treated and processed. Therefore, Japan has remoted the existing US experimental program as well as enlarged the program so that a close cooperative relationship may exist in this area. This paper is an update of a description of the program presented in September 1985. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Reprocessing the truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, E.; Bunyard, P.; Hildyard, N.

    1978-01-01

    Comments are made on the Report by the Inspector, Mr. Justice Parker, after the public inquiry into the application by British Nuclear Fuels Limited for permission to construct and operate a thermal oxide reprocessing plant at their Windscale works. Particular questions raised include: corrosion or storage of spent fuel, vitrification of radioactive waste; radiation effects, and permissible levels; radioactive emissions, critical groups and critical pathways; risks; reprocessing economics; commitment to the FBR; sociological aspects, including employment, nuclear weapon proliferation and terrorism, and Britain's moral responsibilities. (U.K.)

  16. Status and strategy of the U.S. commercial waste management program. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Jubin, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    Management of airborne waste generally involves the following steps: recovery, treatment, interim storage, transportation, and disposal. The recovery (retention) of airborne radionuclides is generally well developed since the first-generation processes have been used for iodine and particulates for decades by the DOE nuclear materials production plants. Later-generation processes have been carried separately through the cold pilot-plant stage. However, the design and demonstration of a hot, integrated flowsheet for the recovery of all airborne species to the extent necessary to meet applicable regulations are still required. Treatment of the recovered airborne wastes is generally less-well developed. Tentatively preferred processes have been identified: iodine-barium iodate and/or silver zeolites in concrete with additives; krypton-implanted as ions in a metal alloy and encapsulated in concrete; carbon-barium carbonate in concrete with additives; particulates-encapsulation of HEPA filters in concrete; ruthenium-ruthenium traps encapsulated in concrete. The technology for interim storage and transportation appears to be straightforward engineering extensions of existing technology, assuming that the waste forms listed above are to be employed. Waste disposal concepts are the least well-developed aspect of airborne waste mangement technology. It appears that the long-lived materials such as 129 I, 14 C, and particulates will have to be emplaced in a geologic repository and that shorter-lived airborne waste may be acceptable in shallow-land burial grounds. The long-range goal of the program is to determine all of the steps necessary to manage airborne wastes

  17. Elements of a nuclear criticality safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear criticality safety programs throughout the United States are quite successful, as compared with other safety disciplines, at protecting life and property, especially when regarded as a developing safety function with no historical perspective for the cause and effect of process nuclear criticality accidents before 1943. The programs evolved through self-imposed and regulatory-imposed incentives. They are the products of conscientious individuals, supportive corporations, obliged regulators, and intervenors (political, public, and private). The maturing of nuclear criticality safety programs throughout the United States has been spasmodic, with stability provided by the volunteer standards efforts within the American Nuclear Society. This presentation provides the status, relative to current needs, for nuclear criticality safety program elements that address organization of and assignments for nuclear criticality safety program responsibilities; personnel qualifications; and analytical capabilities for the technical definition of critical, subcritical, safety and operating limits, and program quality assurance

  18. Reprocessing decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    The United States must decide whether to permit, delay, or prohibit the reprocessing and recycling of nuclear spent fuel. To permit reprocessing would allow recycle as early as 1985; to delay the decision for a later administration to deal with means spent fuel would mount up at nuclear reactor sites; to prohibit would eliminate recycling and mandate permanent storage. Bayesian decision analysis was used to examine reprocessing costs associated with risks and economic benefits. Three distinct categories of risk that are important in the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. These are: health, environment, and safety risks; nuclear theft and sabotage; and nuclear weapons proliferation risks. Results are discussed from comparing nine routes to weapons-usuable mterial available to nonweapons states that desire a nuclear capability. These are: production reactor and military reporcessor; research reacotr and military reprocessor; power plant plus military reprocessor or commercial reprocessor; enrichment (centrifuge, gaseous diffusion, electromagnetic separation, or aerodynamic jet cascade); and accelerator. It was found that the commercial power reactor-commercial reprocessor route is comparatively unattractive to a nonweapons state. In summary, allowing nuclear fuel reprocessing to go forward in the United States can be expected to increase the costs to society by a maximum $360 million a year. This is approximately one-seventh of the expected benefit (reduced electricity bills) to be dderived by society from closing the fuel cycle. It appears that the permitting reprocessing now is logically preferable to delaying or prohibiting the technology, the author concludes

  19. HTGR fuel reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, L.H.; Heath, C.A.; Shefcik, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The following aspects of HTGR reprocessing technology are discussed: characteristics of HTGR fuels, criteria for a fuel reprocessing flowsheet; selection of a reference reprocessing flowsheet, and waste treatment

  20. Advanced concepts under development in the United States Breeder-Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    Advanced concepts and techniques for the fuel reprocessing step are being developed. These concepts have been incorporated into the conceptual design of a Hot Experimental Facility (HEF), which is intended to demonstrate reprocessing of the first US breeder demonstration reactor. To achieve system reliability and reduce occupational doses, a concept of totally remote operation and maintenance (termed Remotex) has been conceived and is being developed. In this concept, maintenance and mechanical operations are accomplished with remotely operated bilateral force-reflecting electronic master/slave manipulators. Suitable transport systems, coupled with remote closed-circuit television viewing, are provided to extend man's capabilities into the hostile cell environment. New equipment concepts are being developed for the fuel dismantling and shearing step, a high-temperature dry process termed voloxidation to remove tritium, a continuous rotary dissolver, and for an improved centrifugal solvent contractor. Techniques have been developed, using engineering-scale equipment with active tracers for retention of 85 Kr, radioiodine, 14 C, and 3 H

  1. MOX fuel reprocessing and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the reprocessing of MOX fuel in UP2-800 plant at La Hague, and to the MOX successive reprocessing and recycling. 1. MOX fuel reprocessing. In a first step, the necessary modifications in UP2-800 to reprocess MOX fuel are set out. Early in the UP2-800 project, actions have been taken to reprocess MOX fuel without penalty. They consist in measures regarding: Dissolution; Radiological shieldings; Nuclear instrumentation; Criticality. 2. Mox successive reprocessing and recycling. The plutonium recycling in the LWR is now a reality and, as said before, the MOX fuel reprocessing is possible in UP2-800 plant at La Hague. The following actions in this field consist in verifying the MOX successive reprocessing and recycling possibilities. After irradiation, the fissile plutonium content of irradiated MOX fuel is decreased and, in this case, the re-use of plutonium in the LWR need an important increase of initial Pu enrichment inconsistent with the Safety reactor constraints. Cogema opted for reprocessing irradiated MOX fuel in dilution with the standard UO2 fuel in appropriate proportions (1 MOX for 4 UO2 fuel for instance) in order to save a fissile plutonium content compatible with MOX successive recycling (at least 3 recyclings) in LWR. (author). 2 figs

  2. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles is also given. As a conclusion, spent fuel reprocessing options have evolved significantly since the start of nuclear energy application. There is a large body of industrial experience in fuel cycle technologies complemented by research and development programs in several countries

  3. Critical Media Literacy: TV Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Laurie

    Television programming has a huge impact on the lives of children. This lesson focuses on the stereotypical and racial messages that are portrayed through television programming with a focus on situational comedies. During the four 45-minute lessons, grade 6-8 students will: analyze portrayals of different groups of people in the media;…

  4. Critical remark on Jauch's program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjisavvas, N.; Thieffine, F.; Mugur-Schaechter, M.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown by means of a simple example that Jauch's program of recovering the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics from structures of empirically defined entities is not realized. (author)

  5. Criticality safety issues arising from the treatment of liquid effluent streams from the reprocessing of thermal oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.R.; Farrington, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    The BNFL THORP plant will reprocess irradiated oxide fuel from thermal reactors to recover plutonium dioxide and uranium trioxide in a pure form. A consequence of the reprocessing is that several liquid effluent streams are produced which can contain residual fissile material. Generally, the treatment of these effluent streams is carried out in large vessels which are not geometrically favourable with regard to nuclear safety. This is possible because the concentration of fissile material in solution is far less than the safely subcritical infinite sea concentrations. The situation is complicated by the presence of precipitated solids in some vessels and crud layers in others. Experimental measurements have been used to characterise these solids in order to extend the usual safe limits, and to provide an acceptable operating regime. Based on the experimental characterisation of the solids, the neutronics computer codes WIMS and MONK have been used to determine the optimum possible conditions existing, and to determine the safe fissile mass limits for these systems. The limits which are derived have been used to provide alarm and trip levels for instrumentation which has been employed in a novel way. It has been shown that the plant can be operated successfully and remains acceptably safe taking into account the presence of solids in the liquid effluent streams. (author)

  6. 2011 Annual Criticality Safety Program Performance Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrea Hoffman

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 review of the INL Criticality Safety Program has determined that the program is robust and effective. The review was prepared for, and fulfills Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item H.20, 'Annual Criticality Safety Program performance summary that includes the status of assessments, issues, corrective actions, infractions, requirements management, training, and programmatic support.' This performance summary addresses the status of these important elements of the INL Criticality Safety Program. Assessments - Assessments in 2011 were planned and scheduled. The scheduled assessments included a Criticality Safety Program Effectiveness Review, Criticality Control Area Inspections, a Protection of Controlled Unclassified Information Inspection, an Assessment of Criticality Safety SQA, and this management assessment of the Criticality Safety Program. All of the assessments were completed with the exception of the 'Effectiveness Review' for SSPSF, which was delayed due to emerging work. Although minor issues were identified in the assessments, no issues or combination of issues indicated that the INL Criticality Safety Program was ineffective. The identification of issues demonstrates the importance of an assessment program to the overall health and effectiveness of the INL Criticality Safety Program. Issues and Corrective Actions - There are relatively few criticality safety related issues in the Laboratory ICAMS system. Most were identified by Criticality Safety Program assessments. No issues indicate ineffectiveness in the INL Criticality Safety Program. All of the issues are being worked and there are no imminent criticality concerns. Infractions - There was one criticality safety related violation in 2011. On January 18, 2011, it was discovered that a fuel plate bundle in the Nuclear Materials Inspection and Storage (NMIS) facility exceeded the fissionable mass limit, resulting in a technical safety requirement (TSR) violation. The

  7. Review of recent ORNL studies in solvent cleanup and diluent degradation. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1982-01-01

    Testing of solvent cleanup methods to replace the use of sodium carbonate in the Purex process has been ongoing for several years in order to reduce the quantity of waste sodium nitrate generated and to improve phase separation. Alternate solvent cleanup methods include the use of packed columns of base-treated silica gel or solvent scrubbing with hydrazine oxalate. Degradation of the diluent was shown to generate long-chain organic acids which appear to be the major culprits in the phase separation problems encountered in sodium carbonate scrubbers. Solvent scrubbing with hydrazine oxalate gives improved phase separations. Solvent cleanup in columns packed with base-treated silica gel avoids the phase separation problem since a dispersable aqueous phase is not present. Removals of TBP degradation products and metal-ion complexes by sodium carbonate, hydrazine salts, or by packed beds of base-treated silica gel are all satisfactory. Solvent scrubbing by hydrazine oxalate solutions is the prime candidate for solvent cleanup in fuel reprocessing plants

  8. AFOSR Mission Critical STEAM Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-10

    Psychology 3.25 Junior Devin Frederick Computer Science 3.26 Junior Michael Johnson Computer Science 3.8 Junior Tre Addison Computer Science 3.6...universities on the island and has a strong tradition of training leaders in engineering and entrepreneurship . 28 The TMCF delegation met with Dr. Sheng...of relevant theory and data on research-based interventions in Vocational Psychology that can be used to develop programs and support services to

  9. Program for Critical Technologies in Breast Oncology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa, Jose

    1997-01-01

    In Year 3 of The Program for Critical Technologies in Breast Oncology (PCTBO), we have expanded services that were initiated in July 1994 to establish a core technical and tissue procurement resource that: (1...

  10. Nuclear Criticality Safety Department Qualification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Department (NCSD) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of highly qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document defines the Qualification Program to address the NCSD technical and managerial qualification as required by the Y-1 2 Training Implementation Matrix (TIM). This Qualification Program is in compliance with DOE Order 5480.20A and applicable Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and Y-1 2 Plant procedures. It is implemented through a combination of WES plant-wide training courses and professional nuclear criticality safety training provided within the department. This document supersedes Y/DD-694, Revision 2, 2/27/96, Qualification Program, Nuclear Criticality Safety Department There are no backfit requirements associated with revisions to this document

  11. Four critical facilities: their capabilities and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitesides, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented on the critical experiments facilities at Babcock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, Virginia; at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Hanford, Washington; at Rockwell-International in Rocky Flats, Colorado; and at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in New Mexico. It is noted that the critical mass facilities which still exist in this country represent a bare minimum for maintaining a measurement program sufficient for meeting data requirements

  12. Thorium utilization program progress report for January 1, 1974--June 30, 1975. [Reprocessing; refabrication; recycle fuel irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotts, A.L.; Kasten, P.R.

    1976-05-01

    Work was carried out on the following: HTGR reprocessing development and pilot plant, refabrication development and pilot plant, recycle fuel irradiations, engineering and economic studies, and conceptual design of a commercial recycle plant. (DLC)

  13. Reprocessing in breeder fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Groenier, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past decade, the United States has developed plans and carried out programs directed toward the demonstration of breeder fuel reprocessing in connection with the first breeder demonstration reactor. A renewed commitment to moving forward with the construction of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) has been made, with startup anticipated near the end of this decade. While plans for the CRBR and its associated fuel cycle are still being firmed up, the basic research and development programs required to carry out the demonstrations have continued. This paper updates the status of the reprocessing plans and programs. Policies call for breeder recycle to begin in the early to mid-1990's. Contents of this paper are: (1) evolving plans for breeder reprocessing (demonstration reprocessing plant, reprocessing head-end colocated at an existing facility); (2) relationship to LWR reprocessing; (3) integrated equipment test (IET) facility and related hardware development activities (mechanical considerations in shearing and dissolving, remote operations and maintenance demonstration phase of IET, integrated process demonstration phase of IET, separate component development activities); and (4) supporting process R and D

  14. Safety Critical Java for Robotics Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bent; Luckow, Kasper Søe; Bøgholm, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces Safety Critical Java (SCJ) and argues its readiness for robotics programming. We give an overview of the work done at Aalborg University and elsewhere on SCJl, some of its implementations in the form of the JOP, FijiVM and HVM and some of the tools, especially WCA, Teta...

  15. General approach to the testing of binary solubility systems for thermodynamic consistency. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, L.L.; Van Brunt, V.

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of implicit Runge-Kutta and orthogonal collocation methods is made for the numerical solution to the ordinary differential equation which describes the high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria of a binary system. The systems of interest are limited to binary solubility systems where one of the components is supercritical and exists as a noncondensable gas in the pure state. Of the two methods - implicit Runge-Kuta and orthogonal collocation - this paper attempts to present some preliminary but not necessarily conclusive results that the implicit Runge-Kutta method is superior for the solution to the ordinary differential equation utilized in the thermodynamic consistency testing of binary solubility systems. Due to the extreme nonlinearity of thermodynamic properties in the region near the critical locus, an extended cubic spline fitting technique is devised for correlating the P-x data. The least-squares criterion is employed in smoothing the experimental data. Even though the derivation is presented specifically for the correlation of P-x data, the technique could easily be applied to any thermodynamic data by changing the endpoint requirements. The volumetric behavior of the systems must be given or predicted in order to perform thermodynamic consistency tests. A general procedure is developed for predicting the volumetric behavior required and some indication as to the expected limit of accuracy is given

  16. The critical care air transport program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninati, William; Meyer, Michael T; Carter, Todd E

    2008-07-01

    The critical care air transport team program is a component of the U.S. Air Force Aeromedical Evacuation system. A critical care air transport team consists of a critical care physician, critical care nurse, and respiratory therapist along with the supplies and equipment to operate a portable intensive care unit within a cargo aircraft. This capability was developed to support rapidly mobile surgical teams with high capability for damage control resuscitation and limited capacity for postresuscitation care. The critical care air transport team permits rapid evacuation of stabilizing casualties to a higher level of care. The aeromedical environment presents important challenges for the delivery of critical care. All equipment must be tested for safety and effectiveness in this environment before use in flight. The team members must integrate the current standards of care with the limitation imposed by stresses of flight on their patient. The critical care air transport team capability has been used successfully in a range of settings from transport within the United States, to disaster response, to support of casualties in combat.

  17. To stay or to go? Balancing the risk of reprocessing plant control room evacuation following a criticality alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, Suzanne; McCrindle, David; Harris, Neil; Haworth, Justin

    2003-01-01

    Following a criticality alarm within the Magnox Separation Plant at Sellafield, there is a conflict of interest between the risks associated with complete evacuation versus continued manning of the control room. The historic emergency response policy would be to completely evacuate the control room upon a criticality alarm. If, however, the alarm was found to be false, the inevitable loss in control over the plant could have environmental, operational and radiological release consequences. Maintaining control room manning following a genuine alarm might, however, result in an avoidable high dose to an operator. Based upon the estimated dose equivalent to a control room operator for a range of criticality incident morphologies a risk analysis was undertaken. The results indicate that the differential risk between an operator who evacuates immediately and an operator who remains for a short time to complete diagnostic checks is very small. As a consequence a new emergency policy was therefore developed on plant which results in a relatively low risk to control room operators, but still allows control over the plant to be retained following a false criticality alarm. (author)

  18. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, S.

    2008-01-01

    The closed fuel cycle is the most sustainable approach for nuclear energy, as it reduces recourse to natural uranium resources and optimises waste management. The advantages and disadvantages of used nuclear fuel reprocessing have been debated since the dawn of the nuclear era. There is a range of issues involved, notably the sound management of wastes, the conservation of resources, economics, hazards of radioactive materials and potential proliferation of nuclear weapons. In recent years, the reprocessing advocates win, demonstrated by the apparent change in position of the USA under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. A great deal of reprocessing has been going on since the fourties, originally for military purposes, to recover plutonium for weapons. So far, some 80000 tonnes of used fuel from commercial power reactors has been reprocessed. The article indicates the reprocessing activities and plants in the United Kigdom, France, India, Russia and USA. The aspect of plutonium that raises the ire of nuclear opponents is its alleged proliferation risk. Opponents of the use of MOX fuels state that such fuels represent a proliferation risk because the plutonium in the fuel is said to be 'weapon-use-able'. The reprocessing of used fuel should not give rise to any particular public concern and offers a number of potential benefits in terms of optimising both the use of natural resources and waste management.

  19. Handbook of critical issues in goal programming

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, C

    1991-01-01

    Goal Programming (GP) is perhaps the oldest and most widely used approach within the Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) paradigm. GP combines the logic of optimisation in mathematical programming with the decision maker's desire to satisfy several goals. The primary purpose of this book is to identify the critical issues in GP and to demonstrate different procedures capable of avoiding or mitigating the inherent pitfalls associated with these issues. The outcome of a search of the literature shows many instances where GP models produced misleading or even erroneous results simply because

  20. A Narrative Criticism of Lifestyle Reality Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Loof

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to understand and explain the relationship between lifestyle reality television programs and consumers. Specifically, this article outlines this relationship from a critical narrative perspective by interrogating two common story structures within lifestyle reality programming. By analyzing these narratives, conclusions are drawn about the role of story in consumer behavior. Additionally, this article argues that through the combination of the rhetorical situation of the housing collapse and narrative storytelling, consumers are taught how to perceive and interact when considering the purchase of a house. Finally, this article synthesizes Social Cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986 in conjunction with Narrative theory (Fisher, 1984 to explore how rhetorical criticism can use social science to better understand lived, mediated, experience.

  1. Program for Critical Technologies in Breast Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    the tissues, and in a ethical manner that respects the patients’ rights . The Program for Critical Technologies in Breast Oncology helps address all of...diagnosis, database 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 148 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS...closer to clinical utility. Page 17 References Adida C. Crotty PL. McGrath J. Berrebi D. Diebold J. Altieri DC. Developmentally regulated

  2. Task 5c: measurement and instrumentation under subsystem design of the LLL safeguard material control program. [For fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-31

    A product survey was conducted of all security products currently available on the market. Documentation is presented of the survey and a printout of the data is included. A general description is given of new but recommended instrumentation and security devices for application to fuel reprocessing plants. Security systems and hardware recommended for development, assembly, and testing are discussed briefly. (DLC)

  3. Challenges in the application of burn-up credit to the criticality safety of the THORP reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayson, R.T.H.; Gunston, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1991 BNFL has made a significant investment in the development of the burn-up credit method and the application to its operations. It has recently demonstrated that using this method for the THORP dissolvers, it is possible to justify operating safety with reduced neutron poison concentrations and this has now been submitted to the regulators. The continued challenges the criticality safety community is facing are to show that we are not reducing safety levels because we are using burn-up credit. The burn-up credit method that has been developed can be summarized as follows. It consists of performing reactivity calculations for irradiated fuel using compositions generated by and inventory prediction code, generally in order to determine the limiting burn-up required for that fuel in a particular environment. In addition, it has always been envisaged that a confirmatory measurement of burn-up would be required to be made prior to certain operations such as the sharing of fuel into a dissolver. The burn-up credit method therefore relies upon three key components of inventory prediction, reactivity calculation code and the quantification and verification of burn-up. (J.P.N.)

  4. Evolvement of nuclear criticality safety programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzlach, N.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear criticality safety (NCS) has developed from a discipline requiring the services of personnel with only a background in reactor physics to that involving reactor physics, process engineering, and design as well as administration of the program to ensure all its requirements are implemented. When Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was designed and constructed, the physicists at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were performing the criticality analyses. A physicist who had no chemical process or engineering experience was brought in from LANL to determine whether the facility would be safe. It was only because of his understanding of the reactor physics principles, scientific intuition, and some luck that the design and construction of the facility led to a safe plant. It took a number of years of experience with facility operations and the dedication of personnel for NCS to reach its present status as a recognized discipline

  5. Spent fuel reprocessing system availability definition by process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, N.; Haldy, B.B.; Jonzen, M.

    1978-05-01

    To examine nuclear fuel reprocessing plant operating parameters such as maintainability, reliability, availability, equipment redundancy, and surge storage requirements and their effect on plant throughput, a computer simulation model of integrated HTGR fuel reprocessing plant operations is being developed at General Atomic Company (GA). The simulation methodology and the status of the computer programming completed on reprocessing head end systems is reported

  6. Advances in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, J.P.; Guais, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    In a comprehensive nuclear energy program based on Light Water Reactor, closing the nuclear fuel cycle by reprocessing the spent fuel and recycling the recovered fissile materials is a key activity which is now fully mastered at the industrial level. In France a large, modern commercial reprocessing plant called UP3 is operating at La Hague since 18 months in excellent conditions regarding products quality, plant availability, safety and waste management. At the same time, industrial capacities for plutonium recycling by MOX fuel fabrication are under operation and larger units are in construction in France and in Europe. Our customers, the utilities which are engaged in a complete closed fuel cycle in Japan, in Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, and in France, are having a comprehensive industrial system available for their spent fuel management. Three main objectives are being met by this system: (1) saving natural resources by recycling energetic material: plutonium and uranium; (2) solving the waste management question by a segregating the waste according to their characteristics for a proper conditioning, in particular with vitrification for HLW; and (3) preparing the future developments of nuclear power generation with advanced reactors, and best Pu use, and keeping open progresses in long lived waste processing and disposal

  7. Remote maintenance in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Remote maintenance techniques applied in large-scale nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are reviewed with particular attention to the three major maintenance philosophy groupings: contact, remote crane canyon, and remote/contact. Examples are given, and the relative success of each type is discussed. Probable future directions for large-scale reprocessing plant maintenance are described along with advanced manipulation systems for application in the plants. The remote maintenance development program within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is also described. 19 refs., 19 figs

  8. The environmental impact of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mummery, P.W.; Howells, H.; Scriven, A.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; basis of hazard assessment (dose limits - ICRP recommendations; biological radiation effects); comparison of standards and practice in the UK and USA in the limitation of exposure of the public as a consequence of discharges of radioactive effluent to the environment; nature of reprocessing operations (Thermal Oxide Fuel Reprocessing Plant (THORP); storage ponds; fuel shearing; leaching; clarification; solvent extraction; finishing); waste management (liquids, solids, gases); waste discharges; environmental impact of normal operations (identification of the critical groups; exposure of critical groups; risks and exposures, occupational and collective); environmental impact of accidents (risk - probability multiplied by consequence of the event; types of accident considered); conclusion. (U.K.)

  9. Coupled study of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor core physics and its associated reprocessing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doligez, X.; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Allibert, M.; Ghetta, V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The limit on the reprocessing is due to the redox potential control. • Alkali and Earth-alkaline elements do not have to be extracted. • Criticality risks have to be studied in the reprocessing unit. • The neutronics properties are not sensitive to chemical data. • The reprocessing chemistry, from a pure numerical point of view, is an issue. - Abstract: Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) are liquid-fuel reactors, in which the fuel is also the coolant and flows through the core. A particular configuration presented in this paper called the Molten Salt Fast Reactor consists in a Molten Salt Reactor with no moderator inside the core and a salt composition that leads to a fast neutron spectrum. Previous studies showed that this concept (previously called Thorium Molten Salt Reactor – Nonmoderated) has very promising characteristics. The liquid fuel implies a special reprocessing. Each day a small amount of the fuel salt is extracted from the core for on-site reprocessing. To study such a reactor, the materials evolution within the core has to be coupled to the reprocessing unit, since the latter cleans the salt quasi continuously and feeds the reactor. This paper details the issues associated to the numerical coupling of the core and the reprocessing. It presents how the chemistry is introduced inside the classical Bateman equation (evolution of nuclei within a neutron flux) in order to carry a numerical coupled study. To achieve this goal, the chemistry has to be modeled numerically and integrated to the equations of evolution. This paper presents how is it possible to describe the whole concept (reactor + reprocessing unit) by a system of equations that can be numerically solved. Our program is a connection between MCNP and a homemade evolution code called REM. Thanks to this tool; constraints on the fuel reprocessing were identified. Limits are specified to preserve the good neutronics properties of the MSFR. In this paper, we show that the limit

  10. Alternative reprocessing schemes evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper reviews the parameters which determine the inaccessibility of the plutonium in reprocessing plants. Among the various parameters, the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials, the various processing schemes and the confinement are considered. The emphasis is placed on that latter parameter, and the advantages of an increased confinement in the socalled PIPEX reprocessing plant type are presented

  11. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Michael F.; Law, Jack D.

    2010-01-01

    This is a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. Nuclear reprocessing is the chemical treatment of spent fuel involving separation of its various constituents. Principally, it is used to recover useful actinides from the spent fuel. Radioactive waste that cannot be re-used is separated into streams for consolidation into waste forms. The first known application of nuclear reprocessing was within the Manhattan Project to recover material for nuclear weapons. Currently, reprocessing has a peaceful application in the nuclear fuel cycle. A variety of chemical methods have been proposed and demonstrated for reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The two most widely investigated and implemented methods are generally referred to as aqueous reprocessing and pyroprocessing. Each of these technologies is described in detail in Section 3 with numerous references to published articles. Reprocessing of nuclear fuel as part of a fuel cycle can be used both to recover fissionable actinides and to stabilize radioactive fission products into durable waste forms. It can also be used as part of a breeder reactor fuel cycle that could result in a 14-fold or higher increase in energy utilization per unit of natural uranium. Reprocessing can also impact the need for geologic repositories for spent fuel. The volume of waste that needs to be sent to such a repository can be reduced by first subjecting the spent fuel to reprocessing. The extent to which volume reduction can occur is currently under study by the United States Department of Energy via research at various national laboratories and universities. Reprocessing can also separate fissile and non-fissile radioactive elements for transmutation.

  12. The Department of Energy nuclear criticality safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felty, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper broadly covers key events and activities from which the Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) evolved. The NCSP maintains fundamental infrastructure that supports operational criticality safety programs. This infrastructure includes continued development and maintenance of key calculational tools, differential and integral data measurements, benchmark compilation, development of training resources, hands-on training, and web-based systems to enhance information preservation and dissemination. The NCSP was initiated in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 97-2, Criticality Safety, and evolved from a predecessor program, the Nuclear Criticality Predictability Program, that was initiated in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 93-2, The Need for Critical Experiment Capability. This paper also discusses the role Dr. Sol Pearlstein played in helping the Department of Energy lay the foundation for a robust and enduring criticality safety infrastructure.

  13. Environmental evaluation of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This paper addresses two specific points. (a) The means by which it is established that reprocessing is carried out within the basic standards for radiological protection set by the ICRP. (b) A summary of the products, wastes and effluents of reprocessing together with the energy and water resources required. It is concluded that reprocessing of spent thermal reactor fuel can be undertaken whilst conforming to the basic standards set by ICRP. For domestic reasons of public acceptability some countries adopt very strict limits. Any attempt at comparisons between limits set by individual countries could lead to misunderstandings if account is not taken of these additional factors which may in turn influence the cost of reprocessing

  14. Wastes from fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschrich, H.

    1976-01-01

    Handling, treatment, and interim storage of radioactive waste, problems confronted with during the reprocessing of spent fuel elements from LWR's according to the Purex-type process, are dealt with in detail. (HR/LN) [de

  15. Reprocessing business in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, W L

    1985-01-01

    The development of the process for separating uranium, plutonium and fission products from irradiated fuel began in Britain in late 1940s, and the first separation plant was operated at Sellafield in 1952. This plant was operated very well for more than 12 years with the overall availability over 95%. The second separation plant to meet the needs of the growing nuclear power program became operational in 1964. This plant has been extremely successful, but the significant improvement was made to extend the operating life of the key items. In mid 1970s, by the introduction of uranium oxide fuel reactors, significant reprocessing capacity became to be required. Therefore, it was decided to embark upon the development of a thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) to complement the existing facilities at Sellafield. The THORP is a very large complex of plants. The first duty for the THORP is to reprocess 6,000 t U of oxide fuel in 10 years. But the plant is designed for the life of 25 years. The plant has the capacity of 1200 tes/year. The scope covered by the THORP, the plant processes and the wastes produced from the THORP are described. (Kako, I.).

  16. Program of nuclear criticality safety experiment at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Iwao; Tachimori, Shoichi; Takeshita, Isao; Suzaki, Takenori; Ohnishi, Nobuaki

    1983-11-01

    JAERI is promoting the nuclear criticality safety research program, in which a new facility for criticality safety experiments (Criticality Safety Experimental Facility : CSEF) is to be built for the experiments with solution fuel. One of the experimental researches is to measure, collect and evaluate the experimental data needed for evaluation of criticality safety of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Another research area is a study of the phenomena themselves which are incidental to postulated critical accidents. Investigation of the scale and characteristics of the influences caused by the accident is also included in this research. The result of the conceptual design of CSEF is summarized in this report. (author)

  17. Simulation of solvent extraction in reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Shekhar; Koganti, S B [Reprocessing Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1994-06-01

    A SIMulation Program for Solvent EXtraction (SIMPSEX) has been developed for simulation of PUREX process used in nuclear fuel reprocessing. This computer program is written in double precision structured FORTRAN77 and at present it is used in DOS environment on a PC386. There is a plan to port it to ND supermini computers in future. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs.

  18. The Costs of Critical Care Telemedicine Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Derik M.; Bonello, Robert S.; Kahn, Jeremy M.; Perencevich, Eli; Cram, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background: Implementation of telemedicine programs in ICUs (tele-ICUs) may improve patient outcomes, but the costs of these programs are unknown. We performed a systematic literature review to summarize existing data on the costs of tele-ICUs and collected detailed data on the costs of implementing a tele-ICU in a network of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies published between January 1, 1990, and July 1, 2011, reporting costs of tele-ICUs. Studies were summarized, and key cost data were abstracted. We then obtained the costs of implementing a tele-ICU in a network of seven VHA hospitals and report these costs in light of the existing literature. Results: Our systematic review identified eight studies reporting tele-ICU costs. These studies suggested combined implementation and first year of operation costs for a tele-ICU of $50,000 to $100,000 per monitored ICU-bed. Changes in patient care costs after tele-ICU implementation ranged from a $3,000 reduction to a $5,600 increase in hospital cost per patient. VHA data suggested a cost for implementation and first year of operation of $70,000 to $87,000 per ICU-bed, depending on the depreciation methods applied. Conclusions: The cost of tele-ICU implementation is substantial, and the impact of these programs on hospital costs or profits is unclear. Until additional data become available, clinicians and administrators should carefully weigh the clinical and economic aspects of tele-ICUs when considering investing in this technology. PMID:22797291

  19. Program Development for Primary School Teachers' Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjeam, Waraporn; Tesaputa, Kowat; Sri-ampai, Anan

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to study the elements and indicators of primary school teachers' critical thinking, 2) to study current situation, desirable situation, development technique, and need for developing the primary school teachers' critical thinking, 3) to develop the program for developing the primary school teachers'…

  20. Critical experiment program of heterogeneous core composed for LWR fuel rods and low enriched uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Shouichi; Nakamura, Takemi

    2003-01-01

    In order to stimulate the criticality characteristics of a dissolver in a reprocessing plant, a critical experiment program of heterogeneous cores is under going at a Static Critical Experimental Facility, STACY in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI. The experimental system is composed of 5w/o enriched PWR-type fuel rod array immersed in 6w/o enriched uranyl nitrate solution. First series of experiments are basic benchmark experiments on fundamental critical data in order to validate criticality calculation codes for 'general-form system' classified in the Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook, JCSHB. Second series of experiments are concerning the neutron absorber effects of fission products related to the burn-up credit Level-2. For demonstrating the reactivity effects of fission products, reactivity effects of natural elements such as Sm, Nd, Eu and 103 Rh, 133 Cs, solved in the nitrate solution are to be measured. The objective of third series of experiments is to validate the effect of gadolinium as a soluble neutron poison. Properties of temperature coefficients and kinetic parameters are also studied, since these parameters are important to evaluate the transient behavior of the criticality accident. (author)

  1. Criticality: static profiling for real-time programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandner, Florian; Hepp, Stefan; Jordan, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing performance demand in real-time systems it becomes more and more important to provide feedback to programmers and software development tools on the performance-relevant code parts of a real-time program. So far, this information was limited to an estimation of the worst....... Experiments using well-established real-time benchmark programs show an interesting distribution of the criticality values, revealing considerable amounts of highly critical as well as uncritical code. The metric thus provides ideal information to programmers and software development tools to optimize...... view covering the entire code base, tools in the spirit of program profiling are required. This work proposes an efficient approach to compute worst-case timing information for all code parts of a program using a complementary metric, called criticality. Every statement of a program is assigned...

  2. Operating experience in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, W.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1953, reprocessing has accumulated 180 years of operating experience in ten plants, six of them with 41 years of operation in reprocessing oxide fuel from light water reactors. After abortive, premature attempts at what is called commercial reprocessing, which had been oriented towards the market value of recoverable uranium and plutonium, non-military reprocessing technologies have proved their technical feasibility, since 1966 on a pilot scale and since 1976 on an industrial scale. Reprocessing experience obtained on uranium metal fuel with low and medium burnups can now certainly be extrapolated to oxide fuel with high burnup and from pilot plants to industrial scale plants using the same technologies. The perspectives of waste management of the nuclear power plants operated in the Federal Republic of Germany should be viewed realistically. The technical problems still to be solved are in a balanced relationship to the benefit arising to the national economy out of nuclear power generation and can be solved in time, provided there are clearcut political boundary conditions. (orig.) [de

  3. Recycling of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randl, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Since nuclear power was first exploited in the Federal Republic of Germany, the philosophy underlying the strategy of the nuclear fuel cycle has been to make optimum use of the resource potential of recovered uranium and plutonium within a closed fuel cycle. Apart from the weighty argument of reprocessing being an important step in the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, permitting their optimum ecological conditioning after the reprocessing step and subsequent storage underground, another argument that, no doubt, carried weight was the possibility of reducing the demand of power plants for natural uranium. In recent years, strategies of recycling have emerged for reprocessed uranium. If that energy potential, too, is to be exploited by thermal recycling, it is appropriate to choose a slightly different method of recycling from the one for plutonium. While the first generation of reprocessed uranium fuel recycled in the reactor cuts down natural uranium requirement by some 15%, the recycling of a second generation of reprocessed, once more enriched uranium fuel helps only to save a further three per cent of natural uranium. Uranium of the second generation already carries uranium-232 isotope, causing production disturbances, and uranium-236 isotope, causing disturbances of the neutron balance in the reactor, in such amounts as to make further fabrication of uranium fuel elements inexpedient, even after mixing with natural uranium feed. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Progress Report on the US Critical Zone Observatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) program supported by the National Science Foundation originated from the recommendation of the Earth Science community published in the National Research Council report "Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Sciences" (2001) to establish natural laboratories to study processes and systems of the Critical Zone - the surface and near-surface environment sustaining nearly all terrestrial life. After a number of critical zone community workshops to develop a science plan, the CZO program was initiated in 2007 with three sites and has now grown to 10 sites and a National Office, which coordinates research, education and outreach activities of the network. Several of the CZO sites are collocated with sites supported by the US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) and the Long Term Agricultural Research (LTAR) programs, and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). Future collaboration with additional sites of these networks will add to the potential to answer questions in a more comprehensive manner and in a larger regional scale about the critical zone form and function. At the international level, CZOs have been established in many countries and strong collaborations with the US program have been in place for many years. The next step is the development of a coordinated international program of critical zone research. The success of the CZO network of sites can be measured in transformative results that elucidate properties and processes controlling the critical zone and how the critical zone structure, stores and fluxes respond to climate and land use change. This understanding of the critical zone can be used to enhance resilience and sustainability, and restore ecosystem function. Thus, CZO science can address major societal challenges. The US CZO network is a facility open to research of the critical zone community at large. Scientific data and information about the US program are available at www.criticalzone.org.

  5. Critical Care Organizations: Building and Integrating Academic Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason E; Oropello, John M; Stoltzfus, Daniel; Masur, Henry; Coopersmith, Craig M; Nates, Joseph; Doig, Christopher; Christman, John; Hite, R Duncan; Angus, Derek C; Pastores, Stephen M; Kvetan, Vladimir

    2018-04-01

    Academic medical centers in North America are expanding their missions from the traditional triad of patient care, research, and education to include the broader issue of healthcare delivery improvement. In recent years, integrated Critical Care Organizations have developed within academic centers to better meet the challenges of this broadening mission. The goal of this article was to provide interested administrators and intensivists with the proper resources, lines of communication, and organizational approach to accomplish integration and Critical Care Organization formation effectively. The Academic Critical Care Organization Building section workgroup of the taskforce established regular monthly conference calls to reach consensus on the development of a toolkit utilizing methods proven to advance the development of their own academic Critical Care Organizations. Relevant medical literature was reviewed by literature search. Materials from federal agencies and other national organizations were accessed through the Internet. The Society of Critical Care Medicine convened a taskforce entitled "Academic Leaders in Critical Care Medicine" on February 22, 2016 at the 45th Critical Care Congress using the expertise of successful leaders of advanced governance Critical Care Organizations in North America to develop a toolkit for advancing Critical Care Organizations. Key elements of an academic Critical Care Organization are outlined. The vital missions of multidisciplinary patient care, safety, and quality are linked to the research, education, and professional development missions that enhance the value of such organizations. Core features, benefits, barriers, and recommendations for integration of academic programs within Critical Care Organizations are described. Selected readings and resources to successfully implement the recommendations are provided. Communication with medical school and hospital leadership is discussed. We present the rationale for critical

  6. Reprocessing in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossney, G [United Reprocessors G.m.b.H., Karlsruhe (F.R. Germany)

    1976-04-01

    The status of reprocessing activities within the member organizations of United Reprocessors is reviewed. The U.K. government has approved overseas deals by BNFL which will help to pay for their planned plant of 1000 te U p.a. at Windscale. In Germany KEWA has selected a site at Aschenburg as a fuel cycle centre where they plan to build a utility financed reprocessing plant of 1500 te U p.a. France has formed a new fuel cycle corporation, Cogema, which hopes to participate in the large volume of Japanese business negotiated by BNFL. United Reprocessors have agreed to pool their technology which may be available to organisations wishing to construct reprocessing plants in their own countries.

  7. Economic evaluation of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the Final Working Group 4 report, considers the economics of the four basic options available in nuclear programmes namely: the once-through cycle; reprocessing with uranium recycle and plutonium storage; reprocessing with both uranium and plutonium recycle; and the fast reactor. These options are represented by four separate areas on a ''phase diagram'' showing the relationship between relative generating costs and uranium ore price. The basic algebra defining each component of electricity cost is given for each option. The diagram can take different forms depending upon the relative magnitudes of the costs of reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication and whether the once-through fuel cycle is acceptable or not on grounds other than strictly economic, i.e. environmental grounds. The shortcomings of this form of presentation are also identified

  8. Program computes single-point failures in critical system designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program analyzes the designs of critical systems that will either prove the design is free of single-point failures or detect each member of the population of single-point failures inherent in a system design. This program should find application in the checkout of redundant circuits and digital systems.

  9. Critical Success Factors in a High School Healthcare Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thessin, Rebecca A.; Scully-Russ, Ellen; Lieberman, Daina S.

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated career and technical education (CTE) programs have a strong positive influence on secondary students' behavior, attendance, academic achievement, and college persistence. Critical success factors common to career academies, small schools, and CTE programs include socio-emotional support and community, along with a culture…

  10. AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Tai, Robert; Klopfenstein, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program was created to enhance the experience of gifted students as they transition from high school to college. "AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program," edited by Philip M. Sadler, Gerhard Sonnert, Robert Tai, and Kirstin Klopfenstein (2010, Harvard Education Press), questions the…

  11. Nuclear criticality safety program at the Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, R.M.; Fujita, E.K.; Tracy, D.B.; Klann, R.T.; Imel, G.R.; Benedict, R.W.; Rigg, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) is designed to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel commercial-scale remote pyrometallurgical process for metallic fuels from liquid metal-cooled reactors and to show closure of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. Requirements for nuclear criticality safety impose the most restrictive of the various constraints on the operation of FCF. The upper limits on batch sizes and other important process parameters are determined principally by criticality safety considerations. To maintain an efficient operation within appropriate safety limits, it is necessary to formulate a nuclear criticality safety program that integrates equipment design, process development, process modeling, conduct of operations, a measurement program, adequate material control procedures, and nuclear criticality analysis. The nuclear criticality safety program for FCF reflects this integration, ensuring that the facility can be operated efficiently without compromising safety. The experience gained from the conduct of this program in the Fuel cycle Facility will be used to design and safely operate IFR facilities on a commercial scale. The key features of the nuclear criticality safety program are described. The relationship of these features to normal facility operation is also described

  12. Critical Care Pharmacist Market Perceptions: Comparison of Critical Care Program Directors and Directors of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, David R; Persaud, Rosemary A; Naseman, Ryan W; Choudhary, Kavish; Carter, Kristen E; Hansen, Amanda

    2017-05-01

    Background: While hospital beds continue to decline as patients previously treated as inpatients are stabilized in ambulatory settings, the number of critical care beds available in the United States continues to rise. Growth in pharmacy student graduation, postgraduate year 2 critical care (PGY2 CC) residency programs, and positions has also increased. There is a perception that the critical care trained pharmacist market is saturated, yet this has not been evaluated since the rise in pharmacy graduates and residency programs. Purpose: To describe the current perception of critical care residency program directors (CC RPDs) and directors of pharmacy (DOPs) on the critical care pharmacist job market and to evaluate critical care postresidency placement and anticipated changes in PGY2 CC programs. Methods: Two electronic surveys were distributed from October 2015 to November 2015 through Vizient/University HealthSystem Consortium, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP), Society of Critical Care Medicine, and American College of Clinical Pharmacy listservs to target 2 groups of respondents: CC RPDs and DOPs. Questions were based on the ASHP Pharmacy Forecast and the Pharmacy Workforce Center's Aggregate Demand Index and were intended to identify perceptions of the critical care market of the 2 groups. Results: Of 116 CC RPDs, there were 66 respondents (56.9% response rate). Respondents have observed an increase in applicants; however, they do not anticipate increasing the number of positions in the next 5 years. The overall perception is that there is a balance in supply and demand in the critical care trained pharmacist market. A total of 82 DOPs responded to the survey. Turnover of critical care pharmacists within respondent organizations is expected to be low. Although a majority of DOPs plan to expand residency training positions, only 9% expect to increase positions in critical care PGY2 training. Overall, DOP respondents indicated a balance of

  13. A general approach to the testing of binary solubility systems for thermodynamic consistency. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L. L.; Vanbrunt, V.

    1982-08-01

    The numerical solution to the ordinary differential equation which describes the high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria of a binary system where one of the components is supercritical and exists as a noncondensable gas in the pure state is considered with emphasis on the implicit Runge-Kuta and orthogonal collocation methods. Some preliminary results indicate that the implicit Runge-Kutta method is superior. Due to the extreme nonlinearity of thermodynamic properties in the region near the critical locus, and extended cubic spline fitting technique is devised for correlating the P-x data. The least-squares criterion is employed in smoothing the experimental data. The technique could easily be applied to any thermodynamic data by changing the endpoint requirements. The volumetric behavior of the systems must be given or predicted in order to perform thermodynamic consistency tests. A general procedure is developed for predicting the volumetric behavior required and some indication as to the expected limit of accuracy is given.

