WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported malaria cases

  1. Hyperglycemia in Severe Falciparum Malaria: A Case Report

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    Leonardo Chianura; Isabella Corinna Errante; Giovanna Travi; Roberto Rossotti; Massimo Puoti

    2012-01-01

    Occasionally, malaria may present with unusual signs and symptoms. We report a case of an uncommon presentation of Plasmodium falciparum infection in a 59-year-old Ethiopian immigrant, which initially presented with hyperglycaemia and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Reports of unusual presentations of malaria are few and cases of severe malaria with hyperglycaemia are rarely described. As hyperglycaemia is associated to most severe malaria and high mortality, our aim is to catch ...

  2. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in malaria: A case report

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    Laltanpuii Sailo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC is seen in <5% of patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria and is more common in cerebral malaria. Here, we report the diagnosis and management of a case of severe P. falciparum malaria with DIC.

  3. Myocarditis associated with Plasmodium vivax malaria: a case report

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    Ana Maria Revoredo da Silva Ventura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Brazil where Plasmodium vivax is the predominant species, responsible for 82% of registered cases in 2013. Though benign, P. vivax infection may sometimes evolve with complications and a fatal outcome. Here, we report a severe case of P. vivax malaria in a 35-year-old Brazilian man from a malaria endemic area, who presented with reversible myocarditis.

  4. [Severe malaria in Palmas, State of Tocantins: case report].

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    Parise, Eldi Vendrame

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe clinical form of malaria. In this study, we report a severe case of malaria, through following up the patient and from notes in the medical files at the Palmas General Hospital. We discuss the outcome of this case and the complications caused by this infection, recognizing the potential risk of occurrences of severe malaria in not-endemic areas because of the delay in treatment, and the importance of intensifying surveillance measures involving all health unit employees, with emphasis on the reception areas for migrants from endemic regions.

  5. Late relapse of imported Plasmodium ovale malaria: a case report.

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    Siala, Emna; Gastli, Mondher; Essid, Rym; Jemal, Sana; Ben Abdallah, Rym; Ben Abda, Imène; Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aida

    2015-06-01

    We report the first case of an imported Plasmodium ovale relapse in a Tunisian man who developed malaria three years after leaving sub- Saharan Africa. A 29-year-old Tunisian man consulted in September 2011 because of a fever, myalgia, and headache that had begun eight days earlier and persisted despite treatment with oral antibiotics. On questioning, the patient stated that he had resided three years ago for six months in Ivory Coast, where he acquired malaria. He was treated with artemether-lumefantrine. The patient said he had no recent travel to any other malaria-endemic area and had not received a blood transfusion. A first microscopy of peripheral blood smears was negative for malaria parasites. The diagnosis was established 17 days after onset of symptoms. A repeat microscopic examination of blood smears confirmed the presence of Plasmodium ovale with a parasitemia lower than 0.1%. The patient was treated with artemether lumefantrine, followed by primaquine. This case emphasizes the possibility of relapse of some plasmodial species. It highlights the importance of repeating microscopic examination of blood when the diagnosis of malaria is suspected.

  6. Contemporary epidemiological overview of malaria in Madagascar: operational utility of reported routine case data for malaria control planning.

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    Howes, Rosalind E; Mioramalala, Sedera Aurélien; Ramiranirina, Brune; Franchard, Thierry; Rakotorahalahy, Andry Joeliarijaona; Bisanzio, Donal; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène

    2016-10-18

    Malaria remains a major public health problem in Madagascar. Widespread scale-up of intervention coverage has led to substantial reductions in case numbers since 2000. However, political instability since 2009 has disrupted these efforts, and a resurgence of malaria has since followed. This paper re-visits the sub-national stratification of malaria transmission across Madagascar to propose a contemporary update, and evaluates the reported routine case data reported at this sub-national scale. Two independent malariometrics were evaluated to re-examine the status of malaria across Madagascar. First, modelled maps of Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence (PfPR) from the Malaria Atlas Project were used to update the sub-national stratification into 'ecozones' based on transmission intensity. Second, routine reports of case data from health facilities were synthesized from 2010 to 2015 to compare the sub-national epidemiology across the updated ecozones over time. Proxy indicators of data completeness are investigated. The epidemiology of malaria is highly diverse across the island's ecological regions, with eight contiguous ecozones emerging from the transmission intensity PfPR map. East and west coastal areas have highest transmission year-round, contrasting with the central highlands and desert south where trends appear more closely associated with epidemic outbreak events. Ecozones have shown steady increases in reported malaria cases since 2010, with a near doubling of raw reported case numbers from 2014 to 2015. Gauges of data completeness suggest that interpretation of raw reported case numbers will underestimate true caseload as only approximately 60-75 % of health facility data are reported to the central level each month. A sub-national perspective is essential when monitoring the epidemiology of malaria in Madagascar and assessing local control needs. A robust assessment of the status of malaria at a time when intervention coverage efforts are being

  7. Case report of Plasmodium falciparum malaria presenting as wide complex tachycardia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar; Diwan SK; Mahajan SN; Shilpa Bawankule; Chetan Mahure

    2011-01-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a multisystem disorder and may have diversity of clinical presentations. We are presenting a case report of patients of falciparum malaria who presented to us with palpitation and fever. On electrocardiogram he had wide complex tachycardia. This case reiterates the need to think of malaria in any case with symptoms of fever with chills, even with various unusual presentations like palpitation due to wide complex tachycardia, especially in endemic country like India.

  8. Case report and clinical databased research study on malaria

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    Naitik D Trivedi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is endemic in Gujarat and the adjoining areas like many other parts of the India. Depending upon the environmental conditions different species of malarial parasite are found in different areas. The present study was planned to see the pattern of malarial infection diagnosed at B.J. Desai Trust Hospital, Kheda, Gujarat. Methods: Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films of indoor and outdoor febrile patients sent to the laboratory of B.J. Desai Trust Hospital, Kheda, Gujarat with a suspicion of malaria, were examined. Thick film was examined for the diagnosis of malaria while thin films were seen to know the species. Results: Out of 1994 patients screened, 145 (7.2% were found infected. Plasmodium vivax was seen in the majority (72.47.2%. Plasmodium falciparum was the second common species detected in 24.1 % cases. Mixed infection was seen in 3.44% cases while Plasmodium malariae and ovale was not seen in any patient. Conclusion: Plasmodium vivax was the commonest type of malaria diagnosed at Kheda District in Gujarat, during 2008- 2009.

  9. CASE REPORT AND CLINICAL DATABASED RESEARCH STUDY ON MALARIA

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    Madhubhai M. Patel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is endemic in Gujarat and the adjoining areas like many other parts of theIndia. Depending upon the environmental conditions different species of malarial parasiteare found in different areas. The present study was planned to see the pattern of malarialinfection diagnosed at B.J. Desai Trust Hospital, Kheda, Gujarat. Methods: Giemsastained thick and thin blood films of indoor and outdoor febrile patients sent to thelaboratory of B.J. Desai Trust Hospital, Kheda, Gujarat with a suspicion of malaria, wereexamined. Thick film was examined for the diagnosis of malaria while thin films wereseen to know the species. Results: Out of 1994 patients screened, 145 (7.2% were foundinfected. Plasmodium vivax was seen in the majority (72.47.2%. Plasmodium falciparumwas the second common species detected in 24.1 % cases. Mixed infection was seen in3.44% cases while Plasmodium malariae and ovale was not seen in any patient.Conclusion: Plasmodium vivax was the commonest type of malaria diagnosed at KhedaDistrict in Gujarat, during 2008- 2009.

  10. Contemporary epidemiological overview of malaria in Madagascar: operational utility of reported routine case data for malaria control planning

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    Rosalind E. Howes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major public health problem in Madagascar. Widespread scale-up of intervention coverage has led to substantial reductions in case numbers since 2000. However, political instability since 2009 has disrupted these efforts, and a resurgence of malaria has since followed. This paper re-visits the sub-national stratification of malaria transmission across Madagascar to propose a contemporary update, and evaluates the reported routine case data reported at this sub-national scale. Methods Two independent malariometrics were evaluated to re-examine the status of malaria across Madagascar. First, modelled maps of Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence (PfPR from the Malaria Atlas Project were used to update the sub-national stratification into ‘ecozones’ based on transmission intensity. Second, routine reports of case data from health facilities were synthesized from 2010 to 2015 to compare the sub-national epidemiology across the updated ecozones over time. Proxy indicators of data completeness are investigated. Results The epidemiology of malaria is highly diverse across the island’s ecological regions, with eight contiguous ecozones emerging from the transmission intensity PfPR map. East and west coastal areas have highest transmission year-round, contrasting with the central highlands and desert south where trends appear more closely associated with epidemic outbreak events. Ecozones have shown steady increases in reported malaria cases since 2010, with a near doubling of raw reported case numbers from 2014 to 2015. Gauges of data completeness suggest that interpretation of raw reported case numbers will underestimate true caseload as only approximately 60–75 % of health facility data are reported to the central level each month. Discussion A sub-national perspective is essential when monitoring the epidemiology of malaria in Madagascar and assessing local control needs. A robust assessment of the

  11. Exploring the seasonality of reported treated malaria cases in Mpumalanga, South Africa.

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    Sheetal Prakash Silal

    Full Text Available South Africa, having met the World Health Organisation's pre-elimination criteria, has set a goal to achieve malaria elimination by 2018. Mpumalanga, one of three provinces where malaria transmission still occurs, has a malaria season subject to unstable transmission that is prone to sporadic outbreaks. As South Africa prepares to intensify efforts towards malaria elimination, there is a need to understand patterns in malaria transmission so that efforts may be targeted appropriately. This paper describes the seasonality of transmission by exploring the relationship between malaria cases and three potential drivers: rainfall, geography (physical location and the source of infection (local/imported. Seasonal decomposition of the time series by Locally estimated scatterplot smoothing is applied to the case data for the geographical and source of infection sub-groups. The relationship between cases and rainfall is assessed using a cross-correlation analysis. The malaria season was found to have a short period of no/low level of reported cases and a triple peak in reported cases between September and May; the three peaks occurring in October, January and May. The seasonal pattern of locally-sourced infection mimics the triple-peak characteristic of the total series while imported infections contribute mostly to the second and third peak of the season (Christmas and Easter respectively. Geographically, Bushbuckridge municipality, which exhibits a different pattern of cases, contributed mostly to the first and second peaks in cases while Maputo province (Mozambique experienced a similar pattern in transmission to the imported cases. Though rainfall lagged at 4 weeks was significantly correlated with malaria cases, this effect was dampened due to the growing proportion of imported cases since 2006. These findings may be useful as they enhance the understanding of the current incidence pattern and may inform mathematical models that enable one to

  12. Malaria or flu? A case report of misdiagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seif Ali Mahdavi; Ahmad Raeesi; Leyla Faraji; Mohammad Reza Youssefi; Mohammad Taghi Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    We present and discuss elaborately a case of malaria misdiagnosis in a 27-year-old woman in Chalus, Mazandaran Province, North Iran in 2013. The patient has been complaining of fever, shivering and myalgia for three months. Although she visited two physicians during this time, the problem still remained owing to misdiagnose. Eventually in hospital after a precise examination on her thick and thin blood film, the causative agent of disease was diagnosed as plasmodiumvivax. The patient received treatment accordingly and all clinical manifestations were vanished.

  13. Case Report: Severe and Complicated Cynomolgi Malaria in a Rhesus Macaque Resulted in Similar Histopathological Changes as Those Seen in Human Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Joyner, Chester; Consortium, The MaHPIC; Wood, Jennifer S; Moreno, Alberto; Garcia, Anapatricia; Galinski, Mary R

    2017-08-01

    Histopathological data collected from patients with severe malaria have been instrumental for studying malaria pathogenesis. Animal models of malaria are critical to complement such studies. Here, the histopathological changes observed in a rhesus macaque with severe and complicated Plasmodium cynomolgi malaria are reported. The animal presented with thrombocytopenia, severe anemia, and hyperparasitemia during the acute infection. The macaque was given subcurative antimalarial treatment, fluid support, and a blood transfusion to treat the clinical complications, but at the time of transfusion, kidney function was compromised. These interventions did not restore kidney function, and the animal was euthanized due to irreversible renal failure. Gross pathological and histological examinations revealed that the lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen, and bone marrow exhibited abnormalities similar to those described in patients with malaria. Overall, this case report illustrates the similarities in the pathophysiological complications that can occur in human malaria and cynomolgi malaria in rhesus macaques.

  14. Malaria after living donor liver transplantation:report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Durgatosh Pandey; Kan-Hoe Lee; Sin-Yew Wong; Kai-Chah Tan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Infectious complications are common during the postoperative course of a liver transplant recipient. Malaria, however, is a rare complication in such a setting. METHOD:We report post-transplantation malaria causing elevation of liver enzymes in two recipients. RESULTS:Both patients who had undergone living donor liver transplantation showed elevated levels of liver enzymes and fever during the postoperative course. Investigations (including liver biopsy in one patient) were initially inconclusive in determining the cause of liver dysfunction. The diagnosis of malaria was established in both cases by peripheral blood smear. Liver function transiently worsened with antimalarial treatment but subsequently became normal. CONCLUSION:This report highlights the importance of excluding such uncommon causes of post-transplantation liver dysfunction, especially when either the recipient or the donor comes from a region endemic for malaria.

  15. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to vivax malaria: case report and literature review

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    André V. Lomar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe pulmonary involvement in malaria has been frequently reported in cases of Plasmodium falciparum infection, but rarely in vivax malaria. Among the 11 previous cases of vivax-related severe respiratory involvement described in the literature, all except one developed it after the beginning of anti-malarial treatment; these appear to correspond to an exacerbation of the inflammatory response. We report the case of a 43-year-old Brazilian woman living in a malaria-endemic area, who presented acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS caused by P. vivax before starting anti-malarial treatment. The diagnosis was made based on microscopic methods. A negative rapid immunochromatographic assay, based on the detection of Histidine Rich Protein-2 (HRP-2 of P. falciparum, indicated that falciparum malaria was unlikely. After specific anti-plasmodial therapy and intensive supportive care, the patient was discharged from the hospital. We conclude that vivax malaria-associated ARDS can develop before anti-malarial therapy.

  16. Possible artemisinin-based combination therapy-resistant malaria in Nigeria: a report of three cases

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    Nnennaya Anthony Ajayi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin-based combination therapy-resistant malaria is rare in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization identifies monitoring and surveillance using day-3 parasitaemia post-treatment as the standard test for identifying suspected artemisinin resistance. We report three cases of early treatment failure due to possible artemisinin-based combination therapy-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. All cases showed adequate clinical and parasitological responses to quinine. This study reveals a need to re-evaluate the quality and efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy agents in Nigeria and Sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Acute kidney injury in a shepherd with severe malaria: a case report

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    Boushab BM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Boushab Mohamed Boushab,1 Fatim-Zahra Fall-Malick,2 Mamoudou Savadogo,3 Leonardo Kishi Basco,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Aïoun Regional Hospital, Hodh El Gharbi, Mauritania; 2National Institute of Hepatology-Virology in Nouakchott, School of Medicine, Nouakchott, Mauritania; 3Department of Infectious Diseases, University Teaching Hospital Yalgado Ouédrago, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; 4Research Unit of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (Research Institute for Development, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France Abstract: Malaria is one of the main reasons for outpatient consultation and hospitalization in Mauritania. Although four Plasmodium species, ie, Plasmodium (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale, cause malaria in Mauritania, recent data on their frequency is ­lacking. Since infections with P. falciparum generally result in serious disease, their identification is important. We report a case of oliguric renal injury associated with malaria in a 65-year-old shepherd. Clinical manifestations included anemia, oliguria, and elevated creatinine and urea. The rapid diagnostic test for malaria and microscopic examination of blood smears were positive for P. falciparum. On the basis of this, the patient was diagnosed as having acute kidney injury as a complication of severe malaria. The patient was treated for malaria with intravenous quinine for 4 days, followed by 3 days of oral treatment. Volume expansion, antipyretic treatment, and diuretics were administered. He also had two rounds of dialysis after which he partially recovered renal function. This outcome is not always the rule. Prognosis depends much on early diagnosis and appropriate supportive treatment. Keywords: malaria, oliguric kidney injury, shepherd, quinine, dialysis

  18. Severe malaria - a case of fatal Plasmodium knowlesi infection with post-mortem findings: a case report

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    Adem Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zoonotic malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi is an important, but newly recognized, human pathogen. For the first time, post-mortem findings from a fatal case of knowlesi malaria are reported here. Case presentation A formerly healthy 40 year-old male became symptomatic 10 days after spending time in the jungle of North Borneo. Four days later, he presented to hospital in a state of collapse and died within two hours. He was hyponatraemic and had elevated blood urea, potassium, lactate dehydrogenase and amino transferase values; he was also thrombocytopenic and eosinophilic. Dengue haemorrhagic shock was suspected and a post-mortem examination performed. Investigations for dengue virus were negative. Blood for malaria parasites indicated hyperparasitaemia and single species P. knowlesi infection was confirmed by nested-PCR. Macroscopic pathology of the brain and endocardium showed multiple petechial haemorrhages, the liver and spleen were enlarged and lungs had features consistent with ARDS. Microscopic pathology showed sequestration of pigmented parasitized red blood cells in the vessels of the cerebrum, cerebellum, heart and kidney without evidence of chronic inflammatory reaction in the brain or any other organ examined. Brain sections were negative for intracellular adhesion molecule-1. The spleen and liver had abundant pigment containing macrophages and parasitized red blood cells. The kidney had evidence of acute tubular necrosis and endothelial cells in heart sections were prominent. Conclusions The overall picture in this case was one of systemic malaria infection that fit the WHO classification for severe malaria. Post-mortem findings in this case were unexpectedly similar to those that define fatal falciparum malaria, including cerebral pathology. There were important differences including the absence of coma despite petechial haemorrhages and parasite sequestration in the brain. These results suggest that further

  19. To report a case of unilateral proliferative retinopathy following noncerebral malaria with Plasmodium falciparum in Southern India

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    Aditya Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The retinopathy in association with malaria fever described so far includes retinal hemorrhages, vessel changes, retinal discoloration/whitening and papilledema. Malaria retinopathy has been mostly described in severe cases, associated with Plasmodium falciparum, correlating the patho-physiology of retinal and cerebral manifestations. We report an unusual case of proliferative retinopathy as a manifestation of malaria fever, caused by P. falciparum with no cerebral involvement. The patient had features of unilateral retinal vascular occlusion with proliferative changes and vitreous hemorrhage. To the best of our knowledge, such a case has never been reported so far in the literature. This report highlights the possible occurrence of severe proliferative changes associated with malaria fever, which if diagnosed early can prevent possible blindness.

  20. Cutaneous findings in five cases of malaria

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    Jignesh B Vaishnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Cutaneous lesions in malaria are rarely reported and include urticaria, angioedema, petechiae, purpura, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Here, five malaria cases associated with cutaneous lesions have been described. Out of the five cases of malaria, two were associated with urticaria and angioedema, one case was associated with urticaria, and other two were associated with reticulated blotchy erythema with petechiae. Most of the cutaneous lesions in malaria were nonspecific and reflected the different immunopathological mechanism in malarial infection.

  1. World Malaria Report: time to acknowledge Plasmodium knowlesi malaria.

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    Barber, Bridget E; Rajahram, Giri S; Grigg, Matthew J; William, Timothy; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2017-03-31

    The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report documents substantial progress towards control and elimination of malaria. However, major challenges remain. In some regions of Southeast Asia, the simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged as an important cause of human malaria, and the authors believe this species warrants regular inclusion in the World Malaria Report. Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia, and cases have also been reported in nearly all countries of Southeast Asia. Outside of Malaysia, P. knowlesi is frequently misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax. Thus, P. knowlesi may be underdiagnosed in affected regions and its true incidence underestimated. Acknowledgement in the World Malaria Report of the regional importance of P. knowlesi will facilitate efforts to improve surveillance of this emerging parasite. Furthermore, increased recognition will likely lead to improved delivery of effective treatment for this potentially fatal infection, as has occurred in Malaysia where P. knowlesi case-fatality rates have fallen despite rising incidence. In a number of knowlesi-endemic countries, substantial progress has been made towards the elimination of P. vivax and P. falciparum. However, efforts to eliminate these human-only species should not preclude efforts to reduce human malaria from P. knowlesi. The regional importance of knowlesi malaria was recognized by the WHO with its recent Evidence Review Group meeting on knowlesi malaria to address strategies for prevention and mitigation. The WHO World Malaria Report has an appropriate focus on falciparum and vivax malaria, the major causes of global mortality and morbidity. However, the authors hope that in future years this important publication will also incorporate data on the progress and challenges in reducing knowlesi malaria in regions where transmission occurs.

  2. To what extent does climate explain variations in reported malaria cases in early 20th century Uganda?

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    Tompkins, Adrian M; Larsen, Laragh; McCreesh, Nicky; Taylor, David

    2016-03-31

    Malaria case statistics were analysed for the period 1926 to 1960 to identify inter-annual variations in malaria cases for the Uganda Protectorate. The analysis shows the mid-to-late 1930s to be a period of increased reported cases. After World War II, malaria cases trend down to a relative minimum in the early 1950s, before increasing rapidly after 1953 to the end of the decade. Data for the Western Province confirm these national trends, which at the time were attributed to a wide range of causes, including land development and management schemes, population mobility, interventions and misdiagnosis. Climate was occasionally proposed as a contributor to enhanced case numbers, and unusual precipitation patterns were held responsible; temperature was rarely, if ever, considered. In this study, a dynamical malaria model was driven with available precipitation and temperature data from the period for five stations located across a range of environments in Uganda. In line with the historical data, the simulations produced relatively enhanced transmission in the 1930s, although there is considerable variability between locations. In all locations, malaria transmission was low in the late 1940s and early 1950s, steeply increasing after 1954. Results indicate that past climate variability explains some of the variations in numbers of reported malaria cases. The impact of multiannual variability in temperature, while only on the order of 0.5°C, was sufficient to drive some of the trends observed in the statistics and thus the role of climate was likely underestimated in the contemporary reports. As the elimination campaigns of the 1960s followed this partly climate-driven increase in malaria, this emphasises the need to account for climate when planning and evaluating intervention strategies.

  3. To what extent does climate explain variations in reported malaria cases in early 20th century Uganda?

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    Adrian M. Tompkins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria case statistics were analysed for the period 1926 to 1960 to identify inter-annual variations in malaria cases for the Uganda Protectorate. The analysis shows the mid-to-late 1930s to be a period of increased reported cases. After World War II, malaria cases trend down to a relative minimum in the early 1950s, before increasing rapidly after 1953 to the end of the decade. Data for the Western Province confirm these national trends, which at the time were attributed to a wide range of causes, including land development and management schemes, population mobility, interventions and misdiagnosis. Climate was occasionally proposed as a contributor to enhanced case numbers, and unusual precipitation patterns were held responsible; temperature was rarely, if ever, considered. In this study, a dynamical malaria model was driven with available precipitation and temperature data from the period for five stations located across a range of environments in Uganda. In line with the historical data, the simulations produced relatively enhanced transmission in the 1930s, although there is considerable variability between locations. In all locations, malaria transmission was low in the late 1940s and early 1950s, steeply increasing after 1954. Results indicate that past climate variability explains some of the variations in numbers of reported malaria cases. The impact of multiannual variability in temperature, while only on the order of 0.5°C, was sufficient to drive some of the trends observed in the statistics and thus the role of climate was likely underestimated in the contemporary reports. As the elimination campaigns of the 1960s followed this partly climate-driven increase in malaria, this emphasises the need to account for climate when planning and evaluating intervention strategies.

  4. Recrudescence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria contracted in Lombok, Indonesia after quinine/doxycycline and mefloquine: case report.

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    Tish, K N; Pillans, P I

    1997-07-11

    A patient is reported who contracted Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Lombok, Indonesia. The infection recrudesced after quinine/doxycycline and mefloquine. Treatment with halofantrine was successful after he developed cerebral malaria with recovery.

  5. Malaria Laboratory Diagnostic Performance: Case studies of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria Laboratory Diagnostic Performance: Case studies of two ... laboratory for malaria test. ... affected by high humidity and provide no quantification of parasite density (World Health ... Zomba District Health Office reports not less than 250.

  6. Malária grave importada: relato de caso Severe imported malaria: case report

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    Alessandra Alves

    2007-06-01

    intensivo rápidos, pois o atraso aumenta a morbimortalidade do paciente.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Malaria is still considered a major global health problem. The severity form of the disease is caused, mainly by P. falciparum and may occur together with cerebral, kidney, pulmonary, hematologic, circulatory and hepatic complications. This report is about a patient with a case of severe imported malaria. CASE REPORT: A 30-years-old man, mulatto, Philippine, sailor, coming from a ship arriving from Nigeria, with a history of abdominal pain on the right hypochondrium, jaundice, fever, decreased in the consciousness. Lab tests made upon his admission showed hyperbilirubinemia at a level of 50 mg/dL, severe metabolic acidosis, thrombocytopenia, creatinine levels of 5.6 mg/dL and leukocytosis with deviation through metamyelocytes. The APACHE II score was 37, with death estimated risk of 88%. During his stay at the hospital, P. Falciparum Malaria was diagnosed through the thick drop test. And, even with the adequate anti-malaria therapy, the patient’s condition evolved to an acute renal failure requiring hemodialis; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; septic shock, and hematological disorders, forming a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS. After being discharged from the hospital, the patient did not present any cerebral, pulmonary or kidney sequel. CONCLUSIONS: From the criteria described in medical literature to define critical malaria, the patient fulfilled the following: acute renal failure, ARDS, metabolic acidosis, altered level of consciousness, macroscopic hemoglobinuria, hyperparasitism and hyperbilirubinemia, related to a lethality rate of over 10%, depending on early treatment and available resources. Severe malaria requires fast diagnosis allied to a quick access to an intensive care treatment, since any delay increases the morbid-mortality of the disease.

  7. Congenital malaria with atypical presentation: A case report from low transmission area in India

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    Biswas Sukla

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria during first few months of life may be due to transplacental transfer of parasitized maternal erythrocytes. Although IgG and IgM antimalarial antibodies can be detected in maternal blood, only IgG antibodies are present in the infant's blood. These antibodies can delay and modify the onset of clinical manifestations. Case Presentation An infant is described who presented with irritability and feeding problems. Clinical examination and investigations revealed that the infant was afebrile, had jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and haemolytic anaemia. Peripheral smear demonstrated Plasmodium vivax. While the mother had significant levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG, the infant was found negative for IgG and had low immunoglobulin M (IgM levels. The mother had a history of febrile illness during pregnancy and her peripheral smear was also positive for P. vivax. Both were successfully treated with chloroquine in the dose of 25 mg/kg/day over three days. Conclusion The case emphasizes the importance of considering the diagnosis of malaria even in infants in low transmission area, who may not present with typical symptoms of malaria, such as fever, but have other clinical manifestations like jaundice and haemolytic anaemia.

  8. The challenge of diagnosing Plasmodium ovale malaria in travellers: report of six clustered cases in french soldiers returning from West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Plasmodium ovale is responsible for 5% of imported malaria in French travellers. The clinical and biological features of six clustered cases of P. ovale malaria in an army unit of 62 French soldiers returning from the Ivory Coast are reported. Case report All patients were symptomatic and developed symptoms on average 50 days after their return and 20 days after the end of chemoprophylaxis (doxycycline). Clinical features included fever (6/6), mostly tertian (4/6), aches (...

  9. Post-treatment haemolysis in severe imported malaria after intravenous artesunate: case report of three patients with hyperparasitaemia

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    Rolling Thierry

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parenteral artesunate has been shown to be a superior treatment option compared to parenteral quinine in adults and children with severe malaria. Little evidence, however, is available on long-term safety. Recently, cases of late-onset haemolysis after parenteral treatment with artesunate have been reported in European travellers with imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Therefore, an extended follow-up of adult patients treated for severe imported malaria was started in August 2011 at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. Until January 2012, three patients with hyperparasitaemia (range: 14-21% were included for analysis. In all three patients, delayed haemolysis was detected in the second week after the first dose of intravenous artesunate. Reticulocyte production index remained inadequately low in the 7 – 14 days following the first dose of artesunate despite rapid parasite clearance. Post-treatment haemolysis after parenteral artesunate may be of clinical relevance in particular in imported severe malaria characterized by high parasite levels. Extended follow-up of at least 30 days including controls of haematological parameters after artesunate treatment seems to be indicated. Further investigations are needed to assess frequency and pathophysiological background of this complication.

  10. The dangers of accepting a single diagnosis: case report of concurrent Plasmodium knowlesi malaria and dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Soon Eu; Mohamad Zaini, Rhendra Hardy; Suraiya, Siti; Lee, Kok Tong; Lim, Jo Anne

    2017-01-03

    Dengue and malaria are two common, mosquito-borne infections, which may lead to mortality if not managed properly. Concurrent infections of dengue and malaria are rare due to the different habitats of its vectors and activities of different carrier mosquitoes. The first case reported was in 2005. Since then, several concurrent infections have been reported between the dengue virus (DENV) and the malaria protozoans, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Symptoms of each infection may be masked by a simultaneous second infection, resulting in late treatment and severe complications. Plasmodium knowlesi is also a common cause of malaria in Malaysia with one of the highest rates of mortality. This report is one of the earliest in literature of concomitant infection between DENV and P. knowlesi in which a delay in diagnosis had placed a patient in a life-threatening situation. A 59-year old man staying near the Belum-Temengor rainforest at the Malaysia-Thailand border was admitted with fever for 6 days, with respiratory distress. His non-structural protein 1 antigen and Anti-DENV Immunoglobulin M tests were positive. He was treated for severe dengue with compensated shock. Treating the dengue had so distracted the clinicians that a blood film for the malaria parasite was not done. Despite aggressive supportive treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU), the patient had unresolved acidosis as well as multi-organ failure involving respiratory, renal, liver, and haematological systems. It was due to the presentation of shivering in the ICU, that a blood film was done on the second day that revealed the presence of P. knowlesi with a parasite count of 520,000/μL. The patient was subsequently treated with artesunate-doxycycline and made a good recovery after nine days in ICU. This case contributes to the body of literature on co-infection between DENV and P. knowlesi and highlights the clinical consequences, which can be severe. Awareness should be raised among

  11. A case of cerebral malaria and dengue concurrent infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anwar Alam; Md Dm

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral malaria and dengue are the common infections which cause higher mortality and morbidities in every part of the world especially in India. Concurrent infection of cerebral malaria and dengue is rare entity due to different habitat of vectors and it was reported rarely from Southeast Asia. In this case report, the authors reported a case of concurrent cerebral malaria and dengue which was recovered after eight days of admission with increase in morbidity.

  12. First imported Plasmodium ovale malaria in Central America: case report of a Guatemalan soldier and a call to improve its accurate diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, María Eugenia; Díaz, Sheilee; Parsons, Emily; Peruski, Leonard F; Enríquez, Fabiola; Ramírez, Juan Luis; Padilla, Norma

    2015-01-01

    The Mesoamerican Ministers of Health have set 2020 as the target for malaria elimination to be achieved in the region. Imported malaria cases are a potential threat to countries attempting elimination or working to prevent resurgence. We report the first imported Plasmodium ovale infection with molecular confirmation in Central America, which occurred in a Guatemalan soldier that had been deployed in Africa. The obstacles for its diagnosis using the standard microscopy technique and the need to improve its detection are discussed.

  13. Fatal complications of Plasmodium vivax malaria: A series of three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sundriyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax malaria once thought to be benign, is now being seen increasingly as complicated disease in various manifestations. These complications include cerebral malaria, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute pancreatitis, hepatic dysfunction, coagulopathy-associated hemorrhages, and others. Even if at the onset, disease appears benign, clinicians should be careful to watch for the complications and timely management.

  14. A case report of transfusion-transmitted Plasmodium malariae from an asymptomatic non-immune traveller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.E. Brouwer (Emmaline E); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); E. Slot (Ed); L. van Lieshout (Lisette); L.G. Visser; P.J. Wismans (Pieter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria is very low in non-endemic countries due to strict donor selection. The optimal strategy to mitigate the risk of transfusion-transmitted malaria in non-endemic countries without unnecessary exclusion of blood donations is, howe

  15. [Recurrent psychiatric manifestations during malaria prevention with mefloquine. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodor, F; Bianchi, G; Grignon, S; Samuelian, J C; Jouglard, J

    1990-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 22 years old woman without psychiatric antecedent who started a prophylaxis with mefloquine for a journey in a chloroquino resistant area. The first tablet induced an acute psychiatric syndrome which lasted five days; the second tablet induced the recidive of the psychiatric data and a suicide attempt by drowning.

  16. Transfusion-transmitted severe Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in a splenectomized patient with beta-thalassaemia major in Sabah, Malaysia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Elspeth M; Parameswaran, Uma; William, Timothy; Khoo, Tien Meng; Grigg, Matthew J; Aziz, Ammar; Marfurt, Jutta; Yeo, Tsin W; Auburn, Sarah; Anstey, Nicholas M; Barber, Bridget E

    2016-07-12

    Transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) is a well-recognized risk of receiving blood transfusions, and has occurred with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium malariae. The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is also known to be transmissible through inoculation of infected blood, and this species is now the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia with a high rate of severity and fatal cases reported. No confirmed case of accidental transfusion-transmitted P. knowlesi has yet been reported. A 23-year old splenectomized patient with beta thalassaemia major presented with fever 11 days after receiving a blood transfusion from a pre-symptomatic donor who presented with knowlesi malaria 12 days following blood donation. The infection resulted in severe disease in the recipient, with a parasite count of 84,000/µL and associated metabolic acidosis and multi-organ failure. She was treated with intravenous artesunate and made a good recovery. Sequencing of a highly diverse 649-base pair fragment of the P. knowlesi bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene (pkdhfr) revealed that the recipient and donor shared the same haplotype. This case demonstrates that acquisition of P. knowlesi from blood transfusion can occur, and that clinical consequences can be severe. Furthermore, this case raises the possibility that thalassaemic patients, particularly those who are splenectomized, may represent a high-risk group for TTM and severe malaria. With rising P. knowlesi incidence, further studies in Sabah are required to determine the risk of TTM in order to guide screening strategies for blood transfusion services.

  17. Deployment and use of mobile phone technology for real-time reporting of fever cases and malaria treatment failure in areas of declining malaria transmission in Muheza district north-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Filbert; Ishengoma, Deus S; Mmbando, Bruno P; Rutta, Acleus S M; Malecela, Mwelecele N; Mayala, Benjamin; Lemnge, Martha M; Michael, Edwin

    2017-08-01

    Early detection of febrile illnesses at community level is essential for improved malaria case management and control. Currently, mobile phone-based technology has been commonly used to collect and transfer health information and services in different settings. This study assessed the applicability of mobile phone-based technology in real-time reporting of fever cases and management of malaria by village health workers (VHWs) in north-eastern Tanzania. The community mobile phone-based disease surveillance and treatment for malaria (ComDSTM) platform, combined with mobile phones and web applications, was developed and implemented in three villages and one dispensary in Muheza district from November 2013 to October 2014. A baseline census was conducted in May 2013. The data were uploaded on a web-based database and updated during follow-up home visits by VHWs. Active and passive case detection (ACD, PCD) of febrile cases were done by VHWs and cases found positive by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) were given the first dose of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) at the dispensary. Each patient was visited at home by VHWs daily for the first 3 days to supervise intake of anti-malarial and on day 7 to monitor the recovery process. The data were captured and transmitted to the database using mobile phones. The baseline population in the three villages was 2934 in 678 households. A total of 1907 febrile cases were recorded by VHWs and 1828 (95.9%) were captured using mobile phones. At the dispensary, 1778 (93.2%) febrile cases were registered and of these, 84.2% were captured through PCD. Positivity rates were 48.2 and 45.8% by RDT and microscopy, respectively. Nine cases had treatment failure reported on day 7 post-treatment and adherence to treatment was 98%. One patient with severe febrile illness was referred to Muheza district hospital. The study showed that mobile phone-based technology can be successfully used by VHWs in surveillance and timely reporting of fever

  18. Sources of variability of estimates of malaria case counts, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Each January, the Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) estimates numbers of malaria infections among U.S. service members using a surveillance case definition to identify "malaria cases". These cases include individuals with a hospital discharge diagnosis of malaria and those who were reported with malaria through military notifiable event reporting systems. This report compares the MSMR surveillance case definition with other proposed case definitions to demonstrate the degree to which estimates of numbers of malaria cases are dependent upon clinical settings, data sources and case-defining rules used to produce such estimates. For example, including outpatient diagnoses as malaria cases would more than double the 2010 case count. As compared with cases defined using other proposed case definitions, many more MSMR-defined cases had records of a specific Plasmodium species, a laboratory test for malaria and recent travel to a malaria-endemic country. Interpretations of the results of MSMR reports should consider how "cases" are defined.

  19. Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  20. Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  1. The challenge of diagnosing Plasmodium ovale malaria in travellers: report of six clustered cases in french soldiers returning from West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deparis Xavier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium ovale is responsible for 5% of imported malaria in French travellers. The clinical and biological features of six clustered cases of P. ovale malaria in an army unit of 62 French soldiers returning from the Ivory Coast are reported. Case report All patients were symptomatic and developed symptoms on average 50 days after their return and 20 days after the end of chemoprophylaxis (doxycycline. Clinical features included fever (6/6, mostly tertian (4/6, aches (6/6, nausea (3/6, abdominal pain (2/6, diarrhoea (2/6, or cough (2/6. Thrombocytopaenia was lower than 100,000/mm3 in half the cases only, and the haemoglobin count was normal for all patients. The diagnosis was made after at least three thick and thin blood smear searches. Parasitaemia was always lower than 0.5%. All rapid diagnostic tests were negative for HRP2 and pLDH antigens. Discussion Plasmodium ovale malaria is currently a problem to diagnose in travellers, notably in French soldiers returning from the Ivory Coast. Early attempts at diagnosis are difficult due to the lack of specific clinical features, the rarity of biological changes and the poor sensitivity of diagnostic tools to detect low parasitaemia. Thus, the diagnosis is commonly delayed or missed. Physicians should be aware of this diagnostic challenge to avoid relapses and provide prompt and adequate treatment with chloroquine and radical cure with primaquine.

  2. A case of misdiagnose of malaria infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahdavi Seif Ali; Raeesi Ahmad; Faraji Leyla; Youssefi Mohammad Reza; Rahimi Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    A case of malaria infection in a 42-year-old woman in rural area of Mahmodabad, Mazandaran Province, North Iran was reported and discussed elaborately. She was complaining about recurrent fevers, sweating, headache and myalgia in back. After her first admission to hospital due to misdiagnose she did not receive proper treatment and the patient suffered from clinical manifestations again. Eventually in the second admission to another hospital, after a precise examination on her thick and thin blood smear the agent of disease was recognized appropriately as Plasmodium vivax and treated accordingly.

  3. Malaria Cases in the U.S. Reach 40-Year High: Information and Guidance for Clinicians

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-26

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Malaria Cases in the U.S. Reach 40-Year High: Information and Guidance for Clinicians. The number of malaria cases reported in the United States in 2011 was the largest since 1971, representing a 14 percent increase from 2010 and a 48 percent increase from 2008. A CDC subject matter expert describes malaria prevention strategies aimed at reducing the risk of malaria in travelers, discusses the diagnosis of malaria in patients with suspect malaria, and explains the treatment options for confirmed malaria cases.  Created: 2/26/2014 by Center for Global Health (CGH); Malaria Branch; Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 2/26/2014.

  4. Malária grave em Palmas, Estado do Tocantins: relato de caso Severe malaria in Palmas, State of Tocantins: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éldi Vendrame Parise

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum causa a forma clínica mais grave da malária. Neste estudo, relatamos um caso de malária grave, através do acompanhamento do paciente e das anotações em prontuários médicos encontrados no Hospital Geral de Palmas. Discutimos o desfecho do caso e as complicações provocadas pela infecção, reconhecendo o risco potencial de ocorrência de malária grave em zona não endêmica, em consequência do retardo do tratamento e, a importância de intensificar medidas de vigilância que envolve todos os servidores das unidades de saúde, com ênfase para as áreas receptivas de migrantes oriundos de regiões endêmicas.Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe clinical form of malaria. In this study, we report a severe case of malaria, through following up the patient and from notes in the medical files at the Palmas General Hospital. We discuss the outcome of this case and the complications caused by this infection, recognizing the potential risk of occurrences of severe malaria in not-endemic areas because of the delay in treatment, and the importance of intensifying surveillance measures involving all health unit employees, with emphasis on the reception areas for migrants from endemic regions.

  5. Atypical aetiology of a conjugal fever: autochthonous airport malaria between Paris and French Riviera: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomares-Estran, Christelle; Delaunay, Pascal; Mottard, Annie; Cua, Eric; Roger, Pierre-Marie; Pradines, Bruno; Parzy, Daniel; Bogreau, Hervé; Rogier, Christophe; Jeannin, Charles; Karch, Saïd; Fontenille, Didier; Dejour-Salamanca, Dominique; Legros, Fabrice; Marty, Pierre

    2009-08-23

    Endemic malaria has been eradicated from France, but some falciparum malaria cases have been described in patients who have never travelled outside the country. Ms. V. 21 year-old and Mr. M. 23 year-old living together in Paris were on holiday in Saint Raphaël (French Riviera). They presented with fever, vertigo and nausea. A blood smear made to control thrombocytopaenia revealed intra-erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum. The parasitaemia level was 0.15% for Ms. V and 3.2% for Mr. M. This couple had no history of blood transfusion or intravenous drug use. They had never travelled outside metropolitan France, but had recently travelled around France: to Saint Mard (close to Paris Charles de Gaulle (CdG) airport), to Barneville plage (in Normandy) and finally to Saint Raphaël. The most probable hypothesis is an infection transmitted in Saint Mard by an imported anopheline mosquito at CdG airport. The DNA analysis of parasites from Ms. V.'s and Mr. M.'s blood revealed identical genotypes. Because it is unlikely that two different anopheline mosquitoes would be infected by exactly the same clones, the two infections must have been caused by the infective bites of the same infected mosquito.

  6. Atypical aetiology of a conjugal fever: autochthonous airport malaria between Paris and French Riviera: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontenille Didier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endemic malaria has been eradicated from France, but some falciparum malaria cases have been described in patients who have never travelled outside the country. Ms. V. 21 year-old and Mr. M. 23 year-old living together in Paris were on holiday in Saint Raphaël (French Riviera. They presented with fever, vertigo and nausea. A blood smear made to control thrombocytopaenia revealed intra-erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum. The parasitaemia level was 0.15% for Ms. V and 3.2% for Mr. M. This couple had no history of blood transfusion or intravenous drug use. They had never travelled outside metropolitan France, but had recently travelled around France: to Saint Mard (close to Paris Charles de Gaulle (CdG airport, to Barneville plage (in Normandy and finally to Saint Raphaël. The most probable hypothesis is an infection transmitted in Saint Mard by an imported anopheline mosquito at CdG airport. The DNA analysis of parasites from Ms. V.'s and Mr. M.'s blood revealed identical genotypes. Because it is unlikely that two different anopheline mosquitoes would be infected by exactly the same clones, the two infections must have been caused by the infective bites of the same infected mosquito.

  7. Deaths due to Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sabah, Malaysia: association with reporting as Plasmodium malariae and delayed parenteral artesunate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajahram Giri S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is recognized as a common cause of severe and fatal human malaria in Sabah, Malaysia, but is morphologically indistinguishable from and still commonly reported as Plasmodium malariae, despite the paucity of this species in Sabah. Since December 2008 Sabah Department of Health has recommended intravenous artesunate and referral to a general hospital for all severe malaria cases of any species. This paper reviews all malaria deaths in Sabah subsequent to the introduction of these measures. Reporting of malaria deaths in Malaysia is mandatory. Methods Details of reported malaria deaths during 2010-2011 were reviewed to determine the proportion of each Plasmodium species. Demographics, clinical presentations and management of severe malaria caused by each species were compared. Results Fourteen malaria deaths were reported, comprising seven Plasmodium falciparum, six P. knowlesi and one Plasmodium vivax (all PCR-confirmed. Of the six P. knowlesi deaths, five were attributable to knowlesi malaria and one was attributable to P. knowlesi-associated enterobacter sepsis. Patients with directly attributable P. knowlesi deaths (N = 5 were older than those with P. falciparum (median age 51 [IQR 50-65] vs 22 [IQR 9-55] years, p = 0.06. Complications in fatal P. knowlesi included respiratory distress (N = 5, 100%, hypotension (N = 4, 80%, and renal failure (N = 4, 80%. All patients with P. knowlesi were reported as P. malariae by microscopy. Only two of five patients with severe knowlesi malaria on presentation received immediate parenteral anti-malarial treatment. The patient with P. vivax-associated severe illness did not receive parenteral treatment. In contrast six of seven patients with severe falciparum malaria received immediate parenteral treatment. Conclusion Plasmodium knowlesi was responsible, either directly or through gram-negative bacteraemia, for almost half of

  8. Quality of Malaria Case Management in Malawi: Results from a Nationally Representative Health Facility Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Laura C.; Chinkhumba, Jobiba; Wolkon, Adam; Luka, Madalitso; Luhanga, Misheck; Sande, John; Oyugi, Jessica; Ali, Doreen; Mathanga, Don; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria is endemic throughout Malawi, but little is known about quality of malaria case management at publicly-funded health facilities, which are the major source of care for febrile patients. Methods In April–May 2011, we conducted a nationwide, geographically-stratified health facility survey to assess the quality of outpatient malaria diagnosis and treatment. We enrolled patients presenting for care and conducted exit interviews and re-examinations, including reference blood smears. Moreover, we assessed health worker readiness (e.g., training, supervision) and health facility capacity (e.g. availability of diagnostics and antimalarials) to provide malaria case management. All analyses accounted for clustering and unequal selection probabilities. We also used survey weights to produce estimates of national caseloads. Results At the 107 facilities surveyed, most of the 136 health workers interviewed (83%) had received training on malaria case management. However, only 24% of facilities had functional microscopy, 15% lacked a thermometer, and 19% did not have the first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), artemether-lumefantrine, in stock. Of 2,019 participating patients, 34% had clinical malaria (measured fever or self-reported history of fever plus a positive reference blood smear). Only 67% (95% confidence interval (CI): 59%, 76%) of patients with malaria were correctly prescribed an ACT, primarily due to missed malaria diagnosis. Among patients without clinical malaria, 31% (95% CI: 24%, 39%) were prescribed an ACT. By our estimates, 1.5 million of the 4.4 million malaria patients seen in public facilities annually did not receive correct treatment, and 2.7 million patients without clinical malaria were inappropriately given an ACT. Conclusions Malawi has a high burden of uncomplicated malaria but nearly one-third of all patients receive incorrect malaria treatment, including under- and over-treatment. To improve malaria case

  9. Quality of malaria case management in Malawi: results from a nationally representative health facility survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Steinhardt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria is endemic throughout Malawi, but little is known about quality of malaria case management at publicly-funded health facilities, which are the major source of care for febrile patients. METHODS: In April-May 2011, we conducted a nationwide, geographically-stratified health facility survey to assess the quality of outpatient malaria diagnosis and treatment. We enrolled patients presenting for care and conducted exit interviews and re-examinations, including reference blood smears. Moreover, we assessed health worker readiness (e.g., training, supervision and health facility capacity (e.g. availability of diagnostics and antimalarials to provide malaria case management. All analyses accounted for clustering and unequal selection probabilities. We also used survey weights to produce estimates of national caseloads. RESULTS: At the 107 facilities surveyed, most of the 136 health workers interviewed (83% had received training on malaria case management. However, only 24% of facilities had functional microscopy, 15% lacked a thermometer, and 19% did not have the first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, artemether-lumefantrine, in stock. Of 2,019 participating patients, 34% had clinical malaria (measured fever or self-reported history of fever plus a positive reference blood smear. Only 67% (95% confidence interval (CI: 59%, 76% of patients with malaria were correctly prescribed an ACT, primarily due to missed malaria diagnosis. Among patients without clinical malaria, 31% (95% CI: 24%, 39% were prescribed an ACT. By our estimates, 1.5 million of the 4.4 million malaria patients seen in public facilities annually did not receive correct treatment, and 2.7 million patients without clinical malaria were inappropriately given an ACT. CONCLUSIONS: Malawi has a high burden of uncomplicated malaria but nearly one-third of all patients receive incorrect malaria treatment, including under- and over-treatment. To improve

  10. The importance of accuracy in diagnosis of positive malaria cases in a country progressing towards malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumadhya Deepika Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With Sri Lanka aiming towards malaria elimination by 2015, the National Anti Malaria Campaign has stressed on the importance of identification of the species of Plasmodium either by examination of stained blood smears for malaria parasites or by Rapid Diagnostic Tests for malaria antigens before the initiation of treatment. This study aims at confirmation of the accuracy of clinical and/or microscopical malaria diagnosis using serology. Materials and Methods: Study population comprised 51 individuals diagnosed with malaria either microscopically or clinically during the first half of 2011. ELISA for detection of the two significant blood antigens (AMA-1 and MSP1-19 was carried out in these individuals, 14-28 days after being diagnosed as being positive for malaria microscopically. Results: ELISA confirmed the microscopic diagnosis in all 47 of the patients including two mixed infections which flagged positive for both parasite antigens. However, four individuals diagnosed clinically as being positive for P. vivax by Health Care Providers were negative for malaria antibodies by ELISA. Conclusions: With 175 cases of malaria reported in 2011, a formidable challenge exists to diagnose malaria positive blood smears due to the large number of negative blood smears being seen daily. After routine cross checking of positive slides, it is heartening to note that there were no false positives detected through serological assays amongst patients who were diagnosed as malaria positive by microscopy. Presumptive treatment of febrile patients with anti-malarials can lead to waste of resources and adversely impact the condition of the patient if the fever is not due to malaria.

  11. 山东省2例输入性卵形疟病例报告%Two cases report of the imported ovale malaria in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖婷; 于振华; 李继民; 李登俊; 马巧荣; 付婷霞; 魏庆宽; 魏艳彬; 刘凡; 李瑾; 黄炳成; 王用斌; 张本光; 尹昆; 孔庆安

    2012-01-01

    本文报告了2例国外输入卵形疟病例.两患者均为非洲几内亚务工返乡人员,回国后数月因发热、乏力而就医.入院血膜镜检见多期卵形疟疟原虫,环状体较粗大,大滋养体期、配子体期颗粒较粗;受染红细胞明显变形,呈多种不规则形状,具备卵形疟原虫特点.PCR基因产物约800 bp,与卵形疟相符.对两患者应用蒿甲醚肌注和伯氨喹口服规范治疗,分别于7d、10 d痊愈出院.%This paper reported two ovale malaria cases who were imported from abroad. They both had worked in E-quatorial Guinea, and they had received our medical treatment due to the fatigued fever after they returned to China few months later. Many stages of ovale malaria protozoa, thick ring forms, thick granulas in big trophozoite stage and game-tophyte stage were found in blood test. The infected RBC were obviously disfigured, showed irregular shape, and the PCR results of gene diagnosis in two cases were 800 bp fragment size, all being ovals malaria characteristics. The patients received standard treatment with artemetheri intramuscularly and Primaquine orally, and finally they both were cured and discharged after seven and ten days respectively.

  12. From "forest malaria" to "bromeliad malaria": a case-study of scientific controversy and malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, P

    1994-08-01

    The article analyses the evolution of knowledge and rationale of control of a special case of malaria transmission based on Bromelia-Kerteszia complex. Since bromeliaceae function as a 'host of the carrier' and were previously associated with natural forests, the elucidation of bromeliad malaria historically elicited controversies concerning the imputation of Kertesziae as transmitters as well as over control strategies directed to bromelia eradication (manual removal, herbicides and deforestation), use of insecticides and chemoprophylaxis. Established authority, disciplinary traditions, conceptual premises and contemporary criteria for validating knowledge in the field partly explain the long time gap since Adolpho Lutz announced at the beginning of the century the existence of a new mosquito and breeding site as responsible for a 'forest malaria' epidemic occurring at a high altitude. The article brings attention to how economic, political and institutional determinants played an important role in redefining studies that led both in Trinidad and Brazil to the recognition of the importance of kerteszia transmission, including urban areas, and establishing new approaches to its study, most relevant of all the concurrence of broad ecological research. The article then describes the Brazilian campaign strategies which showed significant short-term results but had to wait four decades to achieve the goal of eradication due to the peculiar characteristics of this pathogenic complex. Finally, it brings attention to the importance of encompassing social values and discourses, in this case, environmental preservation, to understanding historical trends of malaria control programs.

  13. Malaria Prevention and Treatment Using Educational Animations: A Case Study in Kakamega County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Bravo, Julia; Namatsi Lutomia, Anne; Madela, Lawrence Mbhekiseni; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert

    2017-01-01

    Despite worldwide efforts to prevent malaria, the disease continues to take its strongest toll in sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya is no exception, with millions of cases and thousands of deaths reported annually. This pilot study looks at knowledge on malaria prevention and treatment among peri-urban communities in Western Kenya. Through a study on the…

  14. Report on diagnosis, treatment and management of an imported falciparum malaria case in Xinjiang%新疆一例输入性恶性疟病例的诊治与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冰; 王晓蓉; 包拉提别克·斯兰木; 陈访贤; 李玉革

    2013-01-01

    Objective To report the diagnosis,treatment and epidemiological analysis of one case of imported falciparum malaria in Xinjiang,to provide reference of monitoring and control for the imported falciparum malaria in Xinjiang region.Methods One case of imported falciparum malaria at Xinjiang International Travel Healthcare Center was diagnosed through clinical and laboratory testing.The patient was timely treated with artesunate 600 mg five days' therapy and follow-up observed.Results The Equatorial Guinea migrant returnee who appeared the typical malaria symptoms after returning 18 days later.The patient was diagnosed with blood smear detection of Plasmodium falciparum and treated with five days of anti-malarial therapy by oral artesunate upon the confirmed diagnosis.Medical observation and propaganda of prevention on malaria were complemented to the patient and his close contacts.Conclusion Propaganda of anti-malaria knowledge to the persons who are going to malaria-endemic nationas and malaria detection on the returned laborers should be strengthened,so that the malaria infected patients can receive standard treatment timely to avoid the spread of malaria.%目的 对新疆一例输入性恶性疟疾进行诊治及流行病学分析,为新疆输入性疟疾的监测和防治提供参考.方法 对新疆国际旅行卫生保健中心收治的一例输入性恶性疟病例进行诊治及流行病学分析,通过临床、实验室检测明确诊断,及时采用青蒿琥酯600 mg 5日疗法进行治疗并追踪观察.对患者及密切接触者进行疟疾防治知识宣传及医学观察.结果 该病例为赤道几内亚务工归国人员,返回后18d出现典型疟疾发作症状,血涂片检出恶性疟原虫.经用口服青蒿琥酯进行5d抗疟而治愈.结论 应加强赴疟疾流行国家的人员防疟知识的宣传及归国劳务人员的疟疾检测,使患者得到规范治疗,避免疟疾的传播.

  15. Clinical malaria case definition and malaria attributable fraction in the highlands of western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrane, Yaw A; Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2014-10-15

    In African highland areas where endemicity of malaria varies greatly according to altitude and topography, parasitaemia accompanied by fever may not be sufficient to define an episode of clinical malaria in endemic areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of malaria interventions, age-specific case definitions of clinical malaria needs to be determined. Cases of clinical malaria through active case surveillance were quantified in a highland area in Kenya and defined clinical malaria for different age groups. A cohort of over 1,800 participants from all age groups was selected randomly from over 350 houses in 10 villages stratified by topography and followed for two-and-a-half years. Participants were visited every two weeks and screened for clinical malaria, defined as an individual with malaria-related symptoms (fever [axillary temperature≥37.5°C], chills, severe malaise, headache or vomiting) at the time of examination or 1-2 days prior to the examination in the presence of a Plasmodium falciparum positive blood smear. Individuals in the same cohort were screened for asymptomatic malaria infection during the low and high malaria transmission seasons. Parasite densities and temperature were used to define clinical malaria by age in the population. The proportion of fevers attributable to malaria was calculated using logistic regression models. Incidence of clinical malaria was highest in valley bottom population (5.0% cases per 1,000 population per year) compared to mid-hill (2.2% cases per 1,000 population per year) and up-hill (1.1% cases per 1,000 population per year) populations. The optimum cut-off parasite densities through the determination of the sensitivity and specificity showed that in children less than five years of age, 500 parasites per μl of blood could be used to define the malaria attributable fever cases for this age group. In children between the ages of 5-14, a parasite density of 1,000 parasites per μl of blood could be used to define the

  16. Case Report Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... at the time of diagnosis try various complementary and and palliation. ... c Medicine and Palliative Cancer Care: A Case Report ... us complementary and alternative therapies for treatment about the .... in nature. Upper GI ...

  17. Acceptability by community health workers in Senegal of combining community case management of malaria and seasonal malaria chemoprevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tine, Roger Ck; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndour, Cheikh T;

    2013-01-01

    Community case management of malaria (CCMm) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) are anti-malarial interventions that can lead to substantial reduction in malaria burden acting in synergy. However, little is known about the social acceptability of these interventions. A study was undertaken...... to assess whether combining the interventions would be an acceptable approach to malaria control for community health workers (CHWs).......Community case management of malaria (CCMm) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) are anti-malarial interventions that can lead to substantial reduction in malaria burden acting in synergy. However, little is known about the social acceptability of these interventions. A study was undertaken...

