WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported higher alcohol

  1. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  2. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  3. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-04-01

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents (mean age 13.21, 49.4 % boys) from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We assessed the associations of alcohol and energy drinks consumption with negative outcomes and their potential synergy, as measured by the synergy index (SI). Adolescents consuming both alcohol and energy drinks were at higher risk of negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drank only alcohol or energy drinks or were non-consumers. Consumers of alcohol and energy drinks were highly prone to be involved in fighting-the joint association of alcohol and energy drinks consumption was greater than sum of its associations separately in relation to fighting (SI 1.49; 95 % confidence interval 1.03-2.16). Preventive strategies should aim at increasing awareness of negative behavioural outcomes-especially aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol and energy drinks consumption among young adolescents.

  4. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents

  5. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  6. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas; Norton Yoshiaki Kitanishi; Patricia Motta Carvalho; Daniel Azevedo Cavalcante; Leonardo Mattiolli Marini

    2017-01-01

    Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (...

  7. Emissions characteristics of higher alcohol/gasoline blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, M.; Martin, D.W.; Carder, D.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols and gasoline (UTG96) blends. While lower alcohols (methanol and ethanol) have been used in blends with gasoline, very little work has been done or reported on higher alcohols (propanol, butanol and pentanol). Comparisons of emissions and fuel characteristics between higher alcohol/gasoline blends and neat gasoline were made to determine the advantages and disadvantages of blending higher alcohols with gasoline. All tests were conducted on a single-cylinder Waukesha Cooperative Fuel Research engine operating at steady state conditions and stoichiometric air-fuel (A/F) ratio. Emissions test were conducted at the optimum spark timing-knock limiting compression ratio combination for the particular blend being tested. The cycle emission [mass per unit time (g/h)] of CO, CO 2 and organic matter hydrocarbon equivalent (OMHCE) from the higher alcohol/gasoline blends were very similar to those from neat gasoline. Cycle emissions of NO x from the blends were higher than those from neat gasoline. However, for all the emissions species considered, the brake specific emissions (g/kW h) were significantly lower for the higher alcohol/gasoline blends than for neat gasoline. This was because the blends had greater resistance to knock and allowed higher compression ratios, which increased engine power output. The contribution of alcohols and aldehydes to the overall OMHCE emissions was found to be minimal. Cycle fuel consumption (g/h) of higher alcohol/gasoline blends was slightly higher than with neat gasoline due to the lower stoichiometric A/F ratios required by the blends. However, the brake specific fuel consumption (g/kW h) for the blends was significantly lower than that for neat gasoline. (Author)

  8. Electro-autotrophic synthesis of higher alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, James C.; Cho, Kwang Myung

    2016-11-01

    The disclosure provides a process that converts CO.sub.2 to higher alcohols (e.g. isobutanol) using electricity as the energy source. This process stores electricity (e.g. from solar energy, nuclear energy, and the like) in liquid fuels that can be used as high octane number gasoline substitutes. Instead of deriving reducing power from photosynthesis, this process derives reducing power from electrically generated mediators, either H.sub.2 or formate. H.sub.2 can be derived from electrolysis of water. Formate can be generated by electrochemical reduction of CO.sub.2. After delivering the reducing power in the cell, formate becomes CO.sub.2 and recycles back. Therefore, the biological CO.sub.2 fixation process can occur in the dark.

  9. Aminobutyric acid and formation of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces carlsbergenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaeva, S A; Veselov, I Ya; Gracheva, I M

    1966-01-01

    Aminobutyric acid (1) added before the start of fermentation increased the formation of propyl-, isobutyl-, and isoamyl alcohols. With addition of I after 24, 28, or 72 hours of fermentation, the formation of the alcohols gradually decreased. Addition of I after 3 days of fermentation did not affect formation of the higher alcohols. I was not the source of formation of the higher alcohols, but affected the metabolism of carbohydrates and N in the cells. Formation of hexyl alcohols and high amounts of aldehydes was observed only during aerobic fermentation.

  10. Preparation of esters of gallic acid with higher primary alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerk, G.J.M. van der; Verbeek, J.H.; Cleton, J.C.F.

    1951-01-01

    The esters of gallic acid and higher primary alcohols, especially fatty alcohols, have recently gained considerable interest as possible antioxidants for fats. Two independent methods for the preparation of these esters are described. In the first method the hitherto unknown compound galloyl

  11. Supported molybdenum carbide for higher alcohol synthesis from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Chiarello, Gian Luca

    2013-01-01

    Molybdenum carbide supported on active carbon, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide, and promoted by K2CO3, has been prepared and tested for methanol and higher alcohol synthesis from syngas. At optimal conditions, the activity and selectivity to alcohols (methanol and higher alcohols) over...... carbide, while the selectivity to methanol follows the opposite trend. The effect of Mo2C loading on the alcohol selectivity at a fixed K/Mo molar ratio of 0.14 could be related to the amount of K2CO3 actually on the active Mo2C phase and the size, structure and composition of the supported carbide...... alcohols is obtained at a K/Mo molar ratio of 0.21 over the active carbon supported Mo2C (20wt%)....

  12. Status and prospects in higher alcohols synthesis from syngas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Ho Ting; Mondelli, Cecilia; Ferré, Daniel Curulla; Stewart, Joseph A; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2017-03-06

    Higher alcohols are important compounds with widespread applications in the chemical, pharmaceutical and energy sectors. Currently, they are mainly produced by sugar fermentation (ethanol and isobutanol) or hydration of petroleum-derived alkenes (heavier alcohols), but their direct synthesis from syngas (CO + H 2 ) would comprise a more environmentally-friendly, versatile and economical alternative. Research efforts in this reaction, initiated in the 1930s, have fluctuated along with the oil price and have considerably increased in the last decade due to the interest to exploit shale gas and renewable resources to obtain the gaseous feedstock. Nevertheless, no catalytic system reported to date has performed sufficiently well to justify an industrial implementation. Since the design of an efficient catalyst would strongly benefit from the establishment of synthesis-structure-function relationships and a deeper understanding of the reaction mechanism, this review comprehensively overviews syngas-based higher alcohols synthesis in three main sections, highlighting the advances recently made and the challenges that remain open and stimulate upcoming research activities. The first part critically summarises the formulations and methods applied in the preparation of the four main classes of materials, i.e., Rh-based, Mo-based, modified Fischer-Tropsch and modified methanol synthesis catalysts. The second overviews the molecular-level insights derived from microkinetic and theoretical studies, drawing links to the mechanisms of Fischer-Tropsch and methanol syntheses. Finally, concepts proposed to improve the efficiency of reactors and separation units as well as to utilise CO 2 and recycle side-products in the process are described in the third section.

  13. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture.

  15. Catalytic Conversion of Syngas into Higher Alcohols over Carbide Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the use of the bulk carbides Mo2C, WC, and NbC as catalysts for the conversion of syngas into higher alcohols. K2CO3/WC produces mainly CH3OH and CH4 with a low activity. NbC has a very low activity in CO hydrogenation. K2CO3/Mo2C produces mixed alcohols with a reasonable...

  16. Engineering strategy of yeast metabolism for higher alcohol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising host for cost-effective biorefinary processes due to its tolerance to various stresses during fermentation, the metabolically engineered S. cerevisiae strains exhibited rather limited production of higher alcohols than that of Escherichia coli. Since the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae is distinct from that of E. coli, there might be a problem in the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae. In this study, the potential production of higher alcohols by S. cerevisiae is compared to that of E. coli by employing metabolic simulation techniques. Based on the simulation results, novel metabolic engineering strategies for improving higher alcohol production by S. cerevisiae were investigated by in silico modifications of the metabolic models of S. cerevisiae. Results The metabolic simulations confirmed that the high production of butanols and propanols by the metabolically engineered E. coli strains is derived from the flexible behavior of their central metabolism. Reducing this flexibility by gene deletion is an effective strategy to restrict the metabolic states for producing target alcohols. In contrast, the lower yield using S. cerevisiae originates from the structurally limited flexibility of its central metabolism in which gene deletions severely reduced cell growth. Conclusions The metabolic simulation demonstrated that the poor productivity of S. cerevisiae was improved by the introduction of E. coli genes to compensate the structural difference. This suggested that gene supplementation is a promising strategy for the metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae to produce higher alcohols which should be the next challenge for the synthetic bioengineering of S. cerevisiae for the efficient production of higher alcohols.

  17. Metabolic Engineering of Microorganisms for the Production of Higher Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the increasing concerns about limited fossil resources and environmental problems, there has been much interest in developing biofuels from renewable biomass. Ethanol is currently used as a major biofuel, as it can be easily produced by existing fermentation technology, but it is not the best biofuel due to its low energy density, high vapor pressure, hygroscopy, and incompatibility with current infrastructure. Higher alcohols, including 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which possess fuel properties more similar to those of petroleum-based fuel, have attracted particular interest as alternatives to ethanol. Since microorganisms isolated from nature do not allow production of these alcohols at high enough efficiencies, metabolic engineering has been employed to enhance their production. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols. PMID:25182323

  18. Plant design aspects of catalytic biosyngas conversion to higher alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsonios, K.; Christodoulou, Ch.; Koytsoumpa, E.-I.; Panopoulos, K.D.; Kakaras, Em.

    2013-01-01

    Although biomethanol production has attracted most of the attention in the past years, there is a current trend for the synthesis of higher alcohols (i.e. ethanol, plus C 3 –C 4 ) from biomass gasification. These compounds could be used directly as fuel or fuel additives for octane or cetane number enhancement. These also serve as important intermediates for the chemical industry. In this paper a comparison is performed between the different process configurations a higher alcohols production plant from biomass gasification can take. These options are modelled in Aspenplus™; all steps and important unit operations are presented with the aim to correctly evaluate the peripheral energy requirements and conclude with the overall thermodynamic limitations of the processes. The differentiation between black liquor and solid biomass gasification, the type of catalyst employed, and the effect of the recycling scheme adopted for the reutilization of unreacted syngas are evaluated. The design has to cope with the limited yields and poor selectivity of catalysts developed so far. The gas cleaning is different depending on the different requirements of the catalysts as far as H 2 S purity. The process modelling results reveal that the hydrogenation of CO to higher alcohols is favoured by high pressure, temperature around 325 °C and high reactor residence times. A biorefinery using modified Fisher–Tropsch (FT) catalysts (MoS 2 ) prevail over modified MeOH catalyst (Cu–Zn based) for HA production. The efficiency of HA production in HHV terms can reach up to 25%. -- Graphical abstract: Process flow diagrams of different biorefinery systems derived from a) woody biomass and b) black liquor. Highlights: ► An integrated gasification/gas-cleaning/synthesis system was modelled in Aspenplus. ► HA production from wood and black liquor gasification is compared. ► Modified FT catalysts prevail over modified methanol catalyst for HA production. ► HA productivity is

  19. Higher Ambitions Summit. Rapporteur Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The Sutton Trust and Pearson two-day summit on higher ambitions in apprenticeships and vocational education drew more than 120 leaders in education, training and employment, policy makers, academics, and researchers to London. Delegates heard from political leaders stressing the importance they attach to high-quality apprenticeships. Presentations…

  20. Drug and alcohol testing results 2009 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This is the 15th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2009, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol...

  1. Drug and alcohol testing results 2007 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This is the 13th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2007, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol...

  2. Drug and alcohol testing results 2006 annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This is the 12th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2006, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol t...

  3. High prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use and comparison of self-reported alcohol consumption to phosphatidylethanol among women engaged in sex work and their male clients in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Page, Kimberly; Sansothy, Neth; Stein, Ellen; Vun, Mean Chhi; Hahn, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    In Cambodia, most of the female sex workers (FSW) work in venues where unhealthy alcohol use is ubiquitous and potentially contributing to the HIV epidemic. However, no accurate data exists. We compare self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption to a biomarker of alcohol intake in Cambodian FSW and male clients, and determine factors associated with unhealthy alcohol use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among FSW (n=100) and male clients (n=100) in entertainment and sex work venues in Cambodia. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C) was compared to phosphatidylethanol (PEth) positive (≥50ng/ml), a biomarker of alcohol intake. Sociodemographics data was collected. Correlates of self-reported unhealthy alcohol use and PEth positive were determined. The prevalence of PEth positive in FSW was 60.0%. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption was reported by 85.0% of the women. Almost all women (95.0%) testing PEth positive also reported unhealthy alcohol use. Prevalence of unhealthy alcohol consumption (self-report and PEth positive) was higher in FSW working in entertainment establishments compared to other sex work venues (psex work settings. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use is well reported by FSW, but less by male clients. These findings highlight the urgency of using accurate measures of unhealthy alcohol consumption and integrating this health issue into HIV prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Is response to price equal for those with higher alcohol consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Joshua; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Petrie, Dennis; Doran, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    To determine if taxation policies that increase the price of alcohol differentially reduce alcohol consumption for heavy drinkers in Australia. A two-part demand model for alcohol consumption is used to determine the price elasticity of alcohol. Quantile regression is used to determine the price elasticity estimates for various levels of consumption. The study uses Australian data collected by the National Drug Strategy Household Survey for the years 2001, 2004 and 2007. Measures of individual annual alcohol consumption were derived from three waves of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey; alcohol prices were taken from market research reports. For the overall population of drinkers, a 1% increase in the price of alcohol was associated with a 0.96% (95% CI -0.35%, -1.57%) reduction in alcohol consumption. For those in the highest 10% of drinkers by average amount consumed, a 1% increase in the price of alcohol was associated with a 1.26% (95% CI 0.82%, 1.70%) reduction in consumption. Within Australia, policies that increase the price of alcohol are about equally effective in relative terms for reducing alcohol consumption both for the general population and among those who drink heavily.

  5. Active carbon supported molybdenum carbides for higher alcohols synthesis from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Chiarello, Gian Luca; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    This work provides an investigation of the high pressure CO hydrogenation to higher alcohols on K2CO3 promoted active carbon supported molybdenum carbide. Both activity and selectivity to alcohols over supported molybdenum carbides increased significantly compared to bulk carbides in literatures...

  6. Self- and Collateral Spouse-Reported Alcohol in Malawi: Exploring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult (18+ years old) Malawian men and women's alcohol use and social drinking norms were examined. From 31,676 screened households, heads and spouses in 1,795 households with at least one alcohol user were interviewed. Alcohol use last 12 months was reported by 27.3% and 1.6% of all adult men and women ...

  7. Brand preferences of underage drinkers who report alcohol-related fights and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2015-04-01

    A significant body of research has demonstrated an association between adolescent alcohol consumption and subsequent fights and injuries. To date, however, no research has identified which brands are associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries among underage drinkers. We aimed to: (1) report the prevalence of alcohol-related fights and injuries among a national sample of underage drinkers in the U.S. and (2) describe the relationship between specific alcohol brand consumption and these alcohol-related negative consequences. We recruited 1,031 self-reported drinkers (ages 13-20 years) via an internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks to complete an online survey. Respondents reported their past-month overall and brand-specific alcohol consumption, risky drinking behavior, and past-year alcohol-related fights and injuries. Over one-quarter of the respondents (26.7%, N = 232) reported at least one alcohol-related fight or injury in the past year. Heavy episodic drinkers were over six times more likely to report one of these negative alcohol-related consequences (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 4.1-9.9). Respondents of black race and those from higher-income households were also significantly more likely to report that experience (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7; AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0 and 1.1-3.2, respectively). We identified eight alcohol brands that were significantly associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Alcohol-related fights and injuries were frequently reported by adolescent respondents. Eight alcohol brands were significantly more popular among drinkers who experienced these adverse consequences. These results point to the need for further research on brand-specific correlates of underage drinking and negative health outcomes.

  8. The synthesis of higher alcohols from CO2 hydrogenation with Co, Cu, Fe-based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Qinqin

    2017-01-01

    CO 2 is a clean carbon source for the chemical reactions, many researchers have studied the utilization of CO 2 . Higher alcohols are clean fuel additives. The synthesis of higher alcohols from CO hydrogenation has also been studied by many researchers, but there are few literatures about the synthesis of higher alcohols from CO 2 hydrogenation, which is a complex and difficult reaction. The catalysts that used for higher alcohols synthesis need at least two active phases and good cooperation. In our study, we tested the Co. Cu. Fe spinel-based catalysts and the effect of supports (CNTs and TUD-1) and promoters (K, Na, Cs) to the HAS reaction. We found that catalyst CuFe-precursor-800 is beneficial for the synthesis of C2+ hydrocarbons and higher alcohols. In the CO 2 hydrogenation, Co acts as a methanation catalyst rather than acting as a FT catalyst, because of the different reaction mechanism between CO hydrogenation and CO 2 hydrogenation. In order to inhibit the formation of huge amount of hydrocarbons, it is better to choose catalysts without Co in the CO 2 hydrogenation reaction. Compared the functions of CNTs and TUD-1, we found that CNTs is a perfect support for the synthesis of long-chain products (higher alcohols and C2+ hydrocarbons). The TUD-1 support are more suitable for synthesis of single-carbon products (methane and methanol).The addition of alkalis as promoters does not only lead to increase the conversion of CO 2 and H 2 , but also sharply increased the selectivity to the desired products, higher alcohols. The catalyst 0.5K30CuFeCNTs owns the highest productivities (370.7 g.kg -1 .h -1 ) of higher alcohols at 350 C and 50 bar. (author) [fr

  9. Enzymes extracted from apple peels have activity in reducing higher alcohols in Chinese liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui

    2014-10-01

    As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols.

  10. How much alcohol do you buy? A comparison of self-reported alcohol purchases with actual sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstedt, Mats

    2010-04-01

    Unrecorded alcohol has increased in the Nordic countries during recent years, above all in terms of cross-border trade. This implies that trends and levels of per capita consumption would look different without estimates of this source of alcohol, estimates that in Sweden and other countries are made through surveys. The overall aim is to analyse the validity of Swedish survey estimates of alcohol bought in the cross-border trade and possibly to develop weights that can be applied to such estimates. The analysis consists of comparing self-reported purchases of spirits, wine, cider/alcopops and beer at retail monopoly (Systembolaget) during 2008 (n = 18,000) with actual sales during the same period overall and monthly. Of the recorded amount of purchases at Systembolaget, 87% was reported in the survey, compared with the 40-60% usually found for self-reported consumption. Significant differences across beverages were revealed, showing a lower coverage rate for beer and spirits and a higher coverage rate for wine and cider. Changes in purchases of all beverages were captured fairly well, at least changes taking place from one month to another. Self-reported alcohol purchases achieve a higher coverage rate than found typically in studies based on self-reported use of alcohol. If adjustments are to be made to correct for underreporting in self-reported data on alcohol purchases, different weights should be applied to different beverages. Furthermore, at least major changes in how much alcohol is purchased in the population can be monitored using well-designed population surveys.

  11. Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2008 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This is the 14th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing : Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2008, the requirements of the overall : drug and alcoh...

  12. Why does society accept a higher risk for alcohol than for other voluntary or involuntary risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Room, Robin

    2014-10-21

    Societies tend to accept much higher risks for voluntary behaviours, those based on individual decisions (for example, to smoke, to consume alcohol, or to ski), than for involuntary exposure such as exposure to risks in soil, drinking water or air. In high-income societies, an acceptable risk to those voluntarily engaging in a risky behaviour seems to be about one death in 1,000 on a lifetime basis. However, drinking more than 20 g pure alcohol per day over an adult lifetime exceeds a threshold of one in 100 deaths, based on a calculation from World Health Organization data of the odds in six European countries of dying from alcohol-attributable causes at different levels of drinking. The voluntary mortality risk of alcohol consumption exceeds the risks of other lifestyle risk factors. In addition, evidence shows that the involuntary risks resulting from customary alcohol consumption far exceed the acceptable threshold for other involuntary risks (such as those established by the World Health Organization or national environmental agencies), and would be judged as not acceptable. Alcohol's exceptional status reflects vagaries of history, which have so far resulted in alcohol being exempted from key food legislation (no labelling of ingredients and nutritional information) and from international conventions governing all other psychoactive substances (both legal and illegal). This is along with special treatment of alcohol in the public health field, in part reflecting overestimation of its beneficial effect on ischaemic disease when consumed in moderation. A much higher mortality risk from alcohol than from other risk factors is currently accepted by high income countries.

  13. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ganeshalingam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists.

  14. Polyol Synthesis of Cobalt–Copper Alloy Catalysts for Higher Alcohol Synthesis from Syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Laiza V.P.; Snider, Jonathan L.; Fleischman, Samuel D.

    2017-01-01

    Novel catalysts for the selective production of higher alcohols from syngas could offer improved pathways towards synthetic fuels and chemicals. Cobalt–copper alloy catalysts have shown promising results for this reaction. To improve control over particle properties, a liquid phase nanoparticle s...

  15. Lipase catalyzed transesterification of castor oil by straight chain higher alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Deepika; Mukherjee, Joyeeta; Gupta, Munishwar N

    2015-03-01

    Biolubricants from Castor oil were produced enzymatically by transesterification with higher alcohols using a lipase mixture of immobilized Mucor miehei (RMIM) and immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) under low water conditions. The conversions were in the range of 80-95% under the optimized conditions. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The synthesis of higher alcohols using modified Cu/ZnO/Al@#2@#O@#3@# catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaa, J.C.; Slaa, J.C.; van Ommen, J.G.; Ross, J.R.H.; Ross, J.R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives a review of research work in the synthesis of higher alcohols over catalysts based on Cu/ZnO/Al2O3, emphasizing three main topics: (i) the effect on selectivity of the addition of several compounds to this catalyst, (ii) the effect on selectivity of the reaction conditions used, and

  17. Intimate Partner Aggression Reporting Concordance and Correlates of Agreement among Men with Alcohol Use Disorders and Their Female Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuzio, Jillian; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Marshall, Amy D.; Murphy, Christopher M.; Murphy, Marie; Taft, Casey T.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined relationship aggression reporting concordance among 303 men with alcohol use disorders and their female partners enrolled in couples-based alcohol abuse treatment. Agreement for physical and psychological aggression was generally consistent with, or higher than, concordance rates reported among other populations. Men's…

  18. Alcohol-Related Blackouts, Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences, and Motivations for Drinking Reported by Newly Matriculating Transgender College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupler, Larry A; Zapp, Daniel; DeJong, William; Ali, Maryam; O'Rourke, Sarah; Looney, John; Swartzwelder, H Scott

    2017-05-01

    Many transgender college students struggle with identity formation and other emotional, social, and developmental challenges associated with emerging adulthood. A potential maladaptive coping strategy employed by such students is heavy drinking. Prior literature has suggested greater consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences (ARCs) in transgender students compared with their cisgender peers, but little is known about their differing experiences with alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs). We examined the level of alcohol consumption, the frequency of ARBs and other ARCs, and motivations for drinking reported by the largest sample of transgender college students to date. A Web survey from an alcohol-prevention program, AlcoholEdu for College™, assessed student demographics and drinking-related behaviors, experiences, and motivations of newly matriculating first-year college students. A self-reported drinking calendar was used to examine each of the following measures over the previous 14 days: number of drinking days, total number of drinks, and maximum number of drinks on any single day. A 7-point Likert scale was used to measure ARCs, ARBs, and drinking motivations. Transgender students of both sexes were compared with their cisgender peers. A total of 989 of 422,906 students (0.2%) identified as transgender. Over a 14-day period, transgender compared with cisgender students were more likely to consume alcohol over more days, more total drinks, and a greater number of maximum drinks on a single day. Transgender students (36%) were more likely to report an ARB than cisgender students (25%) as well as more negative academic, confrontation-related, social, and sexual ARCs. Transgender respondents more often cited stress reduction, social anxiety, self-esteem issues, and the inherent properties of alcohol as motivations for drinking. For nearly all measures, higher values were yielded by male-to-female than female-to-male transgender students. Transgender

  19. Delusional parasitosis with alcohol dependence: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Dave, Austin Fernandes, Anup Bharati, Avinash De Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Delusional parasitosis is a syndrome with which most psychiatrists are familiar. However, most reports consist of case reports or small series. We present here a case report of delusional parasitosis of an extremely bizarre nature in a case of alcohol dependence that responded to pimozide, haloperidol and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT.