  14. Technical aspects of fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenier, W.S.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a brief description of fuel reprocessing and some present developments which show the reliability of nuclear energy as a long-term supply. The following topics are discussed: technical reasons for reprocessing; economic reasons for reprocessing; past experience; justification for advanced reprocessing R and D; technical aspects of current reprocessing development. The present developments are mainly directed at the reprocessing of breeder reactor fuels but there are also many applications to light-water reactor fuel reprocessing. These new developments involve totally remote operation, and maintenance. To demonstrate this advanced reprocessing concept, pilot-scale demonstration facilities are planned with commercial application occurring sometime after the year 2000

  15. Italian experience with pilot reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, S.; Dworschak, H.; Rolandi, G.; Simonetta, R.

    1977-01-01

    Problems and difficulties recently experienced in the reprocessing technology of high burnup power reactor fuel elements have shown the importance of pilot plant experiments to optimize the separation processes and to test advanced equipment on a representative scale. The CNEN Eurex plant, in Saluggia (Vercelli), with a 50 kg/d thruput, in operation since '71, has completed several reprocessing campaigns on MTR type fuel elements. Two different chemical flowsheets based respectively on TBP and tertiary amines were thoroughly tested and compared: a concise comparative evaluation of the results obtained with the two schemes is given. Extensive modifications have then been introduced (namely a new headend cell equipped with a shear) to make the plant suitable to reprocess power reactor fuels. The experimental program of the plant includes a joint CNEN-AECL reprocessing experiment on CANDU (Pickering) type fuel elements to demonstrate a two cycle, amine based recovery of the plutonium. Later, a stock of high burnup fuel elements from the PWR Trino power station will be reprocessed to recover Pu and U with a Purex type flowsheet. ITREC, the second CNEN experimental reprocessing plant located at Trisaia Nuclear Center (Matera), started active operation two years ago. In the first campaign Th-U mixed oxide fuel elements irradiated in the Elk River reactor were processed. Results of this experiment are reported. ITREC special design features confer a high degree of versability to the plant allowing for substantial equipment modification under remote control conditions. For this reason the plant will be principally devoted in the near future to advanced equipment testing. Along this line high speed centrifugal contactor of a new type developed in Poland will be tested in the plant in the frame of a joint experiment between CNEN and the Polish AEC. Later on the plant program will include experimental campaign on fast reactor fuels; a detailed study on this program is in

  16. Reprocessing: experience and future outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapin, M.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that reprocessing is the best way to cope with irradiated fuels since it provides an optimized waste conditioning for long term storage, the possibility to recycle fissile material and the reduction of Pu diversion risk. The reprocessing constraints are discussed from political, technical, safety, public acceptance, and economical points of view. The French reprocessing programme (thermal reactor fuel fast breeder fuels) is presented together with a short review of the reprocessing experience and outlooks out of France [fr

  17. Future trends in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper about future trends in reprocessing essentially reflects French experience and points of view as an example of countries which, like England and Japan, consider that reprocessing is the best solution for the back end of the fuel cycle. In order to know what the future will be, it is necessary to look back at the past and try to find what have been the main reasons for evolution in that period. For reprocessing, it appears that these motivations have been 'safety and economics'. They will remain the motivations for the future. In addition, new motivations for development are starting to appear which are still imprecise but can be expressed as follows: 'which guarantees will public opinion require in order to be convinced that solutions for waste management, proposed by specialists shall ensure that a healthy environment is preserved for the use of future generations'. Consequently the paper examines successively the evolution of reprocessing in the recent past, what the immediate future could be and finally what should be necessary in the long term. (Author)

  18. Irradiated uranium reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, I.

    1961-12-01

    Task concerned with reprocessing of irradiated uranium covered the following activities: implementing the method and constructing the cell for uranium dissolving; implementing the procedure for extraction of uranium, plutonium and fission products from radioactive uranium solutions; studying the possibilities for using inorganic ion exchangers and adsorbers for separation of U, Pu and fission products

  19. Reprocessing of spent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierini, G.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for removing helium and other impurities from a mixture containing deuterium and tritium, a deuterium/tritium mixture when purified in accordance with such a process and, more particularly, to a process for the reprocessing of spent plasma removed from a thermofusion reactor. (U.K.)

  20. Importance of nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: world energy requirements; energy conservation and the economics of recycle environmental considerations and the timescale of reprocessing; and problems associated with reprocessing. The conclusion is reached that reprocessing is essential to the conservation of the world's energy resources and is an environmentally, and probably an economically, more acceptable option to the ''throw away'' alternative

  1. Light water reactor fuel reprocessing and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    This document was originally intended to provide the basis for an environmental impact statement to assist ERDA in making decisions with respect to possible LWR fuel reprocessing and recycling programs. Since the Administration has recently made a decision to indefinitely defer reprocessing, this environmental impact statement is no longer needed. Nevertheless, this document is issued as a report to assist the public in its consideration of nuclear power issues. The statement compares the various alternatives for the LWR fuel cycle. Costs and environmental effects are compared. Safeguards for plutonium from sabotage and theft are analyzed

  2. PYRO, a system for modeling fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Compact, on-site fuel reprocessing and waste management for the Integral Fast Reactor are based on the pyrochemical reprocessing of metal fuel. In that process, uranium and plutonium in spent fuel are separated from fission products in an electrorefiner using liquid cadmium and molten salt solvents. Quantitative estimates of the distribution of the chemical elements among the metal and salt phases are essential for development of both individual pyrochemical process steps and the complete process. This paper describes the PYRO system of programs used to generate reliable mass flows and compositions

  3. Problems of nuclear fuel reprocessing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Naojiro

    1974-01-01

    The reprocessing capacity of the plant No. 1 of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, which is scheduled to start operation in fiscal year 1975, will be insufficient after fiscal year 1978 for the estimated demand for reprocessing based on Japanese nuclear energy development program. Taking into consideration the results examined by JAIF's study team to Europe and the U.S., it is necessary that Japan builds 2nd reprocessing plant. But there will be a gap from 1978 to 1984 during which Japan must rely on overseas reprocessing services. The establishment of a reprocessing system is a task of national scale, and there are many problems to be solved before it can be done. These include the problems of site and environment, the problem of treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, the raising of huge required funds and so on. Therefore, even if a private enterprise is allowed to undertake the task, it will be impossible to achieve the aim without the cooperation and assistance of the government. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization qualification program. Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization (NCSO) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of highly qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document defines the Qualification Program to address the NCSO technical and managerial qualification as required by the Y-12 Training Implementation Matrix (TIM). It is implemented through a combination of LMES plant-wide training courses and professional nuclear criticality safety training provided within the organization. This Qualification Program is applicable to technical and managerial NCSO personnel, including temporary personnel, sub-contractors and/or LMES employees on loan to the NCSO, who perform the NCS tasks or serve NCS-related positions as defined in sections 5 and 6 of this program

  5. Nuclear criticality safety specialist training and qualification programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Division of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) in 1967, the nuclear criticality safety (NCS) community has sought to provide an exchange of information at a national level to facilitate the education and development of NCS specialists. In addition, individual criticality safety organizations within government contractor and licensed commercial nonreactor facilities have developed training and qualification programs for their NCS specialists. However, there has been substantial variability in the content and quality of these program requirements and personnel qualifications, at least as measured within the government contractor community. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief, general history of staff training and to describe the current direction and focus of US DOE guidance for the content of training and qualification programs designed to develop NCS specialists

  6. Tank waste remediation system nuclear criticality safety program management review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRADY RAAP, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the results of an internal management review of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) criticality safety program, performed in advance of the DOE/RL assessment for closure of the TWRS Nuclear Criticality Safety Issue, March 1994. Resolution of the safety issue was identified as Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-40-12, due September 1999

  7. The initial criticality and nuclear commissioning test program at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong-Sung; Seo, Chul-Gyo; Jun, Byung-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dukjin-Dong 150, Yusung-Ku, Taejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The construction of the Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor - HANARO of 3MW, developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, was completed at the beginning of this year. The first fuel loading began on February 2 1995, and initial criticality was achieved on February 8, when the core had four 18-element assemblies and thirteen 36-element assemblies. The critical control rod position was 600.8 mm which represents excess reactivity of 0.71 $. Currently the nuclear commissioning test is on going under the zero power range. This paper describes the initial criticality approach of the HANARO, and its nuclear commissioning test program. (author)

  8. Critical thinking of registered nurses in a fellowship program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zori, Susan; Kohn, Nina; Gallo, Kathleen; Friedman, M Isabel

    2013-08-01

    Critical thinking is essential to nursing practice. This study examined differences in the critical thinking dispositions of registered nurses (RNs) in a nursing fellowship program. Control and experimental groups were used to compare differences in scores on the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) of RNs at three points during a fellowship program: baseline, week 7, and month 5. The control group consisted of RNs who received no education in critical thinking. The experimental group received education in critical thinking using simulated scenarios and reflective journaling. CCTDI scores examined with analysis of variance showed no significant difference within groups over time or between groups. The baseline scores of the experimental group were slightly higher than those of the control group. Chi-square analysis of demographic variables between the two groups showed no significant differences. Critical thinking dispositions are a combination of attitudes, values, and beliefs that make up one's personality based on life experience. Lack of statistical significance using a quantitative approach did not capture the development of the critical thinking dispositions of participants. A secondary qualitative analysis of journal entries is being conducted. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Reliability engineering analysis of ATLAS data reprocessing campaigns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniachine, A; Golubkov, D; Karpenko, D

    2014-01-01

    During three years of LHC data taking, the ATLAS collaboration completed three petascale data reprocessing campaigns on the Grid, with up to 2 PB of data being reprocessed every year. In reprocessing on the Grid, failures can occur for a variety of reasons, while Grid heterogeneity makes failures hard to diagnose and repair quickly. As a result, Big Data processing on the Grid must tolerate a continuous stream of failures, errors and faults. While ATLAS fault-tolerance mechanisms improve the reliability of Big Data processing in the Grid, their benefits come at costs and result in delays making the performance prediction difficult. Reliability Engineering provides a framework for fundamental understanding of the Big Data processing on the Grid, which is not a desirable enhancement but a necessary requirement. In ATLAS, cost monitoring and performance prediction became critical for the success of the reprocessing campaigns conducted in preparation for the major physics conferences. In addition, our Reliability Engineering approach supported continuous improvements in data reprocessing throughput during LHC data taking. The throughput doubled in 2011 vs. 2010 reprocessing, then quadrupled in 2012 vs. 2011 reprocessing. We present the Reliability Engineering analysis of ATLAS data reprocessing campaigns providing the foundation needed to scale up the Big Data processing technologies beyond the petascale.

  10. Reprocessing plants safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.G.; Leighton, C.; Millington, D.

    1989-01-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield site consists of a number of relatively self-contained activities carried out in separate plants across the site. The physical conditions and time scales applied in reprocessing and storage make it relatively benign. The potential for minor releases of radioactivity under fault conditioning is minimised by plant design definition of control procedures, training and supervision. The risks to both the general public and workforce are shown to be low with all the safety criteria being met. Normal operating conditions also have the potential for some occupational radiation exposure and the plant and workers are monitored continuously. Exposure levels have been reduced steadily and will continue to fall with plant improvements. (U.K.)

  11. The international reprocessing situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sornein, J.

    1976-01-01

    It is investigated what volume and availability of reprocessing capacity is needed for LWR (and AGR) fuel elements for Western Europe, USA, and Japan during the period from 1980 to 1990. Taking into account the technical, financial, and licensing difficulties, an optimistic and pessimistic assessment is made especially for Western Europe, and from the findings conclusions are drawn for spent fuel element storage and nuclear power plant construction. (HR/LN) [de

  12. Reprocessing input data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Bucher, R.G.; Pond, R.B.; Cornella, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), in conjunction with the gravimetric (Pu/U ratio) method for mass determination, provides an independent verification of the input accountancy at the dissolver or accountancy stage of the reprocessing plant. The Isotope Correlation Technique has been applied to many classes of domestic and international reactor systems (light-water, heavy-water, graphite, and liquid-metal) operating in a variety of modes (power, research, production, and breeder), and for a variety of reprocessing fuel cycle management strategies. Analysis of reprocessing operations data based on isotopic correlations derived for assemblies in a PWR environment and fuel management scheme, yielded differences between the measurement-derived and ICT-derived plutonium mass determinations of (-0.02 ± 0.23)% for the measured U-235 and (+0.50 ± 0.31)% for the measured Pu-239, for a core campaign. The ICT analyses has been implemented for the plutonium isotopics in a depleted uranium assembly in a heavy-water, enriched uranium system and for the uranium isotopes in the fuel assemblies in light-water, highly-enriched systems. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Research and development of FBR fuel reprocessing in PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, T.

    1976-05-01

    The research program of the PNC for FBR fuel reprocessing in Japan is discussed. The general characteristics of FBR fuel reprocessing are pointed out and a comparison with LWR fuel is made. The R and D program is based on reprocessing using the aqueous Purex process. So far, some preliminary steps of the research program have been carried out, these include solvent extraction test, off-gas treatment test, voloxidation process study, solidification test of high-level liquid waste, and study of the dissolution behaviour of irradiated mixed oxide fuel. By the end of the 1980s, a pilot plant for FBR fuel reprocessing will be completed. For the design of the pilot plant, further research will be carried out in the following fields: head-end techniques; voloxidation process; dissolution and extraction techniques; waste treatment techniques. A time schedule for the different steps of the program is included

  14. Safety aspects of solvent nitration in HTGR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbourn, R.G.

    1977-06-01

    Reprocessing of HTGR fuels requires evaporative concentration of uranium and thorium nitrate solutions. The results of a bench-scale test program conducted to assess the safety aspects of planned concentrator operations are reported

  15. Effectiveness of reprocessing for flexible bronchoscopes and endobronchial ultrasound bronchoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofstead, Cori L; Quick, Mariah R; Wetzler, Harry P; Eiland, John E; Heymann, Otis L; Sonetti, David A; Ferguson, J Scott

    2018-05-30

    Infections have been linked to inadequately-reprocessed flexible bronchoscopes, and recent investigations determined that pathogen transmission occurred even when bronchoscope cleaning and disinfection practices aligned with current guidelines. This multisite, prospective study evaluated the effectiveness of real-world bronchoscope reprocessing methods using a systematic approach. This study involved direct observation of reprocessing methods for flexible bronchoscopes, multifaceted evaluations performed after manual cleaning and after high-level disinfection, and assessments of storage conditions. Visual inspections of ports and channels were performed using lighted magnification and borescopes. Contamination was detected using microbial cultures and tests for protein, hemoglobin, and adenosine triphosphate. Researchers assessed reprocessing practices, and storage cabinet cleanliness was evaluated by visual inspection and adenosine triphosphate tests. Researchers examined 24 clinically used bronchoscopes. After manual cleaning, 100% of bronchoscopes had residual contamination. Microbial growth was found in 14 (58%) fully-reprocessed bronchoscopes, including mold, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Escherichia coli/Shigella spp. Visible irregularities were observed in 100% of bronchoscopes, including retained fluid; brown, red, or oily residue; scratches; damaged insertion tubes and distal ends; and filamentous debris in channels. Reprocessing practices were substandard at two of three sites. Damaged and contaminated bronchoscopes were in use at all sites. Inadequate reprocessing practices may have contributed to bioburden found on bronchoscopes. However, even when guidelines were followed, high-level disinfection was not effective. A shift toward the use of sterilized bronchoscopes is recommended. In the meantime, quality management programs and updated reprocessing guidelines are needed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Program for rapid dose assessment in criticality accident, RADAPAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2006-09-01

    In a criticality accident, a person near fissile material can receive extremely high dose which can cause acute health effect. For such a case, medical treatment should be carried out for the exposed person, according to severity of the exposure. Then, radiation dose should be rapidly assessed soon after an outbreak of an accident. Dose assessment based upon the quantity of induced 24 Na in human body through neutron exposure is expected as one of useful dosimetry techniques in a criticality accident. A dose assessment program, called RADAPAS (RApid Dose Assessment Program from Activated Sodium in Criticality Accidents), was therefore developed to assess rapidly radiation dose to exposed persons from activity of induced 24 Na. RADAPAS consists of two parts; one is a database part and the other is a part for execution of dose calculation. The database contains data compendiums of energy spectra and dose conversion coefficients from specific activity of 24 Na induced in human body, which had been derived in a previous analysis using Monte Carlo calculation code. Information for criticality configuration or characteristics of radiation in the accident field is to be interactively given with interface displays in the dose calculation. RADAPAS can rapidly derive radiation dose to the exposed person from the given information and measured 24 Na specific activity by using the conversion coefficient in database. This report describes data for dose conversions and dose calculation in RADAPAS and explains how to use the program. (author)

  17. Nuclear fuel cycle: (5) reprocessing of irradiated fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.A.

    1977-09-01

    The evolution of the reprocessing of irradiated fuel and the recovery of plutonium from it is traced out, starting by following the Manhatten project up to the present time. A brief description of the plant and processes used for reprocessing is given, while the Purex process, which is used in all plants today, is given special attention. Some of the important safety problems of reprocessing plants are considered, together with the solutions which have been adopted. Some examples of the more important safety aspects are the control of activity, criticality control, and the environmental impact. The related topic of irradiated fuel transport is briefly discussed.

  18. Nuclear safety in fuel-reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennies, H.H.; Koerting, K.

    1976-01-01

    The danger potential of nuclear power and fuel reprocessing plants in normal operation is compared. It becomes obvious that there are no basic differences. The analysis of possible accidents - blow-up of an evaporator for highly active wastes, zircaloy burning, cooling failure in self-heating process solutions, burning of a charged solvent, criticality accidents - shows that they are kept under control by the plant layout. (HP) [de

  19. The search for advanced remote technology in fast reactor reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Herndon, J.N.; Stradley, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Research and development in fast reactor reprocessing has been under way about 20 years in several countries throughout the world. During the past decade in France and the United Kingdom, active development programs have been carried out in breeder reprocessing. Actual fuels from their demonstration reactors have been reprocessed in small-scale facilities. Early US work in breeder reprocessing was carried out at the EBR-II facilities with the early metal fuels, and interest has renewed recently in metal fuels. A major, comprehensive program, focused on oxide fuels, has been carried out in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1974. Germany and Japan have also carried out development programs in breeder reprocessing, and Japan appears committed to major demonstration of breeder reactors and their fuel cycles. While much of the effort in all of these programs addressed process chemistry and process hardware, a significant element of many of these programs, particularly the CFRP, has been on advancements in facility concepts and remote maintenance features. This paper will focus principally on the search for improved facility concepts and better maintenance systems in the CFRP and, in turn, on how developments at ORNL have influenced the technology elsewhere

  20. Training and qualification program for nuclear criticality safety technical staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    A training and qualification program for nuclear criticality safety technical staff personnel has been developed and implemented. The program is compliant with requirements and provides evidence that a systematic approach has been taken to indoctrinate new technical staff. Development involved task analysis to determine activities where training was necessary and the standard which must be attained to qualify. Structured mentoring is used where experienced personnel interact with candidates using checksheets to guide candidates through various steps and to provide evidence that steps have been accomplished. Credit can be taken for the previous experience of personnel by means of evaluation boards which can credit or modify checksheet steps. Considering just the wealth of business practice and site specific information a new person at a facility needs to assimilate, the program has been effective in indoctrinating new technical staff personnel and integrating them into a productive role. The program includes continuing training

  1. Model-based automated testing of critical PLC programs.

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; González Suárez, V M; Bliudze, S

    2014-01-01

    Testing of critical PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) programs remains a challenging task for control system engineers as it can rarely be automated. This paper proposes a model based approach which uses the BIP (Behavior, Interactions and Priorities) framework to perform automated testing of PLC programs developed with the UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) framework. This paper defines the translation procedure and rules from UNICOS to BIP which can be fully automated in order to hide the complexity of the underlying model from the control engineers. The approach is illustrated and validated through the study of a water treatment process.

  2. From Safety Critical Java Programs to Timed Process Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bent; Luckow, Kasper Søe; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2015-01-01

    frameworks, we have in recent years pursued an agenda of translating hard-real-time embedded safety critical programs written in the Safety Critical Java Profile [33] into networks of timed automata [4] and subjecting those to automated analysis using the UPPAAL model checker [10]. Several tools have been...... built and the tools have been used to analyse a number of systems for properties such as worst case execution time, schedulability and energy optimization [12–14,19,34,36,38]. In this paper we will elaborate on the theoretical underpinning of the translation from Java programs to timed automata models...... and briefly summarize some of the results based on this translation. Furthermore, we discuss future work, especially relations to the work in [16,24] as Java recently has adopted first class higher order functions in the form of lambda abstractions....

  3. Economic evaluation of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper first identifies the main factors which influence the economic assessment of reprocessing. It proposes the use of a diagram - the so-called ''phase diagram'' - which plots the fast reactor premium against the price of uranium. The diagram delineates areas where the once-through fuel cycle, thermal recycle and fast reactor will be the preferred choice from micro-economic considerations. The paper then goes on to consider the circumstances under which a country may or may not wish to introduce thermal recycle or fast reactors. Finally, a procedure for further discussion on economic considerations with WG4 is proposed

  4. Economic evaluation of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper presents a progress report of work undertaken relevant to the economic evaluation of reprocessing. It sets out the assumptions to be made for the preparation of the economic ''phase diagram'' - a plot of fast reactor premium against uranium (U 3 O 8 ) price. The paper discusses the assumptions to be made in respect of present worth methodology, LWR fuel logistics, U 3 O 8 price, enrichment tails, plutonium values, fast reactor premium and proposes a set of reference costs to be used for the preparation of the phase diagram

  5. A Critical Analysis of Attribute Development Programs for Army Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    implement a holistic approach to developing attributes within its members. These domains are human performance, psychological performance, spiritual ...A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF ATTRIBUTE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS FOR ARMY LEADERS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 10-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015

  6. Flory-Stockmayer analysis on reprocessable polymer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingqiao; Chen, Xi; Jin, Kailong; Torkelson, John

    Reprocessable polymer networks can undergo structure rearrangement through dynamic chemistries under proper conditions, making them a promising candidate for recyclable crosslinked materials, e.g. tires. This research field has been focusing on various chemistries. However, there has been lacking of an essential physical theory explaining the relationship between abundancy of dynamic linkages and reprocessability. Based on the classical Flory-Stockmayer analysis on network gelation, we developed a similar analysis on reprocessable polymer networks to quantitatively predict the critical condition for reprocessability. Our theory indicates that it is unnecessary for all bonds to be dynamic to make the resulting network reprocessable. As long as there is no percolated permanent network in the system, the material can fully rearrange. To experimentally validate our theory, we used a thiol-epoxy network model system with various dynamic linkage compositions. The stress relaxation behavior of resulting materials supports our theoretical prediction: only 50 % of linkages between crosslinks need to be dynamic for a tri-arm network to be reprocessable. Therefore, this analysis provides the first fundamental theoretical platform for designing and evaluating reprocessable polymer networks. We thank McCormick Research Catalyst Award Fund and ISEN cluster fellowship (L. L.) for funding support.

  7. Reprocessing flowsheet and material balance for MEU spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, L.

    1978-10-01

    In response to nonproliferation concerns, the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) Fuel Recycle Development Program is investigating the processing requirements for a denatured medium-enriched uranium--thorium (MEU/Th) fuel cycle. Prior work emphasized the processing requirements for a high-enriched uranium--thorium (HEU/Th) fuel cycle. This report presents reprocessing flowsheets for an HTGR/MEU fuel recycle base case. Material balance data have been calculated for reprocessing of spent MEU and recycle fuels in the HTGR Recycle Reference Facility (HRRF). Flowsheet and mass flow effects in MEU-cycle reprocessing are discussed in comparison with prior HEU-cycle flowsheets

  8. Critical Issues Forum: A multidisciplinary educational program integrating computer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, R.J.; Robertson, B.; Jacobs, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The Critical Issues Forum (CIF) funded by the US Department of Energy is a collaborative effort between the Science Education Team of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and New Mexico high schools to improve science education throughout the state of New Mexico as well as nationally. By creating an education relationship between the LANL with its unique scientific resources and New Mexico high schools, students and teachers participate in programs that increase not only their science content knowledge but also their critical thinking and problem-solving skills. The CIF program focuses on current, globally oriented topics crucial to the security of not only the US but to that of all nations. The CIF is an academic-year program that involves both teachers and students in the process of seeking solutions for real world concerns. Built around issues tied to LANL`s mission, participating students and teachers are asked to critically investigate and examine the interactions among the political, social, economic, and scientific domains while considering diversity issues that include geopolitical entities and cultural and ethnic groupings. Participants are expected to collaborate through telecommunications during the research phase and participate in a culminating multimedia activity, where they produce and deliver recommendations for the current issues being studied. The CIF was evaluated and found to be an effective approach for teacher professional training, especially in the development of skills for critical thinking and questioning. The CIF contributed to students` ability to integrate diverse disciplinary content about science-related topics and supported teachers in facilitating the understanding of their students using the CIF approach. Networking technology in CIF has been used as an information repository, resource delivery mechanism, and communication medium.

  9. Pediatric Critical Care Telemedicine Program: A Single Institution Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Maria; Hojman, Nayla; Sadorra, Candace; Dharmar, Madan; Nesbitt, Thomas S; Litman, Rebecca; Marcin, James P

    2016-01-01

    Rural and community emergency departments (EDs) often receive and treat critically ill children despite limited access to pediatric expertise. Increasingly, pediatric critical care programs at children's hospitals are using telemedicine to provide consultations to these EDs with the goal of increasing the quality of care. We conducted a retrospective review of a pediatric critical care telemedicine program at a single university children's hospital. Between the years 2000 and 2014, we reviewed all telemedicine consultations provided to children in rural and community EDs, classified the visits using a comprehensive evidence-based set of chief complaints, and reported the consultations' impact on patient disposition. We also reviewed the total number of pediatric ED visits to calculate the relative frequency with which telemedicine consultations were provided. During the study period, there were 308 consultations provided to acutely ill and/or injured children for a variety of chief complaints, most commonly for respiratory illnesses, acute injury, and neurological conditions. Since inception, the number of consultations has been increasing, as has the number of participating EDs (n = 18). Telemedicine consultations were conducted on 8.6% of seriously ill children, the majority of which resulted in admission to the receiving hospital (n = 150, 49%), with a minority of patients requiring transport to the university children's hospital (n = 103, 33%). This single institutional, university children's hospital-based review demonstrates that a pediatric critical care telemedicine program used to provide consultations to seriously ill children in rural and community EDs is feasible, sustainable, and used relatively infrequently, most typically for the sickest pediatric patients.

  10. Reprocessing yields and material throughput: HTGR recycle demonstration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, N.; Abraham, L.

    1977-08-01

    Recovery and reuse of residual U-235 and bred U-233 from the HTGR thorium-uranium fuel cycle will contribute significantly to HTGR fuel cycle economics and to uranium resource conservation. The Thorium Utilization National Program Plan for HTGR Fuel Recycle Development includes the demonstration, on a production scale, of reprocessing and refabrication processes in an HTGR Recycle Demonstration Facility (HRDF). This report addresses process yields and material throughput that may be typically expected in the reprocessing of highly enriched uranium fuels in the HRDF. Material flows will serve as guidance in conceptual design of the reprocessing portion of the HRDF. In addition, uranium loss projections, particle breakage limits, and decontamination factor requirements are identified to serve as guidance to the HTGR fuel reprocessing development program

  11. Japanese national reference reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This paper gives a general description of the proposed Japanese national reprocessing plant and of the design philosophy. The plant is in most respects similar to the base case reprocessing plant, with an annual throughput of 100-1500 tU. The plant would be co-located with a fuel fabrication facility

  12. Selected studies in HTGR reprocessing development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1976-03-01

    Recent work at ORNL on hot cell studies, off-gas cleanup, and waste handling is reviewed. The work includes small-scale burning tests with irradiated fuels to study fission product release, development of the KALC process for the removal of 85 Kr from a CO 2 stream, preliminary work on a nonfluidized bed burner, solvent extraction studies including computer modeling, characterization of reprocessing wastes, and initiation of a development program for the fixation of 14 C as CaCO 3

  13. Reprocessing on the whole fuel cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.

    1983-11-01

    Spent fuel reprocessing, in France, is become an industrial reality which takes an importance place in several fields: place surely essential in the fuel cycle from the energetic material economy and waste management point of view; place priority in the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) research and development programs; place in the industry where it is an important activity sector with the realizations in progress [fr

  14. Fuel reprocessing/fabrication interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benistan, G.; Blanchon, T.; Galimberti, M.; Mignot, E.

    1987-01-01

    EDF has conducted a major research, development and experimental programme concerning the recycling of plutonium and reprocessed uranium in pressurized water reactors, in collaboration with its major partners in the nuclear fuel cycle industry. Studies already conducted have demonstrated the technical and economic advantages of this recycling, as also its feasibility with due observance of the safety and reliability criteria constantly applied throughout the industrial development of the nuclear power sector in France. Data feedback from actual experience will make it possible to control the specific technical characteristics of MOX and reprocessed uranium fuels to a higher degree, as also management, viewed from the economic standpoint, of irradiated fuels and materials recovered from reprocessing. The next step will be to examine the reprocessing of MOX for reprocessed uranium fuels, either for secondary recycling in the PWR units, or, looking further ahead, in the fast breeders or later generation PWR units, after a storage period of a few years

  15. Reprocessing of nonoptimally exposed holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, G.S.; Robertson, C.E.; Tamashiro, F.M.

    1980-01-01

    Two reprocessing techniques have been investigated that are capable of correcting the effects of nonoptimum optical density of photographic amplitude holograms recorded on Agfa-Gevaert type 10E75 plates. In some cases a reprocessed hologram will exhibit a diffraction efficiency even higher than that obtainable from a hologram exposed and processed to the optimum density. The SNR of the reprocessed holograms is much higher than that of the same holograms belached with cupric bromide. In some cases the SNR approaches the optimum value for a properly exposed amplitude hologram. Subjective image quality and resolution of reprocessed hologram reconstructins appear to be no different than for normal single-development holograms. Repeated reprocessing is feasible and in some cases desirable as a means of increasing diffraction efficiency

  16. Probabilistic dual heuristic programming-based adaptive critic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Randa

    2010-02-01

    Adaptive critic (AC) methods have common roots as generalisations of dynamic programming for neural reinforcement learning approaches. Since they approximate the dynamic programming solutions, they are potentially suitable for learning in noisy, non-linear and non-stationary environments. In this study, a novel probabilistic dual heuristic programming (DHP)-based AC controller is proposed. Distinct to current approaches, the proposed probabilistic (DHP) AC method takes uncertainties of forward model and inverse controller into consideration. Therefore, it is suitable for deterministic and stochastic control problems characterised by functional uncertainty. Theoretical development of the proposed method is validated by analytically evaluating the correct value of the cost function which satisfies the Bellman equation in a linear quadratic control problem. The target value of the probabilistic critic network is then calculated and shown to be equal to the analytically derived correct value. Full derivation of the Riccati solution for this non-standard stochastic linear quadratic control problem is also provided. Moreover, the performance of the proposed probabilistic controller is demonstrated on linear and non-linear control examples.

  17. Reliability Engineering Analysis of ATLAS Data Reprocessing Campaigns

    CERN Document Server

    Vaniachine, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Karpenko, D

    2013-01-01

    During three years of LHC data taking, the ATLAS collaboration completed three petascale data reprocessing campaigns on the Grid, with up to 2 PB of data being reprocessed every year. In reprocessing on the Grid, failures can occur for a variety of reasons, while Grid heterogeneity makes failures hard to diagnose and repair quickly. As a result, Big Data processing on the Grid must tolerate a continuous stream of failures, errors and faults. While ATLAS fault-tolerance mechanisms improve the reliability of Big Data processing in the Grid, their benefits come at costs and result in delays making the performance prediction difficult. Reliability Engineering provides a framework for fundamental understanding of the Big Data processing on the Grid, which is not a desirable enhancement but a necessary requirement. In ATLAS, cost monitoring and performance prediction became critical for the success of the reprocessing campaigns conducted in preparation for the major physics conferences. In addition, our Reliability...

  18. Reliability Engineering Analysis of ATLAS Data Reprocessing Campaigns

    CERN Document Server

    Vaniachine, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Karpenko, D

    2014-01-01

    During three years of LHC data taking, the ATLAS collaboration completed three petascale data reprocessing campaigns on the Grid, with up to 2 PB of data being reprocessed every year. In reprocessing on the Grid, failures can occur for a variety of reasons, while Grid heterogeneity makes failures hard to diagnose and repair quickly. As a result, Big Data processing on the Grid must tolerate a continuous stream of failures, errors and faults. While ATLAS fault-tolerance mechanisms improve the reliability of Big Data processing in the Grid, their benefits come at costs and result in delays making the performance prediction difficult. Reliability Engineering provides a framework for fundamental understanding of the Big Data processing on the Grid, which is not a desirable enhancement but a necessary requirement. In ATLAS, cost monitoring and performance prediction became critical for the success of the reprocessing campaigns conducted in preparation for the major physics conferences. In addition, our Reliability...

  19. Review of monitoring instruments for transuranics in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. A progress report to the physical and technological programs, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the monitoring instruments for transuranic elements released from nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants has been compiled. The extent of routine operational releases has been reviewed for the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle (including plutonium recycle), the breeder reactor fuel cycle, and the high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel cycle. The stack monitoring instrumentation that is presently in use at the various fabrication and reprocessing plants around the country is examined. Sampling difficulties including the inlet-probe arrangement and the effectiveness of the entire sampling system are discussed, as are the measurement problems for alpha-emitting, long-lived, transuranic aerosols, 129 I, 106 Ru, and tritium oxide. The potential problems in the HTGR fuel cycle such as the measurement of releases of alpha-emitting aerosols and of gaseous releases of 220 Rn and 14 C are also considered. Monitoring requirements range from the detection of low-level, routine releases to high-level accidental releases. Both first and second kinds of detection errors are considered in a discussion of adequate detection limits. The presently deployed monitors are critically examined in this light and the drawbacks and limitations of each are noted. Prototype instrumentation is studied, including Argonne's mechanical separation technique, Battelle's mass separation by surface ionization method, and in particular, LLL's transuranic aerosol measurement system. The potentials, sensitivities, advantages, and limitations of each system are enumerated. The additional potential uses of the LLL system are also discussed

  20. EOS Data Products Latency and Reprocessing Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Wanchoo, L.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) program has been processing, archiving, and distributing EOS data since the launch of Terra platform in 1999. The EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and Science-Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPSs) are generating over 5000 unique products with a daily average volume of 1.7 Petabytes. Initially EOSDIS had requirements to make process data products within 24 hours of receiving all inputs needed for generating them. Thus, generally, the latency would be slightly over 24 and 48 hours after satellite data acquisition, respectively, for Level 1 and Level 2 products. Due to budgetary constraints these requirements were relaxed, with the requirement being to avoid a growing backlog of unprocessed data. However, the data providers have been generating these products in as timely a manner as possible. The reduction in costs of computing hardware has helped considerably. It is of interest to analyze the actual latencies achieved over the past several years in processing and inserting the data products into the EOSDIS archives for the users to support various scientific studies such as land processes, oceanography, hydrology, atmospheric science, cryospheric science, etc. The instrument science teams have continuously evaluated the data products since the launches of EOS satellites and improved the science algorithms to provide high quality products. Data providers have periodically reprocessed the previously acquired data with these improved algorithms. The reprocessing campaigns run for an extended time period in parallel with forward processing, since all data starting from the beginning of the mission need to be reprocessed. Each reprocessing activity involves more data than the previous reprocessing. The historical record of the reprocessing times would be of interest to future missions, especially those involving large volumes of data and/or computational loads due to

  1. Thorex reprocessing characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to bring together, in highly condensed form, information which would need to be considered in planning a commercial reprocessing plant for recovering 233 U-Th reactor fuel. This report does not include a discussion of process modifications which would be required for thorium-base fuels that contain plutonium (such as would be required for thorium fuels containing 235 U or 233 U denatured with 238 U). It is the intent of this paper to address only the basic Thorex process for treating 233 U-Th fuels. As will be pointed out, the degree of development of the various proposed operations varies widely, from preliminary laboratory experiments for the dissolution of Zircaloy-clad thoria to engineering scale demonstration of the recovery of moderately irradiated thorium by a solvent extraction process (Thorex)

  2. Aqueous reprocessing - some dreams!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    India has been pursuing a aqueous reprocessing based closed fuel cycle for both thermal and fast reactor fuels employing the PUREX process. Though the country has more than six decades of experience, the dreams or wish lists such as, a highly efficient process with textbook specifications of 99.9% recovery of U and Pu, a DF of more than 10 7 for both U and Pu from the fission products, operating with name plate capacity with high safety, low waste generation, recovery of useful fission products and minor actinides from high level waste are never ceasing and ever growing. The talk will cover safety precautions and actions to be taken in the steps listed below, to ensure a safe and successful process

  3. KENO IV: an improved Monte Carlo criticality program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.; Cross, N.F.

    1975-11-01

    KENO IV is a multigroup Monte Carlo criticality program written for the IBM 360 computers. It executes rapidly and is flexibly dimensioned so the allowed size of a problem (i.e., the number of energy groups, number of geometry cards, etc., are arbitrary) is limited only by the total data storage required. The input data, with the exception of cross sections, fission spectra and albedos, may be entered in free form. The geometry input is quite simple to prepare and complicated three-dimensional systems can often be described with a minimum of effort. The results calculated by KENO IV include k-effective, lifetime and generation time, energy-dependent leakages and absorptions, energy- and region-dependent fluxes and region-dependent fission densities. Criticality searches can be made on unit dimensions or on the number of units in an array. A summary of the theory utilized by KENO IV, a section describing the logical program flow, a compilation of the error messages printed by the code and a comprehensive data guide for preparing input to the code are presented. 14 references

  4. Analysis and study of spent fuel reprocessing technology from birth to present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Keizo

    2006-01-01

    As for the nuclear fuel reprocessing of the spent fuel, although there was argument of pros and cons, it was decided to start Rokkasho reprocessing project further at the Japan Atomic Energy Commission of ''Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'' in year 2004. The operation of Tokai Reprocessing is going steadily to reprocess spent fuel more than 1,100 tons. In this paper, history, present status and future of reprocessing technology is discussed focusing from military Pu production, Magnox fuel reprocessing to oxide fuel reprocessing. Amount of reprocessed fuel are estimated based on fuel type. Then, history of reprocessing, US, UK, France, Germany, Russian, Belgian and Japan is presented and compared on technology, national character, development organization, environmental protection, and high active waste vitrification. Technical requirements are increased from Pu production fuel, Magnox fuel and oxide fuel mainly because of higher burnup. Reprocessing technology is synthetic of engineering and accumulation of operational experience. The lessons learned from the operational experience of the world will be helpful for establishment of nuclear fuel reprocessing technology in Japan. (author)

  5. Study of assessing aqueous reprocessing process for the pipeless reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Masatoshi; Morioka, Nobuo; Fumoto, Hiromichi; Nishimura, Kenji; Chikazawa, Takahiro

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of new reprocessing process for the purpose of introducing pipeless plant concept, where aqueous separation methods other than solvent extraction method are adopted in order to develop more economical FBR fuel (MOX fuel) reprocessing process. At it's first stage, literature survey on precipitation method, crystallization method and ion-exchange method was performed. Based on the results, following processes were candidated for pipeless reprocessing plant. (1) The process adopting crystallization method and peroxide precipitation method (2) The process adopting oxalate precipitation method (3) The process under mild aqueous conditions (crystallization method and precipitation method) (4) The process adopting crystallization method and ion-exchange method (5) The process adopting crystallization method and solvent extraction method. The processes (1)-(5) were compared with each others in terms of competitiveness to the conventional reference process, and merits and demerits were evaluated from the viewpoint of applicability to pipeless reprocessing plant, safety, economy, Efficiencies in consumption of Resources, non-proliferation, and, Operation and Maintenance. As a result, (1) The process adopting crystallization method and peroxide precipitation method was selected as the most reasonable process to pipeless plant. Preliminary criticality safety analyses, main process chemical flowsheet, main equipment list and layout of mobile vessels and stations were reported for the (1) process. (author)

  6. Effect of the essentials of critical care orientation (ECCO) program on the development of nurses' critical thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud A

    2010-09-01

    It is essential for nurses to develop critical thinking skills to ensure their ability to provide safe and effective care to patients with complex and variable needs in ever-changing clinical environments. To date, very few studies have been conducted to examine how nursing orientation programs develop the critical thinking skills of novice critical care nurses. Strikingly, no research studies could be found about the American Association of Critical Care Nurses Essentials of Critical Care Orientation (ECCO) program and specifically its effect on the development of nurses' critical thinking skills. This study explored the perceptions of new graduate nurses regarding factors that helped to develop their critical thinking skills throughout their 6-month orientation program in the intensive care unit. A convenient non-probability sample of eight new graduates was selected from a hospital that used the ECCO program. Data were collected with demographic questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. An exploratory qualitative research method with content analysis was used to analyze the data. The study findings showed that new graduate nurses perceived that they developed critical thinking skills that improved throughout the orientation period, although there were some challenges in the ECCO program. This study provides data that could influence the development and implementation of future nursing orientation programs. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Experience and prospects in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeau, J.-P.