  18. Characterizing the malaria rural-to-urban transmission interface: The importance of reactive case detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Gómez, Karen; Caicedo, M Alejandra; Gaitán, Alexandra; Herrera-Varela, Manuela; Arce, María Isabel; Vallejo, Andrés F; Padilla, Julio; Chaparro, Pablo; Pacheco, M Andreína; Escalante, Ananias A; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2017-07-01

    Reported urban malaria cases are increasing in Latin America, however, evidence of such trend remains insufficient. Here, we propose an integrated approach that allows characterizing malaria transmission at the rural-to-urban interface by combining epidemiological, entomological, and parasite genotyping methods. A descriptive study that combines active (ACD), passive (PCD), and reactive (RCD) case detection was performed in urban and peri-urban neighborhoods of Quibdó, Colombia. Heads of households were interviewed and epidemiological surveys were conducted to assess malaria prevalence and identify potential risk factors. Sixteen primary cases, eight by ACD and eight by PCD were recruited for RCD. Using the RCD strategy, prevalence of 1% by microscopy (6/604) and 9% by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (52/604) were found. A total of 73 houses and 289 volunteers were screened leading to 41 secondary cases, all of them in peri-urban settings (14% prevalence). Most secondary cases were genetically distinct from primary cases indicating that there were independent occurrences. Plasmodium vivax was the predominant species (76.3%, 71/93), most of them being asymptomatic (46/71). Urban and peri-urban neighborhoods had significant sociodemographic differences. Twenty-four potential breeding sites were identified, all in peri-urban areas. The predominant vectors for 1,305 adults were Anopheles nuneztovari (56,2%) and An. Darlingi (42,5%). One An. nuneztovari specimen was confirmed naturally infected with P. falciparum by ELISA. This study found no evidence supporting the existence of urban malaria transmission in Quibdó. RCD strategy was more efficient for identifying malaria cases than ACD alone in areas where malaria transmission is variable and unstable. Incorporating parasite genotyping allows discovering hidden patterns of malaria transmission that cannot be detected otherwise. We propose to use the term "focal case" for those primary cases that lead to

  19. The increasing importance of Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae in a malaria elimination setting: an observational study of imported cases in Jiangsu Province, China, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Weiming; Liu, Yaobao; Cotter, Chris; Zhou, Huayun; Zhu, Guoding; Tang, Jianxia; Tang, Feng; Lu, Feng; Xu, Sui; Gu, Yaping; Zhang, Chao; Li, Julin; Cao, Jun

    2016-09-07

    Following initiation of China's National Malaria Elimination Action Plan in 2010, indigenous malaria infections in Jiangsu Province decreased significantly. Meanwhile imported Plasmodium infections have increased substantially, particularly Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae. Given the risk for malaria resurgence, there is an urgent need to understand the increase in imported P. ovale and P. malariae infections as China works to achieve national malaria elimination. An observational study of imported malaria cases in Jiangsu Province, China was carried out for the period of 2011-2014. A total of 1268 malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2014. Although imported Plasmodium falciparum cases (n = 1058) accounted for 83.4 % of all reported cases in Jiangsu, P. ovale cases (14, 19, 30, and 46) and their proportion (3.7, 9.6, 8.8, and 13.0 %) of all malaria cases increased over the 4 years. Similarly, P. malariae cases (seven, two, nine, and 10) and proportion (1.9, 1.0, 2.6, and 2.8 %) of all malaria cases increased slightly during this time. A total of 98 cases of Plasmodium ovale curtisi (47/98, 48 %) and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri (51/98, 52 %) were identified as well. Latency periods were significant among these Plasmodium infections (p = 0.00). Also, this study found that the latency periods of P. ovale sp., P. malariae and Plasmodium vivax were significantly longer than P. falciparum. However, for both P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri infections, the latency period analysis was not significant (p = 0.81). Misdiagnosis of both P. ovale and P. malariae was greater than 71.5 and 71.4 %, respectively. The P. ovale cases were misdiagnosed as P. falciparum (35 cases, 32.1 %), P. vivax (43 cases, 39.4 %) by lower levels of CDCs or hospitals. And, the P. malariae cases were misdiagnosed as P. falciparum (ten cases, 35.7 %), P. vivax (nine cases, 32.1 %) and P. ovale sp. (one case, 3.6 %). Geographic distribution of

  20. [Diagnosis and treatment for three imported Plasmodium malariae malaria cases in Henan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Zhou, Rui-Min; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Qian, Dan; Liu, Ying; Chen, Wei-Qi; Zhao, Xu-Dong

    2014-02-01

    Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy, CareStart rapid detection and PCR were used to detect the three cases who returned from Angola and Equatorial Guinea to Henan Province. Onset of malaria symptoms for two patients occurred 15 d and 27 d after their return from Angola, respectively. Two months after returning home, another case relapsed who had suffered from malaria in Equatorial Guinea. All three patients had the symptoms such as irregular fever, headache, chills and so on. Two cases had elevated total bilirubin and splenomegaly. The cases were confirmed as P. malariae infection by microscopic morphological examination. Amplified bands were produced by 18S rRNA nested PCR, which was the same with P. malariae in size, whereas the results of CareStart repaid detection test were all negative. They were cured by using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT).

  1. Climate variability as a threat for countries progressing towards malaria elimination: The case study of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousam, Aneela; Maggioni, Viviana; Quispe, Antonio; Aquila, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Malaria cases reported by the Peruvian Ministry of Health demonstrate a 61% reduction of malaria in the last decade (2001- 2010). However, during the years 2011-14 malaria increased by ~2.7 folds in Peru and ~5 folds in Loreto, an Amazonian department that continues contributing over 90% of the malaria cases in Peru. Past studies have indicated that there is a strong association between climate variability and malaria rates. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that climate variables have played a key role in the recent increase of malaria cases in Peru. Climate data, such as precipitation, temperature, humidity and surface pressure simulated by the NASA MERRA model during a 10-year ling time series (2004-2013) are used to verify this hypothesis. Preliminary data analyses show large deviations from the 10-year mean (i.e., climatological anomalies) in humidity, surface pressure, and temperature during 2010 up to four times larger than previous and subsequent years. An increase of 8% in precipitation yearly averages is observed in 2010, which also corresponds with the following reverse of the downward trend of malaria incidence, particularly in Loreto. The sudden amplification of climatological anomalies in 2010 could have set the environmental conditions that caused the re-emergence of malaria in 2011. Investigation is underway to link weekly malaria data from different districts in Peru to the climate conditions at those locations during the past ten years. This will be crucial in understanding why some countries, despite all necessary efforts, are unable to completely eliminate malaria.

  2. Trends of reporTed ouTpaTienT malaria cases To assess The TesT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    obstetric and Gynaecology, college of health sciences, university of nairobi, p.o. ... are tested, confirmed cases are treated with quality-assured drugs and timely accurate ... consumption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the ...

  3. Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartan malaria; Falciparum malaria; Biduoterian fever; Blackwater fever; Tertian malaria; Plasmodium ... now only suggested for use in areas where Plasmodium vivax , P. ... is becoming increasingly resistant to anti-malarial medications ...

  4. Active case surveillance, passive case surveillance and asymptomatic malaria parasite screening illustrate different age distribution, spatial clustering and seasonality in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guofa; Afrane, Yaw A; Malla, Sameer; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-01-28

    Epidemiological characteristics of clinical malaria may differ from asymptomatic infections, thus both cross-sectional parasite screening and longitudinal clinical case surveillance are necessary for malaria transmission monitoring and control. In order to monitor malaria transmission, surveillance of clinical malaria from two years of active case surveillance in three cohorts of 6,750 individuals, asymptomatic parasitaemia cases of 5,300 individuals and clinical cases in three study areas were carried out in the western Kenyan highlands in 2009 and 2010. Age distribution, seasonality and spatial clustering were analysed. The results revealed a significant difference in the age distribution of clinical cases between passive and active case surveillance, and between clinical case rate and asymptomatic parasite rate. The number of reported cases from health facilities significantly underestimated clinical malaria incidence. The increase in asymptomatic parasite prevalence from low to high transmission seasons was significantly higher for infants (malaria cases emerged in the uphill areas during the peak season. Different surveillance methods revealed different characteristics of malaria infections. The new transmission hotspots identified during the peak season with only active case surveillance is an important observation with clear implications in the context of malaria elimination. Both mass parasite screening and active case surveillance are essential for malaria transmission monitoring and control.

  5. [Malaria. Analysis of 149 cases (1981-1987)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parellada, N; Caylà, J A; Batalla, J; Plasencia, J A

    1990-01-01

    The epidemiological features of the 149 cases of malaria reported to the Institut Municipal de la Salut in Barcelona from 1981 to 1987 are reported. The yearly evolution of the number of cases showed a tendency to increase predominating in the summer months. The incidence rate for 1977 was 1.99/100,000. The districts with the highest rate of involvement were districts I (Ciutat Vella), owing to the immigration, and V (Sarrià-Sant Gervasi), probably owing to overseas visitors. There was a remarkable predominance of males (63.8%), patients aged 20-40 years, and cases of African origin (81.81%); 50.42% of these came from Equatorial Guinea. The most commonly isolated plasmodium was P. falciparum (52.53%), with a progressive increase throughout the years. Only 13.43% of patients had followed a correct chemoprophylaxis. Malaria is still the most important protozoan infection in the world. In the present study its possible reintroduction in Spain is discussed. The malarial endemic used to be very important in this country, and its eradication was not achieved until 1964.

  6. Two cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Netherlands without recent travel to a malaria-endemic country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Joop E; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Kraaij-Dirkzwager, Marleen M; Kaan, Jan A; Fanoy, Ewout B; Haas, Pieter-Jan; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Kortbeek, Laetitia M; Sankatsing, Sanjay U C

    2013-09-01

    Recently, two patients of African origin were given a diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria without recent travel to a malaria-endemic country. This observation highlights the importance for clinicians to consider tropical malaria in patients with fever. Possible transmission routes of P. falciparum to these patients will be discussed. From a public health perspective, international collaboration is crucial when potential cases of European autochthonous P. falciparum malaria in Europe re considered.

  7. 输入性恶性疟疾病例的调查报告%Survey report on imported pernicious malaria cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁少平; 龙妍娇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To strengthen observations on infectious diseases among those who come from the quarantine area, and to prevent further spreading of epidemic. Methods After phone call of health department, the epidemiological investigation was conducted to 2 suspected malaria cases accordingly. Results By clinical diagnosis, laboratory examination and epidemiological survey, 2 suspected malaria cases were identified, and control epidemic situation, sanitary treatment, public education were performed. Conclusion At present, the epidemic situation of kinds of communicable diseases transported from abroad was becoming more severe and a lot of areas are menaced by imported pernicious malaria. All medical setting and practitioners should give the priorities to infectious disease such as malaria prevention and control. All relevant departments should enhance cooperation and coordination in health education among migrant worker to increase their awareness of communicable disease prevention and to take some effective measures in this regard.%目的 加强对来自疟疾疫区的回国人员的传染病监测,防止输入性疟疾进一步扩散.方法 接卫生部门电话通报后,对2例确诊输入性恶性疟疾病例进行了流行病学调查和处置.结果 通过临床诊断、实验室检查和流行病学调查,确诊2例输入性疟疾病例,并采取疫情监控、卫生处理、宣传教育等处理措施.结论 目前,各类输入性传染病疫情越来越严重,许多地区受到输入性恶性疟疾的威胁.各级医疗单位和临床医生应提高对疟疾等传染病的认识;各相关部门协作配合,加强对出国劳务人员传染病防治知识的宣传教育,制定有效措施,以达到防止传染病传人的目的.

  8. Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and can even be fatal. SymptomsWhat are the symptoms of malaria?The symptoms of malaria include:High fever (can often be 104° F ... give someone else malaria?If I do get malaria, should I travel while I have symptoms? Other organizationsInternational Society of Travel MedicineCenters for Disease ...

  9. 恶性疟的诊断及治疗:附23例报告%Clinical Manifestation of Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria:a Report of 23 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶伟; 赵伟; 魏红霞; 成骢; 池云

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical characteristics of plasmodium falciparum malaria. Methods:The Epidemiologi cal data and clinical data of 23 patients with plasmodium falciparum malaria were retrospectively analyzed. Results: All of the patients had African inhabitation history. Most of the patients had the symptoms of irregular fever, chills, sweating, nausea, vomiting. Among them, 7 casesOO. 4%) suffered from anemia;18 cases(78. 3%) had a decline in platelet count;10 cases (43.5%) had abnormal liver function;and 2 cases(8. 7%)had abnormal renal function. All of the patients were cured after antimalarial treatment. Conclusions: All of the patients with plasmodium falciparum malaria in this study were infused cases. These patients had complicated clinical manifestation. The antimalarial drugs are effective and safe.%目的:探讨恶性疟的临床特征.方法:回顾分析23例恶性疟患者的流行病学资料及临床资料.结果:23例恶性疟患者均有非洲地区居留史,临床症状主要表现为不规则发热、畏寒、寒战、大汗、恶心、呕吐.7例(30.4%)患者有不同程度的贫血,18例(78.3%)患者有不同程度的血小板数减少,10例(43.5%)患者有不同程度的肝功能异常,2例(8.7%)患者肾功能异常.经过积极抗疟治疗后,23例患者均获痊愈.结论:本组恶性疟病例均为输入性疟疾,临床表现多样,并发症多,抗疟治疗安全有效、预后好.

  10. Incidence, management, and reporting of severe and fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria in secondary and tertiary health facilities of Alipurduar, India in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Jagannath; Shah, Naman K; Murhekar, Manoj V

    2012-09-01

    The proportion of malaria cases that are complicated and fatal are not well described in India. Alipurduar sub-division of Jalpaiguri district in West Bengal is highly endemic for malaria. We constructed a retrospective cohort of severe malaria patients admitted in the secondary and tertiary care facilities in Alipurduar to determine the incidence, assess the management, and evaluate the reporting of severe and fatal malaria. We reviewed routine surveillance data and the case records of all the malaria patients admitted in all secondary and tertiary care facilities, both public and private. We defined severe malaria cases as Plasmodium falciparum infection with clinical signs and symptoms of organ involvement in a resident of Alipurduar admitted during January to December 2009. We compared clinical and demographic characteristics of severe malaria cases that died with those who survived. We also reviewed human resources and laboratory facilities available for the treatment of severe malaria in these health facilities. During 2009, 6191 cases of P. falciparum in Alipurduar were reported to the malaria surveillance system. We identified 336 (5.4%) cases of severe malaria among which 33 (9.8%) patients died. Four malaria deaths were also recorded from primary health centres. Only 17 of the 37 (46%) total deaths recorded were reported to the routine surveillance system. Most severe cases were males (65%), aged >15 years (72%), and nearly half were admitted to secondary care hospitals (48%). In multivariate analysis, the risk factors associated with death included increased delay fever onset and hospitalization, treatment in a secondary level hospital, younger age, and multi-organ involvement. The secondary level public hospital had too few physicians and nurses for supporting severe malaria patients as well as inadequate laboratory facilities for monitoring such patients. Severe and fatal malaria continue to burden Alipurduar and record keeping in health facilities was

  11. The central role of national programme management for the achievement of malaria elimination: a cross case-study analysis of nine malaria programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Gueye, Cara; Newby, Gretchen; Tulloch, Jim; Slutsker, Laurence; Tanner, Marcel; Gosling, Roland D

    2016-09-22

    A malaria eradication goal has been proposed, at the same time as a new global strategy and implementation framework. Countries are considering the strategies and tools that will enable progress towards malaria goals. The eliminating malaria case-study series reports were reviewed to identify successful programme management components using a cross-case study analytic approach. Nine out of ten case-study reports were included in the analysis (Bhutan, Cape Verde, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Turkmenistan). A conceptual framework for malaria elimination programme management was developed and data were extracted and synthesized. Findings were reviewed at a consultative workshop, which led to a revision of the framework and further data extraction and synthesis. Success factors of implementation, programme choices and changes, and enabling factors were distilled. Decentralized programmes enhanced engagement in malaria elimination by sub-national units and communities. Integration of the malaria programme into other health services was also common. Decentralization and integration were often challenging due to the skill and experience levels of newly tasked staff. Accountability for programme impact was not clarified for most programmes. Motivation of work force was a key factor in maintaining programme quality but there were few clear, detailed strategies provided. Different incentive schemes targeted various stakeholders. Training and supervision, although not well described, were prioritized by most programmes. Multi-sectoral collaboration helped some programmes share information, build strategies and interventions and achieve a higher quality of implementation. In most cases programme action was spurred by malaria outbreaks or a new elimination goal with strong leadership. Some programmes showed high capacity for flexibility through introduction of new strategies and tools. Several case-studies described methods for monitoring

  12. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Primary omental torsion in children: case report ... Primary omental torsion is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain, we report a case of 10-year-old boy admitted with ... Pan African Medical Journal. ... nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may occur.

  13. Malaria Treatment Policy Change and Implementation: The Case of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Nanyunja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  14. Malaria treatment policy change and implementation: the case of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, Miriam; Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Kato, Frederick; Kaggwa, Mugagga; Katureebe, Charles; Saweka, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ) was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  15. Postpartal endomyometritis in a case of unknown tertian malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, A; Bogner, G; Hasenöhrl, G

    1997-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman developed puerperal endomyometritis and tertian malaria simultaneously. She delivered her child by vacuum extraction during week 41 of pregnancy in September 1994. The peripartal period was uneventful. Nine days post partum the patient was readmitted to hospital with fever and pain in the area of the episiotomy. On day 13 post partum a hysterectomy was performed because of suspected abscess-forming endomyometritis. Two days after the hysterectomy the patient developed septic temperatures, which persisted for 10 days. Tertian malaria due to Plasmodium vivax was found to be the cause of fever. The patient had been in Indonesia without anti-malarial prophylaxis in 1991. Two years later she travelled to Ghana, having taken mefloquine as prophylaxis. Malaria was obviously caused by reactivated hypnozoites in the liver, although the patient had never had an episode of fever associated with malaria before. This case proves that tertian malaria may "recur" even without previous manifestation, years after a stay in a region endemic for malaria.

  16. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in HIV-infected patients: report of 2 cases. Julius Chacha ... affected adults are women, and direct causes or predisposing risk factors can be .... Some studies have reported a high prevalence of antibodies.

  17. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-05

    May 5, 2017 ... Chondroblastic osteosarcoma of the distal tibia: a rare case report ... 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Hospital, Monastir, Tunisia .... number of published reports describe pulmonary tumour metastasis.

  18. A retrospective evaluation of the quality of malaria case management at twelve health facilities in four districts in Zambia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pascalina Chanda-Kapata; Emmanuel Chanda; Freddie Masaninga; Annette Habluetzel; Felix Masiye; Ibrahima Soce Fall

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To establish the appropriateness of malaria case management at health facility level in four districts in Zambia. Methods: This study was a retrospective evaluation of the quality of malaria case management at health facilities in four districts conveniently sampled to represent both urban and rural settings in different epidemiological zones and health facility coverage. The review period was from January to December 2008. The sample included twelve lower level health facilities from four districts. The Pearson Chi-square test was used to identify characteristics which affected the quality of case management.Results:Out of 4891 suspected malaria cases recorded at the 12 health facilities, more than 80% of the patients had a temperature taken to establish their fever status. About 67% (CI95 66.1-68.7) were tested for parasitemia by either rapid diagnostic test or microscopy, whereas the remaining 22.5% (CI95 21.3.1-23.7) were not subjected to any malaria test. Of the 2247 malaria cases reported (complicated and uncomplicated), 71% were parasitologically confirmed while 29% were clinically diagnosed (unconfirmed). About 56% (CI95 53.9-58.1) of the malaria cases reported were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL), 35% (CI95 33.1-37.0) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, 8% (CI95 6.9-9.2) with quinine and 1% did not receive any anti-malarial. Approximately 30% of patients WHO were found negative for malaria parasites were still prescribed an anti-malarial, contrary to the guidelines. There were marked inter-district variations in the proportion of patients in WHOm a diagnostic tool was used, and in the choice of anti-malarials for the treatment of malaria confirmed cases. Association between health worker characteristics and quality of case malaria management showed that nurses performed better than environmental health technicians and clinical officers on the decision whether to use the rapid diagnostic test or not. Gender, in service training on malaria

  19. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ABDUL

    reported a case of Ogilvie's syndrome following a caesarean delivery ... perinatal mortality has been attributed to the difficulty in the early diagnosis ... The abdomen was full, moved with respiration and soft. There .... Acute intestinal obstruction.

  20. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-06-29

    Jun 29, 2017 ... Von Willebrand's disease: case report and review of literature. Hanae Echahdi1 ... glycoprotein crucial for platelet adhesion to the subendothelium after vascular injury. VWD include .... minor surgery including dental work.

  1. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-06-13

    Jun 13, 2017 ... Enterobiasis (oxyuriasis) is a common infection in human caused by Enterobius vermicularis (E. ... We report a case of oxyuriasis that took place in the refugee camp ... slightly painful, especially in the lower right quadrant.

  2. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-04-06

    Apr 6, 2016 ... A case of Kartagener syndrome with rhinolalia clausa. Mohammed ... ciliary movement; it was described by manes kartagener in 1933 comprising a triad of ... The speech therapy examination report revealed the presence ...

  3. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-07-14

    Jul 14, 2017 ... In this report, we present a case of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type IV, seen in a female fetus with ... without fractures, short stature, dentinogenesis imperfecta and ... curvature of the femurs were detected (Figure 2A).

  4. Malaria control in Bhutan: case study of a country embarking on elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzom Thinley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bhutan has achieved a major reduction in malaria incidence amid multiple challenges. This case study seeks to characterize the Bhutan malaria control programme over the last 10 years. Methods A review of the malaria epidemiology, control strategies, and elimination strategies employed in Bhutan was carried out through a literature review of peer-reviewed and grey national and international literature with the addition of reviewing the surveillance and vector control records of the Bhutan Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (VDCP. Data triangulation was used to identify trends in epidemiology and key strategies and interventions through analysis of the VDCP surveillance and programme records and the literature review. Enabling and challenging factors were identified through analysis of socio-economic and health indicators, corroborated through a review of national and international reports and peer-review articles. Findings Confirmed malaria cases in Bhutan declined by 98.7% from 1994 to 2010. The majority of indigenous cases were due to Plasmodium vivax (59.9% and adult males are most at-risk of malaria. Imported cases, or those in foreign nationals, varied over the years, reaching 21.8% of all confirmed cases in 2006. Strategies implemented by the VDCP are likely to be related to the decline in cases over the last 10 years. Access to malaria diagnosis in treatment was expanded throughout the country and evidence-based case management, including the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for P. falciparum, increasing coverage of high risk areas with Indoor Residual Spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, and long-lasting insecticidal nets are likely to have contributed to the decline alongside enabling factors such as economic development and increasing access to health services. Conclusion Bhutan has made significant strides towards elimination and has adopted a goal of national elimination. A major

  5. Three cases of ARDS: An emerging complication of Plasmodium vivax malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Supriya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium (P. vivax malaria is rarely associated with severe complications like acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. We report three cases of ARDS, which occurred as a complication of vivax malaria, from the city of Kolkata. A middle aged man who developed ARDS along with hepatic and renal dysfunction on the day 7 after completion of antimalarial treatment; a 36-year-old man who developed ARDS on the day 5 after completion of antimalarial treatment and a 15-year-old boy who developed ARDS on day 2, before starting anti-malarial drug. In all cases, vivax malaria was diagnosed by peripheral blood film (PBF examination. Associated falciparum infection was excluded by repeated PBF examination, and by negative P. falciparum malaria antigen tests. In all cases, ARDS was diagnosed by the presence of hypoxia with PaO 2 / FiO 2 ratio < 200 and bilateral pulmonary infiltration, and by excluding cardiac disease by echocardiography. All cases typically had dramatic onset of ARDS, and required immediate (within hour of onset of dyspnea institution of mechanical ventilation with high positive end expiratory pressure. All three cases recovered completely, and early ventilator support was life-saving.

  6. Using the information value method in a geographic information system and remote sensing for malaria mapping: a case study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Rai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background This paper explores the scope of malaria-susceptibility modelling to predict malaria occurrence in an area.Objective An attempt has been made in Varanasi district, India, to evaluate the status of malaria disease and to develop a model by which malaria-prone zones could be predicted using five classes of relative malaria susceptibility, i.e. very low, low, moderate, high and very high categories.The information value (Info Val method was used to assess malaria occurrence and various time-were used as the independent variables. A geographical information system (GIS is employed to investigate associations between such variables and distribution of different mosquitoes responsible for malaria transmission. Accurate prediction of risk depends on a number of variables, such as land use, NDVI, climatic factors, population, distance to health centres, ponds, streams and roads etc., all of which have an influence on malaria transmission or reporting. Climatic factors, particularly rainfall, temperature and relative humidity, are known to have a major influence on the biology of mosquitoes. To produce a malaria-susceptibility map using this method, weightings are calculated for various classes in each group. The groups are then superimposed to prepare a Malaria Susceptibility Index (MSI map.Results We found that 3.87% of the malaria cases were found in areas with a low malaria-susceptibility level predicted from the model, whereas 39.86% and 26.29% of malaria cases were found in predicted high and very high susceptibility level areas, respectively.Conclusions Malaria susceptibility modelled using a GIS may have a role in predicting the risks of malaria and enable public health interventions to be better targeted.

  7. Molecular Characterization of a Cluster of Imported Malaria Cases in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenet, Stella M; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Lucchi, Naomi W; Dragan, Ljolje; Dirlikov, Emilio; Mace, Kimberly; Rivera-García, Brenda; Arguin, Paul M; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2017-09-01

    The Caribbean island of Hispaniola is targeted for malaria elimination. Currently, this is the only island with ongoing transmission of malaria in the Caribbean. In 2015, six patients from Puerto Rico and one from Massachusetts, who traveled to Punta Cana, Dominican Republic, were confirmed to be infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Additional molecular analysis was performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to characterize the drug-resistant alleles and Plasmodium population genetic markers. All specimens carried wildtype genotypes for chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and artemisinin resistance genetic markers. A mutation in codon 184 (Y/F) of Pfmdr-1 gene was observed in all samples and they shared an identical genetic lineage as determined by microsatellite analysis. This genetic profile was similar to one previously reported from Hispaniola suggesting that a clonal P. falciparum residual parasite population present in Punta Cana is the source population for these imported malaria cases.

  8. The geography of imported malaria to non-endemic countries: a meta-analysis of nationally reported statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J; Jia, Peng; Ordanovich, Dariya; Falkner, Michael; Huang, Zhuojie; Howes, Rosalind; Hay, Simon I; Gething, Peter W; Smith, David L

    2017-01-01

    Malaria remains a problem for many countries classified as malaria free through cases imported from endemic regions. Imported cases to non-endemic countries often result in delays in diagnosis, are expensive to treat, and can sometimes cause secondary local transmission. The movement of malaria in endemic countries has also contributed to the spread of drug resistance and threatens long-term eradication goals. Here we focused on quantifying the international movements of malaria to improve our understanding of these phenomena and facilitate the design of mitigation strategies. In this meta-analysis, we studied the database of publicly available nationally reported statistics on imported malaria in the past 10 years, covering more than 50 000 individual cases. We obtained data from 40 non-endemic countries and recorded the geographical variations. Infection movements were strongly skewed towards a small number of high-traffic routes between 2005 and 2015, with the west Africa region accounting for 56% (13 947/24 941) of all imported cases to non-endemic countries with a reported travel destination, and France and the UK receiving the highest number of cases, with more than 4000 reported cases per year on average. Countries strongly linked by movements of imported cases are grouped by historical, language, and travel ties. There is strong spatial clustering of plasmodium species types. The architecture of the air network, historical ties, demographics of travellers, and malaria endemicity contribute to highly heterogeneous patterns of numbers, routes, and species compositions of parasites transported. With global malaria eradication on the international agenda, malaria control altering local transmission, and the threat of drug resistance, understanding these patterns and their drivers is increasing in importance. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, National Institutes of Health, UK Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, Wellcome

  9. Case Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Marie-Louise Kulas; Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    neuropathy (AMSAN). Reports of AMSAN with onset after epidural anesthesia and spinal surgery are extremely rare, and the linkage between development of GBS and neuroaxial anesthesia remains conclusively unconfirmed. We present a case in which the patient developed subacute motor and predominantly sensory...... neuropathy following epidural blockade. The case emphasizes the need of including AMSAN in differential diagnostic considerations to changes in motor and sensory function following epidural anesthesia, allowing accelerated rehabilitation and relevant alleviating therapy....

  10. High proportion of knowlesi malaria in recent malaria cases in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Ruhani; Lau, Yee Ling; Mahmud, Rohela; Fong, Mun Yik; Jelip, Jenarun; Ngian, Hie Ung; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Hussin, Hani Mat; Marzuki, Noradilah; Mohd Ali, Marlindawati

    2014-05-03

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian parasite that has been recognized as the fifth species causing human malaria. Naturally-acquired P. knowlesi infection is widespread among human populations in Southeast Asia. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the incidence and distribution of malaria parasites, with a particular focus on human P. knowlesi infection in Malaysia. A total of 457 microscopically confirmed, malaria-positive blood samples were collected from 22 state and main district hospitals in Malaysia between September 2012 and December 2013. Nested PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene was used to determine the infecting Plasmodium species. A total of 453 samples were positive for Plasmodium species by using nested PCR assay. Plasmodium knowlesi was identified in 256 (56.5%) samples, followed by 133 (29.4%) cases of Plasmodium vivax, 49 (10.8%) cases of Plasmodium falciparum, two (0.4%) cases of Plasmodium ovale and one (0.2%) case of Plasmodium malariae. Twelve mixed infections were detected, including P. knowlesi/P. vivax (n = 10), P. knowlesi/P. falciparum (n = 1), and P. falciparum/P. vivax (n = 1). Notably, P. knowlesi (Included mixed infections involving P. knowlesi (P. knowlesi/P. vivax and P. knowlesi /P. falciparum)) showed the highest proportion in Sabah (84/115 cases, prevalence of 73.0%), Sarawak (83/120, 69.2%), Kelantan (42/56, 75.0%), Pahang (24/25, 96.0%), Johor (7/9, 77.8%), and Terengganu (4/5, 80.0%,). In contrast, the rates of P. knowlesi infection in Selangor and Negeri Sembilan were found to be 16.2% (18/111 cases) and 50.0% (5/10 cases), respectively. Sample of P. knowlesi was not obtained from Kuala Lumpur, Melaka, Perak, Pulau Pinang, and Perlis during the study period, while a microscopically-positive sample from Kedah was negative by PCR. In addition to Sabah and Sarawak, which have been known for high prevalence of P. knowlesi infection, the findings from this study highlight the widespread distribution of P

  11. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    16 déc. 2015 ... C'est un cancer à évolution locorégionale, rarement extra pelvienne ... carcinomateux TTF1 négatif, p63 négatif et p16 fortement positif compatible .... cervix presenting as lymphangiticcarcinomatosis: a case report and reviex ...

  12. Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria cases in Halaba district, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacha Ketema

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine is an anti-malarial drug being used to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria cases in Ethiopia. However, emergence of chloroquine resistant strains of the parasite has challenged the current efficacy of the drug. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chloroquine against P. vivax strains in one of the malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia, namely Halaba district, located in South Nations and Nationalities Peoples Region (SNNPR of South Ethiopia Results Among 87 malaria patients enrolled in the study, only 80 of them completed the 28-days follow-up. Seven of them dropped from the study for different reasons. Among those study participants that completed their follow-up, 69 were classified under the category of adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR. However, the remaining 11 cases were considered as under treatment failure mainly due to recurrence of parasitemia on day 7 (four patients, day 14 (six patients, and day 21 (one patient. The age of all cases of treatment failures was found to be less than 20 years. The load of parasitemia of patients with treatment failure on day of admission (4709.4/μl was higher than day of recurrence (372.37/μl. Parasite reduction ratio (PRR of treatment failure cases was 12.6/μl. Conclusion This report revealed the rise in treatment failure (13% [95% CI = 0.074 - 0.217] as compared to earlier reports from Ethiopia. It signals the spreading of chloroquine resistant P. vivax (CRPv strains to malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia. It is recommended that all concerned bodies should act aggressively before further expansion of the current drug resistant malaria.

  13. A global model of malaria climate sensitivity: comparing malaria response to historic climate data based on simulation and officially reported malaria incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, Stefan; Davis, Matthew; Douglas, Judith V; Kershenbaum, Arik; Waraporn, Narongrit; Lessler, Justin; Kaufman, James H

    2012-09-18

    The role of the Anopheles vector in malaria transmission and the effect of climate on Anopheles populations are well established. Models of the impact of climate change on the global malaria burden now have access to high-resolution climate data, but malaria surveillance data tends to be less precise, making model calibration problematic. Measurement of malaria response to fluctuations in climate variables offers a way to address these difficulties. Given the demonstrated sensitivity of malaria transmission to vector capacity, this work tests response functions to fluctuations in land surface temperature and precipitation. This study of regional sensitivity of malaria incidence to year-to-year climate variations used an extended Macdonald Ross compartmental disease model (to compute malaria incidence) built on top of a global Anopheles vector capacity model (based on 10 years of satellite climate data). The predicted incidence was compared with estimates from the World Health Organization and the Malaria Atlas. The models and denominator data used are freely available through the Eclipse Foundation's Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeller (STEM). Although the absolute scale factor relating reported malaria to absolute incidence is uncertain, there is a positive correlation between predicted and reported year-to-year variation in malaria burden with an averaged root mean square (RMS) error of 25% comparing normalized incidence across 86 countries. Based on this, the proposed measure of sensitivity of malaria to variations in climate variables indicates locations where malaria is most likely to increase or decrease in response to specific climate factors. Bootstrapping measures the increased uncertainty in predicting malaria sensitivity when reporting is restricted to national level and an annual basis. Results indicate a potential 20x improvement in accuracy if data were available at the level ISO 3166-2 national subdivisions and with monthly time sampling. The

  14. [A plasmodium alciparum malaria case originated from Mozambique: clues for the diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Gülşen; Yildirim, Tolga; Aydin, Kadriye; Ergüven, Sibel; Unal, Serhat

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this report was the presentation of a falciparum malaria case originated from Mozambique and the evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Sixty years old Canadian male patient who has been working in Mozambique for 13 years was admitted to hospital with the complaints of high fever (39.6 degrees C), weakness, nausea and vomiting, when returned to Turkey. The patient was sleepiness and has undulating confusions with the laboratory findings of thrombocytopenia, hypoglycemia, hyperlactatemia, increased BUN/creatinine levels, increased LDH levels and hypocholesterolemia. The diagnosis was based on the detection of multiple ring formed trophozoites in the thick blood film and the presence of multiple ring forms inside the erythrocytes and the absence of trophozoite and shizont forms in the thin blood film. His medical history revealed that he experienced another falciparum malaria infection one year ago, although he has been using mefloquine prophylaxis during his stay in Mozambique. Since chloroquine resistance was thought to be high in this region, the patient was treated with quinine sulphate and doxycycline. Six days after the onset of therapy, the biochemical markers turned to normal and 14 days later the blood films were free of the parasite. The patient was given doxycycline prophylaxis since he would return to Mozambique. In conclusion, the followings should be taken into consideration for the diagnosis and therapy: (i) cyclic type of fever which is characteristic for malaria, might not be detected in falciparum malaria; (ii) some of the clinical symptoms might be blocked by partial immune response in case of recurrent infections; (iii) thrombocytopenia and hypocholesterolemia might indicate the presence of falciparum malaria; and when falciparum malaria is confirmed by parasitological examinations the patient should be treated as if he/she is accepted as resistant to chloroquine.

  15. Mobile phone imaging and cloud-based analysis for standardized malaria detection and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Thomas F.; Gupta, Sparsh; Wright, David W.; Haselton, Frederick R.

    2016-06-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been widely deployed in low-resource settings. These tests are typically read by visual inspection, and accurate record keeping and data aggregation remains a substantial challenge. A successful malaria elimination campaign will require new strategies that maximize the sensitivity of RDTs, reduce user error, and integrate results reporting tools. In this report, an unmodified mobile phone was used to photograph RDTs, which were subsequently uploaded into a globally accessible database, REDCap, and then analyzed three ways: with an automated image processing program, visual inspection, and a commercial lateral flow reader. The mobile phone image processing detected 20.6 malaria parasites/microliter of blood, compared to the commercial lateral flow reader which detected 64.4 parasites/microliter. Experienced observers visually identified positive malaria cases at 12.5 parasites/microliter, but encountered reporting errors and false negatives. Visual interpretation by inexperienced users resulted in only an 80.2% true negative rate, with substantial disagreement in the lower parasitemia range. We have demonstrated that combining a globally accessible database, such as REDCap, with mobile phone based imaging of RDTs provides objective, secure, automated, data collection and result reporting. This simple combination of existing technologies would appear to be an attractive tool for malaria elimination campaigns.

  16. Distribution of Malaria Case in Simpenan Public Health Centre Sukabumi District in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubullah Fuadzy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of malaria in Simpenan public health centre area needs a quick step in the patients finding by malaria microscopic officers, both by Active Case Detection (ACD and Passive Case Detection (PCD. The objective of th is article is to determine the distribution of malaria cases at Simpenan public health centre in Sukabumi during 2011. Data collection was carried out by malaria officersfrom Simpenan public health centre by identifying malaria parasite with microscope to any gold miners who just got home and was having a highfever. Malaria cases during the year 2011 experienced an increasing trend (R2 = 0.0175 from January (8.86% to December (15.18%, 79 cases of malaria was found and the peak of cases happened in December. Malaria was notfound in the age group of 0-14 years, but cases ofmalaria were found in productive age group (15-44 years old = 83%, 45-59 years old = 14%, 2: 60 years old = 3%, and also to all people working as gold miners in malaria-endemic areas i.e. Aceh, Bangka, Jambi, Kalimantan, Medan, Papua, Riau, and Sumbawa. This indicated that malaria in Simpenan was predicted as import cases.

  17. Non-falciparum malaria in Dakar: a confirmed case of Plasmodium ovale wallikeri infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Mamadou A; Badiane, Aida S; Diongue, Khadim; Deme, Awa; Lucchi, Naomi W; Gaye, Marie; Ndiaye, Tolla; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou; Sene, Louise K; Diop, Abdoulaye; Gaye, Amy; Ndiaye, Yaye D; Samb, Diama; Yade, Mamadou S; Ndir, Omar; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Ndiaye, Daouda

    2016-08-24

    Plasmodium ovale is rarely described in Senegal. A case of clinical malaria due to P. ovale wallikeri in West Central of Senegal is reported. A 34-year-old male baker in Dakar, with no significant previous medical history, was admitted to a health clinic with fever and vomiting. Fever had been lasting for 4 days with peaks every 48 h. As monospecific Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2 RDT was negative, he was treated with antibiotics. However, owing to persisting symptoms, he was referred to the emergency unit of the Youssou Mbargane Diop Hospital, Dakar, Senegal. Clinical examination found impaired general condition. All other physical examinations were normal. Laboratory tests showed anaemia (haemoglobin 11.4 g/dl), severe thrombocytopaenia (platelets 30 × 10(9)/mm(3)), leukopenia (3650/mm(3)), lymphocytopenia (650/mm(3)). Renal function was normal as indicated by creatininaemia and uraemia (11 mg/l and 0.25 g/l, respectively) and liver enzymes were slightly elevated (aspartate aminotransferase 77 UI/l and alanine aminotransferase 82 UI/l). Blood smear evaluations in Parasitology Laboratory of Aristide Le Dantec Hospital showed malaria parasites of the species P. ovale with a 0.08 % parasitaemia. Molecular confirmation was done by real time PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene. The P. ovale infection was further analysed to species level targeting the potra gene and was identified as P. ovale wallikeri. According to the hospital's malaria treatment guidelines for severe malaria, treatment consisted of intravenous quinine at hour 0 (start of treatment) and 24 h after initial treatment, followed by artemether-lumefantrine 24 h later. A negative microscopy was noted on day 3 post-treatment and the patient reported no further symptoms. Malaria due to non-falciparum species is probably underestimated in Senegal. RDTs specific to non-falciparum species and/or pan specific RDTs should be included as tools of diagnosis to fight against malaria in Senegal. In addition

  18. Protective efficacy of malaria case management and intermittent preventive treatment for preventing malaria mortality in children: a systematic review for the Lives Saved Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steketee Richard W

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lives Saved Tool (LiST model was developed to estimate the impact of the scale-up of child survival interventions on child mortality. New advances in antimalarials have improved their efficacy of treating uncomplicated and severe malaria. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and parenteral or rectal artemisinin or quinine for severe malaria syndromes have been shown to be very effective for the treatment of malaria in children. These interventions are now being considered for inclusion in the LiST model. However, for obvious ethical reasons, their protective efficacy (PE compared to placebo is unknown and their impact on reducing malaria-attributable mortality has not been quantified. Methods We performed systematic literature reviews of published studies in P. falciparum endemic settings to determine the protective efficacy (PE of ACT treatment against malaria deaths among children with uncomplicated malaria, as well as the PE of effective case management including parenteral quinine against malaria deaths among all hospitalized children. As no randomized placebo-controlled trials of malaria treatment have been conducted, we used multiple data sources to ascertain estimates of PE, including a previously performed Delphi estimate for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Results Based on multiple data sources, we estimate the PE of ACT treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria on reducing malaria mortality in children 1–23 months to be 99% (range: 94-100%, and in children 24-59 months to be 97% (range: 86-99%. We estimate the PE of treatment of severe P. falciparum malaria with effective case management including intravenous quinine on reducing malaria mortality in children 1-59 months to be 82% (range: 63-94% compared to no treatment. Conclusions This systematic review quantifies the PE of ACT used for treating uncomplicated malaria and effective case

  19. Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, J E

    1991-03-01

    Human malaria is caused by four species of the genus plasmodium. The sexual stage of the parasite occurs in the mosquito and asexual reproduction occurs in man. Symptoms of fever, chills, headache, and myalgia result from the invasion and rupture of erythrocytes. Merozoites are released from erythrocytes and invade other cells, thus propagating the infection. The most vulnerable hosts are nonimmune travelers, young children living in the tropics, and pregnant women. P. falciparum causes the most severe infections because it infects RBCs of all ages and has the propensity to develop resistance to antimalarials. Rapid diagnosis can be made with a malarial smear, and treatment should be initiated promptly. In some regions (Mexico, Central America except Panama, and North Africa) chloroquine phosphate is effective therapy. In subsaharan Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia, chloroquine resistance has become widespread, and other antimalarials are necessary. The primary care physician should have a high index of suspicion for malaria in the traveler returning from the tropics. Malaria should also be suspected in the febrile transfusion recipient and newborns of mothers with malaria.

  20. [The first monkey malaria in Turkey: a case of Plasmodium knowlesi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbilgin, Ahmet; Çavuş, İbrahim; Yıldırım, Ahmet; Gündüz, Cumhur

    2016-07-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is now added to the known four Plasmodium species (P.vivax, P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale) as a cause of malaria in humans because of the recent increasing rate of cases reported from countries of southeastern Asia. P.knowlesi which infects macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis and M.nemestrina) is transmitted to humans especially by Anopheles leucosphyrus and An.hackeri mosquitos. First human cases of P.knowlesi malaria have been detected in Malaysia which have reached high numbers in recent years and also have been reported from countries of Southeast Asia such as Thailand, Philippines, Myanmar, Singapore and Vietnam. However the number of cases reported from western countries are rare and limited only within voyagers. This report is the first presentation of an imported case of P.knowlesi malaria in Turkey and aims to draw attention to the point that it could also be detected in future. A 33-year-old male patient from Myanmar who has migrated to Turkey as a refugee, was admitted to a health center with the complaints of fever with a periodicity of 24 hours, headache, fatigue, cough, sore throat, anorexia, myalgia and arthralgia. He was prediagnosed as upper respiratory tract infection, however because of his periodical fever and background in Myanmar, thick and thin blood films were prepared and sent to our laboratory for further examinations. Microscopic examination of the thin blood films revealed erythrocytic stages compatible with P.knowlesi (three large early trophozoites in an erythrocyte, three late trophozoites with compact view, and three late band-form trophozoites). Upon this, both real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) genes of Plasmodium genus and DNA sequence analysis targeting P.knowlesi rRNA gene were performed. As a result, the suspected identification of P.knowlesi by microscopy was confirmed by Rt-PCR and DNA sequencing. The patient was treated with chloroquine

  1. Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ceived the Nobel prize in 1902. Grassi et al later proved that anopheline mosquitoes transmit malaria to humans.2 In 2002, researchers sequenced the...Malarial pigment is the end product of hemoglobin diges- tion into a porphyrin conjugated with a protein derived from the globin portion of...location, parasite strain, and the patient’s age, immune status, and treatment.27 Investigating the patient’s travel history may provide clues to the spe

  2. Coinfection of Plasmodium vivax and Epstein-Barr virus: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Akin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an acute and chronic illness characterized by paroxysms of fever, chills, sweats, fatigue, anemia, and splenomegaly. It is still an important health problem in malaria-endemic countries. Children living in malaria-endemic areas have elevated Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV loads in the circulation and acute malaria infection leads to increased levels of circulating EBV that are cleared after anti-malaria treatment. There are many reports about the association of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum malaria and EBV infection. Here we report a case who had coinfection of Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax malaria and EBV infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case indicating the association of P. vivax malaria and EBV infection.

  3. Self-reported fever, treatment actions and malaria infection prevalence in the northern states of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelgadir Tareg M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of fevers and their management in areas of low malaria transmission in Africa is not well understood. The characteristics of fever, its treatment and association with infection prevalence from a national household sample survey in the northern states of Sudan, an area that represents historically low parasite prevalence, are examined in this study. Methods In October-November 2009, a cluster sample cross-sectional household malaria indicator survey was undertaken in the 15 northern states of the Sudan. Data on household assets and individual level information on age, sex, whether the individual had a fever in the last 14 days and on the day of survey, actions taken to treat the fever including diagnostic services and drugs used and their sources were collected. Consenting household members were asked to provide a finger-prick blood sample and examined for malaria parasitaemia using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT. All proportions and odds ratios were weighted and adjusted for clustering. Results Of 26,471 respondents 19% (n = 5,299 reported a history of fever within the last two weeks prior to the survey and 8% had fever on the day of the survey. Only 39% (n = 2,035 of individuals with fever in last two weeks took any action, of which 43% (n = 875 were treated with anti-malarials. About 44% (n = 382 of malaria treatments were done using the nationally recommended first-line therapy artesunate+sulphadoxine-pryrimethamine (AS+SP and 13% (n = 122 with non-recommended chloroquine or SP. Importantly 33.9% (n = 296 of all malaria treatments included artemether monotherapy, which is internationally banned for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. About 53% of fevers had some form of parasitological diagnosis before treatment. On the day of survey, 21,988 individuals provided a finger-prick blood sample and only 1.8% were found positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Infection prevalence was higher among individuals who

  4. Changing malaria transmission and implications in China towards National Malaria Elimination Programme between 2010 and 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-hai Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Towards the implementation of national malaria elimination programme in China since 2010, the epidemiology of malaria has changed dramatically, and the lowest malaria burden was achieved yearly. It is time to analyze the changes of malaria situation based on surveillance data from 2010 to 2012 to reconsider the strategies for malaria elimination. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Malaria epidemiological data was extracted from the provincial annual reports in China between 2010 and 2012. The trends of the general, autochthonous and imported malaria were analyzed, and epidemic areas were reclassified according to Action Plan of China Malaria Elimination (2010-2020. As a result, there reported 2743 malaria cases with a continued decline in 2012, and around 7% autochthonous malaria cases accounted. Three hundred and fifty-three individual counties from 19 provincial regions had autochthonous malaria between 2010 and 2012, and only one county was reclassified into Type I (local infections detected in 3 consecutive years and the annual incidences ≥ 1/10,000 again. However, the imported malaria cases reported of each year were widespread, and 598 counties in 29 provinces were suffered in 2012. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Malaria was reduced significantly from 2010 to 2012 in China, and malaria importation became an increasing challenge. It is necessary to adjust or update the interventions for subsequent malaria elimination planning and resource allocation.

  5. Effect of anti-malarial interventions on trends of malaria cases, hospital admissions and deaths, 2005-2015, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aregawi, Maru; Malm, Keziah L; Wahjib, Mohammed; Kofi, Osae; Allotey, Naa-Korkor; Yaw, Peprah Nana; Abba-Baffoe, Wilmot; Segbaya, Sylvester; Owusu-Antwi, Felicia; Kharchi, Abderahmane T; Williams, Ryan O; Saalfeld, Mark; Workneh, Nibretie; Shargie, Estifanos Biru; Noor, Abdisalan M; Bart-Plange, Constance

    2017-04-26

    indicators were observed in the three epidemiological strata (coastal, forest, savannah). All-cause admissions increased significantly in patients covered by the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) compared to the non-insured. The non-malaria cases and non-malaria deaths increased or remained unchanged during the same period. All-cause mortality for children under 5 years old in household surveys, similar to those observed in the hospitals, declined by 43% between 2008 and 2014. The data provide compelling evidence of impact following LLIN mass campaigns targeting all ages since 2011, while maintaining other anti-malarial interventions. Malaria cases and deaths decreased by over 50 and 65%, respectively. The declines were stronger in children under five. Test positivity rate in all ages decreased by >40%. The decrease in malaria deaths was against a backdrop of increased admissions owing to free access to hospitalization through the NHIS. The study demonstrated that retrospective health facility-based data minimize reporting biases to assess effect of interventions. Malaria control in Ghana is dependent on sustained coverage of effective interventions and strengthened surveillance is vital to monitor progress of these investments.

  6. A description of malaria sentinel surveillance: a case study in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua O; Butts, Jessica; Miles, Melody; Berhane, Yemane; Nahusenay, Honelgn; Malone, Joseph L; Dissanayake, Gunawardena; Reithinger, Richard; Keating, Joseph

    2014-03-11

    In the context of the massive scale up of malaria interventions, there is increasing recognition that the current capacity of routine malaria surveillance conducted in most African countries through integrated health management information systems is inadequate. The timeliness of reporting to higher levels of the health system through health management information systems is often too slow for rapid action on focal infectious diseases such as malaria. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) describe the implementation of a malaria sentinel surveillance system in Ethiopia to help fill this gap; 2) describe data use for epidemic detection and response as well as programmatic decision making; and 3) discuss lessons learned in the context of creating and running this system. As part of a comprehensive strategy to monitor malaria trends in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia, a system of ten malaria sentinel sites was established to collect data on key malaria morbidity and mortality indicators. To ensure the sentinel surveillance system provides timely, actionable data, the sentinel facilities send aggregate data weekly through short message service (SMS) to a central database server. Bland-Altman plots and Poisson regression models were used to investigate concordance of malaria indicator reports and malaria trends over time, respectively. This paper describes three implementation challenges that impacted system performance in terms of: 1) ensuring a timely and accurate data reporting process; 2) capturing complete and accurate patient-level data; and 3) expanding the usefulness and generalizability of the system's data to monitor progress towards the national malaria control goals of reducing malaria deaths and eventual elimination of transmission. The use of SMS for reporting surveillance data was identified as a promising practice for accurately tracking malaria trends in Oromia. The rapid spread of this technology across Africa offers promising opportunities to collect

  7. A case of Plasmodium vivax malaria with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and acute renal failure, severe thrombocytopenia, with anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind S Shiddapur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When we talk about severe malaria, we usually think of Plasmodium falciparum. However, in recent times, Plasmodium vivax has also been reported to cause severe multi-organ dysfunction and life-threatening disease similar to P. falciparum. We report here a case of P. vivax malaria in a young boy from an endemic zone, who developed acute renal failure, severe thrombocytopenia, and anemia and later developed spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Multisystem involvement in a patient with P. vivax is rare, and subarachnoid hemorrhage is an unusual presentation.

  8. Plasmodium vivax hospitalizations in a monoendemic malaria region: severe vivax malaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Antonio M; Pozo, Edwar; Guerrero, Edith; Durand, Salomón; Baldeviano, G Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A; Graf, Paul C F; Lescano, Andres G

    2014-07-01

    Severe malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax is no longer considered rare. To describe its clinical features, we performed a retrospective case control study in the subregion of Luciano Castillo Colonna, Piura, Peru, an area with nearly exclusive vivax malaria transmission. Severe cases and the subset of critically ill cases were compared with a random set of uncomplicated malaria cases (1:4). Between 2008 and 2009, 6,502 malaria cases were reported, including 106 hospitalized cases, 81 of which fit the World Health Organization definition for severe malaria. Of these 81 individuals, 28 individuals were critically ill (0.4%, 95% confidence interval = 0.2-0.6%) with severe anemia (57%), shock (25%), lung injury (21%), acute renal failure (14%), or cerebral malaria (11%). Two potentially malaria-related deaths occurred. Compared with uncomplicated cases, individuals critically ill were older (38 versus 26 years old, P malaria monoinfection with critical illness is more common than previously thought.

  9. Case management of malaria fever in Cambodia: results from national anti-malarial outlet and household surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littrell Megan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continued progress towards global reduction in morbidity and mortality due to malaria requires scale-up of effective case management with artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT. The first case of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum was documented in western Cambodia. Spread of artemisinin resistance would threaten recent gains in global malaria control. As such, the anti-malarial market and malaria case management practices in Cambodia have global significance. Methods Nationally-representative household and outlet surveys were conducted in 2009 among areas in Cambodia with malaria risk. An anti-malarial audit was conducted among all public and private outlets with the potential to sell anti-malarials. Indicators on availability, price and relative volumes sold/distributed were calculated across types of anti-malarials and outlets. The household survey collected information about management of recent "malaria fevers." Case management in the public versus private sector, and anti-malarial treatment based on malaria diagnostic testing were examined. Results Most public outlets (85% and nearly half of private pharmacies, clinics and drug stores stock ACT. Oral artemisinin monotherapy was found in pharmacies/clinics (9%, drug stores (14%, mobile providers (4% and grocery stores (2%. Among total anti-malarial volumes sold/distributed nationally, 6% are artemisinin monotherapies and 72% are ACT. Only 45% of people with recent "malaria fever" reportedly receive a diagnostic test, and the most common treatment acquired is a drug cocktail containing no identifiable anti-malarial. A self-reported positive diagnostic test, particularly when received in the public sector, improves likelihood of receiving anti-malarial treatment. Nonetheless, anti-malarial treatment of reportedly positive cases is low among people who seek treatment exclusively in the public (61% and private (42% sectors. Conclusions While data on the anti

  10. Compliance to the treatment of malaria cases in Ahmedabad City- A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Parikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Malaria is a serious public health problem in India, accounting for sizeable morbidity, mortality and economic loss 1,2 . A Revised National Drug Policy on Malaria adopted and the guidelines have been prepared for healthcare personnel including clinicians involved in the treatment of malaria 2. Aim: 1 To study adherence to the protocol in diagnosis & management of malaria cases by private medical practitioners and Urban Health Centres (UHC of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC. Methodology- This was a qualitative study in which 29 UHCs and 97 private practitioners of three zones of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation were visited. Case papers of last 2 months and all malaria related registers maintained at UHCs were evaluated and home visit of 115 malaria cases was carried out. Observation & Discussion- 93.7% of patient with confirmed vivax malaria were prescribed Chloroquine and 99.1% patient with confirmed malaria prescribed Primaquine with correct dose as per age & schedule. Only 78.8% private practitioner was following the guideline dose. 20.2% of private practitioner were not prescribing Primaquine at all. Conclusion & Recommendation There was lack of sensitization in some M.O. of U.H.C & private practitioners (other than M.D. Medicine regarding prescribing treatment as per National Drug Policy for treatment of Malaria especially primaquine. Sensitization & involvement of private doctors for rational prescription through the Indian / Ahmedabad Medical Association must be carried out.

  11. A retrospective review of malaria cases seen in a non-endemic area of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, S; Ismail, N; Hoosen, A A

    2008-09-01

    Malaria is a risk for travelers to endemic areas. We describe the diagnosis and treatment of malaria in Pretoria, a non-endemic area in South Africa. Records of specimens submitted to the medical microbiology laboratory for malaria investigations over 3 years were reviewed with follow up of hospital records for positive specimens for clinical data. The laboratory performs malaria smears and uses HRP2-Ag testing for rapid diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum. A total of 516 specimens were received, with a 211/516 (41%) malaria smear positive rate. The number of malaria positive specimens has been increasing overtime and this increase was statistically significant in children [p=0.005]. HRP2-Ag testing was done on 430 specimens with124/430 (29%) being positive, of which 10/124 (8%) were smear negative, giving 98% sensitivity. Hospital records for 198/211 (94%) smear positive cases showed that 190/198 (96%) of the patients had a travel history with 170/190 (71%) having traveled to Mozambique, a malaria endemic country. Most patients presented with uncomplicated malaria; the CFR was 4/198 (2%). Treatment mainly followed South African national guidelines. Imported malaria is increasingly being diagnosed in returning travelers, especially from Mozambique. Rapid antigen tests remain useful for the diagnosis of malaria in non-endemic areas.

  12. The Stateville penitentiary malaria experiments: a case study in retrospective ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Franklin G

    2013-01-01

    During World War II, malaria research was conducted in prisons. A notable example was the experiments at Stateville Penitentiary in Illinois, in which prisoner-subjects were infected with malaria for the purpose of testing the safety and efficacy of novel anti-malaria drugs. Over time, commentators have shifted from viewing the malaria research at Stateville as a model of ethical clinical research to seeing the experiments as paradigmatic of abusive human experimentation. This essay undertakes a retrospective ethical assessment of the Stateville malaria research during the 1940s in light of basic ethical principles and the Nuremberg Code, as well as contemporary malaria research. In addition to its historical interest, this case study provides a rich context for addressing basic issues of research ethics, including the voluntariness of consent, the justification of risks, and the exploitation of vulnerable subjects.

  13. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-03-28

    Mar 28, 2014 ... Iatrogenic cushing's syndrome in children following nasal steroid. Isaac Oludare .... which a diagnosis of adenoidal hypertrophy was made and he was ... Oyenusi participated in patients' management and review of case.

  14. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-03-24

    Mar 24, 2016 ... Meknes, Morocco, 3Department of Radiology, Military Hospital Moulay Ismail, Meknes, ... Our case raises the awareness among health professionals about ... abdomen was sensitive and on the digital rectal examination the.

  15. Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. 2013 Sep;6(3):177-9 ... Further systemic clinical examination ... Sternal marrow aspiration revealed slight myelodysplasia consistent ... case, renal biopsy findings and clinical follow-up made.

  16. Mobile phones improve case detection and management of malaria in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prue Chai S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent introduction of mobile phones into the rural Bandarban district of Bangladesh provided a resource to improve case detection and treatment of patients with malaria. Methods During studies to define the epidemiology of malaria in villages in south-eastern Bangladesh, an area with hypoendemic malaria, the project recorded 986 mobile phone calls from families because of illness suspected to be malaria between June 2010 and June 2012. Results Based on phone calls, field workers visited the homes with ill persons, and collected blood samples for malaria on 1,046 people. 265 (25% of the patients tested were positive for malaria. Of the 509 symptomatic malaria cases diagnosed during this study period, 265 (52% were detected because of an initial mobile phone call. Conclusion Mobile phone technology was found to be an efficient and effective method for rapidly detecting and treating patients with malaria in this remote area. This technology, when combined with local knowledge and field support, may be applicable to other hard-to-reach areas to improve malaria control.

  17. Travel patterns and demographic characteristics of malaria cases in Swaziland, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor-Garavito, Natalia; Dlamini, Nomcebo; Pindolia, Deepa; Soble, Adam; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Alegana, Victor; Le Menach, Arnaud; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Dlamini, Bongani; Smith, David L; Tatem, Andrew J; Kunene, Simon

    2017-09-08

    As Swaziland progresses towards national malaria elimination, the importation of parasites into receptive areas becomes increasingly important. Imported infections have the potential to instigate local transmission and sustain local parasite reservoirs. Travel histories from Swaziland's routine surveillance data from January 2010 to June 2014 were extracted and analysed. The travel patterns and demographics of rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-confirmed positive cases identified through passive and reactive case detection (RACD) were analysed and compared to those found to be negative through RACD. Of 1517 confirmed cases identified through passive surveillance, 67% reported travel history. A large proportion of positive cases reported domestic or international travel history (65%) compared to negative cases (10%). The primary risk factor for malaria infection in Swaziland was shown to be travel, more specifically international travel to Mozambique by 25- to 44-year old males, who spent on average 28 nights away. Maputo City, Inhambane and Gaza districts were the most likely travel destinations in Mozambique, and 96% of RDT-positive international travellers were either Swazi (52%) or Mozambican (44%) nationals, with Swazis being more likely to test negative. All international travellers were unlikely to have a bed net at home or use protection of any type while travelling. Additionally, paths of transmission, important border crossings and means of transport were identified. Results from this analysis can be used to direct national and well as cross-border targeting of interventions, over space, time and by sub-population. The results also highlight that collaboration between neighbouring countries is needed to tackle the importation of malaria at the regional level.

  18. Short report: severe malaria associated with blood group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P R; Boone, P

    1998-01-01

    The ABO blood groups are not linked to the incidence of simple malaria infection but have been associated with rosette formation. In an effort to see if clinically severe malaria is associated with blood group, 489 patients were studied in Zimbabwe. Patients with malaria and group A blood had lower hemoglobin levels and more risk of coma than did infected patients with other blood groups. In this population, severe malaria is associated with blood group.

  19. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-01-22

    Jan 22, 2015 ... Bell reported death in his patient by spinal cord compression due to atlanto-axial subluxation and autopsy report showed the erosion ... loss of appetite was admitted with painful torticollis on the postoperative one week. .... CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are excellent diagnostic tools to show the.

  20. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). ... out intracranial hemorrhage, brain tomography (CT) was obtained. It revealed no ... admission, control EEG was reported as normal.

  1. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-01-27

    Jan 27, 2013 ... 1Resident of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of .... the best of our knowledge, co-amoxiclav has never been reported to ... electrolyte replacement, acid-base and metabolic equilibrium.

  2. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iamong

    2016-08-11

    Aug 11, 2016 ... clinical and radiological features other diagnosis as pneumopathy. We herein report the .... Goodpasture syndrome, Churg–Strauss syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus or idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis, which are.