  20. Utilization of Microalgal Biofractions for Bioethanol, Higher Alcohols, and Biodiesel Production: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa M. El-Dalatony

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a crucial energy resource used for the generation of electricity and transportation fuels. Microalgae exhibit a high content of biocomponents which makes them a potential feedstock for the generation of ecofriendly biofuels. Biofuels derived from microalgae are suitable carbon-neutral replacements for petroleum. Fermentation is the major process for metabolic conversion of microalgal biocompounds into biofuels such as bioethanol and higher alcohols. In this review, we explored the use of all three major biocomponents of microalgal biomass including carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids for maximum biofuel generation. Application of several pretreatment methods for enhancement the bioavailability of substrates (simple sugar, amino acid, and fatty acid was discussed. This review goes one step further to discuss how to direct these biocomponents for the generation of various biofuels (bioethanol, higher alcohol, and biodiesel through fermentation and transesterification processes. Such an approach would result in the maximum utilization of biomasses for economically feasible biofuel production.

  1. The synthesis of higher alcohols using modified Cu/ZnO/Al@#2@#O@#3@# catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Slaa, J.C.; Slaa, J.C.; van Ommen, J.G.; Ross, J.R.H.; Ross, J.R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives a review of research work in the synthesis of higher alcohols over catalysts based on Cu/ZnO/Al2O3, emphasizing three main topics: (i) the effect on selectivity of the addition of several compounds to this catalyst, (ii) the effect on selectivity of the reaction conditions used, and (iii) the reaction network leading to the different products found. Although the use of alkali compounds has been studied most extensively, other compounds, for example those containing manganese,...

  2. Alcohol and Health. Fifth Special Report to the U.S. Congress from the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report is divided into an overview of alcohol and health, and eight chapters which deal with various aspects of alcohol use and abuse. The epidemiology of alcohol abuse and alcoholism is discussed. Data are presented on self-reported consumption of alcohol among youths and adults; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; alcohol-related…

  3. Principals' reports of adults' alcohol use in Australian secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette M; Kippen, Rebecca; Buykx, Penny; Munro, Geoffrey; McBride, Nyanda; Wiggers, John

    2016-02-29

    Schools provide opportunities for parents and the wider community to connect and support the physical and emotional wellbeing of their children. Schools therefore have the potential to play a role in the socialisation of alcohol use through school policies and practices regarding consumption of alcohol by adults at school events in the presence of children. This survey was undertaken to a) compare the extent to which alcohol is used at secondary school events, when children are present, in the states of New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria (VIC), Australia; b) describe principals' level of agreement with these practices; c) their awareness of state policies on this issue; and d) the predictors of such events. A random sample of secondary schools, stratified to represent metropolitan and non-metropolitan schools were invited to participate. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were conducted with p values schools consented to participate in the study. Fifteen percent of participating NSW schools and 57% of VIC schools held at least one event in which alcohol was consumed by adults in the presence of children in the year before the survey. Of the 100 reported events, 78% were Year 12 graduation dinners, and 18% were debutante balls. Compared to NSW principals, VIC principals were significantly more likely to agree with the use of alcohol at these events; significantly less likely to be aware of their state education department policy on this issue; have a policy at their own school or support policy that prohibits alcohol use at such events; and less likely to report having enough information to make decisions about this. There is a growing focus on adults' use of alcohol at school events when children are present. Schools can play an important role in educating and socialising children about alcohol via both the curriculum and policies regarding adults' alcohol use at school events. Findings from this study suggest education department and school-based policies that

  4. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  5. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  6. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  7. Alcohol Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Subacute encephalopathy with epileptic seizures in alcoholism (SESA): case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, F G; Kozian, R

    2001-10-01

    The case of a 66-year-old patient is reported in view of the rarity of his condition: a case of subacute encephalopathy with seizures in alcoholics (SESA syndrome), described first in 1981 by Niedermeyer, et al. Wernicke-type aphasia, epileptic seizures (generalized tonic-clonic) and PLEDs EEG pattern dominated the neurological picture, in addition to hepatomegaly and rhabdomyolysis. This condition differs from all other known CNS complications in chronic alcoholism and is withdrawal-independent. It is prognostically favorable as far as the syndrome as such is concerned.

  9. Changes in Patient-Reported Alcohol-Related Advice Following Veterans Health Administration Implementation of Brief Alcohol Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J; Williams, Emily C; Lapham, Gwen T; Rubinsky, Anna D; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Bradley, Katharine A

    2016-05-01

    Brief alcohol interventions are recommended for primary care patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse, but implementation is challenging. The U.S. Veterans Health Administration (Veterans Affairs [VA]) implemented brief interventions for patients with alcohol misuse in 2008, and rates of brief interventions documented in the electronic medical record increased from 24% to 78% (2008-2011). This study examined whether an independent measure of brief interventions-patient-reported alcohol-related advice-also increased among VA outpatients who screened positive for alcohol misuse on a mailed survey. This retrospective cross-sectional study included VA outpatient respondents to the VA's Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP; 2007-2011) who reported past-year alcohol use and answered a question about alcohol-related advice. Alcohol-related advice was defined as a report of past-year advice from a VA clinician to abstain from or reduce drinking. The adjusted prevalence of alcoholrelated advice among patients who screened positive for alcohol misuse (SHEP AUDIT-C ≥ 5) was estimated for each year. Among patients with alcohol misuse (n = 61,843), the adjusted prevalence of alcohol-related advice increased from 40.4% (95% CI [39.3%, 41.5%]) in 2007 to 55.5% (95% CI [53.3%, 57.8%]) in 2011. Rates of alcoholrelated advice increased significantly each year except the last. The VA's efforts to implement brief interventions were associated with increased patient-reported alcohol-related advice over time, with a majority of patients with alcohol misuse reporting its receipt. Other systems considering similar approaches to implementation may benefit from collecting patient-reported measures of brief interventions for an additional perspective on implementation.

  10. Obesity-related eating behaviors are associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Muñoz-Pareja

    Full Text Available Obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB are associated with higher energy intake. Total energy intake can be decomposed into the following constituents: food portion size, food energy density, the number of eating occasions, and the energy intake from energy-rich beverages. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between the OREB and these energy components.Data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008-2010 among 11,546 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ≥ 18 years. Information was obtained on the following 8 self-reported OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV. Usual diet was assessed with a validated diet history. Analyses were performed with linear regression with adjustment for main confounders.Compared to individuals with ≤ 1 OREB, those with ≥ 5 OREB had a higher food energy density (β 0.10; 95% CI 0.08, 0.12 kcal/g/day; p-trend<0.001 and a higher consumption of sugary drinks (β 7; 95% CI -7, 20 ml/day; p-trend<0.05 and of alcoholic beverages (β 24; 95% CI 10, 38 ml/day; p-trend<0.001. Specifically, a higher number of OREB was associated with higher intake of dairy products and red meat, and with lower consumption of fresh fruit, oily fish and white meat. No association was found between the number of OREB and food portion size or the number of eating occasions.OREB were associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages. Avoiding OREB may prove difficult because they are firmly socially rooted, but these results may nevertheless serve to palliate the undesirable effects of OREB by reducing the associated energy intake.

  11. The study of catalysts for synthesis of higher alcohols from CO + H/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Yugin; Chen Zhenghua; Liu Xiulan; Li Yu; Bo Luhong

    1988-03-01

    Catalysts for synthesis of higher alcohols from CO+H/sub 2/ were developed, and the effects of preparing methods, Zn/Cr atomic ratio and K/sub 2/0 content on catalyst activity were investigated. The effects of the technological parameters were studied. An 1000 h long term test was carried out in order to investigate the catalyst life. Experimental results show that the catalyst has high activity and selectivity, as well as good stability. In the long term test under reaction conditions of 400-405 degrees C, 14-15 MPa, 5000h/sup -1/ (with respect to exit gas), the alcohol product composition is methanol 73-75%; ethanol 1.5-2.2%; propanol 2.2-2.5%; isobutanol 15-17; isopentanol 1-1.5%, while the activity and selectivity are 0.3-0.32 ml/ml cat.h and more than 90% respectively. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. A novel aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase in higher plants: molecular cloning and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffner, D; Van Doorsselaere, J; Yahiaoui, N; Samaj, J; Grima-Pettenati, J; Boudet, A M

    1998-03-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.195) catalyses the conversion of p-hydroxy-cinnamaldehydes to the corresponding alcohols and is considered a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis. In a previous study, an atypical form of CAD (CAD 1) was identified in Eucalyptus gunnii [12]. We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of the corresponding cDNA, CAD 1-5, which encodes this novel aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase. The identity of CAD 1-5 was unambiguously confirmed by sequence comparison of the cDNA with peptide sequences derived from purified CAD 1 protein and by functional expression of CAD 1 recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. Both native and recombinant CAD 1 exhibit high affinity towards lignin precursors including 4-coumaraldehyde and coniferaldehyde, but they do not accept sinapaldehyde. Moreover, recombinant CAD 1 can also utilize a wide range of aromatic substrates including unsubstituted and substituted benzaldehydes. The open reading frame of CAD 1-5 encodes a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 35,790 Da and an isoelectric point of 8.1. Although sequence comparisons with proteins in databases revealed significant similarities with dihydroflavonol-4-reductases (DFR; EC 1.1.1.219) from a wide range of plant species, the most striking similarity was found with cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR; EC 1.2.1.44), the enzyme which directly precedes CAD in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. RNA blot analysis and immunolocalization experiments indicated that CAD 1 is expressed in both lignified and unlignified tissues/cells. Based on the catalytic activity of CAD 1 in vitro and its localization in planta, CAD 1 may function as an 'alternative' enzyme in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. However, additional roles in phenolic metabolism are not excluded.

  13. Consistency of self-reported alcohol consumption on randomized and sequential alcohol purchase tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eAmlung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral economic demand for addictive substances is commonly assessed via purchase tasks that measure estimated drug consumption at a range of prices. Purchase tasks typically use escalating prices in sequential order, which may influence performance by providing explicit price reference points. This study investigated the consistency of value preferences on two alcohol purchase tasks (APTs that used either a randomized or sequential price order (price range: free to $30 per drink in a sample of ninety-one young adult monthly drinkers. Randomization of prices significantly reduced relative response consistency (p < .01, although absolute consistency was high for both versions (>95%. Self-reported alcohol consumption across prices and indices of demand were highly similar across versions, although a few notable exceptions were found. These results suggest generally high consistency and overlapping performance between randomized and sequential price assessment. Implications for the behavioral economics literature and priorities for future research are discussed.

  14. Self-reported consumption of wine and other alcoholic beverages in a German wine area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fronk P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Petra Fronk,1 Maria Blettner,2 Heinz Decker1 1Institute for Molecular Biophysics, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany; 2Institute for Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany Purpose: To describe the consumption of alcoholic beverages in a German wine area, with special attention to the number of people drinking more than the tolerable upper alcohol intake level (TUAL. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a mailed questionnaire, to investigate the weekly consumption of wine, beer, and spirits during the preceding 12 months in Mainz, the state capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The analysis included 948 responders aged 20–69 years. Results: A total of 948 respondents, with a mean age of 43.7 years, were included in the analysis. About 85% of the respondents consumed alcoholic beverages, with an average of about 13.5 g alcohol/day. Men drank about twice as much as women. In total, 30% of women and 24% of men reported drinking more than the TUAL, and 9.2% of women and 7.2% of men reported drinking more than twice as much as the TUAL. The highest proportion of persons drinking more than the TUAL was found among elderly people. The preferred beverage was wine, which contributed 74% (for women and 54% (for men to the total alcohol intake. On average, the respondents drank 2.8 glasses of wine per week, 1.4 bottles beer, and negligible amounts of spirits. Conclusion: Wine was the preferred alcoholic beverage in Mainz, which was expected for people living in a wine area. A rather large number of people, especially among the elderly, consumed alcohol in an amount higher than the TUAL which may be harmful to health. Keywords: beer, spirits, TUAL, Mainz

  15. Obesity-related eating behaviors are associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Pareja, Maritza; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Mesas, Arthur E; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB) are associated with higher energy intake. Total energy intake can be decomposed into the following constituents: food portion size, food energy density, the number of eating occasions, and the energy intake from energy-rich beverages. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between the OREB and these energy components. Data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008-2010 among 11,546 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ≥ 18 years. Information was obtained on the following 8 self-reported OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV. Usual diet was assessed with a validated diet history. Analyses were performed with linear regression with adjustment for main confounders. Compared to individuals with ≤ 1 OREB, those with ≥ 5 OREB had a higher food energy density (β 0.10; 95% CI 0.08, 0.12 kcal/g/day; p-trendassociated with higher intake of dairy products and red meat, and with lower consumption of fresh fruit, oily fish and white meat. No association was found between the number of OREB and food portion size or the number of eating occasions. OREB were associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages. Avoiding OREB may prove difficult because they are firmly socially rooted, but these results may nevertheless serve to palliate the undesirable effects of OREB by reducing the associated energy intake.

  16. Binding of higher alcohols onto Mn(12) single-molecule magnets (SMMs): access to the highest barrier Mn(12) SMM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulos, Christos; Redler, Gage; Data, Saiti; Abboud, Khalil A; Hill, Stephen; Christou, George

    2010-02-15

    Two new members of the Mn(12) family of single-molecule magnets (SMMs), [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(2)Bu(t))(16)(Bu(t)OH)(H(2)O)(3)].2Bu(t)OH (3.2Bu(t)OH) and [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(2)Bu(t))(16)(C(5)H(11)OH)(4)] (4) (C(5)H(11)OH is 1-pentanol), are reported. They were synthesized from [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CMe)(16)(H(2)O)(4)].2MeCO(2)H.4H(2)O (1) by carboxylate substitution and crystallization from the appropriate alcohol-containing solvent. Complexes 3 and 4 are new members of the recently established [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(2)Bu(t))(16)(solv)(4)] (solv = H(2)O, alcohols) family of SMMs. Only one bulky Bu(t)OH can be accommodated into 3, and even this causes significant distortion of the [Mn(12)O(12)] core. Variable-temperature, solid-state alternating current (AC) magnetization studies were carried out on complexes 3 and 4, and they established that both possess an S = 10 ground state spin and are SMMs. However, the magnetic behavior of the two compounds was found to be significantly different, with 4 showing out-of-phase AC peaks at higher temperatures than 3. High-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) studies were carried out on single crystals of 3.2Bu(t)OH and 4, and these revealed that the axial zero-field splitting constant, D, is very different for the two compounds. Furthermore, it was established that 4 is the Mn(12) SMM with the highest kinetic barrier (U(eff)) to date. The results reveal alcohol substitution as an additional and convenient means to affect the magnetization relaxation barrier of the Mn(12) SMMs without major change to the ligation or oxidation state.

  17. Regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genetic engineering on the production of acetate esters and higher alcohols during Chinese Baijiu fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Ma, Hong-Xia; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2017-06-01

    Acetate esters and higher alcohols greatly influence the quality and flavor profiles of Chinese Baijiu (Chinese liquor). Various mutants have been constructed to investigate the interactions of ATF1 overexpression, IAH1 deletion, and BAT2 deletion on the production of acetate esters and higher alcohols. The results showed that the overexpression of ATF1 under the control of the PGK1 promoter with BAT2 and IAH1 double-gene deletion led to a higher production of acetate esters and a lower production of higher alcohols than the overexpression of ATF1 with IAH1 deletion or overexpression of ATF1 with BAT2 deletion. Moreover, deletion of IAH1 in ATF1 overexpression strains effectively increased the production of isobutyl acetate and isoamyl acetate by reducing the hydrolysis of acetate esters. The decline in the production of higher alcohol by the ATF1 overexpression strains with BAT2 deletion is due to the interaction of ATF1 overexpression and BAT2 deletion. Mutants with varying abilities of producing acetate esters and higher alcohols were developed by genetic engineering. These strains have great potential for industrial application.

  18. Towards a Sustainability Reporting Guideline in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Sandra; Bassen, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: So far, sustainability reporting in higher education is in a very early stage--partly, because of the lack of an established and widely recognized sustainability reporting framework for higher education institutions (HEIs). Therefore, a modification of the sustainability code for the use in the higher education context was recently…

  19. Decreased production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Chinese rice wine fermentation by deletion of Bat aminotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Qi, Ya-Nan; Ma, Hong-Xia; Li, Wei; Dai, Long-Hai; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-04-01

    An appropriate level of higher alcohols produced by yeast during the fermentation is one of the most important factors influencing Chinese rice wine quality. In this study, BAT1 and BAT2 single- and double-gene-deletion mutant strains were constructed from an industrial yeast strain RY1 to decrease higher alcohols during Chinese rice wine fermentation. The results showed that the BAT2 single-gene-deletion mutant strain produced best improvement in the production of higher alcohols while remaining showed normal growth and fermentation characteristics. Furthermore, a BAT2 single-gene-deletion diploid engineered strain RY1-Δbat2 was constructed and produced low levels of isobutanol and isoamylol (isoamyl alcohol and active amyl alcohol) in simulated fermentation of Chinese rice wine, 92.40 and 303.31 mg/L, respectively, which were 33.00 and 14.20 % lower than those of the parental strain RY1. The differences in fermentation performance between RY1-Δbat2 and RY1 were minor. Therefore, construction of this yeast strain is important in future development in Chinese wine industry and provides insights on generating yeast strains for other fermented alcoholic beverages.

  20. Employee Assistance Programs in Higher Education. Alcohol, Mental Health and Professional Development Programming for Faculty and Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoreson, Richard W., Ed.; Hosokawa, Elizabeth P., Ed.

    The promotion of employee assistance programs (EAP) in higher education is considered in 24 chapters, with an emphasis on enhancing resources and the academic environment for faculty and staff. Seven topical areas are addressed: history of EAP; characteristics of higher education; alcoholism and other risks in the academic life-style; EAP models…

  1. Synthesis of Higher Alcohols via Syngas on Cu/Zn/Si Catalysts. Effect of Polyethylene Glycol Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Rong-Ji; Yan, Xing; Fan, Jin-Chuan; Huang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Cu/Zn/Si catalysts with different polyethylene glycol (PEG) content were prepared by a complete liquid-phase method, and characterized by XRD, H2-TPR, N2-adsorption, and XPS. The influence of PEG content on the higher alcohols synthesis from syngas was investigated. The results showed that addition of PEG can influence the texture and surface properties of the catalysts, and therefore affect their activity and product distribution. With an increase in PEG content, BET surface area, Cu crystallite size and surface active ingredient content of the catalysts first increased and then decreased, the CO conversion had similar variation tendency. However, the pore volume and pore diameter of the catalyst increased, and the binding energy of the active component and the content of Cu2O decreased, which resulted in higher catalyst selectivity towards higher alcohols. The highest C2+OH selectivity in total alcohols was 60.6 wt %.

  2. Moderate, Regular Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Higher Cognitive Function in Older Community-Dwelling Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, E T; Laughlin, G A; Kritz-Silverstein, D; Barrett-Connor, E; McEvoy, L K

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may protect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, uncertainty remains over the patterns of drinking that are most beneficial. To examine associations between amount and frequency of alcohol consumption with multiple domains of cognitive function in a well-characterized cohort of older community-dwelling adults in southern California. Observational, cross-sectional cohort study. A research visit between 1988-1992 in Rancho Bernardo, California. 1624 participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean age ± SD = 73.2 ± 9.3 years). Measurements: Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, self-administered questionnaires on alcohol consumption and lifestyle, and a clinical health evaluation. We classified participants according to average amount of alcohol intake into never, former, moderate, heavy and excessive drinkers, and according to frequency of alcohol intake, into non-drinkers, rare, infrequent, frequent and daily drinkers. We examined the association between alcohol intake and cognitive function, controlling for age, sex, education, exercise, smoking, waist-hip ratio, hypertension and self-assessed health. Amount and frequency of alcohol intake were significantly associated with cognitive function, even after controlling for potentially related health and lifestyle variables. Global and executive function showed positive linear associations with amount and frequency of alcohol intake, whereas visual memory showed an inverted U-shaped association with alcohol intake, with better performance for moderate and infrequent drinkers than for non-drinkers, excessive drinkers or daily drinkers. In several cognitive domains, moderate, regular alcohol intake was associated with better cognitive function relative to not drinking or drinking less frequently. This suggests that beneficial cognitive effects of alcohol intake may be achieved with low levels of drinking that are unlikely to be

  3. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  4. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    animals that died, respiratory arrest was the cause. The acute i.p. LD(50) for 15 ml/kg of Brucine base was 62.0 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression prior to the onset of convulsions, just as with oral Brucine. The acute intravenous (i.v.) LD(50) was 12.0 mg/kg. Brucine was nonmutagenic in an Ames assay at levels up to 6666 mu g/plate, with and without metabolic activation. In a repeat-insult patch test, for a hair care product containing 47% SD Alcohol 40 (95%), it was reported that Brucine Sulfate may be considered a nonprimary irritant and a nonprimary sensitizer. Three different sunscreen products (35% SD Alcohol 40-B, 72.4% SD Alcohol 40, and 74.5% SD Alcohol 40) did not show any signs of photoallergy in human subjects. Also, these three formulas did not exhibit any evidence of phototoxicity in humans. Denatonium Benzoate is a bitter substance detectable at a concentration of 10 ppb, discernibly bitter at 50 ppb, and unpleasantly bitter at 10 ppm. The distribution of topically applied lidocaine, a topical anesthetic chemically related to Denatonium Benzoate demonstrated that virtually no lidocaine appears in the plasma, suggesting that the larger Denatonium Benzoate molecule also would have little or no systemic exposure. Denatonium Benzoate (0.1%) did not show adverse effects in 10 rats in an acute inhalation toxicity test and 0.005% to 0.05% was nonirritating to ocular mucosa in 6 albino rabbits. The acute oral LD(50) for the male rats was 640 mg/kg and for females, 584 mg/kg. The LD(50) for the male rabbits was 508 mg/kg and for the female rabbits, 640 mg/kg. In two chronic toxicity studies, Denatonium Benzoate was administered (by gavage) at 1.6, 8, and 16 mg/kg/day, one using cynomologus monkeys and the other rats, resulted in no compound-related toxicity. The toxicity of SD Alcohols has also been tested, with implications for the particular denaturant used. An irritation test of 55.65% SD Alcohol 40-B denatured with Denatonium Benzoate using rabbits

  5. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign, 1979: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages and Addendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This report provides expert opinion on the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and ways to inform the public of teratogenic risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In the absence of firm evidence that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to FAS and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of labeling of alcoholic beverages, a…

  6. Application of metal triflate catalysts for the trans-esterification of Jatropha curcas L. oil with methanol and higher alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniel, Louis; Rasrendra, Carolus B.; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    This paper describes an experimental study on the application of metal triflate salts for the (trans-) esterification of fatty esters (triolein, methyl oleate, methyl linoleate), fatty acid (oleic acid), as well as Jatropha curcas L. oil with methanol and higher alcohols (ethanol, n-propanol,

  7. Binge Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 20: 2002 and 2003 Update. The NSDUH Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that persons who engage in binge alcohol use as teenagers are at increased risk for binge drinking as young adults. Binge Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 20: 2002 and 2003 Update asks respondents aged 12 or older to report their frequency and quantity of alcohol use during the month before the survey. NSDUH defines binge…

  8. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  9. Utah System of Higher Education 2015-16 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah System of Higher Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This annual report describes Utah System of Higher Education's progress in the 2015-2016 academic year in the following areas: (1) Strategic plan; (2) Enrollment and completion; (3) Paying for college; (4) Funding higher education; (5) College preparation; (6) Concurrent enrollment and math; (7) Outreach and access; and (8) Industry and the…

  10. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  11. Higher density of serotonin-1A receptors in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of alcohol-preferring P rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.T.; Threlkeld, P.G.; Lumeng, L.; Li, Ting-Kai

    1990-01-01

    Saturable [ 3 H]-80HDPAT binding to 5HT-1A receptors in membranes prepared from hippocampus and frontal cerebral cortex of alcohol-preferring (P) rats and of alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats has been compared. The B max values or densities of recognition sites for 5HT-1A receptors in both brain areas of the P rats are 38 and 44 percent lower in the P rats than in the NP rats. The corresponding K D values are 38 and 44 percent lower in the P rats than in the NP rats, indicating higher affinities of the recognition sites for the 5HT-1A receptors in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of the P rats. These findings indicate either an enrichment of 5HT-1A receptor density during selective breeding for alcohol preference or an upregulation of 5HT-1A receptors of 5HT found in these brain areas of P rats as compared with the NP rats

  12. Ischemic colitis complicating imipramine overdose and alcohol ingestion. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Peter Neimann; Rørdam, P

    1992-01-01

    Patients on antidepressant medication are instructed to avoid alcohol because of possible additive effects on cognitive function. An unusual case of colonic gangrene following overdose of imipramine and alcohol is presented. The patient recovered.......Patients on antidepressant medication are instructed to avoid alcohol because of possible additive effects on cognitive function. An unusual case of colonic gangrene following overdose of imipramine and alcohol is presented. The patient recovered....