    1997-01-01

    Reprocessing nuclear fuels is a long and successful industrial story. For decades, commercial reprocessing plants have been operating in France, the United Kingdom and Japan. The industrial outcome is clear and widely recognized: thousand tons of spent fuels have been reprocessed in these plants. Over the years, these facilities have been adapted to new types of fuel. Thus, the nuclear industry has fully demonstrated its ability to cope with technological change and its capacity to adapt itself to improvements. For decades, technical capability has been stressed and emphasized by nuclear industrial leaders as the most important point. This is no longer the case. Today the industry has to face a new commercial reality and to find the most adaptable answer to the utilities' requirements. This paper presents the current achievements and medium and long-term trends of the nuclear reprocessing activity, the ongoing commercial changes and gives an outlook for future evolutions. International political factors will also be examined. (author)

  8. Cost and availability of gadolinium for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, O.H.

    1985-06-01

    Gadolinium is currently planned for use as a soluble neutron poison in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants to prevent criticality of solutions of spent fuel. Gadolinium is relatively rare and expensive. The present study was undertaken therefore to estimate whether this material is likely to be available in quantities sufficient for fuel reprocessing and at reasonable prices. It was found that gadolinium, one of 16 rare earth elements, appears in the marketplace as a by-product and that its present supply is a function of the production rate of other more prevalent rare earths. The potential demand for gadolinium in a fuel reprocessing facility serving a future fast reactor industry amounts to only a small fraction of the supply. At the present rate of consumption, domestic supplies of rare earths containing gadolinium are adequate to meet national needs (including fuel reprocessing) for over 100 years. With access to foreign sources, US demands can be met well beyond the 21st century. It is concluded therefore that the supply of gadolinium will quite likely be more than adequate for reprocessing spent fuel for the early generation of fast reactors. The current price of 99.99% pure gadolinium oxide lies in the range $50/lb to $65/lb (1984 dollars). By the year 2020, in time for reprocessing spent fuel from an early generation of large fast reactors, the corresponding values are expected to lie in the $60/lb to $75/lb (1984 dollars) price range. This increase is modest and its economic impact on nuclear fuel reprocessing would be minor. The economic potential for recovering gadolinium from the wastes of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants (which use gadolinium neutron poison) was also investigated. The cost of recycled gadolinium was estimated at over twelve times the cost of fresh gadolinium, and thus recycle using current recovery technology is not economical. 15 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs

  9. Present state of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    The operation of several reprocessing plants - industrial size and pilot plants - has made it possible to build up substantial experience in the processing of irradiated fuels. More than 28,000 tons of fuels from gas-graphite reactors were processed on an industrial basis in Britain and France. For the treatment of both metallic fuels and high burn-up UO 2 -fuels, a solvent extraction process is applied which is based on the Purex process with a TBP kerosene mixture as extractant. A shear-leach technique is used for the break-down of the bundle elements and dissolution of the uranium oxide in nitric acid. Mechanically agitated extractors and pulsed columns have proved to be reliable equipment. The products are uranyl nitrate and plutonium nitrate. Process chemicals are recycled to minimize the volume of radioactive waste and precautions are taken to prevent uncontrolled escape of radioactivity. The technical status will be described as well as experience from pilot operation. (orig.) [de

  10. Base case industrial reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This paper briefly describes an industrial scale plant for reprocessing thermal oxide fuel. This description was used as a base case by the Group for their later assessments and for comparing actual national plans for reprocessing plants. The plant described uses the Purex process and assumes an annual throughput of 1000 t/U. The maintenance, safety and safeguards philosophy is described. An indication of the construction schedule and capital and operating costs is also given

  11. Noble gas atmospheric monitoring at reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhleh, C.W.; Perry, R.T. Jr.; Poths, J.; Stanbro, W.D.; Wilson, W.B.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    The discovery in Iraq after the Gulf War of the existence of a large clandestine nuclear-weapon program has led to an across-the-board international effort, dubbed Programme 93+2, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. One particularly significant potential change is the introduction of environmental monitoring (EM) techniques as an adjunct to traditional safeguards methods. Monitoring of stable noble gas (Kr, Xe) isotopic abundances at reprocessing plant stacks appears to be able to yield information on the burnup and type of the fuel being processed. To estimate the size of these signals, model calculations of the production of stable Kr, Xe nuclides in reactor fuel and the subsequent dilution of these nuclides in the plant stack are carried out for two case studies: reprocessing of PWR fuel with a burnup of 35 GWd/tU, and reprocessing of CAND fuel with a burnup of 1 GWd/tU. For each case, a maximum-likelihood analysis is used to determine the fuel burnup and type from the isotopic data

  12. Multipurpose simulator ''MR TRIOS'' for reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Takeshi; Uehara, Shigeru; Takata, Hideo; Kamishima, Naoyuki

    1993-01-01

    MHI (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries) has developed MR TRIOS (Mitsubishi Reprocessing plant TRansient simulation code for Integrated process for Operation Support), the realtime dynamic simulator, for multipurpose use to support the Reprocessing Plant operation in various aspects. MR TRIOS integrates the Simulation Models of the unit process in a Reprocessing Plant, including Shearing, Dissolution, NOx absorption, Accountability and Adjustment and Co-decontamination process, where each Simulation Model has two kinds of models: Process and Control System. MR TRIOS can simulate the process behavior of the unit process in an integrated manner as well as independently. It is supported by MR CONTROL, the simulator control program developed by MHI. From MR TRIOS one can obtain real-time process values, such as temperature, pressure, density, flow rate, and concentration of nuclides, enabling the evaluation of the process dynamic characteristics under various operating conditions. MR TRIOS has proved to be an effective tool for the comprehensive study of the process and system dynamics, for operation technique improvements and for training

  13. KENO V: the newest KENO Monte Carlo criticality program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landers, N.F.; Petrie, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    KENO V is a new multigroup Monte Carlo criticality program developed in the tradition of KENO and KENO IV for use in the SCALE system. The primary purpose of KENO V is to determine k-effective. Other calculated quantities include lifetime and generation time, energy-dependent leakages, energy- and region-dependent absorptions, fissions, fluxes, and fission densities. KENO V combines many of the efficient performance capabilities of KENO IV with improvements such as flexible data input, the ability to specify origins for cylindrical and spherical geometry regions, the capability of super grouping energy-dependent data, a P/sub n/ scattering model in the cross sections, a procedure for matching lethargy boundaries between albedos and cross sections to extend the usefulness of the albedo feature, and improved restart capabilities. This advanced user-oriented program combines simplified data input and efficient computer storage allocation to readily solve large problems whose computer storage requirements precluded solution when using KENO IV. 2 figures, 1 table

  14. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng

    2006-04-06

    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers

  15. Reprocessing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, G.W.

    1960-11-01

    One of the persistent ideas concerning nuclear power is that the fuel costs are negligible. This, of course, is incorrect and, in fact, one of the major problems in the development of economic nuclear power is to get the cost of the fuel cycles down to an acceptable level. The irradiated fuel removed from the nuclear power reactors must be returned as fresh fuel into the system. Aside from the problems of handling and shipping involved in the reprocessing cycles, the two major steps are the chemical separation and the refabrication. The chemical separation covers the processing of the spent fuel to separate and recover the unburned fuel as well as the new fuel produced in the reactor. This includes the decontamination of these materials from other radioactive fission products formed in the reactor. Refabrication involves the working and sheathing of recycled fuel into the shapes and forms required by reactor design and the economics of the fabrication problem determines to a large extent the quality of the material required from the chemical treatment. At present there appear to be enough separating facilities in the United States and the United Kingdom to handle the recycling of fuel from power reactors for the next few years. However, we understand the costs of recycling fuel in these facilities will be high or low depend ing on whether or not the capital costs of the plant are included in the processing cost. Also, the present plants may not be well adapted to carry out the chemical processing of the very wide variety of power reactor fuel elements which are being considered and will continue to be considered over the years to come. (author)

  16. Consolidated Reprocessing Progam. Quarterly progress report ending February 28, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    This publication continues the quarterly series presenting results of work performed under the Consolidated Reprocessing Program at General Atomic Company. Results of work on this program prior to June 1974 were included in a quarterly series on the HTGR Base Program. The work reported includes the development of unit processes and equipment for reprocessing of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel, the design and development of an integrated pilot line to demonstrate the head end of HTGR reprocessing using unirradiated fuel materials, and design work in support of Hot Engineering Tests (HET). Work is also described on trade-off studies concerning the required design of facilities and equipment for the large-scale recycle of HTGR fuels in order to guide the development activities for HTGR fuel recycle

  17. Summary of the status of the NFS reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.R.

    The modification program at the West Valley, New York, reprocessing plant is described. The program involves expansion, improving the plant's on-stream factor and reducing the occupational exposures, installing natural phenomena protection, and improving effluent control and waste management. Licencing requirements and their effects on scheduling are discussed. (E.C.B.)

  18. Indian experience in fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.N.; Kumar, S.V.

    1977-01-01

    Plant scale experience in fuel reprocessing in India was started with the successful design, execution and commissioning of the Trombay plant in 1964 to reprocess aluminium clad metallic uranium fuel from the 40 MWt research reactor. The plant has helped in generating expertise and trained manpower for future reprocessing plants. With the Trombay experience, a larger plant of capacity 100 tonnes U/year to reprocess spent oxide fuels from the Tarapur (BWR) and Rajasthan (PHWR) power reactors has been built at Tarapur which is undergoing precommissioning trial runs. Some of the details of this plant are dealt with in this paper. In view of the highly corrosive chemical attack the equipment and piping are subjected to in a fuel reprocessing plant, some of them require replacement during their service if the plant life has to be extended. This calls for extensive decontamination for bringing the radiation levels low enough to establish direct accesss to such equipment. For making modifications in the plant to extend its life and also to enable expansion of capacity, the Trombay plant has been successfully decontaminated and partially decommissioned. Some aspects of thi decontamination campaign are presented in this paper

  19. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1985-01-01

    How should the decision in favour of reprocessing and against alternative waste management concepts be judged from an economic standpoint. Reprocessing is not imperative neither for resource-economic reasons nor for nuclear energy strategy reasons. On the contrary, the development of an ultimate storage concept representing a real alternative promising to close, within a short period of time, the nuclear fuel cycle at low cost. At least, this is the result of an extensive economic efficiency study recently submitted by the Energy Economics Institute which investigated all waste management concepts relevant for the Federal Republic of Germany in the long run, i.e. direct ultimate storage of spent fuel elements (''Other waste disposal technologies'' - AE) as well as reprocessing of spent fuel elements where re-usable plutonium and uranium are recovered and radioactive waste goes to ultimate storage (''Integrated disposal'' - IE). Despite such fairly evident results, the government of the Federal Republic of Germany has favoured the construction of a reprocessing plant. From an economic point of view there is no final answer to the question whether or not the argumentation is sufficient to justify the decision to construct a reprocessing plant. This is true for both the question of technical feasibility and issues of overriding significance of a political nature. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. A review of reprocessing, partitioning, and transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and the implications for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    The current status of the reprocessing, partitioning, and transmutation of used nuclear fuel are reviewed in the context of assessing the possible application of these technologies to used CANDU fuel. The status of commercial reprocessing is briefly surveyed and recent progress in world R and D programs on the transmutation of FP's and actinides using Accelerator Driven Systems is summarized. The implications of reprocessing for Canada are explored from the point of view of a long strategy for managing used CANDU fuel in terms of the costs of initiating reprocessing domestically at some time in the future including public and occupational radiation doses, and the wastes generated. (author)

  1. The transport of irradiated fuel. An activity closely related to reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.; Curtis, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    With a proven reprocessing capacity of 400 tonnes of uranium per year and the rapid expansion of this capacity, the need to feed the reprocessing plants at La Hague has become vital to ensure continuous and economic reprocessing. The programming of transports by the reprocessor and transporter to ensure a constant supply of fuel for reprocessing has therefore become increasingly important. These transports use the public roads and the railway system and the reprocessor and transporter must cooperate in maintaining the highest possible standards of safety. Safety must take priority over all other factors, including the economics of the operation

  2. Radioactive wastes from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture deals with definition, quantity and type of radioactive waste products occurring in a fuel reprocessing plant. Solid, liquid and gaseous fission and activation products are formed during the dissolution of the fuel and during the extraction process, and they must be separated from the fissionalble uranium and plutonium not spent. The chemical behaviour of these products (Zr, Ru, Np, gaseous substances, radiolysis products), which is sometimes very problematic, necessitates careful process control. However, the lifetime of nuclides is just as important for the conditions of the reprocessing procedure. The types of waste obtained after reprocessing are classified according to their state of aggregation and level of activity and - on the basis of the operational data of a prototype plant - they are quantitatively extrapolated for the operation of a large-scale facility of 1,400 tons of fuel annually. (RB) [de

  3. Fuel reprocessing and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippone, R.L.; Kaiser, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Because of different economic, social and political factors, there has been a tendency to compartmentalize the commercial nuclear power industry into separate power and fuel cycle operations to a greater degree in some countries compared to other countries. The purpose of this paper is to describe how actions in one part of the industry can affect the other parts and recommend an overall systems engineering approach which incorporates more cooperation and coordination between individual parts of the fuel cycle. Descriptions are given of the fuel cycle segments and examples are presented of how a systems engineering approach has benefitted the fuel cycle. Descriptions of fuel reprocessing methods and the waste forms generated are given. Illustrations are presented describing how reprocessing options affect waste management operations and how waste management decisions affect reprocessing

  4. Martin Marietta Energy Systems Nuclear Criticality Safety Improvement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speas, I.G.

    1987-01-01

    This report addresses questions raised by criticality safety violation at several DOE plants. Two charts are included that define the severity and reporting requirements for the six levels of accidents. A summary is given of all reported criticality incident at the DOE plants involved. The report concludes with Martin Marietta's Nuclear Criticality Safety Policy Statement

  5. Accident analysis of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, E.

    1983-01-01

    The following subjects are studied in detail: Criticality in the dissolver, in HA-column or due to accidental transfer into components of that are not criticality-safe solvent fires in the 1st extraction cycle and 3rd Pu cycle; Red-oil explosions in waste and Pu conditioning; fires of Zy scraps and cans in the head-end; formation of explosive gases by radiolysis. The Zy-fire seems to be the most important risk factor. (orig./HP) [de

  6. The recycling of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannegrace, J.-P.

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 update to the Uranium Institute's report ''Uranium Market Issues'', presented to this Symposium last year (1990) stated that the impact of recycled reprocessing products on uranium demand would be limited in the near future to that due to MOX fuel fabrication. The report stated that the recycling of reprocessed uranium was still at an early discussion stage, rather than being a short-term prospect. This paper will set out to challenge this assertion, on the basis both of facts and of economic and environmental incentives. (author)

  7. ERDA activities related to reprocessing and plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurgeon, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA has redirected its program in support of the LWR fuel cycle from one emphasizing the commercialization of existing fuel cycle technology to a broader based assessment of alternative fuel cycle concepts with the emphasis on safeguardability and avoidance of proliferation risks. As part of this program, ERDA will evaluate a number of possible technical and institutional options to reduce proliferation risks. ERDA will continue its current program of LWR fuel reprocessing R and D with added emphasis on improved safeguards capability as well as the applicability of conventional reprocessing technology to large multinational plants. These activities and supporting design studies will provide the basis for a decision regarding the design of an optimized system for the management of spent LWR fuel. Such a system would provide a model for the development of future domestic and foreign facilities and programs. A recently completed ERDA study of the benefits of LWR reprocessing and recycle would also be expected to be factored into such a decision. The study concluded that based on currently available data, recycle of uranium and plutonium in LWR's is attractive from the standpoint of economics and resource utilization relative to the discarding of spent fuel. The LWR reprocessing/recycle picture today is clouded by several unresolved policy issues. These include the need for adequate spent fuel storage capacity for both domestic and foreign reactors; the possibility of foreign reprocessing of U.S. produced fuel; the possibility of the disposal of foreign fuel in the U.S.; the possible need to dispose of wastes generated by multinational reprocessing plants; and finally, determination of the optimum balance between recycling recovered plutonium and saving it for the breeder

  8. Status and future program of reactor physics experiments in JAERI Critical facilities, FCA and TCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shigeaki; Osugi, Toshitaka; Nakajima, Ken; Suzaki, Takenori; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    1999-01-01

    The critical facilities in JAERI, FCA (Fast Critical Assembly) and TCA (Tank-type Critical Assembly), have been used to provide integral data for evaluation of nuclear data as well as for development of various types of reactor since they went critical in 1960's. In this paper a review is presented on the experimental programs in both facilities. And the experimental programs in next 5 years are also shown. (author)

  9. Development, experience and innovation in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delange, M.

    1985-01-01

    The author describes landmarks in the development of the reprocessing industry in France and then presents objectives for the future (extension of reprocessing of fuel from breeder reactors) together with the technological resources deployed to attain them [fr

  10. Nuclear fuel reprocessing is challenged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is a brief discussion of litigation to determine if the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) in the United Kingdom will be allowed to operate. Litigants (including Greenpeace) contend that the government's December approval of discharge permits for the plant was unlawful without a public hearing. A description of the THORP process is also provided in this article

  11. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, I.

    1964-12-01

    This volume contains the following reports: Experimental facility for testing and development of pulsed columns and auxiliary devices; Chemical-technology study of the modified 'Purex' process; Chemical and radiometric control analyses; Chromatographic separation of rare earth elements on paper treated by di-n butylphosphate; Preliminary study of some organic nitrogen extracts significant in fuel reprocessing

  12. Status and prospects for reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossney, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    Following the formation of United Reprocessors (U.R.G.) in 1976 by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (B.N.F.L.) in the United Kingdom, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (C.E.A.) in France and K.E.W.A. Kernbrennstoff-Wiederaufarbeitungs-Gesellschaft MBH (K.E.W.A.) in Germany, collaboration is now well established for the marketing of their reprocessing services for irradiated oxide fuel from thermal reactors. In addition collaboration in the continued evolution of the technology has progressed and an extensive research and development programme has been established, the results of which are exchanged between the shareholders. During 1976 the U.K. Government has given approval to B.N.F.L. to sign further contracts with foreign customers, subject to certain conditions. In France, the fuel cycle activities of the C.E.A. have been vested in a new company (Compagnie Generale Des Matieres Nucleaires (C.O.G.E.M.A.)) and their La Hague plant has commenced reprocessing operations on irradiated oxide fuel. In Germany, an agreement has been signed between K.E.W.A. and P.W.K. for the pre-project study for the proposed German plant. Against this background this paper reviews the present status of reprocessing by the shareholders of U.R.G. and the prospects for reprocessing

  13. Mentorship Programs in Radiation Oncology Residency Training Programs: A Critical Unmet Need

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhami, Gurleen; Gao, Wendy; Gensheimer, Michael F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Trister, Andrew D. [Sage Bionetworks, Seattle, Washington (United States); Kane, Gabrielle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Zeng, Jing, E-mail: jzeng13@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct a nationwide survey to evaluate the current status of resident mentorship in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: An anonymous electronic questionnaire was sent to all residents and recent graduates at US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education–accredited radiation oncology residency programs, identified in the member directory of the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology. Factors predictive of having a mentor and satisfaction with the mentorship experience were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The survey response rate was 25%, with 85% of respondents reporting that mentorship plays a critical role in residency training, whereas only 53% had a current mentor. Larger programs (≥10 faculty, P=.004; and ≥10 residents, P<.001) were more likely to offer a formal mentorship program, which makes it more likely for residents to have an active mentor (88% vs 44%). Residents in a formal mentoring program reported being more satisfied with the overall mentorship experience (univariate odds ratio 8.77, P<.001; multivariate odds ratio 5, P<.001). On multivariate analysis, women were less likely to be satisfied with the mentorship experience. Conclusions: This is the first survey focusing on the status of residency mentorship in radiation oncology. Our survey highlights the unmet need for mentorship in residency programs.

  14. Head-end reprocessing equipment remote maintenance demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.H.; Metz, C.F. III.

    1989-01-01

    Prototype equipment for reprocessing breeder reactor nuclear fuel was installed in the Remote Operation and Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) area of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in order to evaluate the design of this equipment in a cold mock-up of a remotely maintained hot cell. This equipment included the Remote Disassembly System (RDS) and the Remote Shear System (RSS). These systems were disassembled and reassembled remotely by using the extensive remote handling systems that are installed in this simulated hot-cell environment. 5 refs., 5 figs

  15. Fuel reprocessing and environmental problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Ryushi

    1977-01-01

    The radioactive nuclides which are released from the reprocessing plants of nuclear fuel are 137 Cs, 106 Ru, 95 Zr and 3 H in waste water and 85 Kr in the atmosphere. This release affects the environment for example, the reprocessing plant of the Nuclear Fuel Service Co in the USA releases about 2 x 10 5 Ci/y of 85 Kr, which is evaluated as about 0.025 mr/y as external exposure dose. The radioactivity in milk around this plant was measured as less than 10 pCi/lit of 129sup(I. The radioactive concentration in the sea, especially in fish and shellfish, was measured near the reprocessing plant of Windscale in UK. The radioactive release rate from this plants more than 10)5sup( Ci/y as the total amount of )137sup(Cs, )3sup(H, )106sup(Ru, )95sup(Zr, )95sup(Nb, )90sup(Sr, )144sup(Ce, etc., and the radioactivity in seaweeds near Windscale is about 400 pCi/g as the maximum value, and the mayonnaise which was made of this seaweeds contained about 1 pCi/g of )106sup(Ru, which is estimated as about 7 mr/y for the digestive organ if 100 g is eaten every day. On the other hand, the experimental result is presented for the reprocessing plant of La Hague in France, in which the radioactive release rate from this plant is about 10)4sup( Ci/y, and the radioactivity in sea water and shellfish is about 4 pCi/l of )106sup(Ru and about 400 pCi/kg of )137 Cs, respectively, near this plant. The philosophy of ALAP (as low as practicable) is also applied to reprocessing plants. (Nakai, Y.)

  16. Simplified probabilistic risk assessment in fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    An evaluation was made to determine if a backup mass tracking computer would significantly reduce the probability of criticality in the fuel reprocessing of the Integral Fast Reactor. Often tradeoff studies, such as this, must be made that would greatly benefit from a Probably Risk Assessment (PRA). The major benefits of a complete PRA can often be accrued with a Simplified Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA). An SPRA was performed by selecting a representative fuel reprocessing operation (moving a piece of fuel) for analysis. It showed that the benefit of adding parallel computers was small compared to the benefit which could be obtained by adding parallelism to two computer input steps and two of the weighing operations. The probability of an incorrect material moves with the basic process is estimated to be 4 out of 100 moves. The actual values of the probability numbers are considered accurate to within an order of magnitude. The most useful result of developing the fault trees accrue from the ability to determine where significant improvements in the process can be made. By including the above mentioned parallelism, the error move rate can be reduced to 1 out of 1000

  17. Remote maintenance ''lessons learned'' on prototypical reprocessing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kring, C.T.; Schrock, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Hardware representative of essentially every major equipment item necessary for reprocessing breeder reactor nuclear fuel has been installed and tested for remote maintainability. This testing took place in a cold mock-up of a remotely maintained hot cell operated by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) within the Fuel Recycle Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The reprocessing equipment tested included a Disassembly System, a Shear System, a Dissolver System, an Automated Sampler System, removable Equipment Racks on which various chemical process equipment items were mounted, and an advanced servomanipulator (ASM). These equipment items were disassembled and reassembled remotely by using the remote handling systems that are available within the cold mock-up area. This paper summarizes the ''lessons learned'' as a result of the numerous maintenance activities associated with each of these equipment items. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Breeder reactor fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    The time cycle for breeder reactor development and deployment is longer than the planning horizons for most private industry and governments. The potential advantage and possible desperate need for widely deployed breeder reactors in the future seems to dictate that suitable long-term development and deployment programs be established to provide an adequate base of technology and in time to meet the need. The problems of failing to do so and being confronted with a major requirement for nuclear energy could result in very serious economic and social disruption. The cost of maintaining the needed program, although substantial, is certainly modest compared with the potential problems which could ensue should we fail to proceed

  19. Critical Infrastructure Protection and Information Assurance (CIPIA) Fellow Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    LSU was one of the universities chosen to participate in the project of training new researchers to work on the Critical Infrastructure Protection and Information Assurance (CIPIA) areas. Three Ph.D...

  20. Reprocessing of LEU silicide fuel at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, P.

    1996-01-01

    UKAEA have recently reprocessed two LEU silicide fuel elements in their MTR fuel reprocessing plant at Dounreay. The reprocessing was undertaken to demonstrate UKAEA's commitment to the world-wide research reactor communities future needs. Reprocessing of LEU silicide fuel is seen as a waste treatment process, resulting in the production of a liquid feed suitable for conditioning in a stable form of disposal. The uranium product from the reprocessing can be used as a blending feed with the HEU to produce LEU for use in the MTR cycle. (author)

  1. Reprocessing and waste management in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogg, C.S.; Howarth, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the progress in irradiated fuel reprocessing and waste management at the Sellafield site. Magnox fuel reprocessing is reviewed and oxide fuel reprocessing, due to commence in the early 1990s, is compared with existing practices. The article describes how magnox fuel reprocessing will be sustained by recent additions of new plant and shows how waste management downstream of reprocessing will be integrated across the Sellafield site. This article was first presented as a paper at the Waste Management '87 (1-5 March, Tucson, Arizona) conference. (author)

  2. 48 CFR 1852.246-70 - Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Mission Critical Space... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.246-70 Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program. As prescribed in 1846.370(a), insert the following clause: Mission Critical Space System...

  3. Learning Critical Thinking in Saudi Arabia: Student Perceptions of Secondary Pre-Service Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamnakhrah, Alhasan

    2013-01-01

    Saudi scholars have been agitating for education reforms to incorporate critical thinking in education programs. This paper is a qualitative case study undertaken at King Abdul Aziz University and Arab Open University and examines students' perception of learning critical thinking in secondary pre-service teacher education programs in Saudi…

  4. Critical Care Nurses' Reasons for Poor Attendance at a Continuous Professional Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Myra; Coetzee, Isabel; Heyns, Tanya

    2016-12-01

    Society demands competent and safe health care, which obligates professionals to deliver quality patient care using current knowledge and skills. Participation in continuous professional development programs is a way to ensure quality nursing care. Despite the importance of continuous professional development, however, critical care nurse practitioners' attendance rates at these programs is low. To explore critical care nurses' reasons for their unsatisfactory attendance at a continuous professional development program. A nominal group technique was used as a consensus method to involve the critical care nurses and provide them the opportunity to reflect on their experiences and challenges related to the current continuous professional development program for the critical care units. Participants were 14 critical care nurses from 3 critical care units in 1 private hospital. The consensus was that the central theme relating to the unsatisfactory attendance at the continuous professional development program was attitude. In order of importance, the 4 contributing priorities influencing attitude were communication, continuous professional development, time constraints, and financial implications. Attitude relating to attending a continuous professional development program can be changed if critical care nurses are aware of the program's importance and are involved in the planning and implementation of a program that focuses on the nurses' individual learning needs. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  5. Gas-Cooled Reactor Programs annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1973. [HTGR fuel reprocessing, fuel fabrication, fuel irradiation, core materials, and fission product distribution; GCFR fuel irradiation and steam generator modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Coobs, J.H.; Lotts, A.L.

    1976-04-01

    Progress is summarized in studies relating to HTGR fuel reprocessing, refabrication, and recycle; HTGR fuel materials development and performance testing; HTGR PCRV development; HTGR materials investigations; HTGR fuel chemistry; HTGR safety studies; and GCFR irradiation experiments and steam generator modeling.

  6. Trends in fuel reprocessing safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujino, Takeshi

    1981-01-01

    With the operation of a fuel reprocessing plant in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) and the plan for a second fuel reprocessing plant, the research on fuel reprocessing safety, along with the reprocessing technology itself, has become increasingly important. As compared with the case of LWR power plants, the safety research in this field still lags behind. In the safety of fuel reprocessing, there are the aspects of keeping radiation exposure as low as possible in both personnel and local people, the high reliability of the plant operation and the securing of public safety in accidents. Safety research is then required to establish the safety standards and to raise the rate of plant operation associated with safety. The following matters are described: basic ideas for the safety design, safety features in fuel reprocessing, safety guideline and standards, and safety research for fuel reprocessing. (J.P.N.)

  7. Contraceptive Health Programs for Adolescents: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Luciana; Hayes, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews some contraceptive education programs designed for adolescents that differ in educational process based on delivery setting. Reviews school-based, community-based, and college/university-based programs and discusses them in terms of their effectiveness, potential, and limitations. Notes that educational accountability in each setting…

  8. Waste management in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortreuil, M.

    1982-01-01

    This lecture will give a survey of the French policy for the management of wastes in reprocessing plants. In consideration of their radioactivity, they must be immobilized in matrix in such a manner that they are stored under optimal safety conditions. A general review on the nature, nucleide content and quantity of the various wastes arising from thermal nuclear fuel reprocessing is given in the light of the French plants UP1 at Marcoule and UP2 at La Hague. The procedures of treatment of such wastes and their conditioning into inert packages suitable for temporary or terminal storage are presented, especially concerning the continuous vitrification process carried out for fission product solutions. The requirements of each option are discussed and possible alternative solutions are exposed. (orig./RW)

  9. Chemical problems associated with reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesne, A.

    1981-09-01

    This paper is an attempt to pinpoint the chemical problems raised by the reprocessing of oxide base fuels. Taking the reprocessing of slightly irradiated metallic fuels as a reference, for which long experience has been gained, a review is made of the various stages of the Purex process, in which the increase in mass and activity of the actinides and fission products engenders constraints related to the recovery of fissile materials, their purification, the release rate and, in general, the operation of the installations. The following subjects are discussed: dissolution from the standpoint of dissolution residues and iodine trapping, extraction cycles with respect to the behavior of ruthenium, neptunium, plutonium, technetium and palladium, the recycling of medium activity wastes

  10. [A critical evaluation of food programs in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyá Gilardon, Enrique O

    2016-01-01

    Argentina has an over 60-year history of food programs which have received few to no evaluations, even considering the highly important epidemiological and social changes that have occurred in the target population. In this article, nationwide State-run food programs with the objective of contributing to the food security of the families in greatest need are reviewed, the nutritional situation of the target population is reassessed, and arguments for analyzing current programs using a typology based in the components of food security are proposed. A general review of the conceptions, content and reach of food programs should be carried out, in order for these programs to cease to act as mere social assistance and instead be transformed in bearers of the right to better food and nutrition.

  11. Green light for Japanese reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patermann, C.

    1981-01-01

    In the last few years, international discussions of peaceful nuclear energy use and non-proliferation have been greatly influenced by the attitude of the US Government. Since the mid-Seventies, in the Carter area, this attitude has changed due to the fear that world-wide use of so-called sensitive technologies, i.e. uranium enrichment, reprocessing, and fast breeder development may increase the hazard of misuse for the production of nuclear weapons. (orig.) [de

  12. Remote handling in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streiff, G.

    1984-01-01

    Remote control will be the rule for maintenance in hot cells of future spent fuel reprocessing plants because of the radioactivity level. New handling equipments will be developed and intervention principles defined. Existing materials, recommendations for use and new manipulators are found in the PMDS' documentation. It is also a help in the choice and use of intervention means and a guide for the user [fr

  13. Characteristic of critical and creative thinking of students of mathematics education study program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochmad; Agoestanto, A.; Kharis, M.

    2018-03-01

    Critical and creative thinking give important role in learning matematics for mathematics education students. This research to explored the characteristic of critical and creative thinking of students of mathematics study program in mathematics department. Critical thinking and creative thinking can be illustrated as two sides of a coin, which one is associated to the other. In elementary linear algebra courses, however, critical thinking can be seen as a foundation to build students’ creative thinking.

  14. Engineering Sustainable Solutions Program: Critical Literacies for Engineers Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paten, Cheryl J. K.; Palousis, Nicholas; Hargroves, Karlson; Smith, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: While a number of universities in Australia have embraced concepts such as project/problem-based learning and design of innovative learning environments for engineering education, there has been a lack of national guidance on including sustainability as a "critical literacy" into all engineering streams. This paper was presented…

  15. Using a new, free spectrograph program to critically investigate acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Edward; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed an online spectrograph program with a bank of over 30 audio clips to visualise a variety of sounds. Our audio library includes everyday sounds such as speech, singing, musical instruments, birds, a baby, cat, dog, sirens, a jet, thunder, and screaming. We provide a link to a video of the sound sources superimposed with their respective spectrograms in real time. Readers can use our spectrograph program to view our library, open their own desktop audio files, and use the program in real time with a computer microphone.

  16. Calculated k-effectives for light water reactor typical, U + Pu nitrate solution critical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primm, R.T. III; Mincey, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program has as a goal the design of nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment. In order to validate computer codes used for criticality analyses in the design of such equipment, k-effectives have been calculated for several U + Pu nitrate solution critical experiments. As of January 1981, descriptions of 45 unpoisoned, U + Pu solution experiments were available in the open literature. Twelve of these experiments were performed with solutions which have physical characteristics typical of dissolved, light water reactor fuel. This paper contains a discussion of these twelve experiments, a review of the calculational procedure used to determine k-effectives, and the results of the calculations

  17. Criticality safety research on nuclear fuel cycle facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2004-07-01

    This paper present d s current status and future program of the criticality safety research on nuclear fuel cycle made by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Experimental research on solution fuel treated in reprocessing plant has been performed using two critical facilities, STACY and TRACY. Fundamental data of static and transient characteristics are accumulated for validation of criticality safety codes. Subcritical measurements are also made for developing a monitoring system for criticality safety. Criticality safety codes system for solution and power system, and evaluation method related to burnup credit are developed. (author)

  18. Air conditioning facilities in a fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Michitaka; Oka, Tsutomu

    1987-01-01

    Reprocessing plants are the facilities for separating the plutonium produced by nuclear reaction and unconsumed remaining uranium from fission products in the spent fuel taken out of nuclear reactors and recovering them. The fuel reprocessing procedure is outlined. In order to ensure safety in handling radioactive substances, triple confinement using vessels, concrete cells and buildings is carried out in addition to the prevention of criticality and radiation shielding, and stainless steel linings and drip trays are installed as occasion demands. The ventilation system in a reprocessing plant is roughly divided into three systems, that is, tower and tank ventilation system to deal with offgas, cell ventilation system for the cells in which main towers and tanks are installed, and building ventilation system. Air pressure becomes higher from tower and tank system to building system. In a reprocessing plant, the areas in a building are classified according to dose rate. The building ventilation system deals with green and amber areas, and the cell ventilation system deals with red area. These three ventilation systems are explained. Radiation monitors are installed to monitor the radiation dose rate and air contamination in working places. The maintenance and checkup of ventilation systems are important. (Kako, I.)

  19. Development of centrifugal contactor for FBR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washiya, Tadahiro; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Suganuma, Takashi; Aose, Shinichi; Ogino, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    In the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems, the aqueous reprocessing technology is nominated as a candidate for future reprocessing system, which supposes to apply a centrifugal contactor in the extraction process. For the reprocessing plant, the centrifugal contactor has great advantages such as reducing solvent degradation, improving of equipment utilization rate, compact designing of equipment layout and critical safety domination. From these advantages, the centrifugal contactor is crucial equipment in the aqueous reprocessing process. Since 1985, JNC has been developing the centrifugal contactor. The single unit development has been accomplished and basic characteristics such as extraction performance, fluidic performance and remote maintenance performance have been determined. A durability test has been conducted for high longevity, with consideration given to the nitric acid mist and estimation of the equipment lifetime. System test equipment with centrifugal contactors of engineering scale was installed, and uranium test was conducted. Up to now, a standard flow sheet test in the extraction process and mal-operation test assuming the one stage shutdown condition have been performed. (author)

  20. Rockwell International's Critical Mass Laboratory Program at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The primary mission of the laboratory is to provide data in support of plant operations. To fulfill this task, the facility has unique capabilities for perfoming general purpose critical mass experiment. The critical mass laboratory performed over 1000 critical measurements, primarily with plutonium metal and uranium metal, oxide and solution; it worked also on the NRC program (high-enriched uranium measurements). Presently the laboratory staff prepares for a series of critical measurements on a poisoned tube tank; the laboratory intends to continue to pursue basic plant support programs in the future

  1. Training and qualification program for nuclear criticality safety technical staff. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    A training and qualification program for nuclear criticality safety technical staff personnel has been developed and implemented. All personnel who are to perform nuclear criticality safety technical work are required to participate in the program. The program includes both general nuclear criticality safety and plant specific knowledge components. Advantage can be taken of previous experience for that knowledge which is portable such as performance of computer calculations. Candidates step through a structured process which exposes them to basic background information, general plant information, and plant specific information which they need to safely and competently perform their jobs. Extensive documentation is generated to demonstrate that candidates have met the standards established for qualification

  2. Flowsheet development for HTGR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, B.; Benedict, G.E.; Zimmerman, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    Development studies to date indicate that the HTGR fuel blocks can be effectively crushed with two stages of eccentric jaw crushing, followed by a double-roll crusher, a screener and an eccentrically mounted single-roll crusher for oversize particles. Burner development results indicate successful long-term operation of both the primary and secondary fluidized-bed combustion systems can be performed with the equipment developed in this program. Aqueous separation development activities have centered on adapting known Acid-Thorex processing technology to the HTGR reprocessing task. Significant progress has been made on dissolution of burner ash, solvent extraction feed preparation, slurry transfer, solids drying and solvent extraction equipment and flowsheet requirements

  3. Critical Elements of Student Assistance Programs: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rodriguez, Leslie; Beyard, Karen; Goldstein, Marc B.

    2010-01-01

    Student assistance programs (SAPs) are one approach for using teams to respond to student needs, but there is little research on SAP implementation and whether SAPs function as intended. The authors present findings from a study of two SAPs that use a model developed by Connecticut's Governor's Prevention Partnership. The study focused on…

  4. Taiwan Teacher Preparation Program Evaluation: Some Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influences and changes of recent Taiwan teacher preparation program evaluation (TTPPE) as one of the national evaluation projects conducted by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan. The main concerns are what kind of ideology is transformed through the policy by means of evaluation, and what…

  5. Nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.; Harris, D.; Mills, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out on an industrial scale in the United Kingdom since 1952. Two large reprocessing plants have been constructed and operated at Windscale, Cumbria and two smaller specialized plants have been constructed and operated at Dounreay, Northern Scotland. At the present time, the second of the two Windscale plants is operating, and Government permission has been given for a third reprocessing plant to be built on that site. At Dounreay, one of the plants is operating in its original form, whilst the second is now operating in a modified form, reprocessing fuel from the prototype fast reactor. This chapter describes the development of nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK, commencing with the research carried out in Canada immediately after the Second World War. A general explanation of the techniques of nuclear fuel reprocessing and of the equipment used is given. This is followed by a detailed description of the plants and processes installed and operated in the UK

  6. Commercial Nuclear Reprocessing in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrill, Charles Leland [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    The short presentation outline: Reprocessing Overview; Events leading up to Carter’s Policy; Results of the decision; Policy since Nuclear Nonproliferation Act. Conclusions reached: Reprocessing ban has become an easy and visible fix to the public concern about proliferation, but has not completely stopped proliferation; and, Reprocessing needs to become detached from political considerations, so technical research can continue, regardless of the policy decisions we decide to take.

  7. The importance of nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following main headings: introduction; world energy requirement; energy conservation and the economics of recycle; environmental considerations and the timescale of reprocessing; and problems associated with reprocessing. It is concluded that reprocessing is essential to the conservation of the world's energy resources and is an environmentally and probably an economically more acceptable option to the 'throw away' alternative. The associated problems of proliferation and terrorism, although of the utmost importance, can and will be solved. (U.K.)

  8. The Processual Programming Essentials – Criticism and New Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gh. Rosca

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Process Programming Basics: Priorities, Heuristic or Genetic Algorithms? This paper analyzes methods to optimize process programming, starting with the heuristic algorithms, then reviewing the current method previously advanced by the authors, the quantitative priorities, and finally approaches the problem with an innovative and promissory concept: the genetic algorithms and the “total costs and risks” optimization criterion, which is an alternative to both optimization with constraints and optimization with Lagrange multipliers. This new method emulates natural systems, thus borrowing from their robustness and adaptability. The method proves particularly useful in a turbulent and changing environment, requiring a realistic simulation model and also parallel processing in a high power computing grid.

  9. Nuclear fuel reprocessing expansion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of an effort to apply the techniques of operations research and energy system modeling to the problem of determination of cost-effective strategies for capacity expansion of the domestic nuclear fuel reprocessing industry for the 1975 to 2000 time period. The research also determines cost disadvantages associated with alternative strategies that may be attractive for political, social, or ecological reasons. The sensitivity of results to changes in cost assumptions was investigated at some length. Reactor fuel types covered by the analysis include the Light Water Reactor (LWR), High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR), and the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR)

  10. Waste streams from reprocessing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Ericsson, A.-M.

    1978-03-01

    The three main products from reprocessing operations are uranium, plutonium and vitrified high-level-waste. The purpose of this report is to identify and quantify additional waste streams containing radioactive isotops. Special emphasis is laid on Sr, Cs and the actinides. The main part, more than 99 % of both the fission-products and the transuranic elements are contained in the HLW-stream. Small quantities sometimes contaminate the U- and Pu-streams and the rest is found in the medium-level-waste

  11. Reprocessing and fuel fabrication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, F.R.; Tooper, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    The study of alternative fuel cycles was initiated to identify a fuel cycle with inherent technical resistance to proliferation; however, other key features such as resource use, cost, and development status are major elements in a sound fuel cycle strategy if there is no significant difference in proliferation resistance. Special fuel reprocessing techniques such as coprocessing or spiking provide limited resistance to diversion. The nuclear fuel cycle system that will be most effective may be more dependent on the institutional agreements that can be implemented to supplement the technical controls of fuel cycle materials

  12. Hodel fuels controversy: critics say campaign remarks damage waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, T.K.

    1984-01-01

    Critics of the federal effort to seek a disposal site for radioactive wastes complain that Energy Secretary Hodel politicized the process during the 1984 election campaign when he spoke on behalf of Texas Senator Phil Gramm, who opposes Texas as the first site for development. Officials from other potential sites argue that the decision should be based on technical and objective criteria, not political pressure. Besides the political tone, Hodel's comments in Texas imply that a presidential decision can be affected by state objections, which misinterprets the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. States which are potential repository sites have raised issues which can form the basis for future litigation and taken other steps that could lead to prolonged debate over monitored retrieval storage (MRS). The basic issue, however, is whether or not the US can deal with the nuclear waste problem

  13. Multi-purpose simulator 'MR TRIOS' for reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Takeshi; Ariyoshi, Masahiro

    1993-01-01

    MHI(Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.) has developed MR TRIOS(Mitsubishi Reprocessing plant TRansient simulator of Integrated process for Operation Support), the realtime dynamic simulator, for multipurpose use to support the Reprocessing Plant operation in various aspects. MR TRIOS integrates the simulation models of the unit process in reprocessing plant, including shearing, dissolution, NO x absorption, accountability and adjustment and co-decontamination process, where each simulation model has two kinds of models, one is Process and the other is Control System. MR TRIOS can simulate the process behavior of the above listed unit process in an integrated manner as well as independently. It is realized by MR CONTROL, the simulator control program developed by MHI. We can get from MR TRIOS the real-time process values, such as temperature, pressure, density, flow rate and concentration of eminent nuclides etc. enabling the evaluation of the process dynamic characteristics under various operating conditions. MR TRIOS has been proved to be an effective tool for the comprehensive study of the process and system dynamics, for operation technique improvements and for training. In this report we will show the introductory outline of multi-purpose simulator 'MR TRIOS' for reprocessing plant and also show the possibility to clarify the fundamental technical requirement to realize the effective material accountancy measure for Head-end Area. (author)

  14. Remote maintenance lessons learned on prototypical reprocessing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kring, C.T.; Schrock, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is to develop and demonstrate the technology required to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. The Fuel Recycle Division, over the past 16 years, has undertaken this objective by designing and testing prototypical hardware representing essentially every major equipment item currently included in most fuel reprocessing plant conceptual designs. These designs are based on total remote maintenance to increase plant availability and reduce radiation exposure to plant operators. The designs include modular equipment to facilitate maintainability and the remote manipulation necessary to accomplish maintenance tasks. Prototypic equipment has been installed and tested in a cold mock-up of a reprocessing hot cell, called the remote operations and maintenance demonstration facility. The applied maintenance concept utilizes the dexterity and mobility of bridge-mounted, force-reflecting servomanipulators. Prototypic processing equipment includes a remote disassembly system, a remote shear system, a rotary dissolver, a remote automated sampler system, removable equipment racks to support chemical process equipment items, and the advanced servomanipulators. Each of these systems and a brief description of functions are discussed

  15. A Critical Agency Network Model for Building an Integrated Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyama, Judy Marquez; Lee, Jenny J.; Rhoades, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This study considers a distinct case of a college outreach program that integrates student affairs staff, academic administrators, and faculty across campus. The authors find that social networks and critical agency help to understand the integration of these various professionals and offer a critical agency network model of enacting change.…

  16. Nuclear data needs within the U. S. Nuclear Criticality Safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, R.D.; Dunn, M.E.; Little, R.C.; Felty, J.R.; McKamy, J.N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will present the nuclear data needs currently identified within the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). It will identify the priority data needs; it will describe the process of prioritizing those needs; and it will provide brief examples of recent data advances which have successfully addressed some of the priority criticality safety data needs.

  17. Let’s Talk Critical. Development and Evaluation of a Communication Skills Training Program for Critical Care Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, S. Jean; Howes, Jennifer M.; Keene, Adam B.; Fausto, James A.; Pinto, Priya A.; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Although expert communication between intensive care unit clinicians with patients or surrogates improves patient- and family-centered outcomes, fellows in critical care medicine do not feel adequately trained to conduct family meetings. Objectives: We aimed to develop, implement, and evaluate a communication skills program that could be easily integrated into a U.S. critical care fellowship. Methods: We developed four simulation cases that provided communication challenges that critical care fellows commonly face. For each case, we developed a list of directly observable tasks that could be used by faculty to evaluate fellows during each simulation. We developed a didactic curriculum of lectures/case discussions on topics related to palliative care, end-of-life care, communication skills, and bioethics; this month-long curriculum began and ended with the fellows leading family meetings in up to two simulated cases with direct observation by faculty who were not blinded to the timing of the simulation. Our primary measures of effectiveness were the fellows’ self-reported change in comfort with leading family meetings after the program was completed and the quality of the communication as measured by the faculty evaluators during the family meeting simulations at the end of the month. Measurements and Main Results: Over 3 years, 31 critical care fellows participated in the program, 28 of whom participated in 101 family meeting simulations with direct feedback by faculty facilitators. Our trainees showed high rates of information disclosure during the simulated family meetings. During the simulations done at the end of the month compared with those done at the beginning, our fellows showed significantly improved rates in: (1) verbalizing an agenda for the meeting (64 vs. 41%; Chi-square, 5.27; P = 0.02), (2) summarizing what will be done for the patient (64 vs. 39%; Chi-square, 6.21; P = 0.01), and (3) providing a follow-up plan (60 vs. 37%; Chi

  18. Status of nuclear fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, and high-level waste disposal. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Committee, California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the current status of technologies and issues in the major portions of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented. The discussion on nuclear fuel reprocessing covers the reprocessing requirement, reprocessing technology assessment, technology for operation of reprocessing plants, and approval of reprocessing plants. The chapter devoted to spent fuel storage covers the spent fuel storge problem, the legislative response, options for maintaining full core discharge capacity, prospective availability of alterntive storage options, and the outlook for California. The existence of a demonstrated, developed high-level waste disposal technology is reviewed. Recommendations for Federal programs on high-level waste disposal are made

  19. The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Chemistry Program: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to a request from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry has reviewed OHER's Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). This report contains the committee's evaluation and critique arising from that review. The review process included a two-day symposium held at the National Academy of Sciences on September 25 and 26, 1990, that focused on presenting the ACP's current components, recent scientific accomplishments, and scientific plans. Following the symposium, committee members met in a one-day executive session to formulate and outline this report. In undertaking this review, OHER and ACP management requested that the committee attempt to answer several specific questions involving the program's technical capability and productivity, its leadership and organization, and its future direction. These questions are given in the Appendix. This report represents the committee's response to the questions posed in the Appendix. Chapter I explores the committee's view of the role that atmospheric chemistry could and should assume within the DOE and its prospective National Energy Strategy. Chapter 2 assesses the current ACP, Chapter 3 presents recommendations for revising and strengthening it, and Chapter 4 restates the committee's conclusions and recommendations

  20. Guide to the selection, training, and licensing or certification of reprocessing plant operators. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 55, establishes procedures and criteria for the licensing of operators, including senior operators, in ''Production and Utilization Facilities'', which includes plants for reprocessing irradiated fuel. A training guide is presented which will facilitate the licensing of operators for nuclear reprocessing plants by offering generalized descriptions of the basic principles (theory) and the unit operations (mechanics) employed in reprocessing spent fuels. In the present volume, details about the portions of a training program that are of major interest to management are presented

  1. Guide to the selection, training, and licensing or certification of reprocessing plant operators. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-06-01

    The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 55, establishes procedures and criteria for the licensing of operators, including senior operators, in ''Production and Utilization Facilities'', which includes plants for reprocessing irradiated fuel. A training guide is presented which will facilitate the licensing of operators for nuclear reprocessing plants by offering generalized descriptions of the basic principles (theory) and the unit operations (mechanics) employed in reprocessing spent fuels. In the present volume, details about the portions of a training program that are of major interest to management are presented. (JSR)

  2. Transformative monitoring approaches for reprocessing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2011-09-01

    The future of reprocessing in the United States is strongly driven by plant economics. With increasing safeguards, security, and safety requirements, future plant monitoring systems must be able to demonstrate more efficient operations while improving the current state of the art. The goal of this work was to design and examine the incorporation of advanced plant monitoring technologies into safeguards systems with attention to the burden on the operator. The technologies examined include micro-fluidic sampling for more rapid analytical measurements and spectroscopy-based techniques for on-line process monitoring. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model was used to design the layout and test the effect of adding these technologies to reprocessing. The results here show that both technologies fill key gaps in existing materials accountability that provide detection of diversion events that may not be detected in a timely manner in existing plants. The plant architecture and results under diversion scenarios are described. As a tangent to this work, both the AMUSE and SEPHIS solvent extraction codes were examined for integration in the model to improve the reality of diversion scenarios. The AMUSE integration was found to be the most successful and provided useful results. The SEPHIS integration is still a work in progress and may provide an alternative option.