  3. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-02-27

    Feb 27, 2015 ... Key words: Headache, spinal analgesia, epidural anaesthesia, post-dural ... Clinical features the typical positional headache, a procession of ... The immediate postoperative analgesia was ... However, the day after surgery, the patient complained of ... In case of epidural analgesia, a prophylactic blood.

  4. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 juin 2017 ... Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the colon: about a case .... des cancers extradigestifs ; des cas de carcinomes ovarien, endométrial, prostatique et ... tumeur (peu différenciée et indifférenciée) et le stade IV de TNM. [1,10].

  5. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füchtbauer, Laila; Brusgaard, Klaus; Ledaal, Pål;

    2015-01-01

    ey Clinical Message Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1 VDDR-1 is a recessive inherited disorder with impaired activation of vitamin D, caused by mutations in CYP27B1. We present long-time follow-up of a case with a novel mutation including high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography...

  6. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-11-24

    Nov 24, 2015 ... the first molecularly confirmed case of FOP in sub-Saharan Africa outside South ... She is the seventh child in her family of eight children and the only affected in ... mobility, weight loss due to ankylosis of the jaw and thoracic.

  7. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1 ... Lipomas are the most common soft tissue tumor of non-neural origin in the body however they ... patient reported burning pain in the same area – causing him to wake up frequently ... Soft tissue lipomas are true benign neoplasms originating from adipose cells.

  8. Forecasting malaria cases using climatic factors in delhi, India: a time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun; Mangal, Abha; Panesar, Sanjeet; Yadav, Geeta; Talwar, Richa; Raut, Deepak; Singh, Saudan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria still remains a public health problem in developing countries and changing environmental and climatic factors pose the biggest challenge in fighting against the scourge of malaria. Therefore, the study was designed to forecast malaria cases using climatic factors as predictors in Delhi, India. Methods. The total number of monthly cases of malaria slide positives occurring from January 2006 to December 2013 was taken from the register maintained at the malaria clinic at Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC), Najafgarh, Delhi. Climatic data of monthly mean rainfall, relative humidity, and mean maximum temperature were taken from Regional Meteorological Centre, Delhi. Expert modeler of SPSS ver. 21 was used for analyzing the time series data. Results. Autoregressive integrated moving average, ARIMA (0,1,1) (0,1,0)(12), was the best fit model and it could explain 72.5% variability in the time series data. Rainfall (P value = 0.004) and relative humidity (P value = 0.001) were found to be significant predictors for malaria transmission in the study area. Seasonal adjusted factor (SAF) for malaria cases shows peak during the months of August and September. Conclusion. ARIMA models of time series analysis is a simple and reliable tool for producing reliable forecasts for malaria in Delhi, India.

  9. Forecasting Malaria Cases Using Climatic Factors in Delhi, India: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria still remains a public health problem in developing countries and changing environmental and climatic factors pose the biggest challenge in fighting against the scourge of malaria. Therefore, the study was designed to forecast malaria cases using climatic factors as predictors in Delhi, India. Methods. The total number of monthly cases of malaria slide positives occurring from January 2006 to December 2013 was taken from the register maintained at the malaria clinic at Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC, Najafgarh, Delhi. Climatic data of monthly mean rainfall, relative humidity, and mean maximum temperature were taken from Regional Meteorological Centre, Delhi. Expert modeler of SPSS ver. 21 was used for analyzing the time series data. Results. Autoregressive integrated moving average, ARIMA (0,1,1 (0,1,012, was the best fit model and it could explain 72.5% variability in the time series data. Rainfall (P value = 0.004 and relative humidity (P value = 0.001 were found to be significant predictors for malaria transmission in the study area. Seasonal adjusted factor (SAF for malaria cases shows peak during the months of August and September. Conclusion. ARIMA models of time series analysis is a simple and reliable tool for producing reliable forecasts for malaria in Delhi, India.

  10. Community health workers and stand-alone or integrated case management of malaria: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Paintain, Lucy; Willey, Barbara; Kedenge, Sarah; Sharkey, Alyssa; Kim, Julia; Buj, Valentina; Webster, Jayne; Schellenberg, David; Ngongo, Ngashi

    2014-09-01

    A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of strategies to improve community case management (CCM) of malaria. Forty-three studies were included; most (38) reported indicators of community health worker (CHW) performance, 14 reported on malaria CCM integrated with other child health interventions, 16 reported on health system capacity, and 13 reported on referral. The CHWs are able to provide good quality malaria care, including performing procedures such as rapid diagnostic tests. Appropriate training, clear guidelines, and regular supportive supervision are important facilitating factors. Crucial to sustainable success of CHW programs is strengthening health system capacity to support commodity supply, supervision, and appropriate treatment of referred cases. The little evidence available on referral from community to health facility level suggests that this is an area that needs priority attention. The studies of integrated CCM suggest that additional tasks do not reduce the quality of malaria CCM provided sufficient training and supervision is maintained. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Malaria morbidity and temperature variation in a low risk Kenyan district: a case of overdiagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuguna, John; Muita, James; Mundia, George

    2009-05-01

    Diagnosis of malaria using only clinical means leads to overdiagnosis. This has implications due to safety concerns and the recent introduction of more expensive drugs. Temperature is a major climatic factor influencing the transmission dynamics of malaria. This study looked at trends in malaria morbidity in the low risk Kenyan district of Nyandarua, coupled with data on temperature and precipitation for the years 2003-2006. July had the highest number of cases (12.2% of all cases) followed by August (10.2% of all cases). July and August also had the lowest mean maximum temperatures, 20.1 and 20.2 °C respectively. April, July and August had the highest rainfall, with daily means of 4.0, 4.3 and 4.9 mm, respectively. Observation showed that the coldest months experienced the highest number of cases of malaria. Despite the high rainfall, transmission of malaria tends to be limited by low temperatures due to the long duration required for sporogony, with fewer vectors surviving. These cold months also tend to have the highest number of cases of respiratory infections. There is a possibility that some of these were misdiagnosed as malaria based on the fact that only a small proportion of malaria cases were diagnosed using microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests. We conclude that overdiagnosis may be prevalent in this district and there may be a need to design an intervention to minimise it.

  12. Initial evidence of reduction of malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia due to rapid scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Mac; Aregawi, Maru; Were, Wilson; Karema, Corine; Medin, Ambachew; Bekele, Worku; Jima, Daddi; Gausi, Khoti; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Korenromp, Eline; Low-Beer, Daniel; Grabowsky, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background An increasing number of malaria-endemic African countries are rapidly scaling up malaria prevention and treatment. To have an initial estimate of the impact of these efforts, time trends in health facility records were evaluated in selected districts in Ethiopia and Rwanda, where long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) had been distributed nationwide by 2007. Methods In Ethiopia, a stratified convenience sample covered four major regions where (moderately) endemic malaria occurs. In Rwanda, two districts were sampled in all five provinces, with one rural health centre and one rural hospital selected in each district. The main impact indicator was percentage change in number of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in children < 5 years old prior to (2001–2005/6) and after (2007) nationwide implementation of LLIN and ACT. Results In-patient malaria cases and deaths in children < 5 years old in Rwanda fell by 55% and 67%, respectively, and in Ethiopia by 73% and 62%. Over this same time period, non-malaria cases and deaths generally remained stable or increased. Conclusion Initial evidence indicated that the combination of mass distribution of LLIN to all children < 5 years or all households and nationwide distribution of ACT in the public sector was associated with substantial declines of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia. Clinic-based data was a useful tool for local monitoring of the impact of malaria programmes. PMID:19144183

  13. Assessment of severe malaria in a multicenter, phase III, RTS, S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine trial: case definition, standardization of data collection and patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vekemans Johan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effective malaria vaccine, deployed in conjunction with other malaria interventions, is likely to substantially reduce the malaria burden. Efficacy against severe malaria will be a key driver for decisions on implementation. An initial study of an RTS, S vaccine candidate showed promising efficacy against severe malaria in children in Mozambique. Further evidence of its protective efficacy will be gained in a pivotal, multi-centre, phase III study. This paper describes the case definitions of severe malaria used in this study and the programme for standardized assessment of severe malaria according to the case definition. Methods Case definitions of severe malaria were developed from a literature review and a consensus meeting of expert consultants and the RTS, S Clinical Trial Partnership Committee, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Malaria Clinical Trials Alliance. The same groups, with input from an Independent Data Monitoring Committee, developed and implemented a programme for standardized data collection. The case definitions developed reflect the typical presentations of severe malaria in African hospitals. Markers of disease severity were chosen on the basis of their association with poor outcome, occurrence in a significant proportion of cases and on an ability to standardize their measurement across research centres. For the primary case definition, one or more clinical and/or laboratory markers of disease severity have to be present, four major co-morbidities (pneumonia, meningitis, bacteraemia or gastroenteritis with severe dehydration are excluded, and a Plasmodium falciparum parasite density threshold is introduced, in order to maximize the specificity of the case definition. Secondary case definitions allow inclusion of co-morbidities and/or allow for the presence of parasitaemia at any density. The programmatic implementation of standardized case assessment included a clinical

  14. Assessment of severe malaria in a multicenter, phase III, RTS, S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine trial: case definition, standardization of data collection and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekemans, Johan; Marsh, Kevin; Greenwood, Brian; Leach, Amanda; Kabore, William; Soulanoudjingar, Solange; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Ansong, Daniel; Evans, Jennifer; Sacarlal, Jahit; Bejon, Philip; Kamthunzi, Portia; Salim, Nahya; Njuguna, Patricia; Hamel, Mary J; Otieno, Walter; Gesase, Samwel; Schellenberg, David

    2011-08-04

    An effective malaria vaccine, deployed in conjunction with other malaria interventions, is likely to substantially reduce the malaria burden. Efficacy against severe malaria will be a key driver for decisions on implementation. An initial study of an RTS, S vaccine candidate showed promising efficacy against severe malaria in children in Mozambique. Further evidence of its protective efficacy will be gained in a pivotal, multi-centre, phase III study. This paper describes the case definitions of severe malaria used in this study and the programme for standardized assessment of severe malaria according to the case definition. Case definitions of severe malaria were developed from a literature review and a consensus meeting of expert consultants and the RTS, S Clinical Trial Partnership Committee, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Malaria Clinical Trials Alliance. The same groups, with input from an Independent Data Monitoring Committee, developed and implemented a programme for standardized data collection.The case definitions developed reflect the typical presentations of severe malaria in African hospitals. Markers of disease severity were chosen on the basis of their association with poor outcome, occurrence in a significant proportion of cases and on an ability to standardize their measurement across research centres. For the primary case definition, one or more clinical and/or laboratory markers of disease severity have to be present, four major co-morbidities (pneumonia, meningitis, bacteraemia or gastroenteritis with severe dehydration) are excluded, and a Plasmodium falciparum parasite density threshold is introduced, in order to maximize the specificity of the case definition. Secondary case definitions allow inclusion of co-morbidities and/or allow for the presence of parasitaemia at any density. The programmatic implementation of standardized case assessment included a clinical algorithm for evaluating seriously sick children

  15. Evaluating malaria case management at public health facilities in two provinces in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucinski, Mateusz M; Ferreira, Manzambi; Ferreira, Carolina Miguel; Burns, Jordan; Gaparayi, Patrick; João, Lubaki; da Costa, Olinda; Gill, Parambir; Samutondo, Claudete; Quivinja, Joltim; Mbounga, Eliane; de León, Gabriel Ponce; Halsey, Eric S; Dimbu, Pedro Rafael; Fortes, Filomeno

    2017-05-03

    Malaria accounts for the largest portion of healthcare demand in Angola. A pillar of malaria control in Angola is the appropriate management of malaria illness, including testing of suspect cases with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and treatment of confirmed cases with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Periodic systematic evaluations of malaria case management are recommended to measure health facility readiness and adherence to national case management guidelines. Cross-sectional health facility surveys were performed in low-transmission Huambo and high-transmission Uíge Provinces in early 2016. In each province, 45 health facilities were randomly selected from among all public health facilities stratified by level of care. Survey teams performed inventories of malaria commodities and conducted exit interviews and re-examinations, including RDT testing, of a random selection of all patients completing outpatient consultations. Key health facility readiness and case management indicators were calculated adjusting for the cluster sampling design and utilization. Availability of RDTs or microscopy on the day of the survey was 71% (54-83) in Huambo and 85% (67-94) in Uíge. At least one unit dose pack of one formulation of an ACT (usually artemether-lumefantrine) was available in 83% (66-92) of health facilities in Huambo and 79% (61-90) of health facilities in Uíge. Testing rates of suspect malaria cases in Huambo were 30% (23-38) versus 69% (53-81) in Uíge. Overall, 28% (13-49) of patients with uncomplicated malaria, as determined during the re-examination, were appropriately treated with an ACT with the correct dose in Huambo, compared to 60% (42-75) in Uíge. Incorrect case management of suspect malaria cases was associated with lack of healthcare worker training in Huambo and ACT stock-outs in Uíge. The results reveal important differences between provinces. Despite similar availability of testing and ACT, testing and treatment rates were lower in

  16. Initial evidence of reduction of malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia due to rapid scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gausi Khoti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of malaria-endemic African countries are rapidly scaling up malaria prevention and treatment. To have an initial estimate of the impact of these efforts, time trends in health facility records were evaluated in selected districts in Ethiopia and Rwanda, where long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT had been distributed nationwide by 2007. Methods In Ethiopia, a stratified convenience sample covered four major regions where (moderately endemic malaria occurs. In Rwanda, two districts were sampled in all five provinces, with one rural health centre and one rural hospital selected in each district. The main impact indicator was percentage change in number of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in children Results In-patient malaria cases and deaths in children Conclusion Initial evidence indicated that the combination of mass distribution of LLIN to all children

  17. Finding parasites and finding challenges: improved diagnostic access and trends in reported malaria and anti-malarial drug use in Livingstone district, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaninga Freddie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT use on management of acute febrile disease at a community level, and on the consumption of anti-malarial medicines, is critical to the planning and success of scale-up to universal parasite-based diagnosis by health systems in malaria-endemic countries. Methods A retrospective study of district-wide community-level RDT introduction was conducted in Livingstone District, Zambia, to assess the impact of this programmed on malaria reporting, incidence of mortality and on district anti-malarial consumption. Results Reported malaria declined from 12,186 cases in the quarter prior to RDT introduction in 2007 to an average of 12.25 confirmed and 294 unconfirmed malaria cases per quarter over the year to September 2009. Reported malaria-like fever also declined, with only 4,381 RDTs being consumed per quarter over the same year. Reported malaria mortality declined to zero in the year to September 2009, and all-cause mortality declined. Consumption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT dropped dramatically, but remained above reported malaria, declining from 12,550 courses dispensed by the district office in the quarter prior to RDT implementation to an average of 822 per quarter over the last year. Quinine consumption in health centres also declined, with the district office ceasing to supply due to low usage, but requests for sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP rose to well above previous levels, suggesting substitution of ACT with this drug in RDT-negative cases. Conclusions RDT introduction led to a large decline in reported malaria cases and in ACT consumption in Livingstone district. Reported malaria mortality declined to zero, indicating safety of the new diagnostic regime, although adherence and/or use of RDTs was still incomplete. However, a deficiency is apparent in management of non-malarial fever, with inappropriate use of a low-cost single dose drug, SP

  18. [Descriptive study of malaria cases in a general hospital in Madrid between 1996 and 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, P; Pérez, E; Guizar, M; Penín, M; Gómez Carrasco, J A

    2014-11-01

    Malaria causes around 863,000 deaths per year, mostly of them in children under 5 years old. We have reviewed the epidemiological data of malaria cases in a pediatric department in a Hospital in the Community of Madrid, in the period 1996-2011. In the period reviewed, 103 cases of malaria were diagnosed in children under 14 years old. Sixty percent were males and the average age was 4.5 years. In most cases, the infection arose during a visit to relatives in the country of origin. The vast majority did not have malaria prophylaxis. Twenty-five percent of the cases were diagnosed as complicated malaria, the main criteria being hyperparasitemia, of which 80% of the patients did not present any other complications A high level of suspicion must be maintained in any patient who comes from a malaria endemic area. The key factor responsible for the infection was the lack of chemoprophylaxis. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality of uncomplicated malaria case management in Ghana among insured and uninsured patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenny, Ama P; Hansen, Kristian S; Enemark, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    of health insurance on the quality of case management for patients with uncomplicated malaria, ascertaining any significant differences in treatment between insured and non-insured patients. METHOD: A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 523 respondents diagnosed with malaria....... This is especially the case for parasitological confirmation of all suspected malaria patients before treatment with an antimalarial as currently recommended for the effective management of malaria in the country. The results show that about 16 percent of total sample were parasitologically tested. Effective...... management of the disease demands proper diagnosis and treatment and therefore facilities need to be adequately supplied with RDTs or be equipped with well functioning laboratories to provide adequate testing....

  20. An Investment Case to Prevent the Reintroduction of Malaria in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shretta, Rima; Baral, Ranju; Avanceña, Anton L. V.; Fox, Katie; Dannoruwa, Asoka Premasiri; Jayanetti, Ravindra; Jeyakumaran, Arumainayagam; Hasantha, Rasike; Peris, Lalanthika; Premaratne, Risintha

    2017-01-01

    Sri Lanka has made remarkable gains in reducing the burden of malaria, recording no locally transmitted malaria cases since November 2012 and zero deaths since 2007. The country was recently certified as malaria free by World Health Organization in September 2016. Sri Lanka, however, continues to face a risk of resurgence due to persistent receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission. Maintaining the gains will require continued financing to the malaria program to maintain the activities aimed at preventing reintroduction. This article presents an investment case for malaria in Sri Lanka by estimating the costs and benefits of sustaining investments to prevent the reintroduction of the disease. An ingredient-based approach was used to estimate the cost of the existing program. The cost of potential resurgence was estimated using a hypothetical scenario in which resurgence assumed to occur, if all prevention of reintroduction activities were halted. These estimates were used to compute a benefit–cost ratio and a return on investment. The total economic cost of the malaria program in 2014 was estimated at U.S. dollars (USD) 0.57 per capita per year with a financial cost of USD0.37 per capita. The cost of potential malaria resurgence was, however, much higher estimated at 13 times the cost of maintaining existing activities or 21 times based on financial costs alone. This evidence suggests a substantial return on investment providing a compelling argument for advocacy for continued prioritization of funding for the prevention of reintroduction of malaria in Sri Lanka. PMID:28115673

  1. An Investment Case to Prevent the Reintroduction of Malaria in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shretta, Rima; Baral, Ranju; Avanceña, Anton L V; Fox, Katie; Dannoruwa, Asoka Premasiri; Jayanetti, Ravindra; Jeyakumaran, Arumainayagam; Hasantha, Rasike; Peris, Lalanthika; Premaratne, Risintha

    2017-03-01

    AbstractSri Lanka has made remarkable gains in reducing the burden of malaria, recording no locally transmitted malaria cases since November 2012 and zero deaths since 2007. The country was recently certified as malaria free by World Health Organization in September 2016. Sri Lanka, however, continues to face a risk of resurgence due to persistent receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission. Maintaining the gains will require continued financing to the malaria program to maintain the activities aimed at preventing reintroduction. This article presents an investment case for malaria in Sri Lanka by estimating the costs and benefits of sustaining investments to prevent the reintroduction of the disease. An ingredient-based approach was used to estimate the cost of the existing program. The cost of potential resurgence was estimated using a hypothetical scenario in which resurgence assumed to occur, if all prevention of reintroduction activities were halted. These estimates were used to compute a benefit-cost ratio and a return on investment. The total economic cost of the malaria program in 2014 was estimated at U.S. dollars (USD) 0.57 per capita per year with a financial cost of USD0.37 per capita. The cost of potential malaria resurgence was, however, much higher estimated at 13 times the cost of maintaining existing activities or 21 times based on financial costs alone. This evidence suggests a substantial return on investment providing a compelling argument for advocacy for continued prioritization of funding for the prevention of reintroduction of malaria in Sri Lanka.

  2. Evaluation of severe malaria case management in Mazowe District, Zimbabwe, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makumbe, Bargley; Tshuma, Cremence; Shambira, Gerald; Mungati, More; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Bangure, Donewell; Juru, Tsitsi Patience; Tshimanga, Mufuta

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is a preventable and curable disease. Mazowe district had been experiencing a lower malaria transmission rate in comparison to other districts in the Mashonaland Central province but it experienced a huge outbreak in the 2013-2014 rainy seasons with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 0.21%. This CFR was the highest in the province and it was twice as much as the national CFR (0.12%) for the same period. We evaluated severe malaria case management in Mazowe district to determine if practice is as per standard treatment guidelines. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Mazowe district using the Logical Framework approach. District Health Executives (DHE) members, nurses and severe malaria case notes were purposively and conveniently selected into the study. Key informant Interviews and review of case notes were carried out. All data were analysed using Epi Info 3.5.1.to calculate means and frequencies. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the Mashonaland Central Provincial Medical Directorate (PMD) Institutional Ethical Review Board (IRB). The median age in years of the cases was 16 (Q1=7.3; Q3=30.8) and up to 58.1% of the cases were female. Inputs including staff, medicines and medical and laboratory equipment for severe case management were inadequate in the district. Only 60% of severe cases were diagnosed using blood slides and up to 95.6% of cases presented with one or more of the clinical signs of severe malaria. All severe cases were treated using correct anti-malarial and analgesic doses. Patient monitoring was not done as per prerequisite intervals and up to 5% of cases died. The health workers had above average knowledge on severe malaria. Severe malaria case management inputs were inadequate in the district. For many cases, the district did not follow complicated malaria treatment guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. Untrained staff needs training in Severe Malaria Case Management and monitoring of commodity

  3. Molecular method for the diagnosis of imported pediatric malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaes Jeanne, L; Berry, A; Dutoit, E; Leclerc, F; Beaudou, J; Leteurtre, S; Camus, D; Benoit-Vical, F

    2010-02-01

    Malaria is a polymorphous disease; it can be life threatening especially for children. We report a case of imported malaria in a boy, illustrating the epidemiological and clinical aspects of severe pediatric malaria. In this case real-time PCR was used to quantify Plasmodium falciparum DNA levels, to monitor the evolution under treatment, and to determine genetic mutations involved in chloroquine resistance. The major epidemiological features of imported malaria, and the difficulty to diagnose childhood severe malaria are described. The contribution of molecular methods for the diagnosis of imported malaria is discussed.

  4. Severe imported malaria in an intensive care unit: a review of 59 cases

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    Santos Lurdes C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the close relationship of Portugal with African countries, particularly former Portuguese colonies, the diagnosis of malaria is not a rare thing. When a traveller returns ill from endemic areas, malaria should be the number one suspect. World Health Organization treatment guidelines recommend that adults with severe malaria should be admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU. Methods Severe cases of malaria in patients admitted to an ICU were reviewed retrospectively (1990-2011 and identification of variables associated with in-ICU mortality performed. Malaria prediction score (MPS, malaria score for adults (MSA, simplified acute physiology score (SAPSII and a score based on WHO's malaria severe criteria were applied. Statistical analysis was performed using StataV12. Results Fifty nine patients were included in the study, all but three were adults; 47 (79,6% were male; parasitaemia on admission, quantified in 48/59 (81.3% patients, was equal or greater than 2% in 47 of them (97.9%; the most common complications were thrombocytopaenia in 54 (91.5% patients, associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC in seven (11.8%, renal failure in 31 (52.5% patients, 18 of which (30.5% oliguric, shock in 29 (49.1% patients, liver dysfunction in 27 (45.7% patients, acidaemia in 23 (38.9% patients, cerebral dysfunction in 22 (37.2% patients, 11 of whom with unrousable coma, pulmonary oedema/ARDS in 22 (37.2% patients, hypoglycaemia in 18 (30.5% patients; 29 (49.1% patients presented five or more dysfunctions. The case fatality rate was 15.2%. Comparing the four scores, the SAPS II and the WHO score were the most sensitive to death prediction. In the univariate analysis, death was associated with the SAPS II score, cerebral malaria, acute renal and respiratory failure, DIC, spontaneous bleeding, acidosis and hypoglycaemia. Age, partial immunity to malaria, delay in malaria diagnosis and the level of parasitaemia were

  5. Malaria prevalence and morbidity among children reporting at health facilities in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Basco, Leonardo K; Salem, Mohamed Salem O Ahmedou; Hafid, Jamal Eddine; Marin-Jauffre, Adeline; Weddih, Abdallahi O; Briolant, Sébastien; Bogreau, Hervé; Pradines, Bruno; Rogier, Christophe; Trape, Jean-François; Boukhary, Ali O Mohamed Salem O

    2011-12-01

    Although malaria has become a serious public health problem in Mauritania since the late 1990s, few documented data on its epidemiology exist. The objective of this study was to assess the morbidity of clinical malaria among children in Nouakchott. Three hundred and one febrile children, consulting at three health facilities of Nouakchott, were screened for malaria in 2009 (n=216) and 2010 (n=85). Plasmodium species identification and parasite density were determined by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin and thick films and confirmed by rapid diagnostic test and nested PCR. Of 301 febrile children, 105 (34.9%) were malaria-positive by nested PCR and 87 (28.9%) by microscopy. Plasmodium vivax represented 97.1% (102/105) and P. falciparum accounted for 2.9% (3/105) of positive cases. All positive children under five years old were infected with P. vivax. The highest numbers of malaria positives were found during or shortly after the rainy season and the lowest during the dry season. Fifty-four of 105 (51.4%) malaria cases, all with P. vivax, had never travelled outside Nouakchott. Individuals belonging to the Moors ethnic group represented 97.0% of P. vivax cases. Results of the present study indicate that malaria is endemic in Nouakchott and that P. vivax is the principal causative agent. Regular surveillance is required to monitor malaria prevalence and incidence, and further measures are needed to counter the possible spread of malaria in the country. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [A case of malaria with uveitis, hyperglycemia, and rasha in a Turkish radiologist who went to Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Şerife; Koçak Tufan, Zeliha; Kaçar, Mahmut; Ataman Hatipoğlu, Çiğdem; Kınıklı, Sami; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2014-12-01

    Malaria is still an important health problem worldwide, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Turkey, the most common type of malaria is Plasmodium vivax, and endemic regions are South-Eastern Anatolia and Çukurova. Due to globalization and tourism, travel-associated infection due to P. falciparum is also seen more frequently in Turkey. P. falciparum malaria can be highly fatal despite optimal antimalarial treatment. We present a case of falciparum malaria in a Turkish radiologist who went to Africa for occupational reasons and come back with malaria accompanied by uveitis, hyperglycemia, and purpuric rash.

  7. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of patients with cases of imported malaria in Poland – one center’s experience

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    Jacek Czepiel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background . Increasingly, Polish citizens are traveling to malaria endemic regions; thus, physicians, especially primary care physicians, should be educated to recognize and treat malaria. Diagnosis and treatment of malaria encounters many difficulties in Poland. Objectives . The aim of the study was to analyze malaria chemoprophylaxis, the time from first symptoms to hospitalization and the process of diagnosis and treatment of patients with malaria. Material and methods . The medical records of patients diagnosed with malaria, hospitalized between 2012 and 2016 in the Department of Infectious Diseases of the University Hospital, Cracow, Poland, were analyzed. Results . 37 subjects with a median age of 32 years (interquartile range IQR: 28–40, mostly returning from Africa (78%, n = 29, were studied. Proper chemoprophylaxis was used in 6 cases (16%. The median length of stay in malaria endemic countries was one month. Plasmodium falciparum was the most frequent species (74%. The mean time to treatment after symptom onset was 5 days (range: 1–27 days. Conclusions . The clinical presentation of malaria in the study group was usually typical. Diagnostic delay resulted from not taking malaria into consideration during the initial differential diagnosis of fever. Few travelers use chemoprophylaxis, hence the awareness of malaria in individuals who have traveled to endemic zones should be enhanced. In a patient presenting with fever, malaria should always be considered in a differential diagnosis if there is a history of travel to a malaria-endemic zone.

  8. Malaria in India: Challenges and opportunities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Dash; Neena Valecha; A R Anvikar; A Kumar

    2008-11-01

    India contributes about 70% of malaria in the South East Asian Region of WHO. Although annually India reports about two million cases and 1000 deaths attributable to malaria, there is an increasing trend in the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum as the agent. There exists heterogeneity and variability in the risk of malaria transmission between and within the states of the country as many ecotypes/paradigms of malaria have been recognized. The pattern of clinical presentation of severe malaria has also changed and while multi-organ failure is more frequently observed in falciparum malaria, there are reports of vivax malaria presenting with severe manifestations. The high burden populations are ethnic tribes living in the forested pockets of the states like Orissa, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and the North Eastern states which contribute bulk of morbidity and mortality due to malaria in the country. Drug resistance, insecticide resistance, lack of knowledge of actual disease burden along with new paradigms of malaria pose a challenge for malaria control in the country. Considering the existing gaps in reported and estimated morbidity and mortality, need for estimation of true burden of malaria has been stressed. Administrative, financial, technical and operational challenges faced by the national programme have been elucidated. Approaches and priorities that may be helpful in tackling serious issues confronting malaria programme have been outlined.

  9. Change of strategy is required for malaria elimination: a case study in Purworejo District, Central Java Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murhandarwati, E Elsa Herdiana; Fuad, Anis; Sulistyawati; Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus; Bia, Michael Badi; Widartono, Barandi Sapta; Kuswantoro; Lobo, Neil F; Supargiyono; Hawley, William A

    2015-08-16

    Malaria has been targeted for elimination from Indonesia by 2030, with varying timelines for specific geographical areas based on disease endemicity. The regional deadline for malaria elimination for Java island, given the steady decrease of malaria cases, was the end of 2015. Purworejo District, a malaria-endemic area in Java with an annual parasite incidence (API) of 0.05 per 1,000 population in 2009, aims to enter this elimination stage. This study documents factors that affect incidence and spatial distribution of malaria in Purworejo, such as geomorphology, topography, health system issues, and identifies potential constraints and challenges to achieve the elimination stage, such as inter-districts coordination, decentralization policy and allocation of financial resources for the programme. Historical malaria data from 2007 to 2011 were collected through secondary data, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions during study year (2010-2011). Malaria cases were mapped using the village-centroid shape file to visualize its distribution with geomorphologic characteristics overlay and spatial distribution of malaria. API in each village in Purworejo and its surrounding districts from 2007 to 2011 was stratified into high, middle or low case incidence to show the spatiotemporal mapping pattern. The spatiotemporal pattern of malaria cases in Purworejo and the adjacent districts demonstrate repeated concentrated occurrences of malaria in specific areas from 2007 to 2011. District health system issues, i.e., suboptimal coordination between primary care and referral systems, suboptimal inter-district collaboration for malaria surveillance, decentralization policy and the lack of resources, especially district budget allocations for the malaria programme, were major constraints for programme sustainability. A new malaria elimination approach that fits the local disease transmission, intervention and political system is required. These changes include timely

  10. Quality of malaria case management at outpatient health facilities in Angola

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    Santelli Ana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angola's malaria case-management policy recommends treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (AL. In 2006, AL implementation began in Huambo Province, which involved training health workers (HWs, supervision, delivering AL to health facilities, and improving malaria testing with microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs. Implementation was complicated by a policy that was sometimes ambiguous. Methods Fourteen months after implementation began, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 33 outpatient facilities in Huambo Province to assess their readiness to manage malaria and the quality of malaria case-management for patients of all ages. Consultations were observed, patients were interviewed and re-examined, and HWs were interviewed. Results Ninety-three HWs and 177 consultations were evaluated, although many sampled consultations were missed. All facilities had AL in-stock and at least one HW trained to use AL and RDTs. However, anti-malarial stock-outs in the previous three months were common, clinical supervision was infrequent, and HWs had important knowledge gaps. Except for fever history, clinical assessments were often incomplete. Although testing was recommended for all patients with suspected malaria, only 30.7% of such patients were tested. Correct testing was significantly associated with caseloads Conclusion By late-2007, substantial progress had been made to implement the malaria case-management policy in a setting with weak infrastructure. However, policy ambiguities, under-use of malaria testing, and distrust of negative test results led to many incorrect malaria diagnoses and treatments. In 2009, Angola published a policy that clarified many issues. As problems identified in this survey are not unique to Angola, better strategies for improving HW performance are urgently needed.

  11. The global crisis of malaria: report on a Yale conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Frank M

    2009-03-01

    An international conference, "The Global Crisis of Malaria: Lessons of the Past and Future Prospects," met at Yale University, November 7-9, 2008. The symposium was organized by Professor Frank Snowden and sponsored by the Provost's office, the MacMillan Center, the Program in the History of Science and History of Medicine, and the Section of the History of Medicine at the Yale School of Medicine. It brought together experts on malaria from a variety of disciplines, countries, and experiences--physicians, research scientists, historians of medicine, public health officials, and representatives of several non-governmental organizations (NGOs). An underlying theme was that much could be gained from a big-picture examination across disciplinary frontiers of the contemporary public health problem caused by malaria. Particular features of the conference were its intense scrutiny of historical successes and failures in malaria control and its demonstration of the relevance of history to policy discussions in the field.

  12. Comparison of Routine Health Management Information System Versus Enhanced Inpatient Malaria Surveillance for Estimating the Burden of Malaria Among Children Admitted to Four Hospitals in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpimbaza, Arthur; Miles, Melody; Sserwanga, Asadu; Kigozi, Ruth; Wanzira, Humphrey; Rubahika, Denis; Nasr, Sussann; Kapella, Bryan K.; Yoon, Steven S.; Chang, Michelle; Yeka, Adoke; Staedke, Sarah G.; Kamya, Moses R.; Dorsey, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The primary source of malaria surveillance data in Uganda is the Health Management Information System (HMIS), which does not require laboratory confirmation of reported malaria cases. To improve data quality, an enhanced inpatient malaria surveillance system (EIMSS) was implemented with emphasis on malaria testing of all children admitted in select hospitals. Data were compared between the HMIS and the EIMSS at four hospitals over a period of 12 months. After the implementation of the EIMSS, over 96% of admitted children under 5 years of age underwent laboratory testing for malaria. The HMIS significantly overreported the proportion of children under 5 years of age admitted with malaria (average absolute difference = 19%, range = 8–27% across the four hospitals) compared with the EIMSS. To improve the quality of the HMIS data for malaria surveillance, the National Malaria Control Program should, in addition to increasing malaria testing rates, focus on linking laboratory test results to reported malaria cases. PMID:25422396

  13. A report on case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopikrishna Velayutham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Case reports are defined as the scientific documentation of a single clinical observation and have a time-honored and rich tradition in medicine and scientific publication. This article discusses the role and relevance of case reports in the current evidence-based medical literature. It also seeks to help and guide authors to understand how to prepare a reasonable and well-written case report and how they may anticipate concerns that peer reviewers may express when scrutinizing their manuscript. An overview of the Journal of Conservative Dentistry′s review process of a manuscript submission is provided for the benefit of future authors. It is important to be able to read a case report critically and to use the information they contain appropriately. This article also discusses the factors to consider in evaluating individual case reports, and discusses a practical conceptual scheme for evaluating the potential value and educational content of a case report.

  14. A strange case of Malaria in a Nigerian native boy.

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    Paola Magro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The protective role of SCT in malaria endemic areas has been proved and prevalence of HbS gene in malaria endemic areas is high. Splenic infarction is a well-known complication of SCT, rarely associated with malaria. A Nigerian boy was admitted to our ward after returning from his country of origin, for P. falciparum malaria. He underwent abdominal US for upper right abdominal pain, showing cholecystitis and multiple splenic abscesses. Empiric antibiotic therapy was undertaken. Bartonella, Echinococcus, Entamoeba serologies, blood cultures, Quantiferon test, coproparasitologic exam were negative; endocarditis was excluded. He underwent further blood exams and abdomen MRI, confirming the presence of signal alterations areas, with radiographic appearance of recent post-infarction outcomes. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed a percentage of HbS of 40.6% and a diagnosis of SCT was made. Splenic infarction should be taken into account in patients with malaria and localized abdominal pain.  Moreover, diagnosis of SCT should be considered.

  15. Use of integrated malaria management reduces malaria in Kenya.

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    Bernard A Okech

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During an entomological survey in preparation for malaria control interventions in Mwea division, the number of malaria cases at the Kimbimbi sub-district hospital was in a steady decline. The underlying factors for this reduction were unknown and needed to be identified before any malaria intervention tools were deployed in the area. We therefore set out to investigate the potential factors that could have contributed to the decline of malaria cases in the hospital by analyzing the malaria control knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP that the residents in Mwea applied in an integrated fashion, also known as integrated malaria management (IMM. METHODS: Integrated Malaria Management was assessed among community members of Mwea division, central Kenya using KAP survey. The KAP study evaluated community members' malaria disease management practices at the home and hospitals, personal protection measures used at the household level and malaria transmission prevention methods relating to vector control. Concurrently, we also passively examined the prevalence of malaria parasite infection via outpatient admission records at the major referral hospital in the area. In addition we studied the mosquito vector population dynamics, the malaria sporozoite infection status and entomological inoculation rates (EIR over an 8 month period in 6 villages to determine the risk of malaria transmission in the entire division. RESULTS: A total of 389 households in Mwea division were interviewed in the KAP study while 90 houses were surveyed in the entomological study. Ninety eight percent of the households knew about malaria disease while approximately 70% of households knew its symptoms and methods to manage it. Ninety seven percent of the interviewed households went to a health center for malaria diagnosis and treatment. Similarly a higher proportion (81% used anti-malarial medicines bought from local pharmacies. Almost 90% of households reported

  16. Health service providers in Somalia: their readiness to provide malaria case-management

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    Moonen Bruno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have highlighted the inadequacies of the public health sector in sub-Saharan African countries in providing appropriate malaria case management. The readiness of the public health sector to provide malaria case-management in Somalia, a country where there has been no functioning central government for almost two decades, was investigated. Methods Three districts were purposively sampled in each of the two self-declared states of Puntland and Somaliland and the south-central region of Somalia, in April-November 2007. A survey and mapping of all public and private health service providers was undertaken. Information was recorded on services provided, types of anti-malarial drugs used and stock, numbers and qualifications of staff, sources of financial support and presence of malaria diagnostic services, new treatment guidelines and job aides for malaria case-management. All settlements were mapped and a semi-quantitative approach was used to estimate their population size. Distances from settlements to public health services were computed. Results There were 45 public health facilities, 227 public health professionals, and 194 private pharmacies for approximately 0.6 million people in the three districts. The median distance to public health facilities was 6 km. 62.3% of public health facilities prescribed the nationally recommended anti-malarial drug and 37.7% prescribed chloroquine as first-line therapy. 66.7% of public facilities did not have in stock the recommended first-line malaria therapy. Diagnosis of malaria using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT or microscopy was performed routinely in over 90% of the recommended public facilities but only 50% of these had RDT in stock at the time of survey. National treatment guidelines were available in 31.3% of public health facilities recommended by the national strategy. Only 8.8% of the private pharmacies prescribed artesunate plus sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine, while 53

  17. Arboviral diseases and malaria in Australia, 2011-12: annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knope, Katrina E; Doggett, Stephen L; Kurucz, Nina; Johansen, Cheryl A; Nicholson, Jay; Feldman, Rebecca; Sly, Angus; Hobby, Michaela; El Saadi, Debra; Muller, Mike; Jansen, Cassie C; Muzari, Odwell M

    2014-06-30

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received notifications for 7,875 cases of disease transmitted by mosquitoes during the 2011-12 season (1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012). The alphaviruses Barmah Forest virus and Ross River virus accounted for 6,036 (77%) of these. There were 18 notifications of dengue virus infection acquired in Australia and 1,390 cases that were acquired overseas, while for 38 cases, the place of acquisition was unknown. Imported cases of dengue in Australia were most frequently acquired in Indonesia. There were 20 imported cases of chikungunya virus. There were no notifications of locally-acquired malaria in Australia during the 2011-12 season. There were 314 notifications of overseas-acquired malaria and 41 notifications where the place of acquisition was unknown. Sentinel chicken, mosquito surveillance, viral detection in mosquitoes and climate modelling are used to provide early warning of arboviral disease activity in Australia. In 2011-12, sentinel chicken programs for the detection of flavivirus activity were conducted in most states with the risk of arboviral transmission. Other surveillance activities to detect the presence of arboviruses in mosquitoes or mosquito saliva or for surveying mosquito abundance included honey-baited trap surveillance, surveys of household containers that may provide suitable habitat for the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, and carbon dioxide baited traps. Surveillance for exotic mosquitoes at the border continues to be a vital part of preventing the spread of mosquito-borne diseases to new areas of Australia.

  18. Online reporting for malaria surveillance using micro-monetary incentives, in urban India 2010-2011

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    Chunara Rumi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate the use of novel surveillance tools in a malaria endemic region where prevalence information is limited. Specifically, online reporting for participatory epidemiology was used to gather information about malaria spread directly from the public. Individuals in India were incentivized to self-report their recent experience with malaria by micro-monetary payments. Methods Self-reports about malaria diagnosis status and related information were solicited online via Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Responders were paid $0.02 to answer survey questions regarding their recent experience with malaria. Timing of the peak volume of weekly self-reported malaria diagnosis in 2010 was compared to other available metrics such as the volume over time of and information about the epidemic from media sources. Distribution of Plasmodium species reports were compared with values from the literature. The study was conducted in summer 2010 during a malaria outbreak in Mumbai and expanded to other cities during summer 2011, and prevalence from self-reports in 2010 and 2011 was contrasted. Results Distribution of Plasmodium species diagnosis through self-report in 2010 revealed 59% for Plasmodium vivax, which is comparable to literature reports of the burden of P. vivax in India (between 50 and 69%. Self-reported Plasmodium falciparum diagnosis was 19% and during the 2010 outbreak and the estimated burden was between 10 and 15%. Prevalence between 2010 and 2011 via self-reports decreased significantly from 36.9% to 19.54% in Mumbai (p = 0.001, and official reports also confirmed a prevalence decrease in 2011. Conclusions With careful study design, micro-monetary incentives and online reporting are a rapid way to solicit malaria, and potentially other public health information. This methodology provides a cost-effective way of executing a field study that can act as a complement to traditional public health

  19. Vector control in a malaria epidemic occurring within a complex emergency situation in Burundi: a case study

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    D'Alessandro Umberto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African highlands often suffer of devastating malaria epidemics, sometimes in conjunction with complex emergencies, making their control even more difficult. In 2000, Burundian highlands experienced a large malaria outbreak at a time of civil unrest, constant insecurity and nutritional emergency. Because of suspected high resistance to the first and second line treatments, the provincial health authority and Médecins Sans Frontières (Belgium decided to implement vector control activities in an attempt to curtail the epidemic. There are few reported interventions of this type to control malaria epidemics in complex emergency contexts. Here, decisions and actions taken to control this epidemic, their impact and the lessons learned from this experience are reported. Case description Twenty nine hills (administrative areas were selected in collaboration with the provincial health authorities for the vector control interventions combining indoor residual spraying with deltamethrin and insecticide-treated nets. Impact was evaluated by entomological and parasitological surveys. Almost all houses (99% were sprayed and nets use varied between 48% and 63%. Anopheles indoor resting density was significantly lower in treated as compared to untreated hills, the latter taken as controls. Despite this impact on the vector, malaria prevalence was not significantly lower in treated hills except for people sleeping under a net. Discussion Indoor spraying was feasible and resulted in high coverage despite being a logistically complex intervention in the Burundian context (scattered houses and emergency situation. However, it had little impact on the prevalence of malaria infection, possibly because it was implemented after the epidemic's peak. Nevertheless, after this outbreak the Ministry of Health improved the surveillance system, changed its policy with introduction of effective drugs and implementation of vector control to prevent new

  20. Community response to artemisinin-based combination therapy for childhood malaria: a case study from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Nyato Daniel J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New malaria treatment guidelines in Tanzania have led to the large-scale deployment of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®, popularly known as ALu or dawa mseto. Very little is known about how people in malaria endemic areas interpret policy makers' decision to replace existing anti-malarials, such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP with "new" treatment regimens, such as ALu or other formulations of ACT. This study was conducted to examine community level understandings and interpretations of ALu's efficacy and side-effects. The paper specifically examines the perceived efficacy of ALu as articulated by the mothers of young children diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Methods Participant observation, six focus group discussions in two large villages, followed by interviews with a random sample of 110 mothers of children less than five years of age, who were diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Additionally, observations were conducted in two village dispensaries involving interactions between mothers/caretakers and health care providers. Results While more than two-thirds of the mothers had an overall negative disposition toward SP, 97.5% of them spoke favourably about ALu, emphasizing it's ability to help their children to rapidly recover from malaria, without undesirable side-effects. 62.5% of the mothers reported that they were spending less money dealing with malaria than previously when their child was treated with SP. 88% of the mothers had waited for 48 hours or more after the onset of fever before taking their child to the dispensary. Mothers' knowledge and reporting of ALu's dosage was, in many cases, inconsistent with the recommended dosage schedule for children. Conclusion Deployment of ALu has significantly changed community level perceptions of anti-malarial treatment. However, mothers continue to delay seeking care before accessing ALu, limiting the impact of highly subsidized rollout of the drug

  1. Acute allergic reaction to oral quinine for malarial prevention: A case report

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    Sora Yasri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinine is a classical antimalarial drug that is used worldwide. It is also used for pre-exposure of malaria before visiting to the jungle in the endemic area of malaria. In this article, the authors reported a case of acute allergic reaction to oral quinine for malarial prevention.

  2. Acute allergic reaction to oral quinine for malarial prevention:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sora Yasri; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Quinine is a classical antimalarial drug that is used worldwide. It is also used for pre-exposure of malaria before visiting to the jungle in the endemic area of malaria. In this article, the authors reported a case of acute allergic reaction to oral quinine for malarial prevention.

  3. Malaria past and present: the case of North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, D

    2001-09-01

    The incidence and impact of malaria in North Sulawesi have declined both in the short term during the 1990s, and over a much longer timespan (though perhaps less continuously) since the end of the colonial period. The improvement already seems to have been well underway before deliberate vector control activities became extensive in the second half of the 1970s, and environmental changes affecting the Anopheles mosquito fauna, in particular the replacement of primary and secondary forest by permanent farmland, are probably the principal reasons for the long-term trend; other possible factors include the increasing use of antimalarial drugs. The well-documented decline in malaria incidence over the years 1991-1997, nevertheless, probably reflects the unprecedented scale of residual insecticide spraying in the province during that period, while the slight resurgence of the disease in the last three years corresponds to the subsequent cessation of house spraying as a result of the current economic crisis. Despite the evident importance of environmental change as a factor ameliorating the malaria situation in the long term, experience from the colonial era suggests that the prospects for deliberate environmental management (species sanitation) as an alternative malaria control strategy are poor.

  4. Malaria successes and challenges in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajesh; Rastogi, Rakesh Mani; Ortega, Leonard

    2013-12-01

    Asia ranks second to Africa in terms of malaria burden. In 19 countries of Asia, malaria is endemic and 2.31 billion people or 62% of the total population in these countries are at risk of malaria. In 2010, WHO estimated around 34.8 million cases and 45,600 deaths due to malaria in Asia. In 2011, 2.7 million cases and > 2000 deaths were reported. India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Pakistan are responsible for >85% of the reported cases (confirmed) and deaths in Asia. In last 10 yr, due to availability of donor's fund specially from Global fund, significant progress has been made by the countries in Asia in scaling-up malaria control interventions which were instrumental in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality significantly. There is a large heterogeneity in malaria epidemiology in Asia. As a result, the success in malaria control/elimination is also diverse. As compared to the data of the year 2000, out of 19 malaria endemic countries, 12 countries were able to reduce malaria incidence (microscopically confirmed cases only) by 75%. Two countries, namely Bangladesh and Malaysia are projected to reach 75% reduction by 2015 while India is projected to reach 50-75% only by 2015. The trend could not be assessed in four countries, namely Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan and Timor-Leste due to insufficient consistent data. Numerous key challenges need to be addressed to sustain the gains and eliminate malaria in most parts of Asia. Some of these are to control the spread of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin, control of outdoor transmission, control of vivax malaria and ensuring universal coverage of key interventions. Asia has the potential to influence the malaria epidemiology all over the world as well as to support the global efforts in controlling and eliminating malaria through production of quality-assured ACTs, RDTs and long-lasting insecticidal nets.

  5. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms and cerebral malaria: TLR2 Δ22 polymorphism is associated with protection from cerebral malaria in a case control study

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    Greene Jennifer A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In malaria endemic areas, host genetics influence whether a Plasmodium falciparum-infected child develops uncomplicated or severe malaria. TLR2 has been identified as a receptor for P. falciparum-derived glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI, and polymorphisms within the TLR2 gene may affect disease pathogenesis. There are two common polymorphisms in the 5' un-translated region (UTR of TLR2, a 22 base pair deletion in the first unstranslated exon (Δ22, and a GT dinucleotide repeat in the second intron (GTn. Methods These polymorphisms were examined in a Ugandan case control study on children with either cerebral malaria or uncomplicated malaria. Serum cytokine levels were analysed by ELISA, according to genotype and disease status. In vitro TLR2 expression was measured according to genotype. Results Both Δ22 and GTn polymorphisms were highly frequent, but only Δ22 heterozygosity was associated with protection from cerebral malaria (OR 0.34, 95% confidence intervals 0.16, 0.73. In vitro, heterozygosity for Δ22 was associated with reduced pam3cys inducible TLR2 expression in human monocyte derived macrophages. In uncomplicated malaria patients, Δ22 homozygosity was associated with elevated serum IL-6 (p = 0.04, and long GT repeat alleles were associated with elevated TNF (p = 0.007. Conclusion Reduced inducible TLR2 expression may lead to attenuated pro-inflammatory responses, a potential mechanism of protection from cerebral malaria present in individuals heterozygous for the TLR2 Δ22 polymorphism.

  6. Reductions in malaria and anaemia case and death burden at hospitals following scale-up of malaria control in Zanzibar, 1999-2008

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    Hosseini Mehran

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zanzibar, the Ministry of Health and partners accelerated malaria control from September 2003 onwards. The impact of the scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITN, indoor-residual spraying (IRS and artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT combined on malaria burden was assessed at six out of seven in-patient health facilities. Methods Numbers of outpatient and inpatient cases and deaths were compared between 2008 and the pre-intervention period 1999-2003. Reductions were estimated by segmented log-linear regression, adjusting the effect size for time trends during the pre-intervention period. Results In 2008, for all age groups combined, malaria deaths had fallen by an estimated 90% (95% confidence interval 55-98%(p Conclusions Scaling-up effective malaria interventions reduced malaria-related burden at health facilities by over 75% within 5 years. In high-malaria settings, intensified malaria control can substantially contribute to reaching the Millennium Development Goal 4 target of reducing under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015.

  7. 境外输入性三日疟1例%One case of overseas imported quartan malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋苗苗; 赵帅; 李瑾; 许艳

    2015-01-01

    本文报道了威海市1例境外输入性三日疟病例的诊疗经过。患者曾在非洲务工多年,未到过国内其他疟疾流行区,也无输血史。回国后半月初次出现不规则发热、出汗和头痛等疑似疟疾症状。经基层医院血检,威海市疾病预防控制中心镜检复核,山东省寄生虫防治研究所疟疾诊断参比实验室镜检复核及PCR扩增,确诊为三日疟。经氯喹/伯氨喹8d足量全程规范化治疗后痊愈,随访3个月未见复发和再燃。%A case of overseas imported quartan malaria was reported in Weihai City. The patient worked in Africa for many years had no blood transfusion history and had not been to malaria endemic regions of China. In approximately half a month af⁃ter returning from Africa the patient appeared suspected malaria symptoms such as irregular fever sweating and headache. The patient was diagnosed as quartan malaria by a blood test in basic hospital reviewed with a microscope by Weihai Centre for Disease Control and Prevention and checked through the microscopic examination of malaria diagnosis and reference laboratory and PCR amplification by Shandong Institute of Parasitic Diseases. The patient was cured after the treatment with chloroquine/primaquine for 8 days and did not recur in the 3⁃month following up.

  8. Spatial correlation between malaria cases and water-bodies in Anopheles sinensis dominated areas of Huang-Huai plain, China

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    Zhou Shui-sen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria re-emerged in the Huang-Huai Plain of central China during 2006–2008, dominated with Anopheles sinensis as a vector. However, there is no information on strategies based on multi-factor analysis to effectively control the re-emergence of malaria in these areas. Previous experience indicates some relationship between the distribution of water bodies and malaria cases, but more detailed data are not available and in-depth studies have not been conducted up to now. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between the distribution of water bodies and presentation of malaria cases using spatial analysis tools in order to provide guidance to help formulate effective strategies for use in controlling the sources of malaria infection, based on the identification of risk areas and population. Methods The geographic information of malaria cases and their surrounding water bodies were collected from Suixi, Guoyang, Guzhen, Yingshang, Fengyang and Yongqiao County in Anhui province, Yongcheng and Tongbai County in Henan province. All malaria cases distributed in 113 villages in these 8 counties were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention and confirmed by household investigation. Data on GIS and malaria cases were mapped and analyzed with the software of ArcGIS 9.2 to identify the spatial correlation between malaria cases and water bodies. The distance from households with malaria cases to the nearest water bodies was used to calculate the OR value by Chi-square test. The risk area was identified through the comparison of OR values in different distances. Results 357 malaria cases and their GPS data as well as surrounding water bodies were collected and analyzed. 74% of malaria cases were located within the extent of 60 m proximity to the water bodies. The risk rate of people living there and presenting with malaria was significantly higher than others (OR = 1

  9. Application of advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR)-based vegetation health indices for estimation of malaria cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atiqur; Krakauer, Nir; Roytman, Leonid; Goldberg, Mitch; Kogan, Felix

    2010-06-01

    Satellite data may be used to map climatic conditions conducive to malaria outbreaks, assisting in the targeting of public health interventions to mitigate the worldwide increase in incidence of the mosquito-transmitted disease. This work analyzes correlation between malaria cases and vegetation health (VH) indices derived from satellite remote sensing for each week over a period of 14 years for Bandarban, Bangladesh. Correlation analysis showed that years with a high summer temperature condition index (TCI) tended to be those with high malaria incidence. Principal components regression was performed on patterns of weekly TCI during each of the two annual malaria seasons to construct a model as a function of the TCI. These models reduced the malaria estimation error variance by 57% if first-peak (June-July) TCI was used as the estimator and 74% if second-peak (August-September) was used, compared with an estimation of average number of malaria cases for each year.

  10. A study of presentation and complications among the malaria death cases from three municipal corporation hospitals and civil hospital of Ahmedabad during the year 2007

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    S Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Characterization of severe malaria cases on arrival to hospital may lead to early recognition and improved management. Understanding of symptoms, signs, and laboratory parameters which are associated with high case-fatality rate (CFR can help in appropriate and early management of cases. Aims: To study the profile, symptoms, signs, and laboratory parameters of malaria death cases. Materials and Methods: Information about deaths due to malaria, as reported to malaria Department of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation by three municipal corporation hospitals and civil hospital Ahmedabad between January 2007 and December 2007, was used to locate details of those deaths in respective hospitals. Indoor case papers and death reports of those cases were obtained from Medical Record Section of respective hospitals and were analyzed by using appropriate statistical software. Results: A total of 57 malaria deaths occurred in the abovementioned four hospitals. Overall CFR was 3.03% for indoor malaria cases. Complete information could be obtained for about 42 cases. Mean age of cases was 36.50 years. There were 45.23% of patients falling in the age group >=40 years. There were 57.1% males and 42.9% females. Fifty-five cases were positive for Plasmodium falciparum, one case for Plasmodium vivax, and one case was having mixed infection. Average duration of hospital stay was 2.87 days and average total duration of illness was 6.82 days. The most common presenting symptom was intermittent fever with vomiting and altered sensorium in 38.88% of cases. Acute renal failure was the most common complication seen in 45.2% of the cases. Paired t-test was applied on the investigations carried out on the day of admission and those carried out on the day or before a day of death and found significant for the levels of hemoglobin, blood urea, and serum bilirubin. Conclusions: Malaria still remains one of the important causes of admission and mortality. In view of

  11. TRALI Syndrome During the Treatment of a Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çaşkurlu, Hülya; Nurmuhammedov, Rahman; Htway, Zarni

    2016-12-01

    Malaria, which is one of the three most important infectious diseases globally, is endemic in many areas of the world. Plasmodium falciparum is not endemic to Turkey but can be seen after travel to epidemic countries. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) syndrome is a rare disease, which may develop following the transfusion of all types of blood products, including plasma. Here we describe a case of TRALI syndrome in a 29-year-old male, who presented with fever after 15 days of returning from a business trip to Burkina Faso. It developed immediately after the infusion of fresh frozen plasma during the treatment of P. falciparum malaria. The patient's condition improved on respiratory support treatment in the intensive care unit for 48 hours without the need of mechanical ventilation. This case indicated that TRALI syndrome has to be considered in the differential diagnosis as an emerging acute lung disease during the treatment of malaria.

  12. Community case management of malaria: a pro-poor intervention in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmans, Kendra; Sohani, Salim; Kisia, James; Kiilu, Kioko; Wamalwa, Emmanuel; Nelima, Florence; Otieno, David Odhiambo; Nyandigisi, Andrew; Akhwale, Willis; Ngindu, Augustine

    2013-09-01

    Access to prompt and effective treatment of malaria is a fundamental right of all populations at risk; many countries have not met the target of 60% of children treated with effective antimalarial drugs within 24 h of fever onset. While community case management of malaria is effective for increasing coverage, evidence is mixed on whether it improves equity. The objective of this study was to assess whether a community case management of a malaria programme delivered by community health workers (CHW) in two districts of Kenya improved access and equity. Data on child fever treatment practices, malaria prevention and CHW visits was collected through cross-sectional household surveys in project communities before (December 2008) and after 1 year of intervention (December 2009). Indicators were analysed by household wealth rank (grouped into poorest [bottom 20%], poor [middle 60%] and least poor [top 20%]) and survey. Data were available from 763 households at baseline and 856 households at endline. At endline, access to prompt and effective malaria treatment was higher compared with baseline for all groups, with the highest proportions among the poorest (67.6%) and the poor (63.2%), and the lowest proportion among the least poor (43.4%). Corresponding data suggest this was linked to the household's interaction with a CHW as the source of advice/treatment for child fever. These findings provide evidence that in a resource-poor setting, CHWs can provide lifesaving interventions to the poorest.

  13. Plasmodium vivax malaria: An unusual presentation

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    Kasliwal Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, hypoglycemia, coma, or epileptic seizures are manifestations of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. On the other hand, Plasmodium vivax malaria seldom results in pulmonary damage, and pulmonary complications are exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 42-year-old male living in a malaria-endemic area who presented with ARDS and was diagnosed as having Plasmodium vivax malaria. A diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax malaria was established by a positive Plasmodium LDH immunochromatographic assay while a negative PfHRP2 based assay ruled out P. falciparum malaria. After specific anti-plasmodial therapy and intensive supportive care, the patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. The use of NIPPV in vivax-malaria related ARDS was associated with a good outcome.