  13. Alcohol and Health. Seventh Special Report to the U.S. Congress from the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report describes recent progress in knowledge on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. These topics are covered: (1) alcohol abuse and alcoholism, including drinking patterns, etiology, and alcohol dependence as a disease; (2) epidemiology, including morbidity and deaths; (3) genetics and environment, including twin and adoption studies, animal…

  14. Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus: Case report | Otieno | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He was an alcoholic receiving psychiatric care for alcoholism. They both presented separately at different hospitals with decompensated diabetes following heavy alcohol consumption. The history and clinico-laboratory picture of both patients are presented and brief management programme and outcome are also given.

  15. Statistics Report on TEQSA Registered Higher Education Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This statistics report provides a comprehensive snapshot of national statistics on all parts of the sector for the year 2013, by bringing together data collected directly by TEQSA with data sourced from the main higher education statistics collections managed by the Australian Government Department of Education and Training. The report provides…

  16. A comparison between brand-specific and traditional alcohol surveillance methods to assess underage drinkers' reported alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent alcohol consumption remains common and is associated with many negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, common alcohol surveillance methods often underestimate consumption. Improved alcohol use measures are needed to characterize the landscape of youth drinking. We aimed to compare a standard quantity-frequency measure of youth alcohol consumption to a novel brand-specific measure. We recruited a sample of 1031 respondents across the United States to complete an online survey. Analyses included 833 male and female underage drinkers ages 13-20. Respondents reported on how many of the past 30 days they consumed alcohol, and the number of drinks consumed on an average drinking day. Using our brand-specific measure, respondents identified which brands they consumed, how many days they consumed each brand, and how many drinks per brand they usually had. Youth reported consuming significantly more alcohol (on average, 11 drinks more per month) when responding to the brand-specific versus the standard measure (p brands consumed (p brand preferences and consumption.

  17. Differences in reporting of perceived acute effects of alcohol use, marijuana use, and simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine M; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Patrick, Megan E

    2017-11-01

    Although there are serious negative harms associated with simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use, little is known about the self-reported acute effects of SAM use and how they may be similar to or different than effects experienced when using alcohol or marijuana only. The current study examines the perceived acute effects of SAM use, compared to using alcohol or marijuana only, as well as demographic and substance use predictors of overall SAM effects. Participants were a community sample of young adults ages 18-23 participating in a longitudinal study on social role transitions and substance use during young adulthood. Young adults who reported SAM use at least once in their lifetime were selected for the present analyses (N=315; mean age=21.42; 58% female) and reported the effects they experienced from typical alcohol use, marijuana use, and SAM use. There were significant differences in the extent to which young adults perceived the effects depending on the substances used. Most effects (i.e., clumsy, confused, dizzy, difficulty concentrating) were rated strongest when engaging in SAM use, compared to typical alcohol or marijuana use alone. Feeling high and feeling marijuana effects were rated strongest when engaging in marijuana use alone compared to SAM use, but feeling drunk was greater during SAM use compared to alcohol use alone. Greater alcohol use and increased time spent high during typical SAM use were associated with greater overall SAM effects. When young adults engage in SAM use they report experiencing greater negative physiological and cognitive effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  19. Comparison of assessment methods for self-reported alcohol consumption in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Christensen, K

    2008-01-01

    To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking.......To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking....

  20. Alcohol use disorder severity and reported reasons not to seek treatment: a cross-sectional study in European primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Manthey, Jakob; Martinez, Alicia; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-08-12

    Alcohol use disorders are among the mental disorders with the lowest treatment rates. Increasing the treatment rates requires insight on the reasons why patients do not seek treatment. This study examined self-reported reasons for not seeking treatment and their association with alcohol use disorder severity among primary health care patients diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use disorders, health service utilization, and reasons for not seeking treatment were assessed via interviews on regionally representative samples of primary care patients from 6 European countries (Italy, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Poland and Spain, total N = 9,098). Additionally, general practitioners had to fill in a questionnaire assessing their patients' alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. A multinomial logistic regression was performed to investigate the association between reasons for not seeking treatment and alcohol use disorder severity. Of 1,008 patients diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder (via general practitioner or patient interview) in the past 12 months, the majority (N = 810) did not receive treatment and 251 of those gave a reason for not seeking treatment. The most frequent reason was 'lack of problem awareness' (55.3% of those who responded), the second most common response was 'stigma or shame' (28.6%), followed by 'encounter barriers' (22.8%) and 'cope alone' (20.9%). The results indicated lower probabilities of reporting 'denial' and higher probabilities to report 'encounter barriers' as alcohol use disorders severity increases. However, both trends were discontinued for patients with severe alcohol use disorders. Particularly at lower levels of alcohol use disorder severity, a lack of problem awareness prevents patients from seeking treatment. Routinely alcohol consumption monitoring in primary care practices could help primary and secondary prevention of alcohol use disorders and increase treatment coverage.

  1. Quality Assurance in Transnational Higher Education. ENQA Workshop Report 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul; Bergan, Sjur; Cassar, Daniela; Hamilton, Marlene; Soinila, Michele; Sursock, Andree; Uvalic-Trumbic, Stamenka; Williams, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The present report is the product of an ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) Bologna Seminar "Quality Assurance in Transnational Education: from words to action" hosted by the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA, UK) in London in December, 2008. The seminar discussed the current trends in Transnational…

  2. Statistics Report on TEQSA Registered Higher Education Providers, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Statistics Report is the third release of selected higher education sector data held by the Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA) for its quality assurance activities. It provides a snapshot of national statistics on all parts of the sector by bringing together data collected directly by TEQSA with data…

  3. Yeast: the soul of beer's aroma--a review of flavour-active esters and higher alcohols produced by the brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Brányik, Tomás; Vicente, António A

    2014-03-01

    Among the most important factors influencing beer quality is the presence of well-adjusted amounts of higher alcohols and esters. Thus, a heavy body of literature focuses on these substances and on the parameters influencing their production by the brewing yeast. Additionally, the complex metabolic pathways involved in their synthesis require special attention. More than a century of data, mainly in genetic and proteomic fields, has built up enough information to describe in detail each step in the pathway for the synthesis of higher alcohols and their esters, but there is still place for more. Higher alcohols are formed either by anabolism or catabolism (Ehrlich pathway) of amino acids. Esters are formed by enzymatic condensation of organic acids and alcohols. The current paper reviews the up-to-date knowledge in the pathways involving the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters by brewing yeasts. Fermentation parameters affecting yeast response during biosynthesis of these aromatic substances are also fully reviewed.

  4. Influences of ignition improver additive on ternary (diesel-biodiesel-higher alcohol) blends thermal stability and diesel engine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imdadul, H.K.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Zulkifli, N.W.M.; Alabdulkarem, Abdullah; Rashed, M.M.; Ashraful, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ignition improver additives makes the biodiesel-alcohol blends more thermally stable. • Density and cetane number improved significantly with EHN mixing. • BP and BSFC improved by adding ignition improver additives. • Nitric oxides and smoke of the EHN treated blends decreased. • CO and HC increased slightly with EHN addition. - Abstract: Pentanol is a long chain alcohol produced from renewable sources and considered as a promising biofuel as a blending component with diesel or biodiesel blends. However, the lower cetane number of alcohols is a limitation, and it is important to increase the overall cetane number of biodiesel fuel blends for efficient combustion and lower emission. In this consideration, ignition improver additive 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) were used at a proportion of 1000 and 2000 ppm to diesel-biodiesel-pentanol blends. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder; water-cooled DI diesel engine operated at full throttle and varying speed condition. The thermal stability of the modified ternary fuel blends was evaluated through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and the physic-chemical properties of the fuel as well as engine characteristics were studied and compared. The addition of EHN to ternary fuel blends enhanced the cetane number significantly without any significant adverse effect on the other properties. TGA and DSC analysis reported about the improvement of thermal characteristics of the modified blends. It was found that, implementing ignition improver make the diesel-biodiesel-alcohol blends more thermally stable. Also, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), nitric oxides (NO) and smoke emission reduced remarkably with the addition of EHN. Introducing EHN to diesel-biodiesel-alcohol blends increased the cetane number, shorten the ignition delay by increasing the diffusion rate and improve combustion. Hence, the NO and BSFC reduced while, carbon

  5. Abilities of some higher plants to hydrolyze the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the biotransformations carried out under the same conditions, the whole intact plants of Spirodela punctata, Nephrolepis exaltata, Cyrtomium falcatum, Nephrolepis cordifolia and the suspension cultures of Helianthus tuberosus, Daucus carota and Petunia hybrida hydrolyze (partially or totally the ester bonds of the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols and also the menthyl acetate. Nevertheless, the methyl esters of aromatic acids, structurally similar to the former substrates, do not undergo hydrolysis. At the same time, the viability of first four plants was observed for different levels of acetate concentration. The method of continuous preparative hydrolysis of the same acetates was worked out in Cyrtomium falcatum culture.

  6. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2016-02-01

    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  8. Reporting the characteristics of the policy context for population-level alcohol interventions: a proposed 'Transparent Reporting of Alcohol Intervention ContExts' (TRAICE) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, John; Meier, Petra S; Booth, Andrew; Brennan, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Effectiveness of alcohol policy interventions varies across times and places. The circumstances under which effective polices can be successfully transferred between contexts are typically unexplored with little attention given to developing reporting requirements that would facilitate systematic investigation. Using purposive sampling and expert elicitation methods, we identified context-related factors impacting on the effectiveness of population-level alcohol policies. We then drew on previous characterisations of alcohol policy contexts and methodological-reporting checklists to design a new checklist for reporting contextual information in evaluation studies. Six context factor domains were identified: (i) baseline alcohol consumption, norms and harm rates; (ii) baseline affordability and availability; (iii) social, microeconomic and demographic contexts; (iv) macroeconomic context; (v) market context; and (vi) wider policy, political and media context. The checklist specifies information, typically available in national or international reports, to be reported in each domain. The checklist can facilitate evidence synthesis by providing: (i) a mechanism for systematic and more consistent reporting of contextual data for meta-regression and realist evaluations; (ii) information for policy-makers on differences between their context and contexts of evaluations; and (iii) an evidence base for adjusting prospective policy simulation models to account for policy context. Our proposed checklist provides a tool for gaining better understanding of the influence of policy context on intervention effectiveness. Further work is required to rationalise and aggregate checklists across interventions types to make such checklists practical for use by journals and to improve reporting of important qualitative contextual data. © 2014 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and

  9. Red Xylem and Higher Lignin Extractability by Down-Regulating a Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucher, M.; Chabbert, B.; Pilate, G.; Van Doorsselaere, J.; Tollier, M. T.; Petit-Conil, M.; Cornu, D.; Monties, B.; Van Montagu, M.; Inze, D.; Jouanin, L.; Boerjan, W.

    1996-12-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the lignin precursors, the monolignols. We have down-regulated CAD in transgenic poplar (Populus tremula X Populus alba) by both antisense and co-suppression strategies. Several antisense and sense CAD transgenic poplars had an approximately 70% reduced CAD activity that was associated with a red coloration of the xylem tissue. Neither the lignin amount nor the lignin monomeric composition (syringyl/guaiacyl) were significantly modified. However, phloroglucinol-HCl staining was different in the down-regulated CAD plants, suggesting changes in the number of aldehyde units in the lignin. Furthermore, the reactivity of the cell wall toward alkali treatment was altered: a lower amount of lignin was found in the insoluble, saponified residue and more lignin could be precipitated from the soluble alkali fraction. Moreover, large amounts of phenolic compounds, vanillin and especially syringaldehyde, were detected in the soluble alkali fraction of the CAD down-regulated poplars. Alkaline pulping experiments on 3-month-old trees showed a reduction of the kappa number without affecting the degree of cellulose degradation. These results indicate that reducing the CAD activity in trees might be a valuable strategy to optimize certain processes of the wood industry, especially those of the pulp and paper industry.

  10. Zinc-deficiency acrodermatitis in a patient with chronic alcoholism and gastric bypass: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Shahsavari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acquired adult-onset zinc deficiency is occasionally reported in patients with malnutrition states, such as alcoholism, or malabsorptive states, such as post-bariatric surgery. The defining symptoms of hypozincemia include a classic triad of necrolytic dermatitis, diffuse alopecia, and diarrhea. We report a case of zinc deficiency in a 39-year-old man with history of gastric bypass surgery and alcoholism. For this patient, severe hypozincemia confirmed acrodermatitis, and zinc supplementation was met with gradual improvement.

  11. Social Desirability Bias in the Reporting of Alcohol Consumption: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Wilson, Amanda; Attia, John; Sheeran, Paschal; Miller, Peter; McCambridge, Jim

    2016-05-01

    To investigate reporting of alcohol consumption, we manipulated the contexts of questions in ways designed to induce social desirability bias. We undertook a two-arm, parallel-group, individually randomized trial at an Australian public university. Students were recruited by email to a web-based "Research Project on Student Health Behavior." Respondents answered nine questions about their physical activity, diet, and smoking. They were unknowingly randomized to a group presented with either (A) three questions about their alcohol consumption or (B) seven questions about their alcohol dependence and problems (under a prominent header labeled "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test"), followed by the same three alcohol consumption questions from (A). A total of 3,594 students (mean age = 27, SD = 10) responded and were randomized: 1,778 to Group A and 1,816 to Group B. Outcome measures were the number of days they drank alcohol, the typical number of drinks they consumed per drinking day, and the number of days they consumed six or more drinks. The primary analysis included participants with any alcohol consumption in the preceding 4 weeks (1,304 in Group A; 1,340 in Group B) using between-group, two-tailed t tests. In Groups A and B, respectively, means (and SDs) of the number of days drinking were 5.89 (5.92) versus 6.06 (6.12), p = .49; typical number of drinks per drinking day: 4.02 (3.87) versus 3.82 (3.76), p = .17; and number of days consuming six or more drinks: 1.69 (2.94) versus 1.67 (3.25), p = .56. We could not reject the null hypothesis because earlier questions about alcohol dependence and problems showed no sign of biasing the respondents' subsequent reports of alcohol consumption. These data support the validity of university students' reporting of alcohol consumption in web-based studies.

  12. Alcohol and Mortality: Combining Self-Reported (AUDIT-C) and Biomarker Detected (PEth) Alcohol Measures Among HIV Infected and Uninfected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyawo, Oghenowede; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Justice, Amy C; Fiellin, David A; Hahn, Judith A; Williams, Emily C; Gordon, Adam J; Marshall, Brandon D L; Kraemer, Kevin L; Crystal, Stephen; Gaither, Julie R; Edelman, E Jennifer; Bryant, Kendall J; Tate, Janet P

    2018-02-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use may be particularly detrimental among individuals living with HIV and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), and is often under-reported. Direct biomarkers of alcohol exposure may facilitate improved detection of alcohol use. We evaluated the association of alcohol exposure determined by both self-report [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C)] and a direct biomarker [phosphatidylethanol (PEth)], with mortality among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study-Biomarker Cohort. We considered PEth AUDIT-C scores [0, 1-3/1-2 (men/women), 4-7/3-7 (men/women), 8-12] and PEth (AUDIT-C = 0 (abstinence). Of these, 15% (149/1015) had PEth ≥8 suggesting recent alcohol exposure. Among those with AUDIT-C = 0, HCV+ individuals were more likely to have PEth ≥8. After controlling for age, sex, race, HIV, HCV, and HIV viral suppression, those with AUDIT-C = 0 but PEth ≥8 had the highest risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 2.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.40 to 3.29). PEth in addition to self-report may improve detection of alcohol use in clinical settings, particularly among those at increased risk of harm from alcohol use. Individuals infected with HCV were more likely to under-report alcohol use.

  13. Unusual Infections Complicating the Use of Steroids with Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis: Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Arantes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroid therapy for acute alcoholic hepatitis has been demonstrated to enhance survival in patients who are encephalopathic, and who do not have renal failure or gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the complications of steroid therapy in such patients have been less well documented. The authors report two patients with alcoholic liver disease who developed life-threatening infections after steroid therapy was started. The first patient initially developed diabetes followed by Fournier's gangrene of the perineum, and a lung abscess following septic emboli. The second patient had established alcoholic cirrhosis rather than alcoholic hepatitis. She developed a necrotic ulcer on the arm at the site of an intravenous line, which was infected with a rhizopus species. Despite surgical debridement the lesion progressed and contributed to her death. Treatment of alcoholic hepatitis with steroids is not innocuous, and physicians should be aware of the potential for life-threatening complications.

  14. Heroin and cocaine abusers have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than alcoholics or non-drug-using controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kris N; Petry, Nancy M

    2004-04-01

    To test a prediction of the discounting model of impulsiveness that discount rates would be positively associated with addiction. The delay-discount rate refers to the rate of reduction in the present value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. We estimated participants' discount rates on the basis of their pattern of choices between smaller immediate rewards ($11-80) and larger, delayed rewards ($25-85; at delays from 1 week to 6 months) in a questionnaire format. Participants had a one-in-six chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Heroin (n = 27), cocaine (n = 41) and alcohol (n = 33) abusers and non-drug-using controls (n = 44) were recruited from advertisements. They were tested in a drug abuse research clinic at a medical school. On average, the cocaine and heroin groups had higher rates than controls (both P rates for heroin abusers (P = 0.03), but not for cocaine or alcohol abusers (both P > 0.50). These data suggest that discount rates vary with the preferred drug of abuse, and that high discount rates should be considered in the development of substance abuse prevention and treatment efforts.

  15. A review of existing studies reporting the negative effects of alcohol access and positive effects of alcohol control policies on interpersonal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Laura Fitterer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 88 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-two (82% reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offences. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%, with trading hours (63%, and alcohol price following (58%. Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offences. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater up take of local level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes such as 1% increases in alcohol price, one hour changes

  16. Alcohol Use and Associations With Biological Markers and Self-Reported Indicators of Unprotected Sex in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Darcy; Wilson, Kate S; Masese, Linnet N; Wanje, George; Jaoko, Walter; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra; Richardson, Barbra A; Kinuthia, John; Simoni, Jane M; McClelland, R Scott

    2016-10-01

    Studies of alcohol use and sexual behavior in African populations have primarily been cross-sectional, used nonvalidated measures of alcohol use, or relied on self-reported sexual risk endpoints. Few have focused on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women. Longitudinal data were collected from a cohort of HIV-positive Kenyan female sex workers. At enrollment and annual visits, participants were asked about past-year alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The primary endpoint was detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal secretions at quarterly examinations. Associations between hazardous/harmful alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥7), PSA detection, and secondary measures of sexual risk were evaluated using generalized estimating equations with a log binomial regression model. A total of 405 women contributed 2750 vaginal samples over 606 person-years of follow-up. Hazardous/harmful alcohol use was reported at 16.6% of AUDIT assessments and was associated with higher risk of PSA detection (relative risk 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.01) relative to no alcohol use. This association was attenuated and no longer statistically significant, after adjusting for age, work venue, intimate partner violence, depression, and partnership status (adjusted relative risk, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.56). In exploratory analyses, alcohol use was associated with self-report of unprotected sex and with sexually transmitted infection acquisition. Although hazardous/harmful alcohol use was not associated with detection of PSA in adjusted analysis, associations with secondary outcomes suggest that alcohol use is at least a marker of sexual risk behavior.

  17. Dropout and completion in higher education in Europe: main report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossensteyn, Johan J.; Kottmann, Andrea; Jongbloed, Benjamin W.A.; Kaiser, Franciscus; Cremonini, Leon; Stensaker, Bjorn; Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth; Wollscheid, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Improving completion and reducing dropout in higher education are key concerns for higher education in Europe. This study on dropout and completion in higher education in Europe demonstrates that national governments and higher education institutions use three different study success objectives:

  18. FY-2016 Methyl Iodide Higher NOx Adsorption Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2016 under the Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) Program Offgas Sigma Team to further research and advance the technical maturity of solid sorbents for capturing iodine-129 in off-gas streams during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Adsorption testing with higher levels of NO (approximately 3,300 ppm) and NO2 (up to about 10,000 ppm) indicate that high efficiency iodine capture by silver aerogel remains possible. Maximum iodine decontamination factors (DFs, or the ratio of iodine flowrate in the sorbent bed inlet gas compared to the iodine flowrate in the outlet gas) exceeded 3,000 until bed breakthrough rapidly decreased the DF levels to as low as about 2, when the adsorption capability was near depletion. After breakthrough, nearly all of the uncaptured iodine that remains in the bed outlet gas stream is no longer in the form of the original methyl iodide. The methyl iodide molecules are cleaved in the sorbent bed, even after iodine adsorption is no longer efficient, so that uncaptured iodine is in the form of iodine species soluble in caustic scrubber solutions, and detected and reported here as diatomic I2. The mass transfer zone depths were estimated at 8 inches, somewhat deeper than the 2-5 inch range estimated for both silver aerogels and silver zeolites in prior deep-bed tests, which had lower NOx levels. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity and silver utilization for these higher NOx tests, at about 5-15% of the original sorbent mass, and about 12-35% of the total silver, respectively, were lower than for trends from prior silver aerogel and silver zeolite tests with lower NOx levels. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to expand the database for organic iodide adsorption and increase the technical maturity if iodine adsorption processes.

  19. Diversity Leadership in Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 32, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Adalberto, Jr., Ed.; Martinez, Ruben O., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This monograph examines and discusses the context for diversity leadership roles and practices in higher education by using research and theoretical and applied literatures from a variety of fields, including the social sciences, business, and higher education. Framing the discussion on leadership in this monograph is the perspective that American…

  20. Health Behaviors of Cancer Survivors in Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey in Korea: Higher Alcohol Drinking, Lower Smoking, and Physical Inactivity Pattern in Survivors with Higher Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Kong, Sun-Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Yeol; Park, In Hae; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Eun Sook

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity in cancer survivors and examined the sociodemographic factors affecting these health-related behaviors.We used data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2007 and 2012, which identified 1153 cancer cases and 36,451 people without a history of cancer ≥20 years of age. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain information concerning cancer diagnosis, health-related behaviors, and sociodemographic characteristics.The proportion of cancer survivors who were current drinkers, heavy drinkers, current smokers, or engaged in physical activity were 49.1, 9.0, 9.2, or 50.7%, respectively. Compared with people with no history of cancer, cancer survivors were less likely to be current drinkers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-0.56), heavy drinkers (OR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.36-0.78), current smokers (OR = 0.37; 95% CI 0.24-0.55), or physically inactive (OR = 0.77; 95% CI 0.63-0.95). Cancer survivors with higher household incomes had higher odds of current drinking and heavy drinking (P trend = 0.039 and 0.033, respectively) and were less likely to be current smokers or physically inactive (P trend = 0.016 and 0.046, respectively). Age, sex, sites of cancer, and the time since diagnosis affected the health behaviors in cancer survivors. Furthermore, we confirmed that these unhealthy behaviors are interrelated.We found that household income had a bidirectional effect on health behaviors and confirmed an aggregation of unhealthy lifestyles. Identification of survivors vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyles, focusing on household income level would allow intervention programs to be more effective.

  1. Assessment of ether and alcohol fuels from coal. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A unique route for the indirect liquefaction of coal to produce transportation fuel has been evaluated. The resultant fuel includes alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers and higher alcohols, all in the gasoline boiling range. When blended into gasoline, the ether fuel provides several advantages over the lower alcohols: (1) lower chemical oxygen content, (2) less-severe water-separation problems, and (3) reduced front-end volatility effects. The ether fuel also has high-octane quality. Further, it can be utilized as a gasoline substitute in all proportions. Production of ether fuel combines several steps, all of which are or have been practiced on an industrial scale: (1) coal gasification, (2) gas cleanup and shift to desired H/sub 2/:CO ratio, (3) conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol, methanol, and higher alcohols, (4) separation of alcohols, (5) chemical dehydration of isobutanol to isobutylene, and (6) etherification of isobutylene with methanol. A pilot-plant investigation of the isobutanol synthesis step was performed. Estimates of ether-fuel manufacturing costs indicate this process route is significantly more costly than synthesis of methanol. However, the fuel performance features provide incentive for developing the necessary process and catalyst improvements. Co-production of higher-molecular-weight co-solvent alcohols represents a less-drastic form of methanol modification to achieve improvement in the performance of methanol-gasoline blends. Costs were estimated for producing several proportions of methanol plus higher alcohols from coal. Estimated fuel selling price increases regularly but modestly with higher alcohol content.