  3. Reprocessing process simulation network; PRONET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, T.; Takada, H.; Kamishima, N.; Tsukamoto, T.; Harada, N.; Fujita, N.; Gonda, K.

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of simulation technology and its wide application to nuclear fuel reprocessing plants has been recognized recently. The principal aim of applying simulation is to predict the process behavior accurately based on the quantitative relations among substances in physical and chemical phenomena. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. has engaged positively in the development and the application study of this technology. All the software products of its recent activities were summarized in the integrated form named 'PRONET'. The PRONET is classified into two independent software groups from the viewpoint of computer system. One is off-line Process Simulation Group, and the other is Dynamic Real-time Simulator Group. The former is called 'PRONET System', and the latter is called 'PRONET Simulator'. These have several subsystems with the prefix 'MR' meaning Mitsubishi Reprocessing Plant. Each MR subsystem is explained in this report. The technical background, the objective of the PRONET, the system and the function of the PRONET, and the future application to an on-line real-time simulator and the development of MR EXPERT are described. (K.I.)

  4. Tritium control in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goumondy, J.P.; Miquel, P.

    1977-01-01

    There is a danger that the T which is formed in water reactors will prove detrimental to the environment over the next few years, and studies have been undertaken to develop techniques to contain and process it where possible. In order to retain T, which is present largely in the fuel and on the possible to adapt for use in the conventional design of reprocessing plant. In this process T is maintained in the form of an aqueous solution in the high-active area of the plant. Control is achieved by restricting as far as possible the ingress of non-tritiated water into this area, and by setting up a tritiated water barrier at the first U and Pu extraction stage, stripping the tritium-containing solvent at that point with ordinary water. In this way the T can be extracted in a small volume of water with a view to intermediate storage, disposal at sea additional processing to remove the T from the water. Experiments carried out so far have demonstrated the effectiveness of the T barrier and have shown what equipment would be required for the application of the process in new reprocessing plants. (orig.) [de

  5. Nuclear criticality safety program for environmental restoration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is located on a 1050 acre site approximately twenty miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. The production area of the site covers approximately 136 acres in the central portion of the site. Surrounding the core production area is a buffer consisting of leased grazing land, reforested land, and unused areas. The uranium processing facility was designed and constructed in the early 1950s. During the period from 1952 to 1989 the site produced uranium feed material and uranium products used in the United States weapons complex. Production at the site ended in 1989, when the site was shut down for what was expected to be a short period of time. However, the FUTC was permanently shut down in 1991, and the site's mission was changed from production to environmental restoration. The objective of this paper is to give an update on activities at the Fernald Site and to describe the Nuclear Criticality Safety issues that are currently being addressed

  6. Dynamic behaviour of solvent contactors in fuel reprocessing plants- an analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, R P; Siddiqui, H R [Nuclear Waste Management Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Murthy, K K; Kansra, V P [Fuel Reprocessing Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Fuel reprocessing plants carry out separation of useful fissile and fertile materials from spent nuclear fuels by isolating highly radioactive fission products using solvent extraction method. In the fuel reprocessing step of nuclear fuel cycle, optimisation of process parameters in the PUREX flowsheet design is of great importance particularly on account of the need to realize high degree of recovery of fissile and fertile materials and to ensure proper control on concentrations of fissile element in process streams for avoidance of criticality. In counter-current solvent contactors of PUREX flowsheet there are a variety of processes conditions which may cause plutonium accumulations that requires attention to ascertain safe Pu concentrations within the contactors. A study was carried out using the PUREX process mathematical model Solvent Extraction Program Having Interacting Solutes (SEPHIS) for pulsed solvent contactors in PREFRE-1, Tarapur and PREFRE-2, Kalpakkam flowsheets for optimising the process parameters in plutonium purification cycles. The study was extended to predict the behaviour of contactors handling plutonium bearing solutions under certain anticipated deviations in the process parameters. Modifications wherever necessary were carried out to the original SEPHIS code. This paper discusses the results obtained during this analysis. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Enhancement of safety for reprocessing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    After the accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, eight emergency projects taking into account the accident were newly launched in JNES. This project for a reprocessing facility was one of them. Major items conducted in the project were as follows. (1) Researches, studies and evaluations etc. on various events under a total AC (alternating current) power loss condition Under this condition following subjects of the events were performed. a) An equipment with a removing function of decay heat and a time to reach a certain critical condition, e.g. a solution boiling, b) An equipment with a preventing function of accumulation of hydrogen gas and a time to reach a concentration of hydrogen gas to that of the lowest limit of combustion, c) Specifications of an alternative electric source and how to supply power. (2) Researches, studies and evaluations etc. on beyond design basis events. Following subjects on these events were performed. a) An event progression scenario, a consequence, a time period between an initiating event and a resultant accident or a certain critical condition, and draft inspection criteria, b) Draft inspection criteria for a stress test. (author)

  8. Return Rates for Needle Exchange Programs: A Common Criticism Answered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksobiech Kate

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study searched the available needle exchange program (NEP literature for return rate data. A total of 26 articles were found. The overall worldwide return rate was 90%, although this ranged from a low of 15% to a high of 112%. U.S. NEP return rates were gathered from only eight studies, indicating a clear need for more data, although U.S. return rates were comparable to those from NEPs outside of the U.S. One underlying assumption made by opponents of NEPs is that IDUs will not return needles to the distribution site, thereby potentially increasing the risk of health problems to the surrounding community from exposure to contaminated needles. This study's results suggest that NEPs are relatively successful in taking in used needles, although it is generally unclear where the needles were originally acquired, and if IDUs return their own needles, or are returning needles for a social network. Ways for AIDS Service Organizations to capitalize on these brief encounters with IDUs, as well as public policy implications of the findings, are discussed.

  9. A Critical Race Feminist Analysis of Men of Color Matriculating into a Higher Education Doctoral Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Dian D.; Kelly, Bridget Turner; Jourian, T. J.; Byrd, Ajani M.; Manzano, Lester J.; Bumbry, Michael

    2018-01-01

    In Fall, 2012, the Loyola University Chicago Higher Education program faculty admitted a doctoral cohort of 5 men of color. This article is a reflexive and reflective autoethnography that explores the college choice processes of 5 doctoral men of color through a Critical Race Feminist perspective. The faculty program chair's narrative supplements…

  10. Transport and reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1981-01-01

    This contribution deals with transport and packaging of oxide fuel from and to the Cogema reprocessing plant at La Hague (France). After a general discussion of nuclear fuel and the fuel cycle, the main aspects of transport and reprocessing of oxide fuel are analysed. (Auth.)

  11. THORP and the economics of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.; Walker, W.

    1990-11-01

    This Report compares the costs of reprocessing spent fuels at the new THORP reprocessing plant at Sellafield with the alternative of storing them prior to final disposal. It finds that even when the cost of constructing THORP is treated as a sunk cost, reprocessing has no decisive economic advantage over spent fuel storage. Electric utilities in Western Europe and Japan have already largely paid for the construction of the new British and French reprocessing plants. Today, their economic judgements therefore depend on the future costs of operating and eventually decommissioning the plants, and of dealing with the resulting wastes and separated products. The costs attached to reprocessing have risen mainly due to the higher estimated costs of waste management and decommissioning, and to the costs of coping with unwanted plutonium. Most of these costs are passed directly on to utilities and thus electricity consumers under the terms of cost-plus contracts. Using cost estimates favourable to the reprocessing option, the total future undiscounted liabilities arising from the first ten years of THORP reprocessing come to Pound 2.4-3.7 billion at today's prices. This compares with the more predictable although still burdensome fuel storage, conditioning and disposal costs of Pound 3.0-3.8 billion. If disposal is not anticipated, the economic advantage shifts decisively in favour of spent fuel storage: Pound 0.9-1.3 billion against Pound 1.4-2.4 billion for reprocessing. (author)

  12. Reprocessing of nuclear fuels - status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper gives a survey on reprocessing plants at present under construction, in operation, and planned, as well as on the most important process steps such as receipt, storage, conversion, the extraction process, purification of the end products, gaseous waste treatment and waste treatment, and repair and maintenance of reprocessing plants. An outline on operational experience with WAK follows. (HR/LN) [de

  13. New rules set for uranium reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The Australian Government policy regarding the reprocessing of Australian uranium overseas is outlined. Buyer nations will be required to sign an agreement that the uranium will be reprocessed only for energy uses and that approved waste management standards will be met

  14. Fast reactor fuel reprocessing. An Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, R.; Raj, Baldev

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) envisioned the introduction of Plutonium fuelled fast reactors as the intermediate stage, between Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors and Thorium-Uranium-233 based reactors for the Indian Nuclear Power Programme. This necessitated the closing of the fast reactor fuel cycle with Plutonium rich fuel. Aiming to develop a Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing (FRFR) technology with low out of pile inventory, the DAE, with over four decades of operating experience in Thermal Reactor Fuel Reprocessing (TRFR), had set up at the India Gandhi Center for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, R and D facilities for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. After two decades of R and D in all the facets, a Pilot Plant for demonstrating FRFR had been set up for reprocessing the FBTR (Fast Breeder Test Reactor) spent mixed carbide fuel. Recently in this plant, mixed carbide fuel with 100 GWd/t burnup fuel with short cooling period had been successfully reprocessed for the first time in the world. All the challenging problems encountered had been successfully overcome. This experience helped in fine tuning the designs of various equipments and processes for the future plants which are under construction and design, namely, the DFRP (Demonstration Fast reactor fuel Reprocessing Plant) and the FRP (Fast reactor fuel Reprocessing Plant). In this paper, a comprehensive review of the experiences in reprocessing the fast reactor fuel of different burnup is presented. Also a brief account of the various developmental activities and strategies for the DFRP and FRP are given. (author)

  15. Management of radioactive waste from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwar Raj

    2010-01-01

    Reprocessing and recycling of both fissile and fertile components back into appropriate reactor systems is an integral part of three stage nuclear energy programme of India. Different steps involved in processing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are decladding, dissolution and recovery of fissile and fertile materials. Reprocessing of SNF is a complex process involving handling of large quantity of radioactive materials and processing chemicals. There are three reprocessing plants in operation in the country at Trombay, Tarapur and Kalpakkam. Out of these plants, Trombay reprocessing plant is engaged in reprocessing of SNF from research reactors and other two plants are processing of SNF from PHWRs. A facility is being built for reprocessing of thorium based spent fuel at BARC, Trombay based on the experience of pilot plant scale. Like other industrial activities of nuclear fuel cycle, fuel reprocessing facilities too generate various types of radioactive waste streams. These are generated in all the three physical forms namely solid, liquid and gas. These waste streams are primarily categorized on the basis of concentration of radionuclides, their half lives and toxicity. Management of these wastes aims at (a) recovery and recycle of useful materials, (b) concentration and confinement of radioactivity in inert and stable matrices, (c) minimization of final waste volume for disposal, (d) decontamination of effluents following ALARA principle and (e) minimization of radioactive discharge to the environment. The present paper outlines the salient features of management of different types of radioactive waste generated in reprocessing plants handling SNF from research reactors and PHWR

  16. Critic: a new program for the topological analysis of solid-state electron densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-de-la-Roza, A.; Blanco, M. A.; Pendás, A. Martín; Luaña, Víctor

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce CRITIC, a new program for the topological analysis of the electron densities of crystalline solids. Two different versions of the code are provided, one adapted to the LAPW (Linear Augmented Plane Wave) density calculated by the WIEN2K package and the other to the ab initio Perturbed Ion ( aiPI) density calculated with the PI7 code. Using the converged ground state densities, CRITIC can locate their critical points, determine atomic basins and integrate properties within them, and generate several graphical representations which include topological atomic basins and primary bundles, contour maps of ρ and ∇ρ, vector maps of ∇ρ, chemical graphs, etc. Program summaryProgram title: CRITIC Catalogue identifier: AECB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GPL, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 206 843 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 648 065 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 and 90 Computer: Any computer capable of compiling Fortran Operating system: Unix, GNU/Linux Classification: 7.3 Nature of problem: Topological analysis of the electron density in periodic solids. Solution method: The automatic localization of the electron density critical points is based on a recursive partitioning of the Wigner-Seitz cell into tetrahedra followed by a Newton search from significant points on each tetrahedra. Plotting of and integration on the atomic basins is currently based on a new implementation of Keith's promega algorithm. Running time: Variable, depending on the task. From seconds to a few minutes for the localization of critical points. Hours to days for the determination of the atomic basins shape and properties. Times correspond to a typical 2007 PC.

  17. The safety of the reprocessing plant of Cogema La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledermann, P.

    1997-01-01

    The risks associated to the operation of a reprocessing plant come from the important quantities of radioactive matter. To insure the reprocessing safety consists in keeping, in any circumstance, the containment of radioactive matter. That this objective that leads the safety at any step of the factory life. Three risks families are listed: the risks from nuclear origin, associated to the specific physico-chemical behaviours of radioactive matter (dispersion and criticality, thermal risks and risks bound to the hydrogen production); the second family is the group of internal risks resulting from the industrial activity (chemical risks, fire risks, dysfunctions of electric installations or falls of loads); the last family is the group of external risks resulting from the impact of events reaching the site where are established the installations (risks associated to climatic conditions, risks associated to surrounding activities such explosions, fires, impact resulting from the fall of a tourism plane or road transport of hazardous matter). (N.C.)

  18. Outline of human machine interface at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niioka, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Fujita, D.; Esashika, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Nakamura, W.; Tochigi, T.; Yoshimoto, A.; Yokoi, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) has been performing the active tests since the end of March, 2006, for its Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant using the spent fuels retrieved from the Light Water Reactors. At the early stage of the tests relatively low burn-up fuels have been used, and the burn-up will be increased at later stages until the start of commercial operation planned next year. The plant is operated from the main control room in the Control Building, where two types of operator consoles are located for plant monitoring and operation. The Operator Interface Station (OIS) driven by computer systems is chiefly used for instrumentation and control for production activities during normal operation. In addition to this, safety panels composed of hardware circuits are installed for nuclear safety functions such as criticality safety management, explosion protection, and confinement of radioactive materials. This paper outlines the Human Machine Interface features applied to the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. (authors)

  19. Present status of foreign reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao; Ishikawa, Yasusi; Mori, Jyunichi

    2000-03-01

    In considering extensively and evaluating advanced nuclear fuel recycle technologies then selecting credible one among those technology options and establishing practicable plan of future fast reactor fuel recycle technology, it is important to investigate foreign reprocessing information extensively and minutely as much as possible then to know trends of reprocessing technology development in the world and present technology level of each country. This report is intending to present information of the status and the technology of operating, constructing and closed foreign reprocessing facilities in the world, including, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel reprocessing technology. The conceptual study of 'Foreign Reprocessing Technology Database' was also performed in order to add or revise the information easily. The eight countries, France, The U.K., Russia, The U.S., Germany, Belgium, India and China, were studied regarding outline of the facilities, operation status, future plan, technical information of process flow sheet, primary components, maintenance system etc, construction and operating costs, accidents or troubles, decommissioning status. (author)

  20. Reprocessing of MTR fuel at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, N.

    1997-01-01

    UKAEA at Dounreay has been reprocessing MTR fuel for over 30 years. During that time considerable experience has been gained in the reprocessing of traditional HEU alloy fuel and more recently with dispersed fuel. Latterly a reprocessing route for silicide fuel has been demonstrated. Reprocessing of the fuel results in a recycled uranium product of either high or low enrichment and a liquid waste stream which is suitable for conditioning in a stable form for disposal. A plant to provide this conditioning, the Dounreay Cementation Plant is currently undergoing active commissioning. This paper details the plant at Dounreay involved in the reprocessing of MTR fuel and the treatment and conditioning of the liquid stream. (author)

  1. The future of reprocessing: a synergy of enhanced processes and new approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.; Josso, F.; Montmain, J.; Buffereau, M.

    1996-01-01

    The December 30, 1991 french law has led scientists to develop new reprocessing processes in order to implement different strategies for the management of long-lived radioactive wastes from spent fuels. Various existing reprocessing processes and facility operation supervision and control techniques (PUREX, DIAMEX, SESAME, ACTINEX, DIAPASON) are briefly described. Three leading CEA scientists discuss the challenges of the future and according research programs. (C.B.)

  2. The Critical Approach of ‘Plug’ in Re-Conceptualisation of Architectural Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Beslioglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the issue of ‘plug’ in designing program within particular experimental studies in architecture. There was what could be called a critical ‘elaboration’ of program in Archigram’s 1964 ‘Plug-In’ City project, while intriguingly the critical approach taken in the 2001 ‘Un-Plug’ project of Francois Roche and Stephanie Lavaux hinted at a ‘re-evaluation’ of ‘plug’ related to program in architecture. The embedded criticism and creative programmatic suggestions in both projects will be discussed from the point of view of using the accumulated urbanscape as a potential for contemplation, a theme that has also been elaborated, both theoretically and experimentally, by the artist/architect Gordon Matta-Clark in his 1978 ‘Balloon Housing’ project. These experimentations - about the ‘plug’ - need to be discussed in order to understand their contributions as traceable sources to program issue in contemporary architecture.

  3. Electrochemical reprocessing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, G.; Sartorelli, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel which is particularly suitable for use with fuel from fast reactors and has the advantage of being a dry process in which there is no danger of radiation damage to a solvent medium as in a wet process. It comprises the steps of dissolving the fuel in a salt melt under such conditions that uranium and plutonium therein are converted to sulphate form. The plutonium sulphate may then be thermally decomposed to PuO 2 and removed. The salt melt is then subjected to electrolysis conditions to achieve cathodic deposition of UO 2 (and possibly PuO 2 ). The salt melt can then be recycled or conditioned for final disposal. (author)

  4. Ecological problems of fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebschmann, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of the effects of a reprocessing plant to its environment lies in the amount of the handled radioactivity and its longerity. According to the toxicity of the nuclides extensive measures for retainings and filtering are necessary, in order to keep the resulting radiation load in the surrounding within justified limits. The experiences with the WAK prove, that they managed to reduce that radiation load to values that are negligible compared with the natural one. The expected adaptation of the radiation protection legislation to the latest recommendations of the ICRP will in addition help to do more realistic estimations as to the radiotoxicity of certain nuclides (Kr-85, J-129), which means at lower levels than up to now. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Effects of a work-based critical reflection program for novice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Hee; Min, Ja; Kim, Soon Hee; Shin, Sujin

    2018-02-27

    Critical reflection is effective in improving students' communication abilities and confidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a work-based critical reflection program to enhance novice nurses' clinical critical-thinking abilities, communication competency, and job performance. The present study used a quasi-experimental design. From October 2014 to August 2015, we collected data from 44 novice nurses working in an advanced general hospital in S city in Korea. Nurses in the experimental group participated in a critical reflection program for six months. Outcome variables were clinical critical-thinking skills, communication abilities, and job performance. A non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test and a Wilcoxon rank sum test were selected to evaluate differences in mean ranks and to assess the null hypothesis that the medians were equal across the groups. The results showed that the clinical critical-thinking skills of those in the experimental group improved significantly (p = 0.003). The differences in mean ranks of communication ability between two groups was significantly statistically different (p = 0.028). Job performance improved significantly in both the experimental group and the control group, so there was no statistical difference (p = 0.294). We therefore suggest that a critical reflection program be considered an essential tool for improving critical thinking and communication abilities among novice nurses who need to adapt to the clinical environment as quickly as possible. Further, we suggest conducting research into critical reflection programs among larger and more diverse samples.

  6. Interlaboratory computational comparisons of critical fast test reactor pin lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincey, J.F.; Kerr, H.T.; Durst, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    An objective of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program's (CFRP) nuclear engineering group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is to ensure that chemical equipment components designed for the reprocessing of spent LMFBR fuel (among other fuel types) are safe from a criticality standpoint. As existing data are inadequate for the general validation of computational models describing mixed plutonium--uranium oxide systems with isotopic compositions typical of LMFBR fuel, a program of critical experiments has been initiated at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). The first series of benchmark experiments consisted of five square-pitched lattices of unirradiated Fast Test Reactor (FTR) fuel moderated and reflected by light water. Calculations of these five experiments have been conducted by both ORNL/CFRP and PNL personnel with the purpose of exploring how accurately various computational models will predict k/sub eff/ values for such neutronic systems and if differences between k/sub eff/ values obtained with these different models are significant

  7. Gloves Reprocessing: Does It Really Save Money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Pankaj; Kumari, Santosh; Sodhi, Jitender; Talati, Shweta; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Gloves are reprocessed and reused in health-care facilities in resource-limited settings to reduce the cost of availability of gloves. The study was done with the aim to compute the cost of reprocessing of gloves so that an economically rationale decision can be taken. A retrospective record-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in a central sterile supply department where different steps during reprocessing of gloves were identified and the cost involved in reprocessing per pair of gloves was calculated. The cost of material and manpower was calculated to arrive at the cost of reprocessing per pair of gloves. The cost of a reprocessed pair of surgical gloves was calculated to be Indian Rupee (INR) 14.33 which was greater than the cost of a new pair of disposable surgical gloves (INR 9.90) as the cost of sterilization of one pair of gloves itself came out to  be INR 10.97. The current study showed that the purchase of sterile disposable single-use gloves is cheaper than the process of recycling. Reprocessing of gloves is not economical on tangible terms even in resource-limited settings, and from the perspective of better infection control as well as health-care worker safety, it further justifies the use of disposable gloves.

  8. Reprocessing of spent fuel and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1977-01-01

    The public acceptance has to be considered regarding whole atomic power rather than the reprocessing of nuclear fuel separately, and the problems concerned are as follows; the release of radioactive materials in the normal and abnormal operations of reprocessing plants, the disposal of wastes with high level radioactivity, the transportation of high level radioactive material, the relation to the economic activity near nuclear plants, the environmental effect of 85 Kr. and 3 H, etc., and the physical protection for reprocessing facility itself, the special handling of the materials of very high radioactivity level such as fission products and plutonium, the radiation exposure of operators, and the demonstration of reprocessing techniques of commercial base, etc., as a part of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the relation between atomic power and other technologies in energy supply, the evalution of atomic power as the symbol of huge scale science, and the energy problem within the confrontation of economic development and the preservation of environment and resources regarding whole nuclear energy. The situations of fuel reprocessing in USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan are explained from the viewpoint of the history. The general background for the needs of nuclear energy in Japan, the image of nuclear energy and fuel reprocessing entertained by the general public, and the special feature of reprocessing techniques are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  9. Fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, M.; Le Bouhellec, J.; Eymery, R.; Viala, M.

    1984-08-01

    Simultaneous with the effort on fast breeder reactors launched several years ago in France, equivalent investigations have been conducted on the fuel cycle, and in particular on reprocessing, which is an indispensable operation for this reactor. The Rapsodie experimental reactor was associated with the La Hague reprocessing plant AT1 (1 kg/day), which has reprocessed about one ton of fuel. The fuel from the Phenix demonstration reactor is reprocessed partly at the La Hague UP2 plant and partly at the Marcoule pilot facility, undergoing transformation to reprocess all the fuel (TOR project, 5 t/y). The fuel from the Creys Malville prototype power plant will be reprocessed in a specific plant, which is in the design stage. The preliminary project, named MAR 600 (50 t/y), will mobilize a growing share of the CEA's R and D resources, as the engineering needs of the UP3 ''light water'' plant begins to decline. Nearly 20 tonnes of heavy metals irradiated in fast breeder reactors have been processed in France, 17 of which came from Phenix. The plutonium recovered during this reprocessing allowed the power plant cycle to be closed. This power plant now contains approximately 140 fuel asemblies made up with recycled plutonium, that is, more than 75% of the fuel assemblies in the Phenix core

  10. Noble gas atmospheric monitoring for international safeguards at reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhleh, C.W.; Poths, J.; Stanbro, W.D.; Perry, R.T. Jr.; Wilson, W.B.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    The use of environmental sampling is a major component of the improvements of International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards being carried out under Program 93+2. Nonradioactive noble gas isotopic measurements in the effluent stream of large reprocessing facilities may provide useful confirmatory information on the burnup and reactor type of the spent fuel undergoing reprocessing. The authors have taken and analyzed stack samples at an operating facility. The data show clear fission signals. The authors are currently applying a maximum-likelihood estimation procedure to determine the fuel burnup from these data. They anticipate that the general features involved in the table noble gas problem--selection of appropriate signals, measurement of those signals under realistic conditions, and inverse calculation of parameters of interest from the environmental data--will be present in all environmental sampling problems. These methods should therefore be widely applicable

  11. Safety aspects in fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, K.

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear energy is used for generation of electricity and for production of a wide range of radionuclides for use in research and development, healthcare and industry. Nuclear industry uses nuclear fission as source of energy so a large amount of energy is available from very small amount of fuel. As India has adopted c losed fuel cycle , spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactor is considered as a material of resource and reprocessed to recovery valuable fuel elements. Main incentive of reprocessing is to use the uranium resources effectively by recovering/recycling Pu and U present in the spent fuel. This finally leads to a very small percentage of residual material present in spent nuclear fuel requiring their management as radioactive waste. Another special feature of the Indian Atomic Energy Program is the attention paid from the very beginning to the safe management of radioactive waste

  12. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the Consolidated Edison Uranium-Solidification Program Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear criticality assessment of the Consolidated Edison Uranium-Solidification Program facility confirms that all operations involved in the process may be conducted with an acceptable margin of subcriticality. Normal operation presents no concern since subcriticality is maintained by design. Several recommendations are presented to prevent, or mitigate the consequences of, any abnormal events that might occur in the various portions of the process. These measures would also serve to reduce to a minimum the administrative controls required to prevent criticality

  13. PROGRAMMING IS GOOD FOR CHILDREN? A CRITICAL VIEW ABOUT TEACHING PROGRAMMING IN SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell Bento Geraldes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reflections on teaching programming in schools and the positive and negative impact of this new methodology today. The study also discusses the initiatives relating to teaching programming in schools, considering also the opinion of experts on the subject. The following questions are addressed: Is it good for children to learn to program computers in schools? Can all people learn to program computers? What is the importance of learning for today's society? The pros and cons regarding teaching programming in schools will be discussed in search of answers to these questions.

  14. Corrosion control in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.F.

    1986-01-01

    This article looks in detail at tribology-related hazards of corrosion in irradiated fuel reprocessing plants and tries to identify and minimize problems which could contribute to disaster. First, the corrosion process is explained. Then the corrosion aspects at each of four stages in reprocessing are examined, with particular reference to oxide fuel reprocessing. The four stages are fuel receipt and storage, fuel breakdown and dissolution, solvent extraction and product concentration and waste management. Results from laboratory and plant corrosion trails are used at the plant design stage to prevent corrosion problems arising. Operational procedures which minimize corrosion if it cannot be prevented at the design stage, are used. (UK)

  15. Discharges from a fast reactor reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the environmental impact of the calculated routine discharges from a fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant. These assessments have been carried out during the early stages of an evolving in-depth study which culminated in the design for a European demonstration reprocessing plant (EDRP). This plant would be capable of reprocessing irradiated fuel from a series of European fast reactors. Cost-benefit analysis has then been used to assess whether further reductions in the currently predicted routine discharges would be economically justified

  16. Review of monitoring instruments for transuranics in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. A progress report to the physical and technological programs, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    A comprehensive review of the monitoring instruments for transuranic elements released from nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants has been compiled. The extent of routine operational releases has been reviewed for the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle (including plutonium recycle), the breeder reactor fuel cycle, and the high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel cycle. The stack monitoring instrumentation presently in use at the various fabrication and reprocessing plants around the country is discussed. Sampling difficulties and the effectiveness of the entire sampling system are reviewed, as are the measurement problems for alpha-emitting, long-lived, transuranic aerosols, 129 I, 106 Ru, and tritium oxide. The potential problems in the HTGR fuel cycle such as the measurement of releases of alpha-emitting aerosols and of gaseous releases of 220 Rn and 14 C are also considered

  17. Reprocessing technology of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetsle, L.H.; Broothaerts, J.; Heylen, P.R.; Eschrich, H.; Geel, J. van

    1974-11-01

    All the important aspects of LMFBR fuel reprocessing are critically reviewed in this report. Storage and transportation techniques using sodium, inert gas, lead, molten salts and organic coolants are comparatively discussed in connection with cooling time and de-activation techniques. Decladding and fuel disaggregation of UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel are reviewed according to the present state of R and D in the main nuclear powers. Strong emphasis is put on on voloxidation, mechanical pulverization and molten salt disaggregation in connection with volatilization of gaseous fission products. Release of fission gases and the resulting off-gas treatment are discussed in connection with cooling time, burn up and dissagregation techniques. The review is limited to tritium, iodine xenon-krypton and radioactive airborne particulates. Dissolution, solvent extraction and plutonium purification problems specifically connected to LMFBR fuel are reviewed with emphasis on the differences between LWR and fast fuel reprocessing. Finally the categories of wastes produced by reprocessing are analysed according to their origin in the plant and their alpha emitters content. The suitable waste treatment techniques are discussed in connection with the nature of the wastes and the ultimate disposal technique. (author)

  18. Reprocessing of AHWR spent-fuel: Challenges and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, S.

    2005-01-01

    Reprocessing of advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR) spent-fuel involves separation of Th, 233 U and Pu, from the fission products and from one another. A proper combination of Purex and Thorex processes is required. The technology development for a reprocessing facility is extremely complex owing to high fissile content, high levels of irradiation, presence high of levels of 232 U, difficulty in thoria dissolution, presence of thorium as the major constituent, problems due to third phase formation with Th, etc. It demands for development of suitable dissolution, solvent extraction, criticality control, U-Pu partitioning, and other equipments and/or techniques. Process modelling, simulation and optimisation are crucial in predicting behaviour of equipments/cycles, and in arriving at safe and optimum flowsheet. A significant success in this field has been achieved. This paper describes the reprocessing aspects pertaining to AHWR spent-fuel, indicating the major technological challenges, strategies to be followed and development requirements. A schematic flowsheet is proposed for Th- 233 U-Pu separation. (author)

  19. Safety aspects of a fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, J.K.; Charlesworth, F.R.; Fairbairn, A.

    1977-01-01

    The establishment of the basic process must include the determination of the sensitivity of the process to operational errors or plant failures. The probability, and consequences of escapes of activity must be evaluated and emergency procedures set up to deal with accidents which might lead to such escapes. The administrative arrangements for safety should include a safety evaluation and advisory service independent of line management. A quality assurance strategy for the construction and commissioning stages is important. The design and construction of the plant must include: (i) Attention to plant reliability. Maintenance and inspection procedures to maintain reliability must be adopted and the design should include measures to facilitate in-service inspection of highly-active plant. (ii) Suitable and sufficient means of detection and prevention of malfunction, including criticality, bearing in mind both the timescale of development of the fault and its consequences. (iii) Measures for containment of activity. Penetrations from active into operating areas should be eliminated or minimised and maintenance should be separated from operational areas. Secondary containment beyond that provided for operations of a significant magnitude. A ventilation system with appropriate gas clean-up, monitoring and discharge facilities is required. (iv) Adequate shielding, with particular attention paid to multiple activities in a single operational area which might lead to an operator being exposed to radiation from operations which are beyond his control. (v) Means of accounting for active materials and for their recovery, transfer and disposal in the event of a forced shut down. (vi) Suitable methods for segregation and control of wastes within the plant and for their discharge. Solid or liquid wastes should be subject to delay and monitoring procedures before release. Facilities for storage of waste must be subject to the same safety principles as the plant itself. (vii) Final

  20. CRITIC2: A program for real-space analysis of quantum chemical interactions in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-de-la-Roza, A.; Johnson, Erin R.; Luaña, Víctor

    2014-03-01

    We present CRITIC2, a program for the analysis of quantum-mechanical atomic and molecular interactions in periodic solids. This code, a greatly improved version of the previous CRITIC program (Otero-de-la Roza et al., 2009), can: (i) find critical points of the electron density and related scalar fields such as the electron localization function (ELF), Laplacian, … (ii) integrate atomic properties in the framework of Bader’s Atoms-in-Molecules theory (QTAIM), (iii) visualize non-covalent interactions in crystals using the non-covalent interactions (NCI) index, (iv) generate relevant graphical representations including lines, planes, gradient paths, contour plots, atomic basins, … and (v) perform transformations between file formats describing scalar fields and crystal structures. CRITIC2 can interface with the output produced by a variety of electronic structure programs including WIEN2k, elk, PI, abinit, Quantum ESPRESSO, VASP, Gaussian, and, in general, any other code capable of writing the scalar field under study to a three-dimensional grid. CRITIC2 is parallelized, completely documented (including illustrative test cases) and publicly available under the GNU General Public License. Catalogue identifier: AECB_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECB_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: yes No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11686949 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 337020731 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 and 90. Computer: Workstations. Operating system: Unix, GNU/Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Shared-memory parallelization can be used for most tasks. Classification: 7.3. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AECB_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 157 Nature of problem: Analysis of quantum

  1. Nuclear Data Activities in Support of the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westfall, R.M.; McKnight, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    The DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) provides the technical infrastructure maintenance for those technologies applied in the evaluation and performance of safe fissionable-material operations in the DOE complex. These technologies include an Analytical Methods element for neutron transport as well as the development of sensitivity/uncertainty methods, the performance of Critical Experiments, evaluation and qualification of experiments as Benchmarks, and a comprehensive Nuclear Data program coordinated by the NCSP Nuclear Data Advisory Group (NDAG).The NDAG gathers and evaluates differential and integral nuclear data, identifies deficiencies, and recommends priorities on meeting DOE criticality safety needs to the NCSP Criticality Safety Support Group (CSSG). Then the NDAG identifies the required resources and unique capabilities for meeting these needs, not only for performing measurements but also for data evaluation with nuclear model codes as well as for data processing for criticality safety applications. The NDAG coordinates effort with the leadership of the National Nuclear Data Center, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), and the Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee. The overall objective is to expedite the issuance of new data and methods to the DOE criticality safety user. This paper describes these activities in detail, with examples based upon special studies being performed in support of criticality safety for a variety of DOE operations

  2. Nuclear criticality safety program at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basoglu, B.; Bentley, C.; Brewer, R.; Dunn, M.; Haught, C.; Plaster, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Dodds, H.; Elliott, E.; Waddell, W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the nuclear criticality safety (NCS) educational program at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville. The program is an academic specialization for nuclear engineering graduate students pursuing either the MS or PhD degree and includes special NCS courses and NCS research projects. Both the courses and the research projects serve as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree being pursued

  3. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This report deals with the adequacy of projected reprocessing capacity, the short-term measures proposed in view of the lack of sufficient reprocessing capacity, the longer term measures proposed in view of the lack of sufficient reprocessing capacity, the alternatives to reprocessing and the cooperative arrangements

  4. Practice and prospects of creation of equipment for reprocessing and utilization of contaminated metal wastes of plants of nuclear industry in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Program of reprocessing and utilization of metallic radioactive wastes exists in Russia. In the framework of this program in nuclear industry it is accumulated forty years experience on taking-off-service, disassembly, decontamination and reprocessing of technological facilities. Some technical characteristics of the units used for these operations are represented [ru

  5. Refurbishment of the BNFL Magnox reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, V.M.; Edgar, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Magnox Reprocessing Plant was commissioned in 1964. Since then it has reprocessed more than 35,000 t of irradiated uranium metal fuel. The plant is subject to routine shutdowns to allow maintenance and project work to be undertaken. During the 1997 shutdown the opportunity was taken to replace several life limiting parts of the plant to ensure Magnox reprocessing capability well beyond the year 2010. This shutdown was the largest and most complex undertaken by Magnox Reprocessing, with a total committed value of 130 million UK pounds, 17.5 million UK pounds committed in the shutdown itself and the balance on installation, design and procurement preparing for the shutdown. The work was completed within safety targets, to programme and within budget. The lessons learned and experience gained have been fed into the methodologies and procedures for planning future project and shutdown work within BNFL. This report is part of the output from this process of continually improving performance. (author)

  6. Conditions for Australian consent to reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This article contains the text of the statement by the Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs to the House of Representatives, Noember 1980, on conditions for Australian consent to the reprocessing of nuclear material of Australian origin

  7. Storage and Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    Addressing the problem of waste, especially high-level waste (HLW), is a requirement of the nuclear fuel cycle that cannot be ignored. We explore the two options employed currently, long-term storage and reprocessing.

  8. Reprocessing considerations for a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes some of the alternatives for dealing with spent fuel that face a developing country. It then discusses the considerations that affect decisions on the size and siting of reprocessing plants, and shows how small plants may be suitable in countries without the means to transport spent fuel easily. The paper also outlines the reasons for reprocessing in India, and describes the development of India's reprocessing capability. It shows how the economic conditions in India, such as low skilled labour costs, make reprocessing plants of 100 to 200 tonnes U/yr capacity economic, and includes a table giving technical data on a 100 t U/yr national plant for inclusion in the reference cases used by INFCE Working Group 4

  9. Spent fuel management: reprocessing or storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Soares, M.L. de; Oliveira Lopes, M.J. de

    1986-01-01

    A review of the spent fuel management concepts generally adopted in several countries is presented, including an analysis of the brazilian situation. The alternatives are the reprocessing, the interim storage and the final disposal in a repository after appropriate conditioning. The commercial operating reprocessing facilities in the Western World are located in France and in the United Kingdom. In the USA the anti-reprocessing policy from 1977 changed in 1981, when the government supported the resumption of commercial reprocessing and designated the private sector as responsible for providing these services. Small scale facilities are operating in India, Italy, Japan and West Germany. Pilot plants for LWR fuel are being planned by Spain, Pakistan and Argentina. (Author) [pt

  10. Spent fuel management: reprocessing or storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Soares, M.L. de; Oliveira Lopes, M.J. de.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the spent fuel management concepts generally adopted in several countries is presented, including an analysis of the brazilian situation. The alternatives are the reprocessing, the interim storage and the final disposal in a repository after appropriate conditioning. The commercial operating reprocessing facilities in the Western World are located in France and in the United Kingdom. In the USA the anti-reprocessing policy from 1977 changed in 1981, when the Government supported the resumption of commercial reprocessing and designated the private sector as responsible for providing these services. Small scale facilities are operating in India, Italy, Japan and West Germany. Pilot plant for LWR fuel are being planned by Spain, Pakistan and Argentina. (Author) [pt

  11. Reprocessing in India - a chemist's view of the early decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanujam, A.

    2016-01-01

    The reprocessing program to recover U/Pu from irradiated fuels was initiated with very little information available in open literature. The Trombay Plutonium built and operated by those pioneering engineers and scientists was able to meet the early goals of DAE. Over the years, it acted as a knowledge base and launching pad for many new facilities and Pu based programs. The good performances of the new plants demonstrate our maturity, confidence and knowledge base in this field and also our ability to face up to the future challenges in this domain

  12. Fast reactor fuel reprocessing in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.; Williams, J.; Buck, C.

    1977-01-01

    Enriched uranium metal fuel irradiated in the Dounreay Fast Reactor has been reprocessed and refabricated in plants specifically designed for the purpose in the U.K. since 1961. Efficient and reliable fuel recycle is essential to the development of a plutonium based fast reactor system and the importance of establishing at an early stage fast reactor fuel reprocessing has been reinforced by current world difficulties in reprocessing high burn-up thermal reactor oxide fuel. In consequence, the U.K. has decided to reprocess irradiated fuel from the 250 MW(E) Prototype Fast Reactor as an integral part of the fast reactor development programme. Flowsheet and equipment development work for the small scale fully active demonstration plant have been carried out over the past 5 years and the plant will be commissioned and ready for active operation during 1977. In parallel, a comprehensive waste management system has been developed and installed. Based on this development work and the information which will arise from active operation of the plant a parallel development programme has been initiated to provide the basis for the design of a large scale fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant to come into operation in the late 1980s to support the projected U.K. fast reactor installation programme. The paper identifies the important differences between fast reactor and thermal reactor fuel reprocessing technologies and describes some of the development work carried out in these areas for the small scale P.F.R. fuel reprocessing operation. In addition, the development programme in aid of the design of a larger scale fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant is outlined and the current design philosophy is discussed

  13. Reprocessing of ''fast'' fuel in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauteron, J.; Bourgeois, M.; Le Bouhellec, J.; Miquel, P.

    1976-05-01

    The results of laboratory studies as well as pilot testing (AT-I La Hague, Marcoule, Fontenay-aux-Roses) in reprocessing of fast breeder reactor fuels are described. The paper covers all steps: head end, aqueous and fluoride volatility processes, and waste treatment. In conclusion, it is demonstrated why it is still too early to define a strategy of industrial reprocessing for this reactor type

  14. Simulation of nuclear fuel reprocessing for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, M.J.; Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.; Spannagel, G.

    1983-11-01

    For safeguarding the chemical process area of future reprocessing plants the near-real-time material accountancy (NRTMA) method might be applied. Experimental data are not yet available for testing the capability of the NRTMA method but can be simulated using a digital computer. This report describes the mathematical modeling of the Pu-bearing components of reprocessing plants and presents first results obtained by simulation models. (orig.) [de

  15. Critical Consciousness and Schooling: The Impact of the Community as a Classroom Program on Academic Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gavin Luter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the extent to which a program guided by the principles of critical pedagogy, which seeks to develop critical consciousness, is associated with the improved academic performance of students attending a low-performance middle-school in Buffalo, New York. The students were enrolled in an in-school academic support program called the Community as Classroom, which used critical project-based learning to show students how to improve neighborhood conditions. The study found that the Community as Classroom program bolstered student engagement as reflected in improved attendance, on-time-arrival at school, and reduced suspensions. Although class grades did not improve, standardized scores, particularly in Math and Science, dramatically improved for these students from the lowest scoring categories. We suspect that given increased student engagement and dramatically improved standardized test scores, teacher bias might be the cause of no improvements in class grades. We conclude that critical pedagogy, which leads to increased critical consciousness, is a tool that can lead to improved academic performance of students. Such a pedagogy, we argue, should be more widely used in public schools, with a particular emphasis on their deployment in Community Schools.

  16. Nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.; Harris, D.W.; Mills, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out on an industrial scale in the United Kingdom since 1952. Two large reprocessing plants have been constructed and operated at Windscale, Cumbria and two smaller specialized plants have been constructed and operated at Dounreay, Northern Scotland. At the present time, the second of the two Windscale plants is operating, and Government permission has been given for a third reprocessing plant to be built on that site. At Dounreay, one of the plants is operating in its original form, whilst the second is now operating in a modified form, reprocessing fuel from the prototype fast reactor. This chapter describes the development of nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK, commencing with the research carried out in Canada immediately after the Second World War. A general explanation of the techniques of nuclear fuel reprocessing and of the equipment used is given. This is followed by a detailed description of the plants and processes installed and operated in the UK. (author)

  17. Critical Thinking Skill Acquisition in Accelerated LVN to RN Nursing Programs: An Evaluative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Billy Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Accelerated transitional nursing programs (ATNPs) designed specifically for licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) to transition to become registered nurses (RNs) are graduating novice nurses who need critical thinking skills to solve patient problems. The health care industry and patient outcomes depend on graduate nurses to be proficient with quality…

  18. Early Childhood Development Policy and Programming in India: Critical Issues and Directions for Paradigm Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Adarsh; Sen, Rekha Sharma; Gulati, Renu

    2008-01-01

    The critical importance of the early childhood years and the rights perspective to human development has made policy and programming for early childhood development an imperative for every nation. In India, poverty, changing economic and social structures resulting in the breakdown of traditional coping mechanisms and family care systems, and the…

  19. Critical sets in one-parametric mathematical programs with complementarity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouza Allende, G.; Guddat, J.; Still, Georg J.

    2008-01-01

    One-parametric mathematical programs with complementarity constraints are considered. The structure of the set of generalized critical points is analysed for the generic case. It is shown how this analysis can locally be reduced to the study of appropriate standard one-parametric finite problems. By

  20. A Critical Examination of the Process of Modifying the Curriculum of Alternative Secondary Educational Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study, "A Critical Examination of the Process of Modifying the Curriculum of Alternative Secondary Educational Programs," was done with the use of action research to study (a) whether students currently participating in a continuation school believe their educational and career needs are presently being met; (b) the types of career…

  1. Validation of the Monte Carlo Criticality Program KENO V. a for highly-enriched uranium systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, J.R.