  14. An imported case of severe falciparum malaria with prolonged hemolytic anemia clinically mimicking a coinfection with babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Young Ju; Chai, Jong-Yil; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Hyun Jung; Song, Ji Young; Je, Ji Hye; Seo, Ji Hye; Park, Sung Hun; Choi, Ji Seon; Kim, Min Ja

    2014-12-01

    While imported falciparum malaria has been increasingly reported in recent years in Korea, clinicians have difficulties in making a clinical diagnosis as well as in having accessibility to effective anti-malarial agents. Here we describe an unusual case of imported falciparum malaria with severe hemolytic anemia lasting over 2 weeks, clinically mimicking a coinfection with babesiosis. A 48-year old Korean man was diagnosed with severe falciparum malaria in France after traveling to the Republic of Benin, West Africa. He received a 1-day course of intravenous artesunate and a 7-day course of Malarone (atovaquone/proguanil) with supportive hemodialysis. Coming back to Korea 5 days after discharge, he was readmitted due to recurrent fever, and further treated with Malarone for 3 days. Both the peripheral blood smears and PCR test were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. However, he had prolonged severe hemolytic anemia (Hb 5.6 g/dl). Therefore, 10 days after the hospitalization, Babesia was considered to be potentially coinfected. A 7-day course of Malarone and azithromycin was empirically started. He became afebrile within 3 days of this babesiosis treatment, and hemolytic anemia profiles began to improve at the completion of the treatment. He has remained stable since his discharge. Unexpectedly, the PCR assays failed to detect DNA of Babesia spp. from blood. In addition, during the retrospective review of the case, the artesunate-induced delayed hemolytic anemia was considered as an alternative cause of the unexplained hemolytic anemia.

  15. NNDSS - Table II. Legionellosis to Malaria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Legionellosis to Malaria - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  16. Case management of malaria fever at community pharmacies in Pakistan: a threat to rational drug use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Madeeha; Hassali, Mohamed A.; Shafie, Asrul A.; Hussain, Azhar; Aljadhey, Hisham; Saleem, Fahad

    Objective To document the case management of uncomplicated malaria fever at community pharmacies located in the two major cities of Pakistan; Islamabad (national capital) and Rawalpindi (twin city). Methods A comparative, cross-sectional study was designed to document the management of uncomplicated malaria fever at community pharmacies in twin cities of Pakistan through simulated patient visits. Visits were conducted in 238 randomly selected pharmacies to request advice for a simulated patient case of malaria. The pharmacy’s management was scored on a checklist including history taking and provision of advice and information. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare management of uncomplicated malaria fever by different types of dispensers working at community pharmacies situated at different locations in the twin cities. Results The simulated patients were handled by salesmen (74.8%, n=178), pharmacist (5.4%, n=13) and diploma holders (19.8 %, n=47). Medication was dispensed in 83.1 % (n=198) of the visits, but only few of the treated cases were in accordance to standard treatment guidelines for malaria. However, in 14.8% (n=35) of the cases the simulated patients were directly referred to a physician. There was a significant difference observed in the process of history taking performed by different dispensers (e.g. pharmacist, pharmacy assistant, pharmacy diploma holders and salesman) while no significant differences in the provision of advice by these dispensers was observed. Pharmacists were seen more frequently involved in the process of history taking if available at the community pharmacies. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed in the case management (history taking and provision of advice) for the treatment of malaria fever among community pharmacies situated at different locations (e.g. near hospital/super market/small market) in the twin cities. Conclusions The results of the study revealed that the

  17. Case management of malaria fever at community pharmacies in Pakistan; a threat to rational drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassali MA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To document the case management of uncomplicated malaria fever at community pharmacies located in the two major cities of Pakistan; Islamabad (national capital and Rawalpindi (twin city. Method: A comparative, cross-sectional study was designed to document the management of uncomplicated malaria fever at community pharmacies in twin cities of Pakistan through simulated patient visits. Visits were conducted in 238 randomly selected pharmacies to request advice for a simulated patient case of malaria. The pharmacy’s management was scored on a checklist including history taking and provision of advice and information. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare management of uncomplicated malaria fever by different types of dispensers working at community pharmacies situated at different locations in the twin cities.Results: The simulated patients were handled by salesmen (74.8%, n=178, pharmacist (5.4%, n=13 and diploma holders (19.8 %, n=47. Medication was dispensed in 83.1 % (n=198 of the visits, but only few of the treated cases were in accordance to standard treatment guidelines for malaria. However, in 14.8% (n=35 of the cases the simulated patients were directly referred to a physician. There was a significant difference observed in the process of history taking performed by different dispensers (e.g. pharmacist, pharmacy assistant, pharmacy diploma holders and salesman while no significant differences in the provision of advice by these dispensers was observed. Pharmacists were seen more frequently involved in the process of history taking if available at the community pharmacies. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed in the case management (history taking and provision of advice for the treatment of malaria fever among community pharmacies situated at different locations (e.g. near hospital/super market/small market in the twin cities.Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that

  18. [Evaluation of imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases: the use of polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiraslan, Hayati; Erdoğan, Emrah; Türe, Zeynep; Kuk, Salih; Yazar, Süleyman; Metan, Gökhan

    2013-10-01

    Malaria affecting almost half of the world population continues to be an important health problem. Although domestic malaria cases have been decreasing in Turkey recently, cases caused by Plasmodium falciparum have increased due to the frequent travelling to Africa. The aims of this study were to evaluate demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings in cases with falciparum malaria who attended to our clinic in 2012-2013 period, and the impact of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis. Nine patients evaluated were all male with a mean age of 34.3 (age range: 18-48) years, with the history of travel to Africa. Six cases did not take prophylaxis against malaria and other three cases used insufficient time. Mean duration of symptoms after return was 18.4 (range: 1-75) days, and the patients were admitted to the clinic within a mean of 5.2 (range: 1-15) days. Two patients had leucopenia, two patients had anemia, and eight patients had thrombocytopenia on admission. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in four cases and total bilirubin levels of six cases were over upper normal limits. Definitive diagnosis of cases was performed with the detection of ring and/or gametocytes forms of the parasite in Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears. Furthermore, samples from seven patients were studied by nested PCR by using genus (Plasmodium rPLU 1 and 5) and species (rFAL 1 and 2, rVIV 1 and 2, rMAL 1 and 2, rOVA 1 and 2) specific primers. All of these seven samples yielded positive results with primers specific for P.falciparum ssrRNA. In the treatment, arthemeter/lumefantrin and doxycycline combination was used in seven patients, while intravenous artesunate and doxycycline combination was given to two patients, resulting with complete cure. Mean duration for the resolving of fever was 3.3 days, and mean duration for clearing the parasitemia from peripheral blood was 4.9 days. Initial ALT values and the duration of fever resolution (-796; p= 0.010), as

  19. Economic burden of malaria on businesses in Ghana: a case for private sector investment in malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonvignon, Justice; Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Malm, Keziah L; Agyemang, Samuel Agyei; Aubyn, Vivian N A; Peprah, Nana Yaw; Bart-Plange, Constance N; Aikins, Moses

    2016-09-06

    Despite the significant gains made globally in reducing the burden of malaria, the disease remains a major public health challenge, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Ghana. There is a significant gap in financing malaria control globally. The private sector could become a significant source of financing malaria control. To get the private sector to appreciate the need to invest in malaria control, it is important to provide evidence of the economic burden of malaria on businesses. The objective of this study, therefore, was to estimate the economic burden on malaria on businesses in Ghana, so as to stimulate the sector's investment in malaria control. Data covering 2012-2014 were collected from 62 businesses sampled from Greater Accra, Ashanti and Western Regions of Ghana, which have the highest concentration of businesses in the country. Data on the cost of businesses' spending on treatment and prevention of malaria in staff and their dependants as well as staff absenteeism due to malaria and expenditure on other health-related activities were collected. Views of business leaders on the effect of malaria on their businesses were also compiled. The analysis was extrapolated to cover 5828 businesses across the country. The results show that businesses in Ghana lost about US$6.58 million to malaria in 2014, 90 % of which were direct costs. A total of 3913 workdays were lost due to malaria in firms in the study sample during the period 2012-2014. Businesses in the study sample spent an average of 0.5 % of the annual corporate returns on treatment of malaria in employees and their dependants, 0.3 % on malaria prevention, and 0.5 % on other health-related corporate social responsibilities. Again business leaders affirmed that malaria affects their businesses' efficiency, employee attendance and productivity and expenses. Finally, about 93 % of business leaders expressed the need private sector investment in malaria control. The economic burden of

  20. Imported malaria in Okayama prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    安治, 敏樹; 頓宮, 廉正; 頼, 俊雄; 何, 黎星; 下野, 國夫; 稲臣, 成一; 村主,節雄; 塩田, 哲也; 桜井, 浩一

    1981-01-01

    Two cases of imported malaria which occurred in Okayama prefecture are reported. One was infected with Plasmodium vivax in India, the other with P. falciparum at Nigeria, Africa. The efficacy of some antimalarial drugs in these cases is discussed. One patient was infected with P. falciparum, despite taking the medicine Daraprim® regularly. The efficacy of Daraprim® for suppressive cure in Nigeria is doutful. The therapy of chloroquine-resistance tropical malaria is also discussed.

  1. Using the social entrepreneurship approach to generate innovative and sustainable malaria diagnosis interventions in Tanzania: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background There have been a number of interventions to date aimed at improving malaria diagnostic accuracy in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, limited success is often reported for a number of reasons, especially in rural settings. This paper seeks to provide a framework for applied research aimed to improve malaria diagnosis using a combination of the established methods, participatory action research and social entrepreneurship. Methods This case study introduces the idea of using the social entrepreneurship approach (SEA) to create innovative and sustainable applied health research outcomes. The following key elements define the SEA: (1) identifying a locally relevant research topic and plan, (2) recognizing the importance of international multi-disciplinary teams and the incorporation of local knowledge, (3) engaging in a process of continuous innovation, adaptation and learning, (4) remaining motivated and determined to achieve sustainable long-term research outcomes and, (5) sharing and transferring ownership of the project with the international and local partner. Evaluation The SEA approach has a strong emphasis on innovation lead by local stakeholders. In this case, innovation resulted in a unique holistic research program aimed at understanding patient, laboratory and physician influences on accurate diagnosis of malaria. An evaluation of milestones for each SEA element revealed that the success of one element is intricately related to the success of other elements. Conclusions The SEA will provide an additional framework for researchers and local stakeholders that promotes innovation and adaptability. This approach will facilitate the development of new ideas, strategies and approaches to understand how health issues, such as malaria, affect vulnerable communities. PMID:20128922

  2. Using the social entrepreneurship approach to generate innovative and sustainable malaria diagnosis interventions in Tanzania: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatfield Jennifer M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been a number of interventions to date aimed at improving malaria diagnostic accuracy in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, limited success is often reported for a number of reasons, especially in rural settings. This paper seeks to provide a framework for applied research aimed to improve malaria diagnosis using a combination of the established methods, participatory action research and social entrepreneurship. Methods This case study introduces the idea of using the social entrepreneurship approach (SEA to create innovative and sustainable applied health research outcomes. The following key elements define the SEA: (1 identifying a locally relevant research topic and plan, (2 recognizing the importance of international multi-disciplinary teams and the incorporation of local knowledge, (3 engaging in a process of continuous innovation, adaptation and learning, (4 remaining motivated and determined to achieve sustainable long-term research outcomes and, (5 sharing and transferring ownership of the project with the international and local partner. Evaluation The SEA approach has a strong emphasis on innovation lead by local stakeholders. In this case, innovation resulted in a unique holistic research program aimed at understanding patient, laboratory and physician influences on accurate diagnosis of malaria. An evaluation of milestones for each SEA element revealed that the success of one element is intricately related to the success of other elements. Conclusions The SEA will provide an additional framework for researchers and local stakeholders that promotes innovation and adaptability. This approach will facilitate the development of new ideas, strategies and approaches to understand how health issues, such as malaria, affect vulnerable communities.

  3. Associations between Burkitt lymphoma among children in Malawi and infection with HIV, EBV and malaria: results from a case-control study.

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    Nora Mutalima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burkitt lymphoma, a childhood cancer common in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, has been associated with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV and malaria, but its association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is not clear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a case-control study of Burkitt lymphoma among children (aged < or = 15 years admitted to the pediatric oncology unit in Blantyre, Malawi between July 2005 and July 2006. Cases were 148 children diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma and controls were 104 children admitted with non-malignant conditions or cancers other than hematological malignancies and Kaposi sarcoma. Interviews were conducted and serological samples tested for antibodies against HIV, EBV and malaria. Odds ratios for Burkitt lymphoma were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sex, age, and residential district. Cases had a mean age of 7.1 years and 60% were male. Cases were more likely than controls to be HIV positive (Odds ratio (OR = 12.4, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.3 to 116.2, p = 0.03. ORs for Burkitt lymphoma increased with increasing antibody titers against EBV (p = 0.001 and malaria (p = 0.01. Among HIV negative participants, cases were thirteen times more likely than controls to have raised levels of both EBV and malaria antibodies (OR = 13.2; 95% CI 3.8 to 46.6; p = 0.001. Reported use of mosquito nets was associated with a lower risk of Burkitt lymphoma (OR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.9, p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support prior evidence that EBV and malaria act jointly in the pathogenesis of Burkitt lymphoma, suggesting that malaria prevention may decrease the risk of Burkitt lymphoma. HIV may also play a role in the etiology of this childhood tumor.

  4. Portal cholangiopathy: case report

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    Maria Cecilia Almeida Maia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes the case of a child that after blunt abdominal trauma presented with portal thrombosis followed by progressive splenomegaly and jaundice. Ultrasonography and percutaneous cholangiography revealed biliary dilatation secondary to choledochal stenosis caused by dilated peribiliary veins, characterizing a case of portal biliopathy. The present case report is aimed at presenting an uncommon cause of this condition.

  5. Plasmodium vivax induced myocarditis: A rare case report

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    N Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the commonest parasitic disease in the tropics since ages. However the plasmodium still continues to give surprises to all of us. In the similar context we report a case of Plasmodium vivax induced myocarditis in a 20 year old male and review the literature related to this rare entitiy.

  6. Symptomatic malaria diagnosis overestimate malaria prevalence, but underestimate anaemia burdens in children: results of a follow up study in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choge, Joseph K; Magak, Ng'wena G; Akhwale, Willis; Koech, Julius; Ngeiywa, Moses M; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Esamai, Fabian; Osano, Odipo; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2014-04-09

    The commonly accepted gold standard diagnostic method for detecting malaria is a microscopic reading of Giemsa-stained blood films. However, symptomatic diagnosis remains the basis of therapeutic care for the majority of febrile patients in malaria endemic areas. This study aims to compare the discrepancy in malaria and anaemia burdens between symptomatic diagnosed patients with those diagnosed through the laboratory. Data were collected from Western Kenya during a follow-up study of 887 children with suspected cases of malaria visiting the health facilities. In the laboratory, blood samples were analysed for malaria parasite and haemoglobin levels. Differences in malaria prevalence between symptomatic diagnosis and laboratory diagnosis were analysed by Chi-square test. Bayesian probabilities were used for the approximation of the malaria and anaemia burdens. Regression analysis was applied to: (1) determine the relationships between haemoglobin levels, and malaria parasite density and (2) relate the prevalence of anaemia and the prevalence of malaria. The prevalence of malaria and anaemia ranged from 10% to 34%, being highest during the rainy seasons. The predominant malaria parasite was P. falciparum (92.3%), which occurred in higher density in children aged 2‒5 years. Fever, high temperature, sweating, shivering, vomiting and severe headache symptoms were associated with malaria during presumptive diagnosis. After conducting laboratory diagnosis, lower malaria prevalence was reported among the presumptively diagnosed patients. Surprisingly, there were no attempts to detect anaemia in the same cohort. There was a significant negative correlation between Hb levels and parasite density. We also found a positive correlation between the prevalence of anaemia and the prevalence of malaria after laboratory diagnosis indicating possible co-occurrence of malaria and anaemia. Symptomatic diagnosis of malaria overestimates malaria prevalence, but underestimates the

  7. Malaria in British military personnel deployed to Sierra Leone: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantick, Oliver; Howlett-Shipley, R; Roughton, S; Ross, D

    2017-02-01

    From December 2014 to April 2015, seven cases of malaria were seen in 1530 military personnel deployed to Sierra Leone on Operation GRITROCK in response to the West African Ebola outbreak, despite predeployment briefings, prescription of chemoprophylactic agents and bite prevention measures. The cases have prompted discussion regarding the efficacy of current measures and how to prevent future cases in deployed military personnel or more widely, those working in malaria-risk environments. All of the cases have made a full recovery and returned to work. We discuss what can be learnt concerning the choice of chemoprophylactic agent and whether anything further be added to standard operating procedures regarding bite prevention and treatment of cases.

  8. A Case for Case Report

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    Vivek Gharpure

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence based medicine (EBM is becoming popular among clinicians and medical publishers; as clinical research is tested against the touchstone of EBM. Theory of Quality of Evidence, considers randomized controlled trials to be the best quality evidence, while case reports and expert opinions are considered at the lowest ebb

  9. Estimated financial and human resources requirements for the treatment of malaria in Malawi

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    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria fever is a common medical presentation and diagnosis in Malawi. The national malaria policy supports self-diagnosis and self-medication for uncomplicated malaria with first line anti-malaria drugs. While a qualitative appreciation of the burden of malaria on the health system is recognized, there is limited quantitative estimation of the burden malaria exacts on the health system, especially with regard to human resources and financial burden on Malawi. Methods The burden of malaria was assessed based on estimated incidence rates for a high endemic country of which Malawi is one. Data on the available human resources and financial resources committed towards malaria from official Malawi government documents and programme reports were obtained. The amount of human and financial resources that would be required to treat 65% or 85% of symptomatic malaria cases as per the Roll Back Malaria partnership and the US President's Malaria Initiative targets. Results Based on a malaria incidence rate of 1.4 episodes per year per person it was estimated that there would be 3.71 million symptomatic episodes of malaria among children Conclusion Malaria exacts a heavy toll on the health system in Malawi. The national recommendation of self-medication with first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria is justified as there are not enough clinicians to provide clinical care for all cases. The Malawi Ministry of Health's promotion of malaria drug prescription including other lower cadre health workers may be justified.

  10. Assessing the risk of self-diagnosed malaria in urban informal settlements of Nairobi using self-reported morbidity survey

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    Mugisha Frederick

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the belief that Nairobi is a low risk zone for malaria, little empirical data exists on malaria risk in the area. The aim of this study was to explore the risk of perceived malaria and some associated factors in Nairobi informal settlements using self-reported morbidity survey. Methods The survey was conducted from May to August 2004 on 7,288 individuals in two informal settlements of Nairobi. Participants were asked to report illnesses they experienced in the past 14 days. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of perceived-malaria. The model included variables such as site of residence, age, ethnicity and number of reported symptoms. Results Participants reported 165 illnesses among which malaria was the leading cause (28.1%. The risk of perceived-malaria was significantly higher in Viwandani compared to Korogocho (OR 1.61, 95%CI: 1.10–2.26. Participants in age group 25–39 years had significantly higher odds of perceived-malaria compared to those under-five years (OR 2.07, 95%CI: 1.43–2.98. The Kikuyu had reduced odds of perceived-malaria compared to other ethnic groups. Individuals with five and more symptoms had higher odds compared to those with no symptoms (OR 23.69, 95%CI: 12.98–43.23. Conclusion Malaria was the leading cause of illness as perceived by the residents in the two informal settlements. This was rational as the number of reported symptoms was highly associated with the risk of reporting the illness. These results highlight the need for a more comprehensive assessment of malaria epidemiology in Nairobi to be able to offer evidence-based guidance to policy on malaria in Kenya and particularly in Nairobi.

  11. 威海市48例疟疾病例流行病学及临床特征分析%Clinical and epidemiological features of 48 cases of malaria in the City of Weihai, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李馥; 于京平

    2011-01-01

    Forty-eight cases of malaria were reported in the City of Weihai from 2004 to 2008. Thirty-seven of the cases were vivax malaria, 6 were falciparum malaria, and 5 were malaria of an undetermined type. Of the 48 cases, 31 involved males while 17 involved females. In 37 cases of vivax malaria, 26 patients had a fever every day (70. 27% , 26/37), 8 had a fever every other day, and 3 had a fever at irregular intervals. All 6 patients with falciparum malaria had returned from Africa; 5 patients had a fever every day while 1 continued to run a high fever. Symptoms were more serious than those of vivax malaria. In 5 cases of malaria of an undetermined type, 4 patients had a fever every day and 1 had a fever at irregular intervals. Dihydroartemisinin piperaquine tablets are a truly effective method of treating falciparum malaria.%威海市2004~2008年共报告疟疾病例48例,其中间日疟37例,恶性疟6例,未分型5例;男性31例,女性17例.37例间日疟中,每日发热26例,间日发热8例,不规律发热3例.6例恶性疟病例均为非洲回乡人员,每日发热5例,持续高热不退1例,症状较间日疟凶险.5例未分型病人每日发热4例,不规律发热1例.恶性疟用科泰复进行治疗,效果肯定.

  12. “Souls of the ancestor that knock us out” and other tales. A qualitative study to identify demand-side factors influencing malaria case management in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Connell Kathryn A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate case management of suspected malaria in Cambodia is critical given anti-malarial drug resistance in the region. Improving diagnosis and the use of recommended malarial treatments is a challenge in Cambodia where self-treatment and usage of drug cocktails is widespread, a notable difference from malaria treatment seeking in other countries. This qualitative study adds to the limited evidence base on Cambodian practices, aiming to understand the demand-side factors influencing treatment-seeking behaviour, including the types of home treatments, perceptions of cocktail medicines and reasons for diagnostic testing. The findings may help guide intervention design. Methods The study used in-depth interviews (IDIs (N = 16 and focus group discussions (FGDs (N = 12 with Cambodian adults from malaria-endemic areas who had experienced malaria fever in the previous two weeks. Data were analysed using NVivo software. Results Findings suggest that Cambodians initially treat suspected malaria at home with home remedies and traditional medicines. When seeking treatment outside the home, respondents frequently reported receiving a cocktail of medicines from trusted providers. Cocktails are perceived as less expensive and more effective than full-course, pre-packaged medicines. Barriers to diagnostic testing include a belief in the ability to self-diagnose based on symptoms, cost and reliance on providers to recommend a test. Factors that facilitate testing include recommendation by trusted providers and a belief that anti-malarial treatment for illnesses other than malaria can be harmful. Conclusions Treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in Cambodia is complex, driven by cultural norms, practicalities and episode-related factors. Effective malaria treatment programmes will benefit from interventions and communication materials that leverage these demand-side factors, promoting prompt visits to facilities for suspected

  13. Time trends and changes in the distribution of malaria cases in the Brazilian Amazon Region, 2004-2013

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    Isac da SF Lima

    Full Text Available Recent efforts to reduce malaria incidence have had some successes. Nevertheless, malaria persists as a significant public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. The objective of this study was to describe changes in malaria case characteristics and to identify trends in malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon. This study used data from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance and Case Notification Information System from 2004 to 2013. The annual parasite incidence (API was calculated and joinpoint regression was used to assess the trends in API over time. There was a sharp increase in API in the state of Acre, followed by two periods of decrease. Pará also presented inconsistent decreases over the study period. Amapá, Amazonas, Rondônia, and Roraima showed statistically significant decreases over the period. The sharpest decrease occurred in Rondônia, with a reduction of 21.7% in the average annual percent change (AAPC (AAPC: -21.7%; 95% confidence interval: -25.4%, -17.8%; p < 0.05. This panorama of malaria incidence highlights the importance of integrating evidence-based malaria surveillance and control. Malaria is highly preventable, and eliminating its transmission should be a goal in coming decades.

  14. Time series analysis of trends in malaria cases and deaths at hospitals and the effect of antimalarial interventions, 2001-2011, Ethiopia.

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    Maru Aregawi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Government of Ethiopia and its partners have deployed artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT since 2004 and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs since 2005. Malaria interventions and trends in malaria cases and deaths were assessed at hospitals in malaria transmission areas during 2001-2011. METHODS: Regional LLINs distribution records were used to estimate the proportion of the population-at-risk protected by LLINs. Hospital records were reviewed to estimate ACT availability. Time-series analysis was applied to data from 41 hospitals in malaria risk areas to assess trends of malaria cases and deaths during pre-intervention (2001-2005 and post-interventions (2006-2011 periods. FINDINGS: The proportion of the population-at-risk potentially protected by LLINs increased to 51% in 2011. The proportion of facilities with ACTs in stock exceeded 87% during 2006-2011. Among all ages, confirmed malaria cases in 2011 declined by 66% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44-79% and SPR by 37% (CI, 20%-51% compared to the level predicted by pre-intervention trends. In children under 5 years of age, malaria admissions and deaths fell by 81% (CI, 47%-94% and 73% (CI, 48%-86% respectively. Optimal breakpoint of the trendlines occurred between January and June 2006, consistent with the timing of malaria interventions. Over the same period, non-malaria cases and deaths either increased or remained unchanged, the number of malaria diagnostic tests performed reflected the decline in malaria cases, and rainfall remained at levels supportive of malaria transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Malaria cases and deaths in Ethiopian hospitals decreased substantially during 2006-2011 in conjunction with scale-up of malaria interventions. The decrease could not be accounted for by changes in hospital visits, malaria diagnostic testing or rainfall. However, given the history of variable malaria transmission in Ethiopia, more data would be required to exclude the

  15. Essential trichomegaly: case report

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    Julia Dutra Rossetto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports two cases of symptomatic essential trichomegaly. Trichomegaly may develop in various diseases, including anorexia nervosa, hypothyroidism, pregnancy, pretibial myxedema, systemic lupus erythematosus, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and uveitis. The exact incidence trichomegaly is unknown, and the condition remains sporadically reported. Two cases of symptomatic trichomegaly without any associated systemic disorder are presented in this paper.

  16. Malaria--Great Exuma, Bahamas, May-June 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-22

    Malaria in humans is caused by four distinct protozoan species of the genus Plasmodium (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae). These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. In the Caribbean region, malaria has been eliminated from all islands except Hispaniola, the island consisting of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Elimination of malaria elsewhere resulted from a combination of integrated control measures, socioeconomic development, and close public health surveillance. However, even Caribbean islands where malaria is no longer endemic remain at constant risk for reintroduction of the disease because of their tropical climate, presence of competent malaria vectors, and proximity to other countries where malaria is endemic. This susceptibility was underscored by the recent outbreak of malaria on the island of Great Exuma in the Bahamas; during May-June 2006, a total of 19 malaria cases were identified. Four of the cases, in travelers from North America and Europe, are described in this report; such cases of imported malaria can signal the presence of a malaria problem in the country visited and thus assist local health authorities in their investigations. On September 19, after 3 months with no report of new cases, CDC rescinded its previous recommendation that U.S.-based travelers take preventive doses of the antimalarial drug chloroquine before, during, and after travel to Great Exuma.

  17. Reporte de cinco casos de malaria neonatal grave por Plasmodium vivax en Urabá, Colombia

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    Juan Gabriel Piñeros

    2008-12-01

    Conclusión. Se trata de un reporte de cinco casos de malaria neonatal grave por P. vivax, especie que habitualmente no se relaciona con complicaciones, sin que existiera en ningún caso la sospecha clínica y con tratamiento inadecuado.

  18. Preparation of malaria resurgence in China: case study of vivax malaria re-emergence and outbreak in Huang-Huai Plain in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Shao-Sen; Xu, Bian-Li; Li, Wei-Dong; Tang, Ji-Hai; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Huang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the patterns of malaria re-emergence and outbreak that occurred in the Huang-Huai Plain of China in 2006, and the way of quick response to curtail the outbreak by mass drug administration and case management. The contribution of the each intervention in quick response is discussed. Particularly due to the special ecological characteristics in the Huang-Huai Plain, the intervention of vector control is not implemented. Finally, the challenges in the elimination of malaria in this region are highlighted.

  19. Reactive Case Detection for Plasmodium vivax Malaria Elimination in Rural Amazonia.

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    Pablo S Fontoura

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria burden in Brazil has reached its lowest levels in 35 years and Plasmodium vivax now accounts for 84% of cases countrywide. Targeting residual malaria transmission entrenched in the Amazon is the next major challenge for ongoing elimination efforts. Better strategies are urgently needed to address the vast reservoir of asymptomatic P. vivax carriers in this and other areas approaching malaria elimination.We evaluated a reactive case detection (RCD strategy tailored for P. vivax transmission in farming settlements in the Amazon Basin of Brazil. Over six months, 41 cases detected by passive surveillance triggered four rounds of RCD (0, 30, 60, and 180 days after index case enrollment, using microscopy- and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR-based diagnosis, comprising subjects sharing the household (HH with the index case (n = 163, those living in the 5 nearest HHs within 3 km (n = 878, and individuals from 5 randomly chosen control HHs located > 5 km away from index cases (n = 841. Correlates of infection were identified with mixed-effects logistic regression models. Molecular genotyping was used to infer local parasite transmission networks.Subjects in index and neighbor HHs were significantly more likely to be parasitemic than control HH members, after adjusting for potential confounders, and together harbored > 90% of the P. vivax biomass in study subjects. Clustering patterns were temporally stable. Four rounds of microscopy-based RCD would identify only 49.5% of the infections diagnosed by qPCR, but 76.8% of the total parasite biomass circulating in the proximity of index HHs. However, control HHs accounted for 27.6% of qPCR-positive samples, 92.6% of them from asymptomatic carriers beyond the reach of RCD. Molecular genotyping revealed high P. vivax diversity, consistent with complex transmission networks and multiple sources of infection within clusters, potentially complicating malaria elimination efforts.

  20. Reactive Case Detection for Plasmodium vivax Malaria Elimination in Rural Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura, Pablo S.; Finco, Bruna F.; Lima, Nathália F.; de Carvalho, Jaques F.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria burden in Brazil has reached its lowest levels in 35 years and Plasmodium vivax now accounts for 84% of cases countrywide. Targeting residual malaria transmission entrenched in the Amazon is the next major challenge for ongoing elimination efforts. Better strategies are urgently needed to address the vast reservoir of asymptomatic P. vivax carriers in this and other areas approaching malaria elimination. Methods We evaluated a reactive case detection (RCD) strategy tailored for P. vivax transmission in farming settlements in the Amazon Basin of Brazil. Over six months, 41 cases detected by passive surveillance triggered four rounds of RCD (0, 30, 60, and 180 days after index case enrollment), using microscopy- and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based diagnosis, comprising subjects sharing the household (HH) with the index case (n = 163), those living in the 5 nearest HHs within 3 km (n = 878), and individuals from 5 randomly chosen control HHs located > 5 km away from index cases (n = 841). Correlates of infection were identified with mixed-effects logistic regression models. Molecular genotyping was used to infer local parasite transmission networks. Principal findings/Conclusions Subjects in index and neighbor HHs were significantly more likely to be parasitemic than control HH members, after adjusting for potential confounders, and together harbored > 90% of the P. vivax biomass in study subjects. Clustering patterns were temporally stable. Four rounds of microscopy-based RCD would identify only 49.5% of the infections diagnosed by qPCR, but 76.8% of the total parasite biomass circulating in the proximity of index HHs. However, control HHs accounted for 27.6% of qPCR-positive samples, 92.6% of them from asymptomatic carriers beyond the reach of RCD. Molecular genotyping revealed high P. vivax diversity, consistent with complex transmission networks and multiple sources of infection within clusters, potentially

  1. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

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    Katya Galactionova

    Full Text Available Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and

  2. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galactionova, Katya; Tediosi, Fabrizio; de Savigny, Don; Smith, Thomas; Tanner, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and intervening to tackle

  3. Case report: Perinephric lymphangiomatosis

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    Gorantla Rajani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perirenal lymphangiomatosis is a rare benign malformation of the lymphatic system. We report here a case of bilateral perirenal and parapelvic involvement with a normal excretory collecting system.

  4. PARAPHILLIA : A CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, A.A.; Valdiya, P.S.; Chaudhury, S.

    2001-01-01

    A case of paraphilia presenting with multiple sexual deviations is reported. The disorder occurred against a background of disordered childhood and was later associated with alcohol abuse. PMID:21407845

  5. Paraendodontic surgery: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Marchetti LODI; Sheila POLETO; Renata Grazziotin SOARES; Luis Eduardo Duarte IRALA; Salles, Alexandre Azevedo; Limongi,Orlando

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Paraendodontic surgery is a procedure that aims problemsresolution that couldn’t be solved by the conventional endodontictreatment, or when the accomplishment conventional treatment is notpossible. Case report and conclusion: The aim of this study was to report a clinical case where was made apicectomy on the teeth 11, 21 and 22.The tooth 22 was sealing of root-end cavity MTA retrofilling.

  6. UK malaria treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Pasvol, Geoffrey; Chiodini, Peter L; Whitty, Christopher J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Hill, David R; Warrell, David A; Bannister, Barbara A

    2007-02-01

    Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1500-2000 cases reported each year, and 10-20 deaths. Approximately three-quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other two species of Plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium malariae. Mixed infections with more than 1 species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until 3 blood specimens have been examined by an experienced microscopist. There are no typical clinical features of malaria, even fever is not invariably present. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites; P. falciparum malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens or enzymes, although RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. The treatment of choice for non-falciparum malaria is a 3-day course of oral chloroquine, to which only a limited proportion of P. vivax strains have gained resistance. Dormant parasites (hypnozoites) persist in the liver after treatment of P. vivax or P. ovale infection: the only currently effective drug for eradication of hypnozoites is primaquine. This must be avoided or given with caution under expert supervision in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), in whom it may cause severe haemolysis. Uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria can be treated orally with quinine, atovaquone plus proguanil (Malarone) or co-artemether (Riamet

  7. Comparison of Malaria Simulations Driven by Meteorological Observations and Reanalysis Products in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Ibrahima; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Deme, Abdoulaye; Caminade, Cyril; Morse, Andrew P; Cisse, Moustapha; Sy, Ibrahima; Dia, Ibrahima; Ermert, Volker; Ndione, Jacques-André; Gaye, Amadou Thierno

    2017-09-25

    The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of climate parameters is crucial to study the impact of climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases such as malaria. The use of malaria models is an alternative way of producing potential malaria historical data for Senegal due to the lack of reliable observations for malaria outbreaks over a long time period. Consequently, here we use the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM), driven by different climatic datasets, in order to study and validate simulated malaria parameters over Senegal. The findings confirm that the risk of malaria transmission is mainly linked to climate variables such as rainfall and temperature as well as specific landscape characteristics. For the whole of Senegal, a lag of two months is generally observed between the peak of rainfall in August and the maximum number of reported malaria cases in October. The malaria transmission season usually takes place from September to November, corresponding to the second peak of temperature occurring in October. Observed malaria data from the Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme (PNLP, National Malaria control Programme in Senegal) and outputs from the meteorological data used in this study were compared. The malaria model outputs present some consistencies with observed malaria dynamics over Senegal, and further allow the exploration of simulations performed with reanalysis data sets over a longer time period. The simulated malaria risk significantly decreased during the 1970s and 1980s over Senegal. This result is consistent with the observed decrease of malaria vectors and malaria cases reported by field entomologists and clinicians in the literature. The main differences between model outputs and observations regard amplitude, but can be related not only to reanalysis deficiencies but also to other environmental and socio-economic factors that are not included in this mechanistic malaria model framework. The present study can be considered as a

  8. Effectiveness of reactive case detection for malaria elimination in three archetypical transmission settings: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, Jaline; Bever, Caitlin A; Bridenbecker, Daniel; Hamainza, Busiku; Silumbe, Kafula; Miller, John M; Eisele, Thomas P; Eckhoff, Philip A; Wenger, Edward A

    2017-06-12

    Reactive case detection could be a powerful tool in malaria elimination, as it selectively targets transmission pockets. However, field operations have yet to demonstrate under which conditions, if any, reactive case detection is best poised to push a region to elimination. This study uses mathematical modelling to assess how baseline transmission intensity and local interconnectedness affect the impact of reactive activities in the context of other possible intervention packages. Communities in Southern Province, Zambia, where elimination operations are currently underway, were used as representatives of three archetypes of malaria transmission: low-transmission, high household density; high-transmission, low household density; and high-transmission, high household density. Transmission at the spatially-connected household level was simulated with a dynamical model of malaria transmission, and local variation in vectorial capacity and intervention coverage were parameterized according to data collected from the area. Various potential intervention packages were imposed on each of the archetypical settings and the resulting likelihoods of elimination by the end of 2020 were compared. Simulations predict that success of elimination campaigns in both low- and high-transmission areas is strongly dependent on stemming the flow of imported infections, underscoring the need for regional-scale strategies capable of reducing transmission concurrently across many connected areas. In historically low-transmission areas, treatment of clinical malaria should form the cornerstone of elimination operations, as most malaria infections in these areas are symptomatic and onward transmission would be mitigated through health system strengthening; reactive case detection has minimal impact in these settings. In historically high-transmission areas, vector control and case management are crucial for limiting outbreak size, and the asymptomatic reservoir must be addressed through

  9. PGMS: A Case Study of Collecting PDA-Based Geo-Tagged Malaria-Related Survey Data.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Y; Lobo, NF; Wolkon, A; Gimnig, JE; Malishee, A; Stevenson, J; Sulistyawati,; Collins, FH; Madey, G

    2014-01-01

    : Using mobile devices, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), smartphones, tablet computers, etc., to electronically collect malaria-related field data is the way for the field questionnaires in the future. This case study seeks to design a generic survey framework PDA-based geo-tagged malaria-related data collection tool (PGMS) that can be used not only for large-scale community-level geo-tagged electronic malaria-related surveys, but also for a wide variety of electronic data collecti...

  10. Adaptation costs for climate change-related cases of diarrhoeal disease, malnutrition, and malaria in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, Kristie L

    2008-01-01

    Background Climate change has begun to negatively affect human health, with larger burdens projected in the future as weather patterns continue to change. The climate change-related health consequences of diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition, and malaria are projected to pose the largest risks to future populations. Limited work has been done to estimate the costs of adapting to these additional health burdens. Methods The costs of treating diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition (stunting and wasting only), and malaria in 2030 were estimated under three climate scenarios using (1) the current numbers of cases; (2) the projected relative risks of these diseases in 2030; and (3) current treatment costs. The analysis assumed that the number of annual cases and costs of treatment would remain constant. There was limited consideration of socioeconomic development. Results Under a scenario assuming emissions reductions resulting in stabilization at 750 ppm CO2 equivalent in 2210, the costs of treating diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition, and malaria in 2030 were estimated to be $4 to 12 billion. This is almost as much as current total annual overseas development assistance for health. Conclusion The investment needs in the health sector to address climate-sensitive health outcomes are large. Additional human and financial resources will be needed to prevent and control the projected increased burden of health outcomes due to climate change. PMID:18803827

  11. Adaptation costs for climate change-related cases of diarrhoeal disease, malnutrition, and malaria in 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebi Kristie L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change has begun to negatively affect human health, with larger burdens projected in the future as weather patterns continue to change. The climate change-related health consequences of diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition, and malaria are projected to pose the largest risks to future populations. Limited work has been done to estimate the costs of adapting to these additional health burdens. Methods The costs of treating diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition (stunting and wasting only, and malaria in 2030 were estimated under three climate scenarios using (1 the current numbers of cases; (2 the projected relative risks of these diseases in 2030; and (3 current treatment costs. The analysis assumed that the number of annual cases and costs of treatment would remain constant. There was limited consideration of socioeconomic development. Results Under a scenario assuming emissions reductions resulting in stabilization at 750 ppm CO2 equivalent in 2210, the costs of treating diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition, and malaria in 2030 were estimated to be $4 to 12 billion. This is almost as much as current total annual overseas development assistance for health. Conclusion The investment needs in the health sector to address climate-sensitive health outcomes are large. Additional human and financial resources will be needed to prevent and control the projected increased burden of health outcomes due to climate change.

  12. Development, malaria and adaptation to climate change: a case study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Dhiman, R C; Bhattacharya, Sumana; Shukla, P R

    2009-05-01

    India has reasons to be concerned about climate change. Over 650 million people depend on climate-sensitive sectors, such as rain-fed agriculture and forestry, for livelihood and over 973 million people are exposed to vector borne malarial parasites. Projection of climatic factors indicates a wider exposure to malaria for the Indian population in the future. If precautionary measures are not taken and development processes are not managed properly some developmental activities, such as hydro-electric dams and irrigation canal systems, may also exacerbate breeding grounds for malaria. This article integrates climate change and developmental variables in articulating a framework for integrated impact assessment and adaptation responses, with malaria incidence in India as a case study. The climate change variables include temperature, rainfall, humidity, extreme events, and other secondary variables. Development variables are income levels, institutional mechanisms to implement preventive measures, infrastructure development that could promote malarial breeding grounds, and other policies. The case study indicates that sustainable development variables may sometimes reduce the adverse impacts on the system due to climate change alone, while it may sometimes also exacerbate these impacts if the development variables are not managed well and therefore they produce a negative impact on the system. The study concludes that well crafted and well managed developmental policies could result in enhanced resilience of communities and systems, and lower health impacts due to climate change.

  13. Development, Malaria and Adaptation to Climate Change: A Case Study from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Dhiman, R. C.; Bhattacharya, Sumana; Shukla, P. R.

    2009-05-01

    India has reasons to be concerned about climate change. Over 650 million people depend on climate-sensitive sectors, such as rain-fed agriculture and forestry, for livelihood and over 973 million people are exposed to vector borne malarial parasites. Projection of climatic factors indicates a wider exposure to malaria for the Indian population in the future. If precautionary measures are not taken and development processes are not managed properly some developmental activities, such as hydro-electric dams and irrigation canal systems, may also exacerbate breeding grounds for malaria. This article integrates climate change and developmental variables in articulating a framework for integrated impact assessment and adaptation responses, with malaria incidence in India as a case study. The climate change variables include temperature, rainfall, humidity, extreme events, and other secondary variables. Development variables are income levels, institutional mechanisms to implement preventive measures, infrastructure development that could promote malarial breeding grounds, and other policies. The case study indicates that sustainable development variables may sometimes reduce the adverse impacts on the system due to climate change alone, while it may sometimes also exacerbate these impacts if the development variables are not managed well and therefore they produce a negative impact on the system. The study concludes that well crafted and well managed developmental policies could result in enhanced resilience of communities and systems, and lower health impacts due to climate change.

  14. Spatiotemporal Bayesian Networks for Malaria Prediction: Case Study of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddawy, Peter; Kasantikul, Rangwan; Hasan, A H M Imrul; Rattanabumrung, Chunyanuch; Rungrun, Pichamon; Suksopee, Natwipa; Tantiwaranpant, Saran; Niruntasuk, Natcha

    2016-01-01

    While a diversity of modeling technique have been used to create predictive models of malaria, no work has made use of Bayesian networks. Bayes nets are attractive due to their ability to represent uncertainty, model time lagged and nonlinear relations, and provide explanations of inferences. This paper explores the use of Bayesian networks to model malaria, demonstrating the approach by creating a village level model with weekly temporal resolution for Tha Song Yang district in northern Thailand. The network is learned using data on cases and environmental covariates. The network models incidence over time as well as evolution of the environmental variables, and captures time lagged and nonlinear effects. Out of sample evaluation shows the model to have high accuracy for one and two week predictions.

  15. Distance threshold for the effect of urban agriculture on elevated self-reported malaria prevalence in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Justin; Weeks, John R; Getis, Arthur; Hill, Allan G

    2009-04-01

    Irrigated urban agriculture (UA), which has helped alleviate poverty and increase food security in rapidly urbanizing sub-Saharan Africa, may inadvertently support malaria vectors. Previous studies have not identified a variable distance effect on malaria prevalence from UA. This study examines the relationships between self-reported malaria information for 3,164 women surveyed in Accra, Ghana, in 2003, and both household characteristics and proximity to sites of UA. Malaria self-reports are associated with age, education, overall health, socioeconomic status, and solid waste disposal method. The odds of self-reported malaria are significantly higher for women living within 1 km of UA compared with all women living near an irrigation source, the association disappearing beyond this critical distance. Malaria prevalence is often elevated in communities within 1 km of UA despite more favorable socio-economic characteristics than communities beyond 1 km. Neighborhoods within 1 km of UA should be reconsidered as a priority for malaria-related care.

  16. 2009~2011年南通市128例疟疾病例流行病学特征分析%Analysis of epidemic characteristics of 128 malaria cases in Nantong City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹彩群

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence of malaria in Nantong City, and provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of malaria. Methods The epidemiological data of the network-reported malaria cases during 2009 to 2011 were collected and statistically analyzed. Results 128 malaria cases were reported in Nantong City during 2009 to 2011, with an annual incidence of less than 1/100000. The plasmodi-um detective rate of 128 malaria cases were 83.5%. From 2009 to 2010, the number of local malaria cases were 12, 5 and 0, respectively, the 17 cases were tertain malaria. The number of imported malaria cases were 26, 32 and 53, respectively, in the three years. All the 111 imported cases, the falciparum, tertain malaria ones accounted for 83.8%(93/lll), 13.5%(15/111), respectively, and one case of quartan malaria and two cases of o-vale malaria being firstly reported in 2011. The cases were mainly in the age group of 20-59 years old. Conclusion The imported malaria cases of Nantong City increased yearly, and the malaria species showed diversity. Therefore, it should be strengthened on surveillance and management of migrant workers to reduce the risk of imported malaria cases.%目的 掌握南通市疟疾疫情发展趋势,为制订疟疾防控措施提供科学依据.方法 收集南通市2009~2011 年网络报告的疟疾病例流行病学调查资料并统计分析.结果 2009~2011 年南通市共报告疟疾病例128 例,疟-虫血检阳性率83.5%,疟疾年发病率均在1/10 万以下.2009~2011 年本地感染疟疾分别为12、5 和0 例,共计17 例,均为间日疟;输入性疟疾分别为26、32 和53 例,共计111 例,其中恶性疟占83.8%(93/111)、间日虐占13.5%(15/111),2011 年首次发现了输入性三日疟1 例,卵形疟2 例.20~59 岁年龄组病例占报告病例的89.06%(114/128).结论 南通市境外输入性恶性疟病例呈逐年上升趋势,且感染的疟疾虫种呈多样性,故应加强对劳务输出人员的监测和管理,

  17. Imported malaria in children in industrialized countries, 1992-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stäger, Katrin; Legros, Fabrice; Krause, Gérard; Low, Nicola; Bradley, David; Desai, Meghna; Graf, Simone; D'Amato, Stefania; Mizuno, Yasutaka; Janzon, Ragnhild; Petersen, Eskild; Kester, John; Steffen, Robert; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2009-02-01

    Children account for an appreciable proportion of total imported malaria cases, yet few studies have quantified these cases, identified trends, or suggested evidence-based prevention strategies for this group of travelers. We therefore sought to identify numbers of cases and deaths, Plasmodium species, place of malaria acquisition, preventive measures used, and national origin of malaria in children. We analyzed retrospective data from Australia, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States and data provided by the United Nations World Tourism Organization. During 1992-2002, >17,000 cases of imported malaria in children were reported in 11 countries where malaria is not endemic; most (>70%) had been acquired in Africa. Returning to country of origin to visit friends and relatives was a risk factor. Malaria prevention for children should be a responsibility of healthcare providers and should be subsidized for low-income travelers to high-risk areas.

  18. Imported Malaria in Children in Industrialized Countries, 1992–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stäger, Katrin; Legros, Fabrice; Krause, Gérard; Low, Nicola; Bradley, David; Desai, Meghna; Graf, Simone; D’Amato, Stefania; Mizuno, Yasutaka; Janzon, Ragnhild; Petersen, Eskild; Kester, John; Steffen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Children account for an appreciable proportion of total imported malaria cases, yet few studies have quantified these cases, identified trends, or suggested evidence-based prevention strategies for this group of travelers. We therefore sought to identify numbers of cases and deaths, Plasmodium species, place of malaria acquisition, preventive measures used, and national origin of malaria in children. We analyzed retrospective data from Australia, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States and data provided by the United Nations World Tourism Organization. During 1992–2002, >17,000 cases of imported malaria in children were reported in 11 countries where malaria is not endemic; most (>70%) had been acquired in Africa. Returning to country of origin to visit friends and relatives was a risk factor. Malaria prevention for children should be a responsibility of healthcare providers and should be subsidized for low-income travelers to high-risk areas. PMID:19193261

  19. ACROMEGALY: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    -()

    2015-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease caused due to hyper secretion of growth hormone. Most of the cases of acromegaly are caused by pitutary adenoma which can be microadenoma or macroadenomas. These adenomas are never malignant, but can have significant morbidity and mortality. We report a 35 year old female patient presented herewith classical presentation of acromegaly with chief complain of weight gain, excessive sweating , widening of both hands and feet and was diagnosed as a case of acromega...

  20. Environmental risk factors for clinical malaria: a case-control study in the Grau region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthmann, J P; Hall, A J; Jaffar, S; Palacios, A; Lines, J; Llanos-Cuentas, A

    2001-01-01

    The role of environmental risk factors in clinical malaria has been studied mainly in Africa and Asia, few investigations have been carried out in Latin America. Field observations in northern coastal Peru, where the prevalence of malaria is high during the agricultural season, suggested that the risk of disease varied according to the characteristics of the house and the house environment. Environmental determinants of the risk of clinical malaria were therefore investigated through a case-control study: 323 clinical cases of malaria, recruited through community-based active case-finding, and 969 age-, sex- and village-matched controls were recruited into the study over a period of 12 months ending June 1997. Residual spraying of houses in the previous 6 months, living more than 100 m from a canal, a level of education equal to primary school or above and working in agriculture conferred significant protection from the risk of developing clinical malaria. The presence of spaces between the wall and roof in the subject's bedroom (eaves) and a house aged > 4 years statistically significantly increased the risk of disease. Based on these results we discuss possible control measures for malaria in this area of the country.

  1. Melioidosis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purabi Barman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkhloderia pseudomallei has recently gained importance as an emerging pathogen in India. It causes various clinical manifestations like pneumoniae, septicaemia, arthritis, abscess etc. Cases have been reported from Southeast Asia mainly Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, etc. In India, few cases have been reported mainly from the southern part of the country. Patient was a 65-year-old male and presented with fever 1 month back, cough and breathlessness for same period, swelling on both ankles from 7 days. B. pseudomallei was isolated from endotracheal secretions, blood cultures, leg wound. He was successfully treated with Imipenem and Doxycycline and put on maintenance therapy now, and is currently doing well.

  2. Melioidosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Purabi; Sidhwa, Harish; Shirkhande, Pinak A

    2011-04-01

    Burkhloderia pseudomallei has recently gained importance as an emerging pathogen in India. It causes various clinical manifestations like pneumoniae, septicaemia, arthritis, abscess etc. Cases have been reported from Southeast Asia mainly Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, etc. In India, few cases have been reported mainly from the southern part of the country. Patient was a 65-year-old male and presented with fever 1 month back, cough and breathlessness for same period, swelling on both ankles from 7 days. B. pseudomallei was isolated from endotracheal secretions, blood cultures, leg wound. He was successfully treated with Imipenem and Doxycycline and put on maintenance therapy now, and is currently doing well.

  3. Kompliceret malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, A M; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Jacobsen, E

    1989-01-01

    An increasing number of cases of malaria, imported to Denmark, are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and severe and complicated cases are more often seen. In the Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, 23 out of 32 cases, hospitalized from 1.1-30.6.1988, i.e. 72%, were caused by P...

  4. Etiology of pediatric fever in western Kenya: a case-control study of falciparum malaria, respiratory viruses, and streptococcal pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Wendy P; Mott, Joshua A; Laktabai, Jeremiah; Wamburu, Kabura; Fields, Barry; Armstrong, Janice; Taylor, Steve M; MacIntyre, Charles; Sen, Reeshi; Menya, Diana; Pan, William; Nicholson, Bradly P; Woods, Christopher W; Holland, Thomas L

    2015-05-01

    In Kenya, more than 10 million episodes of acute febrile illness are treated annually among children under 5 years. Most are clinically managed as malaria without parasitological confirmation. There is an unmet need to describe pathogen-specific etiologies of fever. We enrolled 370 febrile children and 184 healthy controls. We report demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with Plasmodium falciparum, group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis, and respiratory viruses (influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], parainfluenza [PIV] types 1-3, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus [hMPV]), as well as those with undifferentiated fever. Of febrile children, 79.7% were treated for malaria. However, P. falciparum was detected infrequently in both cases and controls (14/268 [5.2%] versus 3/133 [2.3%], P = 0.165), whereas 41% (117/282) of febrile children had a respiratory viral infection, compared with 24.8% (29/117) of controls (P = 0.002). Only 9/515 (1.7%) children had streptococcal infection. Of febrile children, 22/269 (8.2%) were infected with > 1 pathogen, and 102/275 (37.1%) had fevers of unknown etiology. Respiratory viruses were common in both groups, but only influenza or parainfluenza was more likely to be associated with symptomatic disease (attributable fraction [AF] 67.5% and 59%, respectively). Malaria was overdiagnosed and overtreated. Few children presented to the hospital with GAS pharyngitis. An enhanced understanding of carriage of common pathogens, improved diagnostic capacity, and better-informed clinical algorithms for febrile illness are needed.

  5. The relationship between terrorist activities and cases of malaria in the eastern and south-eastern regions of Turkey, 1984-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ilhan; Egri, Mucahit; Celbis, Osman; Toprak, Sadik; Ozag, Kadir

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether cases of malaria are related to terrorist activities that have occurred in the eastern and south-eastern regions of Turkey. Some of the determinants related to malaria have been investigated using a national dataset for 11 provinces located in these regions of Turkey. In these regions, both terrorist activity and cases of malaria were common from 1984 to 1998. A multiple regression technique was used to identify the variables that are significantly associated with cases of malaria. Annual incidence of malaria was chosen as the dependent variable along with three independent (explanatory) variables: annual number of terrorist incidences, people per healthcare technician and number of thick blood films per 100,000 people. Based on this analysis, it is determined that the annual number of terrorist incidences has been associated with the annual number of malaria cases in these regions of Turkey since the beginning of terrorist activity in 1984.

  6. 08 Case report 356

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    Mediastinitis after oesophagoscopy: A case report. ABSTRACT. A 50-year-old male presented with signs and symptoms of oesophageal perforation after a biopsy. Suggestive symptoms and signs were pain in the neck radiating to the back, a rise in temperature ... On the second postoperative day his blood pressure was still.

  7. [Renal leiomyoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Guessous, H; Rabii, R; Benjelloun, M; Benlemlih, A; Skali, K; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1999-01-01

    The authors report a case of renal leiomyoma observed in a 56-year-old man. This cyst presented in the from of loin pain. Computed tomography revealed a homogeneous renal tumor. Treatment consisted of radical nephrectomy. Histological examination of the specimen showed benign renal leiomyoma.

  8. Nasal tooth: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Si Hyun; Kim, Ji Hye; Hwang, Hee Young; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Park, Chol Heui [Gachon Medical School, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    Ectopic tooth is not uncommon and usually occurs in the palate and maxillary sinus. We report a case of ectopic tooth located in the nasal cavity, a rare site. The mass depicted by CT was highly attenuated, and central lucency was observed.

  9. a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-26

    Mar 26, 2015 ... The speculated mechanism of SDH involves tear of the Falx ... The cause of this haemor- rhage was not known. Case Description. A female term Neonate with a birth weight of 3.2kg ... abnormalities6 such as fetal or maternal thrombocyto- penia7 or exposure to low molecular weight heparin as reported by ...

  10. Case report 537: Chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignatti, G.; Nigrisoli, M.

    1989-05-01

    A case is reported of a 10-year-old girl who presented with pain in the left hip. Radiologically, a well-defined lytic lesion with a sclerotic border was present in the neck of the femur, with no epiphyseal involvement. The rarity of a metaphyseal site of origin of a chondroblastoma was stressed and the literature reviewed. (orig./GDG).

  11. [The malaria situation in the WHO European region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatinelli, G

    2000-01-01

    The number of indigenous malaria cases in European region peaked in 1997, when 77,985 cases were officially reported. These were caused almost exclusively by P. vivax, P. falciparum being restricted to a rather limited number of cases in Tajikistan only. Another important problem in the European Region is the importation of malaria associated with a high fatality rate from tropical endemic countries. There were 841 cases of malaria in Armenia, 567 of which were locally transmitted, 30 out of 81 districts recorded malaria cases. 89% of the indigenous cases were registered in Masis district, in the Ararat valley. In 1998, total number of cases increased to 1156. Of the 542 indigenous cases registered, 376 were in Masis district. 9911 cases were officially reported in 1997 in Azerbaijan and 5175 cases in 1998. Approximately half of malaria cases were reported from seven districts: Nakhichivan (10.4%), Imishli (14.6%), Fizuli (8.1%), Sabirabad (6.8%), Saatly (6%), Bejlagan (5.6%) and Bilasuvar (4.8%). Local transmission is also reported from the periurban areas of Baku, where many displaced people are living in temporary shelters. In 1997, a total of 30,054 malaria cases were officially registered in Tajikistan, of which 85.3% occurred in the Khatlon region, 10.5% in Dushanbe region, 3.5% in Gorno-Badakhshan region and 0.7% in Leninabad region. Following implementation of malaria control activities with WHO assistance, the number of malaria cases officially registered in 1998 dropped to 19,361 (187 were cases of falciparum malaria). A dramatic change occurred in malaria situation in Turkmenistan in 1998, when 115 indigenous cases were registered. The majority of malaria cases (104) were registered in the Kushka district, in south-east of Turkmenistan, among military service personnel. In recent years, the Government of Turkey has renewed its efforts to fight malaria, incorporating them into GAP with support from UNDP and WHO. In 1998, 36,451 cases were reported, 87

  12. Malaria risk in young male travellers but local transmission persists: a case-control study in low transmission Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer L; Auala, Joyce; Haindongo, Erastus; Uusiku, Petrina; Gosling, Roly; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Mumbengegwi, Davis; Sturrock, Hugh J W

    2017-02-10

    A key component of malaria elimination campaigns is the identification and targeting of high risk populations. To characterize high risk populations in north central Namibia, a prospective health facility-based case-control study was conducted from December 2012-July 2014. Cases (n = 107) were all patients presenting to any of the 46 health clinics located in the study districts with a confirmed Plasmodium infection by multi-species rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Population controls (n = 679) for each district were RDT negative individuals residing within a household that was randomly selected from a census listing using a two-stage sampling procedure. Demographic, travel, socio-economic, behavioural, climate and vegetation data were also collected. Spatial patterns of malaria risk were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for malaria. Malaria risk was observed to cluster along the border with Angola, and travel patterns among cases were comparatively restricted to northern Namibia and Angola. Travel to Angola was associated with excessive risk of malaria in males (OR 43.58 95% CI 2.12-896), but there was no corresponding risk associated with travel by females. This is the first study to reveal that gender can modify the effect of travel on risk of malaria. Amongst non-travellers, male gender was also associated with a higher risk of malaria compared with females (OR 1.95 95% CI 1.25-3.04). Other strong risk factors were sleeping away from the household the previous night, lower socioeconomic status, living in an area with moderate vegetation around their house, experiencing moderate rainfall in the month prior to diagnosis and living malaria interventions to young male travellers, who have a disproportionate risk of malaria in northern Namibia, to coordinate cross-border regional malaria prevention initiatives and to scale up coverage of prevention measures such as indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide nets

  13. Spatial patterns of incident malaria cases and their household contacts in a single clinic catchment area of Chongwe District, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchoff, Jessie; Henostroza, German; Carter, Bryan S; Roberts, Sarah T; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Hamainza, Busiku; Hawela, Moonga; Curriero, Frank C

    2015-08-07

    Reactive case detection (RACD) for malaria is a strategy that may be used to complement passive surveillance, as passive surveillance fails to identify infections that are asymptomatic or do not seek care. The spatial and seasonal patterns of incident (index) cases reported at a single clinic in Chongwe District were explored. A RACD strategy was implemented from June 2012 to June 2013 in a single catchment area in Chongwe District. Incident (index) cases recorded at the clinic were followed up at their household, and all household contacts were tested for malaria using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). GPS coordinates were taken at each index household. Spatial analyses were conducted to assess characteristics related to clustering, cluster detection and spatial variation in risk of index houses. Effects of season (rainy versus dry), distance to the clinic and distance to the main road were considered as modifying factors. Lastly, logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the proportion of household contacts testing RDT positive. A total of 426 index households were enrolled, with 1,621 household contacts (45% RDT positive). Two space-time clusters were identified in the rainy season, with ten times and six times higher risk than expected. Significantly increased spatial clustering of index households was found in the rainy season as compared to the dry season (based on K-function methodology). However, no seasonal difference in mapped spatial intensity of index households was identified. Logistic regression analysis identified two main factors associated with a higher proportion of RDT positive household contacts. There was a 41% increased odds of RDT positive household contacts in households where the index case was under 5 years of age [OR = 1.41, 95% confidence intervals (1.15, 1.73)]. For every 500-m increase in distance from the road, there was a 5% increased odds of RDT positive household contacts [OR = 1.05 (1.02, 1.07)], controlling

  14. Indigenous malaria in a suburb of Ghent, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleman, R; Benoit, D; Goossens, L; Bouttens, F; Puydt, H D; Vogelaers, D; Colardyn, F; Van de Woude, K

    2000-01-01

    We report here details of a patient with Plasmodium falciparum malaria which was acquired in the vicinity of Ghent (Evergem) in July 1997. Indigenous malaria disappeared from Belgium in 1938. Due to an increase in international travel, the influx of migrant labor and the changing environmental conditions, there has been an upsurge of imported malaria. Airport- and port-malaria is acquired through the bite of a tropical anophelline mosquito by people whose geographical history excludes exposure to this vector in its natural habitat. As far as we know, only two cases of port-malaria have been reported: in Marseille. We describe here another possible case of port-malaria due to infection with P. falciparum in a 42-year-old woman with an underlying non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  15. Spatial and temporal distribution of falciparum malaria in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hualiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falciparum malaria is the most deadly among the four main types of human malaria. Although great success has been achieved since the launch of the National Malaria Control Programme in 1955, malaria remains a serious public health problem in China. This paper aimed to analyse the geographic distribution, demographic patterns and time trends of falciparum malaria in China. Methods The annual numbers of falciparum malaria cases during 1992–2003 and the individual case reports of each clinical falciparum malaria during 2004–2005 were extracted from communicable disease information systems in China Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. The annual number of cases and the annual incidence were mapped by matching them to corresponding province- and county-level administrative units in a geographic information system. The distribution of falciparum malaria by age, gender and origin of infection was analysed. Time-series analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between the falciparum malaria in the endemic provinces and the imported falciparum malaria in non-endemic provinces. Results Falciparum malaria was endemic in two provinces of China during 2004–05. Imported malaria was reported in 26 non-endemic provinces. Annual incidence of falciparum malaria was mapped at county level in the two endemic provinces of China: Yunnan and Hainan. The sex ratio (male vs. female for the number of cases in Yunnan was 1.6 in the children of 0–15 years and it reached 5.7 in the adults over 15 years of age. The number of malaria cases in Yunnan was positively correlated with the imported malaria of concurrent months in the non-endemic provinces. Conclusion The endemic area of falciparum malaria in China has remained restricted to two provinces, Yunnan and Hainan. Stable transmission occurs in the bordering region of Yunnan and the hilly-forested south of Hainan. The age and gender distribution in the endemic area is

  16. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  17. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    congenitally . In the late 1970s and early 1980s there were a number of cases of congenital malaria among immigrants from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos.2...dextrose Blood for transfusion; ideally screened for HIV and hepatitis B An anticonvulsant medication such as diazepam A broad spectrum antibiotic that...1991, pp 73-89 21. Quinn TC, Jacobs RF, Mertz GJ, et al: Congenital malaria: A report of four cases and a review. Clin Lab Obstet 10:229, 1982 22

  18. Sodium artesunate-induced diuresis in a patient with malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ahmed Zaki; Preeti Shanbag; Vijay Lad; Prithi Shenoy

    2011-01-01

    Sodium artesunate is used in the treatment of malaria. We report a case of sodium artesunate induced diuresis and natriuresis in a patient with malaria. Following artesunate administration there was polyuria accompanied by natriuresis that was reversed after discontinuation of artesunate treatment. The diuretic effect of artesunate can modify the course of renal failure in severe malaria. Prescribers should be aware of this effect of artesunate, so that it can be used judiciously and to the a...