  2. New Mexico Higher Education Department Annual Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The New Mexico Higher Education Department strives to bring leadership, guidance, and assistance to New Mexico's higher education stakeholders. The HED is committed to promoting best practices, institutional fiscal responsibility, and student achievement. Everything the agency does is through the lens of supporting New Mexico's higher education…

  3. Higher free triiodothyronine is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid subjects: the Lifelines Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Eline H; van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J N; Amini, Marzyeh; Schreuder, Tim C M A; Faber, Klaas Nico; Blokzijl, Hans; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2017-02-01

    Overt hypothyroidism confers an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver plays a crucial role in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides; thyroid hormones interact on hepatic lipid homeostasis. Thyroid function within the euthyroid range affects a number of health issues, including atherosclerosis development and biochemical markers of increased cardiovascular risk. However, the association of thyroid hormones with NAFLD in euthyroid subjects has not been unequivocally established. We therefore determined associations of thyroid hormone parameters with NAFLD among euthyroid subjects. The study was conducted in the Lifelines Cohort Study, a population-based cohort study of participants living in the North of the Netherlands. Only euthyroid subjects (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.5-4.0mU/L, free thyroxine (FT4) 11-19.5pmol/L and free triiodothyronine (FT3) 4.4-6.7pmol/L) older than 18years were included. Exclusion criteria were participants with excessive alcohol use, known hepatitis or cirrhosis, liver functions ≥ three times the upper limit, current cancer, non-white ancestry, previous or current use of thyroid medication and current use of lipid or glucose lowering medication. A priori defined liver biochemistry, thyroid function parameters and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied. NAFLD was defined by using the validated Fatty Liver Index (FLI); FLI≥60 was categorized as NAFLD. A P<0.01 was considered significant. FLI≥60 was found in 4274 (21.1%) of 20,289 individuals (62.1% male, median age 46years) with increased prevalence of MetS (P<0.0001). In age- and sex-adjusted analysis FLI≥60 was independently associated with a higher FT3 (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.29-1.39, per SD increment, P<0.0001) and a lower FT4 (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.75, P<0.0001) but not by TSH. The strongest association was found for the FT3/FT4 ratio (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.39-1.49, P<0.0001). These associations remained similar after additional

  4. Substance use problems reported by historically Black college students: combined marijuana and alcohol use versus alcohol alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Warren A; Peters, Ronald J; Perrino, Carrol S; Bryant, Sharronne

    2008-06-01

    Using secondary data analysis,this study compares alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems experienced by African-American students attending a historically Black university who use alcohol only versus those who use alcohol plus marijuana. Results indicate that students who used marijuana plus alcohol experienced more AOD problems than their counterparts who used alcohol only. The current findings are similar to previous research with a majority White college student population.

  5. Probe molecule studies: Active species in alcohol synthesis. Final report, July 1993--July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmond, D.G.; Wender, I.; Oukaci, R.; Wang, Jian

    1994-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the role(s) of cobalt and copper in constructing the active sites for the formation of higher alcohols from CO/H{sub 2} over the Co-Cu based catalysts by using different reduction treatments and applying selected characterization tools such as TPR, TPD, XRD and XPS as well as to generate mechanistic information on the reaction pathway(s) and key intermediate(s) of higher alcohol synthesis from CO/H{sub 2} over Co-Cu/ZnO catalysts by the approach of in-situ addition of a probe molecule (nitromethane).

  6. The Entrepreneurial Domains of American Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 34, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Matthew M.; Metcalf, Amy Scott

    2009-01-01

    This volume draws on a diverse set of literatures to represent the various ways in which entrepreneurship is understood in and applied to higher education. It provides a platform for debate for those considering applications of entrepreneurial principles to academic research and practices. Using academic entrepreneurship in the United States as…

  7. Ethnic Differences in Drinking Motives and Alcohol Use among College Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.; Midgett, Aida

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among White college athletes and college athletes of color (N = 113). Results indicated no differences in drinking motives between the 2 groups. White athletes reported higher levels of alcohol use, whereas athletes of color reported higher levels of alcohol-related…

  8. Effect of iron promoter on structure and performance of CuMnZnO catalyst for higher alcohols synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Mingyue [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Natural Gas Hydrate, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Qiu, Minghuang [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Natural Gas Hydrate, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Tiejun [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Natural Gas Hydrate, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Ma, Longlong; Wu, Chuangzhi [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Natural Gas Hydrate, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Liu, Jianguo [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Natural Gas Hydrate, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of iron promotes the dispersion of catalyst particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adding iron facilitates the separation of CuO from the Cu-Mn solid solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both the copper and iron carbides are well dispersed in higher iron amount. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The selectivity to C{sub 2}{sup +}OH is promoted by increasing iron concentration. -- Abstract: Effect of iron promoter on the microstructures of CuMnZnO catalysts was investigated by N{sub 2} physical adsorption (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature-programmed reduction of hydrogen (H{sub 2}-TPR). Higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) was performed in a fixed bed reactor. The characterization results indicated that incorporation of iron in the CuMnZnO catalyst resulted in the increase of BET surface area and the dispersion of catalyst particles. Adding iron facilitated the formation of Fe-Mn solid solution and reduced the interaction between copper and manganese, which promoted the separation of CuO from the Cu-Mn solid solution and the reduction of the catalyst. In the HAS reaction, the catalytic activity of CO hydrogenation and the selectivity to C{sub 2}{sup +}OH and hydrocarbons presented an increasing trend with the increase in iron concentration, which may be attributed to the synergistic effect between the dispersed copper and iron carbides.

  9. Self-reported alcohol use and binge drinking in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 standard drinks on an average drinking day. Results. Current alcohol use (any amount) in 2014 - 2015 was reported by 33.1% of the population (47.7% males, 20.2% females). Of drinkers, 43.0% reported binge drinking (48.2% males, ...

  10. Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters using their amino acidic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribny, Jiri; Gamero, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters are important flavour and aroma components in the food industry. In alcoholic beverages these compounds are produced by yeast during fermentation. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most extensively used species, other species of the Saccharomyces genus have become common in fermentation processes. This study analyses and compares the production of higher alcohols and acetate esters from their amino acidic precursors in three Saccharomyces species: Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae. The global volatile compound analysis revealed that S. kudriavzevii produced large amounts of higher alcohols, whereas S. uvarum excelled in the production of acetate esters. Particularly from phenylalanine, S. uvarum produced the largest amounts of 2-phenylethyl acetate, while S. kudriavzevii obtained the greatest 2-phenylethanol formation from this precursor. The present data indicate differences in the amino acid metabolism and subsequent production of flavour-active higher alcohols and acetate esters among the closely related Saccharomyces species. This knowledge will prove useful for developing new enhanced processes in fragrance, flavour, and food industries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Overview: 2017 Professionals in Higher Education Salary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, Jacqueline; McChesney, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    The "Faculty in Higher Education Survey" collects data from approximately 700 higher education institutions on nearly 250,000 full-time faculty (tenure track and non-tenure track), as well as academic department heads and adjunct (pay-per-course) faculty. Data collected for full-time faculty include: salary, supplemental salary and…

  12. Structural higher education reform - design and evaluation: synthesis report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    File, Jonathan M.; Huisman, Jeroen; de Boer, Harry F.; Seeber, Marco; Vukasovic, Martina; Westerheijden, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses how different types of system-level (or ‘landscape’) structural reforms in higher education have been designed and implemented in selected higher education systems. In the 12 case studies that form the core of the project, the researchers examine reforms aimed at: - Increasing

  13. Effective prevention against risky underage drinking--the need for higher excise taxes on alcoholic beverages in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael; Effertz, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the place of taxation in preventing underage binge drinking in Germany. We reviewed evidence on the role of excise taxes on alcohol in preventing alcohol problems and underage drinking. We analyzed historical German data on tax on alcoholic beverages and compared this with European data, finally calculating tax scenarios and their impact on underage binge drinking. Germany applies lower taxes than many other European countries and alcohol beverage prices have decreased by 30% relative to overall price levels during the last 40 years. An optimal tax rate for reducing underage drinking would be set between the European average tax rates and Scandinavian tax rate levels.

  14. Produção de álcoois superiores por linhagens de Saccharomyces durante a fermentação alcoólica Production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces strains during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Gutierrez

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A produção de álcoois superiores pelas leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae M-300-A, Saccharomyces uvarum IZ-1904 e levedura de panificação (Saccharomyces cerevisiae foi estudada em diversas condições de temperatura, concentração de sacarose, pH, fontes de nitrogênio e com inibidor 2-4 dinitrofenol (DNP. Em todas as condições estudadas, a levedura Saccharomyces uvarum IZ-1904 apresentou a menor formação de álcoois superiores enquanto a levedura de panifícação apresentou os teores mais elevados. Com o aumento de temperatura e da concentração de sacarose ocorreu maior formação de álcool isoamílico pelas leveduras estudadas. Em pH 4,5 ocorreu menor produção de álcoois superiores do que em pH 3,0. Na presença do inibidor DNP ocorreu significativa redução (pThe production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae M-300-A, Saccharomyces uvarum IZ-1904 and baker's yeast (5. cerevisiae was studied under several temperature conditions, sucrose level, pH, nitrogen sources and with 2-4 dinitrophenol (DNP. The yeast IZ-1904 showed lower production of higher alcohols than other yeasts in all conditions studied. With the increase of temperature and higher level of sucrose an increase of isoamyl alcohol production was observed. A lower formation of higher alcohols was observed at pH 4.5 than at pH 3.0. With the addition of DNP occurred a significant reduction in isoamyl alcohol content. The yeasts did not show the sanie production of higher alcohols in relation to urea and ammonium sulfate.

  15. Associations between the phosphatidylethanol (PEth) alcohol biomarker and self-reported alcohol use in a sample of HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K.; Gakinya, Benson N.; Mwaniki, Michael M.; Keter, Alfred K.; Lee, Hana; Loxley, Michelle P.; Klein, Debra A.; Sidle, John E.; Martino, Steve; Baliddawa, Joyce B.; Schlaudt, Kathryn L.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background To counteract the syndemics of HIV and alcohol in sub-Saharan Africa, international collaborations have developed interventions to reduce alcohol consumption. Reliable and accurate methods are needed to estimate alcohol use outcomes. A direct alcohol biomarker called phosphatidylethanol (PEth) has been shown to validate heavy, daily drinking, but the literature indicates mixed results for moderate and non-daily drinkers, including among HIV-infected populations. This study examined the associations of the PEth biomarker with self-report alcohol use at 2 time points in 127 HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya. Methods Participants were consecutively enrolled in a randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of a behavioral intervention to reduce alcohol use in Eldoret, Kenya. They endorsed current alcohol use, and a minimum score of 3 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption or consuming ≥ 6 drinks per occasion at least monthly in the past year. Study interviews and blood draws were conducted at baseline and at 3 months post-treatment from July 2012 through September 2013. Alcohol use was assessed using the Timeline Followback questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed for presence of the PEth biomarker and were compared to self-reported alcohol use. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 study completers in February through March 2014. Results Baseline data indicated an average of moderate-heavy alcohol use: 50% drinking days and a median of 4.5 drinks per drinking day. At baseline, 46% of women (31 of 67) and 8% of men (5 of 60) tested negative for PEth (p<.001). At the 3-month follow-up, 93% of women (25 of 27) and 97% of men (30 of 31) who reported drinking tested positive, while 70% of women (28 of 40) and 35% of men (10 of 29) who denied drinking tested negative for PEth. Interviews were consistent with self-reported alcohol use among 13 individuals with negative baseline results. Conclusions These

  16. Differential invariants for higher-rank tensors. A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapial, V.

    2004-07-01

    We outline the construction of differential invariants for higher-rank tensors. In section 2 we outline the general method for the construction of differential invariants. A first result is that the simplest tensor differential invariant contains derivatives of the same order as the rank of the tensor. In section 3 we review the construction for the first-rank tensors (vectors) and second-rank tensors (metrics). In section 4 we outline the same construction for higher-rank tensors. (author)

  17. Insecure attachment and college-age alcohol use disorders. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Kimberly M

    2006-01-01

    Teens and young adults with insecure attachment may be remarkably susceptible to alcohol and substance use disorders. Particularly in the separation process of leaving-home and entering college, an underlying insecure attachment may manifest through symptoms of alcohol or drug abuse; as these young adults engage in what is perceived to be adult drinking behavior, they become too "attached" to the alcohol as a substitute for earlier, sporadically-available objects (usually parents). That is, they enact a similar relationship to this drug that they may have learned to have with an insecure parent: too close at times, but ultimately fostering guilt, dependence and destructive action. Fear of abandonment, rejection and negative judgment may be intensified in this age group as they struggle at the cusp of independence, but these issues are particularly relevant for insecurely attached teens. In this report, attachment theory is briefly described and applied to the assessment and treatment of a college freshman diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder. By engaging the patient in evaluating her actions and motives through the attachment model, the therapy helps her to channel help-seeking behavior appropriately, to establish expectations for consistency and reliability from significant people in her life and to feel safer without turning to alcohol as a crutch. An argument is made for the general application of attachment theory to alcohol and drug use disorders in this significant phase of young adult development.

  18. Predictive analysis of beer quality by correlating sensory evaluation with higher alcohol and ester production using multivariate statistics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian-Jun; Li, Qing-Liang; Yin, Hua; Zhong, Cheng; Hao, Jun-Guang; Yang, Pan-Fei; Tian, Yu-Hong; Jia, Shi-Ru

    2014-10-15

    Sensory evaluation is regarded as a necessary procedure to ensure a reproducible quality of beer. Meanwhile, high-throughput analytical methods provide a powerful tool to analyse various flavour compounds, such as higher alcohol and ester. In this study, the relationship between flavour compounds and sensory evaluation was established by non-linear models such as partial least squares (PLS), genetic algorithm back-propagation neural network (GA-BP), support vector machine (SVM). It was shown that SVM with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) had a better performance of prediction accuracy for both calibration set (94.3%) and validation set (96.2%) than other models. Relatively lower prediction abilities were observed for GA-BP (52.1%) and PLS (31.7%). In addition, the kernel function of SVM played an essential role of model training when the prediction accuracy of SVM with polynomial kernel function was 32.9%. As a powerful multivariate statistics method, SVM holds great potential to assess beer quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of Maillard reaction products and yeast strain on the synthesis of key higher alcohols and esters in beer fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dack, Rachael E; Black, Gary W; Koutsidis, Georgios; Usher, St John

    2017-10-01

    The effect of Maillard reaction products (MRPs), formed during the production of dark malts, on the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters in beer fermentations was investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction GC-MS. Higher alcohol levels were significantly (p<0.05) higher in dark malt fermentations, while the synthesis of esters was inhibited, due to possible suppression of enzyme activity and/or gene expression linked to ester synthesis. Yeast strain also affected flavour synthesis with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain A01 producing considerably lower levels of higher alcohols and esters than S288c and L04. S288c produced approximately double the higher alcohol levels and around twenty times more esters compared to L04. Further investigations into malt type-yeast strain interactions in relation to flavour development are required to gain better understanding of flavour synthesis that could assist in the development of new products and reduce R&D costs for the industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Strategic Reporting Tool: Balanced Scorecards in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, Jan W.; McComb, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    In this toolbox article, the authors describe the recommended steps for creating a community college balanced scorecard that measures and reports on key performance indicators based on targets and signal values to end-users, college constituents and external stakeholders. Based on extensive experience in the field, the authors provide a…

  1. Reduced Production of Higher Alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Red Wine Fermentation by Simultaneously Overexpressing BAT1 and Deleting BAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijuan; Huang, Shiyong; Du, Liping; Tang, Ping; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-08-16

    In red wine, the contents of higher alcohols and ethyl carbamate (EC) are two significant health concerns. To reduce the production of higher alcohols by wine yeast YZ22 with low production of EC, one BAT2 was replaced by a BAT1 expression cassette first and then another BAT2 was deleted to obtain the mutant SYBB3. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the relative expression level of BAT1 in SYBB3 improved 28 times compared with that in YZ22. The yields of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol produced by mutant SYBB3 reduced by 39.41% and 37.18% compared to those by the original strain YZ22, and the total production of higher alcohols decreased from 463.82 mg/L to 292.83 mg/L in must fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon. Meanwhile, there were no obvious differences on fermentation characteristics of the mutant and parental strain. This research has suggested an effective strategy for decreasing production of higher alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  2. Self-reported alcohol use and binge drinking in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    January 2018, Vol. 108, No. 1. RESEARCH. Of the 48 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO). African region, South Africa (SA) had the highest per capita alcohol .... SA, focusing primarily on demographics, labour market participation, ..... of male drinkers reported binge drinking, while 32.4% of female drinkers ...

  3. Comparison of Student Self-Reported and Administrative Data regarding Intercession into Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen Dormitory Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Melinda G.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2013-01-01

    Intercession into collegiate alcohol misuse by the Department of Resident Life (DRL) in freshmen dormitories at one large Mid-Atlantic, diverse, public university was examined. Freshmen dormitory resident drinkers (n = 357), 71% of whom reported alcohol misuse, were surveyed. Student self-report and DRL documentation, respectively, revealed that…

  4. The case of H.S.: the ethics of reporting alcohol dependence in a bus driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, David E; Schuermeyer, Isabel N; Brooker, Craig A

    2007-01-01

    The physician's duty to preserve patient confidentiality is challenged when doing so may endanger third parties. We present the case of a bus driver whose alcohol dependence raised concerns of a risk not only to his own health and safety, but to public safety as well. We first examine the legal and ethical obligations to report his alcohol use to his employer and then stress the importance of weighing the potential harm of violating patient-physician confidentiality against the severity of risk to the general public.

  5. Narcolepsy induced by chronic heavy alcohol consumption: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyuan

    2012-01-01

    Summary Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, characterized by uncontrollable excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplectic episodes, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and night time sleep disruption. The paper reviewed the related literature and reported a case of long-term drinking induced narcolepsy which was significantly improved after treatment with paroxetine and dexzopiclone. PMID:25328357

  6. Case report : tuberculosis liver abscess in male alcoholism patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, W. P.; Ginting, F.

    2018-03-01

    A liver abscess often occurs in low-middle income countries such as Indonesia. Two most common liver abscesses are amoebic and pyogenic liver abscess. Data that reported tuberculosis liver abscess (TLA) is extremely rare. A diagnostic criterion for tuberculosis liver abscess is rare and remains unclear. A 52-year-old man developed a TLA which was not associated with any pulmonary or gastrointestinal tract foci of tuberculosis. An ultrasonogram and abdominal scan showed an abscess in the right lobe. We performed paracentesis, and the pus from the lesion was positive tubercular bacilli on acid-fast bacilli staining. The patient was started on systemic antitubercular therapy to which he responded favorably. This report emphasizes the fact that, although a TLA is a very rare entity, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of liver abscess especially in Indonesia where the prevalence of tuberculosis is extremely high.

  7. Higher Impulsivity As a Distinctive Trait of Severe Cocaine Addiction among Individuals Treated for Cocaine or Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria García-Marchena

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AimsDespite alcohol being the most often used addictive substance among addicted patients, use of other substances such as cocaine has increased over recent years, and the combination of both drugs aggravates health impairment and complicates clinical assessment. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize heterogeneous subgroups of cocaine- and alcohol-addicted patients with common characteristics based on substance use disorders, psychiatric comorbidity and impulsivity.MethodsA total of 214 subjects with cocaine and/or alcohol use disorders were recruited from outpatient treatment programs and clinically assessed. A latent class analysis was used to establish phenotypic categories according to diagnosis of cocaine and alcohol use disorders, mental disorders, and impulsivity scores. Relevant variables were examined in the latent classes (LCs using correlation and analyses of variance and covariance.ResultsFour LCs of addicted patients were identified: Class 1 (45.3% formed by alcohol-dependent patients exhibiting lifetime mood disorder diagnosis and mild impulsivity; Class 2 (14% formed mainly by lifetime cocaine use disorder patients with low probability of comorbid mental disorders and mild impulsivity; Class 3 (10.7% formed by cocaine use disorder patients with elevated probability to course with lifetime anxiety, early and personality disorders, and greater impulsivity scores; and Class 4 (29.9% formed mainly by patients with alcohol and cocaine use disorders, with elevated probability in early and personality disorders and elevated impulsivity. Furthermore, there were significant differences among classes in terms of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th Edition-Text Revision criteria for abuse and dependence: Class 3 showed more criteria for cocaine use disorders than other classes, while Class 1 and Class 4 showed more criteria for alcohol use disorders.ConclusionCocaine- and alcohol-addicted patients who

  8. Impulsivity in abstinent early- and late-onset alcoholics : differences in self-report measures and a discounting task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dom, G.; D'Haene, P.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To test the hypothesis that early-onset alcoholics (EOAs) can be differentiated from late-onset alcoholics (LOAs) by more severe substance-related problems and higher levels of impulsivity and aggression. Design and measurements: A cross-sectional patient survey with a community comparison

  9. Physicochemical Properties of α-Form Hydrated Crystalline Phase of 3-(10-Carboxydecyl)-1,1,1,3,5,5,5-heptamethyl Trisiloxane/Higher alcohol/Polyoxyethylene (5 mol) Glyceryl monostearate/Water System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, Makoto; Araki, Hidefumi; Fukuhara, Tadao; Watanabe, Kei

    2018-06-07

    The α-form hydrated crystalline phase (often called as an α-gel) is one of the hydrated crystalline phases which can be exhibited by surfactants and lipids. In this study, a novel system of an α-form hydrated crystal was developed, composed of 3-(10-carboxydecyl)-1,1,1,3,5,5,5-heptamethyl trisiloxane (CDTS), polyoxyethylene (5 mol) glyceryl monostearate (GMS-5), higher alcohol. This is the first report to indicate that a silicone surfactant can form an α-form hydrated crystal. The physicochemical properties of this system were characterized by small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) experiments. SWAXS and DSC measurements revealed that a plurality of crystalline phases coexist in the CDTS/higher alcohol/water ternary system. By adding GMS-5 to the ternary system, however, a wide region of a single α-form hydrated crystalline phase was obtained. The self-diffusion coefficients (D sel ) from the NMR measurements suggested that all of the CDTS, GMS-5, and higher alcohol molecules were incorporated into the same α-form hydrated crystals.

  10. Relapse and Craving in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: A Comparison of Self-Reported Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelleman, Michelle; Schoenmakers, Tim M; van de Mheen, Dike

    2018-06-07

    Negative affective states and alcohol-related stimuli increase risk of relapse in alcohol dependence. In research and in clinical practice, craving is often used as another important indicator of relapse, but this lacks a firm empirical foundation. The goal of the present study is to explore and compare determinants for relapse and craving, using Marlatt's (1996) taxonomy of high risk situations as a template. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 alcohol-dependent patients about their most recent relapse and craving episodes. Interview transcripts were carefully reviewed for their thematic content, and codes capturing the thematic content were formulated. In total, we formulated 42 relapse-related codes and 33 craving-related codes. Descriptions of craving episodes revealed that these episodes vary in frequency and intensity. The presence of alcohol-related stimuli (n = 11) and experiencing a negative emotional state (n = 11) were often occurring determinants of craving episodes. Both negative emotional states (n = 17) and testing personal control (n = 11) were viewed as important determinants of relapses. Craving was seldom mentioned as a determinant for relapse. Additionally, participants reported multiple determinants preceding a relapse, whereas craving episodes were preceded by only one determinant. Patient reports do not support the claim that craving by itself is an important proximal determinant for relapse. In addition, multiple determinants were present before a relapse. Therefore, future research should focus on a complexity of different determinants.

  11. Role of caregiver-reported outcomes in identification of children with prenatal alcohol exposure during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Lowe, Jean; Garrison, Laura M; Cano, Sandra; Leyva, Yuridia; Qeadan, Fares; Stephen, Julia M

    2018-05-16

    BackgroundEarlier identification of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to identify neurobehavioral (NB) outcomes associated with PAE in infants.MethodsThis manuscript evaluates NB outcomes at 6.33±1.12 months of age in 93 infants (39 PAE and 54 No-PAE) recruited prospectively into the ENRICH cohort. PAE was assessed by prospective repeated TLFB interviews and a panel of ethanol biomarkers. NB outcomes were evaluated by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-R), and Infant Sensory Profile (ISP).ResultsMean maternal age at enrollment was 28.18±5.75, and 64.52% were Hispanic/Latina. Across three TLFB calendars, absolute alcohol per day in the PAE group was 0.44±0.72, corresponding to low-moderate alcohol consumption. While no association was observed between PAE and BSID-III (P's>0.05), PAE was associated with higher scores on the PSI difficult child scale (=13.9; P=0.015), total stress (=13.9; P=0.010), and IBQ negative affect (=8.60; P=0.008) measures after adjustment for covariates.ConclusionsCaregiver-reported assessments may provide a currently unrecognized opportunity to identify behavioral deficits, point to early interventions, and should be included in clinical assessments of infants at-risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 16 May 2018; doi:10.1038/pr.2018.26.