    1984-11-01

    A series of calculations based on critical experiments have been performed using the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Criticality Program for the purpose of validating KENO V.a for use in evaluating Y-12 Plant criticality problems. The experiments were reflected and unreflected systems of single units and arrays containing highly enriched uranium metal or uranium compounds. Various geometrical shapes were used in the experiments. The SCALE control module CSAS25 with the 27-group ENDF/B-4 cross-section library was used to perform the calculations. Some of the experiments were also calculated using the 16-group Hansen-Roach Library. Results are presented in a series of tables and discussed. Results show that the criteria established for the safe application of the KENO IV program may also be used for KENO V.a results.

  2. Metamorphic Testing Integer Overflow Faults of Mission Critical Program: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanwei Hui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For mission critical programs, integer overflow is one of the most dangerous faults. Different testing methods provide several effective ways to detect the defect. However, it is hard to validate the testing outputs, because the oracle of testing is not always available or too expensive to get, unless the program throws an exception obviously. In the present study, the authors conduct a case study, where the authors apply a metamorphic testing (MT method to detect the integer overflow defect and alleviate the oracle problem in testing critical program of Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS. Experimental results show that, in revealing typical integer mutations, compared with traditional safety property testing method, MT with a novel symbolic metamorphic relation is more effective than the traditional method in some cases.

  3. Reactor Physics Experiments by Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly Program (KUGSiKUCA Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Unesaki, Hironobu; Ichihara, Chihiro; Shiroya, Seiji; Whang, Joo Ho; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The Reactor Laboratory Course for Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUGSiKUCA) program has been launched from 2003, as one of international collaboration programs of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI). This program was suggested by Department of Nuclear Engineering, College of Advanced Technology, Kyunghee University (KHU), and was adopted by Ministry of Science and Technology of Korean Government as one of among Nuclear Human Resources Education and Training Programs. On the basis of her suggestion for KURRI, memorandum for academic corporation and exchange between KHU and KURRI was concluded on July 2003. The program has been based on the background that it is extremely difficult for any single university in Korea to have her own research or training reactor. Up to this 2006, total number of 61 Korean under-graduate school students, who have majored in nuclear engineering of Kyunghee University, Hanyang University, Seoul National University, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Chosun University and Cheju National University in all over the Korea, has taken part in this program. In all the period, two professors and one teaching assistant on the Korean side led the students and helped their successful experiments, reports and discussions. Due to their effort, the program has succeeded in giving an effective and unique course, taking advantage of their collaboration

  4. R and D on fast reactor fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subba Rao, R.V.; Vijaya Kumar, V.; Natarajan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Development of Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing technology, with low out of pile inventory, is carried out at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR). Based on the successful R and D programme which addressed specific issues of fast reactor fuels, a pilot plant called CORAL was set up. This plant is operational since 2003 and several reprocessing campaigns with spent FBTR fuels of varying burnups have been carried out. Based on the valuable operating experience of CORAL, the design of demonstration fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant (DFRP) and the commercial reprocessing plant, FRP have been taken up. Concurrently R and D efforts are continuing for improving the process and equipment performance apart from reducing the waste volumes and the radiation exposures to the operating personnel. Some important R and D efforts are highlighted in the paper. Reducing the dissolution time is one of the vital area of investigation especially for the high plutonium bearing MOX fuels which are known to dissolve slowly. To address this as well as criticality issues, continuous dissolvers are being developed. Solvent extraction based process is employed for getting highly pure nuclear grade uranium and plutonium. In view of the lower cooling time the fission product activity in the spent fuel is higher, formulation of process flowsheet with reduced number of solvent extraction cycles to improve the decontamination of ruthenium and zirconium without the formation of second organic phase due to plutonium loading, is under investigation. Retention of plutonium in lean organic is another issue to be addressed as otherwise it would lead to further deterioration of the solvent on storage. Several reagents to effectively wash the lean solvent have been investigated and flowsheets have been formulated to recover the retained plutonium with minimum secondary wastes. Partitioning of uranium and plutonium is an important step and methods reported in the literature have inherent

  5. Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant-2, Tarapur: a benchmark in Indian PHWR spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Sanjay; Dubey, K.; Qureshi, F.T.; Lokeswar, S.P.

    2017-01-01

    Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant-2 (PREFRE-2) is latest operating spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in India. This plant has improved design based on latest technology and feedback provided by the earlier plants. The design of PREFRE-2 plant is in five cycles of solvent extraction using TBP as extractant. The plant is commissioned in year 2011 after regulatory clearances

  6. Nuclear fuel reprocessing and high level waste disposal: informational hearings. Volume V. Reprocessing. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-03-08

    Testimony was presented by a four member panel on the commercial future of reprocessing. Testimony was given on the status of nuclear fuel reprocessing in the United States. The supplemental testimony and materials submitted for the record are included in this report. (LK)

  7. Safeguarding a future industrial reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This paper is submitted to Working Group 5, Sub-Group B for information. It is being submitted to Working Group 4 for discussion at their meeting in January 1979 and shows that by a combination of accountancy, surveillance and containment a reliable safeguards system can be designed for the reprocessing of fuels of the BWR and PWR type. Its arguments can, in general terms, be applied to plants for reprocessing LMFBR fuels, with due allowance for future advances which should improve our overall knowledge of the reliability of safeguards systems. In the reprocessing of fast reactor (LMFBR) fuels, as compared with LWR fuels, the main differences are the higher plutonium concentration and lower heavy metal throughput in the early stages of the reprocessing operations. At later stages in the process (after plutonium/uranium separation) the plants could be similar and have similar safeguarding problems. Plants for reprocessing LMFBR on a commercial scale will not be in operation for a number of years. In these plants greater attention may have to be paid to safeguards at the early stages, especially to waste/raffinate streams, than in the PWR/BWR reprocessing plant. The actual balance between containment, surveillance and accountancy adopted will depend on the status of the technology of safeguards and reprocessing. It can be anticipated that improvements to measurement systems will be made which may allow greater reliance on actual measurement. Treatment and recycle of solid wastes will advance and could therefore lead to improvements in accountancy in, for example, the ''head-end''

  8. Outdoor Orientation Programs: A Critical Review of Program Impacts on Retention and Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brent J.; Chang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor orientation programs have a growing literature demonstrating positive impacts with students transitioning to college (Bell, Gass, Nafizer, & Starbuck, 2014). One of the most valued outcomes for colleges and universities is retention of students until successful graduation. This is an outcome few outdoor orientation researchers have…

  9. Existing reflection seismic data re-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinaka, Motonori; Sano, Yukiko; Kozawa, Takeshi

    2005-08-01

    This document is to report the results of existing seismic data re-processing around Horonobe town, Hokkaido, Japan, which is a part of the Horonobe Underground Research Project. The main purpose of this re-processing is to recognize the subsurface structure of Omagari Fault and fold system around Omagari Fault. The seismic lines for re-processing are TYHR-A3 line and SHRB-2 line, which JAPEX surveyed in 1975. Applying weathering static correction using refraction analysis and noise suppression procedure, we have much enhanced seismic profile. Following information was obtained from seismic re-processing results. TYHR-A3 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west. These reflections are corresponding western limb of anticline to the west side of Omagari Fault. SHRB-2 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west, at CDP 60-140, while there are reflections, dipping to the east, to the east side of CDP 140. These reflections correspond to the western limb and the eastern limb of the anticline, which is parallel to Omagari FAULT. This seismic re-processing provides some useful information to know the geological structure around Omagari Fault. (author)

  10. Disaggregation of collective dose-a worked example based on future discharges from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing site, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S R; Lambers, B; Stevens, A

    2004-01-01

    Collective dose has long been advocated as an important measure of the detriment associated with practices that involve the use of radioactivity. Application of collective dose in the context of worker protection is relatively straightforward, whereas its application in the context of discharges to the environment can yield radically different conclusions depending upon the population groups and integration times that are considered. The computer program PC-CREAM98 has been used to provide an indicative disaggregation into individual dose bands of the collective dose due to potential future radioactive discharges from the nuclear fuel reprocessing site at Sellafield in the UK. Two alternative discharge scenarios are considered, which represent a 'stop reprocessing early, minimum discharge' scenario and a 'reprocessing beyond current contracts' scenario. For aerial discharges, collective dose at individual effective dose rates exceeding 0.015 μSv y -1 is only incurred within the UK, and at effective dose rates exceeding 1.5 μSv y -1 is only incurred within about 20 km of Sellafield. The geographical distribution of collective dose from liquid discharges is harder to assess, but it appears that collective dose incurred outside the UK is at levels of individual effective dose rate below 1.5 μSv y -1 , with the majority being incurred at rates of 0.002 μSv y -1 or less. In multi-attribute utility analyses, the view taken on the radiological detriment to be attributed to the two discharge scenarios will depend critically on the weight or monetary value ascribed to collective doses incurred within the differing bands of individual dose rate

  11. Critical evaluation of international health programs: Reframing global health and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chunhuei; Tuepker, Anaïs; Schoon, Rebecca; Núñez Mondaca, Alicia

    2018-01-05

    Striking changes in the funding and implementation of international health programs in recent decades have stimulated debate about the role of communities in deciding which health programs to implement. An important yet neglected piece of that discussion is the need to change norms in program evaluation so that analysis of community ownership, beyond various degrees of "participation," is seen as central to strong evaluation practices. This article challenges mainstream evaluation practices and proposes a framework of Critical Evaluation with 3 levels: upstream evaluation assessing the "who" and "how" of programming decisions; midstream evaluation focusing on the "who" and "how" of selecting program objectives; and downstream evaluation, the focus of current mainstream evaluation, which assesses whether the program achieved its stated objectives. A vital tenet of our framework is that a community possesses the right to determine the path of its health development. A prerequisite of success, regardless of technical outcomes, is that programs must address communities' high priority concerns. Current participatory methods still seldom practice community ownership of program selection because they are vulnerable to funding agencies' predetermined priorities. In addition to critiquing evaluation practices and proposing an alternative framework, we acknowledge likely challenges and propose directions for future research. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance programs in canada 1995-2010: a critical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conly John M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, systematic efforts for controlling antibiotic resistance began in 1997 following a national Consensus Conference. The Canadian strategy produced 27 recommendations, one of which was the formation of the Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (CCAR. In addition several other organizations began working on a national or provincial basis over the ensuing years on one or more of the 3 identified core areas of the strategy. Critical evaluation of the major programs within Canada which focused on antimicrobial resistance and the identified core components has not been previously conducted. Findings Data was collected from multiple sources to determine the components of four major AMR programs that were considered national based on their scope or in the delivery of their mandates. Assessment of program components was adapted from the report from the International Forum on Antibiotic Resistance colloquium. Most of the programs used similar tools but only the Do Bugs Need Drugs Program (DBND had components directed towards day cares and schools. Surveillance programs for antimicrobial resistant pathogens have limitations and/or significant sources of bias. Overall, there has been a 25.3% decrease in oral antimicrobial prescriptions in Canada since 1995, mainly due to decreases in β lactams, sulphonamides and tetracyclines in temporal association with multiple programs with the most comprehensive and sustained national programs being CCAR and DBND. Conclusions Although there has been a substantial decrease in oral antimicrobial prescriptions in Canada since 1995, there remains a lack of leadership and co-ordination of antimicrobial resistance activities.

  13. Operational experiences in radiation protection in fast reactor fuel reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshisundaram, V.; Rajagopal, V.; Santhanam, R.; Baskar, S.; Madhusoodanan, U.; Chandrasekaran, S.; Balasundar, S.; Suresh, K.; Ajoy, K.C.; Dhanasekaran, A.; Akila, R.; Indira, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Compact Reprocessing facility for Advanced fuels in Lead cells (CORAL), situated at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam is a pilot plant to reprocess the mixed carbide fuel, for the first time in the world. Reprocessing of fuel with varying burn-ups up to 155 G Wd/t, irradiated at Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), has been successfully carried out at CORAL. Providing radiological surveillance in a fuel reprocessing facility itself is a challenging task, considering the dynamic status of the sources and the proximity of the operator with the radioactive material and it is more so in a fast reactor fuel reprocessing facility due to handling of higher burn-up fuels associated with radiation fields and elevated levels of fissile material content from the point of view of criticality hazard. A very detailed radiation protection program is in place at CORAL. This includes, among others, monitoring the release of 85 Kr and other fission products and actinides, if any, through stack on a continuous basis to comply with the regulatory limits and management of disposal of different types of radioactive wastes. Providing radiological surveillance during the operations such as fuel transport, chopping and dissolution and extraction cycle was without any major difficulty, as these were carried out in well-shielded and high integrity lead cells. Enforcement of exposure control assumes more importance during the analysis of process samples and re-conversion operations due to the presence of fission product impurities and also since the operations were done in glove boxes and fume hoods. Although the radiation fields encountered in process area were marginally higher, due to the enforcement of strict administrative controls, the annual exposure to the radiation workers was well within the regulatory limit. As the facility is being used as test bed for validation of prototype equipment, periodic inspection and maintenance of components such as centrifuge

  14. Airborne effluent control for LMFBR fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, O.O.; Groenier, W.S.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    A significant part of the LMFBR fuel reprocessing development program has been devoted to the development of efficient removal systems for the volatile fission products, including 131 I, krypton, tritium, 129 I, and most recently 14 C. Flowsheet studies have indicated that very significant reductions of radioactive effluents can be achieved by integrating advanced effluent control systems with new concepts of containment and ventilation; however, the feasibility of such has not yet been established, nor have the economics been examined. This paper presents a flowsheet for the application of advanced containment systems to the processing of LMFBR fuels and summarizes the status and applicability of specific fission product removal systems

  15. Process component inventory in a large commercial reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, M.J.; Berliner, A.; Spannagel, G.

    1983-01-01

    Using a computer simulation program, the equilibrium operation of the Pu-extraction and purification processes of a reference commercial reprocessing facility was investigated. Particular attention was given to the long-term net fluctuations of Pu inventories in hard-to-measure components such as the solvent extraction contractors. Comparing the variance of these inventories with the measurement variance for Pu contained in feed, analysis and buffer tanks, it was concluded that direct or indirect periodic estimation of contactor inventories would not contribute significantly to improving the quality of closed material balances over the process MBA

  16. Construction of new critical experiment facilities in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Isao; Itahashi, Takayuki; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Tonoike, Kotaro; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Nakajima, Ken; Izawa, Naoki

    1995-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has promoted the experiment research program on criticality safety since early in 1980s and two types of new critical facilities, Static Experiment Critical Facility (STACY) and Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY) were completed on 1994 in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF) of JAERI Tokai Research Establishment. STACY was designed so as to obtain critical mass data of low enriched uranium and plutonium solution which is extensively handled in LWR fuel reprocessing plant. TRACY is the critical facility where critical accident phenomenon is demonstrated with low enriched uranium nitrate solution. For criticality safety experiments with both facilities, the Fuel Treatment System is attached to them, where composition and concentration of uranium and plutonium nitrate solutions are widely varied so as to obtain experiments data covering fuel solution conditions in reprocessing plant. Design performances of both critical facilities were confirmed through mock-up tests of important components and cold function tests. Hot function test has started since January of 1995 and some of the results on STACY are to be reported. (author)

  17. Occupational dose at Rokkasho reprocessing plant (RRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, F.; Taguchi, R.; Kano, M.; Moriyama, T.; Ogaki, K.; Noda, K.

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) is going to start the operation in service as the first large-scale commercial reprocessing plant of spent fuels that has annual reprocessing quantity of 800tU pr in maximum. The occupational external exposure is controlled for the purpose of keeping dose as low as reasonably achievable, and it is monitored by the personal dosimeter. On the other hand, the occupational internal exposure is controlled for the purpose of preventing, and it is monitored by the periodical evaluation of internal dose from the radioactive concentration in air of workplace. The individual doses of radiation workers are less than the dose limits in the statute and our lower management values enough. Dose data will be stored continuously and the rational management method will be examined. (author)

  18. EURATOM safeguards. Safeguards verifications in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heppleston, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a brief historical view of the legal basis for EURATOM. The specific application of safeguards to large scale reprocessing plants, from the theoretical model to the practical application of inspection is considered. The challenge to adequately safeguard major commercial reprocessing facilities has led to many novel approaches being developed. These lessons will also benefit other safeguard projects as a result. Good cooperation between the operator and regulator is essential for the satisfactory installation of adequate safeguard controls. The use of modern data processing technology combined with other diverse monitoring techniques has shown that a major industrial scale reprocessing plant can be controlled under international safeguards to provide a high level of assurance [ru

  19. Review of thorium fuel reprocessing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E.; McDuffee, W.T.; Rainey, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    The review reveals that experience in the reprocessing of irradiated thorium materials is limited. Plants that have processed thorium-based fuels were not optimized for the operations. Previous demonstrations of several viable flowsheets provide a sound technological base for the development of optimum reprocessing methods and facilities. In addition to the resource benefit by using thorium, recent nonproliferation thrusts have rejuvenated an interest in thorium reprocessing. Extensive radiation is generated as the result of 232 U-contamination produced in the 233 U, resulting in the remote operation and fabrication operations and increased fuel cycle costs. Development of the denatured thorium flowsheet, which is currently of interest because of nonproliferation concerns, represents a difficult technological challenge

  20. Technical study report on reprocessing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kasai, Yoshimitsu; Kawamura, Fumio

    2000-07-01

    The feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor (FBR) recycle system, in which reactor system and recycle technologies are related on consideration, are performed considering the attainable perspectives for the followings: ensuring safety, economic competitiveness to future LWRs, efficient utilization of resources, reduction of environmental burden, and enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. In the studies of Reprocessing system of FBR, evaluation was made for the non-aqueous reprocessing of pyrochemical and fluoride volatility process and also for the aqueous reprocessing with a view to streamlining. As a result, it was estimated that each system has prospects of coming into practical use in terms of technique. In the economical efficiency assessment, it was estimated to have economic competitiveness to future LWRs. And the technical research items of each system are picked out. Hereafter, more detail design study will be performed for each system. (author)

  1. Inventory estimation for nuclear fuel reprocessing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyerlein, A.L.; Geldard, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of nuclear material accounting methods for nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities is limited by nuclear material inventory variations in the solvent extraction contactors, which affect the separation and purification of uranium and plutonium. Since in-line methods for measuring contactor inventory are not available, simple inventory estimation models are being developed for mixer-settler contactors operating at steady state with a view toward improving the accuracy of nuclear material accounting methods for reprocessing facilities. The authors investigated the following items: (1) improvements in the utility of the inventory estimation models, (2) extension of improvements to inventory estimation for transient nonsteady-state conditions during, for example, process upset or throughput variations, and (3) development of simple inventory estimation models for reprocessing systems using pulsed columns

  2. Economic evaluation of reprocessing - Indicative Canadian position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic evaluation of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for Canada is presented. Three fuel cycles are considered. (1) CANDU operating on the natural uranium, once-through fuel cycle. (2) CANDU operating with low enrichment (1.2%) once-through fuel cycle. (3) CANDU operating with recycle of plutonium and depleted uranium which has been extracted from spent CANDU natural uranium fuel. The diagrams show that reprocessing and recycle of fuel can be used to reduce further the sensitivity of CANDU fuelling costs to increasing uranium ore price

  3. TIGA Tide Gauge Data Reprocessing at GFZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhiguo; Schöne, Tilo; Gendt, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    To analyse the tide gauge measurements for the purpose of global long-term sea level change research a well-defined absolute reference frame is required by oceanographic community. To create such frame the data from a global GNSS network located at or near tide gauges are processed. For analyzing the GNSS data on a preferably continuous basis the International GNSS Service (IGS) Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring Working Group (TIGA-WG) is responsible. As one of the TIGA Analysis Centers the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) is contributing to the IGS TIGA Reprocessing Campaign. The solutions of the TIGA Reprocessing Campaign will also contribute to 2nd IGS Data Reprocessing Campaign with GFZ IGS reprocessing solution. After the first IGS reprocessing finished in 2010 some improvements were implemented into the latest GFZ software version EPOS.P8: reference frame IGb08 based on ITRF2008, antenna calibration igs08.atx, geopotential model (EGM2008), higher-order ionospheric effects, new a priori meteorological model (GPT2), VMF mapping function, and other minor improvements. GPS data of the globally distributed tracking network of 794 stations for the time span from 1994 until end of 2012 are used for the TIGA reprocessing. To handle such large network a new processing strategy is developed and described in detail. In the TIGA reprocessing the GPS@TIGA data are processed in precise point positioning (PPP) mode to clean data using the IGS reprocessing orbit and clock products. To validate the quality of the PPP coordinate results the rates of 80 GPS@TIGA station vertical movement are estimated from the PPP results using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method. The rates are compared with the solution of University of LaRochelle Consortium (ULR) (named ULR5). 56 of the 80 stations have a difference of the vertical velocities below 1 mm/yr. The error bars of PPP rates are significant larger than those of ULR5, which indicates large time correlated noise in

  4. Radiation risk assessment of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Hugo R.; Perez, Aldo E.; Luna, Manuel F.; Becerra, Fabian A.

    1999-01-01

    Reprocessed uranium contains 232 U, which is not found in nature, as well as 234 U which is present in higher proportion than in natural uranium. Both isotopes modify the radiological properties of the material. The paper evaluates the increase of the internal and external radiation risk on the base of experimental data and theoretical calculations. It also suggests measures to be taken in the production of fuel elements with slightly enriched uranium.The radiation risk of reprocessed uranium is directly proportional to the content of 232 U and 234 U as well as to the aging time of the material

  5. Contamination of incinerator at Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Mutsuo

    1994-01-01

    Originally, at Tokai Reprocessing Plant an incinerator was provided in the auxiliary active facility(waste treatment building). This incinerator had treated low level solid wastes generated every facilities in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant since 1974 and stopped the operation in March 1992 because of degeneration. The radioactivity inventory and distribution was evaluated to break up incinerator, auxiliary apparatuses(bag filter, air scrubbing tower, etc.), connecting pipes and off-gas ducts. This report deals with the results of contamination survey of incinerator and auxiliary apparatuses. (author)

  6. Nondestructive assay measurements applied to reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, Wayne D.; Lee, R. Stephen; Ottmar, Herbert; Guardini, Sergio

    1999-01-01

    Nondestructive assay for reprocessing plants relies on passive gamma-ray spectrometry for plutonium isotopic and plutonium mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; on active x-ray fluorescence and densitometry techniques for uranium and plutonium concentrations in solutions; on calorimetry for plutonium mass in product; and passive neutron techniques for plutonium mass in spent fuel, product, and waste. This paper will describe the radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform materials accounting measurements. The paper will also discuss nondestructive assay measurements used in inspections of reprocessing plants [ru

  7. Industrial experience of irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delange, M.

    1981-01-01

    At the moment and during the next following years, France and La Hague plant particularly, own the greatest amount of industrial experience in the field of reprocessing, since this experience is referred to three types of reactors, either broadly spread all through the world (GCR and LWR) or ready to be greatly developed in the next future (FBR). Then, the description of processes and technologies used now in France, and the examination of the results obtained, on the production or on the security points of view, are a good approach of the actual industrial experience in the field of spent fuel reprocessing. (author)

  8. Working conditions in nuclear reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    In the context of the project, the working conditions of workers in reprocessing plants and associated plant of the fuel circuit were thoroughly examined. The project design and course of the project are a good example of a precautionary technical assessment necessary for social policy reasons, which is in the public interest and is required by the Trade Unions. By working conditions, one means the whole set of scientific/technical, medical, legal, economic and political conditions for the permanent employment of workers in reprocessing plants including the associated parts of the fuel circuit. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Framework conditions and requirements to ensure the technical functional safety of reprocessed medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Marc

    2008-09-03

    Testing and restoring technical-functional safety is an essential part of medical device reprocessing. Technical functional tests have to be carried out on the medical device in the course of the validation of reprocessing procedures. These ensure (in addition to the hygiene tests) that the reprocessing procedure is suitable for the medical device. Functional tests are, however, also a part of reprocessing procedures. As a stage in the reprocessing, they ensure for the individual medical device that no damage or other changes limit the performance. When determining which technical-functional tests are to be carried out, the current technological standard has to be taken into account in the form of product-specific and process-oriented norms. Product-specific norms primarily define safety-relevant requirements. The risk management method described in DIN EN ISO 14971 is the basis for recognising hazards; the likelihood of such hazards arising can be minimised through additional technical-functional tests, which may not yet have been standardised. Risk management is part of a quality management system, which must be bindingly certified for manufacturers and processors of critical medical devices with particularly high processing demands by a body accredited by the competent authority.

  10. Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant-1: a stepping stone in Indian PHWR spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Sanjay; Dubey, K.; Qureshi, F.T.; Lokeswar, S.P.

    2017-01-01

    India has low reserves of uranium and high reserves of thorium. In order to optimize resource utilization India has adopted a closed fuel cycle to ensure long-term energy security. The optimum resource utilization is feasible only by adopting reprocessing, conditioning and recycle options. It is very much imperative to view spent fuel as a vital resource material and not a waste to be disposed off. Thus, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing forms an integral part of the Indian Nuclear Energy Programme. Aqueous reprocessing based on PUREX technology is in use for more than 50 years and has reached a matured status

  11. Identifying the Critical Factors Affecting Safety Program Performance for Construction Projects within Pakistan Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Ahmed Memon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that the construction industry one of the most hazardous industries with its high rates of fatalities and injuries and high financial losses incurred through work related accident. To reduce or overcome the safety issues on construction sites, different safety programs are introduced by construction firms. A questionnaire survey study was conducted to highlight the influence of the Construction Safety Factors on safety program implementation. The input from the questionnaire survey was analyzed by using AIM (Average Index Method and rank correlation test was conducted between different groups of respondents to measure the association between different groups of respondent. The finding of this study highlighted that management support is the critical factor for implementing the safety program on projects. From statistical test, it is concluded that all respondent groups were strongly in the favor of management support factor as CSF (Critical Success Factor. The findings of this study were validated on selected case studies. Results of the case studies will help to know the effect of the factors on implementing safety programs during the execution stage.

  12. Eight critical factors in creating and implementing a successful simulation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Benishek, Lauren E; Dietz, Aaron S; Salas, Eduardo; Adriansen, David J

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need to minimize human error and adverse events, clinicians, researchers, administrators, and educators have strived to enhance clinicians' knowledge, skills, and attitudes through training. Given the risks inherent in learning new skills or advancing underdeveloped skills on actual patients, simulation-based training (SBT) has become an invaluable tool across the medical education spectrum. The large simulation, training, and learning literature was used to provide a synthesized yet innovative and "memorable" heuristic of the important facets of simulation program creation and implementation, as represented by eight critical "S" factors-science, staff, supplies, space, support, systems, success, and sustainability. These critical factors advance earlier work that primarily focused on the science of SBT success, to also include more practical, perhaps even seemingly obvious but significantly challenging components of SBT, such as resources, space, and supplies. SYSTEMS: One of the eight critical factors-systems-refers to the need to match fidelity requirements to training needs and ensure that technological infrastructure is in place. The type of learning objectives that the training is intended to address should determine these requirements. For example, some simulators emphasize physical fidelity to enable clinicians to practice technical and nontechnical skills in a safe environment that mirrors real-world conditions. Such simulators are most appropriate when trainees are learning how to use specific equipment or conduct specific procedures. The eight factors-science, staff, supplies, space, support, systems, success, and sustainability-represent a synthesis of the most critical elements necessary for successful simulation programs. The order of the factors does not represent a deliberate prioritization or sequence, and the factors' relative importance may change as the program evolves.

  13. Critical interactions between the Global Fund-supported HIV programs and the health system in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atun, Rifat; Pothapregada, Sai Kumar; Kwansah, Janet

    2011-01-01

    of the strengths and weaknesses of the relationship between Global Fund-supported activities and the health system and to identify positive synergies and unintended consequences of integration. Ghana has a well-functioning sector-wide approach to financing its health system, with a strong emphasis on integrated......The support of global health initiatives in recipient countries has been vigorously debated. Critics are concerned that disease-specific programs may be creating vertical and parallel service delivery structures that to some extent undermine health systems. This case study of Ghana aimed to explore...... how the Global Fund-supported HIV program interacts with the health system there and to map the extent and nature of integration of the national disease program across 6 key health systems functions. Qualitative interviews of national stakeholders were conducted to understand the perceptions...

  14. The Development, Content, Design, and Conduct of the 2011 Piloted US DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program Criticality Safety Engineering Training and Education Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    In May 1973 the University of New Mexico conducted the first nationwide criticality safety training and education week-long short course for nuclear criticality safety engineers. Subsequent to that course, the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) developed very successful 'hands-on' subcritical and critical training programs for operators, supervisors, and engineering staff. Since the inception of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project (NCT and SP) in 1983, the DOE has stimulated contractor facilities and laboratories to collaborate in the furthering of nuclear criticality as a discipline. That effort included the education and training of nuclear criticality safety engineers (NCSEs). In 1985 a textbook was written that established a path toward formalizing education and training for NCSEs. Though the NCT and SP went through a brief hiatus from 1990 to 1992, other DOE-supported programs were evolving to the benefit of NCSE training and education. In 1993 the DOE established a Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) and undertook a comprehensive development effort to expand the extant LACEF 'hands-on' course specifically for the education and training of NCSEs. That successful education and training was interrupted in 2006 for the closing of the LACEF and the accompanying movement of materials and critical experiment machines to the Nevada Test Site. Prior to that closing, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was commissioned by the US DOE NCSP to establish an independent hands-on NCSE subcritical education and training course. The course provided an interim transition for the establishment of a reinvigorated and expanded two-week NCSE education and training program in 2011. The 2011 piloted two-week course was coordinated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and jointly conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) classroom education and facility training, the Sandia National

  15. Summary of nuclear fuel reprocessing activities around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.

    1984-11-01

    This review of international practices for nuclear fuel reprocessing was prepared to provide a nontechnical summary of the current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing activities around the world. The sources of information are widely varied

  16. Overview of technologies to reprocess ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrish, V.M.; Chernikova, N.P.; Ivanets, V.G.

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with overview of technologies for reprocessing of ion-exchange resins and determining the most optimal solutions for Ukraine. The technologies for cementations, thermal reprocessing, bituminization and deep decontamination are considered.

  17. Reprocessing of nuclear fuels: economical, ecological and technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1994-01-01

    The report deals with the questions on reprocessing and final storage of spent fuel elements from the point of view of the Swiss. The contractual obligations were discussed, of the present situation of reprocessing and their assessment. 1 fig

  18. Annual report on the environmental radiation monitoring around Tokai Reprocessing Plant. FY 2001. Document on present state of affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kunihiko; Takeishi, Minoru; Miyagawa, Naoto

    2002-06-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed since 1975, based on ''Safety Regulations for the Tokai Reprocessing Plant, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring''. This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant during April 2001 to March 2002. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring program, monitoring results, meteorological data and annual discharges from the plant. (author)

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of implementing an antimicrobial stewardship program in critical care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Jesus; Frasquet, Juan; Romá, Eva; Poveda-Andres, Jose Luis; Salavert-Leti, Miguel; Castellanos, Alvaro; Ramirez, Paula

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) program implementation focused on critical care units based on assumptions for the Spanish setting. A decision model comparing costs and outcomes of sepsis, community-acquired pneumonia, and nosocomial infections (including catheter-related bacteremia, urinary tract infection, and ventilator-associated pneumonia) in critical care units with or without an AS was designed. Model variables and costs, along with their distributions, were obtained from the literature. The study was performed from the Spanish National Health System (NHS) perspective, including only direct costs. The Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) was analysed regarding the ability of the program to reduce multi-drug resistant bacteria. Uncertainty in ICERs was evaluated with probabilistic sensitivity analyses. In the short-term, implementing an AS reduces the consumption of antimicrobials with a net benefit of €71,738. In the long-term, the maintenance of the program involves an additional cost to the system of €107,569. Cost per avoided resistance was €7,342, and cost-per-life-years gained (LYG) was €9,788. Results from the probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that there was a more than 90% likelihood that an AS would be cost-effective at a level of €8,000 per LYG. Wide variability of economic results obtained from the implementation of this type of AS program and short information on their impact on patient evolution and any resistance avoided. Implementing an AS focusing on critical care patients is a long-term cost-effective tool. Implementation costs are amortized by reducing antimicrobial consumption to prevent infection by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  20. Environmental radioactivity monitoring around the Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, K.; Hareyama, H.; Takeishi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited has carried out environmental monitoring in order to check that the dose of radiation to which the public is exposed around the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) is much lower than the annual dose limit. The monitoring is mainly carried out according to 'the program decided by the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) of Japan' and 'the program decided by the Aomori Prefectural Government.' In this report, we present information on the monitoring according to the NSC program, that is the point of view of selection of the monitoring items for dose assessment, the point of view of the dose assessment from the monitoring results, etc. Also, we report on estimation of the effects from the facilities on the monitoring results obtained and dose assessment of the public during Active testing of RRP. (author)

  1. Teaching Critical Thinking Using Reflective Journaling in a Nursing Fellowship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zori, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is considered to be foundational for the development of RN clinical reasoning. Reflective journaling has been used as an educational strategy to support the development of CT. This project's purpose was to explore how using reflective journaling about CT dispositions with RNs in a fellowship program might influence RN's use of CT dispositions. This descriptive, qualitative study used content analysis as the method to analyze journal entries focused on seven CT dispositions: inquisitiveness, systematicity, open mindedness, analyticity, truth seeking, CT maturity, and CT confidence written by RNs in the first 7 weeks of their fellowship program. Based on the content analysis of journal entries, two major descriptive themes emerged: Development of Critical Thinking Is a Process That Develops During a Period of Time, and Purposefully Engaging Critical Thinking Dispositions May Help Prevent Negative Patient Outcomes. The purposeful use of CT dispositions as described in the journal entries also helped to guide the RN's individual learning. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(7):321-329. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. LEU-HTR critical experiment program for the PROTEUS facility in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogli, R.; Bucher, K.H.; Chawla, R.; Foskolos, K.; Luchsinger, H.; Mathews, D.; Sarlos, G.; Seiler, R.

    1990-01-01

    New critical experiments in the framework of an IAEA Coordinated Research Program on 'Validation of Safety Related Reactor Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTRs' are planned at the PSI PROTEUS facility. The experiments are designed to supplement the experimental data base and reduce the design and licensing uncertainties for small- and medium-sized helium-cooled reactors using low-enriched uranium (LEU) and graphite high temperature fuel. The main objectives of the new experiments are to provide first-of-a-kind high quality experimental data on: 1) The criticality of simple, easy to interpret, single core region LEU HTR systems for several moderator-to-fuel ratios and several lattice geometries; 2) the changes in reactivity, neutron balance components and control rod effectiveness caused by water ingress into this type of reactor, and 3) the effects of the boron and/or hafnium absorbers that are used to modify the reactivity and the power distributions in typical HTR systems. Work on the design and licensing of the modified PROTEUS critical facility is now in progress with the HTR experiments scheduled to begin early in 1991. Several international partners will be involved in the planning, execution and analysis of these experiments in order to insure that they are relevant and cost effective with respect to the various gas cooled reactor national programs. (author)

  3. LEU-HTR critical experiment program for the PROTEUS facility in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogli, R; Bucher, K H; Chawla, R; Foskolos, K; Luchsinger, H; Mathews, D; Sarlos, G; Seiler, R [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Reactor Physics and System Technology Wuerenlingen and Villigen, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    1990-07-01

    New critical experiments in the framework of an IAEA Coordinated Research Program on 'Validation of Safety Related Reactor Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTRs' are planned at the PSI PROTEUS facility. The experiments are designed to supplement the experimental data base and reduce the design and licensing uncertainties for small- and medium-sized helium-cooled reactors using low-enriched uranium (LEU) and graphite high temperature fuel. The main objectives of the new experiments are to provide first-of-a-kind high quality experimental data on: 1) The criticality of simple, easy to interpret, single core region LEU HTR systems for several moderator-to-fuel ratios and several lattice geometries; 2) the changes in reactivity, neutron balance components and control rod effectiveness caused by water ingress into this type of reactor, and 3) the effects of the boron and/or hafnium absorbers that are used to modify the reactivity and the power distributions in typical HTR systems. Work on the design and licensing of the modified PROTEUS critical facility is now in progress with the HTR experiments scheduled to begin early in 1991. Several international partners will be involved in the planning, execution and analysis of these experiments in order to insure that they are relevant and cost effective with respect to the various gas cooled reactor national programs. (author)

  4. International cooperation in the field of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, O. von

    1983-01-01

    Following a definition of the concept of international cooperation, this paper discusses existing and possible legal and institutional arrangements in the reprocessing field, with particular reference to the legal framework set up for the European Company for the Chemical Processing of Irradiated Fuels (Eurochemic). (NEA) [fr

  5. Plutonium, proliferation, and the price of reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilinsky, V.

    1978-01-01

    France and Britain disagree with the US on whether deferring fuel reprocessing that provides plutonium for export can help contain proliferation. The US has veto power over reprocessing of US-supplied fuels for non-EURATOM countries, but exceptions will be made for movement within the EURATOM community. Political issues will be influenced by the magnitude of the financial investments, however, and commercial considerations have until recently dominated and complicated international safeguards. The author notes that US policy was reversed by the gradual acknowledgment that the same international inspection of plutonium stockpiles would not work as it had for low-enriched fuel and that economic interests must have a lower priority to avoiding proliferation. He cites the combination of sudden policy shifts, failure to prove that present reactors are best, and long-term distrust of US economic motives as failing to persuade either the French or British, who feel the best safeguard is provided by their high-security reprocessing facilities. Still to be resolved are the conditions under which plutonium must be returned to its owners, a problem that must determine safe international transport and storage and international management. Technical fixes, such as the CIVEX process, cannot contribute to the solution for several decades, while reprocessing is no longer considered a first step in waste disposal and would be more expensive and complicated than present waste disposal procedures. The author concedes merit in President Carter's requirement of separating ''the legitimate and necessary use of uranium'' and nuclear fuels that are also explosives

  6. Economic evaluation of reprocessing - Indicative Belgian position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic evaluation of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for Belgium is presented. Other factors which influence the Belgian viewpoint and which are not included on the phase diagram are given

  7. Irradiated uranium reprocessing; Prerada ozracenog urana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, I [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorijaza visoku aktivnost, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    Task concerned with reprocessing of irradiated uranium covered the following activities: implementing the method and constructing the cell for uranium dissolving; implementing the procedure for extraction of uranium, plutonium and fission products from radioactive uranium solutions; studying the possibilities for using inorganic ion exchangers and adsorbers for separation of U, Pu and fission products.

  8. reprocesser gennem struktureret refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell, Christian; Hansen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Udgangspunktet for "Læreprocesser Gennem strukturerede refleksion" er spørgsmålet om, hvordan strukturering af refleksion kan bidrage til at sikre (det nærmeste umulige) at eleverne lærer, det tilsigtede i (boldspil-)undervisningen. Forfatterne Christian Engell og Torben Hansen viser, hvordan beg...

  9. Fuel reprocessing: Citizens' questions and experts' answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    In connection with the intention of DWK to erect a fuel reprocessing plant in the Oberpfalz, citizens have asked a great number of questions which are of interest to the general public. They have been collected, grouped into subject categories and answered by experts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Optimizing near real time accountability for reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2010-01-01

    Near Real Time Accountability (NRTA) of actinides at high precision in reprocessing plants has been a long sought-after goal in the safeguards community. Achieving this goal is hampered by the difficulty of making precision measurements in the reprocessing environment, equipment cost, and impact to plant operations. Thus the design of future reprocessing plants requires an optimization of different approaches. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model, developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was used to evaluate a number of NRTA strategies in a UREX+ reprocessing plant. Strategies examined include the incorporation of additional actinide measurements of internal plant vessels, more use of process monitoring data, and the option of periodic draining of inventory to key tanks. Preliminary results show that the addition of measurement technologies can increase the overall measurement uncertainty due to additional error propagation, so care must be taken when designing an advanced system. Initial results also show that relying on a combination of different NRTA techniques will likely be the best option. The model provides a platform for integrating all the data. The modeling results for the different NRTA options under various material loss conditions will be presented.

  11. Program of critical experiment and measurements at the RA reactor; Program kriticnih eksperimenata i merenja na reaktoru RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-14

    Program described in this document describes in detail the following experiments: critical experiments with two reactor core lattices with 38 and 44 fuel channels, initial heavy water level being 1300 mm, criticality is achieved by adding heavy water; preliminary analysis of heavy water quality and verification of the fuel isotopic contents; experiment with the initial core which contains 56 fuel channels with maximum heavy water level according to the Russian proposal; measurement of neutron flux by Dy and In foils; measurement of reactivity excess dependent on the heavy water level and number of fuel rods; measurement of reactor period for determined reactivity change; measurement of moderator temperature coefficient; measurement of absolute flux. [Serbo-Croat] Program sadrzan u ovom dokumentu opisuje detaljno sledece eksperimente: kriticni eksperiment sa dve konfiguracije jezgra reaktora, sa 38 i 44 gorivna kanala, pocetni nivo teske vode je 1300 mm, kriticnost se dostize dodavanjem teske vode; prethodno izvrsenom analizom teske vode i proverom izotopskog sastava goriva; eksperiment sa pocetnom resetkom koja prema ruskom predlogu sadrzi 56 gorivnih kanala i maksimalnom visinom teske vode; merenje raspodele neutronskog fluksa folijama Dy i In; kalibracija regulacionih sipki; merenje viska reaktivnosti sa promenom visine nivoa teske vode i promenom broja sipki; merenje periode reaktora za odredjenu promenu reaktivnosti; merenje temperaturnog koeficijenta za vodu; merenje apsolutnog fluksa.

  12. Spent fuel management in France: Reprocessing, conditioning, recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, J.P.; Montalembert, J.A. de

    1994-01-01

    The French energy policy has been based for 20 years on the development of nuclear power. The some 75% share of nuclear in the total electricity generation, representing an annual production of 317 TWh requires full fuel cycle control from the head-end to the waste management. This paper presents the RCR concept (Reprocessing, Conditioning, Recycling) with its industrial implementation. The long lasting experience acquired in reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication leads to a comprehensive industrial organization with minimized impact on the environment and waste generation. Each 900 MWe PWR loaded with MOX fuel avoids piling up 2,500 m 3 per year of mine tailings. By the year 2000, less than 500 m 3 of high-level and long-lived waste will be annually produced at La Hague for the French program. The fuel cycle facilities and the associated MOX loading programs are ramping-up according to schedule. Thus, the RCR concept is a reality as well as a policy adopted in several countries. Last but not least, RCR represents a strong commitment to non-proliferation as it is the way to fully control and master the plutonium inventory

  13. Radioactive Semivolatiles in Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strachan, D. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ilas, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, B. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Soelberg, N. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In nuclear fuel reprocessing, various radioactive elements enter the gas phase from the unit operations found in the reprocessing facility. In previous reports, the pathways and required removal were discussed for four radionuclides known to be volatile, 14C, 3H, 129I, and 85Kr. Other, less volatile isotopes can also report to the off-gas streams in a reprocessing facility. These were reported to be isotopes of Cs, Cd, Ru, Sb, Tc, and Te. In this report, an effort is made to determine which, if any, of 24 semivolatile radionuclides could be released from a reprocessing plant and, if so, what would be the likely quantities released. As part of this study of semivolatile elements, the amount of each generated during fission is included as part of the assessment for the need to control their emission. Also included in this study is the assessment of the cooling time (time out of reactor) before the fuel is processed. This aspect is important for the short-lived isotopes shown in the list, especially for cooling times approaching 10 y. The approach taken in this study was to determine if semivolatile radionuclides need to be included in a list of gas-phase radionuclides that might need to be removed to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. A list of possible elements was developed through a literature search and through knowledge and literature on the chemical processes in typical aqueous processing of nuclear fuels. A long list of possible radionuclides present in irradiated fuel was generated and then trimmed by considering isotope half-life and calculating the dose from each to a maximum exposed individual with the US EPA airborne radiological dispersion and risk assessment code CAP88 (Rosnick 1992) to yield a short list of elements that actually need to be considered for control because they require high decontamination factors to meet a reasonable fraction of the regulated release. Each of these elements is

  14. Future of the reprocessing business at the RT-1 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharin, O.

    1995-01-01

    Economic viability of reprocessing operations at the RT-1 plant is provided by the contracts with nuclear utilities from Finland and Hungary. Finland will stop sending fuel to Mayak for reprocessing after 1996. Hungary will be capable to resolve the problem of spent fuel domestically some time in the future. This increases vulnerability of the reprocessing business at Mayak to future political uncertainties. (author)

  15. The 4th technological meeting of Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Tohru; Maki, Akira; Shibata, Satomi; Yatogi, Hideo; Nyui, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Takakazu; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Ohzeki, Tatsuya

    2001-11-01

    ''The 4th technological meeting of Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP)'' was held in JNFL Rokkasho site on October 11 th , 2001. The report contains the proceedings, transparencies and questionnaires of the meeting. This time, we reported about ''Maintenance and repair results of Tokai Reprocessing Plant'' based on technology and knowledge accumulated in Tokai Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  16. Direction of reprocessing technology development based on 30 years operation of Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, S; Tanaka, T.; Ohshima, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Recent global interest focuses the possibility of recycling of spent fuel with advanced fast reactor fuel cycle system. Goal of closed fuel cycle is to achieve the maximum use of uranium resources and minimum disposal of waste by multi recycle of TRU as a competitive nuclear energy system. The future reprocessing and fuel fabrication system should be synchronized completely with the advanced reactor system and waste treatment and disposal back-end system to complete closed fuel cycle. To realize such system, current reprocessing system should be changed to handle Pu-U-Minor Actinide with more reductions in the cost and less waste volume, as well as an inherent proliferation resistance. For the successful industrialization of advanced reprocessing technology, it is necessary to combine three key elements of R and D efforts, engineering base demonstration and experiences of plant operation. Tokai Reprocessing Facilities licensed a maximum capacity of 0.7tHM/day began a hot operation in 1977 and reprocessed l,100tHM U02 spent fuel and 20tHM ATR-MOX with a continuous technological improvements under IAEA full scope safeguards. With 30 years experience, candidate of key technologies proposed for realizing the next advanced reprocessing are as follows: 1) Simplified co-extraction process of Pu-Np-U by using multistage centrifugal extractors in stead of pulsed columns; 2) Corrosion free components in acid condition by using corrosion resistant refractory alloys and ceramics; 3) Co-conversion technology to MA containing MOX powder by micro-wave heating method for a short process for MA containing MOX pellets fabrication; 4) Advanced verification of high level radioactive liquid waste combining separation technology of TRU and LLFP elements; 5) Advanced chemical analysis and monitoring system for TRU elements in a plant. These advanced reprocessing technologies will be applied mainly to reprocess the LWR spent fuel accumulated past and future

  17. Development of a continuous dissolution process for the new reprocessing plants at La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auchapt, P.; Patarin, L.; Tarnero, M.