  19. Individual-level factors associated with the risk of acquiring human Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Matthew J; Cox, Jonathan; William, Timothy; Jelip, Jenarun; Fornace, Kimberly M; Brock, Patrick M; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Barber, Bridget E; Anstey, Nicholas M; Yeo, Tsin W; Drakeley, Christopher J

    2017-06-09

    The emergence of human malaria due to the monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi threatens elimination efforts in southeast Asia. Changes in land use are thought to be driving the rise in reported P knowlesi cases, but the role of individual-level factors is unclear. To address this knowledge gap we assessed human and environmental factors associated with zoonotic knowlesi malaria risk. We did this population-based case-control study over a 2 year period in the state of Sabah in Malaysia. We enrolled cases with microscopy-positive, PCR-confirmed malaria who presented to two primary referral hospitals serving the adjacent districts of Kudat and Kota Marudu. We randomly selected three malaria-negative community controls per case, who were matched by village within 2 weeks of case detection. We obtained questionnaire data on demographics, behaviour, and residential malaria risk factors, and we also assessed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity. We used conditional logistic regression models to evaluate exposure risk between P knowlesi cases and controls, and between P knowlesi and human-only Plasmodium spp malaria cases. From Dec 5, 2012, to Jan 30, 2015, we screened 414 patients and subsequently enrolled 229 cases with P knowlesi malaria mono-infection and 91 cases with other Plasmodium spp infection. We enrolled 953 matched controls, including 683 matched to P knowlesi cases and 270 matched to non-P knowlesi cases. Age 15 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4·16, 95% CI 2·09-8·29, ptravel (2·48, 1·45-4·23, p=0·0010), being aware of the presence of monkeys in the past 4 weeks (3·35, 1·91-5·88, p<0·0001), and having open eaves or gaps in walls (2·18, 1·33-3·59, p=0·0021) were independently associated with increased risk of symptomatic P knowlesi infection. Farming occupation (aOR 1·89, 95% CI 1·07-3·35, p=0·028), clearing vegetation (1·89, 1·11-3·22, p=0·020), and having long grass around the house (2·08, 1·25-3·46, p=0

  20. Case report: Morgagni hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Frederick B; Rebuck, Jill A

    2006-03-01

    The case reported here is a 32-year-old man with a sudden onset of chest pain and an acute deterioration of lung function. An incarcerated Morgagni hernia was diagnosed with a computer tomographic CT scan, and repaired electively via a midline laparotomy. Morgagni hernia is a rare type of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, which may not be symptomatic until adulthood when the patient presents with acute symptoms or incarceration.

  1. [Central neurocytoma: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, M; Mansour, A; Feknous, S; Yassi, F; Smati, S; Belhouchet, S; Lankar, A

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we report one case of central neurocytoma treated in our department. It is a benign tumor of the lateral ventricles of the brain with neuronal differentiation. The clinical symptoms mainly consisted in intracranial hypertension syndrome. Immunohistochemical studies are necessary for the histopathological diagnosis. The treatment of choice is surgical. To guarantee good progression, complete ablation is necessary. The clinical progression, radiological aspects, treatment, histopathology, and postoperative progression will be discussed.

  2. Esthesioneuroblastoma A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Chadha, Snya; Pannu, Kulwant Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) also known as olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon malignant neoplasm arising in the roof of nasal cavity. It is now understood to originate from the olfactory epithelium. Case reports published worldwide have been very few. Common presenting symptoms of Esthesioneuroblastoma include nasal obstruction, epistaxis, facial pain, diplopia, proptosis, and anosmia. Apart from being locally aggressive, it metastasizes widely by both hematogenous and lymphatic routes.

  3. Gastric syphilis - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Novis, Camila Freitas Lobo; Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2016-01-01

    Gastric syphilis is an uncommon extracutaneous manifestation of syphilis, occurring in less than 1% of patients, presenting nonspecific clinical manifestations. In general, it occurs on secondary stage. The critical point is the recognition of the syphilitic gastric involvement, without which there may be incorrect diagnosis of malignancy of the digestive tract. In this report, a case of secondary syphilis with gastric involvement that had complete remission with benzathine penicillin will be described. PMID:27828649

  4. Alkaptonuria: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama Damarla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaptonuria is a rare inborn error of metabolism with autosomal recessive inheritance with a mutation in homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. It results in accumulation of homogentisic acid in connective tissues (ochronosis. Most common ocular manifestations are bluish-black discoloration of the conjunctiva, cornea, and sclera. In this case report, a 39-year-old Indian male patient with additional ocular features in the retina is described.

  5. LARYNGOCELE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakanth Goud

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Laryngoceles are rare, cystic dilatation of saccule of ventricle of larynx. Three types are recognized – internal, external and mixed types. Many of the laryngoceles are asymptomatic; few require surgical excision via internal/endoscopic or external approach. Contrast CT is the investigation of choice. A 40year old male presented to our OPD with a neck Scar, later diagnosed as laryngocele. Here is the case report about presentation, di agnosis and management of a large mixed layngocele.

  6. Cystic fibrosis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Si Hyun; Lee, Hyun Ju; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Chol Heui [Gachon Medical School, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive genetic disease. Among Caucasians, it is the most common cause of pulmonary insufficiency during the first three decades of life. The prevalence of cystic fibrosis varies according to ethnic origin: it is common among Caucasians but rare among Asians. We report a case in which cystic fibrosis with bronchiectasis and hyperaeration was revealed by high-resolution CT, and mutation of the cystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR) by DNA analysis.

  7. Determinan Kejadian Malaria di Wilayah Endemis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Hasyim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kabupaten Lahat adalah salah satu wilayah endemis malaria di Sumatera Selatan dengan prevalensi 16,4% dan Annual Malaria Incidence 22,08. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui faktor risiko lingkungan dengan kejadian malaria. Faktor risiko lingkungan genangan air (breeding place berhubungan dengan kejadian malaria dengan nilai p= 0,000. Analisis multivariat menemukan determinan utama kejadian malaria adalah breeding place di sekitar rumah responden dengan odds ratio (OR = 5,034 dan 95% CI = 2,65 _ 9,56. Responden yang tinggal di sekitar breeding place berisiko 5,03 kali lebih besar untuk menderita malaria dibandingkan dengan responden yang di sekitar rumah tidak terdapat breeding place setelah dikontrol variabel jarak rumah ke breeding place, ventilasi rumah, penggunaan kelambu, penggunaan obat anti nyamuk, dan kebiasaan keluar rumah pada malam hari. Lahat district is one of the malaria endemic area in South Sumatra Province with a prevalence of 16.4% and Annual Malaria Incidence of 22.08. The case control reports were carried out of 240 respondents. This study aimed to understand the relationship among of environmental risk factors with the incidence of malaria. After primary data collection followed by processing and data analysis in a multimedia laboratory. There was association between breeding place and malaria cases (p value= 0.000. The results of multivariate analysis of variables revealed the determinant risk was breeding place, with OR = 5.034 and CI 95%= 2.65 _ 9.56. Respondents who live around the breeding place has 5.034 times chance of affected malaria compared with respondents around the house there are no breeding place after the controlled distance to the breeding place house, use of mosquito nets, use of anti-mosquito, and habits out of the house at night variables.

  8. 濮阳市63例输入性恶性疟流行病学分析%Epidemiologocal analysis of 63 cases with imported falciparum malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾伟; 王兰珍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemic situation and epidemiological characteristics of imported falciparum malaria in Puyang and provide reference for controlling imported falciparum malaria.Methods Basic information and epidemiology investigation data of imported falciparum malaria cases in Puyang in since 2010 were collected from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention Information System,and statistically analyzed of epidemiological characteristics of the disease.Results There were a total of 63 imported falciparum malaria cases reported in Puyang from 2010 to 2014,all of whom were males. 58 cases were infected in Africa countries,mainly including Equatorial Guinea(26 cases) and Angola (9 cases). The 63 cases were young and middle age males with cultural level of junior middle school. Their ages were 23 to 50 years old and the median age was 37. The main vocations of those 63 cases were farmer,migrant worker and worker,accounting for 92.06%. Imported falciparum malaria cases were reported in oil fields of all five counties and two districts of the whole city, mainly in county of Puyang, accounted for 50.79%. The median of diagnosis time were 5 days after the onset of the disease.Conclusions Epidemic situation of imported falciparum malaria was in serious situation in Puyang. There is a need to strengthen the management,publicity and detection of malaria of overseas workers. Good clinician training and implement various prevention and control measures are necessary to improve the prevention and control of imported falciparum malaria.%目的 分析濮阳市输入性恶性疟疫情及流行特征,为输入性恶性疟防治工作提供参考.方法 通过中国疾病预防控制中心信息系统收集2010年以来濮阳市输入性恶性疟病例的基本信息、流行病学调查资料,统计分析濮阳市输入性恶性疟流行病学特征.结果 2010-2014年濮阳市共报告输入性恶性疟病例63例,均为男性.58例感染于非洲

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in peripheral health facilities in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Clarke, Siân

    2007-01-01

    Background Early recognition of symptoms and signs perceived as malaria are important for effective case management, as few laboratories are available at peripheral health facilities. The validity and reliability of clinical signs and symptoms used by health workers to diagnose malaria were...... villages. A malaria case was defined as any slide-confirmed parasitaemia in a person with an axillary temperature = 37.5°C or a history of fever within the last 24 hrs and no signs suggestive of other diseases. Results Cases of malaria were significantly more likely to report joint pains, headache......, vomiting and abdominal pains. However, due to the low prevalence of malaria, the predictive values of these individual signs alone, or in combination, were poor. Only 24.8% of 1627 patients had malaria according to case definition and > 75% of patients were unnecessarily treated for malaria and few slide...

  10. Chemotherapy and drug resistance status of malaria parasite in northeast India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diganta Goswami; Indra Baruah; Sunil Dhiman; Bipul Rabha; Vijay Veer; Lokendra Singh; Dhirendra Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    India reports the highest number of malaria cases in Southeast Asia, of which Plasmodiumfalciparum contribute more than half of the cases every year. North eastern states of India contribute only 3.96% of country’s population but account for >10% of total reported malaria cases, 11% of Plasmodium falciparum cases and 20% of malaria related deaths annually. In India, chloroquine resistance was reported for the first time from northeast region and since then chloroquine treatment failure is being reported from many parts of the region. Increased chloroquine treatment failure has led to change of the drug policy to artemisinin combination therapy as first line of malaria treatment in the region. However, replacing chloroquine to artemisinin combination therapy has not shown significant difference in the overall malaria incidence in the region. The present review addresses the current malaria situation of northeastern region of India in the light of antimalarials drug resistance.

  11. Analysis of six imported malaria cases in Shenzhen port%深圳口岸6例输入性疟疾的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧青叶; 刘春晓; 赵纯中; 顾大勇; 徐云庆; 史蕾; 徐媛; 李薇薇

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析深圳口岸输入性疟疾病例的相关资料和追踪调查,为输入性疟疾防控工作提供依据.方法 对经深圳口岸入境疑似疟疾者进行流行病学个案调查和实验室检查.结果 通过现场体温监测、医学巡查、流行病学个案调查和实验室检测,从某劳务派遣入境团体人群中流行病学确诊6例输入性疟疾病例,并对确诊的病例进行了跟踪.结论 深圳口岸面临输入性疟疾的威胁,需对来自疟疾流行区的人群加强检疫,以防止疟疾传入.%Objective The Aim of this study was to investigate of recent reports of malaria in Shenzhen port region in order to provide evidence for the prevention and control of imported malaria. Methods In the present study the laboratory diagnosis for malaria and the epidemiological method were used for the investigation of travelers from endemic areas. Results Based on on-site tempeiature monitoring, epidemiological investigation as well as laboratory test, six suspected maiaria cases were identified among the travelers returning from endemic areas. Conclusion The results suggested that Shenzhen port region is facing the threat of imported malaria. All relevant departments should enhance cooperation and coordination in health education among migrant worker to increase their awareness of malaria prevention and to take some effective measures in this regard.

  12. Reduction of incidence and relapse or recrudescence cases of malaria in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Gabriel de Deus; Gim, Karla Nayma Mundt; Zaqueo, Guilherme Mendes; Alves, Thaianne da Cunha; Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroshi; Basano, Sergio de Almeida; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha; Maciel de Sousa, Camila

    2014-09-12

    Malaria is one of the major parasitic diseases in the State of Rondônia, located in the western Brazilian Amazon. The basic treatment scheme for this disease is chloroquine and primaquine. This study evaluated the epidemiological profile of malaria in Rondônia between 2008 and 2012. The epidemiological data were provided by the Health Surveillance Agency from the State of Rondônia, and socioeconomic indicators were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System, and from the National Institute for Space Research. The analyzed variables included year of diagnosis, gender, age group, main activity performed in the 15 days previous to the diagnosis, parasite species, level of parasitemia, number of relapse/recrudescence cases, and socioeconomic and environmental data for Rondônia. A total of 238,626 cases of malaria were recorded in Rondônia during the study period. Of this total, 65.6% were men and the most prevalent age group was 20-39 years. Plasmodium vivax was the most common parasite (89.8%), followed by Plasmodium   falciparum (9.4%). An average of 30.9% of the individuals who were tested presented with relapse/recrudescence malaria. The API value was highest in 2008 and lowest in 2012, corresponding to 42.3 cases and 19.2 cases per 1,000 inhabitants, respectively. A 58% reduction in the number of malaria cases and a 36.2% reduction in the number of relapse/recrudescence malaria cases were observed, due to increases in the economy, improvements in the health system, and reduction of deforestation in this region.

  13. Chitinase 3-like 1 is induced by Plasmodium falciparum malaria and predicts outcome of cerebral malaria and severe malarial anaemia in a case-control study of African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Laura K; Petes, Carlene; Lu, Ziyue; Dhabangi, Aggrey; Musoke, Charles; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M; Lee, Chun Geun; Liles, Wayne Conrad; Elias, Jack A; Kain, Kevin C

    2014-07-21

    Severe and fatal malaria are associated with dysregulated host inflammatory responses to infection. Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a secreted glycoprotein implicated in regulating immune responses. Expression and function of CHI3L1 in malaria infection were investigated. Plasma levels of CHI3L1 were quantified in a case-control study of Ugandan children presenting with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. CHI3L1 levels were compared in children with uncomplicated malaria (UM; n = 53), severe malarial anaemia (SMA; n = 59) and cerebral malaria (CM; n = 44) using the Kruskall Wallis-test, and evaluated for utility in predicting fatal (n = 23) versus non-fatal (n = 80) outcomes in severe disease using the Mann Whitney U test, receiver operating characteristic curves, and combinatorial analysis. Co-culture of P. falciparum with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the Plasmodium berghei ANKA experimental model of cerebral malaria were used to examine the role of CHI3L1 in severe malaria. In children presenting with falciparum malaria, CHI3L1 levels were increased in SMA and CM versus UM (p Plasmodium falciparum stimulated CHI3L1 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. CHI3L1 was increased in plasma and brain tissue in experimental cerebral malaria, but targeted Chi3l1 deletion did not alter cytokine production or survival in this model. These data suggest that plasma CHI3L1 measured at presentation correlates with malaria severity and predicts outcome in paediatric SMA and CM, but do not support a causal role for CHI3L1 in cerebral malaria pathobiology in the model tested.

  14. Evaluation of Renal Function in Pregnant Women with Malaria: A Case-Control Study in a Mesoendemic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justice Afrifa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria is known to have devastating effects on mortality in tropical and subtropical regions with the effect being magnified in people with weakened immunity such as those in pregnancy. We assessed the effect of malaria on renal function of pregnant women receiving antenatal care in a mesoendemic area of Ghana. Methodology. A case-control study that enrolled a total of 100 pregnant women (50 with confirmed gestational malaria as cases and 50 without malaria as controls. Sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric history (obtained with a questionnaire, urea, creatinine, sodium, and potassium were analyzed using a chemistry automated analyzer. Results. Plasma urea and creatinine were significantly increased (P=0.0003 and P<0.0001, resp. among cases compared to the controls. Also the levels of urea (P=0.033, creatinine (P=0.032, and parasitaemia (0.016 were significantly increased with increasing gestational age. Conclusion. Malaria has a significant impact on renal function (most importantly, urea and creatinine and is also significantly associated with increasing gestational age among our study participants.

  15. Use of RDTs to improve malaria diagnosis and fever case management at primary health care facilities in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabakooza Jane

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early and accurate diagnosis of malaria followed by prompt treatment reduces the risk of severe disease in malaria endemic regions. Presumptive treatment of malaria is widely practised where microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are not readily available. With the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for treatment of malaria in many low-resource settings, there is need to target treatment to patients with parasitologically confirmed malaria in order to improve quality of care, reduce over consumption of anti-malarials, reduce drug pressure and in turn delay development and spread of drug resistance. This study evaluated the effect of malaria RDTs on health workers' anti-malarial drug (AMD prescriptions among outpatients at low level health care facilities (LLHCF within different malaria epidemiological settings in Uganda. Methods All health workers (HWs in 21 selected intervention (where RDTs were deployed LLHF were invited for training on the use RDTs. All HWs were trained to use RDTs for parasitological diagnosis of all suspected malaria cases irrespective of age. Five LLHCFs with clinical diagnosis (CD only were included for comparison. Subsequently AMD prescriptions were compared using both a 'pre - post' and 'intervention - control' analysis designs. In-depth interviews of the HWs were conducted to explore any factors that influence AMD prescription practices. Results A total of 166,131 out-patient attendances (OPD were evaluated at 21 intervention LLHCFs. Overall use of RDTs resulted in a 38% point reduction in AMD prescriptions. There was a two-fold reduction (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.55-0.70 in AMD prescription with the greatest reduction in the hypo-endemic setting (RR 0.46 95% CI 0.51-0.53 but no significant change in the urban setting (RR1.01, p-value = 0.820. Over 90% of all eligible OPD patients were offered a test. An average of 30% (range 25%-35% of the RDT-negative fever patients received

  16. Prevalence of multiple drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jitendra; Khan, Siraj Ahmed; Soni, Monika; Dutta, Prafulla

    2017-01-01

    Two numbers of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Gossingpara, Runikhata area in Chirang district of Assam had shown multiple mutations in Pfcrt-dhfr-dhps gene (up to seven mutations: One mutation in Pfcrt gene, three mutations in Pfdhfr gene and three mutations in Pfdhps gene). Similarly, two cases in Bat camp, Miao area under Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh had shown a total of eight mutations, of which one mutation in Pfcrt gene, three mutations in Pfdhfr gene, three mutations in Pfdhps gene and one mutation in PfATPase6 gene. One case in 3 Miles, Miao area of Changlang district has shown mutations in Pfcrt(one mutation), Pfdhfr(four mutations) and Pfdhps(three mutations) gene. These results indicated that there is an existence of multiple mutant P. falciparum malaria cases in northeastern region of India.

  17. ACROMEGALY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    10.5958/2319-5886.2015.00183.6

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acromegaly is a rare disease caused due to hyper secretion of growth hormone. Most of the cases of acromegaly are caused by pitutary adenoma which can be microadenoma or macroadenomas. These adenomas are never malignant, but can have significant morbidity and mortality. We report a 35 year old female patient presented herewith classical presentation of acromegaly with chief complain of weight gain, excessive sweating , widening of both hands and feet and was diagnosed as a case of acromegaly due to macroadenoma of pirtutary gland, on the basis of typical clinical features and hormonal parameters also radiological findings. Patient underwent transsphenoidal surgical resection of macroadenoma and recovered completely from the disease. Early recognition and diagnosis will help to avoid the complications of disease.

  18. Eagle syndrome: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludağ, İrem Fatma; Öcek, Levent; Zorlu, Yaşar; Uludağ, Burhanettin

    2013-01-01

    Eagle syndrome is an aggregate of symptoms caused by an elongated styloid process, most frequently resulting in headache, facial pain, dysphagia and sensation of foreign body in throat. The proper diagnosis is not difficult with clinical history, physical examination and radiographic assessment if there is a sufficient degree of suspicion. The treatment is very effective. We report here a typical case of Eagle syndrome which was misdiagnosed as trigeminal neuralgia for many years and was treated with carbamazepine. We aim to point the place of Eagle syndrome in the differential diagnosis of facial pain. We also re-emphasize the usefulness of the three-dimensional computed tomography in the diagnosis of Eagle syndrome. Even though Eagle syndrome is a rare condition, in cases of facial pain refractory to treatment or unexplained complaints of the head and neck region, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis as it has therapeutic consequences.

  19. SCLERODERMA: A CASE REPORT*

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    Gülay Altan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Scleroderma is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder which is characterized by fibrosis of visceral organs, skin and blood vessels. This condition can be localized or systemic. Its estimated prevalence is 250 cases in a million and it is more common in women than in men. Resorption of the mandibular angle and coronoid process can be observed in patients with scleroderma. Pressure of fibrous mucocutaneous tissues is thought to be the cause of the resorption. Decreased number of wrinkles due to sclerosis and distinct facial features because of the atrophy of ala nasi are among common clinical characteristics of this condition. The aim of this case report is to present a 40-year-old female patient with scleroderma who presented with signs of resorption at the angle of mandible, coronoid process, as well as widening of the periodontal space.

  20. Malaria Transmission Risk Factor In West Java (Epidemiology Study About Vector, Plasmodium parasite and Environmental Risk Factors For Malaria Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the territory is divided with the province of Banten, in West Java there are five regencies that defined as malaria endemic area, there are Ciamis, Tasikmalaya, Garut, Cianjur and Sukabumi. Sufferer, concentrated in southern coastal areas (Indonesian Ocean starting from the beach of Kalipucang at Ciamis up to coast of Cikakak at Sukabumi which borders the province of Banten and also mountain and plantations areas. Malaria morbidity incidence risk factors is differ in each of these endemic areas. In general is the presence of malaria patients without symptoms who can be a source of infection that so difficult to know its existence. Still the number of standing water that can become mosqui-to breeding places of Anopheles spp, such as fish pond, small puddle on the riverside, shrimp pond, mangrove forests that potentially at the beginning of the rainy season, the fields during rice that potential when the rice growing and the river that potential in the dry season. The existence of high population mobility and also the number of vegetation in the surrounding residential population and the existence of cattle are placed close to settle-ments.

  1. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis: case report

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    Deus-Silva Leonardo de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic pachymeningits is an unusual cause of neurological symptoms and is often secondary to infections, carcinomatosis or inflammatory diseases. It may also be idiopathic. We report a case of pachymeningitis which was manifested primarily by psychosis and visual loss with optic atrophy and destruction of nasal septum. The patient, a 45 year old woman was submitted to extensive investigation without evidence of any underlying disease. A meningeal biopsy was performed and showed a mostly unspecific inflammatory process with extensive fibrosis of the dura and few early stage granulomas. These findings suggest either neurosarcoidosis or idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis.

  2. OBSESSIONS: CASE REPORT STUDY

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    Miloš Židanik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obsessions are one of the most refractory psychiatric disorders. The therapeutic guidelines include a psychopharmacotherapy and the use of behavioural and supportive psychotherapy.Methods. This case report study presents a patient with a homicide obsessions at the forefront and narcissistic personality disorder in background. The use of analytical oriented psychotherapy, which helped to resolve axis-1 symptoms, is described.Conclusions. In the therapy of patients it is important to have the knowledge about the national therapeutic guidelines and critical distance toward them as well. Which therapy to use should be decided by the individual patient’s needs.

  3. Neuromyelitis Optica. Case Report

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    Patricia Quintero Cusguen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis Optica, also known as Devic’sSyndrome, is a disease which combines opticneuritis and transverse myelitis. Some years ago it was considered as a form of multiple sclerosis.Actually, it is consider as a different disease, onthe basis of the clinical, imaging, serology andimmunopatholoy profile.A case of 29 years old female patient is reported,based on her clinical findings which beganin the fifth postpartum month, with progressivelower limb paresis, associated with bilateralvision loss.This paper attempts giving a synoptic overviewof this uncommon immune mediateddemyelinating condition; it summarises themost important epidemiological parameters andpresents the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilitiesavailable today.

  4. Towards eliminating malaria in high endemic countries: the roles of community health workers and related cadres and their challenges in integrated community case management for malaria: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunguya, Bruno F; Mlunde, Linda B; Ayer, Rakesh; Jimba, Masamine

    2017-01-03

    Human resource for health crisis has impaired global efforts against malaria in highly endemic countries. To address this, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended scaling-up of community health workers (CHWs) and related cadres owing to their documented success in malaria and other disease prevention and management. Evidence is inconsistent on the roles and challenges they encounter in malaria interventions. This systematic review aims to summarize evidence on roles and challenges of CHWs and related cadres in integrated community case management for malaria (iCCM). This systematic review retrieved evidence from PubMed, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, and WHO regional databases. Terms extracted from the Boolean phrase used for PubMed were also used in other databases. The review included studies with Randomized Control Trial, Quasi-experimental, Pre-post interventional, Longitudinal and cohort, Cross-sectional, Case study, and Secondary data analysis. Because of heterogeneity, only narrative synthesis was conducted for this review. A total of 66 articles were eligible for analysis out of 1380 studies retrieved. CHWs and related cadre roles in malaria interventions included: malaria case management, prevention including health surveillance and health promotion specific to malaria. Despite their documented success, CHWs and related cadres succumb to health system challenges. These are poor and unsustainable finance for iCCM, workforce related challenges, lack of and unsustainable supply of medicines and diagnostics, lack of information and research, service delivery and leadership challenges. Community health workers and related cadres had important preventive, case management and promotive roles in malaria interventions. To enable their effective integration into the health systems, the identified challenges should be addressed. They include: introducing sustainable financing on iCCM programmes, tailoring their training to address the identified gaps

  5. Choroidal osteoma - case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N; Rahman, N A; Uddin, M S

    2014-07-01

    Choroidal osteoma is a rare disease. In this article four case histories were described. All were female and young patient. One patient had bilateral and other three had unilateral involvement. They had no family history. One patient reported at eye department in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and the other three patients reported in Bangladesh Eye Hospital. Choroidal osteoma is a benign tumor. It is diagnosed by fundoscopy, ocular B-scan ultrasonography, x-ray orbit, FFA, OCT and CT-scan of orbit. Most patients do not require treatment. Hemorrhage on the lesion suggests the presence of sub-retinal neovascularization which are typically treated with laser or intra-vitreal anti-VEGF.

  6. Malaria og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, A L; Rønn, A M; Langhoff-Roos, J

    1992-01-01

    In regions where malaria is endemism, the disease is a recognised cause of complications of pregnancy such as spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, intrauterine growth retardation and foetal death. Malaria is seldom seen in pregnant women in Denmark but, during the past two years, the authors...... the patients but also their practitioners were unaware that malaria can occur several years after exposure. Three out of the four patients had employed malaria prophylaxis. As resistance to malarial prophylactics in current use is increasing steadily, chemoprophylaxis should be supplemented by mechanical...... protection against malaria and insect repellents. As a rule, malaria is treated with chloroquine. In cases of Falciparum malaria in whom chloroquine resistance is suspected, treatment with mefloquine may be employed although this should only be employed in cases of dire necessity in pregnant patients during...

  7. Ten year trend analysis of malaria prevalence in Kola Diba, North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Alemu Abebe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the world. It is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examinations from the Kola Diba Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases reported between 2002–2011 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Additionally, any malaria intervention activities that had been taken to control malaria were collected using a well-prepared checklist from the study area. Results Within the last decade (2002–2011 a total of 59, 208 blood films were requested for malaria diagnosis in Kola Diba health center and 23,473 (39.6% microscopically confirmed malaria cases were reported in the town with a fluctuating trend. Regarding the identified plasmodium species, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax accounted for 75% and 25% of malaria morbidity, respectively. Malaria was reported in all age groups and both sexes, but the 15–44 year age group and males were more affected. Despite the apparent fluctuation of malaria trends in the area, the highest peak of malaria cases was reported during spring seasons. Conclusion Comparatively, after the introduction of the current malaria control strategies, the morbidity and mortality by malaria is decreasing but malaria is still a major health problem and the deadly species P. falciparium is predominant. Therefore, control activities should be continued in a strengthened manner in the study area considering both P. falciparium and P. vivax.

  8. The Malaria Transition on the Arabian Peninsula: Progress toward a Malaria-Free Region between 1960–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Robert W.; Amratia, Punam; Zamani, Ghasem; Mundia, Clara W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Memish, Ziad A.; Al Zahrani, Mohammad H.; Al Jasari, Adel; Fikri, Mahmoud; Atta, Hoda

    2014-01-01

    The transmission of malaria across the Arabian Peninsula is governed by the diversity of dominant vectors and extreme aridity. It is likely that where malaria transmission was historically possible it was intense and led to a high disease burden. Here, we review the speed of elimination, approaches taken, define the shrinking map of risk since 1960 and discuss the threats posed to a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula using the archive material, case data and published works. From as early as the 1940s, attempts were made to eliminate malaria on the peninsula but were met with varying degrees of success through to the 1970s; however, these did result in a shrinking of the margins of malaria transmission across the peninsula. Epidemics in the 1990s galvanised national malaria control programmes to reinvigorate control efforts. Before the launch of the recent global ambition for malaria eradication, countries on the Arabian Peninsula launched a collaborative malaria-free initiative in 2005. This initiative led a further shrinking of the malaria risk map and today locally acquired clinical cases of malaria are reported only in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, with the latter contributing to over 98% of the clinical burden. PMID:23548086

  9. Malaria in Suriname: a new era : impact of modified intervention strategies on Anopheles darlingi populations and malaria incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodiumblood parasites which live inside the human host and are spread by Anopheles mosquitoes.Every year an estimated 225 million new cases and near 800.000 malaria deaths are reported. Control of the disease is a formidable task involving all three

  10. Malaria in Suriname: a new era : impact of modified intervention strategies on Anopheles darlingi populations and malaria incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodiumblood parasites which live inside the human host and are spread by Anopheles mosquitoes.Every year an estimated 225 million new cases and near 800.000 malaria deaths are reported. Control of the disease is a formidable task involving all three liv

  11. Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Freddie Masaninga; Mac Otten; Ibrahima Soce Fall; Olusegun Babaniyi; Emmanuel Chanda; Pascalina Chanda-Kapata; Busiku Hamainza; Hieronymo T Masendu; Mulakwa Kamuliwo; Wambinji Kapelwa; John Chimumbwa; John Govere

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000-2010 in Zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. This review considered data from the National Health Information Management System, Malaria Surveys and Programme Review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. Data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria reduction (66%) in in-patient cases and deaths, particularly between 2000-2008. These changes occurred following the (re-)introduction and expansion of indoor residual spraying up to 90%coverage, scale-up of coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in household from 50%to 70%, and artemisin-based combination therapy nationwide. However, malaria cases and deaths re-surged, increasing in 2009-2010 in the northern-eastern parts of Zambia. Delays in the disbursement of funds affected the implementation of interventions, which resulted in resurgence of cases and deaths. In spite of a decline in malaria disease burden over the past decade in Zambia, a reversal in impact is notable in the year 2009-2010, signifying that control gains are fragile and must be sustained toeliminate malaria.

  12. Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie Masaninga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000–2010 in Zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. This review considered data from the National Health Information Management System, Malaria Surveys and Programme Review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. Data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria reduction (66% in in-patient cases and deaths, particularly between 2000–2008. These changes occurred following the (re-introduction and expansion of indoor residual spraying up to 90% coverage, scale-up of coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in household from 50% to 70%, and artemisin-based combination therapy nationwide. However, malaria cases and deaths re-surged, increasing in 2009–2010 in the northern-eastern parts of Zambia. Delays in the disbursement of funds affected the implementation of interventions, which resulted in resurgence of cases and deaths. In spite of a decline in malaria disease burden over the past decade in Zambia, a reversal in impact is notable in the year 2009–2010, signifying that control gains are fragile and must be sustained toeliminate malaria.

  13. Malaria infection has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia.

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    Kassahun Alemu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination requires successful nationwide control efforts. Detecting the spatiotemporal distribution and mapping high-risk areas are useful to effectively target pockets of malaria endemic regions for interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify patterns of malaria distribution by space and time in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the monthly reports stored in the district malaria offices for the period between 2003 and 2012. Eighteen districts in the highland and fringe malaria areas were included and geo-coded for the purpose of this study. The spatial data were created in ArcGIS10 for each district. The Poisson model was used by applying Kulldorff methods using the SaTScan™ software to analyze the purely temporal, spatial and space-time clusters of malaria at a district levels. RESULTS: The study revealed that malaria case distribution has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable transmission areas. Most likely spatial malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR =197764.1, p<0.001. Significant spatiotemporal malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR=197764.1, p<0.001 between 2003/1/1 and 2012/12/31. A temporal scan statistics identified two high risk periods from 2009/1/1 to 2010/12/31 (LLR=72490.5, p<0.001 and from 2003/1/1 to 2005/12/31 (LLR=26988.7, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: In unstable malaria transmission areas, detecting and considering the spatiotemporal heterogeneity would be useful to strengthen malaria control efforts and ultimately achieve elimination.

  14. Fantom pain: Case report

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    Marić Sanja S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Phantom limb pain is a common problem after limb amputation (41-85%. It is described as an extremely painful sensation in the missing part of the body that can last for hours, days or even years. It is considered to arise from cortical reorganization, although many factors can increase the risk of phantom limb pain: pain before surgery, age and sex of the patients, the time elapsed since surgery, stump pain, inadequate prosthesis. Phantom limb pain therapy is very complicated. Case report We reported a case of 80-year-old patient suffering from phantom limb pain and phantom sensation 25 years after the amputation of his left leg due to the injury. The patient has pain at the site of amputation, sensation that he has the leg and that it occupies an unusual position and almost daily exhausting phantom limb pain (6-9 visual analogue scale - VAS with disturbed sleep and mood. We managed to reduce the pain under 4 VAS and decrease the patient suffering by combining drugs from the group of coanalgetics (antidepressants, antiepileptics, non-pharmacological methods (transcutaneous electroneurostimulation - TENS, mirror therapy and femoral nerve block in the place of disarticulation of the left thigh. Conclusion Phantom limb pain therapy is multimodal, exhausting for both the patient and the physician and it is often unsuccessful. The combination of different pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities can give satisfactory therapeutic response.

  15. Coinfection: A Case Report

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    Huldah I. Nwokeukwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tuberculosis is a major public health problem, and its control has been facing a lot of challenges with emergence of HIV. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant strain has also propounded the problem especially in children where diagnosis is difficult to make. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is in vitro resistant to isoniazid (H and rifampicin (R. Paediatric multi-drug resistant tuberculosis with HIV coinfection is rare, and there is no documented report from Nigeria. Objective. To report a case of paediatric MDR-TB in Nigeria about it. Methods. The case note of the patient was retrieved, and relevant data were extracted and summarized. Results. A 9-year-old female HIV-positive pupil with a year history of recurrent cough, 3 months history of recurrent fever, and generalized weight loss was diagnosed and treated for tuberculosis but failed after retreatment. She was later diagnosed with MDR-TB and is presently on DOT-Plus regimen. Conclusion. Paediatric MDR-TB with HIV co-infection is rare. Early diagnosis and treatment is important to prevent spread of the disease. The use of Isoniazid preventive therapy is recommended for children who come in contact with patients with active tuberculosis and also for HIV patients without active tuberculosis.

  16. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Progress Report and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-14

    Government Accountability Office ITN Insecticide-Treated Net MDR - TB Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis NGO Non-Governmental Organization OGAC Office of the...the Fund in excess of the President’s request are provided at the expense of U.S. bilateral HIV/AIDS, TB , and malaria programs; and because they...Fund has improved its reporting and monitoring practices, greater U.S. contributions to the Fund parallel increases in U.S. bilateral HIV/AIDS, TB , and

  17. Boerhaave syndrome - case report

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    Biljana Radovanovic Dinic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Boerhaave syndrome consists of spontaneous longitudinal transmural rupture of the esophagus, usually in its distal part. It generally develops during or after persistent vomiting as a consequence of a sudden increase in intraluminal pressure in the esophagus. It is extremely rare in clinical practice. In 50% of the cases, it is manifested by Mackler's triad: vomiting, lower thoracic pain and subcutaneous emphysema. Hematemesis is an uncommon yet challenging presentation of Boerhaave's syndrome. Compared with ruptures of other parts of the digestive tract, spontaneous rupture is characterized by a higher mortality rate. CASE REPORT: This paper presents a 64-year-old female patient whose vomit was black four days before examination and became bloody on the day of the examination. Her symptoms included epigastric pain and suffocation. Physical examination showed hypotension, tachycardia, dyspnea and a swollen and painful abdomen. Auscultation showed lateral crackling sounds on inspiration. Ultrasound examination showed a distended stomach filled with fluid. Over 1000 ml of fresh blood was extracted by means of nasogastric suction. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was discontinued immediately upon entering the proximal esophagus, where a large amount of fresh blood was observed. The patient was sent for emergency abdominal surgery, during which she died. An autopsy established a diagnosis of Boerhaave syndrome and ulceration in the duodenal bulb. CONCLUSION: Boerhaave syndrome should be considered in all cases with a combination of gastrointestinal symptoms (especially epigastric pain and vomiting and pulmonary signs and symptoms (especially suffocation.

  18. Plasmodium vivax cerebral malaria complicated with venous sinus thrombosis in Colombia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel A Pinzn; Juan C Pineda; Fernando Rosso; Masaru Shinchi; Fabio Bonilla-Abada

    2013-01-01

    Complicated malaria is usually due to Plasmodium falciparum. Nevertheless, Plasmodium vivax is infrequently related with life-threatening complications. Few cases have been reported of severe Plasmodium vivax infection, and most of them from Southeast Asia and India. We report the first case of cerebral malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in Latin America, complicated with sagittal sinus thrombosis and confirmed by a molecular method.

  19. Malaria Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Malaria in ... to determine definitively which species are involved. Other Facts Five times, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or ...

  20. A case of Plasmodium vivax malaria associated with severe autoimmune hemolytic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia in malaria is multifactorial. Autoimmune hemolysis is an extremely rare cause of anemia in malaria and more so in vivax malaria. A 35-year-old female presented to us with fever and anemia. She was diagnosed as vivax malaria with autoimmune hemolytc anemia by a positive Direct Coomb′s test. We treated her with antimalarial durgs, corticosteroids, and transfused her with the least incompatible blood. The patient recovered and was discharged. Hence, we suggest that autoimmune hemolysis be considered an important cause of anemia in Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax malaria.

  1. Sodium artesunate-induced diuresis in a patient with malaria

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    Syed Ahmed Zaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium artesunate is used in the treatment of malaria. We report a case of sodium artesunate induced diuresis and natriuresis in a patient with malaria. Following artesunate administration there was polyuria accompanied by natriuresis that was reversed after discontinuation of artesunate treatment. The diuretic effect of artesunate can modify the course of renal failure in severe malaria. Prescribers should be aware of this effect of artesunate, so that it can be used judiciously and to the advantage of patients with severe malaria.

  2. The Current Situation on Malaria in Astrakhan Region

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    R.S. Arakelian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study. To describe the current situation on malaria in Astrakhan region for 2000–2014. Materials and methods. The first data on malarious situation in the Astrakhan region belongs to 1894, when in the Astrakhan province there were registered 54 952 cases of malaria. The results of the study. In Astrakhan region for the period from 2000 to 2014 there were registered 90 cases of human malaria, including imported cases from the CIS — 70 (78 %, secondary from imported — 11 (12 % and relapse — 9 (10 %. Geographically, the foci of malaria were distributed as follows: Astrakhan — 58 foci (65 %, including Leninskyi district — 27 cases (46 % of all urban cases, the Kirov and the Soviet districts — 15 foci (26 % and Truso district — 1 case (2 % and passing through Astrakhan — 2 foci (2 %; Astrakhan region — 30 sites (33 %, including Krasnoyarsk district — 9 sites (30 %, Narimanov district — 8 CL. (27 % of all rural cases, Akhtubinsky district — 5 cases (17 %, Kharabalinskyi district — 4 sites (13 %, Chernoyarskyi district — 2 sites (7 %, Kamyziakskyi and Limansky districts 1 site (3 %. Conclusions. On the territory of Astrakhan region throughout the transmission season of effective contamination of mosquitoes (May — September over the last 10 years there have been imported cases of malaria. The maximum number of reported imported malaria cases was observed in 2001 — 35 cases. In Astrakhan region the most frequently recorded is the three-day malaria — 94 %. The importation of malaria in the region was carried out in 78 % of cases from Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. After a long break, in Astrakhan region there were registered new active lesions, indicating the presence of secondary from imported malaria cases and the emergence of new active foci of the 1st degree. The disease was recorded more often in the warmer months, as evidenced by the incidence — 80 % of all reported cases.

  3. Climate prediction of El Niño malaria epidemics in north-west Tanzania

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    Morse Andrew P

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a significant public health problem in Tanzania. Approximately 16 million malaria cases are reported every year and 100,000 to 125,000 deaths occur. Although most of Tanzania is endemic to malaria, epidemics occur in the highlands, notably in Kagera, a region that was subject to widespread malaria epidemics in 1997 and 1998. This study examined the relationship between climate and malaria incidence in Kagera with the aim of determining whether seasonal forecasts may assist in predicting malaria epidemics. Methods A regression analysis was performed on retrospective malaria and climatic data during each of the two annual malaria seasons to determine the climatic factors influencing malaria incidence. The ability of the DEMETER seasonal forecasting system in predicting the climatic anomalies associated with malaria epidemics was then assessed for each malaria season. Results It was found that malaria incidence is positively correlated with rainfall during the first season (Oct-Mar (R-squared = 0.73, p Conclusion These results demonstrate the potential of a seasonal forecasting system in the development of a malaria early warning system in Kagera region.

  4. The incidence of malaria in travellers to South-East Asia: is local malaria transmission a useful risk indicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Ron H; Carroll, Bernadette; Hellgren, Urban; Visser, Leo G; Siikamäki, Heli; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Calleri, Guido; Jänisch, Thomas; Myrvang, Bjørn; Gascon, Joaquim; Hatz, Christoph

    2010-10-04

    The presence of ongoing local malaria transmission, identified though local surveillance and reported to regional WHO offices, by S-E Asian countries, forms the basis of national and international chemoprophylaxis recommendations in western countries. The study was designed to examine whether the strategy of using malaria transmission in a local population was an accurate estimate of the malaria threat faced by travellers and a correlate of malaria in returning travellers. Malaria endemicity was described from distribution and intensity in the local populations of ten S-E Asian destination countries over the period 2003-2008 from regionally reported cases to WHO offices. Travel acquired malaria was collated from malaria surveillance reports from the USA and 12 European countries over the same period. The numbers of travellers visiting the destination countries was based on immigration and tourism statistics collected on entry of tourists to the destination countries. In the destination countries, mean malaria rates in endemic countries ranged between 0.01 in Korea to 4:1000 population per year in Lao PDR, with higher regional rates in a number of countries. Malaria cases imported into the 13 countries declined by 47% from 140 cases in 2003 to 66 in 2008. A total of 608 cases (27.3% Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)) were reported over the six years, the largest number acquired in Indonesia, Thailand and Korea. Four countries had an incidence > 1 case per 100,000 traveller visits; Burma (Myanmar), Indonesia, Cambodia and Laos (range 1 to 11.8-case per 100,000 visits). The remaining six countries rates were 1 case per 100,000 visits to consider targeted malaria prophylaxis recommendations to minimize use of chemoprophylaxis for low risk exposure during visits to S-E Asia. Policy needs to be adjusted regularly to reflect the changing risk.

  5. Progress towards malaria elimination in Sabang Municipality, Aceh, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdiana Herdiana

    2013-01-01

    malaria diagnosis, introduction of ACT for treatment, and scale-up of coverage of IRS and LLINs. The second phase, from 2008 to 2010, initiated to eliminate the persistent residual transmission of malaria, consisted of development of a malaria database to ensure rapid case reporting and investigation, stratification of malaria foci to guide interventions, and active case detection to hunt symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria carriers.

  6. [Gestational malaria: HELLP syndrome mistaken diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Medina, Nayra Marizol; Velázquez Fonseca, Julián; Hernández Pacheco, José Antonio; Acevedo Tacuba, José Luis

    2008-05-01

    Malaria is one of the most important parasitic infections in Mexico and Latin America. Here we report a case of a 21 year-old female with 38.4 weeks of pregnancy and previous hospitalization due to malaria. Showing a thick drop negative test she was referred to Mexico City Hospital de la Mujer with presumptive diagnosis of preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. During her stay in ICU she developed malarial paroxysm and Plasmodium vivax was identified, conducting to specific therapy.

  7. Malaria in India: The Center for the Study of Complex Malaria in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aparup; Anvikar, Anupkumar R.; Cator, Lauren J.; Dhiman, Ramesh C.; Eapen, Alex; Mishra, Neelima; Nagpal, Bhupinder N.; Nanda, Nutan; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Read, Andrew F.; Sharma, Surya K.; Singh, Om P.; Singh, Vineeta; Sinnis, Photini; Srivastava, Harish C.; Sullivan, Steven A.; Sutton, Patrick L.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Carlton, Jane M.; Valecha, Neena

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in India and one which contributes significantly to the overall malaria burden in Southeast Asia. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program of India reported ~1.6 million cases and ~1100 malaria deaths in 2009. Some experts argue that this is a serious underestimation and that the actual number of malaria cases per year is likely between 9 and 50 times greater, with an approximate 13-fold underestimation of malaria-related mortality. The difficulty in making these estimations is further exacerbated by (i) highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, (ii) the transmission and overlap of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors, (iii) increasing antimalarial drug resistance and insecticide resistance, and (iv) the impact of climate change on each of these variables. Simply stated, the burden of malaria in India is complex. Here we describe plans for a Center for the Study of Complex Malaria in India (CSCMi), one of ten International Centers of Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMRs) located in malarious regions of the world recently funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. The CSCMi is a close partnership between Indian and United States scientists, and aims to address major gaps in our understanding of the complexity of malaria in India, including changing patterns of epidemiology, vector biology and control, drug resistance, and parasite genomics. We hope that such a multidisciplinary approach that integrates clinical and field studies with laboratory, molecular, and genomic methods will provide a powerful combination for malaria control and prevention in India. PMID:22142788

  8. Geographical and environmental approaches to urban malaria in Antananarivo (Madagascar

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    Rudant Jean-Paul

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies, conducted in the urban of Antananarivo, showed low rate of confirmed malaria cases. We used a geographical and environmental approach to investigate the contribution of environmental factors to urban malaria in Antananarivo. Methods Remote sensing data were used to locate rice fields, which were considered to be the principal mosquito breeding sites. We carried out supervised classification by the maximum likelihood method. Entomological study allowed vector species determination from collected larval and adult mosquitoes. Mosquito infectivity was studied, to assess the risk of transmission, and the type of mosquito breeding site was determined. Epidemiological data were collected from November 2006 to December 2007, from public health centres, to determine malaria incidence. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out on dried blood spots from patients, to detect cases of malaria. Rapid diagnostic tests were used to confirm malaria cases among febrile school children in a school survey. A geographical information system was constructed for data integration. Altitude, temperature, rainfall, population density and rice field surface area were analysed and the effects of these factors on the occurrence of confirmed malaria cases were studied. Results Polymerase chain reaction confirmed malaria in 5.1% of the presumed cases. Entomological studies showed An. arabiensis as potential vector. Rice fields remained to be the principal breeding sites. Travel report was considered as related to the occurrence of P. falciparum malaria cases. Conclusion Geographical and environmental factors did not show direct relationship with malaria incidence but they seem ensuring suitability of vector development. Absence of relationship may be due to a lack of statistical power. Despite the presence of An. arabiensis, scarce parasitic reservoir and rapid access to health care do not constitute optimal conditions to a threatening

  9. CADASIL: case report

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    Julio Cesar Vasconcelos da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL is a hereditary cerebral arteriopathy caused by mutations in the Notch-3 gene. The diagnosis is reached by skin biopsy revealing presence of granular osmiophílic material (GOM, and/or by genetic testing for Notch-3. We report a case of a 52-year-old man with recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIA, migraine, in addition to progressive sensory, motor and cognitive impairment. He was submitted to a neuropsychological assessment with the CERAD (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease battery along with other tests, as well as neuroimaging and genetic analysis for Notch-3, confirming the diagnosis. Executive function, memory, language and important apraxic changes were found. Imaging studies suggested greater involvement in the frontal lobes and deep areas of the brain.

  10. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

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    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  11. Agressive angiomyxoma: Case report

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    Fatma Eskicioğlu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare benign mesenchymal neoplasm. It is often diagnosed in genital, pelvic and perineal region of women in reproductive ages. Aggressive angiomyxoma is associated with a high risk of local recurrence. Aggressive angiomyxoma is mixed with Bartholin’s gland cyst, lipoma and vaginal cysts in diagnosis. Generally, stromal invasion is detected in these benign neoplasms. Therefore, wide local excision should be performed to treat. GnRH agonists could be administered in patient with aggressive angiomyxoma, either primary or recurrent. We reported a case with vulvar aggressive angiomyxoma presented with vulvar mass and treated with wide local excision. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3 (3: 420-422Key words: Angiomyxoma, myxoma, vulvar mass

  12. Lamellar Ichtyosis: Case Report

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    Kamer Gündüz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ichtyosiform dermatoses are a group of hereditary disorders characterized by excessive scaling on the skin. Lamellar ichtyosis is an autosomal recessive disorder. The clinical findings are seen at birth and become widespread and prominent in time; gray-brown scales are seen all over the body. Emollients and keratolytics containing salicylic acid or glycolic acid are used topically. Symptoms are improved significantly by acitretin usage. Case Report: Here we present a 5-year-old girl with lamellar ichtyosis. She was born in a collodion membrane. Besides the skin scales, ectropion and deformities of the nails and ears were observed. Significant clinical improvement was seen with acitretin (10 mg/day therapy. Conclusion: Lamellar ichtyosis is a severe form of ichtyosiform dermatoses and topical agents may be insufficient. Systemic acitretin treatment improves the symptoms significantly but long term side effects limit its usage. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 154-7

  13. Ureterocele. A Case Report

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    Andrés Gualpa Jácome

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ureterocele is a dilation of the distal end of the ureter that occurs during fetal stage. Its incidence varies according to the series between 1/500 to 1/4000 patients, predominantly in girls. A case of a 50-year-old white female patient with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections is presented. She attended the family doctor’s office due to the exacerbation of her condition by some episodes of dysuria, urinary frequency and urgency for several months. Abdominal ultrasound was recommended. A complex structure in the middle part of the right kidney was disclosed by a multislice ultrasonography of the abdominal region performed in the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos. Ureteropyelocaliectasis with good corticomedullary differentiation was observed in the left kidney, as well as dilation of the ureter until its entry into the bladder as a cystic intravesical mass. It was decided to report this case given its rare occurrence.

  14. Regional odontodysplasia: case report

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    Ana Carolina Magalhães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia (RO is a rare developmental anomaly involving both mesodermal and ectodermal dental components in a group of contiguous teeth. It affects the primary and permanent dentitions in the maxilla and mandible or both jaws. Generally it is localized in only one arch. The etiology of this dental anomaly is uncertain. Clinically, affected teeth have an abnormal morphology, are soft on probing and typically discolored, yellow or yellowish-brown. Radiographically, the affected teeth show a "ghostlike" appearance. This paper reports the case of a 5-year-old girl presenting this rare anomaly on the left side of the maxillary arch, which crossed the midline. The primary maxillary left teeth (except for the canine and the primary maxillary right central incisor were missing due to previous extractions. The permanent teeth had a "ghostlike" appearance radiographically. The treatment performed was rehabilitation with temporary partial acrylic denture and periodic controls. In the future, the extraction of affected permanent teeth and rehabilitation with dental implants will be evaluated. The presentation of this case adds valuable information to pediatric dentists to review special clinical and radiographic features of RO, which will facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of patients with this condition.

  15. Otocephaly: a case report

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    Anshu Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A case of otocephaly was reported in 26+/-4 week's female fetus during routine fetal autopsy at GMCH, Chandigarh, India. Mother was 25 years old, second gravid. The first child is one year old normal male baby. Present pregnancy resulted in spontaneous abortion. Antenatal history, past history, family history and medical history of mother was not suggestive of any ethiological factor responsible for the defect. The external examination showed 2 vessels in umbilical cord. There was anteroposterior lengthening of skull, mouth was in the form of a proboscis with a small opening in the centre, the right ear was absent. The left pinna was low placed and had small tags. On internal examination oral cavity was found small with hypoplastic mandible, tongue was absent (aglossia, thoracic cavity was small, left lung was absent, right lung had only single lobe, heart dilated with normal position of major vessels, In abdominal cavity gut was opening in a dilated cloaca like chamber. X-ray examination revealed small hypoplastic mandible and maxilla. Otocephaly is a rare lethal syndrome of microstomia, agnatia and ear anomalies. Other anomalies associated are holoprosenxcephaly, skeletal, genitourinary, cardiovascular system, endocrine gland hypoplasia etc. The differential diagnosis includes Treacher Collins syndrome, Goldenhar syndrome and Mobius syndrome. The etiology, incidence, causative factors of this case will be discussed in light of available literature. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1286-1289

  16. Scleroderma: a case report

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    Prachi Sankhe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scleroderma is systemic multi organ autoimmune disorder characterized by hardening of skin. Also known as systemic sclerosis. Estimated annual incidences of approximately 19 cases per million persons. The limited skin disease has a 10-year survival rate of 71%, whereas those with diffuse skin disease have a 10-year survival rate of just 21%. Risk is higher in women than men and peak in individuals aged 30-50 years. It has no definitive treatment. It may be limited or diffuse depending upon manifestations of symptoms or signs affecting internal organs especially lungs, heart, or kidney. We report a case of scleroderma with pulmonary hypertension and interstitial lung disease in our hospital who presented with tightening of skin, joint pain, dysphagia, and breathlessness. On examination skin appeared dark, shiny, and tight, with loss of hair, paraesthesia and digital ulceration. Patient also has history of Raynauds phenomenon. On investigation, Scl-70 and ANA (antinuclear antibodies by enzyme immunoassay came positive. HRCT thorax was suggestive of interstitial fibrosis and PFT revealed moderate restriction. On 2D echocardiography, mild pulmonary hypertension was present while barium swallow showed motility disorder involving oesophagus. On view of extensive systemic involvement like skin, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system and heart, we would like to present this rare disorder. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 802-804

  17. Pseudohypoaldosteronism: Case Report

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    Kazım Küçüktaşçı

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pseudohypoaldosteronism is a disease which occurs as a result of peripheral resistance to aldosterone and is characterised by salt wasting. Case Report: Hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, high renin and aldosterone levels were determined in the patient admitted with decrease in sucking and getting sleepy during breast-feeding. The case was diagnosed as systemic form of pseudohypoaldosteronism. His treatment was continued with oral salt. Conclusion: Pseudohypoaldosteronism has three types as primary, secondary and Gordon syndrome. Primary form is due to epithelial sodium channel and mineralocorticoid receptor gene mutation, whilst secondary form is frequently caused by urinary malformation and urinary tract infections. In Gordon syndrome, plasma aldosterone level is usuallly normal, and plasma renin activity is depressed, there is an adequate response to mineralocorticoids. Probability of secondary pseudohypoaldosteronism was investigated at the same time because of the urinary infection present in our subject. The patient was accepted as systemic form of primary pseudohypoaldosteronism because of positive sweat test result and prolonged salt necessity. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 151-3

  18. Prevalence and Parasite Density of Asymptomatic Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Parasite Density of Asymptomatic Malaria Parasitemia among Unbooked .... of two experienced laboratory scientists dedicated to the study to ensure quality control. .... Roll Back Malaria Annual Report. Abuja: Malaria Control.