  12. Higher free triiodothyronine is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid subjects : The Lifelines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Eline H.; van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J. N.; Amini, Marzyeh; Schreuder, Tim C.M.A.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Blokzijl, Hans; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Objective. Overt hypothyroidism confers an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The liver plays a crucial role in the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides; thyroid hormones interact on hepatic lipid homeostasis. Thyroid function within the euthyroid range affects a

  13. Reported beverage consumed and alcohol-related diseases among male hospital inpatients with problem drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coder, Beate; Freyer-Adam, Jennis; Lau, Katharina; Riedel, Jeannette; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Hapke, Ulfert

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if problem drinkers have varying risks of having alcohol-related diseases according to their reported beverage consumed. In a cross-sectional study all consecutive inpatients aged 18- 64 years from four general hospitals of one catchment area were systematically screened for alcohol use. A total of 1011 men with problem drinking were used for this study. Routine treatment diagnoses for all participants were provided by hospital physicians and were classified into three categories according to their alcohol-attributable fractions (AAF; AAF = 0; AAF spirits drinkers, 26.0% mixed beer and spirits drinkers and 6.9% individuals drinking wine exclusively or in combination with one or two other beverages (mixed wine drinkers). Compared to spirits drinkers and controlling for possible confounders (i.e. alcohol-associated characteristics, demographic variables), multinomial regressions revealed that beer drinkers, mixed beer and spirits drinkers, and mixed wine drinkers had lower odds of having diseases with AAF = 1 than spirits drinkers (e.g. for AAF = 1: beer versus spirits drinkers: OR = 0.42, CI: 0.25-0.72). Beer drinkers and mixed wine drinkers also had lower odds of having diseases with AAF spirits drinkers (e.g. mixed wine versus spirits drinkers: OR = 0.36, CI: 0.18-0.72). These data suggest an association between the reported beverage consumed and alcohol-related diseases. Among hospitalized problem drinkers, spirits drinkers had the greatest risk of having diseases with AAF < 1 and with AAF = 1.

  14. The Self-Report Habit Index: Assessing habitual marijuana, alcohol, e-cigarette, and cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; DeMartini, Kelly S; Foster, Dawn; Patock-Peckham, Julie; Garrison, Kathleen A; Corlett, Philip R; Krystal, John H; Krishan-Sarin, Suchitra; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2018-05-01

    Substance use is partially driven by habitual processes that occur automatically in response to environmental cues and may be central to users' identities. This study was designed to validate the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) for assessing habitual marijuana, alcohol, cigarette, and e-cigarette use. We examined the SRHI's psychometrics in separate samples of adult marijuana (Ns = 189;170), alcohol (Ns = 100;133), cigarette (Ns = 58;371), and e-cigarette (N = 239) users. A 6-item, single-factor solution evidenced good fit across substances (CFI marijuana/alcohol/cigarettes/e-cigarettes = 0.996/0.997/0.996/0.994, RMSEA = 0.046/0.047/0.067/0.068, SRMR = 0.017/0.017/0.010/0.015) and internal consistency (α = 0.88/0.94/0.95/0.91). The SRHI was scalar invariant for sex and race. However, independent-samples t-tests indicated only that women endorsed stronger habitual e-cigarette use and that men endorsed stronger habitual marijuana use. The SRHI also was scalar invariant by product type in dual-users (cigarettes/e-cigarettes[N = 371]; alcohol/cigarettes [n = 58]), although differences in habit strength only were observed for cigarettes versus e-cigarettes, with dual-users reporting stronger habitual cigarette use. Finally, the SRHI predicted frequency of marijuana, alcohol, cigarette, and e-cigarette use (n p 2 [marijuana/alcohol/cigarettes/e-cigarettes] = 0.37/0.48/0.31/0.17) and quantity of alcohol and cigarette use (n p 2  = 0.43/0.33). The SRHI is a psychometrically sound measure of adults' habitual substance use. The SRHI detected mean differences by sex and substance type and predicted the frequency of using each substance. Future research should determine if the SRHI is appropriate for use with other substances or age groups (e.g., adolescents), how it relates to task-based, behavioral measures of habit strength, and the degree to which habit predicts the development or maintenance of addiction. Copyright © 2018

  15. Under-reporting of alcohol consumption in household surveys: a comparison of quantity-frequency, graduated-frequency and recent recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Tim; Donath, Susan; Cooper-Stanbury, Mark; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Catalano, Paul; Mateo, Cid

    2004-08-01

    To compare alternative survey methods for estimating (a) levels of at risk alcohol consumption and (b) total volume of alcohol consumed per capita in comparison with estimates from sales data and to investigate reasons for under-reporting. The homes of respondents who were eligible and willing to participate. A total of 21,674 Australians aged 14 years and older. A 2001 national household survey of drug use, experiences and attitudes with weights applied for age, sex, geographic location and day of week of interview. Self-completion questionnaire using quantity-frequency (QF) and graduated-frequency (GF) methods plus two questions about consumption 'yesterday': one in standard drinks, another with empirically based estimates of drink size and strength. The highest estimate of age 14 + per capita consumption of 7.00 l of alcohol derived from recall of consumption 'yesterday' or 76.8% of the official estimate. The lowest was QF with 49.8%. When amount consumed 'yesterday' was recalled in standard drinks this estimate was 5.27 l. GF questions yielded higher estimates than did QF questions both for total volume (5.25 versus 4.54 l) and also for the proportion of the population at risk of long-term alcohol-related harm (10.6%versus 8.1%). With the detailed 'yesterday' method 61% of all consumption was on high risk drinking days. Questions about typical quantities of alcohol consumed can lead to underestimates, as do questions about drinking 'standard drinks' of alcohol. Recent recall methods encourage fuller reporting of volumes plus more accurate estimates of unrecorded consumption and the proportion of total alcohol consumption that places drinkers at risk of harm. However, they do not capture longer-term drinking patterns. It is recommended that both recent recall and measures of longer-term drinking patterns are included in national surveys.

  16. Self-Reported Youth and Adult Exposure to Alcohol Marketing in Traditional and Digital Media: Results of a Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Padon, Alisa; Ross, Craig; Borzekowski, Dina

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol marketing is known to be a significant risk factor for underage drinking. However, little is known about youth and adult exposure to alcohol advertising in digital and social media. This study piloted a comparative assessment of youth and adult recall of exposure to online marketing of alcohol. From September to October 2013, a pilot survey of past 30-day exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content in traditional and digital media was administered to a national sample of 1,192 youth (ages 13 to 20) and 1,124 adults (ages ≥21) using a prerecruited Internet panel maintained by GfK Custom Research. The weighted proportions of youth and adults who reported this exposure were compared by media type and by advertising and promotional content. Youth were more likely than adults to recall exposure to alcohol advertising on television (69.2% vs. 61.9%), radio (24.8% vs. 16.7%), billboards (54.8% vs. 35.4%), and the Internet (29.7% vs. 16.8%), but less likely to recall seeing advertising in magazines (35.7% vs. 36.4%). Youth were also more likely to recall seeing advertisements and pictures on the Internet of celebrities using alcohol (36.1% vs. 20.8%) or wearing clothing promoting alcohol (27.7% vs. 15.9%), and actively respond (i.e., like, share, or post) to alcohol-related content online. Youth report greater exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content than adults in most media, including on the Internet. These findings emphasize the need to assure compliance with voluntary industry standards on the placement of alcohol advertising and the importance of developing better tools for monitoring youth exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly on the Internet. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Primary medullary hemorrhage in a patient with coagulopathy due to alcoholic cirrhosis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guangxun; Gao, Yu; Lee, Kwee-Yum; Nan, Guangxian

    2018-04-01

    Mild-to-moderate alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver is related to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In terms of spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage, pontine is considered as the most common site in contrast to medulla oblongata where the hemorrhage is rarely seen. This rare primary medullary hemorrhage has been attributed so far to vascular malformation (VM), anticoagulants, hypertension, hemorrhagic transformation, and other undetermined factors. Herein, we describe a 53-year-old patient with 35-year history of alcohol abuse was admitted for acute-onset isolated hemianesthesia on the right side. He was normotensive on admission. A neurological examination revealed isolated hemihypoaesthesia on the right side. He had no history of hypertension, and viral hepatitis, and nil use of anticoagulants. Brain computed tomography (CT) image demonstrated hemorrhagic lesion in dorsal and medial medulla oblongata which was ruptured into the fourth ventricle. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) demonstrated no evidence of VM. The laboratory tests implied liver dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, and coagulation disorders. Abdominal ultrasound, and CT image showed a small, and nodular liver with splenomegaly, suggestive of moderate alcoholic cirrhosis. Liver protection therapy and the management of coagulation disorders. After 14 days, he was discharged with mild hemianesthesia but with more improved parameters in laboratory tests. At the 6-month follow-up, brain MRI, MRA, and non-contrast MRI showed no significant findings except for a malacic lesion. We conclude that the patient had alcoholic cirrhosis with coagulopathy, and this may have resulted in primary medullary hemorrhage. This is a first case to report alcoholic cirrhosis as etiology of primary medullary hemorrhage.

  18. Blood alcohol concentration testing and reporting by the states : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Accurate and complete data on blood alcohol concentration : (BAC) levels for drivers in fatal crashes are critical in monitoring : alcohol-impaired-driving rates across the country, developing : alcohol-impaired-driving programs, and evaluating : the...

  19. Reported Adverse Health Effects in Children from Ingestion of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers - United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cynthia; Kieszak, Stephanie; Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-03-03

    Hand sanitizers are effective and inexpensive products that can reduce microorganisms on the skin, but ingestion or improper use can be associated with health risks. Many hand sanitizers contain up to 60%-95% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol by volume, and are often combined with scents that might be appealing to young children. Recent reports have identified serious consequences, including apnea, acidosis, and coma in young children who swallowed alcohol-based (alcohol) hand sanitizer (1-3). Poison control centers collect data on intentional and unintentional exposures to hand sanitizer solutions resulting from various routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal and ocular exposures. To characterize exposures of children aged ≤12 years to alcohol hand sanitizers, CDC analyzed data reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).* The major route of exposure to both alcohol and nonalcohol-based (nonalcohol) hand sanitizers was ingestion. The majority of intentional exposures to alcohol hand sanitizers occurred in children aged 6-12 years. Alcohol hand sanitizer exposures were associated with worse outcomes than were nonalcohol hand sanitizer exposures. Caregivers and health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers associated with hand sanitizer ingestion. Children using alcohol hand sanitizers should be supervised and these products should be kept out of reach from children when not in use.

  20. A comparative analysis on combustion and emissions of some next generation higher-alcohol/diesel blends in a direct-injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh Kumar, B.; Saravanan, S.; Rana, D.; Nagendran, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Four higher-alcohols namely, iso-butanol, n-pentanol, n-hexanol and n-octanol, were used. • Iso-butanol/diesel blend presented longest ignition delay, highest peak pressures and peak heat release rates. • NOx emissions were high for n-pentanol/diesel and n-hexanol/diesel blends at high load conditions. • Smoke opacity is highest for n-octanol/diesel blend and lowest for iso-butanol/diesel blend. • HC emissions are high for iso-butanol/diesel and n-pentanol/diesel blends. - Abstract: Higher alcohols are attractive next generation biofuels that can be extracted from sugary, starchy and ligno-cellulosic biomass feedstocks using sustainable pathways. Their viability for use in diesel engines has greatly improved ever since extended bio-synthetic pathways have achieved substantial yields of these alcohols using engineered micro-organisms. This study sets out to compare and analyze the effects of some higher alcohol/diesel blends on combustion and emission characteristics of a direct-injection diesel engine. Four test fuels containing 30% by vol. of iso-butanol, n-pentanol, n-hexanol and n-octanol (designated as ISB30, PEN30, HEX30 and OCT30 respectively) in ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) were used. Results indicated that ISB30 experienced longest ignition delay and produced highest peaks of pressure and heat release rates (HRR) compared to other higher-alcohol blends. The ignition delay, peak pressure and peak HRR are found to be in the order of (from highest to lowest): ISB30 > PEN30 > HEX30 > OCT30 > ULSD. The combustion duration (CD) for all test fuels is in the sequence (from shortest to longest): ISB30 OCT30 > HEX30 > PEN30 > ISB30. HC emissions are high for ISB30 and PEN30 while it decreased favorably for HEX30 and OCT30. It was of the order (from highest to lowest): ISB30 > PEN30 > ULSD > HEX30 > OCT30. CO emissions of the blends followed the trend of smoke emissions and remained lower than ULSD with the following order (from highest to

  1. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  2. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  3. Biosynthesis of higher alcohol flavour compounds by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: impact of oxygen availability and responses to glucose pulse in minimal growth medium with leucine as sole nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Vidal, Esteban; de Morais, Marcos Antonio; François, Jean Marie; de Billerbeck, Gustavo M

    2015-01-01

    Higher alcohol formation by yeast is of great interest in the field of fermented beverages. Among them, medium-chain alcohols impact greatly the final flavour profile of alcoholic beverages, even at low concentrations. It is widely accepted that amino acid metabolism in yeasts directly influences higher alcohol formation, especially the catabolism of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids. However, it is not clear how the availability of oxygen and glucose metabolism influence the final higher alcohol levels in fermented beverages. Here, using an industrial Brazilian cachaça strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we investigated the effect of oxygen limitation and glucose pulse on the accumulation of higher alcohol compounds in batch cultures, with glucose (20 g/l) and leucine (9.8 g/l) as the carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Fermentative metabolites and CO2 /O2 balance were analysed in order to correlate the results with physiological data. Our results show that the accumulation of isoamyl alcohol by yeast is independent of oxygen availability in the medium, depending mainly on leucine, α-keto-acids and/or NADH pools. High-availability leucine experiments showed a novel and unexpected accumulation of isobutanol, active amyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol, which could be attributed to de novo biosynthesis of valine, isoleucine and phenylalanine and subsequent outflow of these pathways. In carbon-exhausted conditions, our results also describe, for the first time, the metabolization of isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, active amyl alcohol but not of 2-phenylethanol, by yeast strains in stationary phase, suggesting a role for these higher alcohols as carbon source for cell maintenance and/or redox homeostasis during this physiological phase. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Svalbard study 1988-89: a unique setting for validation of self-reported alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyer, G; Nilssen, O; Brenn, T; Schirmer, H

    1995-04-01

    The Norwegian island of Spitzbergen, Svalbard offers a unique setting for validation studies on self-reported alcohol consumption. No counterfeit production or illegal import exists, thus making complete registration of all sources of alcohol possible. In this study we recorded sales from all agencies selling alcohol on Svalbard over a 2-month period in 1988. During the same period all adults living permanently on Svalbard were invited to take part in a health screening. As part of the screening a self-administered questionnaire on alcohol consumption was introduced to the participants. We found that the self-reported volume accounted for approximately 40 percent of the sales volume. Because of the unique situation applying to Svalbard, the estimate made in this study is believed to be more reliable compared to other studies using sales volume to validate self-reports.

  5. Self-reported alcohol intake and risk of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Erin E; Niewoehner, Dennis E; Sisson, Joseph H; Lindberg, Sarah M; Connett, John E; Kunisaki, Ken M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). We conducted a secondary analysis of data previously collected in a large, multicenter trial of daily azithromycin in COPD. To analyze the relationship between amount of baseline self-reported alcohol consumption in the past 12 months and subsequent AECOPD, we categorized the subjects as minimal (alcohol users (>60 drinks/month). The primary outcome was time to first AECOPD and the secondary outcome was AECOPD rate during the 1-year study period. Of the 1,142 enrolled participants, 1,082 completed baseline alcohol questionnaires and were included in this analysis. Six hundred and forty-five participants reported minimal alcohol intake, 363 reported light-to-moderate intake, and 74 reported heavy intake. There were no statistically significant differences in median time to first AECOPD among minimal (195 days), light-to-moderate (241 days), and heavy drinkers (288 days) (P=0.11). The mean crude rate of AECOPD did not significantly differ between minimal (1.62 events per year) and light-to-moderate (1.44 events per year) (P=0.095), or heavy drinkers (1.68 events per year) (P=0.796). There were no significant differences in hazard ratios for AECOPD after adjustment for multiple covariates. Among persons with COPD at high risk of exacerbation, we found no significant relationship between self-reported baseline alcohol intake and subsequent exacerbations. The number of patients reporting heavy alcohol intake was small and further study is needed to determine the effect of heavy alcohol intake on AECOPD risk.

  6. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  7. Alcohol Use among Students with and without Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2015-01-01

    We compared alcohol use among adolescents with and without hearing loss. Adolescents with hearing loss reported consuming less alcohol, less binge drinking, fewer episodes of drunkenness, and a higher age at first drunkenness than their hearing peers. Alcohol use did not vary between students who were deaf or hard of hearing or between students…

  8. Alcohol Ablation Therapy of an Atypically Located Symptomatic Bronchogenic Cyst: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakadamyali, Hatice; Ergun, Tarkan; Lakadamyali, Huseyin; Oguzkurt, Levent

    2007-01-01

    Bronchogenic cyst is a rare developmental lesion. It is usually asymptomatic and most frequently located in the middle mediastinum and lung parenchyma. It can cause symptoms only when infected or pressing on neighboring structures. The MRI findings in a 34-year-old woman with an 8 months history of back pain were evaluated and revealed a cystic lesion in the left paravertebral area. The histopathologic evaluation of the material aspirated with CT guidance was reported to be bronchogenic cyst. A simultaneous alcohol ablation was accomplished. After the procedure the patient's pain disappeared and the follow-up MRI scan 1 year later revealed no relapse. Paravertebrally located bronchogenic cysts are very rare and only 3 cases were found to be reported in the medical literature prior to this one. While aspiration alone is sufficient for diagnosis, it is insufficient to treat the lesion and prevent the recurrences. This paper reports a paravertebral bronchogenic cyst which was symptomatic despite of its small size. CT-guided aspiration was accomplished and simultaneous alcohol ablation was carried out to prevent recurrences

  9. Interrelationship between family history of alcoholism and generational status in the prediction of alcohol dependence in US Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, K G; Thomas, N S; Kendler, K S

    2017-01-01

    Both a family history of alcoholism and migration-related factors like US v. foreign nativity increase the risk for developing alcohol use disorders in Hispanic Americans. For this study, we integrated these two lines of research to test whether the relationship between familial alcoholism and alcohol dependence changes with successive generations in the United States. Data were from the waves 1 and 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Subjects self-identified Hispanic ethnicity (N = 4122; n = 1784 first, n = 1169 second, and n = 1169 third or later generation) and reported ever consuming ⩾12 drinks in a 1-year period. A family history of alcoholism was assessed in first- and second-degree relatives. Analyses predicting the number of alcohol dependence symptoms were path models. Alcohol dependence symptoms were associated with a stronger family history of alcoholism and later generational status. There was a significant interaction effect between familial alcoholism and generational status; the relationship of familial alcoholism with alcohol dependence symptoms increased significantly with successive generations in the United States, more strongly in women than men. Acculturation partially mediated the interaction effect between familial alcoholism and generational status on alcohol dependence, although not in the expected direction. Familial alcoholism interacted with generational status in predicting alcohol dependence symptoms in US Hispanic drinkers. This relationship suggests that heritability for alcoholism is influenced by a higher-order environmental factor, likely characterized by a relaxing of social restrictions on drinking.

  10. A systematic review of the epidemiology of unrecorded alcohol consumption and the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Kailasapillai, Shalini; Larsen, Elisabeth; Rehm, Maximilien X; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Shield, Kevin D; Roerecke, Michael; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-06-01

    Unrecorded alcohol constitutes about 30% of all alcohol consumed globally. The aims of this systematic review were to determine the epidemiology (occurrence, types, prevalence) of unrecorded alcohol consumption in different countries/regions, analyse the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol and examine health outcomes caused by the consumption of unrecorded alcohol, based on either epidemiology or toxicology. A systematic search for, and qualitative analysis of, papers with empirical results on the different categories of unrecorded alcohol, based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Unrecorded alcohol was widespread in all regions of the world. Artisanal fermented beverages and spirits were the most common categories of unrecorded alcohol globally, and were available on all continents. In India, industrially produced spirits (country spirits) were most prevalent. In Russia and countries of the former Soviet Union, surrogate alcohols complemented artisanal spirits. Cross-border shopping was the most prevalent method of obtaining unrecorded alcohol in parts of Europe. Ethanol was the most harmful ingredient of unrecorded alcohol, and health consequences due to other ingredients found in unrecorded alcohol were scarce. However, as unrecorded alcohol is usually the least expensive form of alcohol available in many countries, it may contribute to higher rates of chronic and irregular heavy drinking. Very large amounts of alcohol are produced globally that go unrecorded. The primary harm from this kind of alcohol arises from the fact that it is typically much cheaper than licit alcohol. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  12. Thermodynamic models to predict gas-liquid solubilities in the methanol synthesis, the methanol-higher alcohol synthesis, and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis via gas-slurry processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, B.B; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1996-01-01

    Various thermodynamic models were tested concerning their applicability to predict gas-liquid solubilities, relevant for synthesis gas conversion to methanol, higher alcohols, and hydrocarbons via gas-slurry processes. Without any parameter optimization the group contribution equation of state

  13. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with higher anticipatory cortisol stress response, anxiety, and alcohol consumption in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Van der Does, A J Willem; Kouwenhoven, Coen; Elzinga, Bernet M; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-11-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key protein in maintaining neuronal integrity. The BDNF gene is thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate, for the first time in a single study, the association between BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism, anxiety, alcohol consumption, and cortisol stress response. 98 healthy university students (54 females and 44 males), genotyped for the Val(66)Met polymorphism, participated in a physical-stress procedure (cold pressure test, CPT) after having been informed that they would undergo a painful experience. Indices of anxiety and of stress were collected from repeated measurement of salivary cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate. BDNF Met carriers, were more anxious during the CPT (pBDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism with HPA axis reactivity to stress was not modulated by gender. These results suggest that Met carriers are particularly sensitive in anticipating stressful events, which extends previous findings on the moderating role of the BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism in the face of stressful life events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330°C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab

  15. The 'Outcome Reporting in Brief Intervention Trials: Alcohol' (ORBITAL) framework: protocol to determine a core outcome set for efficacy and effectiveness trials of alcohol screening and brief intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, G W; Heather, N; Bray, Jeremy W; Giles, E L; Holloway, A; Barbosa, C; Berman, A H; O'Donnell, A J; Clarke, M; Stockdale, K J; Newbury-Birch, D

    2017-12-22

    The evidence base to assess the efficacy and effectiveness of alcohol brief interventions (ABI) is weakened by variation in the outcomes measured and by inconsistent reporting. The 'Outcome Reporting in Brief Intervention Trials: Alcohol' (ORBITAL) project aims to develop a core outcome set (COS) and reporting guidance for its use in future trials of ABI in a range of settings. An international Special Interest Group was convened through INEBRIA (International Network on Brief Interventions for Alcohol and Other Drugs) to inform the development of a COS for trials of ABI. ORBITAL will incorporate a systematic review to map outcomes used in efficacy and effectiveness trials of ABI and their measurement properties, using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) criteria. This will support a multi-round Delphi study to prioritise outcomes. Delphi panellists will be drawn from a range of settings and stakeholder groups, and the Delphi study will also be used to determine if a single COS is relevant for all settings. A consensus meeting with key stakeholder representation will determine the final COS and associated guidance for its use in trials of ABI. ORBITAL will develop a COS for alcohol screening and brief intervention trials, with outcomes stratified into domains and guidance on outcome measurement instruments. The standardisation of ABI outcomes and their measurement will support the ongoing development of ABI studies and a systematic synthesis of emerging research findings. We will track the extent to which the COS delivers on this promise through an exploration of the use of the guidance in the decade following COS publication.

  16. Research on the Training of Higher Cognitive Learning and Thinking Skills. Final Report. Report No. 5560.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, R. S.