    1984-08-01

    The French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique has designed a continuous rotary dissolver for LWR fuel reprocessing. An industrial prototype has been tested since 1979 at the Service des Prototypes Industriels, at Marcoule. This type of dissolver will be installed at the COGEMA's Reprocessing Plants at La Hague. The advantages of a continuous process are listed, compared to batch dissolutions (chemistry, operation, capacity). The industrial prototype, featuring safe geometry, is described. The R and D program is indicated, and the main results of inactive tests already performed on the industrial prototype are given, including heating, mechanical, and chemical tests (UO 2 dissolutions at 4tU per day)

  18. Development of a continuous dissolution process for the new reprocessing plants at La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auchapt, P.; Patarin, L.; Tarnero, M.

    1984-01-01

    The French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique has designed a continuous rotary dissolver for LWR fuel reprocessing. An industrial prototype has been tested since 1979 at the Service des Prototypes Industriels, at Marcoule. This type of dissolver will be installed at the COGEMA's Reprocessing Plants at La Hague. The advantages of a continuous process are listed, compared to batch dissolutions (chemistry, operation, capacity). The industrial prototype, featuring safe geometry, is described. The R and D program is indicated, and the main results of inactive tests already performed on the industrial prototype are given, including heating, mechanical, and chemical tests (UO 2 dissolutions at 4tU per day)

  19. Fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing R and D: technological development for a commercial plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, J.; Saudray, D.; Coste, J.A.; Roux, J.P.; Jouan, A.

    1987-01-01

    The technological developments undertaken by the CEA are applied to a plant project of a 50 t/y capacity, having to reprocess in particular the SUPERPHENIX 1 reactor fuel. French experience on fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing is presented, then the 50 t/y capacity plant project and the research and development installations. The R and D programs are described, concerning: head-end operations, solvent extractions, Pu02 conversion and storage, out-of-specification Pu02 redissolution, fission products solution vitrification, conditioning of stainless steel hulls by melting, development of remote operation equipments, study of corrosion and analytical problems

  20. Stock management optimization. Example of the management of a reprocessed plutonium stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herault, L.; Privault, C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a method developed by the CEA for the management of a stock of nuclear materials of Electricite de France and which combines meta-heuristics with mathematical programing results for a better efficiency. The industrial problem to solve concerns the reprocessing of spent fuels and the reuse of their plutonium content for the manufacturing of mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. In this problem, the plutonium stock is shared into subsets which must supply fuel fabrication plants at a given date and with precise energetic, chemical and quality criteria in order to minimize the reprocessing costs. (J.S.)

  1. Progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the eurochemic reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Eurochemic reprocessing facility at Dessel in Belgium, was constructed from 1960 to 1966. After shutdown, the plant was decontaminated from 1975 to 1979 to keep safe standby conditions at reasonable cost. When it was decided in 1986 not to resume reprocessing in Belgium, the main Belgoprocess activities changed to processing and storage of radioactive waste and to decontamination and decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities. The industrial decommissioning was started in 1990. This document presents the project: overview of decommissioning activities and equipment used, automation in decontamination, ensuring health and safety during the operations, release of decontaminated materials, current situation of the decommissioning activities and quality assurance program. (A.L.B.)

  2. Morphology of reprocessing: a case for regional utility planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoller, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    The change in entrepreneurial climate in reprocessing and recycle, which has taken place in the last few years, is reviewed. The climatic change, which has reached the point where the economic benefits of that fuel cycle segment are being questioned, is characterized. The author outlines the reasons he feels the benefits are positive. Some of the principal risks facing the entrepreneur are outlined and the suggestion is made that participation by the utility customers for a major project throughout its planning process is critical. In this context, the logic for a regional organization of such utilities, customers, drawing heavily from a study conducted by a group of utilities in the western United States during 1975, is outlined. The paper concludes with some general observations in support of the thesis that new structural forms are likely required for reprocessing facilities, as well as those for other major segments of the fuel cycle, if utilities are to be able to view with confidence the prospect of having such facilities in place in a timely fashion

  3. Creating a comprehensive customer service program to help convey critical and acute results of radiology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towbin, Alexander J; Hall, Seth; Moskovitz, Jay; Johnson, Neil D; Donnelly, Lane F

    2011-01-01

    Communication of acute or critical results between the radiology department and referring clinicians has been a deficiency of many radiology departments. The failure to perform or document these communications can lead to poor patient care, patient safety issues, medical-legal issues, and complaints from referring clinicians. To mitigate these factors, a communication and documentation tool was created and incorporated into our departmental customer service program. This article will describe the implementation of a comprehensive customer service program in a hospital-based radiology department. A comprehensive customer service program was created in the radiology department. Customer service representatives were hired to answer the telephone calls to the radiology reading rooms and to help convey radiology results. The radiologists, referring clinicians, and customer service representatives were then linked via a novel workflow management system. This workflow management system provided tools to help facilitate the communication needs of each group. The number of studies with results conveyed was recorded from the implementation of the workflow management system. Between the implementation of the workflow management system on August 1, 2005, and June 1, 2009, 116,844 radiology results were conveyed to the referring clinicians and documented in the system. This accounts for more than 14% of the 828,516 radiology cases performed in this time frame. We have been successful in creating a comprehensive customer service program to convey and document communication of radiology results. This program has been widely used by the ordering clinicians as well as radiologists since its inception.

  4. Prospect of spent fuel reprocessing and back-end cycling in China in 1990's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Youzhi; Wang Rengtao

    1987-01-01

    According to the CHinese Program of nuclear energy in 1990's, the amount of spent fuel by the year 2000 is estimated in this paper. Reprocessing is considered as an important link in the back-end fuel cycle. A pilot plant is scheduled for hot start up in 1996. The main goal of the study is LWR spent fuel reprocessing. We will use the experience gained from reprocessing of production reactor fuel and last research results. The advanced foreign technigue and experience will be introduced. The study emphasizes on the test of technology, equipments, instrumentation and automation, development of remote maintenance and decontamination. China will start to demonstrate the way for fuel cycle. (author)

  5. Nuclear energy without reprocessing: a future made possible by energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiveson, Harold

    1987-01-01

    The achievements of energy conservation and the promise of future progress have rendered economically unattractive for many decades the separation of plutonium from spent reactor fuel (reprocessing) and its recycle into breeder or light water reactors. Despite this, reprocessing and recycle are already underway in Europe and Japan. If unchecked, these activities, by the end of the century, will lead to an annual flow in routine commerce of tens of thousands of kilograms of separated plutonium, a circumstance which would pose a grave threat to international security. However, continued stagnation of nuclear power programs in much of the world, due significantly to greatly reduced growth rates in electricity demand, will underscore the economic folly of reprocessing and recycle and may eventually encourage their abandonment. (author)

  6. A review and discussion of candidate ceramics for immobilization of high-level fuel reprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, P.J.

    1982-08-01

    This review discusses and attempts to evaluate 11 of the leading ceramic processes for hosting the high-level and high-level plus medium-level wastes which would arise from the reprocessing of used UO 2 , (Th,Pu)O 2 and (Th,U)O 2 fuels. The wasteform materials considered include glass ceramics, supercalcine ceramics, SYNROC ceramics, 'stuffed glass', titanate ceramics, cermets, clay ceramics, cement-based materials and multibarrier wasteforms. Although no attempt has been made to rank these candidates in order of superiority, the conclusion is drawn that, of the materials proposed so far, a glass ceramic appears to be best suited to the Canadian program, taking into account durability in the potential environment of a flooded vault, ability to withstand radiation and transmutation damage without serious loss of durability, ability to accommodate variable waste compositions, and ease of processing and quality control. This conclusion does not necessarily apply to other national waste management programs. However, many of the points raised might be included in any critical assessment of alternative wasteform materials

  7. The use of burnup credit in criticality control for the Korean spent fuel management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Duck Joon; Chon, Je Keun; Park, Chung Ryul; Ji, Pyung Kuk; Kim, Byung Tae; Jo, Chang Keun; Cho, Nam Zin

    1997-01-01

    More than 25% k-eff saving effect is observed in this burnup credit analysis. This mainly comes from the adoption of actinide nuclides and fission products in the criticality analysis. By taking burnup credit, the high capacity of the storage and transportation can be more fully utilized, reducing the space of storage and the number of shipments. Larger storage and fewer shipments for a given inventory of spent fuel result should in remarkable cost savings and more importantly reduce the risks to the public and occupational workers for the Korean Spent Fuel Management Program

  8. Evaluation as a critical factor of success in local public health accreditation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremain, Beverly; Davis, Mary; Joly, Brenda; Edgar, Mark; Kushion, Mary L; Schmidt, Rita

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the variety of approaches used to conduct evaluations of performance improvement or accreditation systems, while illustrating the complexity of conducting evaluations to inform local public health practice. We, in addition, hope to inform the Exploring Accreditation Program about relevant experiences involving accreditation and performance assessment processes, specifically evaluation, as it debates and discusses a national voluntary model. A background of each state is given. To further explore these issues, interviews were conducted with each state's evaluator to gain more in-depth information on the many different evaluation strategies and approaches used. On the basis of the interviews, the authors provide several overall themes, which suggest that evaluation is a critical tool and success factor for performance assessment or accreditation programs.

  9. Input measurements in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trincherini, P.R.; Facchetti, S.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this work is to give a review of the methods and the problems encountered in measurements in 'input accountability tanks' of irradiated fuel treatment plants. This study was prompted by the conviction that more and more precise techniques and methods should be at the service of safeguards organizations and that ever greater efforts should be directed towards promoting knowledge of them among operators and all those general area of interest includes the nuclear fuel cycle. The overall intent is to show the necessity of selecting methods which produce measurements which are not only more precise but are absolutely reliable both for routine plant operation and for safety checks in the input area. A description and a critical evaluation of the most common physical and chemical methods are provided, together with an estimate of the precision and accuracy obtained in real operating conditions

  10. History and current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funasaka, Hideyuki; Nagai, Toshihisa; Washiya, Tadahiro

    2008-01-01

    History and present state of fast breeder reactor was reviewed in series. As a history and current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, this ninth lecture presented the progress of the FBR fuel reprocessing technology and advanced reprocessing processes. FBR fuel reprocessing technology had been developed to construct the reprocessing equipment test facilities (RETF) based on PUREX process technologies. With economics, reduction of environmental burdens and proliferation resistance taken into consideration, advanced aqueous method for nuclear fuel cycle activities has been promoted as the government's basic policy. Innovative technologies on mechanical disassembly, continuous rotary dissolver, crystallizer, solvent extraction and actinides recovery have been mainly studied. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Safety guide data on radiation shielding in a reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Noboru; Naito, Yoshitaka

    1986-04-01

    In a reprocessing facility, various radiation sources are handled and have many geometrical conditions. To aim drawing up a safety guidebook on radiation shielding in order to evaluate shielding safety in a reprocessing facility with high reliability and reasonableness, JAERI trusted investigation on safety evaluation techniques of radiation shielding in a reprocessing facility to Nuclear Safety Research Association. This report is the collection of investigation results, and describes concept of shielding safety design principle, radiation sources in reprocessing facility and estimation of its strength, techniques of shielding calculations, and definite examples of shielding calculation in reprocessing facility. (author)

  12. Status and trends in spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The management of spent fuel arising from nuclear power production is a crucial issue for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. The IAEA has issued several publications in the past that provide technical information on the global status and trends in spent fuel reprocessing and associated topics, and one reason for this present publication is to provide an update of this information which has mostly focused on the conventional technology applied in the industry. However, the scope of this publication has been significantly expanded in an attempt to make it more comprehensive and by including a section on emerging technologies applicable to future innovative nuclear systems, as are being addressed in such international initiatives as INPRO, Gen IV and MICANET. In an effort to be informative, this publication attempts to provide a state-of-the-art review of these technologies, and to identify major issues associated with reprocessing as an option for spent fuel management. It does not, however, provide any detailed information on some of the related issues such as safety or safeguards, which are addressed in other relevant publications. This report provides an overview of the status of reprocessing technology and its future prospects in terms of various criteria in Section 2. Section 3 provides a review of emerging technologies which have been attracting the interest of Member States, especially in the international initiatives for future development of innovative nuclear systems. A historical review of IAEA activities associated with spent fuel reprocessing, traceable back to the mid-1970s, is provided in Section 4, and conclusions in Section 5. A list of references is provided at the end the main text for readers interested in further information on the related topics. Annex I summarizes the current status of reprocessing facilities around the world, including the civil operational statistics of Purex-based plants, progress with decommissioning and

  13. Safety demonstration test on solvent fire in fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Gunji; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes a fundamental of results obtained in the Reprocessing Plant Safety Demonstration Test Program which was performed under the contract between the Science and Technology Agency of Japan and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this test program, a solvent fire was hypothesized, and such data were obtained as fire behavior, smoke behavior and integrity of exhaust filters in the ventilation system. Through the test results, it was confirmed that under the fire condition in hypothetical accident, the integrity of the cell and the cell ventilation system were maintained, and the safety function of the exhaust filters was maintained against the smoke loading. Analytical results by EVENT code agreed well with the present test data on the thermofluid flow in a cell ventilation system. (author)

  14. Do Parent Education Programs Promote Healthy Post-Divorce Parenting? Critical Distinctions and a Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Amanda; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene; Braver, Sanford

    2009-01-01

    Most parent education programs are designed to improve child well-being following divorce by changing some aspect of parenting. However, there has been relatively little discussion of what aspects of parenting are most critical and the effectiveness of programs to change different aspects of parenting. This paper addresses these issues by: 1. Distinguishing three aspects of post-divorce parenting that have been targeted in parent education programs; 2. Reviewing evidence of the relations between each aspect of parenting and the well-being of children and; 3. Critically reviewing evidence that parent education programs have been successful in changing each aspect of post-divorce parenting. PMID:21552360

  15. About possibility of uranium industry wastes reprocessing in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Barotov, B.B.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Barotov, A.M; Akhmedov, M.Z.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main basic fields of economy in Tajikistan is mining industry. Its development in the past lead to accumulation of huge amount of wastes basically from uranium reprocessing enterprises, containing radionuclides in anthropogenic highly concentrations (basically uranium-thorium chain) and other harmful substances. They are located in zones very close to residential as well as in upper course of water inflow of such main rivers of the region as Amudarya and Syrdarya. Sulphates, heavy metals, cyanides and others (basically with water flow) released to the environment besides uranium reprocessing wastes and other mining enterprises. This makes it necessary to restore in the region the complex coordinated monitoring programs with the purpose of their actual assessment and potential impact on environment as well as priority justification of possible remediation measures. One of the important are balance assessment and trans-boundary radionuclide re-deposition of uranium-thorium chain and other toxic elements in Syrdarya and Amudarya rivers with the purpose of regional formation character revealing of radiation and other ecological risks for saving the normal vital activity in the region.

  16. CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMIT EVALUATION PROGRAM (CSLEP's) AND QUICK SCREENS: ANSWERS TO EXPEDITED PROCESSING LEGACY CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMITS AND EVALUATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOFFER, H.

    2006-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war, the need for operating weapons production facilities has faded. Criticality Safety Limits and controls supporting production modes in these facilities became outdated and furthermore lacked the procedure based rigor dictated by present day requirements. In the past, in many instances, the formalism of present day criticality safety evaluations was not applied. Some of the safety evaluations amounted to a paragraph in a notebook with no safety basis and questionable arguments with respect to double contingency criteria. When material stabilization, clean out, and deactivation activities commenced, large numbers of these older criticality safety evaluations were uncovered with limits and controls backed up by tenuous arguments. A dilemma developed: on the one hand, cleanup activities were placed on very aggressive schedules; on the other hand, a highly structured approach to limits development was required and applied to the cleanup operations. Some creative approaches were needed to cope with the limits development process

  17. Teaching and Understanding the Concept of Critical Thinking Skills within Michigan Accredited Associate Degree Dental Hygiene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beistle, Kimberly S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores dental hygiene faculty's perceptions regarding the issues surrounding the concept of critical thinking skills integration within Michigan accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs. The primary research goals are to determine faculty understanding of the concept of critical thinking, identify personal and departmental…

  18. International safeguards for reprocessing plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzer, M.; Scheinman, L.; Sievering, N.; Wonder, E.; Lipman, D.; Immerman, W.; Elliott, J.M.; Crane, F.

    1981-04-01

    Proliferation risks inherent in reprocessing show the need to employ technically effective safeguards which can detect, with a high degree of assurance and on a timely basis, the diversion of significant quantities of fissionable material. A balance must be struck between what is technically feasible and effective and what is institutionally acceptable. Purpose of this report is to examine the several technical approaches to safeguards in light of their prospective acceptability. This study defines the economic, political and institutional nature of the safeguards problem; surveys generically alternative technical approaches to international safeguards including their effectiveness and relative development; characterizes the institutional implications and uncertainties associated with the acceptance and implementation of each technical alternative; and integrates these assessments into a set of overall judgments on feasible directions for reprocessing plant safeguards systems.

  19. UP3 plant first reprocessing campaigns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leudet, A.; Hugelmann, D.; Fournier, W.; Dalverny, G.

    1991-01-01

    The UP3 plant start up has been achieved in two successive steps. The first one, from November 89 to April 90, involved all the facilities but T1, the head-end facility. During that period, shearing, dissolution and the first cycle extraction operations were performed in UP2 plant. 100 tons of fuel have been reprocessed that way. The second step began in August 1990, with the T1 facility start-up and the reprocessing of the resulting active solutions in the rest of the plant. This second phase involving the entire UP3 plant continued until the end of January 1991. At that time, 160 tons of fuel have been completely treated in UP3 plant

  20. Management of spent solvents of reprocessing origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, S.; Srinivas, C.; Vincent, T.; Wattal, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Spent solvents of reprocessing origin constitute a major portion of radioactive liquid organic wastes arising from nuclear activity. An in-depth study of this waste stream has led to the evolution of a complete management option, which addresses not only the concern of radioactivity but also its organic nature. This is based on alkaline hydrolysis of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), which converts it into aqueous soluble products, viz. sodium salt of dibutyl phosphoric acid and butanol. During the process of alkaline hydrolysis almost all the activity associated with the waste gets transferred into the aqueous phase. The recovered diluent virtually free of activity and TBP can be recycled, and in case of it not meeting reprocessing standards, can be incinerated. The process generated aqueous waste is found compatible with cement and can be immobilized in cement matrix. (author)

  1. Power Reactor Thoria Reprocessing Facility (PRTRF), Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhami, P.S; Yadav, J.S; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    Exploitation of the abundant thorium resources to meet sustained energy demand forms the basis of the Indian nuclear energy programme. To gain reprocessing experience in thorium fuel cycle, thoria was irradiated in research reactor CIRUS in early sixties. Later in eighties, thoria bundles were used for initial flux flattening in some of the pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). The research reactor irradiated thoria contained small content (∼ 2-3ppm) of "2"3"2U in "2"3"3U product, which did not pose any significant radiological problems during processing in Uranium Thorium Separation Facility (UTSF), Trombay. Thoria irradiated in PHWRs on discharge contained (∼ 0.5-1.5% "2"3"3U with significant "2"3"2U content (100-500 ppm) requiring special radiological attention. Based on the experience from UTSF, a new facility viz. Power Reactor Thoria Reprocessing Facility (PRTRF), Trombay was built which was hot commissioned in the year 2015

  2. Reprocessing in Sweden: History and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Oesterlund, C.G.

    1990-10-01

    Against the background of nuclear power development and installation in Sweden an overview is presented of the parallel domestic development of the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The original selection of the natural uranium - heavy water reactor in the 1950s included spent fuel reprocessing and recycle, and process and plant studies were performed to that end. The switch to light water reactors in the 1960s did not change the planning to recycle; however, the participation in the Eurochemic undertaking, and the delay in the nuclear programme stopped further domestic development work. A number of governmental committee investigations in the 1970s on the radioactive waste issue and, above all, the decision to phase out nuclear power by 2010, after a referendum following the TMI-accident, finally resulted in a decision to plan only for direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. This policy still prevails. (42 refs.)

  3. Reprocessing technology for present water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    The basic Purex solvent extraction technology developed and applied in the U.S. in the 1950's provides a well-demonstrated and efficient process for recovering uranium and plutonium for fuel recycle and separating the wastes for further treatment and packaging. The technologies for confinement of radioactive effluents have been developed but have had limited utilization in the processing of commercial light water reactor fuels. Technologies for solidification and packaging of radioactive wastes have not yet been demonstrated but significant experience has been gained in laboratory and engineering scale experiments with simulated commercial reprocessing wastes and intermediate level wastes. Commercial scale experience with combined operations of all the required processes and equipment are needed to demonstrate reliable reprocessing centers

  4. An improved sampling system installed for reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterwalder, L.; Zeh, H.

    1979-03-01

    Sampling devices are needed for taking representative samples from individual process containers during the reprocessing of irradiated fuel. The aqueous process stream in a reprocessing plant frequently contains, in addition to the dissolved radioactive materials, more or less small quantities of solid matter fraction of fuel material still remaining undissolved, insoluble fission-, corrosion-, or degradation products as well, in exceptional cases, ion exchange resin or silica gel. The solid matter is deposited partly on the upper surfaces of the sampling system and the radiation due to this makes maintenance and repair of the sampler more difficult. The purpose of the development work was to reduce the chance of accident and the maintenance costs and to lower the radiation exposure of the personnel. A new sampling system was developed and is described. (author)

  5. International safeguards for reprocessing plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzer, M.; Scheinman, L.; Sievering, N.; Wonder, E.; Lipman, D.; Immerman, W.; Elliott, J.M.; Crane, F.

    1981-04-01

    Proliferation risks inherent in reprocessing show the need to employ technically effective safeguards which can detect, with a high degree of assurance and on a timely basis, the diversion of significant quantities of fissionable material. A balance must be struck between what is technically feasible and effective and what is institutionally acceptable. Purpose of this report is to examine the several technical approaches to safeguards in light of their prospective acceptability. This study defines the economic, political and institutional nature of the safeguards problem; surveys generically alternative technical approaches to international safeguards including their effectiveness and relative development; characterizes the institutional implications and uncertainties associated with the acceptance and implementation of each technical alternative; and integrates these assessments into a set of overall judgments on feasible directions for reprocessing plant safeguards systems

  6. Reprocessing: A reasonable way of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.

    1986-01-01

    Reprocessing is the only way to recover the valuable substances contained in the burnt fuel elements and to make them utilizable for energy generation again. It is easier to adapt a national solution to the special domestic needs than a waste management plant which is operated on an international basis and is therefore simpler to be implemented. It guarantees independence, stands for the meeting of requirements resulting from the Non-Proliferation Treaty and creates safe jobs. Furthermore, it offers more liberty in applying optimized recycling strategies. A national reprocessing industry leads to an improved competitive position in the nuclear business, due to technological development and demonstration. A country like the Federal Republic of Germany, which depends on exports, does need top-level technologies. (HSCH) [de

  7. Integrated international safeguards concepts for fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Whitty, W.J.; Camp, A.L.; Cameron, C.P.; Bleck, M.E.; Ellwein, L.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of efforts by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to identify problems and propose solutions for international safeguarding of light-water reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plants. Problem areas for international safeguards were identified in a previous Problem Statement (LA-7551-MS/SAND79-0108). Accounting concepts that could be verified internationally were presented in a subsequent study (LA-8042). Concepts for containment/surveillance were presented, conceptual designs were developed, and the effectiveness of these designs was evaluated in a companion study (SAND80-0160). The report discusses the coordination of nuclear materials accounting and containment/surveillance concepts in an effort to define an effective integrated safeguards system. The Allied-General Nuclear Services fuels reprocessing plant at Barnwell, South Carolina, was used as the reference facility

  8. A critical exploration of science doctoral programs: Counterstories from underrepresented women of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Senetta F.

    Most studies exploring the experiences of underrepresented doctoral students of color in science fields focus on their socialization into predominantly white institutions. While the socialization process is fundamental to doctoral success and consequently deserves attention, it is critical to inquire into how the widespread and lasting perception of people of color as socioculturally deficient shapes underrepresented students` socialization into science doctoral programs. Further, the existing research literature and educational policies addressing the persistent underrepresentation of students of color in science doctorates remain fixated on increasing racial diversity for U.S. economic security rather than racial equity. In view of the limitation of existing research literature, in this study, drawing from critical race theories, fictive-kinship, and forms of capital, I use counterstorytelling to recast racial inequities in the education of science doctorates as a problem of social justice, not as an issue of the students' sociocultural deficits or as a matter of economic security. Through interviews I examined the experiences, from elementary school to current careers, of three women of color who were science doctoral students. Participants' counterstories revealed institutionalized racism embedded in doctoral programs exploited their identities and dismissed their lived experiences, thereby, relegating them to outsiders-within academe. This marginalization precluded the inclusive socialization of participants into their doctoral programs and ultimately set up barriers to their pursuit of scientific careers. This study divulges the academic and career consequences of the sustained privilege disparities between underrepresented students of color's experience and the experiences of their white and Asian counterparts. In light of the participants' experiences, I recommend that, in order to change the existing policy of socially integrating students into oppressive

  9. Solvent management in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, B.; Germain, M.; Puyou, M.; Rouyer, H.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent management in large capacity reprocessing plant is studied to limit production of organic wastes. Chemical processing increases life time of solvent. Low pressure distillation allows the recycling of TBP and diluent at a low activity level. Besides heavy degradation products are eliminated. For the safety the flash point of distillated diluent increases slightly. Tests on an industrial scale started in 1985 and since more than 500 cubic meters were treated [fr

  10. Economic evaluation of reprocessing. Indicative Netherlands position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    The paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic evaluation of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for the Netherlands is presented. Two alternative scenarios have been assumed for the variation of uranium price in the future; a 2% per annum price rise and a 5% per annum price rise

  11. Fuel fabrication and reprocessing at UKAEA Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.

    1994-01-01

    The Dounreay fuel plants, which are the most flexible anywhere in the world, will continue to carry out work for foreign commercial customers. A number of German companies are important customers of UKAEA and examples of the wide variety of the work currently being carried out for them in the Dounreay plants is given (reprocessing and fabrication of fuel elements from and for research reactors). (orig./HP) [de

  12. Will the world SNF be reprocessed in Russia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinski, A.

    2000-01-01

    Russia's possibilities in nuclear fuel reprocessing are well known. RT-1 plant with 400 tons/year in the Chelyabinsk region can provide reprocessing of fuel from Russian and Central European WWER-440 reactors, as well as from transport and research reactors. Former military complex Krasnoyarsk-26 with unique underground installations situated in rock galleries, already has an aqueous facility for storage of 6000 tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), half-built plant RT-2 for nuclear fuel reprocessing with 1500 tons/year capacity, as well as the projects of dry storage facility for 30000 tons of SNF and of MOX fuel production plant. Russian nuclear specialists understand well, that the economic efficiency of nuclear fuel reprocessing industry is shown only in case of large-scale production, which would require consolidation of the countries, which develop nuclear energy. They also understand, that Russia has all the possibilities to become one of the centers of such a consolidation and to use these possibilities for the benefit of the country. The idea of foreign nuclear fuel reprocessing (for a long time realized for East and Central European countries, which operate Soviet-design reactors) has existed in the specialists' minds, and sometimes has appeared in the mass media. On the other hand, rehabilitation of territories of nuclear fuel cycle enterprises in Russia continues, including the Karachai lake, which contains 120 million Curie of radioactivity. Unfortunately, Russia simply has no money for complete solution of the problems of radiation military legacy. During discussion of the budget for 2000, the Russian Minatom has made a daring step. A real program, how to find money needed for solving the 'radiation legacy' problem, was proposed. With this purpose, it was proposed to permit storage and further reprocessing of other countries' SNF on Russian territory. It is well known, that another countries' SNF is accepted for reprocessing by UK and France, and Russia

  13. Critical interactions between the Global Fund-supported HIV programs and the health system in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Pothapregada, Sai Kumar; Kwansah, Janet; Degbotse, D; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2011-08-01

    The support of global health initiatives in recipient countries has been vigorously debated. Critics are concerned that disease-specific programs may be creating vertical and parallel service delivery structures that to some extent undermine health systems. This case study of Ghana aimed to explore how the Global Fund-supported HIV program interacts with the health system there and to map the extent and nature of integration of the national disease program across 6 key health systems functions. Qualitative interviews of national stakeholders were conducted to understand the perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of the relationship between Global Fund-supported activities and the health system and to identify positive synergies and unintended consequences of integration. Ghana has a well-functioning sector-wide approach to financing its health system, with a strong emphasis on integrated care delivery. Ghana has benefited from US $175 million of approved Global Fund support to address the HIV epidemic, accounting for almost 85% of the National AIDS Control Program budget. Investments in infrastructure, human resources, and commodities have enabled HIV interventions to increase exponentially. Global Fund-supported activities have been well integrated into key health system functions to strengthen them, especially financing, planning, service delivery, and demand generation. Yet, with governance and monitoring and evaluation functions, parallel structures to national systems have emerged, leading to inefficiencies. This case study demonstrates that interactions and integration are highly varied across different health system functions, and strong government leadership has facilitated the integration of Global Fund-supported activities within national programs.

  14. Material control for a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundquist, D.; Bray, G.; Donelson, S.; Glancy, J.; Gozani, T.; Harris, L.; McNamera, R.; Pence, D.; Ringham, M.

    1976-01-01

    Adequate control of special nuclear material (SNM) implies a basic knowledge of the quantities of SNM processed through or contained within a fuels processing facility with sufficient accuracy that diversion of the SNM for deleterious purposes can be detected in a timely manner. This report to the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) describes the primary process streams containing plutonium that are handled routinely within a spent fuel reprocessing plant and conversion facility. As an aid in implementing the objectives of the accountability system in a realistic situation, the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) reprocessing plant now under construction near Barnwell, South Carolina, was chosen as the study model. The AGNS plant processes are discussed in detail emphasizing those portions of the process that contain significant quantities of plutonium. The unit processes within the separations plant, nitrate storage, plutonium product facility and the analytical laboratory are described with regard to the SNM control system currently planned for use in the facilities. A general discussion of laboratory techniques, nondestructive assay and process instrumentation for plutonium process and product material from a reprocessing plant is included. A comprehensive discussion is given of holdup measurements in plutonium recycle facilities. A brief preliminary overview is presented of alternative processing strategies for LWR fuel. An extensive review and summary of modeling efforts for liquid-liquid extraction cycles is included. A comprehensive bibliography of previous modeling efforts is covered

  15. Legal problems of nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions in this book are intended to exemplify the legal situation in connection with the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from the point of view of constitutional law, administrative law, and international law. Outline solutions are presented with regard to ensuring health, personal freedom, democratic rights and other rights, and are discussed. The author Rossnagel investigates whether the principle of essential matter can guarantee a parliamentary prerogative concerning this field of large-scale technology. The author Schmidt shows that there is no legal obligation of commitment to a reprocessing technology that would exclude research for or application of a less hazardous technology. The contribution by Baumann explains the problems presented by a technology not yet developed to maturity with regard to the outline approval of the technological concept, which is a prerequisite of any partial licence to be issued. The final contribution by Guendling investigates the duties under international law, as for instance transfrontier information, consultation, and legal protection, and how these duties can be better put into practice in order to comply the seriousness of the hazards involved in nuclear fuel reprocessing. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Aerosols released in accidents in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Owczarski, P.C.; Hashimoto, K.; Nishio, G.; Jordan, S.; Lindner, W.

    1987-01-01

    For analyzing the thermodynamic and radiological consequences of solvent fire accidents in reprocessing plants, intensive investigations on burning contaminated condensible liquids were performed at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). In small- and large-scale tests, KfK studied the behavior of kerosene, tributyl phosphate, HNO 3 mixture fires in open air and closed containments. The particle release from uranium-contaminated pool fires was investigated. Different filter devices were tested. For analyzing fires, PNL has developed the FIRIN computer code and has generated small-scale fire data in support of that code. The results of the experiments in which contaminated combustible liquids were burned demonstrate the use of the FIRIN code in simulating a solvent fire in a nuclear reprocessing plant. To demonstrate the safety evaluation of a postulated solvent fire in an extraction process of a reprocessing pant, JAERI conducted large-scale fire tests. Behavior of solvent fires in a cell and the integrity of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters due to smoke plugging were investigated. To evaluate confinement of radioactive materials released from the solvent fire, the ventilation systems with HEPA filters were tested under postulated fire conditions

  17. Simulation study of near-real-time accounting in a generic reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, C.A.; Whiteson, R.; Zardecki, A.

    1992-01-01

    Our simulation program FacSim has been used to estimate balance closure variances for a number of real proposed nuclear material processing facilities that rely primarily on item measurements. We are enhancing the program so that it can be applied to facilities such as reprocessing plants that handle bulk materials ad primarily perform bulk and flow measurements. The extended simulation program can apply any of several types of sequential statistical tests to near-real-time accounting information to evaluate the capability of the facility accounting system to detect material and operational anomalies in a timely fashion. The program allows facility designers and operators to evaluate measurement and anomaly detection strategies before system implementation and to demonstrate facility's capability for maintaining accurate inventory information during plant operation. These features are illustrated by application to a generic reprocessing plant

  18. The influence of critical thinking skills on performance and progression in a pre-registration nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Victoria; Powis, David; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Hunter, Sharyn

    2015-01-01

    The importance of developing critical thinking skills in preregistration nursing students is recognized worldwide. Yet, there has been limited exploration of how students' critical thinking skill scores on entry to pre-registration nursing education influence their academic and clinical performance and progression. The aim of this study was to: i) describe entry and exit critical thinking scores of nursing students enrolled in a three year bachelor of nursing program in Australia in comparison to norm scores; ii) explore entry critical thinking scores in relation to demographic characteristics, students' performance and progression. This longitudinal correlational study used the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) to measure critical thinking skills in a sample (n=134) of students, at entry and exit (three years later). A one sample t-test was used to determine if differences existed between matched student critical thinking scores between entry and exit points. Academic performance, clinical performance and progression data were collected and correlations with entry critical thinking scores were examined. There was a significant relationship between critical thinking scores, academic performance and students' risk of failing, especially in the first semester of study. Critical thinking scores were predictive of program completion within three years. The increase in critical thinking scores from entry to exit was significant for the 28 students measured. In comparison to norm scores, entry level critical thinking scores were significantly lower, but exit scores were comparable. Critical thinking scores had no significant relationship to clinical performance. Entry critical thinking scores significantly correlate to academic performance and predict students risk of course failure and ability to complete a nursing degree in three years. Students' critical thinking scores are an important determinant of their success and as such can inform curriculum development and

  19. The regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is stipulated under the provisions of reprocessing business in the law concerning regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and to execute them. Basic terms are defined, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, security area, surrounding monitoring area, worker, radioactive waste and facility for discharging into the sea. The application for the designation for reprocessing business under the law shall include the maximum reprocessing capacities per day and per year of each kind of spent fuel, to be reprocessed and the location, structure and equipment of reprocessing facilities as specified in the regulation. Records shall be made in each works or enterprise on the inspection, operation and maintenance of reprocessing facilities, radiation control, accidents and weather, and kept for particular periods respectively. Reprocessing enterprisers shall set up control area, security area and surrounding monitoring area to restrict entrance, etc. Specified measures shall be taken by these enterprisers concerning the exposure radiation doses of workers. Reprocessing facilities shall be inspected and examined more than once a day. The regular self-inspection and operation of reprocessing facilities, the transport and storage of nuclear fuel materials, the disposal of radioactive wastes in works or enterprises where reprocessing facilities are located, and security rules are defined in detail, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  20. The case for reprocessing: the operational experience of a modern reprocessing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, J.P.; Kelly, W.

    1993-01-01

    Reprocessing is a high-tech industry that works. An impressive effort of R and D, industrial deployment and operational experience has been accumulated by COGEMA and BNFL, leading these companies to offer a commercial service which is the only proper management of spent fuel and waste that is both technically demonstrated and qualified by the safety authorities of European and overseas countries. Reprocessing, as every technology-based industry will continue to progress in the future. Recycling the fissile materials reclaimed from spent fuel: uranium and plutonium, is the complementary and indispensable last link to effectively close the fuel cycle and control in particular the production of plutonium and other long-lived actinides. This paper will describe the state of development attained in France and Great Britain and will underline the main advantages of the reprocessing/recycling strategy

  1. MCNP benchmark analyses of critical experiments for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcow, E.C.; Cerbone, R.J.; Ludewig, H.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Schmidt, E.; Todosow, M.; Parma, E.J.; Ball, R.M.; Hoovler, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    Benchmark analyses have been performed of Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) critical experiments (CX) using the MCNP radiation transport code. The experiments have been conducted at the Sandia National Laboratory reactor facility in support of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. The test reactor is a nineteen element water moderated and reflected thermal system. A series of integral experiments have been carried out to test the capabilities of the radiation transport codes to predict the performance of PBR systems. MCNP was selected as the preferred radiation analysis tool for the benchmark experiments. Comparison between experimental and calculational results indicate close agreement. This paper describes the analyses of benchmark experiments designed to quantify the accuracy of the MCNP radiation transport code for predicting the performance characteristics of PBR reactors

  2. The financial performance of rural hospitals and implications for elimination of the Critical Access Hospital program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, George M; Pink, George H; Friedman, Sarah A

    2013-01-01

    To compare the financial performance of rural hospitals with Medicare payment provisions to those paid under prospective payment and to estimate the financial consequences of elimination of the Critical Access Hospital (CAH) program. Financial data for 2004-2010 were collected from the Healthcare Cost Reporting Information System (HCRIS) for rural hospitals. HCRIS data were used to calculate measures of the profitability, liquidity, capital structure, and financial strength of rural hospitals. Linear mixed models accounted for the method of Medicare reimbursement, time trends, hospital, and market characteristics. Simulations were used to estimate profitability of CAHs if they reverted to prospective payment. CAHs generally had lower unadjusted financial performance than other types of rural hospitals, but after adjustment for hospital characteristics, CAHs had generally higher financial performance. Special payment provisions by Medicare to rural hospitals are important determinants of financial performance. In particular, the financial condition of CAHs would be worse if they were paid under prospective payment. © 2012 National Rural Health Association.

  3. MCNP benchmark analyses of critical experiments for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcow, Elizabeth C.; Cerbone, Ralph J.; Ludewig, Hans; Mughabghab, Said F.; Schmidt, Eldon; Todosow, Michael; Parma, Edward J.; Ball, Russell M.; Hoovler, Gary S.

    1993-01-01

    Benchmark analyses have been performed of Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) critical experiments (CX) using the MCNP radiation transport code. The experiments have been conducted at the Sandia National Laboratory reactor facility in support of the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. The test reactor is a nineteen element water moderated and reflected thermal system. A series of integral experiments have been carried out to test the capabilities of the radiation transport codes to predict the performance of PBR systems. MCNP was selected as the preferred radiation analysis tool for the benchmark experiments. Comparison between experimental and calculational results indicate close agreement. This paper describes the analyses of benchmark experiments designed to quantify the accuracy of the MCNP radiation transport code for predicting the performance characteristics of PBR reactors.

  4. Evaluation of methods for seismic analysis of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, F.J.; Murray, R.C.; Arthur, D.F.; Feng, W.W.; Wight, L.H.; Zaslawsky, M.

    1975-01-01

    Currently, no guidelines exist for choosing methods of structural analysis to evaluate the seismic hazard of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. This study examines available methods and their applicability to fuel reprocessing plant structures. The results of this study should provide a basis for establishing guidelines recommending methods of seismic analysis for evaluating future fuel reprocessing plants. The approach taken is: (1) to identify critical plant structures and place them in four categories (structures at or near grade; deeply embedded structures; fully buried structures; equipment/vessels/attachments/piping), (2) to select a representative structure in each of the first three categories and perform static and dynamic analysis on each, and (3) to evaluate and recommend method(s) of analysis for structures within each category. The Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant is selected as representative of future commercial reprocessing plants. The effect of site characteristics on the structural response is also examined. The response spectra method of analysis combined with the finite element model for each category is recommended. For structures founded near or at grade, the lumped mass model could also be used. If a time history response is required, a time-history analysis is necessary. (U.S.)