  19. A Malaria Ecology Index Predicted Spatial and Temporal Variation of Malaria Burden and Efficacy of Antimalarial Interventions Based on African Serological Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Gordon C; Anttila-Hughes, Jesse K

    2017-03-01

    AbstractReducing the global health burden of malaria is complicated by weak reporting systems for infectious diseases and a paucity of vital statistics registration. This limits our ability to predict changes in malaria health burden intensity, target antimalarial resources where needed, and identify malaria impacts in retrospective data. We refined and deployed a temporally and spatially varying Malaria Ecology Index (MEI) incorporating climatological and ecological data to estimate malaria transmission strength and validate it against cross-sectional serology data from 39,875 children from seven sub-Saharan African countries. The MEI is strongly associated with malaria burden; a 1 standard deviation higher MEI is associated with a 50-117% increase in malaria risk and a 3-5 g/dL lower level of Hg. Results show that the relationship between malaria ecology and disease burden is attenuated with sufficient coverage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) or indoor residual spraying (IRS). Having both ITNs and IRS reduce the added risk from adverse malaria ecology conditions by half. Readily available climate and ecology data can be used to estimate the spatial and temporal variation in malaria disease burden, providing a feasible alternative to direct surveillance. This will help target resources for malaria programs in the absence of national coverage of active case detection systems, and facilitate malaria research using retrospective health data.

  20. RETINAL HAEMORRHAGE IN PLASMODIUM VIVAX PATIENTS- 2 RARE CASE REPORTS

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    Sangeeta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Retinal haemorrhage is commonly detected during opht halmoscopic examination of patients with Plasmodium falciparum infections. Ho wever, it is observed very rarely in Plasmodium vivax infections. Only six cases of reti nal haemorrhage have been reported so far in Plasmodium vivax infections. We review the literatu re and discuss two such cases of retinal haemorrhage that presented at our hospital. It is sug gested that retinal haemorrhage be routinely ruled out in all malaria patients, and Pla smodium vivax infection be considered in patients with unexplained retinal haemorrhage and fev er.

  1. Comparison of Rapid Malaria Test and Laboratory Microscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Comparison of Rapid Malaria Test and Laboratory Microscopy Investigation for ... of the low parasite density cases could escape detection, therefore, it cannot replace laboratory ..... WHO (1990): World Report of the tropical disease,.

  2. IgE- and IgG mediated severe anaphylactic platelet transfusion reaction in a known case of cerebral malaria

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    B Shanthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic reactions occur commonly in transfusion practice. However, severe anaphylactic reactions are rare; anti-IgA (IgA: Immunoglobulin A in IgA-deficient patients is one of the well-illustrated and reported causes for such reactions. However, IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction through blood component transfusion may be caused in parasitic hyperimmunization for IgG and IgE antibodies. Case Report: We have evaluated here a severe anaphylactic transfusion reaction retrospectively in an 18year-old male, a known case of cerebral malaria, developed after platelet transfusions. The examination and investigations revealed classical signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis along with a significant rise in the serum IgE antibody level and IgG by hemagglutination method. Initial mild allergic reaction was followed by severe anaphylactic reaction after the second transfusion of platelets. Conclusion: Based on these results, screening of patients and donors with mild allergic reactions to IgE antibodies may help in understanding the pathogenesis as well as in planning for preventive desensitization and measures for safe transfusion.

  3. Major Improvements in the Quality of Malaria Case-Management under the “Test and Treat” Policy in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurovac, Dejan; Githinji, Sophie; Memusi, Dorothy; Kigen, Samuel; Machini, Beatrice; Muturi, Alex; Otieno, Gabriel; Snow, Robert W.; Nyandigisi, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring implementation of the “test and treat” case-management policy for malaria is an important component of all malaria control programmes in Africa. Unfortunately, routine information systems are commonly deficient to provide necessary information. Using health facility surveys we monitored health systems readiness and malaria case-management practices prior to and following implementation of the 2010 “test and treat” policy in Kenya. Methods/Findings Between 2010 and 2013 six national, cross-sectional, health facility surveys were undertaken. The number of facilities assessed ranged between 172 and 176, health workers interviewed between 216 and 237 and outpatient consultations for febrile patients evaluated between 1,208 and 2,408 across six surveys. Comparing baseline and the last survey results, all readiness indicators showed significant (pmalaria test (RDT vs microscopy). Of eight dosing, dispensing and counseling tasks, improvements were observed for four tasks. Overall AL use for febrile patients decreased from 63.5% to 35.6% (pKenya. Some gaps towards universal targets still remained. Other countries facing similar needs and challenges may consider health facility surveys to monitor malaria case-management. PMID:24663961

  4. Major improvements in the quality of malaria case-management under the "test and treat" policy in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurovac, Dejan; Githinji, Sophie; Memusi, Dorothy; Kigen, Samuel; Machini, Beatrice; Muturi, Alex; Otieno, Gabriel; Snow, Robert W; Nyandigisi, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring implementation of the "test and treat" case-management policy for malaria is an important component of all malaria control programmes in Africa. Unfortunately, routine information systems are commonly deficient to provide necessary information. Using health facility surveys we monitored health systems readiness and malaria case-management practices prior to and following implementation of the 2010 "test and treat" policy in Kenya. Between 2010 and 2013 six national, cross-sectional, health facility surveys were undertaken. The number of facilities assessed ranged between 172 and 176, health workers interviewed between 216 and 237 and outpatient consultations for febrile patients evaluated between 1,208 and 2,408 across six surveys. Comparing baseline and the last survey results, all readiness indicators showed significant (pmalaria test (RDT vs microscopy). Of eight dosing, dispensing and counseling tasks, improvements were observed for four tasks. Overall AL use for febrile patients decreased from 63.5% to 35.6% (pKenya. Some gaps towards universal targets still remained. Other countries facing similar needs and challenges may consider health facility surveys to monitor malaria case-management.

  5. Is There a Risk of Suburban Transmission of Malaria in Selangor, Malaysia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braima, Kamil A.; Sum, Jia-Siang; Ghazali, Amir-Ridhwan M.; Muslimin, Mustakiza; Jeffery, John; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Shaker, Mohammed R.; Elamin, Alaa-Eldeen M.; Jamaiah, Ibrahim; Lau, Yee-Ling; Rohela, Mahmud; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Sitam, Frankie; Mohd-Noh, Rosnida; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The suburban transmission of malaria in Selangor, Malaysia’s most developed and populous state still remains a concern for public health in this region. Despite much successful control efforts directed at its reduction, sporadic cases, mostly brought in by foreigners have continued to occur. In addition, cases of simian malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, some with fatal outcome have caused grave concern to health workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of local malaria transmission in suburban regions of Selangor, which are adjacent to secondary rainforests. Findings A malaria survey spanning 7 years (2006 - 2012) was conducted in Selangor. A total of 1623 laboratory confirmed malaria cases were reported from Selangor’s nine districts. While 72.6% of these cases (1178/1623) were attributed to imported malaria (cases originating from other countries), 25.5% (414/1623) were local cases and 1.9% (31/1623) were considered as relapse and unclassified cases combined. In this study, the most prevalent infection was P. vivax (1239 cases, prevalence 76.3%) followed by P. falciparum (211, 13.0%), P. knowlesi (75, 4.6%), P. malariae (71, 4.4%) and P. ovale (1, 0.06%). Mixed infections comprising of P. vivax and P. falciparum were confirmed (26, 1.6%). Entomological surveys targeting the residences of malaria patients’ showed that the most commonly trapped Anopheles species was An. maculatus. No oocysts or sporozoites were found in the An. maculatus collected. Nevertheless, the possibility of An. maculatus being the malaria vector in the investigated locations was high due to its persistent occurrence in these areas. Conclusions Malaria cases reported in this study were mostly imported cases. However the co-existence of local cases and potential Plasmodium spp. vectors should be cause for concern. The results of this survey reflect the need of maintaining closely monitored malaria control programs and continuous extensive malaria

  6. Celiac disease - case report

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    Bojković Gradimir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Celiac disease (nontropical sprue, gluten-sensitive enteropathy, chronic intestinal malabsorption disorder is caused by gluten intolerance. This hereditary disorder is caused by sensitivity to gliadin. Because the body's own immune system causes the damage, celiac disease is considered to be an autoimmune disorder. However, it is also classified as a disease of malabsorption because nutrients are not absorbed. When people with celiac disease eat foods containing gluten, their immune system responds by damaging the small intestine. Specifically, tiny finger-like protrusions, called villi, on the lining of the small intestine are lost. The diagnosis is suspected on the basis of symptoms and signs, enhanced by laboratory and x-ray studies, and confirmed by biopsy revealing flat mucosa and subsequent clinical and histologic improvement on a gluten-free diet. Gluten must be excluded from diet. Supplementary vitamins, minerals and hematinics may be given depending on deficiency. Case report This is a case report of a 23-year old female patient with a mineralization defect (osteomalacia and secondary osteoporosis caused by long-time unrecognized celiac disease. The patient had many symptoms: short stature, steatorrhea, anemia, weight loss and chronic bone pain. Laboratory and x-ray studies and jejunal biopsy revealed a chronic intestinal malabsorption disorder caused by gluten intolerance. Gluten-free diet and supplementary vitamins, minerals and hematinics were included with apparent clinical remission. Discussion and Conclusion Some people with celiac disease may not have symptoms. The undamaged part of their small intestine is able to absorb enough nutrients to prevent symptoms. However, people without symptoms are still at risk for complications of celiac disease. Biopsy of the small intestine is the best way to diagnose celiac disease. Decreased bone density (osteoporosis and osteomalacia is a serious problem for celiacs. If calcium

  7. A STUDY OF HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOR, HEALTH CARE SPENDING AND AWARENESS AMONG CASES OF MALARIA LIKE ILLNESS IN A TRIBAL AREA

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    Deodatt M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tribal malaria is a cause of high morbidity in India. Lack of affordable and accessible health care leads to out of pocket expenditure on malaria which is easily treatable under the NVBDCP. Lack of knowledge about causation and preventive measures about malaria predisposes to high incidence among Tribal. OBJECTIVES: 1 To study the prevalence of malaria like illness in the population 2 To study the health seeking behavior of the respondents 3 Study the health care spending on malaria like illness 4 Awareness among cases about malaria causation, prevention and control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out during the month of September 2009 in three villages which fell under the Rural Health training center of a tertiary care medical .A Semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data from only those who had suffered from Malaria like illness with investigator visiting each household to enquire about malaria like illness in past 3 months. All the respondents who gave a positive history were included in the study. RESULTS: The study findings include (11% of people suffered Malaria like illness, 80% of patients took treatment other than sub center and PHC, mean cost of spending per visit was 62 rs, 62% had no knowledge of malaria causation while 52% used cow dung smoke to drive out the mosquitoes. CONCLUSION: Health seeking behavior of tribal people in malaria like illness is inclined more towards the Private physicians and faith healers. Out of pocket expenditure was high on diseases which can be treated free of cost under government sponsored programme. There was a general lack of knowledge about modes of transmission of malaria and methods of mosquito control. Inadequate active surveillance by the health worker was noted.

  8. KEMUNGKINAN MALARIA PRIMATA SEBAGAI MASALAH ZOONOSIS

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    Shinta Shinta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Until today, four species of Plasmodium are pedicular to inan {Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale and at least five species are common in simian: Plasmodium inue, P. cynomolgy, P. knowlesi, P. brasilianum and P. simium. There is little doubts that simian Plasmodium can infect man, it is known as zoonosis. Number of cases of zoonosis infection of simian Plasmodium have been reported from several countries; P. knowlesi (1965, in America, P. simium (1966 in Brazilia, P. inui (1971 in Pahang Malaysia, P. cynomolgi (1973 in America and P. Brazilianum in Sao Paulo (1966, 1995. While pro and contra about zoonotic malaria still not clearly discussed, the new cases have occurred. This give an indication that this zoor >tic malaria will probably be in Indonesia where human, primate, Plasmodium (agents and vector live in the same ecosystem. This paper will discuss the simian Plasmodium and its possibility to be a zoonotic malaria.

  9. NECROTIZING SIALOMETAPLASIA. CASE REPORT

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    A.I. Navazo Eguía

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Necrotizing sialometaplasia (NSM is a benign lesion affecting the salivary glands mainly in the hard palate. It presents as an ulcer with irregular borders, slightly elevated and necrotic The differential diagnosis should include malignant neoplasms. Case Report: A 26-year-old woman sought medical advice for a painful 2 cm ulceration of the hard palate. She is carrying pierced tongue. The patient had a history of cigarette smoking, chronic anxiety disorder and bulimia,. Analytical normal (including HIV and syphilis serology. Histopathology: accessory gland with squamous metaplasia, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and conservation lobulararchitecture. She had an important improvement with total resolution of the lesion in 4 months Discussion: The NSM is a necrotizing inflammatory process. It presents as an ulcer located in the posterior hard palate or the junction between the hard and soft palate. This situation has been associated with local ischemia as surgical trauma, thromboangiitis obliterans, dentures, alcohol, snuff, cocaine, and certain malignancies such as lymphomas, rhabdomyosarcoma or Warthin tumor. Currently associated withbulimia, it being necessary suspected in young women. It is important to rule out neoplasms and infectious processes (tuberculosis or syphilis. Also consider subacute necrotizing sialadenitis, nonspecific acute inflammatory process of unknown cause, with focal necrosis without hyperplasia or ductal metaplasia pseudoepitheliomatous. Treatment is symptomatic and usually resolves in 2-3 months. Conclusion: The NSM is a benign lesion which may mimic neoplasia. The trend is toward resolution. It must be recognized to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  10. Patellar osteochondroma: case report,

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    Frederico Barra de Moraes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to report on a rare case of patellar osteochondroma. A 60-year-old man presented a tumor on his left patella that had developed over a 10-year period, which is a rare occurrence, considering the patient's age and the site at which the tumor appeared. The clinical condition comprised mild pain and the presence of a mass, without limitation of flexion-extension or any neurovascular deficit. The tumor dimensions were 8 cm longitudinally × 6 cm transversally × 3 cm anteroposteriorly. It was hardened and was adhering to the patellar bone plane. On radiographs and tomographic scans, we observed areas of greater density corresponding to bone and other less dense areas that could correspond to slow-growing cartilage, with irregularities on the patellofemoral joint surface. Simple resection of the tumor was performed, and the anatomopathological examination confirmed that it was a patellar osteochondroma. Osteochondroma, or osteocartilaginous exostosis, includes a large proportion of the benign bone tumors. It results from cell alterations that trigger unregulated production of spongy bone. It is basically treated by means of surgical removal of the tumor mass. This is not essential, but is recommended in order to avoid lesions caused by contiguity and the risk of malignant transformation.

  11. [WHO's malaria program Roll Back Malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrvang, B; Godal, T

    2000-05-30

    Malaria is one of the main health problems in the world with 300-500 millions cases yearly and about one million deaths, mainly children in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the 1990s the malaria problem in Africa has increased, although we have methods to control the disease. In 1998 the new secretary general of WHO, Gro Harlem Brundtland, established the Roll Back Malaria programme, with the aim to markedly reduce malaria morbidity and mortality. Governments in malaria-affected countries have to take the lead in Roll Back Malaria. Their health systems must be improved and malaria control integrated into the general health system, and the methods available for prevention and treatment have to be intensified and improved. At the same time, Roll Back Malaria will encourage and promote malaria research which hopefully will result in new medicines, vaccines and other tools which will improve the chances of reducing malaria-related deaths and suffering. Roll Back Malaria is a cabinet project within the WHO, and the organisation has a key role as manager, co-ordinator and monitor of the project. However, it depends for resources on international support and commitment from other UN bodies, the World Bank, governments in the western world, pharmaceutical industry, philanthropists and other sources. At present an optimistic view prevails, and the preliminary aim, to halve the malaria mortality by the year 2010, seems realistic even with the control methods of today. However, if research efforts result in new and better tools to combat the disease, the task will definitely be easier.

  12. Epidemiologia de la malaria falciparum complicada: estudio de casos y controles en Tumaco y Turbo, Colombia, 2003 The epidemiology of complicated falciparum malaria: case and controls study in Tumaco and Turbo, Colombia, 2003

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    Alberto Tobón C.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar aspectos del hospedero, del parásito y del ambiente asociados con ocurrencia de malaria por Plasmodium falciparum complicada. MÉTODOS: Estudio de casos y controles en pacientes de Tumaco y Turbo (Colombia aplicando los criterios de complicación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. RESULTADOS: Entre noviembre 2002 y julio 2003 se captaron 64 casos (malaria complicada y 135 controles (malaria no complicada. Las complicaciones fueron: hiperparasitemia (40%, falla hepática (36%, síndrome dificultad respiratoria aguda (7%, falla renal (4%, trombocitopenia grave (3%, anemia grave (2%, malaria cerebral (2% e hipoglicemia grave (1%. Se encontraron como factores de riesgo para malaria falciparum complicada: a Los antecedentes de malaria falciparum durante el último año fueron menores en los casos (OR= 7.0 (1.2-43.6 P=0.019; b Mayor uso previo de antimaláricos en los casos (OR=2.2 (1.1-4.4 P=0.031 y c mayor uso de cloroquina en los casos (OR=7.4 (1.1-7.8 P=0.017. Se hallaron los alelos MAD-20 y K1 del gen msp1 y FC-27 e IC-1 del gen msp2, cuya distribución de frecuencias fue similar entre casos y controles, aunque el alelo K1 mostró una variación importante entre grupos (casos: 9.4%, controles: 3.5%. La frecuencia de "signos de peligro" fue significativamente mayor en los casos (OR= 3.3, (1.5-7.4 P=0.001. Los criterios de complicación malárica de la Organización Mundial de la Salud se comparan con otros y se discuten algunas implicaciones. CONCLUSIÓN: Se identificaron como factores de riesgo para malaria falciparum complicada, la ausencia de antecedentes de malaria falciparum en el último año y el uso de antimaláricos antes de llegar al hospital.OBJECTIVES: Aimed at identifying host and parasite aspects associated to the presence of Plasmodium falciparum complicated malaria. METHODS: Case and controls study in patients from Tumaco and Turbo (Colombia. We used the World Health Organization criteria to assess the

  13. High incidence of Plasmodium vivax malaria in newly arrived Eritrean refugees in Sweden since May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonden, K; Castro, E; Törnnberg, L; Stenstrom, C; Tegnell, A; Farnert, A

    2014-09-04

    Since May 2014, an increase in Plasmodium vivax malaria has been observed in Sweden. As of 31 August 2014, 105 malaria cases have been reported in newly arrived Eritrean refugees, 84 of them P. vivax. The patients were mainly young men and reported migration through Ethiopia and/or Sudan. Severe anaemia and long symptom duration reflect inadequate healthcare during migration. Countries currently hosting Eritrean refugees need to consider P. vivax malaria in this group of migrants.

  14. Malaria epidemics in Europe after the First World War: the early stages of an international approach to the control of the disease.

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    Gachelin, Gabriel; Opinel, Annick

    2011-06-01

    The severity and endemicity of malaria declined gradually in Europe until WWI. During and after the war, the number of malaria cases increased substantially and peaked in 1922-1924. This prompted the Hygiene Commission of the League of Nations to establish a Malaria Commission in 1923 to define the most efficient anti-malaria procedures. Additionally, between 1924 and 1930 there were several international meetings and collaborations concerning malaria, which involved the main institutes of parasitology and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Commission reports, the guidelines for anti-malaria campaigns and the scientific programs which came out of these meetings and collaborations are analyzed in the present paper.

  15. Monkey malaria kills four humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinski, Mary R; Barnwell, John W

    2009-05-01

    Four human deaths caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria species, are stimulating a surge of public health interest and clinical vigilance in vulnerable areas of Southeast Asia. We, and other colleagues, emphasize that these cases, identified in Malaysia, are a clear warning that health facilities and clinicians must rethink the diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases presumed to be caused by a less virulent human malaria species, Plasmodium malariae.

  16. 河南省全球基金疟疾项目中期报告%Interim report on malaria control in Henan Province supported by the Global Fund to Fight Malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱丹; 苏云普; 邓艳; 陈建设; 刘颖

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To summarize the previous status of malaria control supported by the Global Fund to Fight Malaria in Henan Province and to provide scientific evidence for Henan to implement an Action Plan to Eliminate Malaria and assess that plan. Methods Data on malaria prevention work from 2010 - 2011 in 90 counties were collected and analyzed; measures and effects of malaria control were evaluated. Results Once the program was implemented, blood smears from a total of 801,389 febrile patients were examined, and 4,611 patients were treated for malaria or suspected malaria. In total, 11,036 active cases were detected, IRS was done in 1,546, and M&E was performed in 4,102. Conclusion The program has expanded malaria control efforts, which should lead to favorable conditions for the goal of eliminating malaria to be achieved on schedule.%目的 总结河南省全球基金疟疾项目前期进展情况,为科学实施消除疟疾行动计划以及开展考核评估提供依据. 方法 收集整理2010~2011年各项目县疟疾防治工作资料,汇总分析. 结果 项目启动以来共完成“三热”病人血检801 389例,治疗疟疾病人和疑似疟疾病人4 611人次,开展主动病例侦查11 036次,疫点处理1 546个,各级项目督导4 102次. 结论 项目的实施推进了疟防工作的开展,为如期实现消除疟疾目标创造了良好的条件.

  17. Esthesioneuroblastoma: a case report.

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    Shukla, R C; Singh, P K; Senthil, S; Pathak, R

    2010-06-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma) is an uncommon neuroectodermal tumor. Its biological activity ranges from indolent growth to local recurrence and rapid widespread metastasis. Treatment options consist of surgical resection followed by radiation therapy for primary lesions and the addition of chemotherapy for advanced, recurrent, or metastatic lesions. Patients often present with nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, recurrent epistaxis, hyposmia, or anosmia. We report a case of esthesioneuroblastoma involving bilateral nasal cavity leading to bilateral nasal obstruction, epistaxis and proptosis of the right eye associated with decreased visual acquity on that eye and loss of smell. A diffuse nontender, 6x6 cms swelling with illdefined margins was seen over the nasal bridge, extending superiorly to glabella and laterally to right maxillary region. X-ray PNS showed soft tissue mass in the nasal cavity with destruction of nasal septum, intense periosteal reaction with destruction of right maxillary wall and extension to right orbit. CT scan of paranasal sinuses showed 8.5 x 4.9 x 7.8 cms irregularly marginated heterogeneous iso- to hyper dense soft tissue mass lesion with extensive adjacent bony destruction and spiculated periosteal reaction involving bilateral nasal cavity and anterior cranial fossa. Biopsy from right nasal mass showed neuroblastoma. The patient received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The modified Kadish staging system, lymph node status, treatment modality, and age are useful predictors of survival in patients who present with esthesioneuroblastoma. Excellent outcomes for esthesioneuroblastoma are achievable. Long-term follow-up is necessary because of the extended interval for recurrent disease; unlike most sinonasal malignancies, surgical salvage is possible.

  18. PENELITIAN OBAT ANTI MALARIA

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    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some sensitivity tests of antimalarial drugs had been done by National Institute of Health Research and Development in collaboration with Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control and Environment Health, Naval Medical Research Unit No.2 and Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia. In-vivo and or in-vitro Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance was reported from 11 provinces : Aceh, North Sumatera, Riau, Lampung, West Java, Jakarta (imported case, Central Java, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara and Irian Jaya. Only quinine had a good response for treatment of falciparum malaria resistant to multidrug. R falciparum resistant to mefloquine or halofantrine was found although it was not available in Indonesia yet. Chloroquine prophylaxis using standard dose was still effective in Tanjung Pinang and Central Java. To support the successfulness of treatment in malaria control programme, further studies on alternative antimalaria drugs is needed.

  19. Towards a strategy for malaria in pregnancy in Afghanistan: analysis of clinical realities and women's perceptions of malaria and anaemia.

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    Howard, Natasha; Enayatullah, Sayed; Mohammad, Nader; Mayan, Ismail; Shamszai, Zohra; Rowland, Mark; Leslie, Toby

    2015-11-04

    Afghanistan has some of the worst maternal and infant mortality indicators in the world and malaria is a significant public health concern. Study objectives were to assess prevalence of malaria and anaemia, related knowledge and practices, and malaria prevention barriers among pregnant women in eastern Afghanistan. Three studies were conducted: (1) a clinical survey of maternal malaria, maternal anaemia, and neonatal birthweight in a rural district hospital delivery-ward; (2) a case-control study of malaria risk among reproductive-age women attending primary-level clinics; and (3) community surveys of malaria and anaemia prevalence, socioeconomic status, malaria knowledge and reported behaviour among pregnant women. Among 517 delivery-ward participants (1), one malaria case (prevalence 1.9/1000), 179 anaemia cases (prevalence 346/1000), and 59 low-birthweight deliveries (prevalence 107/1000) were detected. Anaemia was not associated with age, gravidity, intestinal parasite prevalence, or low-birthweight at delivery. Among 141 malaria cases and 1010 controls (2), no association was found between malaria infection and pregnancy (AOR 0.89; 95 % CI 0.57-1.39), parity (AOR 0.95; 95 % CI 0.85-1.05), age (AOR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.00-1.04), or anaemia (AOR 1.00; 95 % CI 0.65-1.54). Those reporting insecticide-treated net usage had 40 % reduced odds of malaria infection (AOR 0.60; 95 % CI 0.40-0.91). Among 530 community survey participants (3), malaria and anaemia prevalence were 3.9/1000 and 277/1000 respectively, with 34/1000 experiencing severe anaemia. Despite most women having no formal education, malaria knowledge was high. Most expressed reluctance to take malaria preventive medication during pregnancy, deeming it potentially unsafe. Given the low malaria risk and reported avoidance of medication during pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment is hard to justify or implement. Preventive strategy should instead focus on long-lasting insecticidal nets for all pregnant

  20. Malaria outbreak among French army troops returning from the Ivory Coast.

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    Mayet, Aurélie; Lacassagne, David; Juzan, Nicolas; Chaudier, Bernard; Haus-Cheymol, Rachel; Berger, Franck; Romand, Olivier; Ollivier, Lénaick; Verret, Catherine; Deparis, Xavier; Spiegel, André

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, a French Army unit reported 39 malaria cases among service persons returning from Ivory Coast. Thirty, including three serious forms, occurred after the return to France. The risk of post-return malaria was higher than the risk in Ivory Coast. Half of the imported cases had stopped post-return chemoprophylaxis early. © 2010 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  1. Imported Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in a French tourist returning from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Antoine; Iriart, Xavier; Wilhelm, Nathalie; Valentin, Alexis; Cassaing, Sophie; Witkowski, Benoit; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Menard, Sandie; Olagnier, David; Fillaux, Judith; Sire, Stephane; Le Coustumier, Alain; Magnaval, Jean-François

    2011-04-01

    We report a case of imported Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in a French tourist following a vacation in Thailand. This case shows, first, tourists may contract knowlesi malaria even only staying on the beach and second, the diagnosis remains difficult, even with polymerase chain reaction methods.

  2. Malaria stratification in a malarious area, a field exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vatandoost Hassan; Esmailpour Mohammad; Hassen Abuelgasim; Oshaghi Mohamad Ali; Akbarzadeh Kamran; Hanafi-Bojd Ahmad Ali; Mashayekhi Minoo; Saffari Mohammad; Malik Elfatih M; Kenyi Luka; Abakar John Baptist; Busaq Alikhan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To conducted a spatial analysis for stratification of priority malaria control areas in Kahnuj County, as part of field exercise.Methods:Information of Health Centers of Kahnuj County has been used for stratification retrospectively.A knowledge, attitudes and practices(KAP) study was arranged to provide preliminary information about the knowledge, attitude and practice related to malaria in the area.Results:Numbers of malaria cases has been decreased in year 2008. There were five important vectors of malaria in this region including:Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi), Anopheles dthali (An. dthali), Anopheles superpictus (An. superpictus), Anophels culicifacies (An. culicifacies), andAnopheles fluviatilis (An. fluviatilis), but majority of malaria cases in this county was related toPlasmodium vivax (P. vivax). Educational levels of community were38%, 20%, 10% and 32% for illiterate, primary, secondary and university levels, respectively. KAPstudy revealed that about37% of people have got malaria at least once and only27% of people knew that mosquito is the vector of malaria.Conclusions: Malaria in Kahnuj represents a real threat. Transmission occurs in city center.An. stephensi can be suspected for the first peak of malaria cases in late spring in Kahnuj city.An. fluviatilishas a relatively high density in autumn while two malaria cases due toP. falciparum were reported in2008. Based onKAPstudy, the knowledge of respondents seems good but the attitude and practice is low. According to the data such asAPI, main malaria vector, transmission rate, and foreign migrants, the Kahnuj County has been spatially divided into three strata based on various characteristics. The authorities should implement all the interventions based on stratification.

  3. Towards the elimination of malaria in South Africa: a review of surveillance data in Mutale Municipality, Limpopo Province, 2005 to 2010

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    Khosa Ester

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa has targeted to eliminate malaria by the year 2018. Constant monitoring of malaria morbidity and mortality trends in affected subpopulations is therefore crucial in guiding and refining control interventions. Mutale Municipality in Limpopo Province is one of the areas with the highest risk of malaria in the country. This paper describes trends in malaria incidence, case fatality and household indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage in Mutale Municipality, during the period 2005 to 2010. Methods A retrospective descriptive analysis was conducted on malaria data routinely collected through the Limpopo provincial malaria information system between July 2005 and June 2010. Five malaria seasons were defined. Annualized malaria incidence rates, case fatality rates (CFR and IRS coverage rates were calculated. Results Cumulatively, 4,663 malaria cases and 21 malaria deaths were reported in Mutale between July 2005 and June 2010. Investigation of likely origin of the malaria in 3,517 patients revealed that 6.6% were imported cases, mostly from neighbouring Zimbabwe (222/231. Malaria incidence rates fell from 13.6 cases per 1,000 person-years in the 2005–2006 season to 2.7 cases per 1,000 person-years in the 2009–2010 season. The mean malaria CFR was stable between 0.3 and 0.6% during the first four seasons, and increased sharply to 2.1% in the 2009–2010 season. The median age of the 21 malaria deaths was 34 years (range: 16 to 60 years. CFRs were 0% in children below 15 years and above 0.5% in patients more than 24 years old. Regular IRS achieved coverage above 80% in all five seasons. Conclusion Malaria control interventions implemented in Mutale significantly reduced the incidence of malaria in the population. In order to accurately monitor progress towards the elimination goal, the malaria control programme should strengthen the reporting and capturing of the data in the provincial malaria information system; all

  4. History of malaria control in Tajikistan and rapid malaria appraisal in an agro-ecological setting

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    Utzinger Jürg

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reported malaria cases in rice growing areas in western Tajikistan were at the root of a rapid appraisal of the local malaria situation in a selected agro-ecological setting where only scarce information was available. The rapid appraisal was complemented by a review of the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan and Central Asia from 1920 until today. Following a resurgence in the 1990s, malaria transmission has been reduced considerably in Tajikistan as a result of concerted efforts by the government and international agencies. The goal for 2015 is transmission interruption, with control interventions and surveillance currently concentrated in the South, where foci of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum persist. Methods The rapid malaria appraisal was carried out in six communities of irrigated rice cultivation during the peak of malaria transmission (August/September 2007 in western Tajikistan. In a cross-sectional survey, blood samples were taken from 363 schoolchildren and examined for Plasmodium under a light microscope. A total of 56 farmers were interviewed about agricultural activities and malaria. Potential Anopheles breeding sites were characterized using standardized procedures. A literature review on the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan was conducted. Results One case of P. vivax was detected among the 363 schoolchildren examined (0.28%. The interviewees reported to protect themselves against mosquito bites and used their own concepts on fever conditions, which do not distinguish between malaria and other diseases. Three potential malaria vectors were identified, i.e. Anopheles superpictus, Anopheles pulcherrimus and Anopheles hyrcanus in 58 of the 73 breeding sites examined (79.5%. Rice paddies, natural creeks and man-made ponds were the most important Anopheles habitats. Conclusion The presence of malaria vectors and parasite reservoirs, low awareness of, and protection against

  5. pfk13-Independent Treatment Failure in Four Imported Cases of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Treated with Artemether-Lumefantrine in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Colin J; Lansdell, Paul; Sanders, Mandy; Muwanguzi, Julian; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A; Kaur, Harparkash; Nolder, Debbie; Tucker, Julie; Bennett, Hayley M; Otto, Thomas D; Berriman, Matthew; Patel, Trupti A; Lynn, Roderick; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Chiodini, Peter L

    2017-03-01

    We present case histories of four patients treated with artemether-lumefantrine for falciparum malaria in UK hospitals in 2015 to 2016. Each subsequently presented with recurrent symptoms and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia within 6 weeks of treatment with no intervening travel to countries where malaria is endemic. Parasite isolates, all of African origin, harbored variants at some candidate resistance loci. No evidence of pfk13-mediated artemisinin resistance was found. Vigilance for signs of unsatisfactory antimalarial efficacy among imported cases of malaria is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Sutherland et al.

  6. Dioctophymiasis: A Rare Case Report.

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    Chauhan, Sapna; Kaval, Sunil; Tewari, Swati

    2016-02-01

    Dioctophyma renale commonly known as "giant kidney worm' is found in the kidney of carnivorous mammals. Human infestation is rare, but results in destruction of the kidneys. Very few cases have been reported worldwide. We are here reporting a case of Dioctophymiasis in a 35-year-old male patient who presented with retention of urine and subsequent passage of worm and blood in urine. The worm was confirmed as Dioctophyma renale based on its morphology and clinical presentation. This is a very rare case report and to best of our knowledge only two cases have been reported from India.

  7. Malaria morbidity and mortality trends in Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, 2005-2014.

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    Mutsigiri, Faith; Mafaune, Patron Trish; Mungati, More; Shambira, Gerald; Bangure, Donewell; Juru, Tsitsi; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta

    2017-01-01

    Zimbabwe targets reducing malaria incidence from 22/1000 in 2012 to 10/1000 by 2017, and malaria deaths to near zero by 2017. As the country moves forward with the malaria elimination efforts, it is crucial to monitor trends in malaria morbidity and mortality in the affected areas. In 2013, Manicaland Province contributed 51% of all malaria cases and 35% of all malaria deaths in Zimbabwe. This analysis describes the trends in malaria incidence, case fatality and malaria outpatient workload compared to the general outpatient workload. We analyzed routinely captured malaria data in Manicaland Province for the period 2005 to 2014. Epi Info version 7 was used to calculate chi-square trends for significance and Microsoft Excel was used to generate graphs. Permission to analyze the data was sought and granted by the Provincial Medical Directorate Institutional Review Board of Manicaland and the Health Studies office. Malaria morbidity data for the period 2005-2014 was reviewed and a total of 947,462 cases were confirmed during this period. However, malaria mortality data was only available for the period 2011-2014 and cumulatively 696 deaths were reported. Malaria incidence increased from 4.4/1,000 persons in 2005 to 116.3/1,000 persons in 2014 (pmalaria cases increased 30 fold from 0.3% in 2005 to 9.1% in 2014 (p-trendmalaria control strategies, the morbidity and mortality of malaria increased over the period under review. There is need for further strengthening of malaria control interventions to reduce the burden of the disease.

  8. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Elimination in Hainan Province, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ding-Wei; Du, Jian-Wei; Wang, Guang-Ze; Li, Yu-Chun; He, Chang-Hua; Xue, Rui-De; Wang, Shan-Qing; Hu, Xi-Min

    2015-12-01

    In Hainan Province, China, great achievements in elimination of falciparum malaria have been made since 2010. There have been no locally acquired falciparum malaria cases since that time. The cost-effectiveness of elimination of falciparum malaria has been analyzed in Hainan Province. There were 4,422 falciparum malaria cases reported from 2002 to 2012, more cases occurred in males than in females. From 2002 to 2012, a total of 98.5 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were reported because of falciparum malaria. Populations in the age ranges of 15-25 and 30-44 years had higher incidences and DALYs than other age groups. From 2002 to 2012, malaria-related costs for salaries of staff, funds from the provincial government, national government, and the GFATM were US$3.02, US$2.24, US$1.44, and US$5.08 million, respectively. An estimated 9,504 falciparum malaria cases were averted during the period 2003-2012. The estimated cost per falciparum malaria case averted was US$116.5. The falciparum malaria elimination program in Hainan was highly effective and successful. However, funding for maintenance is still needed because of imported cases. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Elimination in Hainan Province, 2002–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ding-Wei; Du, Jian-Wei; Wang, Guang-Ze; Li, Yu-Chun; He, Chang-Hua; Xue, Rui-De; Wang, Shan-Qing; Hu, Xi-Min

    2015-01-01

    In Hainan Province, China, great achievements in elimination of falciparum malaria have been made since 2010. There have been no locally acquired falciparum malaria cases since that time. The cost-effectiveness of elimination of falciparum malaria has been analyzed in Hainan Province. There were 4,422 falciparum malaria cases reported from 2002 to 2012, more cases occurred in males than in females. From 2002 to 2012, a total of 98.5 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were reported because of falciparum malaria. Populations in the age ranges of 15–25 and 30–44 years had higher incidences and DALYs than other age groups. From 2002 to 2012, malaria-related costs for salaries of staff, funds from the provincial government, national government, and the GFATM were US$3.02, US$2.24, US$1.44, and US$5.08 million, respectively. An estimated 9,504 falciparum malaria cases were averted during the period 2003–2012. The estimated cost per falciparum malaria case averted was US$116.5. The falciparum malaria elimination program in Hainan was highly effective and successful. However, funding for maintenance is still needed because of imported cases. PMID:26438030

  10. Parathyroid carcinoma: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    STURNIOLO, G.; GAGLIANO, E.; TONANTE, A.; TARANTO, F.; PAPALIA, E.; CASCIO, R.; DAMIANO, C.; VERMIGLIO, F.; STURNIOLO, G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The authors present a case of parathyroid carcinoma in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism. Following a literature review, the clinical and diagnostic profile, treatment and prognosis of this rare disease are discussed. PMID:23837957

  11. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Shah, Naman; Dhariwal, Akshay C; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Ghosh, Susanta K; Valecha, Neena

    2016-12-28

    Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by P. vivax and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of P. vivax varies substantially within India, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in India is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors. This review of P. vivax malaria in India describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, Karnataka, Haryana, and Odisha.

  12. The Agro Pontino, climate change and malaria

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    Angelo Giuseppe Solimini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently in Italy a case of malaria was reported (November 2009. The patient was an Italian man of 44 years of age who had not travelled out of the country. The man apparently contracted malaria during a 2 weeks stay in August 2009 in a former malaria endemic area, the “Agro Pontino” (60-100 km South of Rome. Although confirmation of the Plasmodium species and the results of the epidemiological investigation undertaken by the Ministry of Health are still not available, the case seems unlikely to be linked with accidental contact of the patient with imported vectors or contaminated blood. This case raised concern over the possible recrudescence of malaria in Italy, especially in light of current and future climate change. Given the importance of the topic, this article will provide a brief review of the history of malaria in the Agro Pontino and the recent discussions that have appeared in scientific journals concerning the link between malaria and climate change.

  13. Epidemiology and control of malaria in Colombia

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    Julio Cesar Padilla Rodríguez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is currently one of the most serious public health problems in Colombia with an endemic/epidemic transmission pattern that has maintained endemic levels and an average of 105,000 annual clinical cases being reported over the last five years. Plasmodium vivax accounts for approximately 70% of reported cases with the remainder attributed almost exclusively to Plasmodium falciparum. A limited number of severe and complicated cases have resulted in mortality, which is a downward trend that has been maintained over the last few years. More than 90% of the malaria cases in Colombia are confined to 70 municipalities (about 7% of the total municipalities of Colombia, with high predominance (85% in rural areas. The purpose of this paper is to review the progress of malaria-eradication activities and control measures over the past century within the eco-epidemiologic context of malaria transmission together with official consolidated morbidity and mortality reports. This review may contribute to the formulation of new antimalarial strategies and policies intended to achieve malaria elimination/eradication in Colombia and in the region.

  14. Malaria control and elimination, Venezuela, 1800s –1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean M; Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-10-01

    Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920,malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world's interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication.Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization.We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

  15. Malaria Control and Elimination,1 Venezuela, 1800s–1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-01-01

    Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920, malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world’s interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication. Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization. We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

  16. A historical perspective on malaria control in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean Michael; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Silva-Flannery, Luciana

    2015-09-01

    Malaria has always been an important public health problem in Brazil. The early history of Brazilian malaria and its control was powered by colonisation by Europeans and the forced relocation of Africans as slaves. Internal migration brought malaria to many regions in Brazil where, given suitable Anopheles mosquito vectors, it thrived. Almost from the start, officials recognised the problem malaria presented to economic development, but early control efforts were hampered by still developing public health control and ignorance of the underlying biology and ecology of malaria. Multiple regional and national malaria control efforts have been attempted with varying success. At present, the Amazon Basin accounts for 99% of Brazil's reported malaria cases with regional increases in incidence often associated with large scale public works or migration. Here, we provide an exhaustive summary of primary literature in English, Spanish and Portuguese regarding Brazilian malaria control. Our goal was not to interpret the history of Brazilian malaria control from a particular political or theoretical perspective, but rather to provide a straightforward, chronological narrative of the events that have transpired in Brazil over the past 200 years and identify common themes.

  17. Malaria in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Okpere

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains one of the highest contributors to the precarious maternal mortality figures in sub-Saharan Africa. At least 6 million women worldwide are at risk of malaria infection in pregnancy. Malaria contributes to at least 10, 000 maternal deaths and to at least 200, 000 newborn deaths annually. Malaria is a contributor or aetiologic factor in pregnancy complications including anaemia, spontaneous abortion, prematurity and stillbirths. Pregnancy results in increased incidence and severity of malaria. Cerebral malaria, acute renal failure and severe anaemia, rare complications in adults living in malaria endemic areas, may complicate malaria in pregnancy. Research implicate reduced maternal immunity from increased steroid levels in pregnancy, increased attractiveness of pregnant women to mosquito bites and increased adherence of parasitized erythrocytes to Chondroitin sulphate A expressed in the placentae. This is worse in the first and second pregnancies. With infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus [HIV], the effects of malaria in pregnancy are even worse. Over the decades, there have been concerted worldwide collaborative efforts, spearheaded by the World Health Organization [WHO] and including governments and allied agencies to tackle the scourge of malaria in pregnancy. The main thrusts of such efforts have been: to increase the use of insecticide treated mosquito bed nets [ITN]; intermittent preventive treatment of malaria [IPT]; and adequate case treatment of acute malaria attacks in pregnancy. While for IPT, Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine [SP] combination has been proven to be of benefit in preventing acute and latent malaria in pregnancy and its associated complications, the WHO has introduced the use of Artemisinin-Combination Therapy [ACT] for the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria in pregnancy, the need to confirm malaria before treatment and the enforcement of completion of therapy once started. The Roll Back

  18. A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anorexia, lower abdominal pains and fever, progressing ... injury to visceral organs are known to be associated ... In this report, we present a mechanical intestinal obstruction caused by a band of adhesion from ... out via the nasogastric tube.

  19. Iatrogenic psoas abscess. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Hansen, B J

    1991-01-01

    A case of iatrogenic pneumococcus psoas abscess is reported. The etiology was probably repeated local anaesthetic blockades in the lumbogluteal structures because of lumbago.......A case of iatrogenic pneumococcus psoas abscess is reported. The etiology was probably repeated local anaesthetic blockades in the lumbogluteal structures because of lumbago....

  20. Hemimegalencephaly without epilepsy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Greg; Shanmuganathan, Mano; Harkness, William

    2014-09-01

    Hemimegalencephaly is a rare sporadic brain malformation characterized by enlargement of one cerebral hemisphere. The classical clinical triad consists of intractable epilepsy, severe psychomotor delay and hemiparesis. In this report, we describe a case of a 3-year-old girl, with all the radiological features of severe hemimegalencephaly but with a comparatively benign clinical course. She had no hemiparesis, mild delay and no seizures. An extensive literature review reveals only one previously reported case of hemimegalencephaly with the absence of seizures, as part of case series. This is the first dedicated case report, with clinical description and radiological images, of this entity.

  1. Perioral gustatory sweating: case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayser, S.C.; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Presentation of a case of perioral Frey syndrome. DESIGN: Case report. SUBJECT: A 72-year-old woman with hyperhidrosis around the mouth and chin. RESULTS: This patient suffered from bilateral perioral gustatory sweating following a mandibular osteotomy; such a case has not previously been

  2. Large-scale malaria survey in Cambodia: Novel insights on species distribution and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doung Socheat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Cambodia, estimates of the malaria burden rely on a public health information system that does not record cases occurring among remote populations, neither malaria cases treated in the private sector nor asymptomatic carriers. A global estimate of the current malaria situation and associated risk factors is, therefore, still lacking. Methods A large cross-sectional survey was carried out in three areas of multidrug resistant malaria in Cambodia, enrolling 11,652 individuals. Fever and splenomegaly were recorded. Malaria prevalence, parasite densities and spatial distribution of infection were determined to identify parasitological profiles and the associated risk factors useful for improving malaria control programmes in the country. Results Malaria prevalence was 3.0%, 7.0% and 12.3% in Sampovloun, Koh Kong and Preah Vihear areas. Prevalences and Plasmodium species were heterogeneously distributed, with higher Plasmodium vivax rates in areas of low transmission. Malaria-attributable fevers accounted only for 10–33% of malaria cases, and 23–33% of parasite carriers were febrile. Multivariate multilevel regression analysis identified adults and males, mostly involved in forest activities, as high risk groups in Sampovloun, with additional risks for children in forest-fringe villages in the other areas along with an increased risk with distance from health facilities. Conclusion These observations point to a more complex malaria situation than suspected from official reports. A large asymptomatic reservoir was observed. The rates of P. vivax infections were higher than recorded in several areas. In remote areas, malaria prevalence was high. This indicates that additional health facilities should be implemented in areas at higher risk, such as remote rural and forested parts of the country, which are not adequately served by health services. Precise malaria risk mapping all over the country is needed to assess the

  3. Large-scale malaria survey in Cambodia: novel insights on species distribution and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, Sandra; Vong, Sirenda; Chiv, Lim; Lim, Pharath; Nhem, Sina; Sem, Rithy; Khim, Nimol; Doung, Socheat; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Fandeur, Thierry

    2007-03-27

    In Cambodia, estimates of the malaria burden rely on a public health information system that does not record cases occurring among remote populations, neither malaria cases treated in the private sector nor asymptomatic carriers. A global estimate of the current malaria situation and associated risk factors is, therefore, still lacking. A large cross-sectional survey was carried out in three areas of multidrug resistant malaria in Cambodia, enrolling 11,652 individuals. Fever and splenomegaly were recorded. Malaria prevalence, parasite densities and spatial distribution of infection were determined to identify parasitological profiles and the associated risk factors useful for improving malaria control programmes in the country. Malaria prevalence was 3.0%, 7.0% and 12.3% in Sampovloun, Koh Kong and Preah Vihear areas. Prevalences and Plasmodium species were heterogeneously distributed, with higher Plasmodium vivax rates in areas of low transmission. Malaria-attributable fevers accounted only for 10-33% of malaria cases, and 23-33% of parasite carriers were febrile. Multivariate multilevel regression analysis identified adults and males, mostly involved in forest activities, as high risk groups in Sampovloun, with additional risks for children in forest-fringe villages in the other areas along with an increased risk with distance from health facilities. These observations point to a more complex malaria situation than suspected from official reports. A large asymptomatic reservoir was observed. The rates of P. vivax infections were higher than recorded in several areas. In remote areas, malaria prevalence was high. This indicates that additional health facilities should be implemented in areas at higher risk, such as remote rural and forested parts of the country, which are not adequately served by health services. Precise malaria risk mapping all over the country is needed to assess the extensive geographical heterogeneity of malaria endemicity and risk

  4. Malaria-Related Hospitalizations in the United States, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuu, Diana; Eberhard, Mark L; Bristow, Benjamin N; Javanbakht, Marjan; Ash, Lawrence R; Shafir, Shira C; Sorvillo, Frank J

    2017-07-01

    Few data are available on the burden of malaria hospitalization in the United States. Study of malaria using hospital-based data can better define the impact of malaria and help inform prevention efforts. U.S. malaria cases identified from hospitalization discharge records in the 2000-2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample were examined. Frequencies and population rates were reported by demographics, infecting species, clinical, financial, institutional, geographic, and seasonal characteristics, and disparities were identified. Time trends in malaria cases were assessed using negative binomial regression. From 2000 to 2014, there were an estimated 22,029 malaria-related hospitalizations (4.88 per 1 million population) in the United States, including 182 in-hospital deaths and 4,823 severe malaria cases. The rate of malaria-related hospitalizations did not change significantly over the study period. The largest number of malaria-related hospitalizations occurred in August. Malaria-related hospitalizations occurred disproportionately among patients who were male, black, or 25-44 years of age. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for the majority of malaria-related hospitalizations. On average, malaria patients were hospitalized for 4.36 days with charges of $25,789. Patients with a malaria diagnosis were more often hospitalized in the Middle Atlantic and South Atlantic census divisions, urban teaching, private not-for-profit, and large-bed-size hospitals. Malaria imposes a substantial disease burden in the United States. Enhanced primary and secondary prevention measures, including strategies to increase the use of pretravel consultations and prompt diagnosis and treatment are needed.

  5. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonko, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  6. Odontoameloblastoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Amita; Puri, Abhiney; Nangia, Rajat; Sachdeva, Alisha

    2015-01-01

    Odontoameloblastoma (OA) is an extremely rare odontogenic tumor that contains an ameloblastomatous component together with odontoma-like elements. Till date, very few cases have fulfilled the criteria of the current World Health Organization classification of odontogenic tumors. It is characterized by slow, progressively growing lesion with growth pattern similar to solid multi-cystic ameloblastoma. The majority of the tumors are associated with unerupted teeth and commonly seen in males. It is usually asymptomatic and may occur in either maxilla or mandible, but shows a slight predilection for mandible. As this tumor is extremely rare, there exists controversy regarding its treatment. Here, we present a case of OA in 17-year-old female patient resembling a fibro-osseous lesion and a brief review of the related literature.

  7. Odontoameloblastoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Negi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontoameloblastoma (OA is an extremely rare odontogenic tumor that contains an ameloblastomatous component together with odontoma-like elements. Till date, very few cases have fulfilled the criteria of the current World Health Organization classification of odontogenic tumors. It is characterized by slow, progressively growing lesion with growth pattern similar to solid multi-cystic ameloblastoma. The majority of the tumors are associated with unerupted teeth and commonly seen in males. It is usually asymptomatic and may occur in either maxilla or mandible, but shows a slight predilection for mandible. As this tumor is extremely rare, there exists controversy regarding its treatment. Here, we present a case of OA in 17-year-old female patient resembling a fibro-osseous lesion and a brief review of the related literature.

  8. Odontoameloblastoma: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Amita; Puri, Abhiney; Nangia, Rajat; Sachdeva, Alisha

    2015-01-01

    Odontoameloblastoma (OA) is an extremely rare odontogenic tumor that contains an ameloblastomatous component together with odontoma-like elements. Till date, very few cases have fulfilled the criteria of the current World Health Organization classification of odontogenic tumors. It is characterized by slow, progressively growing lesion with growth pattern similar to solid multi-cystic ameloblastoma. The majority of the tumors are associated with unerupted teeth and commonly seen in males. It is usually asymptomatic and may occur in either maxilla or mandible, but shows a slight predilection for mandible. As this tumor is extremely rare, there exists controversy regarding its treatment. Here, we present a case of OA in 17-year-old female patient resembling a fibro-osseous lesion and a brief review of the related literature. PMID:26604505

  9. Multiple pregnancy. Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Práxedes Regla Rojas Quintana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 34-year-old white female patient, of rural origins, with a history of 3rd degree bronchial asthma and respiratory arrests for that cause, who has required several admissions in the ICU. Gestation history 1, no deliveries, 1 abortion and secondary infertility, for which she was treated, along with her spouse, in the infertility consultation, in which ovulation disorders were diagnosed, consisting of bilateral tubaric obstruction on her and severe oligospermia on her spouse, for which they underwent combined surgical treatment. Tubaric permeability with hydrotubation was first accomplished, then ovulation and spermatogenesis with clomiphene citrate and then low-technology fertilization was performed, resulting in a quadruple pregnancy, which satisfactorily arrived to full term at 34 weeks of gestation. Due to the mother’s medical history, the risks involved in this type of pregnancy and its happy outcome, we decided to publish the case.

  10. Malignant histiocytosis. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ, OSCAR; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; QUIÑONES, WILLY; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; MISAD, OSCAR; Laboratorio de Anatomia Patológica “Oscar Misad; Delgado, Carlos; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Ronceros, Sergio; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. médico patólogo.; MARANGONI, MANUELA; Departamento de Enfermería, Hospital Dos de Mayo; BARDALES, LUZ; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; REYES, RAFAEL; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; CASTILLO, ALFREDO; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; URRUTIA, KATIA; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen year-old male patient referred from Huancayo who presented one month gastric intolerance, jaundice, fever and a lymph proliferative syndrome. Laboratory tests revealed severe pancytopenia due to phagocytosis. Haematologic and anatomy-pathology diagnosis was human malignant histiocytosis. We present this case due to its low frequency and the emergency character of the disease. Paciente varón de 14 años, procedente de Huancayo, que presenta un mes antes de su hospitalización intoler...

  11. IPEX syndrome: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Radlović Nedeljko; Janić Dragana; Sajić Silvija; Janković Srđa; Ješić Maja; Leković Zoran; Petrović Rada

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION IPEX syndrome, namely, a hereditary (X-linked) immunodysregulation with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and enteropathy, as the basic manifestations, presents a rare and exceptionally severe disease. It develops due to gene mutation responsible for the synthesis of a specific protein (FOXP3), which, by differentiation and activation of regular T-lymphocytic CD4+CD25+, has the key role in the induction and maintenance of the peripheral tolerance of one's own tissue. CASE OUTLINE We ...

  12. [Chilaidity syndrome. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Stefano; Candela, Giancarlo; Di Libero, Lorenzo; Argano, Francesco; Romano, Ornella; Iannella, Iolanda

    2012-01-01

    Chilaidity syndrome is a mal position by bowel mal rotation o malfissation. It is more common in right side expecially in obese people. If asyimptomatic, the syndrome is an occasional comparison by radiology, surgical exploration by laparoscopy or autopsy, otherwise, if symptomatic, there are obstructive symptoms,abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, flatulence, breath, constipation and anorexia. Diagnosis is radiological. We present a rare case of this syndrome in a man with serious obstructive symptoms.

  13. Case report: pelvic actinomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxová, K; Menzlová, E; Kolařík, D; Dundr, P; Halaška, M

    2012-01-01

    A case of pelvic actinomycosis is presented. The patient is 42-year-old female with a 5 weeks history of pelvic pain. An intrauterine device (IUD) was taken out 3 weeks ago. There is a lump length 9 cm between rectus muscles. Ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology are used to make the diagnosis. Actinomycosis can mimic the tumour disease. The definitive diagnosis requires positive anaerobic culture or histological identification of actinomyces granulas. A long lasting antibiotic therapy is performed.

  14. UK malaria treatment guidelines 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    1.Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1300-1800 cases reported each year, and 2-11 deaths. 2. Approximately three quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. 3. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other species of plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi. 4. Mixed infections with more than one species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. 5. There are no typical clinical features of malaria; even fever is not invariably present. Malaria in children (and sometimes in adults) may present with misleading symptoms such as gastrointestinal features, sore throat or lower respiratory complaints. 6. A diagnosis of malaria must always be sought in a feverish or sick child or adult who has visited malaria-endemic areas. Specific country information on malaria can be found at http://travelhealthpro.org.uk/. P. falciparum infection rarely presents more than six months after exposure but presentation of other species can occur more than a year after exposure. 7. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until more than one blood specimen has been examined. Other travel related infections, especially viral haemorrhagic fevers, should also be considered. 8. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites. P. falciparum and P. vivax (depending upon the product) malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens. RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. 9

  15. Progress towards implementation of ACT malaria case-management in public health facilities in the Republic of Sudan: a cluster-sample survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelgader Tarig M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective malaria case-management based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and parasitological diagnosis is a major pillar within the 2007-2012 National Malaria Strategic Plan in the Sudan. Three years after the launch of the strategy a health facility survey was undertaken to evaluate case-management practices and readiness of the health facilities and health workers to implement a new malaria case-management strategy. Methods A cross-sectional, cluster sample survey was undertaken at public health facilities in 15 states of Sudan. Data were collected using quality-of-care assessment methods. The main outcomes were the proportions of facilities with ACTs and malaria diagnostics; proportions of health workers exposed to malaria related health systems support activities; and composite and individual indicators of case-management practices for febrile outpatients stratified by age, availability of ACTs and diagnostics, use of malaria diagnostics, and test result. Results We evaluated 244 facilities, 294 health workers and 1,643 consultations for febrile outpatients (425 Conclusions Five years following change of the policy from chloroquine to ACTs and 3 years before the end of the new malaria strategic plan chloroquine was successfully phased out from public facilities in Sudan, however, an important gap remained in the availability of ACTs, diagnostic capacities and coverage with malaria case-management activities. The national scale-up of diagnostics, using the findings of this survey as well as future qualitative research, should present an opportunity not only to expand existing testing capacities but also to implement effective support interventions to bridge the health systems gaps and support corrective case-management measures, including the discontinuation of artemether monotherapy treatment.

  16. Annual variations in the number of malaria cases related to two different patterns of Anopheles darlingi transmission potential in the Maroni area of French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issaly Jean

    2010-03-01

    to August with a very low transmission during the other months. The risks were higher during the first part of the night and an EIR of 10 infective bites per person and per year was estimated. In the village of Twenke (Wayanas, high level of transmission was reported all year with small peaks in March and October. The risk was higher during the second part of the night and an EIR of 5 infective bites per person and per year was estimated. Conclusion For the first time in the past 40 years, the mosquito bionomics was related to the malaria transmission patterns in French Guiana. The peak of malaria cases reported from August to October in the Maroni region is concomitant with the significant peak of An. darlingi IMT, reported from the village of Loca where transmission is higher. However, the persistent number of cases reported all year long may also be related to the transmission in the Amerindian villages. The An. darlingi bionomics for these two close populations were found significantly different and may explain why a uniform vector control method is inadequate. Following these findings, malaria prevention measures adapted to the local conditions are needed. Finally, the question of the presence of An. darlingi sub-species is raised.

  17. [Study of 6 cases of malaria acquired near Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle in 1994. Necessary prevention measures in airports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, T; Mouchet, J; Mathieu, P; Petithory, J C

    1995-02-01

    During the very hot 1994 summer, six new cases of airport malaria have been observed in and around Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle airport. Four patients were regular or occasional airport employees. The two other cases were inhabitants of a city at 7 km. Entomological investigations suggest that cars of airport employees served to disseminate anophelines outside the airport areas. The six cases were very severe. One patient died. Apparently, W.H.O. recommendations on aircraft disinsecting procedures have not been fully followed. There is obviously a threat for areas near the airports.

  18. Neurocysticercosis. Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Serrano Ocaña

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A female patient (15 years, from Eastern Cape, South Africa, was admitted in the hospital on July 13th, 2007 with general tonic-clonic convulsions. There was not history of epilepsy or fever convulsions and the patient denied alcohol, cigar or drugs consumption. The physical examination showed postictal confusion, without neurological deficit, neck rigidity or peripheral edema. Computer axial tomography was definitive for neurocysticercosis disgnosis. Since it is a serious health problem for the area the patient lives in, we decided to publish the case.