    The technical reports summarized in this paper were prepared as part of a project designed to determine what is known about the teaching of cognitive skills and to formulate questions relating to such teaching for further research. Topics discussed in the 22 reports include the following: (1) teaching thinking; (2) Aristotle's logic; (3) a…

  17. [Diuretics and their potential effect on breath-alcohol concentration--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Georg; Skopp, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Many objections were raised to breath-alcohol analysis upon its introduction in the field of traffic law enforcement in Germany, but in the meantime this issue has become less relevant in forensic routine work. In the present case, the defending lawyer claimed that the ethanol concentration in the blood and hence in the breath of his client, which was 0.35 mg/l according to the Dräger Alcotest 7110® Evidential and thus above the legal limit of 0.25 mg/l, had been changed by diuretics taken 4 hours before the breath alcohol test, viz. 10 mg of torasemide, a loop diuretic, and 50 mg of spironolactone, a competitive aldosterone antagonist. According to the literature, the maximum urinary output in healthy subjects within the first 4 hours after 10 mg torasemide was 1450 ml. In patients suffering from heart failure, the urinary volume was reduced by a factor of 2.5-3; after chronic intake of torasemide, water loss did not differ from placebo. Spironolactone, which acts on the distal tubule, has little effect on urinary output. In a publication, the loss of water in excess within 24 hours was 90 ml. Co-administration of 100 mg spironolactone and 20 mg furosemide, which roughly compares to 10 mg torasemide, resulted in a mean urinary volume of 1566 ml within the first 4 hours. In terms of the reported case and provided that no compensatory fluid had been taken, a purely theoretical maximum shift of 0.007 mg/ may occur in the breath-alcohol concentration due to the smaller distribution volume even considering maximum urinary excretion values. On the other hand, already mild levels of dehydration may be associated with negative symptoms affecting driving ability.

  18. Charting the Future of US Higher Education: A Look at the Spellings Report Ten Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, W. Russell

    2017-01-01

    September marked the tenth anniversary of the release of "A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of US Higher Education," the report of the Secretary of Education's Commission on the Future of Higher Education, also known as the Spellings Commission. Blue ribbon panels rarely say much that is new or stimulate much sustained attention,…

  19. Employability: A Review of the Literature 2012 to 2016. A Report for the Higher Education Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artess, Jane; Hooley, Tristram; Mellors-Bourne, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This report for the Higher Education Academy, in partnership with the University of Derby and the Career Development Organisation, examined 187 pieces of research published between 2012 and 2016 that describe how the subject of employability has been addressed during this period. It draws out some of the key implications for higher education…

  20. A Methodology for Sustainability Evaluation and Reporting in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Ana C.; Carravilla, Maria Antonia; Oliveira, Jose F.; Costa, Carlos A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology that allows higher education institutions (HEIs) to promote, to evaluate and to report on sustainability. The ultimate goal of the afore-mentioned methodology is to help HEIs achieve sustainability. First, a model entitled Sustainability in Higher Education Institutions (SusHEI) that generally…

  1. The interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism in general community samples: Findings in a Midwestern US twin birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Glowinski, Anne L.; Grant, Julia D.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Jacob, Theodore; Sher, Kenneth J.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there is a long tradition in alcoholism research of using family history ratings, the interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism from general community samples has yet to be established. Methods Telephone interview data obtained from a large cohort of female like-sex twins (N = 3787, median age 22) and their biological parents (N = 2928, assessed at twins’ median age 15) were analyzed to determine agreement between parent self-report, parent ratings of coparent, and twin narrow (alcohol problems) versus broad (problem or excessive drinking) ratings of each parent. Results In European ancestry (EA) families, high tetrachoric correlations were observed between twin and cotwin ratings of parental alcohol problems, between twin and parent ratings of coparent alcohol problems using symptom-based and single-item assessments, as well as moderately high correlations between twin and both mother and father self-reports. In African American (AA) families, inter-rater agreement was substantially lower than for EA families, with no cases where father ratings of maternal alcohol problems agreed with either twin ratings or mother self-report; and both cotwin agreement and mother-twin agreement were reduced. Differences between EA and AA families were not explained by differences in years of cohabitation with father or mother’s education; however, underreporting of problems by AA parents may have contributed. Conclusions Results support the use of family history ratings of parental alcoholism in general community surveys for European ancestry families, but suggest that family history assessment in African American families requires improved methods. PMID:22235921

  2. Drug and alcohol in pregnancy and stuttering - a speech-language pathology case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyara Francini Jacob

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drug use during pregnancy is a well-known risk factor for the manifestation of speech-language disabilities. However, the necessity of studies directed towards drug use and its influence on interventional speech process in cases of alterations of child language and fluency is observed. In this study, clinical history data are presented as well as pre and post-assessment tests (Speech and Language and the description of an interventional process of a six-year child. The main communication complaint about the child was stuttering. In addition to the child’s clinical history, there was also knowledge of alcohol and legal and illegal drug use by the mother from before the moment of conception until this intervention process was reported. The protocols Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI, Child Language Test (ABFW: phonology, vocabulary, and fluency tests, along with the Checklist of Verbal Communication Skills were applied. Based on these assessments, the child was diagnosed with mild to moderate stuttering, phonological simplifications, vocabulary inferior to that expected for his age, difficulty maintaining communicative turns, simplified narrative skills, alterations in psycholinguistic processes, and complaints from the school about his learning. The child underwent speech therapy in the areas of fluency and Child Language (phonological approach, showing evolution in the post-intervention assessment. Thus, in the present case, it became clear that the concomitant use of alcohol with exposure to cigarettes and marijuana may trigger changes in the acquisition and development of language, fluency and, consequently, learning.

  3. ALDH2 and ADH1B interactions in retrospective reports of low-dose reactions and initial sensitivity to alcohol in Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Pandika, Danielle; Shea, Shoshana H; Eng, Mimy Y; Liang, Tiebing; Wall, Tamara L

    2011-07-01

    A mechanistic model has been proposed for how alcohol-metabolizing gene variants protect individuals from the development of alcohol use disorders, with heightened sensitivity to alcohol being an early step (endophenotype) in this model. This study was designed to determine whether possession of 2 alcohol-metabolizing genes variations, the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2*2 allele and the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*2 allele, was associated with self-reported sensitivity to alcohol at low doses and at initial use. Asian-American college students (N=784) of Chinese and Korean descent were genotyped at the ALDH2 and ADH1B loci and assessed for lifetime alcohol symptoms following 1 or 2 drinks and level of response to alcohol during the first 5 lifetime drinking episodes. Participants who had an ALDH2*2 allele were more likely to report experiencing all 6 low-dose symptoms and having heightened initial response to alcohol. An interaction was found between ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2, with ADH1B*2 being associated with heightened self-reported sensitivity to alcohol only in individuals who also possessed 1 ALDH2*2 allele. These findings suggest the effects of ADH1B*2 may be felt more strongly in Asians who already have some heightened sensitivity to alcohol from possessing 1 ALDH2*2 allele, but who are not too sensitized to alcohol from possessing 2 ALDH2*2 alleles. These results offer additional insight into the discrepant findings that have been reported in the literature for the role of ADH1B*2 in response to alcohol and the development of alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  5. Alcohol based surgical prep solution and the risk of fire in the operating room: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rajiv

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A few cases of fire in the operating room are reported in the literature. The factors that may initiate these fires are many and include alcohol based surgical prep solutions, electrosurgical equipment, flammable drapes etc. We are reporting a case of fire in the operating room while operating on a patient with burst fracture C6 vertebra with quadriplegia. The cause of the fire was due to incomplete drying of the covering drapes with an alcohol based surgical prep solution. This paper discusses potential preventive measures to minimize the incidence of fire in the operating room.

  6. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than eight breaths a minute) Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths) Blue- ... about alcohol by their parents and who report close relationships with their parents are less likely to ...

  7. Hypokalemic Paralysis Complicated by Concurrent Hyperthyroidism and Chronic Alcoholism: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Lin, Shih-Hua; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Fang, Yu-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is characterized by the presence of muscle paralysis, hypokalemia, and hyperthyroidism. We report the case of a young man with paralysis of the lower extremities, severe hypokalemia, and concurrent hyperthyroidism. TPP was suspected; therefore, treatment consisting of judicious potassium (K+) repletion and β-blocker administration was initiated. However, urinary K+ excretion rate, as well as refractoriness to treatment, was inconsistent with TPP. Chronic alcoholism was considered as an alternative cause of hypokalemia, and serum K+ was restored through vigorous K repletion and the addition of K+ -sparing diuretics. The presence of thyrotoxicosis and hypokalemia does not always indicate a diagnosis of TPP. Exclusion of TPP can be accomplished by immediate evaluation of urinary K+ excretion, acid-base status, and the amount of potassium chloride required to correct hypokalemia at presentation.

  8. The Process of Change in Higher Education Institutions. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Report, No. 7, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvall, Robert C.

    Conditions that inhibit change in higher education institutions and various models of the change process are described. Attention is also directed to: organizational character, structural features, planning procedures, key individuals in the change process, and practical advice about change. The major change models for higher education…

  9. Relationships between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Gilbert C; Delva, Jorge; Takeuchi, David T

    2007-05-01

    We examined associations between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence. We used data from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey, a cross-sectional investigation involving 2217 Filipino Americans interviewed in 1998-1999. Multinomial logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were used in assessing associations between unfair treatment and the substance use categories. Reports of unfair treatment were associated with prescription drug use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence after control for age, gender, location of residence, employment status, educational level, ethnic identity level, nativity, language spoken, marital status, and several health conditions. Unfair treatment may contribute to illness and subsequent use of prescription medications. Furthermore, some individuals may use illicit drugs and alcohol to cope with the stress associated with such treatment. Addressing the antecedents of unfair treatment may be a potential intervention route.

  10. Public and Private Sectors in Asian Higher Education Systems: Issues and Prospects. Reports from the International Seminar on Higher Education in Asia (3rd, Hiroshima, Japan, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    The roles of public and private sectors of higher education in Asia and relationships to national systems are explored in reports from the Third International Seminar on Higher Education in Asia. The focus was China, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, Japan, and Thailand. Patterns by which national systems of higher education are differentiated…

  11. Treatment of infected bulla with alcohol sclerosis combined with percutaneous catheter drainage: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young Min; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Chong Soo; Chung, Gyung Ho; Rhee, Yang Keen; Lee, Yong Chul; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of alcohol sclerosis combined with percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) for treatment of infected bulla. Infected bulla in four consecutive patients were treated. In all patients, percutaneous catheter drainage of the bulla was performed. Instillation of sterile alcohol (99% ethanol) was carried out into the cavity of the bulla. Alcohol was left in the cavity for approximately 30 minutes in each session. Alcohol instillation was repeated according to the size of bulla. Patients were subsequently followed up with serial chest radiographs and CT scans. All patients showed significant improvement both clinically and radiologically. Disappearance of the bulla and reexpansion of surrounding lung parenchyma was observed in two patients and partial resolution (80% reduction in size) was seen in another two patients. Complications included mild chest pain during instillation of alcohol in all patients and delayed radiating shoulder pain in one patient. We provisionally conclude that intracavitary alcohol instillation combined with PCD is effective in the treatment of the infected bulla

  12. Screening for use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis in pregnancy using self-report tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, E; White, J; Ali, R; Robinson, J

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization has identified substance use in the top 20 risk factors for ill health. Risks in pregnancy are compounded, with risk to the woman's health, to pregnancy progression and on both the foetus and the newborn. Intrauterine exposure can result in negative influences on offspring development, sometimes into adulthood. With effectively two patients, there is a clear need for antenatal screening. Biomarker reliability is limited and research efforts have been directed to self-report tools, often attempting to address potential lack of veracity if women feel guilty about substance use and worried about possible stigmatization. Tools, which assume the behaviour, are likely to elicit more honest responses; querying pre-pregnancy use would likely have the same effect. Although veracity is heightened if substance use questions are embedded within health and social functioning questionnaires, such tools may be too lengthy clinically. It has been proposed that screening only for alcohol and tobacco, with focus on the month pre-pregnancy, could enable identification of all other substances. Alternatively, the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire could be used initially, tobacco being highly indicative of substance use generally. The ASSIST V.3.0 is readily administered and covers all substances, although the pregnancy 'risk level' cut-off for tobacco is not established. Alcohol tools - the 4Ps, TLFB and 'drug' CAGE (with E: query of use to avoid withdrawal) - have been studied with other substances and could be used. General psychosocial distress and mental ill-health often co-exist with substance use and identification of substance use needs to become legitimate practice for obstetric clinicians.

  13. Brief Report: Disposable Income, and Spending on Fast Food, Alcohol, Cigarettes, and Gambling by New Zealand Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    We describe self-reported sources of income and expenditure, and the association between part-time employment and spending on fast food, alcohol, cigarettes, and gambling for a sample of 3434 New Zealand (NZ) secondary school students (mean age 15.0 years). Disposable income was usually received from parents and guardians, but nearly 40% of…

  14. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  15. Final report of the addendum to the safety assessment of n-butyl alcohol as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Valerie C

    2008-01-01

    nonimmunological contact urticaria was negative in 105 subjects. Repeat-insult patch test (RIPT) studies of nail colors and enamels containing 3% n-Butyl Alcohol in one study produced reactions on challenge, but further study linked significant positive reactions to another solvent. In other RIPT studies, only minimal reactions were reported. A photopatch test demonstrated that a nail enamel containing 3% n-Butyl Alcohol resulted in no reactions. Workers complained of ocular irritation, disagreeable odor, slight headache and vertigo, slight irritation of nose and throat, and dermatitis of the fingers and hands when the air concentration of n-Butyl Alcohol was greater than 50 ppm, as compared to an odor threshold in air of 0.83 ppm. The available safety test data were considered adequate to support the safety of n-Butyl Alcohol in all cosmetic product categories in which it is currently used.

  16. [Alcohol dependence in homeless men. Incidence, development and determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufeu, P; Podschus, J; Schmidt, L G

    1996-11-01

    Against the background of the complex relationship of alcoholism and homelessness, we investigated the question of whether homeless alcoholics and those with homes differed regarding biographical and clinical variables. Therefore, 49 of 72 (68.1%) homeless male visitors to a city kitchen in the center of Berlin, who had fulfilled the ICD-10 criteria for the alcohol-dependence syndrome, were compared with 141 outpatients of the addiction research unit of the Department of Psychiatry of the Free University of Berlin. It was found that homeless alcoholics had more psychosocial disadvantages than other alcoholics. They had been raised more frequently in families with an alcoholic father or mother and a higher number of children. The level of education and job qualification was lower in the homeless alcoholics. Early homelessness was predicted by a lack of sexual behavior (no partnership experienced) and a family history of alcoholism. In the interview, homeless alcoholics reported fewer symptoms of alcohol-dependence syndrome than other alcoholics; however, the first symptoms had been experienced earlier. Alcohol-related somatic and psychological consequences were reported more frequently in alcoholics with homes, whereas social problems were more common in the homeless subjects. The results are discussed in the light of methodological limitations and other reports on the topic.

  17. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Joel M; Weiss, Helen A; Mshana, Gerry; Baisley, Kathy; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi H

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD) among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers) in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza) of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB) method. A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users) than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users). Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females) and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females) followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8) than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners. Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  18. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Francis

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  19. Public Policies, Prices, and Productivity in American Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increases in what colleges charge and what they spend per student have been and remain one of the most controversial aspects of American higher education. Tuition, fees, and other college charges have increased in both the public and private sectors at more than twice the rate of inflation for over a quarter century. Trends over time in what…

  20. Modernisation of Higher Education in Europe 2014: Access, Retention and Employability. Eurydice Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosier, David; Horvath, Anna; Kerpanova, Viera; Kocanova, Daniela; Riiheläinen, Jari Matti

    2014-01-01

    The report sheds light on current national and institutional policies and practices aimed at increasing and widening access, reducing student dropout, and improving the employability of higher education graduates in Europe. The primary objective is to support Member States in their reform efforts by outlining and analysing national policies, and…

  1. The Changing Profile of College Students. ERIC/Higher Education Research Report No. 10, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; Scott, Craig S.

    This report reviews recent literature concerning enrollment trends in higher education and also presents the results of a recently completed extensive survey of student characteristics. In general, there is a declining rate of enrollment, while at the same time diversity among students is on the increase. This study should be of value to those…

  2. Environmental Reporting for Global Higher Education Institutions using the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J.; Alabaster, T.; Richardson, S.; Harrison, R.

    1997-01-01

    Proposes the value of voluntary environmental reporting by higher education institutions as an aid to implementing environmental policies. Suggests that the World Wide Web can provide a fast, up-to-date, flexible, participatory, multidimensional medium for information exchange and management. Contains 29 references. (PVD)

  3. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth De Francesco Daher

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Rhabdomyolysis is a severe and life-threatening condition in which skeletal muscle is damaged. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis has been widely described and its main pathophysiological mechanisms are renal vasoconstriction, intraluminal cast formation and direct myoglobin toxicity. OBJECTIVE: To report on a case of acute renal failure (ARF induced by rhabdomyolysis due to strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse and to describe the pathophysiology of this type of ARF. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old man arrived at the hospital emergency service with swollen legs and lower extremity compartment syndrome. He was oliguric and had serum creatinine and urea levels of 8.1 mg/dl and 195 mg/dl, respectively. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made through clinical and laboratory findings (creatine kinase activity of 26320 IU/l. The initial treatment consisted of fluid replacement and forced diuresis. The specific treatment for compartment syndrome, such as fasciotomy, was avoided in order to prevent infection. Partial recovery of renal function was recorded, after ten hemodialysis sessions. Complete recovery was observed after two months of follow-up.

  4. Reported Theory Use by Digital Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Consumption, and Association With Effectiveness: Meta-Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, David; Brown, Jamie; Kaner, Eileen; Beyer, Fiona; Muirhead, Colin; Hickman, Matthew; Redmore, James; de Vocht, Frank; Beard, Emma; Michie, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Background Applying theory to the design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. Objective The aim of this paper was to assess how digital interventions to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption report the use of theory in their development and evaluation, and whether reporting of theory use is associated with intervention effectiveness. Methods Randomized controlled trials were extracted from a Cochrane review on digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Reporting of theory use within these digital interventions was investigated using the theory coding scheme (TCS). Reported theory use was analyzed by frequency counts and descriptive statistics. Associations were analyzed with meta-regression models. Results Of 41 trials involving 42 comparisons, half did not mention theory (50% [21/42]), and only 38% (16/42) used theory to select or develop the intervention techniques. Significant heterogeneity existed between studies in the effect of interventions on alcohol reduction (I2=77.6%, Ptheory use and intervention effectiveness in unadjusted models, though the meta-regression was underpowered to detect modest associations. Conclusions Digital interventions offer a unique opportunity to refine and develop new dynamic, temporally sensitive theories, yet none of the studies reported refining or developing theory. Clearer selection, application, and reporting of theory use is needed to accurately assess how useful theory is in this field and to advance the field of behavior change theories. PMID:29490895

  5. Brief report: The Brief Alcohol Social Density Assessment (BASDA): convergent, criterion-related, and incremental validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Acker, John D; Bollinger, Jared; Clifton, Allan; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Goodie, Adam S

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol misuse is substantially influenced by social factors, but systematic assessments of social network drinking are typically lengthy. The goal of the present study was to provide further validation of a brief measure of social network alcohol use, the Brief Alcohol Social Density Assessment (BASDA), in a sample of emerging adults. Specifically, the study sought to examine the BASDA's convergent, criterion, and incremental validity in relation to well-established measures of drinking motives and problematic drinking. Participants were 354 undergraduates who were assessed using the BASDA, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Drinking Motives Questionnaire. Significant associations were observed between the BASDA index of alcohol-related social density and alcohol misuse, social motives, and conformity motives, supporting convergent validity. Criterion-related validity was supported by evidence that significantly greater alcohol involvement was present in the social networks of individuals scoring at or above an AUDIT score of 8, a validated criterion for hazardous drinking. Finally, the BASDA index was significantly associated with alcohol misuse above and beyond drinking motives in relation to AUDIT scores, supporting incremental validity. Taken together, these findings provide further support for the BASDA as an efficient measure of drinking in an individual's social network. Methodological considerations as well as recommendations for future investigations in this area are discussed.

  6. Drugs, Alcohol and Pregnancy: Parents and Children At Risk. Emerging Issues. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Stacie Alexander

    The effects of drug and alcohol use by pregnant women which concern state policymakers are discussed in this booklet. Topics discussed include: (1) the effects of fetal alcohol syndrome on infants and children, as well as the effects on children of drug use by mothers during pregnancy; (2) initiatives aimed at helping these children; (3) women…

  7. Four Years of Reports of Alcohol-Related Harm to Pediatricians in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; van Zanten, Eva; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2015-01-01

    Over the four years of the study, the number of adolescents treated with alcohol-related harm increased significantly (from 297 in 2007 to 684 in 2010), up to a total of 1,616. The dominant reason for hospitalization was “alcohol intoxication” (in total 1,350; 88% of all cases). The gender ratio did

  8. The Effect of Alcohol and Private Self-Consciousness on Self-Report of Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Ken

    Many studies have supported the finding that alcohol consumption may lead to socially inappropriate behaviors. One theory which appears promising in accounting for the effects of intoxication is Hull's (1981) self-consciousness theory which is based on the idea that alcohol consumption affects behavior indirectly as a result of its effect on…

  9. [Alcohol drinking in the time of political transition in Poland. Report of the National Health Programme ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalewicz, Jacek; Zulewska-Sak, Justyna

    2003-01-01

    The National Health Programme was adopted in Poland in the mid-1990s. It consists of 18 targets including target 4 that calls for diminishing alcohol consumption and changing its structure as well as limiting health harms associated with alcohol. The programme is being monitored on bi-annual basis. The monitoring covers a level of alcohol consumption and associated harm including trends in mortality and morbidity as well as in road accidents in 1990-2001 period. During the period in point, particularly in the beginning of the transition alcohol consumption increased at least by one third reaching 10-11 litres of pure ethanol per capita, mostly due to sudden disruption of the alcohol control system and high tide of unrecorded supply. Currently, the consumption is estimated to be 9.5-10.0 litres with 30% share of the unrecorded. During last decade recorded morbidity due to mental disorders associated with alcohol increased by 80% and 60% respectively in out- and in-patient system while mortality rates almost doubled. Male mortality due to liver diseases increased by 50% while that of women remained relatively flat. In last few years, alcohol related mortality tended to decline slightly parallel to consumption trends. Significant improvement has been achieved in prevention of drunken diving. The number of deaths in alcohol related road accidents decreased two fold while a rate of drunken crashes per 1000 vehicles dropped three times.

  10. Reported Changes in Students' Alcohol Consumption Following a Brief Education of What Constitutes a Standard Drink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Kilmer, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Intercept surveys were conducted with 149 college students each asked to record their alcohol consumption for the previous two weeks using the Timeline Follow-back (TLFB method). Immediately following completion of the pretest TLFB alcohol survey the students were presented with brief educational information defining what constitutes one standard…

  11. Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume I. Adults 18-55. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

    The first part of a two-part, two volume study deals with adults aged 18-55 and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Fully 54% of adult Americans participate once a month in social or business situations where alcohol is served. They are termed Alcohol Related…

  12. Methanol and ethanol from lignocellulosic Swedish wood fuels - Main report. Comparison of the costs of alcohols from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, N.; Ekstroem, C.; Oestman, A.; Rensfelt, E.

    1994-06-01

    Swedish wood fuel has a considerable volume and, apart from the utilization today, its use in year 2010 is estimated to amount to 75 TWh/year. Wood fuel can be converted to the alcohols methanol or ethanol and, as such, can be utilized as fuels or components capable of replacing petrol or diesel. This comparison of costs in producing methanol or ethanol from 250 000 tonnes DM of wood fuel using technology available today, or similar levels of technology, shows that methanol can be produced for about 2 SEK/1 (about 450 SEK/MWh) and ethanol for about 4,85 SEK/1 (825 SEK/MWh). The world market price today is around 1 SEK/1 for methanol and 2.60-2.80 SEK/1 for ethanol. Investment and production costs for the two types of production plants do not differ to any particular extent. The investment cost in the methanol plant is about 20 per cent higher, whereas production and maintenance costs are more than 20 per cent higher for ethanol. The explanation of considerable difference in production costs is, instead, primarily the difference in alcohol yield and secondarily the difference in the total efficiency. The valuation of secondary products, particularly lignin fuel from the ethanol process, is also important. The alcohols can be used as propellant fuels in several different ways as admixture components or as pure fuels. It is concluded that there are quality differences between the alcohols that can influence the driving capacity, emissions and which also affect the value of the alcohols. Among the uncertainties that particularly require more penetrating studies are questions dealing with health aspects related to the higher emissions of formaldehyde when used as an engine fuel, total environmental and health influence of ethanol emission, and the contents of polluting substances in lignin fuel that affect its range of use and its value. 25 figs, 29 tabs

  13. Early Intervention Programs. Opening the Door to Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report Vol. 25, No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; Geranios, Christine A.; Keller, Jonathan E.; Moore, David E.