  5. The automatic programming for safety-critical software in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Eom, Heung Seop; Choi, You Rark

    1998-06-01

    We defined the Korean unique safety-critical software development methodology by modifying Dr. Harel`s statechart-based on formal methods in order to digitalized the reactor protection system. It is suggested software requirement specification guideline to specify design specification which is basis for requirement specification and automatic programming by the caused by shutdown parameter logic of the steam generator water level for Wolsung 2/3/4 unit SDS no.1 and simulated it by binding the Graphic User Interface (GUI). We generated the K and R C code automatically by utilizing the Statemate MAGNUM Sharpshooter/C code generator. Auto-generated K and R C code is machine independent code and has high productivity, quality and provability. The following are the summaries of major research and development. - Set up the Korean unique safety-critical software development methodology - Developed software requirement specification guidelines - Developed software design specification guidelines - Reactor trip modeling for steam generator waster level Wolsung 2/3/4 SDS no. 1 shutdown parameter logic - Graphic panel binding with GUI. (author). 20 refs., 12 tabs., 15 figs

  6. The automatic programming for safety-critical software in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Eom, Heung Seop; Choi, You Rark

    1998-06-01

    We defined the Korean unique safety-critical software development methodology by modifying Dr. Harel's statechart-based on formal methods in order to digitalized the reactor protection system. It is suggested software requirement specification guideline to specify design specification which is basis for requirement specification and automatic programming by the caused by shutdown parameter logic of the steam generator water level for Wolsung 2/3/4 unit SDS no.1 and simulated it by binding the Graphic User Interface (GUI). We generated the K and R C code automatically by utilizing the Statemate MAGNUM Sharpshooter/C code generator. Auto-generated K and R C code is machine independent code and has high productivity, quality and provability. The following are the summaries of major research and development. - Set up the Korean unique safety-critical software development methodology - Developed software requirement specification guidelines - Developed software design specification guidelines - Reactor trip modeling for steam generator waster level Wolsung 2/3/4 SDS no. 1 shutdown parameter logic - Graphic panel binding with GUI. (author). 20 refs., 12 tabs., 15 figs

  7. Development of Tokai reprocessing plant maintenance support system (TORMASS) in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kazuyuki; Tomita, Tsuneo; Sakai, Katsumi

    2008-01-01

    The maintenance work of many equipments such as mechanical, electrical and instrumentations installed in Tokai reprocessing plant has been performed more then 10,000 times per year and about 90% of maintenances were preventive work. For the maintenance management, optimization of maintenance information is required. Therefore, Tokai Reprocessing Plant Maintenance Support System (TORMASS) was developed from 1985 to 1992 as the aim of construction for suitable maintenance management system. About 24,000 equipments of specifications and about 261,000 maintenance detail were registered in this system. TORMASS has been used for the repair, inspection and replacement of equipment since 1992. (author)

  8. Constructing a resilience index for the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R. E.; Bassett, G. W.; Buehring, W. A.; Collins, M. J.; Dickinson, D. C.; Eaton, L. K.; Haffenden, R. A.; Hussar, N. E.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Millier, D. J.; Petit, F. D.; Peyton, S. M.; Wallace, K. E.; Whitfield, R. G.; Peerenboom, J P

    2010-10-14

    Following recommendations made in Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7, which established a national policy for the identification and increased protection of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) by Federal departments and agencies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2006 developed the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) program. The ECIP program aimed to provide a closer partnership with state, regional, territorial, local, and tribal authorities in fulfilling the national objective to improve CIKR protection. The program was specifically designed to identify protective measures currently in place in CIKR and to inform facility owners/operators of the benefits of new protective measures. The ECIP program also sought to enhance existing relationships between DHS and owners/operators of CIKR and to build relationships where none existed (DHS 2008; DHS 2009). In 2009, DHS and its protective security advisors (PSAs) began assessing CIKR assets using the ECIP program and ultimately produced individual protective measure and vulnerability values through the protective measure and vulnerability indices (PMI/VI). The PMI/VI assess the protective measures posture of individual facilities at their 'weakest link,' allowing for a detailed analysis of the most vulnerable aspects of the facilities (Schneier 2003), while maintaining the ability to produce an overall protective measures picture. The PMI has six main components (physical security, security management, security force, information sharing, protective measures assessments, and dependencies) and focuses on actions taken by a facility to prevent or deter the occurrence of an incident (Argonne National Laboratory 2009). As CIKR continue to be assessed using the PMI/VI and owners/operators better understand how they can prevent or deter incidents, academic research, practitioner emphasis, and public policy formation have increasingly focused on resilience as a

  9. APL used for control of a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruschka, B.

    1975-05-01

    A package of interactive APL functions for data maintaining and processing is discussed in some detail. The data is recorded during the cycle of irradiated fuels and is used to control the reprocessing plant at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (WAK). First nuclear fuel processing is explained. A short justification is given of the reasons why the program language APL and the facilities of the file subsystem APL PLUS had been chosen for data handling. This is followed by the description of workspace and file organisation, all mainfunctions and files are described. Finally all functions are listed, an example of a user session and the output of daily and monthly reports from terminal and high-speed printer are presented. (orig.) [de

  10. BNFL Sellafield assessment of public radiation exposure due to liquid effluents from fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Individual (critical group) doses resulting from liquid discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) Sellafield Works have been derived in a form normalised to unit radionuclide discharge rates. This has been done for the purpose of providing a basis for predicting doses in the event of nuclear fuel from a future Sizewell 'B' power station being reprocessed. These doses would have to be reviewed in the light of prevailing circumstances at the time when the actual discharges are known. (author)

  11. Handbook on process and chemistry on nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Asakura, Toshihide; Adachi, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; and others

    2001-12-01

    'Wet-type' nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, based on PUREX technology, has wide applicability as the principal reprocessing technology of the first generation, and relating technologies, waste management for example, are highly developed, too. It is quite important to establish a database summarizing fundamental information about the process and the chemistry of 'wet-type' reprocessing, because it contributes to establish and develop fuel reprocessing process and nuclear fuel cycle treating high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuel and spent MOX fuel, and to utilize 'wet-type' reprocessing technology much widely. This handbook summarizes the fundamental data on process and chemistry, which was collected and examined by 'Editing Committee of Handbook on Process and Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing', from FY 1993 until FY 2000. (author)

  12. Handbook on process and chemistry on nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Asakura, Toshihide; Adachi, Takeo

    2001-12-01

    'Wet-type' nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, based on PUREX technology, has wide applicability as the principal reprocessing technology of the first generation, and relating technologies, waste management for example, are highly developed, too. It is quite important to establish a database summarizing fundamental information about the process and the chemistry of 'wet-type' reprocessing, because it contributes to establish and develop fuel reprocessing process and nuclear fuel cycle treating high burn-up UO 2 fuel and spent MOX fuel, and to utilize 'wet-type' reprocessing technology much widely. This handbook summarizes the fundamental data on process and chemistry, which was collected and examined by 'Editing Committee of Handbook on Process and Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing', from FY 1993 until FY 2000. (author)

  13. Handbook on process and chemistry on nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki (ed.) [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Asakura, Toshihide; Adachi, Takeo (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-12-01

    'Wet-type' nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, based on PUREX technology, has wide applicability as the principal reprocessing technology of the first generation, and relating technologies, waste management for example, are highly developed, too. It is quite important to establish a database summarizing fundamental information about the process and the chemistry of 'wet-type' reprocessing, because it contributes to establish and develop fuel reprocessing process and nuclear fuel cycle treating high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuel and spent MOX fuel, and to utilize 'wet-type' reprocessing technology much widely. This handbook summarizes the fundamental data on process and chemistry, which was collected and examined by 'Editing Committee of Handbook on Process and Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing', from FY 1993 until FY 2000. (author)

  14. Resistance Training and Stroke: A Critical Analysis of Different Training Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bavaresco Gambassi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a literature review on the overall benefits of resistance training (RT after stroke and undertake a critical analysis of the resistance exercise programs surveyed (rest interval between sets and exercises, number of sets, number of repetitions, intensity, duration of training, and weekly frequency. To obtain articles for the review, we searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro. Inclusion criteria were considered using the PICO (population, intervention, control/comparison, and outcome variables model. The following characteristics were recorded for all articles: type of study, author, year of publication, participants (time after stroke, sample size, and age, benefits of RT, and structured resistance exercise programs. Positive effects of training were found on anxiety status, quality of life, muscle hypertrophy, cognitive function, strength, and muscle power. Only 5 studies described the main variables of RT in detail. Lack of control of some variables of RT may negatively affect the results of this practice. The findings of the present study may further inform health and physical conditioning professionals on the importance and necessity of using the main variables in the search for benefits for individuals with stroke.

  15. Effects of an experiential learning program on the clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills of occupational therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Patty

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of participation in a 1-week, experiential, hands-on learning program on the critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills of occupational therapy students. A quasi-experimental, nonrandomized pre- and post-test design was used with a sample of 25 students. The students had completed three semesters of didactic lecture coursework in a master's level OT educational program prior to participation in a hands-on therapy program for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Changes in critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills were evaluated using the following dependent measures: Self-Assessment of Clinical Reflection and Reasoning (SACRR) and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). Changes in pretest and posttest scores on the SACRR and the CCTST were statistically significant (p>0.05) following completion of the experiential learning program. This study supports the use of hands-on learning to develop clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills in healthcare students, who face ever more diverse patient populations upon entry-level practice. Further qualitative and quantitative investigations are needed to support the results of this study and determine which components of experiential learning programs are essential for developing clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills in future allied health professionals.

  16. Characteristics of radioactive waste streams generated in HTGR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of a study concerned with identification and characterization of radioactive waste streams from an HTGR fuel reprocessing plant. Approximate quantities of individual waste streams as well as pertinent characteristics of selected streams have been estimated. Most of the waste streams are unique to HTGR fuel reprocessing. However, waste streams from the solvent extraction system and from the plant facilities do not differ greatly from the corresponding LWR fuel reprocessing wastes

  17. Structural damage and chemical contaminants on reprocessed arthroscopic shaver blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    In response to socioeconomic pressure to cut budgets in medicine, single-use surgical instruments are often reprocessed despite potential biological hazard. To evaluate the quality and contaminants of reprocessed shaver blades. Reprocessed shaver blades have mechanical damage and chemical contamination. Controlled laboratory study. Seven blades and 3 abraders were reprocessed 1 time or 3 times and then were assessed. In the first part of the study, structural damage on the blades after 3 reprocessings was compared to that after 1 reprocessing using optical microscopy. In the second part, surface damage was observed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy; elemental and chemical analyses of contaminants found by the microscopy were performed using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Optical microscopic examination revealed abrasion on the surface of the inner blade and cracks on the inner tube after 1 reprocessing. These changes were more evident after 3 reprocessings. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of the inner cutter of the blade reprocessed once showed contaminants containing calcium, carbon, oxygen, and silicon, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated biological protein consisting mainly of collagen, some type of salts, and polycarbonate used in plastic molding. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of the inner cutter of the reprocessed abrader revealed contaminants containing carbon, calcium, phosphorous, and oxygen, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed H2O, hydroxyapatite, and hydroxyl proteins. Scanning Auger microscopy showed that the tin-nickel plating on the moving blade and abrader was missing in some locations. This is the first study to evaluate both mechanical damage and chemical contaminants containing collagen, hydroxyapatite, and salts

  18. Evaluation on maintenance technology developed in Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Tokai reprocessing plant (TRP) has been processing 1,140 tons of spent fuels, including 29tons of Fugen MOX fuels, since the beginning of its active operation in Sept.1977. For 30 years operation of TRP, many technological problems have been overcome to obtain the stable and reliable operation. This knowledge of maintenance technology could contribute to the safety and stable operation of Rokkasho reprocessing plant (RRP), as well as to the design and construction of the next reprocessing plant. (author)

  19. Safeguards for reprocessing and enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Agency safeguards are entering a new phase with the coming under active safeguards for the first time of reprocessing plants in several regions of the world. This is taking place at a time when not only the safeguards aspect itself is coming under international scrutiny, but also at a time when the necessity of reprocessing plants is being called into question. Attracting less attention at the moment, but potentially of equal significance, are the enrichment plants that soon will be coming under Agency safeguards. It is not unreasonable in view of the present controversies to ask what is the significance of these reprocessing and enrichment plants, what are the problems concerning safeguards that appear to have given rise to the controversies, and how these problems are to be solved. The question of significance is an easy one to answer. The output of these plants is material which some people consider can be used directly for military purposes, whereas the output from other plants, for instance, reactors, would require long and extensive processing before it could be used for military purposes. Like most short answers, this one is an over-simplification which requires some elaboration to make it strictly accurate. For example, the material output of a power reactor is in the form of irradiate assemblies containing plutonium which is potentially of military use if the irradiation had been within a certain range. However, to utilize this plutonium under clandestine conditions, the highly radioactive material would have to be secretly transported to a reprocessing plant and there would have to be simultaneous falsification of the reactor material accounts and the plant records. Such falsification would be difficult to conceal. The total time required to obtain usable plutonium would be many months. Diversion of material from a uranium fabrication plant making fuel for power reactors would be easier physically but strategically it would be of little value. The

  20. Summative assessment in a doctor of pharmacy program: a critical insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbur K

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kerry Wilbur College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Background: The Canadian-accredited post-baccalaureate Doctor of Pharmacy program at Qatar University trains pharmacists to deliver advanced patient care. Emphasis on acquisition and development of the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes lies in the curriculum’s extensive experiential component. A campus-based oral comprehensive examination (OCE was devised to emulate a clinical viva voce and complement the extensive formative assessments conducted at experiential practice sites throughout the curriculum. We describe an evaluation of the final exit summative assessment for this graduate program. Methods: OCE results since the inception of the graduate program (3 years ago were retrieved and recorded into a blinded database. Examination scores among each paired faculty examiner team were analyzed for inter-rater reliability and linearity of agreement using intraclass correlation and Spearman’s correlation coefficient measurements, respectively. Graduate student ranking from individual examiner OCE scores was compared with that of other relative ranked student performance. Results: Sixty-one OCEs were administered to 30 graduate students over 3 years by a composite of eleven different pairs of faculty examiners. Intraclass correlation measures demonstrated that examiner team reliability was low and linearity of agreements was inconsistent. Only one examiner team in each respective academic year was found to have statistically significant inter-rater reliability, and linearity of agreements was inconsistent in all years. No association was found between examination performance rankings and other academic parameters. Conclusion: Critical review of our final summative assessment implies it is lacking robustness and defensibility. Measures are in place to continue the quality improvement process and develop and implement an alternative means of evaluation within a more

  1. The regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The office ordinance is established under the provisions related to reprocessing businesses of the law concerning regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors, to enforce the provisions. The basic terms are defined, such as exposure radiation dose; accumulated dose; controlled area; maintenance area; surrounding watch area; employee; radioactive waste; the facilities for discharge to sea. An application for the designation of reprocessing businesses shall be filed, listing the following matters: the maximum daily and yearly reprocessing capacities for each kind of spent fuel; the location and general structure of reprocessing facilities; the structures of buildings; the structure and equipments of main reprocessing facilities, the storage facilities for products and the disposal facilities for radioactive wastes; the equipments of measuring and control system facilities and radiation control facilities, etc. Records shall be made on the inspection of reprocessing facilities, radiation control, operation, maintenance, the accidents of reprocessing facilities and weather, and kept for the period from one to ten years, respectively. Any person engaging in reprocessing businesses shall set up control, maintenance and surrounding watch areas, and take specified measures to restrict the entrance of persons. The measures to be taken against exposure radiation dose, the inspection, regular independent examination and operation of reprocessing facilities and other related matters are stipulated in detail. (Okada, K.)

  2. Predicting the behaviour or neptunium during nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Behaviour of Np and its distribution over reprocessing flowsheet is studied due to the necessity of improvement of reprocessing methods of wastes formed during purex-process. Valency states of Np in solutions of reprocessing cycles, Np distribution in organic and acid phases, Np(5) oxidation by nitric acid at the stage of extraction, effect of U and Pu presence on Np behaviour, are considered. Calculation and experimental data are compared; the possibility of Np behaviour forecasting in the process of nuclear fuel reprocessing, provided initial data vay, is shown. 7 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  3. Fuel reprocessing at a loss to prove its justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1986-01-01

    Commercial utilization of nuclear energy is possible with or without fuel reprocessing of spent fuel elements. Demands on terminal storage are about equal in both cases. There is no reason - excluding the military one - to decide in favour of fuel reprocessing instead of direct terminal storage, for neither does fuel reprocessing offer advantages in regard of the safety of nuclear waste disposal, nor is it necessary to produce plutonium for the breeder reactor. Fuel reprocessing is analyzed considering those changed aspects with a view to scarcer uranium resources, juridical motives, and what is termed the development deficit. (DG) [de

  4. The regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Regulations specified here cover application for such matters as designation of reprocessing undertaking, permission of construction of reprocessing facilities, permission and approval of alteration (of plan for reprocessing facilities), etc. The regulations also cover application for prior inspection, execution of prior inspection, technical standards concerning performance of reprocessing facilities, certificate of prior inspection, reprocessing facilities subject to welding inspection, application for welding inspection, execution of welding inspection, facilities not subject to welding inspection, approval of welding method, welding inspection for imported equipment, certificate of welding inspection, reprocessing facilities subject to regular inspection, application for regular inspection, technical standards for regular inspection, operation plan, application for approval of joint management, record keeping, restriction on access to areas under management, measures concerning exposure to radioactive rays, patrol and checking in reprocessing facilities, operation of reprocessing facilities, self-imposed regular inspection of reprocessing facilities, transportation within plant or operation premises, storage, waste disposal within plant or operation premises, safety rules, notice of disassembly, measures for emergency, notice of abolition of business, notice of disorganization, measures concerning cancellation of designation, submission of report, etc. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Legal questions concerning the termination of spent fuel element reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The thesis on legal aspects of the terminated spent fuel reprocessing in Germany is based on the legislation, jurisdiction and literature until January 2004. The five chapters cover the following topics: description of the problem; reprocessing of spent fuel elements in foreign countries - practical and legal aspects; operators' responsibilities according to the atomic law with respect to the reprocessing of Geman spent fuel elements in foreign countries; compatibility of the prohibition of Geman spent fuel element reprocessing in foreign countries with international law, European law and German constitutional law; results of the evaluation

  6. Economic evaluation of reprocessing - Indicative German position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic assessment of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for the Federal Republic of Germany is presented. Advantages to be gained from the recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors are identified and it is concluded that many of these are not explicitly taken into account in the ''phase diagram''. Under the conditions pertaining in the Federal Republic of Germany thermal recycle will be economic under present day uranium prices. On the other hand the fast breeder reactor might become commercially economic around the year 2000

  7. Reprocessing in the thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the authors personal view is presented on open questions in regard to still required research and development work for the thorium fuel cycle before its application in a technical-industrial scale may be tackled. For a better understanding, all stations of the back-end of the thorium fuel cycle are briefly illustrated and their special features discussed. They include storage and transportation measures, all steps of reprocessing, as well as the entire radioactive waste treatment. Knowledge gaps are, as far as they are obvious, identified and proposals put forward for additional worthwile investigations. (orig.) [de

  8. Radiological prevention in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenta, G.

    1983-01-01

    Prevention has received a peculiar conceptual formulation in working activities with radiation risk. In order to point out the operative aspects of this formulation the authors relates here the considerations, the criteria an the precautionary measures which have guided the choice or that have been actuated to reduce the risk for the workers of the EUREX reprocessing plant. The general aspect of this formulationa has a philosophical and doctrinarian course, peculiar in the probabilistic safety approach and in radioprotection methodology. The authors quotes here some concepts and some specific application of both but he shows above all the medical aspects of the radioprotection

  9. Economic evaluation of reprocessing. Indicative UK position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic assessment of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for the United Kingdom is presented. Under conditions pertaining in the United Kingdom the diagram suggests that: if uranium prices rise rapidly the fast reactor would become economic in the decade 1990-2000, if uranium prices rise more slowly, the fast reactor would become economic in the decade 2000-2010

  10. Application of probabilistic risk assessment to reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory uses probabilistic methods of risk assessment in safety analyses of reprocessing facilities at the Savannah River Plant. This method uses both the probability of an accident and its consequence to calculate the risks from radiological, chemical, and industrial hazards. The three principal steps in such an assesment are identification of accidents, calculation of frequencies, and consequence quantification. The tools used at SRL include several databanks, logic tree methods, and computer-assisted methods for calculating both frequencies and consequences. 5 figures

  11. Process information systems in nuclear reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeschke, A.; Keller, H.; Orth, H.

    1987-01-01

    On a production management level, a process information system in a nuclear reprocessing plant (NRP) has to fulfill conventional operating functions and functions for nuclear material surveillance (safeguards). Based on today's state of the art of on-line process control technology, the progress in hardware and software technology allows to introduce more process-specific intelligence into process information systems. Exemplified by an expert-system-aided laboratory management system as component of a NRP process information system, the paper demonstrates that these technologies can be applied already. (DG) [de

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing. A bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.B.

    1982-12-01

    This bibliography contains information on the reprocessing portion of the nuclear fuel cycle included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through November 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  13. The fuel reprocessing plant at Wackersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, M.

    1986-01-01

    For a more systematic discussion about the fuel reprocessing plant at Wackersdorf, the colloquium tried to cover the most important questions put forward in the controversies: economic efficiency and energy-political needs; safety and ecological repercussions; inner safety and consequences for basic rights and the regional economic structure; majority decisions and participation of the population of the region. Elements of evaluation are the conservation of resources, health, economic efficiency, and citizens' rights of liberty. The related basic ethical questions are considered. The 18 contributions are individually recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  14. Reprocessing of irradiated fuel: pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, O.G.; Novikov, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    The acceptable-safety nuclear reactors (APWR, LMFBR, MSBR, MSCR) can be provided by the enrichment industry and by plutonium reserves. But steady accumulation of spent fuel will inevitably make to return to the problems of fuel recycle. PUREX-processing increases a danger of radionuclides spreading due to the presence of large buffer tanks. Using of compact fluoride - volatility process will sharply reduce a nuclide leakage likewise permit to reprocess a fuel with a burnup as high as possible. Success of a powerful robots development give an opportunity to design a fluoride-volatility plant twice cheaper than PUREX. (author)

  15. Nuclear fuel reprocessing: A time for decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, A.J.; Sandbery, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Availability of adequate supplies of energy at an affordable cost is essential to continued growth of the world's economics. The tie between economic growth and electricity usage is particularly strong and the pervasive wordwide trend toward increasing electrification shows no signs of abating. Very few viable alternatives are available for supplying the projected increase in baseload electric generating capacity in the next several decades, and most industrialized nations have chosen nuclear power to play a major role. Sustained growth of nuclear power can only be achieved, however, by reprocessing spent fuel to recover and utilize the residual uranium and plutonium energy values

  16. Workshop on instrumentation and analyses for a nuclear fuel reprocessing hot pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, S.M.; Feldman, M.J.; Wymer, R.G.; Hoffman, D.

    1980-05-01

    In order to assist in the study of instrumentation and analytical needs for reprocessing plants, a workshop addressing these needs was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory from May 5 to 7, 1980. The purpose of the workshop was to incorporate the knowledge of chemistry and of advanced measurement techniques held by the nuclear and radiochemical community into ideas for improved and new plant designs for both process control and inventory and safeguards measurements. The workshop was athended by experts in nuclear and radiochemistry, in fuel recycle plant design, and in instrumentation and analysis. ORNL was a particularly appropriate place to hold the workshop since the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is centered there. Requirements for safeguarding the special nuclear materials involved in reprocessing, and for their timely measurement within the process, within the reprocessing facility, and at the facility boundaries are being studied. Because these requirements are becoming more numerous and stringent, attention is also being paid to the analytical requirements for these special nuclear materials and to methods for measuring the physical parameters of the systems containing them. In order to provide a focus for the consideration of the workshop participants, the Hot Experimental Facility (HEF) being designed conceptually by the CFRP was used as a basis for consideration and discussions

  17. Design and development of effluent treatment plants for the Sellafield reprocessing factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, M.

    1989-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been carried out at Sellafield since the early 1950s. The storage of fuel in water filled ponds prior to reprocessing and the reprocessing operation itself results in the generation of a number of radioactive liquid effluents. The highly active liquors are stored in stainless steel tanks and will, with the commissioning of the Windscale Vitrification Plant, be converted into glass for long term storage and disposal. The medium and low active liquors are, after appropriate treatment, discharged to sea well below the Authorised Limits which are set by the appropriate Regulatory Bodies. Since 1960 these have been the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Even though the discharges have been well below the limits set, BNFL have for many years adopted a policy of reducing the levels of activity still further. Considerable progress has already been made, by changing reprocessing operations regimes but more importantly by the development and construction of specialised effluent treatment plants. Further reductions are, however, planned. Two major effluent treatment plants form the main basis of BNFL's policy to reduce activity discharges from Sellafield. The first, the Site Ion Exchange Effluent Plant, to treat storage pond water was brought into operation in 1985. The second, the enhanced Actinide Removal Plant to treat medium and low active effluents, is programmed to operate in 1992. (author)

  18. Automated Critical PeakPricing Field Tests: 2006 Pilot ProgramDescription and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-06-19

    During 2006 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) performed a technology evaluation for the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) Emerging Technologies Programs. This report summarizes the design, deployment, and results from the 2006 Automated Critical Peak Pricing Program (Auto-CPP). The program was designed to evaluate the feasibility of deploying automation systems that allow customers to participate in critical peak pricing (CPP) with a fully-automated response. The 2006 program was in operation during the entire six-month CPP period from May through October. The methodology for this field study included site recruitment, control strategy development, automation system deployment, and evaluation of sites' participation in actual CPP events through the summer of 2006. LBNL recruited sites in PG&E's territory in northern California through contacts from PG&E account managers, conferences, and industry meetings. Each site contact signed a memorandum of understanding with LBNL that outlined the activities needed to participate in the Auto-CPP program. Each facility worked with LBNL to select and implement control strategies for demand response and developed automation system designs based on existing Internet connectivity and building control systems. Once the automation systems were installed, LBNL conducted communications tests to ensure that the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) correctly provided and logged the continuous communications of the CPP signals with the energy management and control system (EMCS) for each site. LBNL also observed and evaluated Demand Response (DR) shed strategies to ensure proper commissioning of controls. The communication system allowed sites to receive day-ahead as well as day-of signals for pre-cooling, a DR strategy used at a few sites. Measurement of demand response was conducted using two different baseline models for estimating peak load savings. One

  19. Possible toxic effects from the nuclear reprocessing at Sellafield and Cap de la Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.; Coeytaux, X.; Faid, Y.B.; Marignac, Y.; Rouy, E.; Thompson, G.; Fairlie, I.; Lowry, D.; Sumner, D.

    2001-11-01

    The principal aim of this report is to assist the Committee of Petitions of the European Parliament in its consideration of Petition 393/95 brought by Dr. W. Nachtwey. The Petition expresses concerns about radioactive discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France, and their possible adverse health effects. Six years after the Petition was introduced, the Petitioner main concerns remain relevant. This report concludes that reprocessing discharges are a valid matter for the Committee consideration. It also concludes that, on balance, the Petitioner's concerns over radioactive discharges from Sellafield and La Hague are justified. The report presents evidence and data on: 1) radioactive discharges from the Sellafield and La Hague sites; 2) resulting nuclide concentrations in environmental media including foodstuffs; 3) radiation doses from nuclide discharges to critical groups near the sites; 4) adverse health effects near the two sites; and 5) resulting collective doses from nuclide discharges. The report also examines a number of current issues in radiobiology concerning health effects from exposure to ionising radiation, in particular genetic and in utero effects. In addition, in accordance with contract specifications, the report examines other major factors that might influence future decision-making on reprocessing. It provides information on the legal framework, the operational history of the plants and the economic case for reprocessing compared with available alternatives for spent nuclear fuel management. The report also makes policy-related recommendations that take into account current knowledge and uncertainties in risk assessment and the availability of alternatives to reprocessing in spent fuel management. (authors)

  20. Possible toxic effects from the nuclear reprocessing at Sellafield and Cap de la Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Coeytaux, X.; Faid, Y.B.; Marignac, Y.; Rouy, E. [Wise, 75 - Paris (France); Thompson, G. [IRSS, Cambridge (United States); Fairlie, I.; Lowry, D.; Sumner, D

    2001-11-15

    The principal aim of this report is to assist the Committee of Petitions of the European Parliament in its consideration of Petition 393/95 brought by Dr. W. Nachtwey. The Petition expresses concerns about radioactive discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France, and their possible adverse health effects. Six years after the Petition was introduced, the Petitioner main concerns remain relevant. This report concludes that reprocessing discharges are a valid matter for the Committee consideration. It also concludes that, on balance, the Petitioner's concerns over radioactive discharges from Sellafield and La Hague are justified. The report presents evidence and data on: 1) radioactive discharges from the Sellafield and La Hague sites; 2) resulting nuclide concentrations in environmental media including foodstuffs; 3) radiation doses from nuclide discharges to critical groups near the sites; 4) adverse health effects near the two sites; and 5) resulting collective doses from nuclide discharges. The report also examines a number of current issues in radiobiology concerning health effects from exposure to ionising radiation, in particular genetic and in utero effects. In addition, in accordance with contract specifications, the report examines other major factors that might influence future decision-making on reprocessing. It provides information on the legal framework, the operational history of the plants and the economic case for reprocessing compared with available alternatives for spent nuclear fuel management. The report also makes policy-related recommendations that take into account current knowledge and uncertainties in risk assessment and the availability of alternatives to reprocessing in spent fuel management. (authors)

  1. Criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.

    1983-01-01

    When a sufficient quantity of fissile material is brought together a self-sustaining neutron chain reaction will be started in it and will continue until some change occurs in the fissile material to stop the chain reaction. The quantity of fissile material required is the 'Critical Mass'. This is not a fixed quantity even for a given type of fissile material but varies between quite wide limits depending on a number of factors. In a nuclear reactor the critical mass of fissile material is assembled under well-defined condition to produce a controllable chain reaction. The same materials have to be handled outside the reactor in all stages of fuel element manufacture, storage, transport and irradiated fuel reprocessing. At any stage it is possible (at least in principle) to assemble a critical mass and thus initiate an accidental and uncontrollable chain reaction. Avoiding this is what criticality safety is all about. A system is just critical when the rate of production of neutrons balances the rate of loss either by escape or by absorption. The factors affecting criticality are, therefore, those which effect neutron production and loss. The principal ones are:- type of nuclide and enrichment (or isotopic composition), moderation, reflection, concentration (density), shape and interaction. Each factor is considered in detail. (author)

  2. Critical thinking dispositions and skills of senior nursing students in associate, baccalaureate, and RN-to-BSN programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyungrim; Jung, Duk Yoo; Shin, Sujin; Kim, Myoung Soo

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated the critical thinking dispositions and skills of senior nursing students. Study participants were students enrolled in associate (n = 137), baccalaureate (n = 102), and RN-to-BSN (n = 66) programs accredited by the Korean Ministry of Education. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) and California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) were used. A comparison of the CCTDI scores revealed a statistically significant difference between the students enrolled in different programs (F = 4.159, p = 0.017), as did a comparison of the CCTST scores (F = 24.205, p critical thinking skills to make the decisions required of them in their nursing practice. In line with this, when conducting a survey of the effectiveness of nursing education, the necessity of critical thinking skills cannot be overlooked. In fact, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLNAC) (1999) and American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) (1998) require the concept of critical thinking be included as one of the core elements of curricula and that it be measured as an outcome when evaluating nursing education. In 1998, during the evaluation of colleges of nursing conducted by the South Korean Council for University Education, several universities presented the fostering of critical thinking as one of the terminal learning goals of nursing education based on the idea that critical thinking is important not only in the nursing workplace, but also in nursing education. To evaluate the effectiveness of Korea's current nursing education curriculum, focus was placed on current students in South Korea's three systems of nursing education. Each curriculum's effectiveness can be evaluated by indexing critical thinking dispositions and skills. This article intends to offer insight into the first steps necessary in reorganizing nursing education by comparing these evaluations of each of the three systems. To this end, we conducted a comparative

  3. Safety problems in fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaury, P.; Jouannaud, C.; Niezborala, F.

    1979-01-01

    The document first situates the reprocessing in the fuel cycle as a whole. It shows that a large reprocessing plant serves a significant number of reactors (50 for a plant of 1500 tonnes per annum). It then assesses the potential risks with respect to the environment as well as with respect to the operating personnel. The amounts of radioactive matter handled are very significant and their easily dispersible physical form represents very important risks. But the low potential energy likely to bring about this dispersion and the very severe and plentiful confinement arrangements are such that the radioactive risks are very small, both with respect to the environment and the operating personnel. The problems of the interventions for maintenance or repairs are mentioned. The intervention techniques in a radioactive environment are perfected, but they represent the main causes of operating personnel irradiation. The design principle applied in the new plants take this fact into account, involving a very significant effort to improve the reliability of the equipment and ensuring the provision of devices enabling the failing components to be replaced without causing irradiation of the personnel [fr

  4. Deactivating a major nuclear fuels reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBaron, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes three key processes used in deactivating the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility, a large, complex nuclear reprocessing facility, 15 months ahead of schedule and $77 million under budget. The organization was reengineered to refine its business processes and more effectively organize around the deactivation work scope. Multi-disciplined work teams were formed to be self-sufficient and empowered to make decisions and perform work. A number of benefits were realized by reengineering. A comprehensive process to develop end points which clearly identified specific results and the post-project facility configuration was developed so all areas of a facility were addressed. Clear and specific end points allowed teams to focus on completing deactivation activities and helped ensure there were no unfulfilled end-of-project expectations. The RCRA regulations require closure of permitted facilities within 180 days after cessation of operations which may essentially necessitate decommissioning. A more cost effective approach was adopted which significantly reduced risk to human health and the environment by taking the facility to a passive, safe, inexpensive-to-maintain surveillance and maintenance condition (deactivation) prior to disposition. PUREX thus became the first large reprocessing facility with active TSD [treatment, storage, and disposal] units to be deactivated under the RCRA regulations

  5. Nuclear fuel re-processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yuko; Honda, Takashi; Shoji, Saburo; Kobayashi, Shiro; Furuya, Yasumasa

    1989-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel re-processing plant, high Si series stainless steels not always have sufficient corrosion resistance in a solution containing only nitric acid at medium or high concentration. Further, a method of blowing NOx gases may possibly promote the corrosion of equipment constituent materials remarkably. In view of the above, the corrosion promoting effect of nuclear fission products is suppressed without depositing corrosive metal ions as metals in the nitric acid solution. That is, a reducing atmosphere is formed by generating NOx by electrolytic reduction thereby preventing increase in the surface potential of stainless steels. Further, an anode is disposed in the nitric acid solution containing oxidative metal ions to establish an electrical conduction and separate them by way of partition membranes and a constant potential or constant current is applied while maintaining an ionic state so as not to deposit metals. Thus, equipments of re-processing facility can be protected from corrosion with no particular treatment for wastes as radioactive materials. (K.M.)

  6. To reprocess to recycle. The nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    After a summary of fundamental notions of radioactivity and nuclear safety, the first part of this work is devoted to the organisation in France to provide the nuclear facilities safety. The second part related to the fuel cycle describes the big steps of this cycle and particularly the stakes and objectives of the reprocessing -recycling as well as the valorization of reusable matters such plutonium and uranium. The risks identification, means to control them, in conception, realisation and operation are described in the third, fourth and fifth parts. In this last part the managements of accidental situations is treated. The sixth and last part is devoted to the environment protection, treats the control of waste release of reprocessing -recycling facilities, of these waste management that is to say every disposition made by Cogema to limit the impact of its installations on environment. In this last part are also described the safety of nuclear and radioactive matters transport, and the definitive breakdown of installations. (N.C.)

  7. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2002-01-01

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  8. Off-critical statistical models: factorized scattering theories and bootstrap program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussardo, G.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze those integrable statistical systems which originate from some relevant perturbations of the minimal models of conformal field theories. When only massive excitations are present, the systems can be efficiently characterized in terms of the relativistic scattering data. We review the general properties of the factorizable S-matrix in two dimensions with particular emphasis on the bootstrap principle. The classification program of the allowed spins of conserved currents and of the non-degenerate S-matrices is discussed and illustrated by means of some significant examples. The scattering theories of several massive perturbations of the minimal models are fully discussed. Among them are the Ising model, the tricritical Ising model, the Potts models, the series of the non-unitary minimal models M 2,2n+3 , the non-unitary model M 3,5 and the scaling limit of the polymer system. The ultraviolet limit of these massive integrable theories can be exploited by the thermodynamics Bethe ansatz, in particular the central charge of the original conformal theories can be recovered from the scattering data. We also consider the numerical method based on the so-called conformal space truncated approach which confirms the theoretical results and allows a direct measurement of the scattering data, i.e. the masses and the S-matrix of the particles in bootstrap interaction. The problem of computing the off-critical correlation functions is discussed in terms of the form-factor approach

  9. Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants – A Literature Survey and Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

    2013-09-01

    Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

  10. Proceedings of the 4th status report of the Reprocessing and Waste Management Project (PWA) of November 5th, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The lectures presented to this meeting deal with the concept of waste disposal in the Federal Republic of Germany, the current state and results of the development work within the project 'Reprocessing and Waste Management'. The main efforts and technological programmes are described as well. Further lectures have been held on problems relating to a fuel reprocessing plant (dissolver-off-gas treatment, tritium separation, hydraulic studies on pulsating columns, electroreduction in the PUREX process, analytical procedures for process analyses). Moreover, materials problems have been discussed and the monitor development for criticality control, work for improving remote handling devices, and the reprocessing of a KNK II reactor mixed oxide fuel in the laboratory test plant MILLI. (RB) [de

  11. Status of ANSI standards on decommissioning of nuclear reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, H.B.

    1975-01-01

    A definition of decommissioning is given, and the preparation of ANSI Standard, ''General Design Criteria for Nuclear Reprocessing Facilities'' (N101.3) is discussed. A Eurochemic report, entitled ''The Shutdown of Reprocessing Facilities--Results of Preliminary Studies on the Installations Belonging to Eurochemic,'' was used in the preparation of this standard. (U.S.)

  12. Feasibility study for adapting ITREC plant to reprocessing LMFBR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moccia, A.; Rolandi, G.

    1976-05-01

    The report evaluates the feasibility of adapting ITREC plant to the reprocessing LMFBR fuels, with the double purpose of: 1) recovering valuable Pu contained in these fuels and recycling it to the fabrication plant; 2) trying, on a pilot scale, the chemical process technology to be applied in a future industrial plant for reprocessing the fuel elements discharged from fast breeder power reactors

  13. Management of reprocessed uranium. Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    There is worldwide interest in developing advanced and innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles, minimizing waste and environmental impacts. As of the beginning of 2003, about 171000 tonnes heavy metal spent nuclear fuel is in storage, while smaller amounts have been reprocessed. In several countries, including France, India, Japan and the Russian Federation, spent fuel has been viewed as a national energy resource. Some countries hold reprocessed uranium as the result of their commercial reprocessing service contracts for reprocessing the spent fuel of others. Reprocessed uranium has a potential value for recycling either directly or after appropriate treatment. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in the management of reprocessed uranium. It includes the technical issues involved in managing reprocessed uranium which are RepU arisings, storage, chemical conversion, re-enrichment, fuel fabrication, transport, reactor irradiation, subsequent reprocessing and disposal options, as well as assessment of holistic environmental impacts. The objective of this document is to overview the information on the current status and future trends in the management of RepU and to identify major issues to be considered for future projects

  14. Sterilization and reprocessing of materials and medical devices--reusability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, M

    1995-07-01

    Problems associated with reprocessing of disposable medical devices such as hemodialysers with resterilization for reuse and changes in material properties with resterilization of polymeric (PVC, polypropylene, polyester, polycarbonate) materials intended for development of disposable devices are reviewed. Reprocessing of hospital supplies, polystyrene microtiter plate and angiographic catheter for reuse is also discussed.

  15. Patients' Perceptions of an Exercise Program Delivered Following Discharge From Hospital After Critical Illness (the Revive Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kathryn; Bradley, Judy M; McAuley, Daniel F; Blackwood, Bronagh; O'Neill, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    The REVIVE randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the effectiveness of an individually tailored (personalized) exercise program for patients discharged from hospital after critical illness. By including qualitative methods, we aimed to explore patients' perceptions of engaging in the exercise program. Patients were recruited from general intensive care units in 6 hospitals in Northern Ireland. Patients allocated to the exercise intervention group were invited to participate in this qualitative study. Independent semistructured interviews were conducted at 6 months after randomization. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and content analysis used to explore themes arising from the data. Of 30 patients allocated to the exercise group, 21 completed the interviews. Patients provided insight into the physical and mental sequelae they experienced following critical illness. There was a strong sense of patients' need for the exercise program and its importance for their recovery following discharge home. Key facilitators of the intervention included supervision, tailoring of the exercises to personal needs, and the exercise manual. Barriers included poor mental health, existing physical limitations, and lack of motivation. Patients' views of outcome measures in the REVIVE RCT varied. Many patients were unsure about what would be the best way of measuring how the program affected their health. This qualitative study adds an important perspective on patients' attitude to an exercise intervention following recovery from critical illness, and provides insight into the potential facilitators and barriers to delivery of the program and how programs should be evolved for future trials.

  16. Development and demonstration of near-real-time accounting systems for reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Hakkila, E.A.; Dayem, H.A.; Shipley, J.P.; Baker, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    A program to develop and demonstrate near-real-time accounting systems for reprocessing plants has been active at Los Alamos since 1976. The technology has been developed through modeling and simulation of process operation and measurement systems and evaluation of these data using decision analysis techniques. Aspects of near-real-time systems have been demonstrated successfully at the AGNS reprocessng plant as part of a joint study of near-real-time accounting

  17. Available reprocessing and recycling services for research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozser, Sandor; Marshall, Frances M.; Adelfang, Pablo; Bradley, Edward [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Budu, Madalina Elena [SOSNY Research and Development Company, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chiguer, Mustapha [AREVA, Paris La Defense (France)

    2016-03-15

    International activities in the back end of the research reactor (RR) fuel cycle have so far been dominated by the programmes of acceptance of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) by the country where it was originally enriched. In the future inventories of LEU SNF will continue to be created and the back end solution of RR SNF remains a critical issue. The IAEA, based on the experience gained during the decade of international cooperation in supporting the objectives of the HEU take-back programmes, drew up a report presenting available reprocessing and recycling services for RR SNF. This paper gives an overview of the report, which will address all aspects of reprocessing and recycling services for RR SNF.

  18. Status of criticality safety research at NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Ken [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Two critical facilities, named STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility) and TRACY (Transient Experiment Critical Facility), at the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF) started their hot operations in 1995. Since then, basic experimental data for criticality safety research have been accumulated using STACY, and supercritical experiments for the study of criticality accident in a reprocessing plant have been performed using TRACY. In this paper, the outline of those critical facilities and the main results of TRACY experiments are presented. (author)

  19. 75 FR 8239 - School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... (HACCP); Approval of Information Collection Request AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION... Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP) was published on... must be based on the (HACCP) system established by the Secretary of Agriculture. The food safety...

  20. Integrating critical Web skills and content knowledge: Development and evaluation of a 5th grade educational program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, E.; Volman, M.L.L.; Terwel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Although the Web is almost omnipresent in many children's lives, most children lack adequate Web searching skills as well as skills to process and critically evaluate Web information. In this article, we describe and evaluate an educational program that aimed at acquiring Web skills in the context

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PEDAGOGICAL FORMATION TRAINING CERTIFICATE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS' CRITICAL THINKING ATTITUDES AND THEIR PERCEPTIONS ON PROFESSIONAL ETHICAL PRINCIPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Birsel Aybek; Serkan Aslan

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the relationship between pedagogical formation training certificate program prospective teachers’ critical thinking attitudes and their perceptions on professional ethical principles. The study used relational screening model and convenience sampling method which is one of the purposeful sampling methods. The participants consisted of 393 prospective teachers from different majors such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, health, biology, philosophy, religious cul...

  2. Validation of the Monte Carlo Criticality Program KENO V.a for highly-enriched uranium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, J.R.

    1984-11-01

    A series of calculations based on critical experiments have been performed using the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Criticality Program for the purpose of validating KENO V.a for use in evaluating Y-12 Plant criticality problems. The experiments were reflected and unreflected systems of single units and arrays containing highly enriched uranium metal or uranium compounds. Various geometrical shapes were used in the experiments. The SCALE control module CSAS25 with the 27-group ENDF/B-4 cross-section library was used to perform the calculations. Some of the experiments were also calculated using the 16-group Hansen-Roach Library. Results are presented in a series of tables and discussed. Results show that the criteria established for the safe application of the KENO IV program may also be used for KENO V.a results

  3. Fuel salt reprocessing influence on the MSFR behavior and on its associated reprocessing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doligez, X.

    2010-10-01

    In order to face with the growing of the energy demand, the nuclear industry has to reach the fourth generation technology. Among those concept, molten salt reactor, and especially the fast neutron spectrum configuration, seems very promising: indeed breeding is achievable while the feedback coefficient are still negative. However, the reprocessing salt scheme is not totally set down yet. A lot of uncertainties remain on chemical properties of the salt. Thanks to numerical simulation we studied the behavior of the molten Salt Fast Reactor coupled to a nominal reprocessing unit. We are now able to determine heat transfer and radiation in each elementary step of the unit and, by this way determine those that need special study for radioprotection. We also studied which elements are fundamental to extract for the reactor operation. Finally, we present a sensibility analysis of the chemical uncertainties to few relevant properties of the reactor behavior. (author)

  4. Enhancement of safety for reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    The adequacy of the safety measures for utility loss accidents in nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities which have been formulated by the nuclear enterprises is investigated in JNES which organizes an advanced committee to specifically study this problem. The results are reviewed in the present report including the case of such severe accidents as in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The report also represents a tentative proposal for examination standards of such unimaginable severe accidents as 'station blackout,' urgent safety measures necessary for reoperation of nuclear power plants and requested by nuclear and industrial safety agency, and pointing out and clarification of the potential weakness from the safety point of view, and collective and composite evaluation of safety of the relevant facilities. Furthermore, the definition of accident management is given as of controlled condition and the authorized way of thinking for the cases of plural events happening at the same time and the cases when risks exist radioactivity emits with explosion. (S. Ohno)

  5. Solvent distillations studies for a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, C.; Guillaume, B.

    1989-01-01

    The substantial amounts of solvent used in large reprocessing plants are such that considerable care must be paid to solvent management to limit the production of organic wastes. The installation of intensive treatment by chemical regeneration serves to increase the service life of the solvent. General solvent management, combined with a distillation unit under reduced pressure also helps to recycle the two components of the solvent at a low activity level. Distillation also serves to remove the heavy degradation products that are generally responsible for poor hydraulic behavior and for the holdup of radioactive products such as plutonium, zirconium and ruthenium. From the safety standpoint, the flashpoint of the distilled diluent tends to rise. It can therefore be recycled without risk

  6. Method of reprocessing radioactive asphalt solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Inagaki, Yuzo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain heat-stable solidification products and decrease the total volume thereof by modifying the solidified form by the reprocessing of existent radioactive asphalt solidification products. Method: Radioactive asphalt solidification products are heated into a fluidized state. Then, incombustible solvents such as perchloroethylene or trichloroethylene are added to a dissolving tank to gradually dissolve the radioactive asphalt solidification products. Thus, organic materials such as asphalts are transferred into the solvent layer, while inorganic materials containing radioactive materials remain as they are in the separation tank. Then, the inorganic materials containing the radioactive materials are taken out and then solidified, for example, by converting them into a rock or glass form. (Kawakami, Y.)