  19. Malaria control in the African Region: perceptions and viewspoints on proceedings of the Africa Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambo Luis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009 a total of 153,408 malaria deaths were reported in Africa. Eleven countries showed a reduction of more than 50% in either confirmed malaria cases or malaria admissions and deaths in recent years. However, many African countries are not on track to achieve the malaria component of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 6. The African Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA working session at the 15th African Union Summit discussed the bottlenecks to achieving MDG 6 (specifically halting and beginning to reverse the incidence of malaria by 2015, success factors, and what countries needed to do to accelerate achievement of the MDG. The purpose of this article is to reflect on the proceedings of the ALMA working session. Methods Working methods of the session included speeches and statements by invited speakers and high-level panel discussions. Discussion The main bottlenecks identified related to the capacity of the health systems to deliver quality care and accessibility issues; need for strong, decentralized malaria-control programmes with linkages with other health and development sectors, the civil society and private sector entities; benefits of co-implementation of malaria control programmes with child survival or other public health interventions; systematic application of integrated promotive, preventive, diagnostic and case management interventions with full community participation; adapting approaches to local political, socio-cultural and administrative environments. The following prerequisites for success were identified: a clear vision and effective leadership of national malaria control programmes; high level political commitment to ensure adequate capacity in expertise, skill mix and number of managers, technicians and service providers; national ownership, intersectoral collaboration and accountability, as well as strong civil society and private sector involvement; functional epidemiological surveillance systems

  20. [Malaria in Algerian Sahara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammadi, D; Boubidi, S C; Chaib, S E; Saber, A; Khechache, Y; Gasmi, M; Harrat, Z

    2009-08-01

    Thanks to the malaria eradication campaign launched in Algeria in 1968, the number of malaria cases fell down significantly from 95,424 cases in 1960 to 30 cases in 1978. At that time the northern part of the country was declared free of Plasmodium falciparum. Only few cases belonging to P. vivax persisted in residual foci in the middle part of the country. In the beginning of the eighties, the south of the country was marked by an increase of imported malaria cases. The resurgence of the disease in the oases coincided with the opening of the Trans-Saharan road and the booming trade with the neighbouring southern countries. Several authors insisted on the risk of introduction of malaria or its exotic potential vectors in Algeria via this new road. Now, the totality of malaria autochthonous cases in Algeria are located in the south of the country where 300 cases were declared during the period (1980-2007). The recent outbreak recorded in 2007 at the borders with Mall and the introduction of Anopheles gambiae into the Algerian territory show the vulnerability of this area to malaria which is probably emphasized by the local environmental changes. The authors assess the evolution of malaria in the Sahara region and draw up the distribution of the anopheles in this area.

  1. Humeral lengthening: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Difference in length of upper extremities has mainly esthetic significance and is therefore not so often a subject of operative treatment, compared to lower extremities. Case Outline. We are presenting a case of a 16­year­old patient in whom a shortening of 9 cm of the right humerus was determined at the end of growth. This shortening was the result of surgical treatment of solitary bone cyst at the proximal end of the humerus done at the age of 10 years. In order to correct the length of the humerus we applied distraction osteogenesis with a compressive­distracting device according to Mitkovic (Traffix, and we achieved the lengthening of 7.5 cm. During the period of distraction we encountered the following complications: minimal suppuration at the site of the wedges that was successfully resolved with intensive local treatment, while pain and paresthesias along the N. radialis were resolved with a temporarily slowing of the distraction process. Fixation with a plate, i.e. bone grafting was not necessary, and final functional and esthetic result was excellent. Conclusion. Successful lengthening of the shortened humerus can be achieved with a unilateral compressive­distracting device according to Mitkovic as its application up to a complete bone reconstruction does not require additional plate fixation or bone grafting. The patient was capable of performing usual daily activities during application of the device.

  2. Cervical synovial cyst: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Found, Ernest; Bewyer, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    A 47-year-old female school teacher with a six-week history of left-sided scapular and arm pain is presented. We report her evaluation and treatment Although lumbar degenerative synovial cysts have been reported over 200 times in the literature,6 cervical synovial cysts are much more rare. This case reports a cervicothoracic junction degenerative synovial cyst presenting as radiculopathy.

  3. Effects of a malaria elimination program: a retrospective study of 623 cases from 2008 to 2013 in a Chinese county hospital near the China – Myanmar border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Yang, Linlin; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Bingyan; Wang, Shuqing; Wu, Xingfen; Wang, Tianying; Li, Yanlin; Liu, Min; Peng, Quanbang; Zhang, Wenhong

    2016-01-01

    The southwestern region of China, along the Myanmar border, has accounted for the highest number of cases of imported malaria since China shifted from a malaria control program to an elimination strategy in 2010. We conducted a retrospective study, in which 623 medical charts were analyzed to provide an epidemiological characterization of malaria cases that were diagnosed and treated at the People's Hospital of Tengchong County (PHTC), located in southwestern China, from 2008 to 2013. Our aim was to understand the characteristics of malaria in this region, which is a high-endemic region with imported cases. The majority of patients were male (91.7%), and the average age was 32.4 years. Most of the patients (86.4%) had visited Myanmar; labor was the purpose of travel for 63.9% of the patients. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were responsible for 53.8% and 34.9% of the infections, respectively. The number of hospitalized patients rose gradually from 2008 to 2010 and reached its peak in 2010 (191). After 2010, the number of hospitalized cases fell rapidly from 191 (2010) to 45 (2013), and the proportion of patients who lived in the forest and the number infected with P. falciparum also fell. In conclusion, the number of hospitalized patients in the southwestern region of China, Tengchong county, decreased after China implemented a malaria elimination strategy in 2010. However, migrant workers returning from Myanmar remained important contributors to cases of imported malaria. The management of imported malaria should be targeted by the malaria elimination program in China. PMID:26785944

  4. Effects of a malaria elimination program: a retrospective study of 623 cases from 2008 to 2013 in a Chinese county hospital near the China--Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Yang, Linlin; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Bingyan; Wang, Shuqing; Wu, Xingfen; Wang, Tianying; Li, Yanlin; Liu, Min; Peng, Quanbang; Zhang, Wenhong

    2016-01-20

    The southwestern region of China, along the Myanmar border, has accounted for the highest number of cases of imported malaria since China shifted from a malaria control program to an elimination strategy in 2010. We conducted a retrospective study, in which 623 medical charts were analyzed to provide an epidemiological characterization of malaria cases that were diagnosed and treated at the People's Hospital of Tengchong County (PHTC), located in southwestern China, from 2008 to 2013. Our aim was to understand the characteristics of malaria in this region, which is a high-endemic region with imported cases. The majority of patients were male (91.7%), and the average age was 32.4 years. Most of the patients (86.4%) had visited Myanmar; labor was the purpose of travel for 63.9% of the patients. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were responsible for 53.8% and 34.9% of the infections, respectively. The number of hospitalized patients rose gradually from 2008 to 2010 and reached its peak in 2010 (191). After 2010, the number of hospitalized cases fell rapidly from 191 (2010) to 45 (2013), and the proportion of patients who lived in the forest and the number infected with P. falciparum also fell. In conclusion, the number of hospitalized patients in the southwestern region of China, Tengchong county, decreased after China implemented a malaria elimination strategy in 2010. However, migrant workers returning from Myanmar remained important contributors to cases of imported malaria. The management of imported malaria should be targeted by the malaria elimination program in China.

  5. MIGRATION AND MALARIA IN EUROPE

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    Begoña Monge-Maillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of imported malaria cases due to immigrants in Europe has increased during the lasts decades, being the higher rates for those settled immigrants who travel to visit friends and relatives (VFRs at their country of origin. Cases are mainly due to P. falciparum and Sub-Saharan Africa is the most common origin. Clinically, malaria in immigrants is characterized by a mild clinical presentation with even asymptomatic o delayed malaria cases and low parasitemic level. These characteristics may be explained by a semi-immunity acquired after long periods of time exposed to stable transmission of malaria. Malaria cases among immigrants, even those asymptomatic patients with sub-microscopic parasitemia, could increase the risk of transmission and reintroduction of malaria in certain areas with the adequate vectors and climate conditions. Moreover imported malaria cases by immigrants can also play an important role in the non-vectorial transmission out of endemic area, by blood transfusions, organ transplantation or congenital or occupational exposures. Probably, out of endemic areas, screening of malaria among recent arrived immigrants coming from malaria endemic countries should be performed. These aim to reduce the risk of clinical malaria in the individual as well as to prevent autochthonous transmission of malaria in areas where it had been eradicated.

  6. Migraine Infarction. Case Report

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    Yoany Mesa Barrera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is considered like a risk factor for ischemic ictus in adult young people. In spite of the criteria established for the treatment of the migraine infarct, they are not always fulfilled strictly, permitting certain flexibility in the aforementioned treatment. The case of a patient with a background of migraine with auras, who suffers an ischemic cerebral migraine infarct at the course of a migraine crisis, is presented. The ictus was manifested like an especial right hemiparesis of the female sex in fertile age. The prognosis is good with low risk of recurrence, with unstable disorders and dysarthria. The laboratories studies were normal and the cerebral infarct was detected in the magnetic resonance, at the half left cerebral artery's territory. The patient had favorable evolution without sequel.

  7. [Omental torsion. Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleta-Cruz, Janny Lizbeth; Rojas-Méndez, Javier; Garza-Serna, Ulises; González-Ruvalcaba, Román; Ortiz de Elguea-Lizarraga, José; Flores-Villalba, Eduardo

    Omental torsion is an infrequent cause of acute abdomen and its symptoms are non-specific, often presenting with pain at the right iliac fossa as the only symptom. Its aetiology remains unknown, but different risk factors have been associated with the disease, including obesity, congenital malformations, and tumours. These risk factors have been classified as predisposing or triggering, primary or secondary, and external or internal. The is a case of a 24-year-old male who complained about pain in the right iliac fossa without any other symptoms. The diagnosis was acute appendicitis, but during the laparoscopic approach, omental torsion was found. The diagnosis of omental torsion is is complex. However, computed tomography and ultrasound have been used successfully. The treatment for omental torsion is the resection of necrotised tissue by a laparoscopic approach. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Iniencephaly: Case Report

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    Hernando R Alvis-Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The iniencephaly involves a variable defect in the occipital bone, resulting in a large foramen magnum, partial or total absence of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae, accompanied by incomplete closure of arcs and/or vertebral bodies, significant shortening of the spinal column and hyperextension of the malformed cervicothoracic spine; the individual′s face is deviated upward, the mandibular skin is directly continuous with anterior thorax due to the absence of neck. Its incidence is about 1:1000-1:2000 births, so this is a pretty rare neural tube defect. We present a case of iniencephaly in association with cardiovascular, spinal cord, and intracranial malformations that ended demonstrating the low survival of patients affected with this condition.

  9. Mucormycosis: 2 Case Report

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    M. Faruk Oktay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare, saprophytic, invasive and fulminant fungal disease. It is infective to patients with underlying immunocompromised conditions. We presented two cases of mucormycosis, one of which occured in the nose and the other on the auricle. A two-year-old female patient with diabetic ketoacidosis revealed necrosis and surrounding hyperemia in the nasal vestibule, nasal septum and dorsum of nose. A 17-year-old female diabetic patient had been suffering from black-colored lesion on the auricle. Physical examination presented necrosis on the auricle. Facial paralysis occured in the patient with auricular mucormycosis. Systemic amphotericin B was empirically administered after the sample was obtained for microbiologic and histopathologic examination in both patients. Necrotic tissues was also debrided in the second patient. The first patient died on the second day of treatment, and the second patient on the seventh day. We discussed the bacteriologic characteristics, histological peculiarities, and alternative treatments.

  10. Hemihydranencephaly; a Case Report

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    Amit Agrawal

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Hemihydranencephaly is a rare disorder of the brain characterized by complete or almost complete unilateral absence of cerebral cortex with preservation of meninges, basal ganglia, pons, medulla, cerebellum, and falx. Case Presentation:Thirteen year-old male child presented with left sided upper and lower limb weakness with facial asymmetry since the age of six months. His magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans demonstrated a nearly complete absence of the right cerebral hemisphere including basal ganglion, which was replaced by cerebrospinal fluid with a small residual rim of the occipital cortex. The imaging features were suggestive of right-sided hemihydranencephaly. Conclusion:Patients with hemihydranencephaly provide an experiment of nature with potential implications for normal cognitive development and illustrate how much there is still to be learned about human development.

  11. TETANUS: A CASE REPORT

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    Sreelatha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium tetani is the causative agent of Tetanus. The aim was to detect the presence of Clostridium tetani in a case of suspected Tetanus in a 40 year old male who had history of handling a a thorn injury in the agricultural field 15 days ago. The patient presented with spasm of all the limb muscles and Lockjaw of 2 days duration together with history of convulsions for the last 3 days. Bits of tissue were collected from the necrotic depth of the wound abscess and were analyzed. Clostridium tetani was isolated. A diagnosis of Tetanus was made and the concerned authority was immediately notified. The patient was successfully treated with complete recovery. An early diagnosis of TETANUS is significant because it can help the clinician in early management and prevention of development of terminal respiratory failure and death

  12. Influence of risk perception, preventive behavior, movement and environment on malaria infection in Lundu district, Sarawak, Malaysia

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    Norliza Jusoh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of malaria in Sarawak is among the highest in Malaysia despite its downward trend since 2002. This study was conducted to identify the dominant risk factors related to malaria infection. A case-control study was conducted in Lundu District, Sarawak. Cases were 96 indigenous malaria cases registered from January to September 2005 at Lundu District Health Office. Controls were selected among those who never contracted malaria originating from the same villages as cases. Cases and control were similarly distributed with respect to age, number of household and total household income per month. Cases were more likely than controls to report high risk occupation, opened eaves, ever had movement for those aged 50 years or over and car ownership. Older age, male, lower socioeconomic level and perception of fatality toward malaria increased risk to malaria infection. Male than female had seven-fold risk to be malaria infected [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 7.09; 95% confidence interval (CI = 3.21-15.65]. In term of perception of fatality toward malaria, those who did not have than did have perception of fatality toward malaria had six-fold risk to be malaria infected (ORa = 6.38; 95% CI = 1.32-30.87. On contrary, those who had lower than middle and high per capita income per month had 85% lowered risk to be malaria infected (ORa = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.03-0.72. Male, older age, lower education and socioeconomy level, lower perception towards malaria, or lower environment sanitation had increased risk to be malaria infected. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:267-71Keywords: malaria, gender, sosioeconomics, perception, protective personal measure, environmental

  13. Community referral in home management of malaria in western Uganda: A case series study

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    Nsungwa-Sabiiti Jesca

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Home Based Management of fever (HBM was introduced as a national policy in Uganda to increase access to prompt presumptive treatment of malaria. Pre-packed Chloroquine/Fansidar combination is distributed free of charge to febrile children Methods A case-series study was performed during 20 weeks in a West-Ugandan sub-county with an under-five population of 3,600. Community drug distributors (DDs were visited fortnightly and recording forms collected. Referred children were located and primary caretaker interviewed in the household. Referral health facility records were studied for those stating having completed referral. Results Overall referral rate was 8% (117/1454. Fever was the main reason for mothers to seek DD care and for DDs to refer. Twenty-six of the 28 (93% "urgent referrals" accessed referral care but 8 (31% delayed >24 hours. Waiting for antimalarial drugs to finish caused most delays. Of 32 possible pneumonias only 16 (50% were urgently referred; most delayed ≥ 2 days before accessing referral care. Conclusion The HBM has high referral compliance and extends primary health care to the communities by maintaining linkages with formal health services. Referral non-completion was not a major issue but failure to recognise pneumonia symptoms and delays in referral care access for respiratory illnesses may pose hazards for children with acute respiratory infections. Extending HBM to also include pneumonia may increase prompt and effective care of the sick child in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Determinants of malaria program expenditures during elimination: case study evidence from select provinces in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jenny X; Newby, Gretchen; Brackery, Aprielle; Smith Gueye, Cara; Candari, Christine J; Escubil, Luz R; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Baquilod, Mario

    2013-01-01

    ...Even though eliminating malaria from the endemic margins is a part of the Global Malaria Action Plan, little guidance exists on what resources are needed to transition from controlling malaria to eliminating it. Using Philippines as an example, this study aimed to (1) estimate the financial resources used by sub-national malaria programs in different phases during elimination and (2) understand how different environmental and organizational factors may influence expenditure levels and spending proportions. The Philippines provides an opportunity to study variations in sub-national programs because its epidemiological and ecological diversity, devolved health system, and progressive elimination strategy all allow greater flexibility for lower-level governments to direct activities, but also create challenges for coordination and resource mobilization. Through key informant interviews and archival record retrieval in four selected provinces chosen based on eco-epidemiological variation, expenditures associated with provincial malaria programs were collected for selected years (mid-1990s to 2010). Results show that expenditures per person at risk per year decrease as programs progress from a state of controlled low-endemic malaria to elimination to prevention of reintroduction regardless of whether elimination was deliberately planned. However, wide variation across provinces were found: expenditures were generally higher if mainly financed with donor grants, but were moderated by the level of economic development, the level of malaria transmission and receptivity, and the capacity of program staff. Across all provinces, strong leadership appears to be a necessary condition for maintaining progress and is vital in controlling outbreaks. While sampled provinces and years may not be representative of other sub-national malaria programs, these findings suggest that the marginal yearly cost declines with each phase during elimination.

  15. Determinants of malaria program expenditures during elimination: case study evidence from select provinces in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny X Liu

    Full Text Available ...Even though eliminating malaria from the endemic margins is a part of the Global Malaria Action Plan, little guidance exists on what resources are needed to transition from controlling malaria to eliminating it. Using Philippines as an example, this study aimed to (1 estimate the financial resources used by sub-national malaria programs in different phases during elimination and (2 understand how different environmental and organizational factors may influence expenditure levels and spending proportions. The Philippines provides an opportunity to study variations in sub-national programs because its epidemiological and ecological diversity, devolved health system, and progressive elimination strategy all allow greater flexibility for lower-level governments to direct activities, but also create challenges for coordination and resource mobilization. Through key informant interviews and archival record retrieval in four selected provinces chosen based on eco-epidemiological variation, expenditures associated with provincial malaria programs were collected for selected years (mid-1990s to 2010. Results show that expenditures per person at risk per year decrease as programs progress from a state of controlled low-endemic malaria to elimination to prevention of reintroduction regardless of whether elimination was deliberately planned. However, wide variation across provinces were found: expenditures were generally higher if mainly financed with donor grants, but were moderated by the level of economic development, the level of malaria transmission and receptivity, and the capacity of program staff. Across all provinces, strong leadership appears to be a necessary condition for maintaining progress and is vital in controlling outbreaks. While sampled provinces and years may not be representative of other sub-national malaria programs, these findings suggest that the marginal yearly cost declines with each phase during elimination.

  16. Urachal endometrioma: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Browne, Katherine M

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We discuss a rare presentation of an unusual case of endometrioma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 40-year-old Caucasian woman presented with subacute abdominal pain and a suprapubic mass. A final diagnosis was made after the mass was resected and histopathology confirmed an endometrioma originating from an urachal remnant. Select imaging studies and histopathology are presented in this case report. CONCLUSION: While endometriomata are well known to arise from abdominal scars, the condition described in this case report is a rare example of an endometrioma arising from the urachus. A review of the pathological complications of the urachus is also included.

  17. Watch out for malaria: still a leading cause of child death worldwide

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    Buonsenso Danilo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the efforts in malaria control promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO, the reported malaria burden is being reduced throughout the world. Nevertheless, malaria remains a leading cause of child death worldwide. Aims purpose of the paper is to summarize the main historical steps in fighting malaria, from the first descriptions to the last ones. Results a case of probable autochthonous malaria has been recently described in Italy, raising concern over the possibility of resurgence of malaria in countries previously interested by this disease. Moreover, both the constant threat of the parasite and vector mosquito developing resistance to medicines and insecticides, and the on-going climate change make the challenge of eradicating malaria really difficult. Therefore, malaria is still an actual disease, requiring adequate programs of surveillance, stronger health systems in poor countries, and efforts in order to develop new and effective tools in malaria control. WHO has definitely demonstrated the effects of "social determinants" on health. So, eradication strategies cannot be based only on a scientific background, because culture, politics, power, resources and wars have a profound impact on health and disease. These elements should be introduced in all the programs of malaria control. Conclusions malaria is still an actual disease with great public health implications, and the approaches for control and prevention should have the appropriate social and political context in addition to the science involved in order to save lives of children at risk.

  18. [Peasant strategies for economic reproduction and malaria epidemiology in the ravines microregion of the Chiapas mountains, Mexico: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Ortega M

    1996-07-01

    The goal of this investigation was to establish an initial correlation between farming activities and malaria and to define risk factors and prevalence of the latter through an analysis of the integration of farm production strategies by members of an indigenous peasant community in the Chiapas mountains in Mexico. Information was obtained on places of work, land use, coffee, corn, and bean farming, and number of family members involved in farming activities, wage labor, and handicrafts production. Migration of farm workers to warmer climates was also analyzed. The study compared families with and without cases of malaria from 1987 to 1993 in the town of Yibeljoj, Chenalhó county. The most outstanding characteristics of this analysis were the following: strategies involving greater risk and prevalence of malaria were those which combined corn farming and wage labor; on the other hand, strategies in which handicraft production was the activity of primary or secundary importance were associated with few or no cases of the disease.

  19. IPEX syndrome: Case report

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    Radlović Nedeljko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION IPEX syndrome, namely, a hereditary (X-linked immunodysregulation with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and enteropathy, as the basic manifestations, presents a rare and exceptionally severe disease. It develops due to gene mutation responsible for the synthesis of a specific protein (FOXP3, which, by differentiation and activation of regular T-lymphocytic CD4+CD25+, has the key role in the induction and maintenance of the peripheral tolerance of one's own tissue. CASE OUTLINE We present a male infant with classic clinical features of IPEX syndrome, which manifested by the end of the first month after birth, first with type 1 diabetes mellitus and chronic diarrhoea followed by dehydration and disordered development, and then with facial eczema and laboratory signs of thyroiditis without thyroid dysfunction (antithyreoglobulin antibodies 1:5500, antimicrosomal antibodies 1:40. In addition, plasma IgE level was high (517 IU/l, while antibodies to tissue transglutaminase were mildly increased (IgA 7.5 U/ml, and anti-smooth muscle and anti-DNA antibodies were absent. Based on the typical clinical features, as well as the laboratory findings, IPEX syndrome was diagnosed, which was further confirmed by proved IVS7+5G>A mutations in the FOXP3 gene. Therapy with insulin and Pronison, combined with parenteral and semielementary nutrition resulted in the patient's clinical improvement. At the age of 9 months, despite Pronison and hypoallergenic nutrition, the child had a relapse of severe and persistent diarrhoeal disorder followed by dehydration, weight loss and deterioration of general condition. Beside the complete parenteral nutrition, as well as other measures, azathioprine was introduced into the treatment, but without the desired effect. At the age of 12.5 months, due to bacteraemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation as complications, the patient ended lethally. CONCLUSION IPEX syndrome should be kept in mind in all the cases of

  20. The incidence of malaria in travellers to South-East Asia: is local malaria transmission a useful risk indicator?

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    Jänisch Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of ongoing local malaria transmission, identified though local surveillance and reported to regional WHO offices, by S-E Asian countries, forms the basis of national and international chemoprophylaxis recommendations in western countries. The study was designed to examine whether the strategy of using malaria transmission in a local population was an accurate estimate of the malaria threat faced by travellers and a correlate of malaria in returning travellers. Methods Malaria endemicity was described from distribution and intensity in the local populations of ten S-E Asian destination countries over the period 2003-2008 from regionally reported cases to WHO offices. Travel acquired malaria was collated from malaria surveillance reports from the USA and 12 European countries over the same period. The numbers of travellers visiting the destination countries was based on immigration and tourism statistics collected on entry of tourists to the destination countries. Results In the destination countries, mean malaria rates in endemic countries ranged between 0.01 in Korea to 4:1000 population per year in Lao PDR, with higher regional rates in a number of countries. Malaria cases imported into the 13 countries declined by 47% from 140 cases in 2003 to 66 in 2008. A total of 608 cases (27.3% Plasmodium falciparum (Pf were reported over the six years, the largest number acquired in Indonesia, Thailand and Korea. Four countries had an incidence > 1 case per 100,000 traveller visits; Burma (Myanmar, Indonesia, Cambodia and Laos (range 1 to 11.8-case per 100,000 visits. The remaining six countries rates were Conclusion The intensity of malaria transmission particularly sub-national activity did not correlate with the risk of travellers acquiring malaria in the large numbers of arriving visitors. It is proposed to use a threshold incidence of > 1 case per 100,000 visits to consider targeted malaria prophylaxis

  1. Arthrogryposis - case report

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    Mariana CEVEI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthrogryposis is a congenital disorder characterized by multiple joint contractures found throughout the body at birth. We present the case of a 3.5 year-old girl with multiple congenital defects: arthrogryposis involving bilateral hip, knee and ankle joints, together with sacral agenesis and with lumbar dysmorphism, anorectal agenesis, hydronephrosis of the left kidney as the result from reflux, right kidney hypoplasia, renal fusion and heart anomalies: tetralogy of Fallot. Immediately after birth, in several steps, colostomy, left ureterocystoneostomy and suprapubic cystostomy were performed. Later in infancy corrective surgery for the heart defect was required. At the age of 2 years, surgery for the equinovarus deformities and for left genu flexum was performed. Medical rehabilitation tries to maximize independent function. The main goals were increasing the muscle tonus of upper-limbs, increase the rate of motion of the joints, establishment of stability for ambulation, learning different schemes of movement according to her needs, obtaining of a functional independency. The therapies were successful, after 10 weeks an improvement of the moving capacity and of the transfer in orthostatism with minimal external assistance, with the obvious increasing of the patient's satisfaction, were noticed.

  2. Perilunar Luxation. Case Report

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    Yaniel Truffín Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the specter of injuries found in dorsal perilunar luxation or injuries of the bigger arch, the one belonging to bigger frequency reciprocates with the fracture luxation trasescafo dorsal perilunar. Much less frequent are the luxations that associate the big bone's fractures and those with displaced fractures of the pyramidal. Throughout the above, the case of a 19 year old patient is presented, that came to the emergency room of Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, Cienfuegos Hospital, after suffering a fall on his left hand with background of previous health. Great increase of volume in the left-handed wrist, acute pain in spite of immobilization and absolute functional impotence were verified. Manual reduction under general anesthesia of the perilunar luxation of the carpus was accomplished. By means of X-ray pictures of control, anteroposterior and lateral of the wrist, escafoides's fracture and its characteristics were verified. For the marked angulation and conminution of the fracture surgical open-cast treatment was decided, using the technique of Ruse, that was postpone to the tenth day from the initial lesion, when the wrist was less inflamed and the risks of complications were less. The patient was discharged of the consultation of orthopedics to the six months of operated showing functional acceptable results.

  3. Pseudoachondroplasia: A case report

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    Radlović Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH is an autosomal dominant osteochondrodysplasia due to mutations in the gene encoding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein. It is characterized by rhizomelic dwarfism, limb and vertebral deformity, joint laxity and early onset osteoarthrosis. We present the girl with the early expressed and severe PSACH born to clinically and radiographically unaffected parents. Case Outline. A 6.5-year-old girl presented with short-limbed dwarfism (body height 79.5 cm,

  4. Reductions in malaria and anaemia case and death burden at hospitals following scale-up of malaria control in Zanzibar, 1999-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Aregawi (Maru); A.S. Ali (Abdullah); A.-W. Al-Mafazy; F. Molteni (Fabrizio); S. Katikiti (Samson); M. Warsame (Marian); R.J. Njau; R. Komatsu (Ryuichi); E.L. Korenromp (Eline); M. Hosseini (Mehran); D. Low-Beer (Daniel); A. Bjorkman (Anders); U. D'Alessandro (Umberto); M. Coosemans (Marc); M. Otten (Mac)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In Zanzibar, the Ministry of Health and partners accelerated malaria control from September 2003 onwards. The impact of the scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), indoor-residual spraying (IRS) and artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) combined on malaria burden was

  5. Disulfiram neuropathy: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuropathy is a rare adverse side effect of disulfiram therapy and is under-recognized. There have been few case reports documenting this side effect. Case presentation Two cases of disulfiram peripheral neuropathy are discussed. The first case is that of a 25-year-old Caucasian woman who was exposed to disulfiram therapy for a total of 8 months and developed pain and stiffness that prevented her from walking. The second case is that of a 46-year-old Caucasian woman who developed s...

  6. Comparison of Malaria Simulations Driven by Meteorological Observations and Reanalysis Products in Senegal

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    Ibrahima Diouf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of climate parameters is crucial to study the impact of climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases such as malaria. The use of malaria models is an alternative way of producing potential malaria historical data for Senegal due to the lack of reliable observations for malaria outbreaks over a long time period. Consequently, here we use the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM, driven by different climatic datasets, in order to study and validate simulated malaria parameters over Senegal. The findings confirm that the risk of malaria transmission is mainly linked to climate variables such as rainfall and temperature as well as specific landscape characteristics. For the whole of Senegal, a lag of two months is generally observed between the peak of rainfall in August and the maximum number of reported malaria cases in October. The malaria transmission season usually takes place from September to November, corresponding to the second peak of temperature occurring in October. Observed malaria data from the Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme (PNLP, National Malaria control Programme in Senegal and outputs from the meteorological data used in this study were compared. The malaria model outputs present some consistencies with observed malaria dynamics over Senegal, and further allow the exploration of simulations performed with reanalysis data sets over a longer time period. The simulated malaria risk significantly decreased during the 1970s and 1980s over Senegal. This result is consistent with the observed decrease of malaria vectors and malaria cases reported by field entomologists and clinicians in the literature. The main differences between model outputs and observations regard amplitude, but can be related not only to reanalysis deficiencies but also to other environmental and socio-economic factors that are not included in this mechanistic malaria model framework. The present study can be

  7. [Synovial sarcoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deme, Dániel; Abdulfatah, Bishr; Telekes, András

    2016-02-07

    In 2013 there were 94,770 new cancer patients reported in Hungary. Synovial sarcoma accounts for 0.05-0.1% of all cancers and, therefore its incidence is predicted to be 47-94 patients/year in Hungary. The authors report the history of a 18-year-old man who was operated on a right upper abdominal wall tumor with R1 resection. During the next 5 months the tumor grew up to 8 cm in largest diameter. Histology revealed monophasic synovial sarcoma. Immunohistochemistry showed bcl2, focal CD99 and high molecular weight cytokeratin positivity, while smooth muscle actin, S100 and CD34 immunostainings were negative. Becose of this reoperation was not possible, curative six cycles of doxorubicine and ifosfamide with granulocyte colony stimulating factor support and 60 Gy radiotherapy was given to the tumor bed. After these treatments computed tomography scan was negative and the patient attended regular imaging every 3 months. At the age of 20 years the patient developed two neoplastic lesions in the surgical scar measuring 10 mm and 45 × 10 mm in size. R0 resection, partial rib resection and abdominal wall reconstruction were performed. Histology confirmed residual monophasic synovial sarcoma. Radiotherapy was not given because of a risk of intestinal wall perforation. Staging positron emission tomography-computed tomography proved to be negative. At the age of 22 years magnetic resonance imaging scans indicated no tumor recurrence, but after one month a rapidly growing tumorous lesion was found on ultrasound in the surgical scar measuring 20 × 20 × 12 mm in size. Cytology confirmed local recurrence and fluorescence in situ hibridization indicated t(x;18). R0 exstirpation and partial mesh resection were performed and histology showed the same monophasic synovial sarcoma. Because of the presence of vascular invasion and a close resection margin (1 mm) the patient underwent 3 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (doxorubicine and ifosfamide) with granulocyte colony stimulating

  8. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, case...... studies attempt to provide as a complete an understanding of a (complex) phenomenon as possible. Within the AEGIS project, survey and case study research are complementary. They are complementary in the sense that the former can provide more generalizable evidence on a phenomenon in terms of cross......-sectional data, while the latter can provide more in-depth (qualitative) understanding on specific issues. In systematically examining the case studies, however, this report goes beyond a typical single case study. Here we provide a synthesis of 86 case studies. Multiple case studies, following similar focus...

  9. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, case...... studies attempt to provide as a complete an understanding of a (complex) phenomenon as possible. Within the AEGIS project, survey and case study research are complementary. They are complementary in the sense that the former can provide more generalizable evidence on a phenomenon in terms of cross......-sectional data, while the latter can provide more in-depth (qualitative) understanding on specific issues. In systematically examining the case studies, however, this report goes beyond a typical single case study. Here we provide a synthesis of 86 case studies. Multiple case studies, following similar focus...

  10. Using the SaTScan method to detect local malaria clusters for guiding malaria control programmes

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    Kok Gerdalize

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mpumalanga Province, South Africa is a low malaria transmission area that is subject to malaria epidemics. SaTScan methodology was used by the malaria control programme to detect local malaria clusters to assist disease control planning. The third season for case cluster identification overlapped with the first season of implementing an outbreak identification and response system in the area. Methods SaTScan™ software using the Kulldorf method of retrospective space-time permutation and the Bernoulli purely spatial model was used to identify malaria clusters using definitively confirmed individual cases in seven towns over three malaria seasons. Following passive case reporting at health facilities during the 2002 to 2005 seasons, active case detection was carried out in the communities, this assisted with determining the probable source of infection. The distribution and statistical significance of the clusters were explored by means of Monte Carlo replication of data sets under the null hypothesis with replications greater than 999 to ensure adequate power for defining clusters. Results and discussion SaTScan detected five space-clusters and two space-time clusters during the study period. There was strong concordance between recognized local clustering of cases and outbreak declaration in specific towns. Both Albertsnek and Thambokulu reported malaria outbreaks in the same season as space-time clusters. This synergy may allow mutual validation of the two systems in confirming outbreaks demanding additional resources and cluster identification at local level to better target resources. Conclusion Exploring the clustering of cases assisted with the planning of public health activities, including mobilizing health workers and resources. Where appropriate additional indoor residual spraying, focal larviciding and health promotion activities, were all also carried out.

  11. Magnitude of Malaria and Factors among Febrile Cases in Low Transmission Areas of Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia: A Facility Based Cross Sectional Study.

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    Romedan Kedir Delil

    Full Text Available Despite a remarkable decline in morbidity and mortality since the era of malaria roll back strategy, it still poses a huge challenge in Ethiopia in general and in Hadiya Zone in particular. Although, there are data from routine health management information on few indicators, there is scarcity of data showing magnitude of malaria and associated factors including knowledge and practice in the study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess magnitude and factors affecting malaria in low transmission areas among febrile cases attending public health facilities in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia.A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in Hadiya Zone from May 15 to June 15, 2014. Simple random sampling was used to select the health facility while systematic random sampling technique was used to reach febrile patients attending public health facilities. Data were collected by a pre-tested structured questionnaire containing sections of socio demographic risk factors and knowledge and prevention practices of malaria. Data were entered to Epi-Info software version 3.5.4 and exported to SPSS version 16 for descriptive and logistic regression analysis.One hundred six (25.8% of participating febrile patients attending at sampled health facilities were found to have malaria by microscopy. Of which, P.vivax, P.falciparum and mixed infection accounted for 76(71. 7%, 27 (25.5% and 3 (2.8%, respectively. History of travel to malaria endemic area, [AOR: 2.59, 95% CI: (1.24, 5.38], not using bed net, [AOR: 4.67, 95%CI:, (2.11, 10.37], poor practice related to malaria prevention and control, [AOR: 2.28, (95%CI: (1.10, 4.74], poor knowledge about malaria, [AOR: 5.09,95%CI: (2.26,11.50] and estimated distance of stagnant water near to the residence, [AOR: 3.32, (95%CI: (1.13, 9.76] were significantly associated factors of malaria positivity in the study.The present study revealed that malaria is still a major source of morbidity in the study area among

  12. Typhoid spine - A case report

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    Rajesh P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Salmonella typhi isolated from L4-L5 spine is reported here. The causative organism was not suspected preoperatively. The patient responded favourably to surgical drainage and appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  13. Paragonimiasis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Kyung Hyeo; Park, Mi Jung; Bae, Kyung Soo; Choi, Hae Young; Choi, Ho Cheol; Na, Jae Boem; Choi, Dae Seob; Kim, Ho Cheol; Jang, In Seok; Kim, Dong Chul [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis is a parasitic infection caused by lung flukes including Paragonimus westermani. Paragonimiasis usually occurs from ingestion of raw or improperly cooked freshwater crabs or crayfish. Pleural or lung parenchymal lesions are commonly found on CT or chest radiographs, and radiologic manifestations of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis vary with the stage of the disease. Early findings include pneumothorax or hydrothorax, focal air-space consolidation, and linear opacities. Later findings include thin-walled cysts, mass-like consolidation, nodules, or bronchiectasis. Pulmonary paragonimiasis often can be mistaken for pulmonary tuberculosis in tuberculosis-endemic areas or lung cancer when it presents as a solitary pulmonary nodule. Intraperitoneal or ectopic lesions such as those in the retroperitoneum can form during migration of a juvenile worm from the small intestine to the lungs. Although the symptoms and signs of pulmonary paragonimiasis are nonspecific, an early diagnosis can be made if radiologists understand the pathogenesis and typical imaging findings of the disease. The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the various imaging findings of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis and to review articles to help radiologists make a proper diagnosis.

  14. [Ischemic hepatitis. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squella, Freddy; Zapata, Rodrigo

    2003-06-01

    Ischemic hepatitis or shock liver is defined as an extensive hepatocellular necrosis associated with a decrease in hepatic perfusion due to systemic hypotension. Serum aminotransferase levels (ALAT and ASAT) increase rapidly after the ischemic episode and peak within 1 to 3 days to at least 20 times the upper normal limit. After recovery, aminotransferases return to near normal levels in 7-10 days of the initial insult. Histological it is characterized by centrolobular necrosis without inflammation. We report a 47 years old woman with a rheumatic mitral valve disease, atrial fibrillation on anticoagulation and congestive heart failure. She was admitted due to a rapid auricular arrhythmia and secondary severe hypotension. She developed rapidly progressive jaundice (bilirubin up to 8.9 mg/dl) and her aminotransferases (ALAT and ASAT) increased rapidly to levels near 100 times the upper normal limit. Other causes of liver disease were excluded. With hemodynamic support and after heart rate control she improved rapidly within the following 10 days with normalization of liver function tests and complete clinical recovery.

  15. Secondary middle turbinate: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburjeli, Bruna de Oliveira Melim; Avila, Ana Flavia Assis de; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Moreira, Wanderval, E-mail: bruninha86@hotmail.com [Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Secondary middle turbinate is an anatomical variant rarely observed in the nasal cavity, firstly described by Khanobthamchai et al. as a bone structure originating from the lateral nasal wall and covered by soft tissue. In most cases reported in the literature, this variant is bilateral, occurring without associated complications. In the present report, the authors describe the case of patient of their institution with such anatomical variation. (author)

  16. Paroxysmal upgaze deviation: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverría-Palacio CM; Benavidez-Fierro MA

    2012-01-01

    The paroxysmal upgaze deviation is a syndrome that described in infants for first time in 1988; there are just about 50 case reports worldwide ever since. Its etiology is unclear and though it prognosis is variable; most case reports indicate that during growth the episodes tend to decrease in frequency and duration until they disappear. It describes a 16-months old male child who since 11-months old presented many episodes of variable conjugate upward deviation of the eyes, compensatory neck...

  17. [Splenic hamartoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Medina, Carlos Alberto; Mier-Escurra, Erik Antonio; Treviño-Garza, Francisco; Ripa-Galván, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: los hamartomas son tumores benignos mixtos muy raros, de crecimiento lento, que generalmente no provocan síntomas, por lo que es más frecuente encontrarlos como un incidentaloma en autopsias o laparotomías. La incidencia de los hamartomas del bazo es sólo de 0.001% entre la población general. Caso clínico: hombre de 39 años de edad, sin antecedentes relevantes, inició dos meses previos con pirosis y dolor ocasional en el hemiabdomen superior. En un ultrasonido de abdomen se observó una tumoración pseudoquística dependiente del bazo. La resonancia magnética reveló cuatro lesiones en el bazo, una de ellas de gran tamaño en el polo inferior, bilobulada, de 12 × 10 × 9 cm. Se realizó una esplenectomía. El paciente no sufrió complicaciones y fue dado de alta al tercer día. El reporte de patología indicó un hamartoma esplénico. Conclusiones: los hamartomas del bazo y otras localizaciones son lesiones benignas que se encuentran como incidelantomas. El diagnóstico se confirma por medio de estudio histopatólogico y su tratamiento es la esplenectomía, siendo la técnica preferida la transabdominal completa por vía laparoscópica. A pesar de que su baja incidencia en México, es de vital importancia que el médico lo considere como diagnóstico diferencial al evaluar una tumoración.

  18. Community case management of malaria: exploring support, capacity and motivation of community medicine distributors in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banek, Kristin; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Maiteki-Sebuguzi, Catherine; DiLiberto, Deborah; Taaka, Lilian; Chandler, Clare I R; Staedke, Sarah G

    2015-05-01

    In Uganda, community services for febrile children are expanding from presumptive treatment of fever with anti-malarials through the home-based management of fever (HBMF) programme, to include treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia through Integrated Community Case Management (ICCM). To understand the level of support available, and the capacity and motivation of community health workers to deliver these expanded services, we interviewed community medicine distributors (CMDs), who had been involved in the HBMF programme in Tororo district, shortly before ICCM was adopted. Between October 2009 and April 2010, 100 CMDs were recruited to participate by convenience sampling. The survey included questionnaires to gather information about the CMDs' work experience and to assess knowledge of fever case management, and in-depth interviews to discuss experiences as CMDs including motivation, supervision and relationships with the community. All questionnaires and knowledge assessments were analysed. Summary contact sheets were made for each of the 100 interviews and 35 were chosen for full transcription and analysis. CMDs faced multiple challenges including high patient load, limited knowledge and supervision, lack of compensation, limited drugs and supplies, and unrealistic expectations of community members. CMDs described being motivated to volunteer for altruistic reasons; however, the main benefits of their work appeared related to 'becoming someone important', with the potential for social mobility for self and family, including building relationships with health workers. At the time of the survey, over half of CMDs felt demotivated due to limited support from communities and the health system. Community health worker programmes rely on the support of communities and health systems to operate sustainably. When this support falls short, motivation of volunteers can wane. If community interventions, in increasingly complex forms, are to become the solution to

  19. Intracortical chondrosarcoma: a case report.

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    Khodamorad Jamshidi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary mesenchymal malignant tumor of the bone. The most common form is central chondrosarcoma and the rarest is intracortical chondrosarcoma. Here, we describe the clinical, pathological, and imaging features of a case of intracortical chondrosarcoma as well as the outcome of surgical treatment. This is the third case reported in the literature.

  20. Dermatomyositis panniculitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Melissa; Mellick, Nick; Wagner, Godfrey

    2015-08-01

    Dermatomyositis-related panniculitis is a rare cutaneous manifestation of dermatomyositis. There are few reported cases in the medical literature. We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with a 2-year history of dermatomyositis and recent biopsy-confirmed panniculitis treated with prednisone, cyclophosphamide and i.v. immunoglobulin.

  1. Proliferative periostitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Vahid; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh

    2008-04-01

    Proliferative periostitis of Garré represents a periosteal reaction to the presence of infection or other irritants. This can be odontogenic or nonodontogenic. This is a case report of an odontogenic periostitis resulting from endodontic origin. It was successfully treated by nonsurgical root canal therapy without using antibiotic therapy during the treatment of this case.

  2. Improved clinical and laboratory skills after team-based, malaria case management training of health care professionals in Uganda

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    Namagembe Allen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deployment of highly effective artemisinin-based combination therapy for treating uncomplicated malaria calls for better targeting of malaria treatment to improve case management and minimize drug pressure for selecting resistant parasites. The Integrated Management of Malaria curriculum was developed to train multi-disciplinary teams of clinical, laboratory and health information assistants. Methods Evaluation of training was conducted in nine health facilities that were Uganda Malaria Surveillance Programme (UMSP sites. From December 2006 to June 2007, 194 health professionals attended a six-day course. One-hundred and one of 118 (86% clinicians were observed during patient encounters by expert clinicians at baseline and during three follow-up visits approximately six weeks, 12 weeks and one year after the course. Experts used a standardized tool for children less than five years of age and similar tool for patients five or more years of age. Seventeen of 30 laboratory professionals (57% were assessed for preparation of malaria blood smears and ability to interpret smear results of 30 quality control slides. Results Percentage of patients at baseline and first follow-up, respectively, with proper history-taking was 21% and 43%, thorough physical examination 18% and 56%, correct diagnosis 51% and 98%, treatment in compliance with national policy 42% and 86%, and appropriate patient education 17% and 83%. In estimates that adjusted for individual effects and a matched sample, relative risks were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.20,2.88 for history-taking, 2.66 (95%CI: 1.60,4.41 for physical examination, 1.77 (95%CI: 1.41,2.23 for diagnosis, 1.96 (95%CI: 1.46,2.63 for treatment, and 4.47 (95%CI: 2.68,7.46 for patient education. Results were similar for subsequent follow-up and in sub-samples stratified by patient age. Quality of malaria blood smear preparation improved from 21.6% at baseline to 67.3% at first follow-up (p p p p Conclusion A

  3. Malaria Hyperendemicity and Risk for Artemisinin Resistance among Illegal Gold Miners, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Djossou, Félix; Barthes, Nicolas; Bogreau, Hervé; Hyvert, Georges; Nguyen, Christophe; Pelleau, Stéphane; Legrand, Eric; Musset, Lise; Nacher, Mathieu; Briolant, Sébastien

    2016-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of malaria among illegal gold miners in the French Guiana rainforest, we screened 205 miners during May-June 2014. Malaria prevalence was 48.3%; 48.5% of cases were asymptomatic. Patients reported self-medication with artemisinin-based combination therapy. Risk for emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance among gold miners in the rainforest is high.

  4. Possible treatment failure of artemether-lumefantrine in an Italian traveler with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

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    Ernestina Carla Repetto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs are recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in endemic areas with multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We report a case of possible artemether-lumefantrine failure in an Italian traveler with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria imported from Democratic Republic of Congo.

  5. Possible clinical failure of artemether-lumefantrine in an italian traveler with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Ernestina C; Traverso, Antonio; Giacomazzi, Claudio G

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in endemic areas with multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We report a case of possible artemether-lumefantrine clinical failure in an Italian traveler with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria imported from Democratic Republic of Congo.

  6. Possible Clinical Failure of Artemether-Lumefantrine in an Italian Traveler with Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Ernestina C.; Traverso, Antonio; Giacomazzi, Claudio G.

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in endemic areas with multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We report a case of possible artemether-lumefantrine clinical failure in an Italian traveler with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria imported from Democratic Republic of Congo. PMID:22084655

  7. Determinants of delay in malaria treatment-seeking behaviour for under-five children in south-west Ethiopia: a case control study

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    Deribew Amare

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt diagnosis and timely treatment of malaria within 24 hours after onset of first symptoms can reduce illness progression to severe stages and therefore, decrease mortality. The reason why mothers/caretakers delay in malaria diagnosis and treatment for under-five children is not well studied in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess determinants of malaria treatment delay in under-five children in three districts of south-west Ethiopia. Methods A case control study was conducted from March 15 to April 20, 2010. Cases were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment after 24 hours of developing sign and symptom, and controls were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment within 24 hours of developing sign and symptom of malaria. Data were collected by trained enumerators using structured questionnaire. Data were entered in to Epi Info version 6.04 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. To identify determinants, multiple logistic regression was done. Results A total of 155 mothers of cases and 155 mothers of controls were interviewed. Mothers of children who were in a monogamous marriage (OR = 3.41, 95% CI: 1.39, 8.34, who complained about the side effects of anti-malarial drugs (OR = 4.96, 95% CI: 1.21, 20.36, who had no history of child death (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.82, 6.42 and who complained about the higher cost of transportation to reach the health institutions (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.45 were more likely to be late for the treatment of malaria in under-five children. Conclusion Effective malaria control programmes should address reducing delayed presentation of children for treatment. Efforts to reduce delay should address transport cost, decentralization of services and increasing awareness of the community on early diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Major improvements in the quality of malaria case-management under the "test and treat" policy in Kenya.

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    Dejan Zurovac

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monitoring implementation of the "test and treat" case-management policy for malaria is an important component of all malaria control programmes in Africa. Unfortunately, routine information systems are commonly deficient to provide necessary information. Using health facility surveys we monitored health systems readiness and malaria case-management practices prior to and following implementation of the 2010 "test and treat" policy in Kenya. METHODS/FINDINGS: Between 2010 and 2013 six national, cross-sectional, health facility surveys were undertaken. The number of facilities assessed ranged between 172 and 176, health workers interviewed between 216 and 237 and outpatient consultations for febrile patients evaluated between 1,208 and 2,408 across six surveys. Comparing baseline and the last survey results, all readiness indicators showed significant (p<0.005 improvements: availability of parasitological diagnosis (55.2% to 90.7%; RDT availability (7.5% to 69.8%; total artemether-lumefantrine (AL stock-out (27.2% to 7.0%; stock-out of one or more AL packs (59.5% to 21.6%; training coverage (0 to 50.2%; guidelines access (0 to 58.1% and supervision (17.9% to 30.8%. Testing increased by 34.0% (23.9% to 57.9%; p<0.001 while testing and treatment according to test result increased by 34.2% (15.7% to 49.9%; p<0.001. Treatment adherence for test positive patients improved from 83.3% to 90.3% (p = 0.138 and for test negative patients from 47.9% to 83.4% (p<0.001. Significant testing and treatment improvements were observed in children and adults. There was no difference in practices with respect to the type and result of malaria test (RDT vs microscopy. Of eight dosing, dispensing and counseling tasks, improvements were observed for four tasks. Overall AL use for febrile patients decreased from 63.5% to 35.6% (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Major improvements in the implementation of "test and treat" policy were observed in Kenya. Some gaps

  9. Feasibility and acceptability of ACT for the community case management of malaria in urban settings in five African sites

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    Traoré Abdoulaye

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The community case management of malaria (CCMm is now an established route for distribution of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT in rural areas, but the feasibility and acceptability of the approach through community medicine distributors (CMD in urban areas has not been explored. It is estimated that in 15 years time 50% of the African population will live in urban areas and transmission of the malaria parasite occurs in these densely populated areas. Methods Pre- and post-implementation studies were conducted in five African cities: Ghana, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Malawi. CMDs were trained to educate caregivers, diagnose and treat malaria cases in Results Qualitative findings: In all sites, interviews revealed that caregivers' knowledge of malaria signs and symptoms improved after the intervention. Preference for CMDs as preferred providers for malaria increased in all sites. Quantitative findings: 9001 children with an episode of fever were treated by 199 CMDs in the five study sites. Results from the CHWs registers show that of these, 6974 were treated with an ACT and 6933 (99% were prescribed the correct dose for their age. Fifty-four percent of the 3,025 children for which information about the promptness of treatment was available were treated within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. From the household survey 3700 children were identified who had an episode of fever during the preceding two weeks. 1480 (40% of them sought treatment from a CMD and 1213 of them (82% had received an ACT. Of these, 1123 (92.6% were administered the ACT for the correct number of doses and days; 773 of the 1118 (69.1% children for which information about the promptness of treatment was available were treated within 24 hours from onset of symptoms, and 768 (68.7% were treated promptly and correctly. Conclusions The concept of CCMm in an urban environment was positive, and caregivers were generally satisfied with the services

  10. Renal myxoma: a case report

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    Carlos Henrique C Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Myxomas are rare tumors that can appear in many anatomical locations. There are only 14 cases of renal involvement documented in the literature. This article reports a case of renal myxoma in an elderly woman with recurrent cystitis. After five years of follow-up, the computed tomography (CT revealed a large solid tumor mass in the left kidney. Tumor resection was performed preserving the affected kidney with histopathological diagnosis of renal myxoma. The objective of this study is to report a rare case of renal myxoma, emphasizing the importance of the differential diagnosis from other benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors.

  11. Dirofilariasis: A rare case report

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    Singh R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infection most commonly caused by Dirofilaria repens. It has not been widely recognized in India. There is probably a focus of human infection with D. repens in Kerala. We report the first case of dirofilariasis, from the Eastern-part of India, to the best of our knowledge. Among the documented cases of human dirofilariasis caused by D. repens, recorded in India, most of them had ocular infections and few had subcutaneous involvement of the face. This is the first case report of human dirofilariasis from India involving the lower part of human body.

  12. [Pheochromocytoma. Report of 10 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, R; Joual, A; Rais, H; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1999-01-01

    We report 10 cases of adrenal pheochromocytoma seen over a period 15-years. A female predominance was noted (8 women/2 men). Patients were aged between 16-46 years with a mean of 34 years. Clinical manifestations consisted of hypertension observed in all cases, with vasomotor symptoms (90%). Time to consultation was prolonged (mean: 23 months). CT scan performed in 7 cases showed pheochromocytoma in all cases, located on the right side in 6 cases, while one pheochromocytoma was located in Zukerkandal organ. All patients were operated via anterior approach and adrenalectomy was performed. A favourable course was observed in 90% of cases with normalisation blood pressure. One death was noted. Histological examination showed no malignancy in all cases.

  13. Declining incidence of malaria imported into the UK from West Africa

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    Smith Valerie

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two thirds of all falciparum malaria cases reported in the United Kingdom (UK are acquired in West Africa (WA. To ensure recommendations and guidelines for malaria prophylaxis in travellers to West Africa correlate to the risk of infection, a study was undertaken to examine recent trends and predict future patterns of imported malaria acquired by UK residents visiting West Africa and West African visitors to the UK between 1993 and 2006. Methods and Results Using passenger numbers and malaria surveillance reports, the data revealed a 2.3-fold increase in travel to West Africa with a five-fold increase in travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR. Malaria incidence fell through the study period, the greatest decline noted in VFR with a fall from 196 cases/1,000 person-years to 52 cases/1,000 person-years, 9.8% per year p Discussion The reduction in incidence among all three groups of travellers may be explained by several factors; changing chemoprophylaxis usage and/or increased travel in urban areas where malaria risk has declined over the past decade, or widespread reduction in malaria transmission in West Africa. Conclusion With the reduction in malaria incidence seen in both visitors to and from West Africa, the most rational explanation for these findings is a fall in malaria transmission in West Africa, which may require a change in chemoprophylaxis policy for UK travelers over the next 5–10 years.

  14. Malaria in Mauritania: retrospective and prospective overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Salem, Mohamed Salem Ould Ahmedou; Basco, Leonardo K; Briolant, Sébastien; Hafid, Jamaleddine; Boukhary, Ali Ould Mohamed Salem

    2015-03-04

    Malaria has become a major public health problem in Mauritania since the 1990s, with an average of 181,000 cases per year and 2,233,066 persons at risk during 1995-2012. This paper provides the first publicly available overview of malaria incidence and distribution in Mauritania. Information on the burden and malaria species distribution is critical for guiding national efforts in malaria control. As the incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of epidemiological data are necessary.

  15. [Plasmodium falciparum malaria: epidemiology and clinical features at Tarapoto Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, J; Rodriguez, J; Romero, D

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of the clinical records of 41 patients discharged from a hospital in Tarapoto, Peru, between August 1992 and June 1996 following treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Patients ranged in age from 18 to 65 years; 25 were male. The cases were uniformly distributed throughout the year. The duration of illness averaged 11 days. At admission, 40 patients had fever, 36 had shaking chills, 29 had headache, 21 had nausea and vomiting, 21 had hyporexia, 15 had pallor, and 13 had splenomegaly. 3 of the 16 women were pregnant. 7 patients reported a history of malaria. The admission diagnosis was malaria in 33 cases. 31 patients were treated with chloroquine; 18 were subsequently treated with pyrimethamine-sulfadoxin and 1 received doxycycline. No cases of grave illness or death occurred. The increasing presence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Peruvian lowlands should promote review of the adequacy of control programs.

  16. The burden of malaria in post-emergency refugee sites: A retrospective study

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    Spiegel Paul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost two-thirds of refugees, internally displaced persons, returnees and other persons affected by humanitarian emergencies live in malaria endemic regions. Malaria remains a significant threat to the health of these populations. Methods Data on malaria incidence and mortality were analyzed from January 2006 to December 2009 from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Health Information System database collected at sites in Burundi, Chad, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Uganda. Data from three countries during 2006 and 2007, and all nine countries from 2008 to 2009, were used to describe trends in malaria incidence and mortality. Monthly counts of malaria morbidity and mortality were aggregated into an annual country rate averaged over the study period. Results An average of 1.18 million refugees resided in 60 refugee sites within nine countries with at least 50 cases of malaria per 1000 refugees during the study period 2008-2009. The highest incidence of malaria was in refugee sites in Tanzania, where the annual incidence of malaria was 399 confirmed cases per 1,000 refugees and 728 confirmed cases per 1,000 refugee children younger than five years. Malaria incidence in children younger than five years of age, based on the sum of confirmed and suspected cases, declined substantially at sites in two countries between 2006 and 2009, but a slight increase was reported at sites within four of seven countries between 2008 and 2009. Annual malaria mortality rates were highest in sites in Sudan (0.9 deaths per 1,000 refugees, Uganda and Tanzania (0.7 deaths per 1000 refugees each. Malaria was the cause of 16% of deaths in refugee children younger than five years of age in all study sites. Conclusions These findings represent one of the most extensive reports on malaria among refugees in post-emergency sites. Despite declines in malaria incidence among refugees in several countries, malaria

  17. Capacity and readiness of civil society organisations to implement community case management of malaria in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marita, Enock; Oule, Jared; Mungai, Margaret; Thiam, Sylla; Ilako, Festus

    2016-01-01

    Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) contribute to achieving development goals through advocacy, social mobilisation and provision of health services. CSO programming is a key component of Global Fund (GF) grants; however, CSOs face technical and governance capacity challenges in grant utilisation leading to missed opportunities for improving health at community level. Amref Health Africa was appointed Principal Recipient of a GF grant aimed at scaling up community case management of malaria through CSOs as sub-recipients in western Kenya. To identify potential risks and strengthen grant management, Amref Health Africa and the Ministry of Health conducted a capacity needs assessment to determine the capacity of CSOs to effectively utilise grants. 26 selected CSOs participated in this study. Document reviews and on-site assessments and observations were conducted using structured tool. The five main assessment areas were: governance and risk management; strategic and operational planning; monitoring and evaluation; programme management; and financial management. Overall performance was grouped into four categories: 3.0-2.5 (excellent), 2.0-2.4 (good), 1.5-1.9 (fair), and 1.0-1.4 (poor). Data were collected and analysed using Excel software. Twenty five out of 26 CSOs were legally compliant. 14(54%) CSOs were categorized as good; 7(27%) as excellent; 3(12%) as poor and 2(8%) as fair. Most CSOs had good programme management capacity but monitoring and evaluation presented the most capacity gaps. More than 75% of the CSOs were rated as excellent or good. A capacity building plan, programme risk management plan and oversight mechanisms were important for successful grant implementation.

  18. Malaria incidence in Limpopo Province, South Africa, 1998–2007

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    Grobusch Martin P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic in the low-altitude areas of the northern and eastern parts of South Africa with seasonal transmission. The aim of this descriptive study is to give an overview of the malaria incidence and mortality in Limpopo Province for the seasons 1998–1999 to 2006–2007 and to detect trends over time and place. Methods Routinely collected data on diagnosed malaria cases and deaths were available through the provincial malaria information system. In order to calculate incidence rates, population estimates (by sex, age and district were obtained from Statistics South Africa. The Chi squared test for trend was used to detect temporal trends in malaria incidence over the seasons, and a trend in case fatality rate (CFR by age group. The Chi squared test was used to calculate differences in incidence rate and CFR between both sexes and in incidence by age group. Results In total, 58,768 cases of malaria were reported, including 628 deaths. The mean incidence rate was 124.5 per 100,000 person-years and the mean CFR 1.1% per season. There was a decreasing trend in the incidence rate over time (p Conclusion Information from this study may serve as baseline data to determine the course and distribution of malaria in Limpopo province over time. In the study period there was a decreasing trend in the incidence rate. Furthermore, the study addresses the need for better data over a range of epidemic-prone settings.