    This report addresses issues related to the increasing growth of early intervention programs to encourage high school graduation and college attendance among students from low-income and minority groups. It first presents a brief review of the societal goals of equality for the nation's education system. It then defines the programs "early…

  14. Self-reported alcohol intake in pregnancy: comparison between four methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, U; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE To assess the agreement between four different measures of alcohol intake in pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING Danish speaking pregnant women referred to the Midwife Centre in Aarhus, Denmark, for routine antenatal care were contacted at their first visit at approximately 15–16 weeks...... combining the methods. CONCLUSIONS When assessing the distribution of alcohol intake in pregnancy or when studying adverse pregnancy outcomes that are probably caused mainly by sustained exposure it seems that for pregnant women with low to moderate alcohol intake diaries or an average measure from...... gestation from October to December 1998. The women were interviewed about current average alcohol intake and intake within the previous week, and subsequently filled in a two week diary on alcohol intake. When booking for delivery at the end of the first trimester the women were also asked to complete...

  15. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  16. A utilitarian comparison of two alcohol use biomarkers with self-reported drinking history collected in antenatal clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Hasken, Julie M; De Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Stegall, Julie M; Marsden, Daniel; Parry, Charles D H; Seedat, Soraya; Tabachnick, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol use is reported accurately among pregnant women in some populations. Self-reported alcohol use via the AUDIT and 90-day recall for 193 women from antenatal clinics was compared to biomarker results: phosphatidylethanol (PEth) from bloodspots and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in fingernails. AUDIT was positive for 67.9% of respondents, and 65.3% directly reported drinking. Individual biomarkers detected less drinking (PEth = 57.0%, EtG = 38.9%) than self-report. But 64.8% had drinking-positive values (>8 ng) on one or both biomarkers, which was not significantly different from self-report. Biomarkers indicated that 3.1% -6.8% of drinkers denied drinking. Combined biomarker sensitivity was 95% -80% and specificity 49% -76% for drinking in the previous 7-90 days. Combined biomarker results have their best yield (89.6%) and accuracy (78.8%) when measuring 90 day drinking. Women reported their alcohol use accurately, and the combined use of PEth and EtG is supported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. State Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Testing and Reporting for Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes : Current Practices, Results, and Strategies, 1997-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report documents current State blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting practices and results for drivers involved in fatal crashes. It summarizes known BAC results by State for the years 1997 to 2009 for both fatally injured and ...

  18. The association between alcohol exposure and self-reported health status: the effect of separating former and current drinkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Liang

    Full Text Available To investigate the direction and degree of potential bias introducedto analyses of drinking and health status which exclude former drinkers from exposure groups.Pooled analysis of 14 waves (1997-2010 of the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS.General population-based study.404,462 participants, from 14 waves of the NHIS, who had knownself-reported health status and alcohol consumption status.Self-reported health status was used as the indicatorof health. Two approaches were used to classify alcohol consumption: (i separation of former drinkers and current drinkers, and (ii combined former and current drinkers. The prevalence of fair/poor health by alcohol use, gender and age with 95% confidence intervals was estimated. The difference in prevalence of fair/poor health status for lifetime abstainers, former drinkers, current drinkers and drinkers (former drinkers and current drinkers combined were compared using Poisson regression with robust estimations of variance.Excluding former drinkers from drinker groups exaggerates the difference in health status between abstainers and drinkers, especially for males.In cohort study analyses, former drinkers should be assigned to a drinking category based on their previous alcohol consumption patterns and not treated as a discrete exposure group.

  19. Negative mood-induced alcohol-seeking is greater in young adults who report depression symptoms, drinking to cope, and subjective reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Hardy, Lorna; Mathew, Amanda R; Hitsman, Brian

    2018-04-01

    Acute negative mood powerfully motivates alcohol-seeking behavior, but it remains unclear whether sensitivity to this effect is greater in drinkers who report depression symptoms, drinking to cope, and subjective reactivity. To examine these questions, 128 young adult alcohol drinkers (ages 18-25) completed questionnaires of alcohol use disorder symptoms, depression symptoms, and drinking to cope with negative affect. Baseline alcohol choice was measured by preference to enlarge alcohol versus food thumbnail images in two-alternative forced-choice trials. Negative mood was then induced by depressive statements and music, before alcohol choice was tested. Subjective reactivity was indexed by increased sadness pre- to post-mood induction. Baseline alcohol choice correlated with alcohol dependence symptoms (p = .001), and drinking coping motives (ps ≤ .01). Mood induction increased alcohol choice and subjective sadness overall (ps choice was associated with depression symptoms (p = .007), drinking to cope (ps ≤ .03), and subjective reactivity (p = .007). The relationship between mood-induced alcohol choice and drinking to cope remained significant after covarying for other drinking motives. Furthermore, the three predictors (depression, drinking to cope, and subjective reactivity) accounted for unique variance in mood-induced alcohol choice (ps ≥ .03), and collectively accounted for 18% of the variance (p choice task as sensitive to the relative value of alcohol and acute negative mood. The findings also accord with the core prediction of negative reinforcement theory that sensitivity to the motivational impact of negative mood on alcohol-seeking behavior may be an important mechanism that links depression and alcohol dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Brief report: the influence of dissociative experiences and alcohol/drugs dependence on Internet addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Biolcati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to investigate the influence of dissociative experiences and alcohol/drugs dependence on Internet addiction. From a clinical point of view Internet addiction, an excessive or poorly controlled preoccupation, urges, and/or behaviors regarding Internet use, lead to emotional and social problems in several life domains. Moreover, the increased prevalence of Internet addiction among adolescents and young adults is cause of concerns. Data was collected on 441 undergraduate students (285 female, aging from 18 to 36, using an assessment self-reporting set consisting of the Young’s Internet Addiction Test, the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire and the Dissociative Experience Scale. Results converging for the three psychological phenomena involved are interrelated, corroborating the hypothesis of the search for an altered state of consciousness as their common underlying mechanism. Findings show that the tendency to escape from reality, through dissociation and substance abuse, are risk factors for Internet addiction in youngsters. The implications of these results are discussed in a preventive and clinical perspective.

  1. The effect of alcohol price on dependent drinkers' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Carolyn; Christie, Grant; Zhou, Lifeng; King, Julian

    2015-12-18

    To investigate the current purchasing behaviours of a group of dependent drinkers and their potential response to future increases in the price of alcohol. 115 clients undergoing medical detoxification completed an anonymous survey about their daily alcohol consumption, its cost, their response to potential price increases and strategies previously used when unable to afford alcohol. Mean and median number of standard drinks consumed per day was 24, at a median cost of $25 NZD (95%CI $22, $30). Thirty-six per cent (95%CI 26%, 46%) of the group bought alcohol at $1 or less per standard drink, and the median number of drinks consumed per day (30) by this group was significantly higher (p=0.0028) than the rest of the sample (22.5). The most common strategy used if no money was available to purchase alcohol was to forgo essentials. If facing a potential price rise, 77% (95%CI 69%, 85%) would switch wholly or partially to a cheaper product and 13% (95%CI 8%, 21%) would cut down their drinking. Although the majority of our group would be financially impacted by an increase in the minimum price per standard drink, any potential impacts would be most significant in those buying the cheapest alcohol (who also drink the most), suggesting that minimum pricing may be an important harm minimisation strategy in this group. A minimum price per standard drink would limit the possibility of switching to an alternate cheaper product and likely result in an overall reduction in alcohol consumption in this group. Stealing alcohol, or the use of non-beverage alcohol, were seldom reported as previous strategies used in response to unaffordable alcohol and fears of such are not valid reasons for rejecting minimum pricing to reduce general population consumption.

  2. Impulsivity in abstinent early- and late-onset alcoholics: differences in self-report measures and a discounting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dom, G; D'haene, P; Hulstijn, W; Sabbe, B

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that early-onset alcoholics (EOAs) can be differentiated from late-onset alcoholics (LOAs) by more severe substance-related problems and higher levels of impulsivity and aggression. A cross-sectional patient survey with a community comparison group. The European Addiction Severity Index was used to assess substance-related problems and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Dutch version of the Zuckermann Sensation Seeking Scale and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory were used to assess impulsive and aggressive traits. Impulsive decision making was assessed using a delay discounting task (DDT) with hypothetical monetary rewards. Participants were EOAs (n = 42) and LOAs (n = 46) recruited from an addiction treatment centre and an unmatched, non-substance-abusing comparison group (n = 54). Findings The EOAs had higher levels of impulsive decision making than both the LOAs and the comparison group. The EOAs had higher scores than the LOAs on measures of impulsiveness, aggressiveness and the severity of substance-related problems. This study provides evidence that EOAs are more impulsive and aggressive than LOAs. Further identification of alcoholism subtypes based on dimensions of impulsivity should be considered in the light of their relationship with pharmacological and behavioural treatment interventions.

  3. NEDO hydrogen, alcohol, and biomass technology subcommittee. 18th project report meeting; NEDO suiso alcohol biomass gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A report is delivered by Morio Murase, a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) director, in which the general situation of hydrogen, alcohol, and biomass technology development is explained. Concerning the research and development of international clean energy system of hydrogen, the WE-NET (World Energy Network) project is described, in which a total system concept design and cryogenic structural materials that are the fruits of the 1st phase are mentioned. Concerning the 2nd phase, research and development to be conducted are discussed, and reports are delivered thereon. Reported concerning the development of high-efficiency refuse-fueled power generation technology are a demonstration test using a pilot plant and a superheater demonstration test. Concerning the research and development for the advanced clear energy vehicle project, a development program is reported for an energy-efficient, low-pollution vehicle which is a combination of a hybrid mechanism and clean energy. Reported also is the research and development of supercritical fluid utilization, in which the reaction of supercritical water upon addition of solvent, its oxidation and hydrogenation, and so forth, are explained. (NEDO)

  4. Parental Divorce and Family History of Alcohol Disorder: Associations with Young Adults' Alcohol Problems, Marijuana Use, and Interpersonal Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Windle, Rebecca C

    2018-06-01

    This study used prospective data from 706 young adults to evaluate the impact of parental divorce and family history of alcoholism (FH+) on the outcomes of offspring alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships with parents. Assessments of parental divorce were based on parent reports, and young adult outcomes were collected from an offspring cohort (n = 706; X age = 33.25 years; females = 53%) via computer-based individual interviews (CAPI and ACASI). Family history of alcohol disorders for parents was based on assessments by mothers, fathers, and young adults. Parental divorce significantly predicted marijuana use but not alcohol problems. Maternal, but not paternal, alcoholism also significantly predicted marijuana use. Two-way interactions indicated that sex moderated several of the relationships. For example, among those with divorced parents, daughters reported higher levels of conflict with fathers than sons, and sons reported lower levels of maternal support than daughters. Paternal alcoholism was also associated with higher levels of alcohol problems among sons relative to daughters. There was also a significant 2-way interaction between divorce status and maternal alcoholism indicating that young adults who experienced both maternal alcoholism and parental divorce had the highest levels of marijuana use. These findings highlight the role that parental divorce and FH+ have on alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships in young adulthood, and how sex may moderate some of these more nuanced relationships. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. The effect of increased branched-chain amino acid transaminase activity in yeast on the production of higher alcohols and on the flavour profiles of wine and distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Mariska; Bauer, Florian F; Styger, Gustav; Lambrechts, Marius G; Pretorius, Isak S

    2006-08-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, branched-chain amino acid transaminases (BCAATases) are encoded by the BAT1 and BAT2 genes. BCAATases catalyse the transfer of amino groups between those amino acids and alpha-keto-acids. alpha-Keto-acids are precursors for the biosynthesis of higher alcohols, which significantly influence the aroma and flavour of yeast-derived fermentation products. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of BAT-gene expression on general yeast physiology, on aroma and flavour compound formation and on the sensory characteristics of wines and distillates. For this purpose, the genes were overexpressed and deleted in a laboratory strain, BY4742, and overexpressed in an industrial wine yeast strain, VIN13. The data show that, with the exception of a slow growth phenotype observed for the BAT1 deletion strain, the fermentation behaviour of the strains was unaffected by the modifications. The chemical and sensory analysis of fermentation products revealed a strong correction between BAT gene expression and the formation of many aroma compounds. The data suggest that the adjustment of BAT gene expression could play an important role in assisting winemakers in their endeavour to produce wines with specific flavour profiles.

  6. Alcohol-related hot-spot analysis and prediction : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This project developed methods to more accurately identify alcohol-related crash hot spots, ultimately allowing for more effective and efficient enforcement and safety campaigns. Advancements in accuracy came from improving the calculation of spatial...

  7. Gender differences in prevalence, risk, and clinical correlates of alcoholism comorbidity in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frye, MA; Altshuler, LL; McElroy, SL; Suppes, T; Keck, PE; Denicoff, K; Nolen, WA; Kupka, R; Leverich, GS; Pollio, C; Grunze, H; Walden, J; Post, RM

    Objective: The prevalence of lifetime alcohol abuse and/or dependence (alcoholism) in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be higher than in all other axis I psychiatric diagnoses. This study examined gender-specific relationships between alcoholism and bipolar illness, which have

  8. Injuries, negative consequences, and risk behaviors among both injured and uninjured emergency department patients who report using alcohol and marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolard Robert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brief intervention (BI to reduce hazardous drinking and negative consequences such as injury has been effective when given in the emergency department (ED. The effectiveness and effect of BI has varied between injured and uninjured ED patients. This study compares injured and uninjured ED patients who admit to alcohol and marijuana use to determine their need and their readiness for BI. Patients and Methods: Participants volunteered to enter a randomized controlled trial of BI to reduce hazardous alcohol and marijuana use. Adult ED patients who had had alcohol in the last month and smoked marijuana in the last year were recruited. Those patients who were admitted to hospital, were under police custody, or were seeking treatment for substance use or psychiatric disorder were excluded. Research assistants interviewed participants using a validated questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SAS (version 9.1. Binominal tests of proportions, t-test analyses, and transformations were conducted as appropriate. Results: Injured (n = 249 and uninjured (n = 266 study participants reported very high, statistically equivalent (P > 0.05, rates of binge drinking (4-5 days/month, marijuana use (13 days/month, driving under the influence of marijuana or alcohol (>49% in the last 3 months, injury (>83% in the last year, and other negative consequences (>64% in the last 3 months prior to their ED visit. These behaviors and the consequences demonstrate a need for change. Both injured and uninjured subjects were ready to change (>56% and confident they could change (>91% alcohol and marijuana use. Discussion: ED patients who admit to alcohol and marijuana use also use other hazardous substances and participate in high-risk behaviors. In both injured and uninjured patients who admit using alcohol and marijuana, the ED visit is an opportunity to deliver BI to reduce alcohol and marijuana use and associated risk behaviors and the subsequent injury and

  9. Design report small-scale fuel alcohol plant. Volume 2: Detailed construction information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    The objectives are to provide potential alcohol producers with a reference design and provide a complete, demonstrated design of a small scale fuel alcohol plant. The plant has the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, by-product dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention.

  10. Parent-child discrepancies in reports of parental monitoring and their relationship to adolescent alcohol-related behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies between parents and adolescents regarding parenting behaviors have been hypothesized to represent a deficit in the parent-child relationship and may represent unique risk factors for poor developmental outcomes. The current study examined the predictive utility of multiple methods for characterizing discrepancies in parents’ and adolescents’ reports of parental monitoring on youth alcohol use behaviors in order to inform future study design and predictive modeling. Data for the current study came from a prospective investigation of alcohol initiation and progression. The analyzed sample consisted of 606 adolescents (6th – 8th grade; 54% female) and their parents were surveyed at baseline, with youth followed up 12 months later. A series of hierarchical logistic regressions were performed for each monitoring-related construct examined (parental knowledge, parental control, parental solicitation, and child disclosure). The results showed that adolescents’ reports were more closely related to outcomes than parents’ reports, while greater discrepancies were frequently found to be uniquely associated with greater likelihood of alcohol use behaviors. Implications for future work incorporating parents’ and adolescents’ reports are discussed. PMID:24964878

  11. Reported credibility techniques in higher education evaluation studies that use qualitative methods: A research synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongjing; Hitchcock, John

    2018-06-01

    This synthesis study examined the reported use of credibility techniques in higher education evaluation articles that use qualitative methods. The sample included 118 articles published in six leading higher education evaluation journals from 2003 to 2012. Mixed methods approaches were used to identify key credibility techniques reported across the articles, document the frequency of these techniques, and describe their use and properties. Two broad sets of techniques were of interest: primary design techniques (i.e., basic), such as sampling/participant recruitment strategies, data collection methods, analytic details, and additional qualitative credibility techniques (e.g., member checking, negative case analyses, peer debriefing). The majority of evaluation articles reported use of primary techniques although there was wide variation in the amount of supporting detail; most of the articles did not describe the use of additional credibility techniques. This suggests that editors of evaluation journals should encourage the reporting of qualitative design details and authors should develop strategies yielding fuller methodological description. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcohol Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol usewithin 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-Americanand Latino emergency department (ED patients.Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all EDpatients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcoholuse and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variablenegative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion ofinteraction terms.Results: The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error¼0.11 sexual partnersin the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol beforesex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number ofsexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners inthe past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol beforesex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio¼3.2; confidenceinterval [CI]¼1.9–5.6. The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partnersis dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months.Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of thiseffect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers.Conclusion: Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were morelikely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burdenof sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences ofrisky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and

  13. Alcohol consumption and attitudes towards banning alcohol sales on campus among European university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C; Mikolajczyk, R; Bloomfield, K; Maxwell, A E; Ozcebe, H; Petkeviciene, J; Naydenova, V; Marin-Fernandez, B; El-Ansari, W; Krämer, A

    2009-02-01

    The European Commission's new health strategy for improving health at the European Union (EU) level includes tackling alcohol consumption. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption and problem drinking, as well as students' attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. In total, 5826 students from universities in seven European countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria and Turkey) took part in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemographic information, frequency of alcohol consumption, problem drinking and attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. The highest prevalence of drinking alcohol more than once per week was reported in Bulgarian (males 46%, females 64%) and Spanish students (males 59%, females 64%). Among those students who drank alcohol (n=3170), problem drinking (CAGE score >1) was found in 24% of males and 13% of females. Male gender, depressive moods and a low importance of good grades at university were risk factors for drinking alcohol more than once per week as well as for problem drinking. There were substantial country differences in the proportion of students who would support a ban of alcohol sales on campus (23% in Denmark, 88% in Poland). Support for a ban was higher among female students and among students who drank alcohol once or less per week. Problem drinking is a concern among students in many European countries, especially among males. Students' support for banning the sale of alcohol on campus varies between countries and should be considered in developing EU policy.

  14. Prenatal alcohol use: the role of lifetime problems with alcohol, drugs, depression, and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Heather A; Chermack, Stephen T

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a broader array of lifetime factors that theoretically may be associated with prenatal alcohol use than have previously been studied together, including family history of alcohol-use problems, history of physical or sexual abuse, lifetime major depressive disorder, alcohol-use disorder, illicit-drug-use problems, and partner violence. A total of 186 pregnant women, all of whom used alcohol in the year before pregnancy, were initially recruited in prenatal care settings. Women who reported no prenatal alcohol use (n = 96) were compared with women who drank 1-10 standard drinks during pregnancy (n = 75) and with women who drank more than 10 standard drinks during pregnancy (n = 13), considered to be a higher risk group, on the lifetime risk variables. Because of the public health implications, secondary analyses compared women who abstained during pregnancy with those who used any alcohol. Significant intercorrelations were found among most of the lifetime risk factors studied. Multivariate analyses showed that drug-use problems and partner violence were most strongly associated with prenatal alcohol use than any other variable studied. Consistent with a life span risk framework for alcohol-use problems, results of this study show that childhood abuse, familial alcoholism, lifetime major depressive disorder, and alcohol- and drug-use problems are interrelated. However, when considered together, only lifetime partner violence and drug use are significantly related to various levels of prenatal alcohol use. Identification, assessment, and intervention efforts should integrate these important factors.

  15. InDEx: Open Source iOS and Android Software for Self-Reporting and Monitoring of Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leightley, Daniel; Puddephatt, Jo-Anne; Goodwin, Laura; Rona, Roberto; Fear, Nicola T

    2018-03-23

    InDEx is a software package for reporting and monitoring alcohol consumption via a smartphone application. Consumption of alcohol is self-reported by the user, and the app provides a visual representation of drinking behaviour and offers feedback on consumption levels compared to the general population. InDEx is intended as an exemplar app, operating as a standalone smartphone application and is highly customisable for a variety of research domains. InDEx is written in JavaScript, using IONIC framework which is cross-platform and is available under the liberal GNU General Public License (v3). The software is available from GitHub (https://github.com/DrDanL/index-app-public).

  16. Social motivation in prospective memory: higher importance ratings and reported performance rates for social tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penningroth, Suzanna L; Scott, Walter D; Freuen, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have addressed social motivation in prospective memory (PM). In a pilot study and two main studies, we examined whether social PM tasks possess a motivational advantage over nonsocial PM tasks. In the pilot study and Study 1, participants listed their real-life important and less important PM tasks. Independent raters categorized the PM tasks as social or nonsocial. Results from both studies showed a higher proportion of tasks rated as social when important tasks were requested than when less important tasks were requested. In Study 1, participants also reported whether they had remembered to perform each PM task. Reported performance rates were higher for tasks rated as social than for those rated as nonsocial. Finally, in Study 2, participants rated the importance of two hypothetical PM tasks, one social and one nonsocial. The social PM task was rated higher in importance. Overall, these findings suggest that social PM tasks are viewed as more important than nonsocial PM tasks and they are more likely to be performed. We propose that consideration of the social relevance of PM will lead to a more complete and ecologically valid theoretical description of PM performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Social Skills, Competence, and Drug Refusal Efficacy as Predictors of Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Diaz, Tracy; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the extent to which assertiveness and related social skills, personal competence, and refusal efficacy predict alcohol involvement in adolescents. Males were at higher risk for poor refusal skills and reported higher alcohol involvement. Youth characterized by poor social skill development reported lower refusal efficacy, lower grades,…

  18. If you're high status and you know it: Teasing apart the within- and between-person effects of peer- and self-reported status in the drinking group on alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M; Davis, Jordan P; Merrin, Gabriel J; Puccia, Maria; Blustein, Dayna

    2018-05-01

    In this longitudinal study, we disentangled within- and between-persons effects in the relationship between university students' status in their drinking group and alcohol-related behavior. We further examined the role of self-perceived and peer-reported status, with the hypothesis that only when students' peers reported them as of a higher status, and they were aware of their high status (via self-report), would they experience increased heavy episodic drinking (HED). University students (N = 118; Mage = 19.40, SD = 1.49; 60.2% women) were recruited in their natural drinking groups (N = 27). All group members completed surveys at 3 time points during the school year, each 2 months apart. We fitted a taxonomy of multilevel growth curve models predicting students' self-reported HED and the extent to which they encouraged other group members to consume alcohol (peer-reported). Between-persons results demonstrated that students who reported higher status compared to their group members experienced more HED on average and students who were peer-reported as of a higher status relative to their group members played a more salient role in encouraging others to drink. Notably, and consistent with hypotheses, a within-person interaction revealed that at time points when students were higher in peer-reported status relative to their average, and they were aware of their increase in status (via self-reports), they also engaged in more HED. Results emphasize the importance of considering within-person effects and highlight the need for university alcohol-prevention programming to focus on students' status-related motives and concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Menstrual disturbances and fertility in chronic alcoholic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Tønnesen, H; Kaas-Claesson, N

    1989-01-01

    . 28%, P less than 0.001) and miscarriages (23% vs. 8%, P less than 0.05) than controls, but due to a higher number of pregnancies in the alcoholic group the proportion of abortions and miscarriages did not differ significantly. No differences existed between the groups regarding frequency of difficult......Data on menstrual pattern, gynecological disorders and infertility were obtained from 51 chronic alcoholic women aged 20--42 years attending an outpatient clinic for alcoholics, using 51 randomly drawn age-matched healthy women as controls. A higher variability (P less than 0.05) in the duration...... of both menstrual cycle and menstrual flow was recorded in the chronic alcoholic women during active alcoholism. A higher frequency (P less than 0.05) of menstrual disturbances (70% vs. 55%) and uterine curettages (38% vs. 16%) were found in the alcoholic women. The latter reported more abortions (63% vs...