  7. Natural uranium utilization without enrichment and reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekimoto, H.; Toshinsky, V.; Ryu, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors

    2001-07-01

    Two types of fast reactor are investigated to utilize the natural uranium without enrichment and reprocessing in an equilibrium state. The first trial is SFPR. Its fuel-shuffling pattern is optimized. An obtained result gives its peak fuel burnup of 22,5%, power peaking factor of 1.5 and peak excess reactivity of 2,15%. The second trial is CANDLE burnup scheme, where distribution shapes of neutron flux and nuclide densities are constant but move in axial direction with a constant velocity. A feasible solution gives the speed of burning region of 4,1 cm/year, k{sub eff} of 1,02 and average spent fuel burnup of 41%. (author)

  8. Pyroelectrochemical process for reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, G.; Sartorelli, A.

    1982-01-01

    A pyroelectrochemical process for reprocessing irradiated fast reactor mixed oxide or carbide fuels is described. The fuel is dissolved in a bath of molten alkali metal sulfates. The Pu(SO 4 ) 2 formed in the bath is thermally decomposed, leaving crystalline PuO 2 on the bottom of the reaction vessel. Electrodes are then introduced into the bath, and UO 2 is deposited on the cathode. Alternatively, both UO 2 and PuO 2 may be electrodeposited. The molten salts, after decontamination by precipitating the fission products dissolved in the bath by introducing basic agents such as oxides, carbonates, or hydroxides, may be recycled. Since it is not possible to remove cesium from the molten salt bath, periodic disposal and partial renewal with fresh salts is necessary. The melted salts that contain the fission products are conditioned for disposal by embedding them in a metallic matrix

  9. Steel construction in the nuclear reprocessing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past decade British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has pursued a large capital expenditure programme at Sellafield in Cumbria. This has used large quantities of structural steelwork. For example, Thorp plant for reprocessing spend AGR and LWR fuels, due for completion in 1992, has 20,000 tonnes. The design of these plants has been entrusted to BNFL Engineering based at Risley near Warrington, England. These safety-related structures are designed, as required by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, to withstand the effects of environmental hazards such as extremes of earthquake, wind, temperature, ice, snow, flooding, and lightning strikes. In some cases they may be subjected to impact loading from possible mishandling of lifted loads such as fuel transportation flasks. Design criteria for these structures have been developed by BNFL Engineering. Some examples are mentioned. (author)

  10. Enhancements in the thorp reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakem, M.J.; Brownridge, M. [Thorp Technical Dept. and Research and Technology, BNFL plc, Sellafield, seascale, Cumbria, CA (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    A number of successful enhancements have been made to the process at the Thorp reprocessing plant at Sellafield. After a long and detailed Research and Development programme followed by an intensive design/construction project, Thorp was inactively commissioned with first active shear in March 1994. The plant has now reached a mature stage in its development, following successful active commissioning demonstrating flowsheet or better performance in the solvent extraction cycles. Enhancements are now sought to achieve a range of objectives. Against a background of ever tighter regulatory control both in terms of safety and environmental discharge, BNFL are continuing to invest in further improvements with short, medium and longer term objectives to improve plant throughput; expand the range of feed fuels; reduce environmental discharges and reduce running costs. This paper describes a few of these enhancements. (authors)

  11. Enhancements in the thorp reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakem, M.J.; Brownridge, M.

    2000-01-01

    A number of successful enhancements have been made to the process at the Thorp reprocessing plant at Sellafield. After a long and detailed Research and Development programme followed by an intensive design/construction project, Thorp was inactively commissioned with first active shear in March 1994. The plant has now reached a mature stage in its development, following successful active commissioning demonstrating flowsheet or better performance in the solvent extraction cycles. Enhancements are now sought to achieve a range of objectives. Against a background of ever tighter regulatory control both in terms of safety and environmental discharge, BNFL are continuing to invest in further improvements with short, medium and longer term objectives to improve plant throughput; expand the range of feed fuels; reduce environmental discharges and reduce running costs. This paper describes a few of these enhancements. (authors)

  12. Method of reprocessing spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Hiroaki; Inoue, Tadashi; Miyashiro, Hajime.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the storage management for the wastes resulting from reprocessing by chemically separating transuranium elements such as actionoid elements together with uranium and plutonium. Method: Spent fuels from a nuclear reactor are separated into two groups, that is, a mixture of uranium, plutonium and transuranium elements and cesium, strontium and other nuclear fission products. Virgin uranium is mixed to adjust the mixture of uranium, plutonium and transuranium elements in the first group, which is used as the fuels for the nuclear reactor. After separating to recover useful metals such as cesium and strontium are separated from short half-decay nuclear fission products of the second group, other nuclear fission products are stored and managed. This enables to shorten the storage period and safety storage and management for the wastes. (Takahashi, M.)

  13. Safeguards implementation in UP3 reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, J.P.; Regnier, J.; Talbourdet, Y.; De Jong, P.

    1991-01-01

    The implementation of safeguards in a large size reprocessing plant is a challenge, considering the high throughput of nuclear material and the sophisticated automation of such facilities. In the case of UP3, a pragmatic and realistic approach has been devised and is applied through an efficient cooperation between the safeguards organizations, the french national authorities and the operator. In essence, they consist in verification of every significant inputs and outputs, in timely analysis by NDA (e.g. solutions of dissolution through an on site k-edge equipment), in monitoring selected parts of the inprocess inventory and in specific containment/surveillance systems for the spent fuel storage ponds and the PuO2 storage. (author)

  14. Economic evaluation of reprocessing. Indicative US position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic assessment of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for the United States is presented. The prospective costs of nuclear power are given for four equilibrium modes of LWR operation: once-through, 15% and 25% improved once-through and thermal recycle. For a particular representative choice of fuel cycle parameters the economic cross over at which thermal recycle becomes economic relative to a 15% improved once-through cycle is above 100/lb U 3 O 8 . Thus the US believes that for the next several decades there is no economic incentive for thermal recycle. As a planning guide the US considers that the fast reactor will not become commercialised in the US before the year 2020

  15. Analytical developments in reprocessing at the CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffereau, M.

    1989-01-01

    Analytical developments in reprocessing, which are based on extensive basic research, are aimed at fulfilling current requirements of R and D laboratories, pilot plants and industrial plants. They are also intended to propose and provide new opportunities. On-line measurements are a long term goal. One must be confident of their outcome. New equipment and procedures must be tested and their specifications determined, first at the laboratory level, and then in a pilot plant. In this respect we are considering equipment which will be in operation in the ATALANTE laboratories. And APM is also both a necessary and useful resource. However, many measurements must still be done and will continue to have to be done in analytical laboratories. Along with the improvement of accuracy the main developments aim at reducing manpower requirements and effluents and waste releases

  16. The official website of the U.S. department of energy's nuclear criticality safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, B.; Heinrichs, D.; Lee, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States); Scott, L. [SAIC, Solana Beach, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) mission is to provide sustainable expert leadership, direction, and the technical infrastructure necessary to develop, maintain, and disseminate the essential technical tools, training, and data to support safe, efficient fissionable material operations within the DOE. The NCSP Website site makes a variety of information available to the criticality safety practitioner, including reference materials, training modules and links to related sites. It assists criticality safety personnel to keep abreast of NCSP activities or current developments in criticality safety via a 'What's New' section within the Website. Convenient access to the many useful features of the Website is available via drop-down menus. The Website is also available to non-DOE and international professionals tasked with ensuring safe operations involving fissionable nuclear materials. (author)

  17. Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R. E.; Buehring, W. A.; Whitfield, R. G.; Bassett, G. W.; Dickinson, D. C.; Haffenden, R. A.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; LANL

    2009-10-14

    The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) Program. During each such visit, the PSA documents information about the facility's current CIKR protection posture and overall security awareness. The primary goals for ECIP site visits (DHS 2009) are to: (1) inform facility owners and operators of the importance of their facilities as an identified high-priority CIKR and the need to be vigilant in light of the ever-present threat of terrorism; (2) identify protective measures currently in place at these facilities, provide comparisons of CIKR protection postures across like assets, and track the implementation of new protective measures; and (3) enhance existing relationships among facility owners and operators; DHS; and various Federal, State, local tribal, and territorial partners. PSAs conduct ECIP visits to assess overall site security; educate facility owners and operators about security; help owners and operators identify gaps and potential improvements; and promote communication and information sharing among facility owners and operators, DHS, State governments, and other security partners. Information collected during ECIP visits is used to develop metrics; conduct sector-by-sector and cross-sector vulnerability comparisons; identify security gaps and trends across CIKR sectors and subsectors; establish sector baseline security survey results; and track progress toward improving CIKR security through activities, programs, outreach, and training (Snyder 2009). The data being collected are used in a framework consistent with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) risk criteria (DHS 2009). The

  18. Brief description of the Wackersdorf Reprocessing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The DWK is now planning the construction and operation of a facility for the reprocessing of spent fuel elements and the fabrication of mixed-oxide fuel elements which will initially have an average daily throughput of 2 tons (t) of nuclear fuel. The application required by the Atomic Law was submitted to the Bavarian State Ministry for State Development and Environmental Matters on October 28, 1982. According to Par. 3, Section 1, No. 1 of the Atomic Law Procedural Ordinance such an application for permission in accordance with par. 7 AtL must explicitly be accompanied by a safety report which shall make it possible for third parties to make a judgment whether the impacts associated with the facility and its operation could damage their rights. The safety report is intended to present and explain the concept of the facility, the safety-technological design bases, and the operation of the plant, including its operation and safety systems and the impacts and proposed preventive measures. In addition to the detailed presentations in the safety report, Par. 3 of the Atomic Law Procedural Ordinance also requires a brief description of the plant designed for general public understanding, suitable for the design, which will also explain the expected impacts on the general environment and the surrounding area. Hence the brief description presents and explains the following matters: the site; the technology and state of the art for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel; the structure and function of the proposed facility; safety provisions of the proposed facility and the management of perturbations in operation; the impacts of the facility and its operation on the environment; measures to be taken for dealing with the radioactive wastes; and provisions for ultimate shut-down of the facility

  19. Separation of tritium from reprocessing effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Doyen, W.; Harnie, R.; Leysen, R.; Meynendonckx, L.; Monsecour, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.; Baetsle, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    For several years tritium retention has been studied at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK/CEN; initially attention was focused on the removal of tritium from gaseous reprocessing effluents. If tritium can be released from the spent fuel into the gaseous phase before any aqueous operation, adsorption on molecular sieves after some isotopic dilution with hydrogen and after complete conversion to (tritiated) water is the most practical collection method. A once-through 15 m 3 .h -1 oxidation-adsorption unit with a closed regeneration system and with a decontamination factor of 1000 at total (tritiated) hydrogen and water inlet concentrations down to 1000 vpm (parts per million by volume) has been constructed and tested at SCK/CEN and it is described in the text. If no special head-end treatment is used an appropriate liquid management inside the reprocessing plant restricts the volume of tritiated aqueous effluents to about 3 m 3 per tonne of LWR fuel processed. However, for further reduction an isotope separation process becomes necessary. SCK/CEN is developing the ELEX process, which is a combination of water ELectrolysis and tritium EXchange between hydrogen and water, the exchange being promoted by a hydrophobic catalyst. For electrolysis under normal conditions an elementary tritium separation factor of 11.6 with a standard deviation of 6% was obtained. As concerns the exchange step a hydrophobic catalyst has been developed which yields for the flow rates used at atmospheric pressure and at 20 0 C an overall exchange rate constant of 9 mol.s -1 .m -3 in a countercurrent trickle-bed reactor. At present an integrated bench scale de-tritiation unit is being built for further tests and for a dynamic demonstration of the ELEX process

  20. Preparing for Fellowship in Internal Medicine. Steps for Success with a Focus on Pulmonary and/or Critical Care Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosslet, Gabriel T; Burkart, Kristin M; Miles, Matthew C; Lenz, Peter H; Huebert, Candace A; McCallister, Jennifer W

    2015-04-01

    This paper outlines specific tips for those applying to pulmonary and/or critical care medicine fellowship training in the United States using the PAIR-Match steps: preparation, application, interview, ranking, and match. Preparation for fellowship begins long before the application process with an assessment of one's long-term goals (to the extent that these are known). The cornerstone of the application is the curriculum vitae, which should highlight applicants' pulmonary and critical care-related experiences and scholarly work. Applicants should obtain letters of recommendation from faculty members who know them well and can write a letter that speaks to their strengths in clinical, scholarly, or leadership areas. The personal statement is an opportunity to share experiences not otherwise shared in the application and is an opportunity to explain any breaks in training or performance lapses. When selecting programs to which they will apply, applicants should pay close attention to the areas of education and curriculum, clinical experience, scholarly opportunity, and personal factors. Preparing for interviews should include a review of the program at which one is interviewing and development of relevant questions regarding details of the program. The interview day is the applicant's opportunity to see the "personality" of the program by meeting with the program director, faculty, and current fellows and to assess whether the program is a good fit for their goals. Applicants should only rank those programs they are willing to attend, in order of preference; they should be aware that the match process is binding.

  1. Critical differences between two low protein diet protocols in the programming of hypertension in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley-Evans, S C

    2000-01-01

    Maternal nutrition has been identified as a factor determining fetal growth and risk of adult disease. In rats, the feeding of a low protein diet during pregnancy retards fetal growth and induces hypertension in the resulting offspring. Rat models of low protein feeding have been extensively used to study the mechanisms that may link maternal nutrition with impaired fetal growth and later cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Low protein diets of differing composition used in different laboratories have yielded inconsistent data on the relationship between maternal protein intake and offsprings' blood pressure. Two separate low protein diet protocols were compared in terms of their ability to programme hypertension during fetal life. Pregnant rats were assigned to receive one of four diets. Two diets were obtained from a commercial supplier and provided casein at 22 or 9% by weight (H22, control; H9, low protein). The other two diets, manufactured in our own facility, provided 18% casein (S18, control) or 9% casein (S9, low protein) by weight. The diets differed principally in their overall fat content, fatty acid composition, methionine content and the source of carbohydrate. Feeding of the experimental diets commenced on the first day of pregnancy and continued until the rats delivered their litters. Following weaning all the offspring had blood pressure determined on a single occasion. Both low protein diets reduced maternal weight gain relative to their corresponding control diets. Despite this litter sizes were unaffected by the dietary protocols. Both low protein diets reduced birthweights of the pups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly elevated in the offspring of rats fed a low protein S9 diet relative to all other groups (P work that differing low protein diet manipulations in rat pregnancy elicit different programming effects upon the developing cardiovasculature. The balance of protein and other nutrients may be a critical determinant of the long

  2. [Importance of cleaning and disinfection of critical surfaces in dental health services. Impact of an intervention program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véliz, Elena; Vergara, Teresa; Pearcy, Mercedes; Dabanch, Jeannette

    Introduction Dental care has become a challenge for healthcare associated infection prevention programs, since the environment, within other factors, plays an important role in the transmission chain. Materials and Methods An intervention program was designed for the Dental Unit of Hospital Militar de Santiago, between years 2014 and 2015. The program contemplated 3 stages: diagnostic, intervention and evaluation stage. Objective To improve the safety of critical surfaces involved in dental healthcare. Results During the diagnostic stage, the cleaning and disinfection process was found to be deficient. The most contaminated critical surface was the instrument holder unit, then the clean area and lamp handle. The surfaces that significantly reduced their contamination, after the intervention, were the clean area and the instrument carrier unit. Conclusion Training in the processes of cleaning and disinfecting surfaces and dental equipment is one of the cost-effective strategies in preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAI), with simple and easy-to-apply methods.

  3. Study on safety of crystallization method applied to dissolver solution in fast breeder reactor reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Fujine, Yukio; Asakura, Toshihide; Murazaki, Minoru; Koyama, Tomozo; Sakakibara, Tetsuro; Shibata, Atsuhiro

    1999-03-01

    The crystallization method is proposed to apply for recovery of uranium from dissolution liquid, enabling to reduce handling materials in later stages of reprocessing used fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuels. This report studies possible safety problems accompanied by the proposed method. Crystallization process was first defined in the whole reprocessing process, and the quantity and the kind of treated fuel were specified. Possible problems, such as criticality, shielding, fire/explosion, and confinement, were then investigated; and the events that might induce accidental incidents were discussed. Criticality, above all the incidents, was further studied by considering exampled criticality control of the crystallization process. For crystallization equipment, in particular, evaluation models were set up in normal and accidental operation conditions. Related data were selected out from the nuclear criticality safety handbooks. The theoretical densities of plutonium nitrates, which give basic and important information, were estimated in this report based on the crystal structure data. The criticality limit of crystallization equipment was calculated based on the above information. (author)

  4. State-of-the-art report on accident analysis and risk analysis of reprocessing plants in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi

    1985-12-01

    This report summarizes informations obtained from America, England, France and FRG concerning methodology, computer code, fundamental data and calculational model on accident/risk analyses of spent fuel reprocessing plants. As a result, the followings are revealed. (1) The system analysis codes developed for reactor plants can be used for reprocessing plants with some code modification. (2) Calculational models and programs have been developed for accidental phenomenological analyses in FRG, but with insufficient data to prove them. (3) The release tree analysis codes developed in FRG are available to estimate radioactivity release amount/probability via off-gas/exhaustair lines in the case of accidents. (4) The computer codes developed in America for reactor-plant environmental transport/safety analyses of released radioactivity can be applied to reprocessing facilities. (author)

  5. The regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under provisions concerning the reprocessing business in the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The basic concepts and terms are explained, such as: exposure dose; accumulative dose; controlled area; safeguarded area; inspected surrounding area; employee; radioactive waste and marine discharging facilities. Any person who gets permission for design of reprocessing facilities and method of the construction shall file an application, listing name and address of the person and the works or the place of enterprise where reprocessing facilities are to be set up, design of such facilities and method of the construction, in and out-put chart of nuclear fuel materials in reprocessing course, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particularly periods in each works or enterprise on inspection of reprocessing facilities, control of dose, operation, maintenance, accident of reprocessing facilities and weather. Detailed prescriptions are settled on entrance limitation to controlled area, exposure dose, inspection and check, regular independent examination and operation of reprocessing facilities, transportation in the works or the enterprise, storage, disposal, safeguard and measures in dangerous situations, etc. Reports shall be filed on exposure dose of employees and other specified matters in the forms attached and in the case otherwise defined. (Okada, K.)

  6. Used mixed oxide fuel reprocessing at RT-1 plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolupaev, D.; Logunov, M.; Mashkin, A.; Bugrov, K.; Korchenkin, K. [FSUE PA ' Mayak' , 30, Lenins str, Ozersk, 460065 (Russian Federation); Shadrin, A.; Dvoeglazov, K. [ITCP ' PRORYV' , 2/8 Malaya Krasmoselskay str, Moscow, 107140 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    Reprocessing of the mixed uranium-plutonium spent nuclear fuel of the BN-600 reactor was performed at the RT-1 plant twice, in 2012 and 2014. In total, 8 fuel assemblies with a burn-up from 73 to 89 GW day/t and the cooling time from 17 to 21 years were reprocessed. The reprocessing included the stages of dissolution, clarification, extraction separation of U and Pu with purification from the fission products, refining of uranium and plutonium at the relevant refining cycles. Dissolution of the fuel composition of MOX used nuclear fuel (UNF) in nitric acid solutions in the presence of fluoride ion has occurred with the full transfer of actinides into solution. Due to the high content of Pu extraction separation of U and Pu was carried out on a nuclear-safe equipment designed for the reprocessing of highly enriched U spent nuclear fuel and Pu refining. Technological processes of extraction, separation and refining of actinides proceeded without deviations from the normal mode. The output flow of the extraction outlets in their compositions corresponded to the regulatory norms and remained at the level of the compositions of the streams resulting from the reprocessing of fuel types typical for the RT-1 plant. No increased losses of Pu into waste have been registered during the reprocessing of BN-600 MOX UNF an compare with VVER-440 uranium UNF reprocessing. (authors)

  7. International and institutional aspects of reprocessing and plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Various institutional alternatives applicable to reprocessing, plutonium management and recycle are considered, not as a definitive analysis but rather as a basis for identifying the institutional approaches and measures which the Working Group might wish to examine more thoroughly. Seven alternatives arrangements for reprocessing are presented. These range from suspending the operation of existing reprocessing plants through placing national facilities under safeguards to limiting reprocessing to a few large facilities subject to plutonium management, multinational or international control. Finally, the comprehensive alternative of an International Nuclear Fuel Authority with worldwide responsibility for reprocessing and plutonium management is considered. Plutonium management alternatives to complement the reprocessing options, are then outlined. These include national discretion on the separation and disposition of plutonium under safeguards, an agreed Code of Practice for plutonium management at national facilities and the international storage of plutonium. The advantages and disadvantages of the alternative are discussed tentatively. It is recognised that the alternatives are presented in a simplified form and that their elements can be combined or separated in many ways. Although strengthening the institutions relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is imperative and can contribute to non-proliferation, such arrangements might open other proliferation risks through the spread of sensitive materials, facilities and technology. While there are risks with any fuel cycle, where plutonium in quantity is separated these risks are of a high order. Although these can be mitigated, they will have to be set against the energy and economic case for reprocessing and alternatives other than plutonium considered

  8. Relationship between critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy among special education integration program teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Tajularipin; a/l Kuppusamy, Suresh Kumar; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Rahim, Suzieleez Syrene Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to assess the level of critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy among the Special Education Integration Programme (SEIP) teachers in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The level of critical thinking dispositions and teaching efficacy in the SEIP were compared based on teaching experience and gender. The study also examined the relationship between critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy at SEIP. The research adopted a quantitative survey approach. A total of 190 primary school teachers from the SEIP in Negeri Sembilan were selected using proportional sampling method. The instrument used in this study comprised of three sections; demography, critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis. Analysis shows that the respondents have a moderate level of critical thinking disposition (M = 2.99, S.D = 0.160) and teaching efficacy (M = 3.01 S.D. = 0.128) was at a high level. For teaching experience, the analysis showed that thinking disposition of novice teachers (mean = 2.52, SD = .503) are significantly higher than experienced teachers (mean = 2.35, SD = .481, t = 2.244, p critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy. Findings also indicated that there is a significant positive moderate relationship (r = .477) between critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy among SEIP teachers. This study suggests that critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy play an important role to enhance the performance of SEIP teachers.

  9. The Impacts of a National Internship Program on Interns' Perceived Leadership, Critical Thinking, and Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dennis W.; Birdsong, Victoria; Fuhrman, Nicholas; Borron, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    At perhaps all levels of education, strong leadership skills are often equated with the ability to engage in critical thinking, and effective oral and written communication. The purpose of this study was to identify the self-perceived expansion of animal health interns' leadership, critical thinking and communication competencies using the…

  10. Operating experience and development of fluidized-bed denitrators for UNH at Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Minoru; Nakamichi, Hideya; Takeda, Seiichiro; Kubota, Kanya; Katoh, Shuji

    1983-01-01

    The fluidized bed denitrator for uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) at Tokai reprocessing plant has been operated since 1976. About 170 tons of spent fuel have been reprocessed, and the denitrator has encountered numerous operational problems during the period. This report deals with these technical problems and the associated countermeasures taken, including the dismantling and reconstruction of equipment and the improvement of operating method. The major problems encountered were as follows: (1) the crystallization of UNH on the UNH feeding line, (2) spray nozzle clogging and candle filter clogging, (3) particle growth, (4) plugging of the drawing-out line by nozzle caking, and (5) slugging in fluidized-bed denitration. The total quantity and quality of UO 3 products obtained so far at the plant are also briefly described together with some future R and D programs such as the improvement of UO 3 reactivity and the automation of denitrators. (Aoki, K.)

  11. Reprocessing of research reactor fuel the Dounreay option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, P.

    1997-08-01

    Reprocessing is a proven process for the treatment of spent U/Al Research Reactor fuel. At Dounreay 12679 elements have been reprocessed during the past 30 years. For reactors converting to LEU fuel the uranium recovered in reprocessing can be blended down to less than 20% U{sub 235}, enrichment and be fabricated into new elements. For reactors already converted to LEU it is technically possible to reprocess spent silicide fuel to reduce the U{sub 235} burden and present to a repository only stable conditioned waste. The main waste stream from reprocessing which contains the Fission products is collected in underground storage tanks where it is kept for a period of at least five years before being converted to a stable solid form for return to the country of origin for subsequent storage/disposal. Discharges to the environment from reprocessing are low and are limited to the radioactive gases contained in the spent fuel and a low level liquid waste steam. Both of these discharges are independently monitored, and controlled within strict discharge limits set by the UK Government`s Scottish Office. Transportation of spent fuel to Dounreay has been undertaken using many routes from mainland Europe and has utilised over the past few years both chartered and scheduled vessel services. Several different transport containers have been handled and are currently licensed in the UK. This paper provides a short history of MTR reprocessing at Dounreay, and provides information to show reprocessing can satisfy the needs of MTR operators, showing that reprocessing is a valuable asset in non-proliferation terms, offers a complete solution and is environmentally acceptable.

  12. Fuel reprocessing experience in India: Technological and economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.N.; Kumar, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach to the reprocessing of irradiated fuel from power reactors in India is conditioned by the non-availability of highly enriched uranium with the consequent need for plutonium for the fast-reactor programme. With this in view, the fuel reprocessing programme in India is developing in stages matching the nuclear power programme. The first plant was set up in Trombay to reprocess the metallic uranium fuel from the research reactor CIRUS. The experience gained in the construction and operation of this plant, and in its subsequent decommissioning and reconstruction, has not only provided the know-how for the design of subsequent plants but has indicated the fruitful areas of research and development for efficient utilization of limited resources. The Trombay plant also handled successfully, on a pilot scale, the reprocessing of irradiated thorium fuel to separate uranium-233. The second plant at Tarapur has been built for reprocessing spent fuels from the power reactors at Tarapur (BWR) and Rajasthan (PHWR). The third plant, at present under design, will reprocess the spent fuels from the power reactors (PHWR) and the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) located at Kalpakkam. Through the above approach experience has been acquired which will be useful in the design and construction of even larger plants which will become necessary in the future as the nuclear power programme grows. The strategies considered for the sizing and siting of reprocessing plants extend from the idea of small plants, located at nuclear power station sites, to a large-size central plant, located at an independent site, serving many stations. The paper discusses briefly the experience in reprocessing uranium and thorium fuels and also in decommissioning. An attempt is made to outline the technological and economic aspects which are relevant under different circumstances and which influence the size and siting of the fuel reprocessing plants and the expected lead times for construction

  13. Exploring the utility of measures of critical thinking dispositions and professional behavior development in an audiology education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Stella L; Bartlett, Doreen J; Lucy, S Deborah

    2013-05-01

    Discussions about professional behaviors are growing increasingly prevalent across health professions, especially as a central component to education programs. A strong critical thinking disposition, paired with critical consciousness, may provide future health professionals with a foundation for solving challenging practice problems through the application of sound technical skill and scientific knowledge without sacrificing sensitive, empathic, client-centered practice. In this article, we describe an approach to monitoring student development of critical thinking dispositions and key professional behaviors as a way to inform faculty members' and clinical supervisors' support of students and ongoing curriculum development. We designed this exploratory study to describe the trajectory of change for a cohort of audiology students' critical thinking dispositions (measured by the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory: [CCTDI]) and professional behaviors (using the Comprehensive Professional Behaviors Development Log-Audiology [CPBDL-A]) in an audiology program. Implications for the CCTDI and CPBDL-A in audiology entry-to-practice curricula and professional development will be discussed. This exploratory study involved a cohort of audiology students, studied over a two-year period, using a one-group repeated measures design. Eighteen audiology students (two male and 16 female), began the study. At the third and final data collection point, 15 students completed the CCTDI, and nine students completed the CPBDL-A. The CCTDI and CPBDL-A were each completed at three time points: at the beginning, at the middle, and near the end of the audiology education program. Data are presented descriptively in box plots to examine the trends of development for each critical thinking disposition dimension and each key professional behavior as well as for an overall critical thinking disposition score. For the CCTDI, there was a general downward trend from time point 1 to

  14. SARTEMP2 - A computer program to calculate power and temperatures in a transport flask during a criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.M.

    1983-04-01

    The computer code SARTEMP2, an extended version of the original SARTEMP program, which calculates the power and temperatures in a transport flask during a hypothetical criticality accident is described. The accident arises, it is assumed, during the refilling of the flask with water, bringing the system to delayed critical. As the water level continues to rise, reactivity is added causing the power to rise, and thus temperatures in the fuel, clad and water to increase. The point kinetics equations are coupled to the one-dimensional heat conduction equation. The model used, the method of solution of the equations and the input data required are given. (author)

  15. Use of risk information to safety regulation. Reprocessing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    A procedure of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for a reprocessing facility has been under the development aiming to utilize risk information for safety regulations in this project. Activities in the fiscal year 2012 are summarized in the paper. A major activity is a fundamental study on a concept of serious accidents, requirements of serious accident management, and a policy of utilizing risk information for fabrication and reprocessing facilities. Other than the activity a study on release and transport of aerial radioactive materials at a serious accident in a reprocessing facility has been conducted. The outline and results are provided in the chapter 1 and 2 respectively. (author)

  16. The influence of size of plant upon reprocessing costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    This paper reviews recent published estimates for capital and operating costs of reprocessing plants in an attempt to establish a relative variation of unit reprocessing costs with plant design capacity and load factor. It is concluded that capital costs follow the well established ''rule of thumb'' for chemical plants in being proportional to (design capacity)sup(2/3). Operating costs vary significantly with variation in labour costs. Unit reprocessing costs are presented as a function of plant design capacity, load factor and method of financing

  17. Economic assessment factors relating to spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is in two parts. Part I discusses the factors to be applied in an economic assessment of reprocessing. It sets forth three basic cost components, namely capital costs, operating costs and the cost of capital utilization. It lists the various components of each cost area. Part II proposes a relationship between these respective cost areas, tabulates a range of costs and then develops unit costs for reprocessing operations. Finally, an addendum to the paper gives a more detailed breakdown of the capital costs of a reprocessing plant

  18. Gas chromatographic analysis of extractive solvent in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlet, B.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a reprocessing plant using the Purex process is recalled and analytical controls for optimum performance are specified. The aim of this thesis is the development of analytical methods using gas chromatography required to follow the evolution of the extraction solvent during spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent at different concentrations, is analysed along the reprocessing lines in organic or aqueous phases. Solvent degradation interferes with extraction and decomposition products are analysed. The solvent becomes less and less efficient, also it is distilled and quality is checked. Traces of solvent should also be checked in waste water. Analysis are made as simple as possible to facilitate handling of radioactive samples [fr

  19. Comments and Criticism: Comment on "Identification of Student Misconceptions in Genetics Problem Solving via Computer Program."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mike U.

    1991-01-01

    Criticizes an article by Browning and Lehman (1988) for (1) using "gene" instead of allele, (2) misusing the word "misconception," and (3) the possible influences of the computer environment on the results of the study. (PR)

  20. Sustaining staff nurse support for a patient care ergonomics program in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Linda L; Wright, Laurette

    2007-06-01

    Applying management concepts from marketing and business sources can assist critical care units with establishing a planned change in the way nurses perform manual handling tasks, and thus, help insure that it is sustained.

  1. "This program contains advertising": How the timing of sponsorship disclosure influences critical processing of sponsored content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.; van Reijmersdal, E.; Neijens, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure influences the processing of sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure activates persuasion knowledge, which leads to critical processing of the sponsored content, and ultimately negatively affects the

  2. Fast reactor fuel reprocessing development in the United States: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenier, W.S.; Burch, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    As a result of the reduced nuclear power demand and the growing concerns over the potential proliferation of sensitive nuclear materials, there has not been a necessity to make immediate decisions regarding near-term reprocessing and breeder reactor commercialization. Programs which formed the basic thrust of nuclear development in the early 1970's have already been adjusted: increased emphasis on problems of radioactive waste management; increased attention to nonproliferation objectives and subsequent reorientation of the overall fuel cycle and breeder programs; increased emphasis on a once-through light-water reactor technology; increased concern for a more detailed knowledge of the uranium resource base; reorientation of the uranium enrichment programs; and exploration of alternative fuel cycles (such as thorium) to minimize the use of plutonium. Nevertheless, major strategic decisions still loom over breeder commercialization, the breeder's requisite demand for reprocessing, and the future role of more proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies. The current program in the United States is organized to provide the necessary technology for the reprocessing of breeder fuels on a timetable that is consistent with the reactor development and demonstration program. Also addressed in this paper are the present day concerns of environmental protection, safety, nuclear material safeguards, and proliferation resistance. It is structured on the well-known Purex processing method but includes new efforts aimed at advanced and alternative fuels. At the present time, the program consists mainly of a generic effort that is planned to progress through an integrated equipment engineering demonstration to an eventual pilot-plant operation. Each of these facilities is viewed as a test bed for advanced and alternative processing steps to address the many significant technical and political issues. 16 figures

  3. Emergency airway management in critically injured patients: a survey of U.S. aero-medical transport programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Dorsha N; Voskresensky, Igor V; Jack, Meg; Cotton, Bryan A

    2009-06-01

    Pre-hospital airway management represents the intervention most likely to impact outcomes in critically injured patients. As such, airway management issues dominate quality improvement (QI) reviews of aero-medical programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current practice patterns of airway management in trauma among U.S. aero-medical service (AMS) programs. The Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS) Resource Guide from 2005 to 2006 was utilized to identify the e-mail addresses of all directors of U.S. aero-medical transport programs. Program directors from 182 U.S. aero-medical programs were asked to participate in an anonymous, web-based survey of emergency airway management protocols and practices. Non-responders to the initial request were contacted a second time by e-mail. 89 programs responded. 98.9% have rapid sequence intubation (RSI) protocols. 90% use succinylcholine, 70% use long-acting neuromuscular blockers (NMB) within their RSI protocol. 77% have protocols for mandatory in-flight sedation but only 13% have similar protocols for maintenance paralytics. 60% administer long-acting NMB immediately after RSI, 13% after confirmation of neurological activity. Given clinical scenarios, however, 97% administer long-acting NMB to patients with scene and in-flight Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 3, even for brief transport times. The majority of AMS programs have well defined RSI and in-flight sedation protocols, while protocols for in-flight NMB are uncommon. Despite this, nearly all programs administer long-acting NMB following RSI, irrespective of GCS or flight time. Given the impact of in-flight NMB on initial assessment, early intervention, and injury severity scoring, a critical appraisal of current AMS airway management practices appears warranted.

  4. Role of computers in quality assurance in the LLL Criticality Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the aspects of computational criticality safety quality assurance that have been emphasized in recent years at LLL are summarized. In particular, computer code changes that have been made that help the criticality analyst reduce the number of errors that he makes and to locate those that he does make; and how a computerized ''benchmark'' data base aids him in the validation of his computational methods are discussed

  5. Test calculations of physical parameters of the TRX,BETTIS and MIT critical assemblies according to the TRIFON program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochurov, B.P.

    1980-01-01

    Results of calculations of physical parameters characterizing the TRX, MIT and BETTIS critical assemblies obtained according to the program TRIFON are presented. The program TRIFON permits to calculate the space-energy neutron distribution in the multigroup approximation in a multizone cylindrical cell. Results of comparison of the TRX, BETTIS and MIT crytical assembly parameters with experimental data and calculational results according to the Monte Carlo method are presented as well. Deviations of the parameters are in the range of 1.5-2 of experimental errors. Data on the interference of uranium 238 levels in the resonant neutron absorption in the cell are given [ru

  6. Monte Carlo analysis of the slightly enriched uranium-D2O critical experiment LTRIIA (AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J. Jr.; Shore, J.M.

    1981-11-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory LTRIIA slightly-enriched uranium-D 2 O critical experiment was analyzed with ENDF/B-IV data and the RCP01 Monte Carlo program, which modeled the entire assembly in explicit detail. The integral parameters delta 25 and delta 28 showed good agreement with experiment. However, calculated K/sub eff/ was 2 to 3% low, due primarily to an overprediction of U238 capture. This is consistent with results obtained in similar analyses of the H 2 O-moderated TRX critical experiments. In comparisons with the VIM and MCNP2 Monte Carlo programs, good agreement was observed for calculated reeaction rates in the B 2 =0 cell

  7. A critical overview of industrial energy decoupling programs in six developing countries in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luken, Ralph A.; Piras, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In reviewing the journal literature on the decoupling of energy use and industrial output in the Asian region, particularly with respect to developing countries, we found little information about most country programs other than for China and India and only one article that compared the programs of these two countries. For this reason, we used diverse sources to identify the key programmatic features that have contributed, but clearly are not totally responsible for, decoupling achievements of two countries ( China and Thailand) and then, on the basis of these findings, reviewed emerging industrial energy decoupling programs in four other countries (India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam). We found that the design of the two successful on-going decoupling programs have common features, which are setting an explicit target for decoupling of energy use and industrial output, a government program that offers financial incentives and imposes specific auditing and reporting requirements and involvement of the manufacturing sector in designing and implementing targets as they apply to individual enterprises. We also found that the emerging programs in the other four countries lack some or all of these essential programmatic features. - Highlights: → We reviewed two on-going and four emerging industrial energy decoupling programs. → These six Asian developing countries have very different rates of decoupling. → The two successful on-going programs share three common features. → These are quantitative targets, supportive programs and industry involvement. → The four emerging programs lack some or all of these features.

  8. French experience and prospects in the reprocessing of fast breeder reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.

    1983-06-01

    Experience acquired in France in the field of reprocessing spent fuels from fast breeder reactors is recalled. Emphasis is put on characteristics and quantities of spent fuels reprocessed in La Hague and Marcoule facilities. Then reprocessing developments with the realisation of the new pilot plant TOR at Marcoule, new equipments and study of industrial reprocessing units are reviewed [fr

  9. Assessment of students' critical-thinking and problem-solving abilities across a 6-year doctor of pharmacy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Brenda L; Gaebelein, Claude J; Grice, Gloria R; Crannage, Andrew J; Weck, Margaret A; Hurd, Peter; Walter, Brenda; Duncan, Wendy

    2013-10-14

    To determine the feasibility of using a validated set of assessment rubrics to assess students' critical-thinking and problem-solving abilities across a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Trained faculty assessors used validated rubrics to assess student work samples for critical-thinking and problem-solving abilities. Assessment scores were collected and analyzed to determine student achievement of these 2 ability outcomes across the curriculum. Feasibility of the process was evaluated in terms of time and resources used. One hundred sixty-one samples were assessed for critical thinking, and 159 samples were assessed for problem-solving. Rubric scoring allowed assessors to evaluate four 5- to 7-page work samples per hour. The analysis indicated that overall critical-thinking scores improved over the curriculum. Although low yield for problem-solving samples precluded meaningful data analysis, it was informative for identifying potentially needed curricular improvements. Use of assessment rubrics for program ability outcomes was deemed authentic and feasible. Problem-solving was identified as a curricular area that may need improving. This assessment method has great potential to inform continuous quality improvement of a PharmD program.

  10. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat Mapping Reprocessed DOQQ Aerial Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to reprocess existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  11. Open problems in reprocessing of a molten salt reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, Vladimir; Vocka, Radim

    2000-01-01

    The study of fuel cycle in a molten salt reactor (MSR) needs deeper understanding of chemical methods used for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and preparation of MSR fuel, as well as of the methods employed for reprocessing of MSR fuel itself. Assuming that all the reprocessing is done on the basis of electrorefining, we formulate some open questions that should be answered before a flow sheet diagram of the reactor is designed. Most of the questions concern phenomena taking place in the vicinity of an electrode, which influence the efficiency of the reprocessing and sensibility of element separation. Answer to these questions would be an important step forward in reactor set out. (Authors)

  12. Effect of Reprocessing and Excipient Characteristics on Ibuprofen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The effect of excipient type, technology and reprocessing on flow, compressibility and compactibility was ... granulation technology is used, the ... powders improve particle size distribution, .... 8.04 (Stat-Easy Inc., Minneapolis, USA).

  13. Application of electrochemical techniques in fuel reprocessing- an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, M K; Bajpai, D D; Singh, R K [Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant, Tarapur (India)

    1994-06-01

    The operating experience and development work over the past several years have considerably improved the wet chemical fuel reprocessing PUREX process and have brought the reprocessing to a stage where it is ready to adopt the introduction of electrochemical technology. Electrochemical processes offer advantages like simplification of reprocessing operation, improved performance of the plant and reduction in waste volume. At Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing plant, Tarapur, work on development and application of electrochemical processes has been carried out in stages. To achieve plant scale application of these developments, a new electrochemical cycle is being added to PUREX process at PREFRE. This paper describes the electrochemical and membrane cell development activities carried out at PREFRE and their current status. (author). 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Capability of minor nuclide confinement in fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Mineo, Hideaki; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide

    1999-01-01

    Experiment with spent fuels has started with the small scale reprocessing facility in NUCEF-BECKY αγ cell. Primary purpose of the experiment is to study the capability of long-lived nuclide confinement both in the PUREX flow sheet applied to the large scale reprocessing plant and also in the PARC (Partitioning Conundrum key process) flow sheet which is our proposal as a simplified reprocessing of one cycle extraction system. Our interests in the experiment are the behaviors of minor long-lived nuclides and the behaviors of the heterogeneous substances, such as sedimentation in the dissolver, organic cruds in the extraction banks. The significance of those behaviors will be assessed from the standpoint of the process safety of reprocessing for high burn-up fuels and MOX fuels. (author)

  15. Evironmental assessment factors relating to reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    This document is in two parts. Part I presents the criteria and evaluation factors, based primarily on US experience, which may be used to carry out an environmental assessment of spent fuel reprocessing. The concept of As Low as is Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) is introduced in limiting radiation exposure. The factors influencing both occupational and general public radiation exposure are reviewed. Part II provides information on occupational and general public radiation exposure in relation to reprocessing taken from various sources including UNSCEAR and GESMO. Some information is provided in relation to potential accidents at reprocessing or MOX fuel refabrication plants. The magnitude of the services, energy, land use and non-radiological effluents for the reference design of reprocessing plant are also presented

  16. Simulation of spent fuel reprocessing processes: Realizations and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.

    1986-12-01

    The separation of uranium and plutonium in the Purex process is very complex and for the extension of reprocessing plants optimization of the process requires mathematical modelling. The development of this model is reviewed [fr

  17. Release of gaseous tritium during reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruecher, H.; Hartmann, K.

    1983-01-01

    About 50% of the tritium put through an LWR reprocessing plant is obtained as tritium-bearing water, HTO. Gaseous tritium, HT has a radiotoxicity which is by 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of HTO. A possibility for the removal of HTO could therefore be its conversion into the gas phase with subsequent emission of the HT into the atmosphere. However, model computations which are, in part, supported by experimental data reveal that the radiation exposure caused by HT release is only by about one order of magnitude below that caused by HTO. This is being attributed to the relatively quick reoxidation of HT by soil bacteria. Two alternatives for producing HT from HTO (electrolysis; voloxidation with subsequent electrolysis) are presented and compared with the reference process of deep-well injection of HTO. The authors come to the conclusion that tritium removal by HT release into the atmosphere cannot be recommended at present under either radiological or economic aspects. (orig.) [de

  18. PSA application on the Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Michihiko; Nakano, Takafumi; Morimoto, Kazuyuki; Nojiri, Ichiro

    2003-01-01

    The Periodic Safety Review (PSR) of the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) has been carrying out to obtain an overall view of actual plant safety. As a part of the PSR, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methodology has been applied to evaluate the relative importance of safety functions that prevent the progress of events causing to postulated accidents. Based on the results of the safety reassessments of the TRP that was carried out in 1999, event trees were developed to model sequences of postulated accidents. Event trees were quantified by using the results of fault tree analysis and human reliability analysis. In the quantification, the reliability data generally used in PSA of nuclear power plants were mainly used. Operating experiences of the TRP were also utilized to evaluated both component/system reliability and human reliability. The relative importance of safety functions was evaluated by using two major importance measures, Fussell-Vesely and Risk Achievement Worth both generally used in PSA of nuclear power plants. Through these evaluations, some useful insights into the safety of the TRP have been obtained. The results of the relative importance measures would be utilized to qualify TRP component/equipment important to the safety. (author)

  19. Fast-reactor fuel reprocessing in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.; Buck, C.; Williams, J.

    1977-01-01

    Enriched uranium metal fuel irradiated in the Dounreay Fast Reactor has been reprocessed and refabricated in plants specifically designed for the purpose in the United Kingdom since 1961. Efficient and reliable fuel recycle is essential to the development of a plutonium-based fast-reactor system, and the importance of establishing at an early stage fast-reactor fuel reprocessing has been reinforced by current world difficulties in reprocessing high-burnup thermal-reactor oxide fuel. The United Kingdom therefore decided to reprocess irradiated fuel from the 250MW(e) Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) as an integral part of the fast reactor development programme. Flowsheet and equipment development work for the small-scale fully active demonstration plant has been carried out since 1972, and the plant will be commissioned and ready for active operation during 1977. In parallel, a comprehensive waste-management system has been developed and installed. Based on this development work and the information which will arise from active operation of the plant, a parallel development programme has been initiated to provide the basis for the design of a large-scale fast-reactor fuel-reprocessing plant to come into operation in the late 1980s to support the projected UK fast-reactor installation programme. The paper identifies the important differences between fast-reactor and thermal-reactor fuel-reprocessing technologies and describes some of the development work carried out in these areas for the small-scale PFR fuel-reprocessing operation. In addition, the development programme in aid of the design of a larger scale fast-reactor fuel-reprocessing plant is outlined and the current design philosophy discussed. (author)

  20. Study on remain actinides recovery in pyro reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharto, Bambang

    1996-01-01

    The spent fuel reprocessing by dry process called pyro reprocessing have been studied. Most of U, Pu and MA (minor actinides) from the spent fuel will be recovered and be fed back to the reactor as new fuel. Accumulation of remain actinides will be separated by extraction process with liquid cadmium solvent. The research was conducted by computer simulation to calculate the stage number required. The calculation's results showed on the 20 stages extractor more than 99% actinides can be separated. (author)