  19. Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia

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    Angélica Castellanos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold-mining may play an important role in the maintenance of malaria worldwide. Gold-mining, mostly illegal, has significantly expanded in Colombia during the last decade in areas with limited health care and disease prevention. We report a descriptive study that was carried out to determine the malaria prevalence in gold-mining areas of Colombia, using data from the public health surveillance system (National Health Institute during the period 2010-2013. Gold-mining was more prevalent in the departments of Antioquia, Córdoba, Bolívar, Chocó, Nariño, Cauca, and Valle, which contributed 89.3% (270,753 cases of the national malaria incidence from 2010-2013 and 31.6% of malaria cases were from mining areas. Mining regions, such as El Bagre, Zaragoza, and Segovia, in Antioquia, Puerto Libertador and Montelíbano, in Córdoba, and Buenaventura, in Valle del Cauca, were the most endemic areas. The annual parasite index (API correlated with gold production (R2 0.82, p < 0.0001; for every 100 kg of gold produced, the API increased by 0.54 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Lack of malaria control activities, together with high migration and proliferation of mosquito breeding sites, contribute to malaria in gold-mining regions. Specific control activities must be introduced to control this significant source of malaria in Colombia.

  20. An initial examination of the epidemiology of malaria in the State of Roraima, in the Brazilian Amazon Basin

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    CHAVES Sandra S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study firstly describes the epidemiology of malaria in Roraima, Amazon Basin in Brazil, in the years from 1991 to 1993: the predominance of plasmodium species, distribution of the blood slides examined, the malaria risk and seasonality; and secondly investigates whether population growth from 1962 to 1993 was associated with increasing risk of malaria. Frequency of malaria varied significantly by municipality. Marginally more malaria cases were reported during the dry season (from October to April, even after controlling for by year and municipality. Vivax was the predominant type in all municipalities but the ratio of plasmodium types varied between municipalities. No direct association between population growth and increasing risk of malaria from 1962 to 1993 was detected. Malaria in Roraima is of the "frontier" epidemiological type with high epidemic potential.

  1. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

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    Renata Bortolasse Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 cases per year had parasitological malaria confirmation by thick smear. The number of malaria notifications due to Plasmodium falciparum increased over time. Imported cases reported during the period studied were spread among 51% of the municipalities (counties of the state. Only 35 cases (4.3% were autochthonous, which represents an average of 3.8 new cases per year. Eleven municipalities reported autochthonous cases; within these, six could be characterised as areas of residual or new foci of malaria from the Atlantic Forest system. The other 28 municipalities could become receptive for transmission reintroduction. Cases occurred during all periods of the year, but 62.9% of cases were in the first semester of each year. Assessing vulnerability and receptivity conditions and vector ecology is imperative to establish the real risk of malaria reintroduction in RJ.

  2. Malaria investigation and treatment of children admitted to county hospitals in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amboko, Beatrice I; Ayieko, Philip; Ogero, Morris; Julius, Thomas; Irimu, Grace; English, Mike

    2016-10-18

    Up to 90 % of the global burden of malaria morbidity and mortality occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and children under-five bear a disproportionately high malaria burden. Effective inpatient case management can reduce severe malaria mortality and morbidity, but there are few reports of how successfully international and national recommendations are adopted in management of inpatient childhood malaria. A descriptive cross-sectional study of inpatient malaria case management practices was conducted using data collected over 24 months in five hospitals from high malaria risk areas participating in the Clinical Information Network (CIN) in Kenya. This study describes documented clinical features, laboratory investigations and treatment of malaria in children (2-59 months) and adherence to national guidelines. A total of 13,014 children had a malaria diagnosis on admission to the five hospitals between March, 2014 and February, 2016. Their median age was 24 months (IQR 12-36 months). The proportion with a diagnostic test for malaria requested was 11,981 (92.1 %). Of 10,388 patients with malaria test results documented, 8050 (77.5 %) were positive and anti-malarials were prescribed in 6745 (83.8 %). Malaria treatment was prescribed in 1613/2338 (69.0 %) children with a negative malaria result out of which only 52 (3.2 %) had a repeat malaria test done as recommended in national guidelines. Documentation of clinical features was good across all hospitals, but quinine remained the most prescribed malaria drug (47.2 % of positive cases) although a transition to artesunate (46.1 %) was observed. Although documented clinical features suggested approximately half of positive malaria patients were not severe cases artemether-lumefantrine was prescribed on admission in only 3.7 % cases. Despite improvements in inpatient malaria care, high rates of presumptive treatment for test negative children and likely over-use of injectable anti-malarial drugs were observed. Three

  3. Malaria investigation and treatment of children admitted to county hospitals in western Kenya

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    Beatrice I. Amboko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 90 % of the global burden of malaria morbidity and mortality occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and children under-five bear a disproportionately high malaria burden. Effective inpatient case management can reduce severe malaria mortality and morbidity, but there are few reports of how successfully international and national recommendations are adopted in management of inpatient childhood malaria. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study of inpatient malaria case management practices was conducted using data collected over 24 months in five hospitals from high malaria risk areas participating in the Clinical Information Network (CIN in Kenya. This study describes documented clinical features, laboratory investigations and treatment of malaria in children (2–59 months and adherence to national guidelines. Results A total of 13,014 children had a malaria diagnosis on admission to the five hospitals between March, 2014 and February, 2016. Their median age was 24 months (IQR 12–36 months. The proportion with a diagnostic test for malaria requested was 11,981 (92.1 %. Of 10,388 patients with malaria test results documented, 8050 (77.5 % were positive and anti-malarials were prescribed in 6745 (83.8 %. Malaria treatment was prescribed in 1613/2338 (69.0 % children with a negative malaria result out of which only 52 (3.2 % had a repeat malaria test done as recommended in national guidelines. Documentation of clinical features was good across all hospitals, but quinine remained the most prescribed malaria drug (47.2 % of positive cases although a transition to artesunate (46.1 % was observed. Although documented clinical features suggested approximately half of positive malaria patients were not severe cases artemether-lumefantrine was prescribed on admission in only 3.7 % cases. Conclusions Despite improvements in inpatient malaria care, high rates of presumptive treatment for test negative children and likely

  4. A country on the verge of malaria elimination--the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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    Michael Coleman

    Full Text Available Significant headway has been made in the global fight against malaria in the past decade and as more countries enter the elimination phase, attention is now focused on identifying effective strategies to shrink the malaria map. Saudi Arabia experienced an outbreak of malaria in 1998, but is now on the brink of malaria elimination, with just 82 autochthonous cases reported in 2012. A review of published and grey literature was performed to identify the control strategies that have contributed to this achievement. The number of autochthonous malaria cases in Saudi Arabia decreased by 99.8% between 1998 and 2012. The initial steep decline in malaria cases coincided with a rapid scaling up of vector control measures. Incidence continued to be reported at low levels (between 0.01 and 0.1 per 1,000 of the population until the adoption of artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as first line treatment and the establishment of a regional partnership for a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula, both of which occurred in 2007. Since 2007, incidence has decreased by nearly an order of magnitude. Malaria incidence is now very low, but a high proportion of imported cases, continued potential for autochthonous transmission, and an increased proportion of cases attributable to Plasmodium vivax all present challenges to Saudi Arabia as they work toward elimination by 2015.

  5. 2004-2014年孝感市网络直报疟疾疫情分析%Analysis on malaria epidemic with the infectious diseases report system in Xiaogan City from 2004 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕斌; 牟宏杰; 王勇

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析实施传染病网络直报以来孝感市疟疾疫情,为我市疟疾消除和防控工作提供科学依据。方法采用Excel 2003和SPSS17.0软件对孝感市2004—2014年疟疾疫情数据进行整理分析。结果孝感市2004—2014累计报告疟疾病例844例,年平均发病率为1.58/10万,2005年发病率3.35/10万最高,2012年发病率0.12/10万最低。其中间日疟742例,疟疾未分型66例,恶性疟36例,本地感染病例802例,输入性病例42例,前几年以本地间日疟为主,近几年以输入性恶性疟为主。本地疟疾病例在5—9月份呈明显发病高峰,孝昌、安陆、孝南、大悟报告病例较多,发病人群20岁以上成年人为主,占报告病例总数的85.31%,农民为主,男性多于女性(1.52∶1)。输入性疟疾无明显的季节性分布,孝南、安陆、大悟报告病例较多,20岁以上病例占97.62%,90.42%为非洲务工归国人员,青壮年男性居多。结论孝感市本地感染疟疾疫情已得到有效控制,输入性疟疾疫情呈上升趋势,做好输入性疟疾疫情监测将是今后防治工作的重点。%Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Xiaogan City , and provide the basis for adjusting and formulating measures for malaria elimination. Methods The data of malaria cases during 2004-2014 in Xiaogan were collected and analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS17.0. Results A total of 844 malaria cases was reported in Xiaogan City from 2004 to 2014, an-nual incidence was 0.12/100 000 in 2012 to 3.35/100 000 in 2005 with an average of 1.58/100 000. Among the cases, 742(87.91%) were vivax malaria, 66(7.82%) were unidentified malaria, and 36(4.27%)were falci-parum malaria. Seven counties of the city had cases occurred. The overall incidence rate of malaria showed a gradual downward trend. Imported malaria cases was mostly seen after 2010. a total of 802 (95.02%) indige

  6. The clinical burden of malaria in Nairobi: a historical review and contemporary audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Widespread urbanization over the next 20 years has the potential to drastically change the risk of malaria within Africa. The burden of the disease, its management, risk factors and appropriateness of targeted intervention across varied urban environments in Africa remain largely undefined. This paper presents a combined historical and contemporary review of the clinical burden of malaria within one of Africa's largest urban settlements, Nairobi, Kenya. Methods A review of historical reported malaria case burdens since 1911 within Nairobi was undertaken using archived government and city council reports. Contemporary information on out-patient case burdens due to malaria were assembled from the National Health Management and Information System (HMIS). Finally, an audit of 22 randomly selected health facilities within Nairobi was undertaken covering 12 months 2009-2010. The audit included interviews with health workers, and a checklist of commodities and guidelines necessary to diagnose, treat and record malaria. Results From the 1930's through to the mid-1960's malaria incidence declined coincidental with rapid population growth. During this period malaria notification and prevention were a priority for the city council. From 2001-2008 reporting systems for malaria were inadequate to define the extent or distribution of malaria risk within Nairobi. A more detailed facility review suggests, however that malaria remains a common diagnosis (11% of all paediatric diagnoses made) and where laboratories (n = 15) exist slide positivity rates are on average 15%. Information on the quality of diagnosis, slide reading and whether those reported as positive were imported infections was not established. The facilities and health workers included in this study were not universally prepared to treat malaria according to national guidelines or identify foci of risks due to shortages of national first-line drugs, inadequate record keeping and a view among some health

  7. Acute cerebellar ataxia: A neurological manifestation in malaria

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    Peddametla Shravan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito presents with varied clinical manifestations. Neurological manifestations include headaches, confusion, convulsions, hemiplegia, ataxia, cerebral palsy, cortical blindness, and Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS. We are presenting a case report of acute cerebellar ataxia in a 20-year-old male patient who presented with fever and positive for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria antibodies.

  8. Pulmonary artery sling: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Gil Hyun; Lee, Sun Wha; Cha, Sung Ho [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Aberrant left-sided pulmonary artery(pulmonary artery sling) is an uncommon anomaly,which may cause significant respiratory abnormality. We report a case of pulmonary artery sling which is combined with persistent left superior vena cava and dextrocardia. This case were identified by esophagogram and CT and confirmed by MRI and angiography. We consider that MRI is a valuable new method for the diagnosis of aberrant left-sided pulmonary artery.

  9. [Malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlino, A; Rossi, M T; Fabrizio, T; Scutari, F

    2010-03-01

    Malignant fibroous histiocytoma (MFH) is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma, that most frequently occurs in the muscles of the extremities and in abdominal or in retroperitoneal space of young adults. It is seldom confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It is rarely diagnosed before excision and pathological exam, and has an unfavorable prognostic in some cases. This work reports the case of a 94 years old patient with originally cutaneous MFH stressing the importance of the early diagnosis.

  10. Malaria prevention in travellers from the United Kingdom. Report of meetings convened by the Ross Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Malaria prophylaxis is relative, not absolute, but can provide much protection. Travellers must take prophylactics regularly while in malarious areas and for one month thereafter; despite doing so, they may still develop malaria. For areas without chloroquine-resistant malaria, chloroquine, 300 mg base weekly, or proguanil, 100-200 mg daily, are preferred. In areas of chloroquine sensitivity there may be places with resistance to proguanil and pyrimethamine, but these places are not delineated. The risk of breakthrough of malaria is, therefore, least with chloroquine, but problems of potential side effects and regular medication are fewer with proguanil than chloroquine. Proguanil is preferred for long-term prophylaxis. Malaria poses a greater hazard for pregnant women and infants than do prophylactics. Pyrimethamine/sulphadoxine (Fansidar) or pyrimethamine/diaminodiphenyl sulphone (maloprim) are the preferred drugs for areas with prevalent chloroquine-resistant plasmodium falciparum. Fansidar is taken once a week and Maloprim also is usually recommended to be taken once a week. PMID:6789972

  11. Epidemiology of malaria in Nikshahr, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Southeast Iran, during 2004-2010

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    Hamzeh Alipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Malaria is a major health problem in Nikshahr. In 2010, about 11.9% of the total malaria cases in Iran occurred in Nikshahr. The main purpose of this study was to survey the epidemiological features of malaria in Nikshahr, Southeast Iran, during a 7-year period, 2004-2010. Materials and Methods: The present survey is a descriptive study that involves positive cases of Malaria reported from the center of communicable diseases in Nikshahr. The data were entranced to a computer according to demographic and epidemiological characteristics of patients as well as plasmodium species; then they were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Results: A total of 12233 cases were reported during 2004-2010 and three types of species of malaria parasite were detected. The highest positive number (2937 was reported in 2006 and the lowest number (221 in 2010. Malaria-positive cases of Nikshahr were mainly (60.2% found among male individuals. The annual parasite incidence (API, which is the index of malaria incidence in the community, has decreased from 9.5 in 2004 to 1.09 in 2010. The slide positive rate among indigenous residents was significantly higher than that of the migrant population. Most (96.5% of the malaria-positive cases were found among the Iranian population. About 0.3% of cases were identified to be mixed (falciparum and vivax, 98% Plasmodium vivax, and 1.7% Plasmodium falciparum. The largest number of malaria-positive cases occurred in October when the average percentage of humidity was 29.4 and the mean ambient temperature was 30.8°C. Conclusions: Several measures should ideally be implemented in an integrated pattern to contain the dissemination of malaria parasites and mosquito vectors; these include improvement of policies, regulations, and practices regarding malariological screening.

  12. Nonspecific Hyperamylasemia: A Case Report

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    Julio Cesar Wiederkehr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context The elevation of serum amylase and lipase are generally associated with pancreatic diseases. However they can be associated with different pathologies unrelated with amylase and lipase. Case report This paper aims to report a case of a patient diagnosed with nonspecific hyperamylasemia and warn of this possibility in the differentiation of hyperamylasemia. Conclusion The correct diagnosis of silent hyperamylasemia is important in order to determine whether there is the risk of pancreatic disease or if we are just ahead of a benign hyperenzymemia.

  13. Cardiac leiomyosarcoma, a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Gill, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    In this case report we present the history of a patient admitted with recurrent pulmonary edema. Transesophageal chocardiography showed a tumour in the left atrium, occluding the ostium of the mitral valve and mimicking intermittent mitral stenosis. Cardiac surgery followed by pathological...... examination revealed that the tumour was a leiomyosarcoma. Images from the echocardiography as well as the pathological findings are shown and discussed. The present case report illustrates that atrial tumors comprise also sarcomas, suggesting the use of careful, rapid diagnostic procedures and treatment...

  14. Infantile Scurvy: Two Case Reports

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    Leila Ghedira Besbes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C is necessary for the formation of collagen, reducing free radicals, and aiding in iron absorption. SCURVY, a disease of dietary ascorbic acid deficiency, is uncommon today. It still exists in high risk groups including economically disadvantaged populations with poor nutrition. The incidence of SCURVY in the pediatric population is very low. Cases Report. Here we report two cases of SCURVY revealed by subperiosteal hematoma in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay. Conclusion. SCURVY is extremely rare in children. Musculoskeletal manifestations are prominent in pediatric SCURVY. Multiple subperiosteal hematomas are an important indicator for diagnosis.

  15. Cephalic Tetanus: A Case Report

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    M. A. Alhaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of cephalic tetanus in a 2-year-old girl who was not immunized against tetanus following suppurative otitis media (SOM is presented. This case is reported because of the rarity of cephalic tetanus associated with high mortality, to highlight the risk of cephalic tetanus as sequelae of SOM and the need for proper aural care and prompt treatment of SOM. Primary immunization of all eligible children as well as booster vaccination at appropriate time as an effective management strategy for tetanus is emphasized.

  16. Neonatal acute apendicitis, case report

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Rojas, Nery; Instituto de Patología, UNMSM; Sánchez García, Luis; Hospital Nacional Docente de Cajamarca

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Acute appendicitis is a rare disease in newborns with a high mortality because of unspecific clinical features. We report a case of non-perforated acute appendicitis in a newborn at the San Bartolome Hospital in Lima. Case report. A female newborn weighing 3 170 g in the first day repelled maternal lactation; at the third day, she presented 39°C fever, and later, abdominal distention, constipation, and abundant vomiting. The X-ray films showed a distended gastric camera and para...

  17. Malaria cerebral Cerebral malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata; Silvia Blair Trujillo

    2003-01-01

    La malaria Cerebral (MC) es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1) citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2) formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3) producción de citoqu...

  18. Ainhum - A Rare Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ravi; Vinoth, Sundaresan; Praveen, Chinnappan Balasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    The term ‘AINHUM’ is derived from the African word meaning ‘to saw or cut’. True ainhum otherwise called dactylolysis spontanea is a condition involving soft tissue or digits with constricting rings commonly presenting in fifth toes, usually bilateral. It is to be differentiated from Pseudo-ainhum that occurs secondary to some hereditary and nonhereditary diseases that lead to annular constriction of digits. We report a rare case of true ainhum involving the left fourth toe only. It is a very rare case and a very few were reported worldwide. The highest incidence of ainhum has been reported in South Africa and South America. It is rarely reported in India. Ainhum when diagnosed and treated in early stages can be prevented from progressing to mutilating deformities. PMID:27190888

  19. False positive malaria rapid diagnostic test in returning traveler with typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meatherall, Bonnie; Preston, Keith; Pillai, Dylan R

    2014-07-09

    Rapid diagnostic tests play a pivotal role in the early diagnosis of malaria where microscopy or polymerase chain reaction are not immediately available. We report the case of a 39 year old traveler to Canada who presented with fever, headache, and abdominal pain after visiting friends and relatives in India. While in India, the individual was not ill and had no signs or symptoms of malaria. Laboratory testing upon his return to Canada identified a false positive malaria rapid diagnostic (BinaxNOW® malaria) result for P. falciparum with coincident Salmonella Typhi bacteraemia without rheumatoid or autoimmune factors. Rapid diagnostic test false positivity for malaria coincided with the presence or absence of Salmonella Typhi in the blood. Clinicians should be aware that Salmonella Typhi infection may result in a false positive malaria rapid diagnostic test. The mechanism of this cross-reactivity is not clear.

  20. Intraspinal endometriosis: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙正义; 汪玉良; 赵琳; 马璐琪

    2002-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis (EM) is defined by the presence of tissue histologically and functionally similar to the endometrium outside the uterus. EM has been mostly reported in the pelvis. Intraspinal endometriosis (IEM) is so rare that only four cases have been reported in the literature, to our knowledge.1-4 Two years ago, a patient was admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Lanzhou Medical College and was treated successfully (with 2 years of follow-up).

  1. Marjolin ulcer: a case report

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    Beatriz Di Martino Ortiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marjolin’s ulcer is part of a group of neoplasms arising in chronic skin lesions, whether inflammatory or traumatic. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most frequently reported in the literature, it appears most frequently in burn scars, although also described in other types of lesions. We report a case of Marjolin ulcer in a male, native, 65 years old, from the Paraguayan Chaco, with antecedents of scar post trauma in youth.

  2. Battling the malaria iceberg with chloroquine in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod P

    2007-08-07

    The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) of the Ministry of Health, Government of India is reporting about 2 million parasite positive cases each year, although case incidence is 30-fold or more under-estimated. Forty five to fifty percent of Plasmodium infections are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the killer parasite. Anti-malaria drug policy (2007) of the NVBDC recommends chloroquine (CQ) as the first line of drug for the treatment of all malarias. In a Primary Health Centre (PHC) reporting 10% or more cases of CQ resistance in P. falciparum, ACT blister pack is recommended and, so far, the policy has been adopted in 261 PHCs of 71 districts. The NVBDCP still depends on CQ to combat malaria and, as a result, P. falciparum has taken deep roots in malaria-endemic regions, causing unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. This policy was a subject of criticism in recent Nature and Lancet articles questioning the World Bank's decision to supply CQ to the NVBDCP. Continuation of an outdated drug in the treatment of P. falciparum is counterproductive in fighting drug resistant malaria and in the containment of P. falciparum. Switchover to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) in the treatment of all P. falciparum cases, ban on artemisinin monotherapy and effective vector control (treated nets/efficient insecticide spraying) would be a rational approach to malaria control in India.

  3. Battling the malaria iceberg with chloroquine in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP of the Ministry of Health, Government of India is reporting about 2 million parasite positive cases each year, although case incidence is 30-fold or more under-estimated. Forty five to fifty percent of Plasmodium infections are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the killer parasite. Anti-malaria drug policy (2007 of the NVBDC recommends chloroquine (CQ as the first line of drug for the treatment of all malarias. In a Primary Health Centre (PHC reporting 10% or more cases of CQ resistance in P. falciparum, ACT blister pack is recommended and, so far, the policy has been adopted in 261 PHCs of 71 districts. The NVBDCP still depends on CQ to combat malaria and, as a result, P. falciparum has taken deep roots in malaria-endemic regions, causing unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. This policy was a subject of criticism in recent Nature and Lancet articles questioning the World Bank's decision to supply CQ to the NVBDCP. Continuation of an outdated drug in the treatment of P. falciparum is counterproductive in fighting drug resistant malaria and in the containment of P. falciparum. Switchover to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT in the treatment of all P. falciparum cases, ban on artemisinin monotherapy and effective vector control (treated nets/efficient insecticide spraying would be a rational approach to malaria control in India.

  4. Determinants of prompt and adequate care among presumed malaria cases in a community in eastern Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingabire, Chantal Marie; Kateera, Fredrick; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Rulisa, Alexis; Muvunyi, Claude; Mens, Petra; Koenraadt, Sander; Mutesa, Leon; Vugt, Van Michele; Borne, Van Den Bart; Alaii, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to understand factors influencing fever/malaria management practices among community-based individuals, the study evaluated psychosocial, socio-demographic and environmental determinants of prompt and adequate healthcare-seeking behaviours. Methods: A quantitative household (

  5. Malaria immunity in infants: a special case of a general phenomenon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars; Staalsoe, Trine

    2004-01-01

    Newborn infants in endemic areas are markedly resistant to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Consequently, severe disease is rare during the first few months of life, and infections tend to be low density and relatively asymptomatic during this period. Although this is generally ascribed to passively...

  6. Epidemiology of disappearing Plasmodium vivax malaria: a case study in rural Amazonia.

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    Susana Barbosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New frontier settlements across the Amazon Basin pose a major challenge for malaria elimination in Brazil. Here we describe the epidemiology of malaria during the early phases of occupation of farming settlements in Remansinho area, Brazilian Amazonia. We examine the relative contribution of low-density and asymptomatic parasitemias to the overall Plasmodium vivax burden over a period of declining transmission and discuss potential hurdles for malaria elimination in Remansinho and similar settings.Eight community-wide cross-sectional surveys, involving 584 subjects, were carried out in Remansinho over 3 years and complemented by active and passive surveillance of febrile illnesses between the surveys. We used quantitative PCR to detect low-density asexual parasitemias and gametocytemias missed by conventional microscopy. Mixed-effects multiple logistic regression models were used to characterize independent risk factors for P. vivax infection and disease.P. vivax prevalence decreased from 23.8% (March-April 2010 to 3.0% (April-May 2013, with no P. falciparum infections diagnosed after March-April 2011. Although migrants from malaria-free areas were at increased risk of malaria, their odds of having P. vivax infection and disease decreased by 2-3% with each year of residence in Amazonia. Several findings indicate that low-density and asymptomatic P. vivax parasitemias may complicate residual malaria elimination in Remansinho: (a the proportion of subpatent infections (i.e. missed by microscopy increased from 43.8% to 73.1% as P. vivax transmission declined; (b most (56.6% P. vivax infections were asymptomatic and 32.8% of them were both subpatent and asymptomatic; (c asymptomatic parasite carriers accounted for 54.4% of the total P. vivax biomass in the host population; (d over 90% subpatent and asymptomatic P. vivax had PCR-detectable gametocytemias; and (e few (17.0% asymptomatic and subpatent P. vivax infections that were left untreated

  7. Worldwide incidence of malaria in 2009: estimates, time trends, and a critique of methods.

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    Richard E Cibulskis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measuring progress towards Millennium Development Goal 6, including estimates of, and time trends in, the number of malaria cases, has relied on risk maps constructed from surveys of parasite prevalence, and on routine case reports compiled by health ministries. Here we present a critique of both methods, illustrated with national incidence estimates for 2009. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compiled information on the number of cases reported by National Malaria Control Programs in 99 countries with ongoing malaria transmission. For 71 countries we estimated the total incidence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax by adjusting the number of reported cases using data on reporting completeness, the proportion of suspects that are parasite-positive, the proportion of confirmed cases due to each Plasmodium species, and the extent to which patients use public sector health facilities. All four factors varied markedly among countries and regions. For 28 African countries with less reliable routine surveillance data, we estimated the number of cases from model-based methods that link measures of malaria transmission with case incidence. In 2009, 98% of cases were due to P. falciparum in Africa and 65% in other regions. There were an estimated 225 million malaria cases (5th-95th centiles, 146-316 million worldwide, 176 (110-248 million in the African region, and 49 (36-68 million elsewhere. Our estimates are lower than other published figures, especially survey-based estimates for non-African countries. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of malaria incidence derived from routine surveillance data were typically lower than those derived from surveys of parasite prevalence. Carefully interpreted surveillance data can be used to monitor malaria trends in response to control efforts, and to highlight areas where malaria programs and health information systems need to be strengthened. As malaria incidence declines around the world, evaluation of control efforts

  8. Burden of asymptomatic malaria among a tribal population in a forested village of central India: a hidden challenge for malaria control in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, M K; Raghavendra, K; Bhatt, R M; Swain, D K; Valecha, N; Kleinschmidt, I

    2017-06-01

    Chhattisgarh in India is a malaria-endemic state with seven southern districts that contributes approximately 50-60% of the reported malaria cases in the state every year. The problem is further complicated due to asymptomatic malaria cases which are largely responsible for persistent transmission. This study was undertaken in one of the forested villages of the Keshkal subdistrict in Kondagaon district to ascertain the proportion of the population harbouring subclinical malarial infections. Community-based cross-sectional study. Mass blood surveys were undertaken of the entire population of the village in the post-monsoon seasons of 2013 and 2014. Fingerprick blood smears were prepared from individuals of all ages to detect malaria infections in their blood. Individuals with fever at the time of the survey were tested with rapid diagnostic tests, and parasitaemia in thick blood smears was confirmed by microscopy. Malaria-positive cases were treated with anti-malarials in accordance with the national drug policy. Peripheral blood smears of 134 and 159 individuals, including children, were screened for malaria infection in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Overall, the malaria slide positivity rates were 27.6% and 27.7% in 2013 and 2014, respectively, and the prevalence rates of asymptomatic malaria were 20% and 22.8%. This study showed that, for two consecutive years, the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection was significantly higher among children aged ≤14 years (34.4% and 34.1% for 2013 and 2014, respectively) compared with adults (15.2% and 18.2% for 2013 and 2014, respectively; P = 0.023 and 0.04, respectively). The number of asymptomatic malaria cases, especially Plasmodium falciparum, is significant, reinforcing the underlying challenge facing the malaria elimination programme in India. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Ten years experience with 497 cases of neuroinfections in tropic: in limited laboratory infrastructure initially treat both, cerebral malaria and meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benca, J; Ondrusova, A; Adamcova, J; Takacova, M; Polonova, J; Taziarova, M

    2007-06-01

    Review of 497 cases of neuroinfections in 7 tropical clinics in Ethiopia, Uganda, Burundi, Kenya, Sudan within 2000-2007 was performed. 97.5% of all cases was cerebral malaria (40.1%) and bacterial meningitis (56.4%). TB meningitis, cerebral cryptococcosis and sleeping sickness were very rare.

  10. Hyperparasitaemia during bouts of malaria in French Guiana

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    Carme Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High circulating parasite load is one of the WHO criteria for severe falciparum malaria. During a period of 11 years (2000–2010, the frequency of hyperparasitaemia (HP (≥4% infected erythrocytes during bouts of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae in patients referred to Cayenne General Hospital (CGH in French Guiana and the frequency of their admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU were evaluated. Methods A mean of 1,150 malaria cases were referred to the Parasitology Laboratory of CGH each year over the last decade. During this period, malaria diagnostic (microscopy and parasitaemia evaluation have remained unchanged: determination of the parasitized erythrocytes percentage with asexual forms on thin blood smears for all cases of parasitaemia exceeding 0.1%. Patients admitted to the ICU can be counted by origin of the request for malaria testing. All the data collected retrospectively were anonymized in a standardized case report form and in database. Results Between 2000 and 2010, 12,254 bouts of malaria were confirmed at the Parasitology Laboratory of CHG: P. vivax: 56.2%, P. falciparum: 39.5%, co-infection with both species: 3.4%, P. malariae: 0.9%. HP was observed in 262 cases, at a frequency of 4.9% for P. falciparum and only 0.041% for P. vivax, with no recorded cases for P. malariae. The need for intensive care was correlated with P. falciparum parasite load: 12.3% of cases for parasitaemia of 4-9%, 21.2% for parasitaemia 10-19%, 50% for parasitaemia 20-29% and 77.8% for parasitaemia ≥30% (n=9. The patient with the highest parasitaemia (75% infected erythrocytes with asexual form presented a major concomitant lupus flare-up treated with corticoids. He survived without obvious sequelae. Conclusions In French Guiana during bouts of malaria, HP was observed at a frequency of ~ 5% for P. falciparum and two orders of magnitude less frequent for P. vivax. HP is a severity

  11. Hemifacial Microsomia - A Case Report

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    Sushma Rao

    2005-01-01

    Clinically one sees facial asymmetry, macrostomia, micrognathia, and microtia to anotia of the external ear, preauricular skin tags, and Epibulbar tumors in the eyes. One such case of Hemifacial Microsomia seen in a boyaged 9 years, who complained of facial asymmetry on the right side of the face since birth and an extra auricle on the same side, is reported here.

  12. LICHEN STRIATUS – CASE REPORTS

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    Caius Solovan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lichen striatus is an acquired linear inflammatory dermatosis, not frequently reported, with a peculiar clinical aspect, most often described in adults, with a poor response to treatment. We described 4 cases of lichen striatus diagnosed over an 8-month period of time.

  13. [Emphysematous pyelonephritis: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, R; Fekak, H; Mezzour, H; Joual, A; Moufid, K; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S; Cherkab, R; Bensaid, A; el Kettani, C; Barrou, L

    2003-04-01

    Diabetic patients with urinary tract infections had a certain risk of developping emphysematous pyelonephritis with gas producting bacteria. This disease was accompagned with high mortalité. We will report one case who was treated successfully by high dose antibiotic regim and emergency nephrectomy.

  14. Gestational diabetes insipidus. Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejmocka-Ambroziak, Anna; Grzechocińska, Barbara; Jastrzebska, Helena; Kochman, Magdalena; Cyganek, Anna; Wielgoś, Mirosław; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is a very rare complication. However, undiagnosed and untreated may lead to serious complications in both mother and fetus. In this study, a case of 34-year-old female patient with diabetes insipidus associated with pregnancy was reported. We discussed process of diagnosis and treatment with particular emphasis on the monitoring of water-electrolyte imbalance during labor.

  15. Lithium nephropathy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Reis Pereira-Silva; Debora Esperancini-Tebar

    2014-01-01

    Although widely used in the management of bipolar disorder, lithium may cause adverse kidney effects. The importance of the present study is to report the case of a 59-year-old woman who was under regular treatment with lithium for bipolar disorder and whose imaging studies demonstrated the presence of multiple renal microcysts, suggesting lithium nephropathy as main diagnostic hypothesis.

  16. Lithium nephropathy: a case report

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    Raphael Reis Pereira-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although widely used in the management of bipolar disorder, lithium may cause adverse kidney effects. The importance of the present study is to report the case of a 59-year-old woman who was under regular treatment with lithium for bipolar disorder and whose imaging studies demonstrated the presence of multiple renal microcysts, suggesting lithium nephropathy as main diagnostic hypothesis.

  17. Neonatal brucellosis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnemri, Abdul Rahman M; Hadid, Adnan; Hussain, Shaik Asfaq; Somily, Ali M; Sobaih, Badr H; Alrabiaah, Abdulkarim; Alanazi, Awad; Shakoor, Zahid; AlSubaie, Sarah; Meriki, Naema; Kambal, Abdelmageed M

    2017-02-28

    Although brucellosis is not uncommon in Saudi Arabia, neonatal brucellosis has been infrequently reported. In this case of neonatal brucellosis, Brucella abortus was isolated by blood culture from both the mother and the neonate. Serology was positive only in the mother.

  18. Beer potomania: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattarai, Nimesh; Kafle, Poonam; Panda, Mukta

    2010-01-01

    A syndrome of hyponatraemia associated with excessive beer drinking was first recognised in 1971. This syndrome has been referred to as beer potomania. Dilutional hyponatraemia occurs due to excessive consumption of an exclusive beer diet which is poor in salt and protein. We report a case of beer potomania who improved dramatically with introduction of solute load, with no subsequent neurological sequelae.

  19. Beer potomania: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Nimesh; Kafle, Poonam; Panda, Mukta

    2010-04-29

    A syndrome of hyponatraemia associated with excessive beer drinking was first recognised in 1971. This syndrome has been referred to as beer potomania. Dilutional hyponatraemia occurs due to excessive consumption of an exclusive beer diet which is poor in salt and protein. We report a case of beer potomania who improved dramatically with introduction of solute load, with no subsequent neurological sequelae.

  20. Gorlin syndrome: A case report

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    Abbas Darjani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder which characterize by multi-organ abnormities such as odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, skeletal abnormities and multiple basal cell carcinoma etc. We report a case of this syndrome in a young man with palmar pits, multiple facial BCC, clacifications of the falx cerebri and bifid rib.

  1. Necrotizing faciitis: report of case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruthyunjaya, B

    1981-01-01

    A case of necrotizing fasciitis following infection of a mandibular third molar is reported. Necrotizing fasciitis is a relatively rare but fulminating clinical entity characterized by necrosis of fascia with widespread undermining of the superficial tissue and extreme systemic toxicity. Prompt recognition and proper management can reduce the morbidity and mortality in this severe soft tissue infection.

  2. Beer potomania: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Nimesh; Kafle, Poonam; Panda, Mukta

    2010-01-01

    A syndrome of hyponatraemia associated with excessive beer drinking was first recognised in 1971. This syndrome has been referred to as beer potomania. Dilutional hyponatraemia occurs due to excessive consumption of an exclusive beer diet which is poor in salt and protein. We report a case of beer potomania who improved dramatically with introduction of solute load, with no subsequent neurological sequelae. PMID:22736559

  3. Emphysematous Cystitis: A Case Report

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    Suleyman Tagci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous cystitis is an infectious disease, which is characterized by accumulation of air within the lumen and wall of the bladder. Diabetes mellitus, neurogenic bladder and advanced age are important risk factors for the development of the disease. In this case report, we present a young diabetic male patient with neurogenic bladder, who was treated with the diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis.

  4. Parietal intraparenchymal Schwannoma: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Chung, Tae Woong; Yoon, Woong; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    We report a case of an intraparenchymal schwannoma of the left parietal lobe. A 51-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with complaints of intermittent headaches. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images revealed a 1.3 cm sized intra-axial homogeneous enhancing mass in the left parietal lobe. The lesion was pathologically confirmed to be a schwannoma.

  5. Menstruation angina: a case report

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    Choo Wai Kah

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Menstruation is commonly associated with migraine and irritable bowel but is rarely correlated with angina or myocardial ischaemia. Only a small number of cases have been reported suggesting a link between menstruation and myocardial ischaemic events. Case presentation A case of menstruation angina is reported in order to raise awareness of this association. A 47-year-old South Asian woman presented with recurrent chest pains in a monthly fashion coinciding with her menstruations. Each presentation was associated with troponin elevation. Angioplasty failed to resolve her symptoms but she eventually responded to hormonal therapy. Conclusions The possibility of menstruation angina should always be taken into account in any female patients from puberty to menopause presenting with recurrent chest pains. This can allow an earlier introduction of hormonal therapy to arrest further myocardial damage.

  6. The role of spatial mobility in malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon: The case of Porto Velho municipality, Rondônia, Brazil (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Jussara Rafael; Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroshi; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; de Carvalho, Lino Augusto Sander; Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira da; Nobre, Carlos Afonso

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe the role of mobility in malaria transmission by discussing recent changes in population movements in the Brazilian Amazon and developing a flow map of disease transmission in this region. This study presents a descriptive analysis using an ecological approach on regional and local scales. The study location was the municipality of Porto Velho, which is the capital of Rondônia state, Brazil. Our dataset was obtained from the official health database, the population census and an environmental database. During 2000-2007 and 2007-2010, the Porto Velho municipality had an annual population growth of 1.42% and 5.07%, respectively. This population growth can be attributed to migration, which was driven by the construction of the Madeira River hydroelectric complex. From 2010 to 2012, 63,899 malaria-positive slides were reported for residents of Porto Velho municipality; 92% of the identified samples were autochthonous, and 8% were allochthonous. The flow map of patients' movements between residential areas and areas of suspected infection showed two patterns of malaria transmission: 1) commuting between residential areas and the Jirau hydropower dam reservoir, and 2) movements between urban areas and farms and resorts in rural areas. It was also observed that areas with greater occurrences of malaria were characterized by a low rate of deforestation. The Porto Velho municipality exhibits high malaria endemicity and plays an important role in disseminating the parasite to other municipalities in the Amazon and even to non-endemic areas of the country. Migration remains an important factor for the occurrence of malaria. However, due to recent changes in human occupation of the Brazilian Amazon, characterized by intense expansion of transportation networks, commuting has also become an important factor in malaria transmission. The magnitude of this change necessitates a new model to explain malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon.

  7. The role of spatial mobility in malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon: The case of Porto Velho municipality, Rondônia, Brazil (2010-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; de Carvalho, Lino Augusto Sander; Nobre, Carlos Afonso

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aims to describe the role of mobility in malaria transmission by discussing recent changes in population movements in the Brazilian Amazon and developing a flow map of disease transmission in this region. Methodology/Principal findings This study presents a descriptive analysis using an ecological approach on regional and local scales. The study location was the municipality of Porto Velho, which is the capital of Rondônia state, Brazil. Our dataset was obtained from the official health database, the population census and an environmental database. During 2000–2007 and 2007–2010, the Porto Velho municipality had an annual population growth of 1.42% and 5.07%, respectively. This population growth can be attributed to migration, which was driven by the construction of the Madeira River hydroelectric complex. From 2010 to 2012, 63,899 malaria-positive slides were reported for residents of Porto Velho municipality; 92% of the identified samples were autochthonous, and 8% were allochthonous. The flow map of patients' movements between residential areas and areas of suspected infection showed two patterns of malaria transmission: 1) commuting between residential areas and the Jirau hydropower dam reservoir, and 2) movements between urban areas and farms and resorts in rural areas. It was also observed that areas with greater occurrences of malaria were characterized by a low rate of deforestation. Conclusions The Porto Velho municipality exhibits high malaria endemicity and plays an important role in disseminating the parasite to other municipalities in the Amazon and even to non-endemic areas of the country. Migration remains an important factor for the occurrence of malaria. However, due to recent changes in human occupation of the Brazilian Amazon, characterized by intense expansion of transportation networks, commuting has also become an important factor in malaria transmission. The magnitude of this change necessitates a new model to

  8. Malaria paediatric hospitalization between 1999 and 2008 across Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okiro, Emelda A; Alegana, Victor A; Noor, Abdisalan M; Mutheu, Juliette J; Juma, Elizabeth; Snow, Robert W

    2009-12-09

    Intervention coverage and funding for the control of malaria in Africa has increased in recent years, however, there are few descriptions of changing disease burden and the few reports available are from isolated, single site observations or are of reports at country-level. Here we present a nationwide assessment of changes over 10 years in paediatric malaria hospitalization across Kenya. Paediatric admission data on malaria and non-malaria diagnoses were assembled for the period 1999 to 2008 from in-patient registers at 17 district hospitals in Kenya and represented the diverse malaria ecology of the country. These data were then analysed using autoregressive moving average time series models with malaria and all-cause admissions as the main outcomes adjusted for rainfall, changes in service use and populations-at-risk within each hospital's catchment to establish whether there has been a statistically significant decline in paediatric malaria hospitalization during the observation period. Among the 17 hospital sites, adjusted paediatric malaria admissions had significantly declined at 10 hospitals over 10 years since 1999; had significantly increased at four hospitals, and remained unchanged in three hospitals. The overall estimated average reduction in malaria admission rates was 0.0063 cases per 1,000 children aged 0 to 14 years per month representing an average percentage reduction of 49% across the 10 hospitals registering a significant decline by the end of 2008. Paediatric admissions for all-causes had declined significantly with a reduction in admission rates of greater than 0.0050 cases per 1,000 children aged 0 to 14 years per month at 6 of 17 hospitals. Where malaria admissions had increased three of the four sites were located in Western Kenya close to Lake Victoria. Conversely there was an indication that areas with the largest declines in malaria admission rates were areas located along the Kenyan coast and some sites in the highlands of Kenya. A

  9. Malaria prevention in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Blaise; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    A common approach to malaria prevention is to follow the "A, B, C, D" rule: Awareness of risk, Bite avoidance, Compliance with chemoprophylaxis, and prompt Diagnosis in case of fever. The risk of acquiring malaria depends on the length and intensity of exposure; the risk of developing severe disease is primarily determined by the health status of the traveler. These parameters need to be assessed before recommending chemoprophylaxis and/or stand-by emergency treatment. This review discusses the different strategies and drug options available for the prevention of malaria during and post travel.

  10. Malaria and water resource development: the case of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia

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    Kloos Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia plans to increase its electricity power supply by five-fold over the next five years to fulfill the needs of its people and support the economic growth based on large hydropower dams. Building large dams for hydropower generation may increase the transmission of malaria since they transform ecosystems and create new vector breeding habitats. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on malaria transmission and changing levels of prevalence in children. Methods A cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out between October and December 2005 in Jimma Zone, south-western Ethiopia, among children under 10 years of age living in three 'at-risk' villages (within 3 km from dam and three 'control' villages (5 to 8 km from dam. The man-made Gilgel-Gibe dam is operating since 2004. Households with children less than 10 years of age were selected and children from the selected households were sampled from all the six villages. This included 1,081 children from 'at-risk' villages and 774 children from 'control' villages. Blood samples collected from children using finger prick were examined microscopically to determine malaria prevalence, density of parasitaemia and identify malarial parasite species. Results Overall 1,855 children (905 girls and 950 boys were surveyed. A total of 194 (10.5% children were positive for malaria, of which, 117 (60.3% for Plasmodium vivax, 76 (39.2% for Plasmodium falciparum and one (0.5% for both P. vivax and P. falciparum. A multivariate design-based analysis indicated that, while controlling for age, sex and time of data collection, children who resided in 'at-risk' villages close to the dam were more likely to have P. vivax infection than children who resided farther away (odds ratio (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.32 and showed a higher OR to have P. falciparum infection than children who resided in 'control' villages, but this was not

  11. Malaria Diagnostics Market grows with increasing public awareness on malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Deshmukh

    2016-01-01

    Transparency Market Research Reports incorporated a definite business overview and investigation inclines on "Malaria Diagnostics Market". This report likewise incorporates more illumination about fundamental review of the business including definitions, requisitions and worldwide business sector industry structure.   Read Full Report: http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/malaria-diagnostics-market.html

  12. CASE REPORT: Chorangiophagus Parasiticus: A Rare Case Report

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    Ranjit Kangle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Malformations are common in twin pregency compared to singleton pregnancy. One such rare anomaly is Chorangiophagus parasiticus also known as twin to twin transfusion which is an asymmetric abnormality of monozygotic twins, where asymmetric twin survive by parasitisizing normal twin. It’s a rare condition with an incidence of 1 in 35.000 deliveries. We report such a case with complete autopsy findings.

  13. [Ectopic breast fibroadenoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, G; Zanotti, S; Cambrini, P; Montroni, I; Pellegrini, A; Montanari, E; Santini, D; Taffurelli, M

    2010-03-01

    Among the rare anomalies of the breast development, polythelia is the most common, between 1% and 5% of women and men present supernumerary nipples. Polymastia, usually presenting as ectopic breast tissue without areola-nipple complex, is seen mostly along the milk line, extending from the axilla to the pubic region. Ectopic breast tissue is functionally analogous to mammary gland and it is subjected to the same alterations and diseases, whether benign or malignant, that affect normal breast tissue. We report the case of a 21 years-old female evaluated by the medical staff after founding a solid nodular mass by suspect axillary lymphadenopathy. Differential diagnosis with lymphoma is the major problem in these cases. The mass was removed and the intraoperative histological examination showed fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast. Presence of ectopic breast tissue is a rare condition; development of benign mass or malignant degeneration is possible, but it is very unusual. In case of polymastia diagnosis is simple; in case of isolated nodule, without local inflammation or infection, there are greater difficulties. Ultrasonography is diagnostic in case of breast fibroadenoma, but it might be inadequate in ectopic localizations owing to the shortage of mammary tissue around the mass. Preoperative diagnosis is important to plan an adequate surgical treatment; lumpectomy is indicated in case of benign tissue; in case of malignancy, therapy is based on the standard treatment used for breast cancer (surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy).

  14. Case report on anorexia nervosa

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    Preeti Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by excessive restriction on food intake and irrational fear of gaining weight, often accompanied by a distorted body self-perception. It is clinically diagnosed more frequently in females, with type and severity varying with each case. The current report is a case of a 25-year-old female, married for 5 years, educated up to 10 th standard, a homemaker, hailing from an upper social class Hindu (Marvadi family, living with husband′s family in Urban Bangalore; presented to our tertiary care centre with complaints of gradual loss of weight, recurrent episodes of vomiting, from a period of two years, menstrual irregularities from 1 year and amenorrhea since 6 months, with a probable precipitating factor being husband′s critical comment on her weight. Diagnosis of atypical anorexia nervosa was made, with the body mass index (BMI being 15.6. A multidisciplinary therapeutic approach was employed to facilitate remission. Through this case report the authors call for the attention of general practitioners and other medical practitioners to be aware of the symptomatology of eating disorders as most patients would overtly express somatic conditions similar to the reported case so as to facilitate early psychiatric intervention.

  15. A refined estimate of the malaria burden in Niger

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    Doudou Maimouna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health authorities of Niger have implemented several malaria prevention and control programmes in recent years. These interventions broadly follow WHO guidelines and international recommendations and are based on interventions that have proved successful in other parts of Africa. Most performance indicators are satisfactory but, paradoxically, despite the mobilization of considerable human and financial resources, the malaria-fighting programme in Niger seems to have stalled, as it has not yet yielded the expected significant decrease in malaria burden. Indeed, the number of malaria cases reported by the National Health Information System has actually increased by a factor of five over the last decade, from about 600,000 in 2000 to about 3,000,000 in 2010. One of the weaknesses of the national reporting system is that the recording of malaria cases is still based on a presumptive diagnosis approach, which overestimates malaria incidence. Methods An extensive nationwide survey was carried out to determine by microscopy and RDT testing, the proportion of febrile patients consulting at health facilities for suspected malaria actually suffering from the disease, as a means of assessing the magnitude of this problem and obtaining a better estimate of malaria morbidity in Niger. Results In total, 12,576 febrile patients were included in this study; 57% of the slides analysed were positive for the malaria parasite during the rainy season, when transmission rates are high, and 9% of the slides analysed were positive during the dry season, when transmission rates are lower. The replacement of microscopy methods by rapid diagnostic tests resulted in an even lower rate of confirmation, with only 42% of cases testing positive during the rainy season, and 4% during the dry season. Fever alone has a low predictive value, with a low specificity and sensitivity. These data highlight the absolute necessity of confirming all reported

  16. Dermatitis artefacta: Three case reports

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    Walia N

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of dermatitis artefacta are reported for their varied presentation, diagnostic indicators and complex management. A 21-year-old soldier had multiple painful erosions on dorsum of both forearms of three weeks duration normal with inbetween skin. By occlusive bandaging dressing lesions healed without recurrence. A 28-year-old mechanic had recurrent blisters with non healing wounds on the right knee without surrounding inflammation. Histopathology was nonspecific. A young soldier had multiple asymphomatic nodular lesion in linear distribution on right forearm of two years induration. Biopsy showed features of scar. Psychiatric evaluation and follow-up was essential in all cases.

  17. Odontoameloblastoma: Report of two cases

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    Mosca Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontoameloblastoma (OA is a very rare mixed odontogenic neoplasm, characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of an ameloblastoma and a compound or complex odontoma in the same tumor mass. To date, less than 50 cases of OA and/or ameloblastic odontoma have been reported in the English dental literature. This neoplasm was called ameloblastic odontoma. The term OA was included in the 1971 WHO classification. In this study, we present two cases of OA, which we hope will contribute to the awareness and knowledge of surgeons regarding the existence of this odontogenic tumor so that patients having it may be treated and followed-up properly.

  18. Primary ciliary dyskinesiatwo cases reports

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    Mohammad Sadegh Rezaee1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 22 December, 2009 ; Accepted 10 March, 2010AbstractPrimary ciliary dyskinesia and Kartagener's syndrome are rare genetic disorders. There is a ciliary dysfunction in these disorders that cause recurrent infections in respiratory and sinus tracts associated with dextrocardia, chronic vasomotor rhinitis and dextrocardia. The aim of this paper is to report two rare cases of Primary ciliary dyskinesia, including one case of primary ciliary dyskinesia and Kartagener's syndrome for additional knowledge. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(73: 85-89 (Persian.

  19. MIRROR MOVEMENT: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA. Momen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirror movement is an interesting but often overlooked neurological soft sign;these movements are described as simultaneous contralateral, involuntary, identical movements that accompany voluntary movements. This neurologic problem is very rarely seen in children; in familial cases there is a positive history of these movements in parents, diminishing with time. Here, we have presented the case of an 11-year old girl with mirror movements in her upper limbs which interfered with her hand writing. Her neurological examination revealed normal results. In this report, we have tried to explain some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms related to these abnormal movements.Keywords:Mirror Movements, Children, Soft neurologic sign

  20. Erupted odontoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Nilesh; Mehta, Dhaval; Vachhrajani, Kanan; Nimavat, Abhishek

    2014-07-01

    Odontomas are nonaggressive, hamartomatous developmental malformations or lesions of odontogenic origin, which consist of enamel, dentin, cementum and pulpal tissue 'Erupted odontoma' is a term used to specifically denote odontomas, which are exposed into the oral cavity. These are rare entities with only 25-30 cases being reported so far in the dental literature. Here, we present a rare case of an erupted odontoma in an adolescent patient who came with a complaint of bad aesthetics due to the presence of multiple small teeth like structures in the upper front teeth region.

  1. Urban Malaria: Understanding its Epidemiology, Ecology, and Transmission Across Seven Diverse ICEMR Network Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L; Krogstad, Donald J; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Chery, Laura; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Ndiaye, Daouda; Mathanga, Don P; Eapen, Alex

    2015-09-01

    A major public health question is whether urbanization will transform malaria from a rural to an urban disease. However, differences about definitions of urban settings, urban malaria, and whether malaria control should differ between rural and urban areas complicate both the analysis of available data and the development of intervention strategies. This report examines the approach of the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) to urban malaria in Brazil, Colombia, India (Chennai and Goa), Malawi, Senegal, and Uganda. Its major theme is the need to determine whether cases diagnosed in urban areas were imported from surrounding rural areas or resulted from transmission within the urban area. If infections are being acquired within urban areas, malaria control measures must be targeted within those urban areas to be effective. Conversely, if malaria cases are being imported from rural areas, control measures must be directed at vectors, breeding sites, and infected humans in those rural areas. Similar interventions must be directed differently if infections were acquired within urban areas. The hypothesis underlying the ICEMR approach to urban malaria is that optimal control of urban malaria depends on accurate epidemiologic and entomologic information about transmission.

  2. Malaria elimination in Haiti by the year 2020: an achievable goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncy, Paul Jacques; Adrien, Paul; Lemoine, Jean Frantz; Existe, Alexandre; Henry, Patricia Jean; Raccurt, Christian; Brasseur, Philippe; Fenelon, Natael; Dame, John B; Okech, Bernard A; Kaljee, Linda; Baxa, Dwayne; Prieur, Eric; El Badry, Maha A; Tagliamonte, Massimiliano S; Mulligan, Connie J; Carter, Tamar E; Beau de Rochars, V Madsen; Lutz, Chelsea; Parke, Dana M; Zervos, Marcus J

    2015-06-05

    Haiti and the Dominican Republic, which share the island of Hispaniola, are the last locations in the Caribbean where malaria still persists. Malaria is an important public health concern in Haiti with 17,094 reported cases in 2014. Further, on January 12, 2010, a record earthquake devastated densely populated areas in Haiti including many healthcare and laboratory facilities. Weakened infrastructure provided fertile reservoirs for uncontrolled transmission of infectious pathogens. This situation results in unique challenges for malaria epidemiology and elimination efforts. To help Haiti achieve its malaria elimination goals by year 2020, the Laboratoire National de Santé Publique and Henry Ford Health System, in close collaboration with the Direction d'Épidémiologie, de Laboratoire et de Recherches and the Programme National de Contrôle de la Malaria, hosted a scientific meeting on "Elimination Strategies for Malaria in Haiti" on January 29-30, 2015 at the National Laboratory in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The meeting brought together laboratory personnel, researchers, clinicians, academics, public health professionals, and other stakeholders to discuss main stakes and perspectives on malaria elimination. Several themes and recommendations emerged during discussions at this meeting. First, more information and research on malaria transmission in Haiti are needed including information from active surveillance of cases and vectors. Second, many healthcare personnel need additional training and critical resources on how to properly identify malaria cases so as to improve accurate and timely case reporting. Third, it is necessary to continue studies genotyping strains of Plasmodium falciparum in different sites with active transmission to evaluate for drug resistance and impacts on health. Fourth, elimination strategies outlined in this report will continue to incorporate use of primaquine in addition to chloroquine and active surveillance of cases. Elimination of

  3. [Imported malaria in Sicily (Italy): epidemiology and recommendations for prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino, Palmira; Palmeri, Sara; D'Angelo, Claudio; Casuccio, Nicolò; Scondotto, Salvatore; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    This study analysed cases of imported malaria notified to the District Health Units of Palermo from 1998 to 2014. The aim was to assess epidemiological differences among cases, related to their reasons for travel. Eighty one cases were reported: 83% developed symptoms following a trip to Africa while 17% had travelled to Asia. Seventy-three percent of cases had travelled to visit family or friends in malaria-endemic countries (Visiting Friends and Relatives: VFRs), confirming the need for preventive measures targeted towards this at-risk population group.

  4. Malaria Genome Sequencing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    million cases and up to 2.7 million A whole chromosome shotgun sequencing strategy was used to deaths from malaria each year. The mortality levels are...deaths from malaria each year. The mortality levels are greatest in determine the genome sequence of P. falciparum clone 3D7. This sub-Saharan Africa...aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Cura . Genet. 40, 391-398 (2002). 15. Lasonder, E. et al Analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum proteome by high-accuracy mass

  5. Posterior ankyloglossia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Michael W; Bloom, David C

    2009-06-01

    Ankyloglossia, or tongue-tie, refers to an abnormally short lingual frenulum. Ankyloglossia is a recognized but poorly defined condition and has been reported to cause feeding difficulties, dysarthria, dyspnea, and social or mechanical problems. In infants, the most concerning symptoms are feeding difficulties and inability to breastfeed. While a recent trend toward breastfeeding has brought frenulectomy back into favor, the literature regarding treatment remains inconclusive. We report a case of posterior ankyloglossia with anterior mucosal hooding and a simple, safe, and effective way to treat it to improve breastfeeding.

  6. Epidemiological pattern of imported malaria in Jordan from 2007 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamain, H M; Abu Shaqra, Q A; Kanani, K A

    2013-12-01

    Imported malaria is of major health concern to countries considered as free from this infection and Jordan is no exception. The aim of this study was to highlight various epidemiological aspects of imported malaria into Jordan over a period of five years. Information pertinent to all malaria cases registered in the Ministry of Health (Jordan) from January 2007 to November 2011 was retrieved from the database of the Department of Parasitic and Zoonotic Diseases. Data was grouped according to age, gender, country of acquisition and etiologic agents. During the study period, a total of 304 malaria cases were registered, 192 cases among Jordanians returning home and the remaining were detected among foreign nationals who arrived in the country for work or tourism. The majority of infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum (199 cases) followed by Plasmodium vivax (93) and then Plasmodium malariae (8). Mixed infection was detected in just 4 cases. The origin of these imported cases was in a descending order; Eritrea, Côte d'Ivoire, India, Sudan, Liberia and Pakistan. These countries contributed to 86.5% of cases while the remaining were acquired from other areas. It is believed that most Jordanians with imported malaria were military personnel who participated in Peace Keeping Forces with the United Nations. It is concluded that with the exception of imported cases reported herein, Jordan remains a malaria free country. Continuous vigilance by health authorities is needed to avoid reintroduction of the disease into the kingdom.

  7. Carpenter syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, S; Khatun, N; Rayhan, S M; Rahman, S A

    2012-07-01

    Carpenter syndrome is a rare hereditary disorder known as Acrocephalopolysyndyctyly (ACPS) type II characterized by acrocephaly, facial dysmorphism, brachedyctyly, syndyctyly, preaxial polydyctyly, obesity, congenital heart disease, cryptorchidism, hypogenitalism, bony abnormalities and umbilical hernia. Carpenter syndrome is autosomal recessive disorder and prenatal diagnosis of this syndrome is possible by ultrasonogram during pregnancy. We reported a case of carpenter syndrome of 2.5 months old female infant of consanguineous parents who was admitted in the paediatric ward of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) on 30th March 2010. She was diagnosed as a case of Carpenter syndrome having acrocephaly prominent ridge of sagital suture, polydactyly, syndyctyly on history, clinical examination findings and investigation reports.

  8. Diogenes Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Projna Biswas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cessation of normal skin cleansing seen in geriatric or self-neglected patients can cause accumulation of keratinous crusts on the skin. In the extreme end of this spectrum is a condition known as Diogenes syndrome (DS. These patients may have psychiatric disorders like paranoid disorders, mood affection, or temporofrontal dementia. Subjects are mainly the elderly but few cases in younger age group of patients have also been reported. Lesions of DS are usually found over upper central chest, back, and groin. In the young, lesions are mainly found over scalp, face, or arms. Absence of normal skin cleaning causes keratin and dirty debris to accumulate and with time form a thick shell. These debris can be secondarily infected by bacteria, fungus, and so forth. These skin lesions are not usually seen in individual with proper hygiene. We report a case of Diogenes syndrome in a 34-year-old young male patient who had associated schizophrenia.

  9. Clostridial myonecrosis. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledys Pérez Morales

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus with spore-forming ability. It is one of the most widely distributed bacterial pathogens in the environment. A case