  20. Alcohol drinking, mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, and alcohol metabolic genotypes in drunk drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanello, Sofia; Snenghi, Rossella; Nalesso, Alessandro; Sartore, Daniela; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Montisci, Massimo

    2012-02-01

    Regular and irregular abuse of alcohol are global health priorities associated with diseases at multiple sites, including cancer. Mechanisms of diseases induced by alcohol are closely related to its metabolism. Among conventional markers of alcohol abuse, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of erythrocytes is prognostic of alcohol-related cancer and its predictivity increases when combined with functional polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B [rs1229984] and ADH1C [rs698]) and the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2 [rs671]). Whether these genetic variants can influence abuse in alcohol drinking and MCV has never been examined in drunk-driving traffic offenders. We examined 149 drunk drivers, diagnosed as alcohol abusers according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and enrolled in a probation program, and 257 social drinkers (controls), all Caucasian males. Alcohol intake was assessed according to self-reported drink-units/d and MCV unadjusted and adjusted for age, smoking, and body mass index. Multivariable models were used to compute MCV adjusted means. Genotype analyses were performed by PCR on DNA from blood. The adjusted MCV mean was higher in drunk-driving abusers than in controls (92 vs. 91fL; Pdrunk-driving abusers (P=.008), reported higher drink-units/d (P=.0126), and had larger MCV (P=.035). The rs698 ADH1C and rs671 ALDH2 polymorphisms were not associated with MCV. ADH1B*1/*1 polymorphism is significantly associated with being a drunk-driving abuser, higher alcohol drinking, and MCV enlargement. This suggests that drunk drivers with augmented MCV modulated by the alcohol metabolic ADH1B*1/*1 genotype may be at higher risk of driving incapability and of alcohol-related cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reported Theory Use by Digital Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Consumption, and Association With Effectiveness: Meta-Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; Brown, Jamie; Kaner, Eileen; Beyer, Fiona; Muirhead, Colin; Hickman, Matthew; Redmore, James; de Vocht, Frank; Beard, Emma; Michie, Susan

    2018-02-28

    Applying theory to the design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. The aim of this paper was to assess how digital interventions to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption report the use of theory in their development and evaluation, and whether reporting of theory use is associated with intervention effectiveness. Randomized controlled trials were extracted from a Cochrane review on digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Reporting of theory use within these digital interventions was investigated using the theory coding scheme (TCS). Reported theory use was analyzed by frequency counts and descriptive statistics. Associations were analyzed with meta-regression models. Of 41 trials involving 42 comparisons, half did not mention theory (50% [21/42]), and only 38% (16/42) used theory to select or develop the intervention techniques. Significant heterogeneity existed between studies in the effect of interventions on alcohol reduction (I 2 =77.6%, Ptheory use and intervention effectiveness in unadjusted models, though the meta-regression was underpowered to detect modest associations. Digital interventions offer a unique opportunity to refine and develop new dynamic, temporally sensitive theories, yet none of the studies reported refining or developing theory. Clearer selection, application, and reporting of theory use is needed to accurately assess how useful theory is in this field and to advance the field of behavior change theories. ©Claire Garnett, David Crane, Jamie Brown, Eileen Kaner, Fiona Beyer, Colin Muirhead, Matthew Hickman, James Redmore, Frank de Vocht, Emma Beard, Susan Michie. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 28.02.2018.

  2. Validation of the alcohol use item banks from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Yu, Lan; Dodds, Nathan E; Johnston, Kelly L; Lawrence, Suzanne M; Daley, Dennis C

    2016-04-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) includes five item banks for alcohol use. There are limited data, however, regarding their validity (e.g., convergent validity, responsiveness to change). To provide such data, we conducted a prospective study with 225 outpatients being treated for substance abuse. Assessments were completed shortly after intake and at 1-month and 3-month follow-ups. The alcohol item banks were administered as computerized adaptive tests (CATs). Fourteen CATs and one six-item short form were also administered from eight other PROMIS domains to generate a comprehensive health status profile. After modeling treatment outcome for the sample as a whole, correlates of outcome from the PROMIS health status profile were examined. For convergent validity, the largest correlation emerged between the PROMIS alcohol use score and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (r=.79 at intake). Regarding treatment outcome, there were modest changes across the target problem of alcohol use and other domains of the PROMIS health status profile. However, significant heterogeneity was found in initial severity of drinking and in rates of change for both abstinence and severity of drinking during follow-up. This heterogeneity was associated with demographic (e.g., gender) and health-profile (e.g., emotional support, social participation) variables. The results demonstrated the validity of PROMIS CATs, which require only 4-6 items in each domain. This efficiency makes it feasible to use a comprehensive health status profile within the substance use treatment setting, providing important prognostic information regarding abstinence and severity of drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Uneven acute non-alcoholic fatty change of the liver after percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization in a patient with hilar cholangiocarcinoma - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Yi; Nojiri, Motoi; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Ebata, Tomoki; Mizuno, Takashi; Nagino, Masato

    2017-12-06

    Portal vein embolization is essential for patients with biliary cancer who undergo extended hepatectomy to induce hypertrophy of the future remnant liver. Over 830 patients have undergone the portal vein embolization at our institution since 1990. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an entity of hepatic disease characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes. It has a higher prevalence among persons with morbid obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Neither the mechanism of hepatic hypertrophy after portal vein embolization nor the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been fully elucidated. Some researchers integrated the evident insults leading to progression of fatty liver disease into the multiple-hit hypothesis. Among these recognized insults, the change of hemodynamic status of the liver was never mentioned. We present the case of a woman with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma who received endoscopic biliary drainage and presented to our institute for surgical consultation. A left trisectionectomy with caudate lobectomy and extrahepatic bile duct resection was indicated for curative treatment. To safely undergo left trisectionectomy, she underwent selective portal vein embolization of the liver, in which uneven acute fatty change subsequently developed. The undrained left medial sector of the liver with dilated biliary tracts was spared the fatty change. The patient underwent planned surgery without any major complications 6 weeks after the event and has since resumed a normal life. The discrepancies in fatty deposition in the different sectors of the liver were confirmed by pathologic interpretations. This is the first report of acute fatty change of the liver after portal vein embolization. The sparing of the undrained medial sector is unique and extraordinary. The images and pathologic interpretations presented in this report may inspire further research on how the change of hepatic total inflow after portal vein embolization can be

  4. Assertiveness Among Young Rural Adolescents: Relationship to Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence of higher prevalence rates for alcohol use among rural adolescents relative to urban adolescents. Strategies aimed at preventing adolescent alcohol use typically include the development of social skills to resist peer pressure; among the social skills frequently targeted is assertiveness. Self-report data were collected from a…

  5. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  6. Black American College Students Report Higher Memory of Love for Mothers in Childhood Than White Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence; Jackson, Corai E; Diaz, Jonathan C; Stepanova, Elena V; Herrera, Mario E

    2018-01-01

    Cultural differences between Black and White individuals in the South are connected to the inequitable history of the United States. We wondered if these cultural differences would translate to a particularly precious aspect of life: memories of love felt in childhood toward one's parents. Some past studies have shown that Whites score higher on parental attachment measures to parents than Blacks, while other studies show no significant differences. However, no previous study has ever measured memory of feelings of love in relation to differences between ethnicities. In this study, Black ( n = 124) and White ( n = 125) undergraduates self-reported the strength and frequency of their past feelings of love toward their mother and father in first, sixth, and ninth grade as well as their current feelings of love. Results suggested that Black students reported feeling more love for their mothers in first, sixth, and ninth grades compared to White students. These findings were not explained when we statistically adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, education levels, income, number of years spent living with mother or father, stress, or personality. Therefore, this relationship may be explained by unmeasured or unmeasurable cultural differences. The direction of this effect was in the opposite direction from what we expected based on past attachment research. Given the inequities in U.S. history and the current discussions around ethnicity and race in the United States, the finding that Blacks reported higher remembered feelings of love for their mothers in childhood is intriguing and worthy of dissemination and discussion.

  7. The Role of VET in Alcohol and Other Drugs Workforce Development: Survey Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidd, Ken; Carne, Amanda; Roche, Ann

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of vocational education and training qualifications as a workforce development strategy in the community services and health industries, a case study was undertaken of the alcohol and other drug sector. The project comprised of two parts: (1) An online survey to gain an understanding of employer's perceptions of and…

  8. [Regulatory policies on alcohol in Spain. Experience-based public health? 2008 SESPAS Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Granero, Lluís; Brugal, M Teresa

    2008-04-01

    The present article reviews the proposal for alcohol regulation made in Spain in 2006 by the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs and dropped a few months later as adverse positions took over the debate in the political arena and the media. The background to these regulations, as well as their components, the process, and the actors involved are analyzed, and the factors leading to this outcome are discussed. A comparison is made with the tobacco regulation initiative in 2005, which resulted in a regulatory law with a highly favorable impact on public health. The actors interested in promoting alcohol consumption and opposed to any regulation have a privileged institutional presence, generating powerful resistance. Although these regulatory proposals would have marginal impacts on their trade, wine growers and wineries have been the most visible forces against regulation and have had the greatest political and media impact. Equally, manipulated messages on the health benefits of alcohol use have fed arguments against regulation. The lack of political and media consensus in this case stands in contrast with the tobacco regulation process, in which a certain political consensus had previously been reached and the smoking prevention movement had permeated the media with preventive messages, framing the issue in terms favorable for regulation. To gain ground, the sectors interested in expanding public policies for the prevention of the harm caused by alcohol need greater cohesion and organization. Professional public health organizations can substantially contribute to this field.

  9. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  10. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  11. Who is watching user-generated alcohol posts on social media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erevik, Eilin K; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Vedaa, Øystein; Torsheim, Torbjørn

    2018-03-01

    To examine students' exposure to user-generated alcohol content on social media, and identify characteristics (i.e. demographics, personality traits, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions, and social media factors) associated with monthly or more frequent exposure. College/university students (N=11,236) in Bergen, Norway, completed a web-survey measuring exposure to alcohol on social media - both frequency and interpretations of alcohol content. The survey included questions regarding demographics, personality, alcohol-related cognitions, and general use of social media and alcohol. Binary logistic regressions were run to identify characteristics associated with monthly or more frequent exposure to alcohol-related posts on social media. A total of 96.7% had been exposed to alcohol-related posts, exposure to posts with a positive valence of alcohol were more frequently reported than exposure to content with a negative valence of alcohol. Reports of monthly or more frequent exposure to alcohol on social media were associated with a range of characteristics, among these younger age, being native Norwegian, lower extroversion and higher agreeableness and self-monitoring scores, higher alcohol use, stronger descriptive norms for alcohol use among online-friends, and more frequent logins to social media. Students' potential inflated alcohol norms (originating from social media) should be addressed. The results suggest that exposure may be determined by high alcohol use and membership in demographical groups associated with high alcohol use, an increased attentiveness towards others' behavior, and excessive social media use. Future studies investigating the relationship between alcohol exposure on social media and later alcohol use should control for such factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A review of public opinion towards alcohol controls in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livingstone Charles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing concern about the negative impact of alcohol on the Australian community has renewed calls for tighter regulatory controls. This paper reviews levels of and trends in public support for liquor control regulations, regulation of alcohol promotions, and alcohol pricing and taxation reforms in Australia between 1998 and 2009. Methods Six electronic databases and twenty public health and alcohol organisation websites were searched for research literature, reports and media releases describing levels of public support for alcohol controls. Only studies which randomly selected participants were included. Results Twenty-one studies were included in the review. The majority of the Australian public support most proposed alcohol controls. Levels of support are divided between targeted and universal controls. Conclusions Implementation of targeted alcohol policies is likely to be strongly supported by the Australian public, but universal controls are liable to be unpopular. Policy makers are provided with insights into factors likely to be associated with higher public support.

  13. Blood haemoglobin concentrations are higher in smokers and heavy alcohol consumers than in non-smokers and abstainers-should we adjust the reference range?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2009-01-01

    The blood haemoglobin concentration is one of the most frequently used laboratory parameters in clinical practice. There is evidence that haemoglobin levels are influenced by tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on haemoglobin.......001) and women (r = 0.08, p = 0.05). In non-smokers, alcohol consumption > 14 drinks/week and more than seven drinks/week for men and women, respectively, increased mean haemoglobin by 1.3% in men and by average 1.9% in women compared with those consuming a parts per thousand currency sign14 and less than...... small changes in haemoglobin do not justify the use of separate reference ranges in smokers and alcohol consumers....

  14. Behaviors, Attitudes and Knowledge of UNO Students Regarding Drugs, Alcohol and Tobacco: 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, David; Davis, Joe

    1989-01-01

    This report describes alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among 715 University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) students. The report focuses on drug use at the higher frequency levels, rather than reporting proportions who have ever used various drugs. The separate classes of drugs distinguished are alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, marijuana, and…

  15. Alcohol consumption and violence among Argentine adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mariaelena Pierobon; Mariam Barak; Sahel Hazrati; Kathryn H. Jacobsen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between alcohol and violence among Argentine youth. Methods: Data from the 2007 Argentina Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), a nationally representative survey of middle school students, were examined using age-adjusted logistic regression models. Results: Of the 1,328 participating students aged 13 to 15 years old, 51.9% reported drinking alcohol in the previous month, with higher rates among males (p = 0.04) and older s...

  16. Predictors of detection of alcohol use episodes using a transdermal alcohol sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nancy P; Meade, E B; Glynn, Tiffany R

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish the ability of the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) alcohol sensor to detect different levels of self-reported alcohol consumption, and to determine whether gender and body mass index, alcohol dependence, bracelet version, and age of bracelet influenced detection of alcohol use. Heavy drinking adults (N = 66, 46% female) wore the SCRAM for 1-28 days and reported their alcohol use in daily Web-based surveys. Participant reports of alcohol use were matched with drinking episodes identified from bracelet readings. On days when bracelets were functional, 690 drinking episodes were reported and 502 of those episodes (72.8%) were detected using sensor data. Using generalized estimating equations, we found no gender differences in detection of reported drinking episodes (77% for women, 69% for men). In univariate analyses, at the level of fewer than 5 drinks, women's episodes were more likely to be detected, likely because of the significantly higher transdermal alcohol concentration levels of these episodes, whereas at the level of 5 or more drinks, there was no gender difference in detection (92.6% for women, 93.4% for men). In multivariable analyses, no variables other than number of drinks significantly predicted alcohol detection. In summary, the SCRAM sensor is very good at detecting 5 or more drinks; performance of the monitor below this level was better among women because of their higher transdermal alcohol concentration levels. Individual person characteristics and bracelet features were not related to detection after number of drinks was included. Minimal bracelet malfunctions were noted.

  17. Alcohol use among amateur sportsmen in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Susan C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. Findings The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960 players completed questionnaires (72% response rate. Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2. Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90% were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31% of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3% reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking. Of those who (self completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7% had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6% of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.02, p Conclusions These male amateur sportsmen reported high rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  18. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: misconceptions, myths, and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Aufricht, Christoph; Alford, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Whilst energy drinks improve performance and feelings of alertness, recent articles suggest that energy drink consumption combined with alcohol may reduce perception of alcohol intoxication, or lead to increased alcohol or drug use. This review discusses the available scientific evidence on the effects of mixing energy drinks with alcohol. A literature search was performed using the keywords "energy drink and Red Bull(®)" and consulting Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Embase. There is little evidence that energy drinks antagonize the behavioral effects of alcohol, and there is no consistent evidence that energy drinks alter the perceived level of intoxication of people who mix energy drinks with alcohol. No clinically relevant cardiovascular or other adverse effects have been reported for healthy subjects combining energy drinks with alcohol, although there are no long-term investigations currently available. Finally, whilst several surveys have shown associations, there is no direct evidence that coadministration of energy drinks increases alcohol consumption, or initiates drug and alcohol dependence or abuse. Although some reports suggest that energy drinks lead to reduced awareness of intoxication and increased alcohol consumption, a review of the available literature shows that these views are not supported by direct or reliable scientific evidence. A personality with higher levels of risk-taking behavior may be the primary reason for increased alcohol and drug abuse per se. The coconsumption of energy drinks being one of the many expressions of that type of lifestyle and personality.

  19. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 8, 1 July, 1993--30 September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Task 1, the preparation of catalyst materials, is proceeding actively. At WVU, catalysts based on Mo are being prepared using a variety of approaches to alter the oxidation state and environment of the Mo. At UCC and P, copper-based zinc chromite spinel catalysts will be prepared and tested. The modeling of the alcohol-synthesis reaction in a membrane reactor is proceeding actively. Under standard conditions, pressure drop in the membrane reactor has been shown to be negligible. In Task 2, base case designs had previously been completed with a Texaco gasifier. Now, similar designs have been completed using the Shell gasifier. A comparison of the payback periods or production cost of these plants shows significant differences among the base cases. However, a natural gas only design, prepared for comparison purposes, gives a lower payback period or production cost. Since the alcohol synthesis portion of the above processes is the same, the best way to make coal-derived higher alcohols more attractive economically than natural gas-derived higher alcohols is by making coal-derived syngas less expensive than natural gas-derived syngas. The maximum economically feasible capacity for a higher alcohol plant from coal-derived syngas appears to be 32 MM bbl/yr. This is based on consideration of regional coal supply in the eastern US, coal transportation, and regional product demand. The benefits of economics of scale are illustrated for the base case designs. A value for higher alcohol blends has been determined by appropriate combination of RVP, octane number, and oxygen content, using MTBE as a reference. This analysis suggests that the high RVP of methanol in combination with its higher water solubility make higher alcohols more valuable than methanol.

  20. Individualized exercise prescription in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Martos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an individualized exercise programme on a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis case is presented. Before entering the programme the patient was treated with conventional recommendations on diet plus aerobic exercise during fourteen years, without major improvements of his analytical parameters. Two years after including him in a tailored exercise programme, aimed to fulfil the recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine, his blood markers of liver dysfunction and cardio-metabolic risk tended to improve. Consequently, our data support the idea that in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis the exercise-based therapeutic interventions should be individualized taking into account the cardio-respiratory and muscular fitness of the patient, rather than using generic behavioural recommendations.

  1. Predicting Heavy Alcohol Use in College Students: Interactions Among Socialization of Coping, Alcohol Use Onset, and Physiological Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Sarah; Abaied, Jamie; Wagner, Caitlin

    2016-05-01

    Early age at onset of alcohol use is a risk factor for later heavy alcohol use, but some individuals are buffered from this risk. To better understand this process, this study investigated the interactive contributions of parental coping suggestions, skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR), and age at onset of alcohol use on heavy alcohol use in college students. College students (N = 146, 77% female) reported their age at onset of alcohol use, frequency of recent heavy alcohol use, and their parents' coping suggestions; SCLR was monitored as participants completed a laboratory challenge task. In addition, students' parents (N = 73, 77% mothers) reported on their coping suggestions. Results indicated that in the presence of physiological risk only (blunted SCLR, late age at onset of alcohol use), higher frequencies of engagement and disengagement parental coping suggestions were protective against heavy alcohol use in college students. However, if both risk factors were present (blunted SCLR, early age at onset of alcohol use), more engagement suggestions predicted more heavy alcohol use among college students. These findings extend previous findings on the impact of parenting on heavy alcohol use among college students and provide novel evidence for the moderating role of sympathetic stress reactivity.

  2. Brief report: the influence of dissociative experiences and alcohol/drugs dependence on Internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Biolcati; Giacomo Mancini; Elena Trombini

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to investigate the influence of dissociative experiences and alcohol/drugs dependence on Internet addiction. From a clinical point of view Internet addiction, an excessive or poorly controlled preoccupation, urges, and/or behaviors regarding Internet use, lead to emotional and social problems in several life domains. Moreover, the increased prevalence of Internet addiction among adolescents and young adults is cause of concerns. Data was collected on 441 undergra...

  3. Common late-onset subcortical cerebral hemorrhage following excessive alcohol consumption: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incedayi, M.; Sivrioglu, A.; Velioglu, M.; Aribal, S.; Sonmez, G.; Basekim, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: 50 year old male patient who was suffering from cooperation disorder and bilaterally blindness was admitted to our emergency service. He was addicted to alcohol and had excessive alcohol consumption the day before. Cranial nonenhanced CT was normal. T2 weighed MR imaging performed at 1,5 T unit showed high signal intensity in bilateral putaminal foci. In this localization diffusion-weighed images (DWI) were hyperintense due to restricted diffusion and low ADC values. After two weeks, drowsiness and confusion were appeared suddenly. Cranial nonenhanced CT was showed extensive subcortical white matter and basal ganglia abnormalities consistent with edema and hemorrhagic changes. The patient was transferred to intensive care unit and died after one day. In methanol intoxication, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebellar necrosis, diffuse cerebral edema, bilateral subcortical white matter necrosis and edema were defined It should also be known that 2 or 3 weeks after ingestion of methyl alcohol, the deterioration of the patient's general situation is responsible for cerebral subcortical hemorrhage. We have also thought that patients' mortality and morbidity can be reduced with radiological imaging due to early diagnosis

  4. Racial/ethnic differences in the influence of cultural values, alcohol resistance self-efficacy, and alcohol expectancies on risk for alcohol initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Regina A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S; Zhou, Annie J; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2012-09-01

    Prior research has reported racial/ethnic differences in the early initiation of alcohol use, suggesting that cultural values that are central to specific racial/ethnic groups may be influencing these differences. This 1-year longitudinal study examines associations between two types of cultural values, parental respect (honor for one's parents) and familism (connectedness with family), both measured at baseline, and subsequent alcohol initiation in a sample of 6,054 (approximately 49% male, 57% Hispanic, 22% Asian, 18% non-Hispanic White, and 4% non-Hispanic Black) middle school students in Southern California. We tested whether the associations of cultural values with alcohol initiation could be explained by baseline measures of alcohol resistance self-efficacy (RSE) and alcohol expectancies. We also explored whether these pathways differed by race/ethnicity. In the full sample, adolescents with higher parental respect were less likely to initiate alcohol use, an association that was partially explained by higher RSE and fewer positive alcohol expectancies. Familism was not significantly related to alcohol initiation. Comparing racial/ethnic groups, higher parental respect was protective against alcohol initiation for Whites and Asians, but not Blacks or Hispanics. There were no racial/ethnic differences in the association between familism and alcohol initiation. Results suggest that cultural values are important factors in the decision to use alcohol and these values appear to operate in part, by influencing alcohol positive expectancies and RSE. Interventions that focus on maintaining strong cultural values and building strong bonds between adolescents and their families may help reduce the risk of alcohol initiation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Self-poisoning with baclofen in alcohol-dependent patients: national reports to French Poison Control Centers, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissier, Fanny; de Haro, Luc; Cardona, Florence; Picot, Cyndie; Puskarczyk, Emmanuel; Sapori, Jean-Marc; Tournoud, Christine; Franchitto, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol use disorders are frequently associated with self-intoxication in attempted suicide. In France since 2008, the off-label use of baclofen for treatment of alcohol dependence has greatly increased, leading to temporary regulation of use of the drug. At the request of the national authorities, the French Poison Control Centers carried out a retrospective survey to give an overview of baclofen exposure in this population. A retrospective study was carried out from January 2008 to December 2013, focusing on baclofen exposures in alcohol-dependent patients managed by the nine national French Poison Control Centers. 294 observations of baclofen exposures in alcohol-dependent patients were identified in our database. Of these, 220 were suicide attempts by self-poisoning and 74 were unintentional. The mean age of patients was 41.7 years, with a sex-ratio of 1.6. Patients attempting suicide with baclofen were younger than those with unintentional exposures, and 43.6% of them were women (vs 22.9%, p < 0.01). The mean supposed ingested dose was higher (480.7 mg) in patients who attempted suicide (vs 192.5 mg, p < 0.0001). 21.8% of intentional exposures involved baclofen alone. Psychiatric comorbidity (50.4%) was more frequent in the group of self-poisoning (p < 0.001). 132 patients were coded as severely exposed (60.0%). Nine victims died, but the causal link between self-poisoning with baclofen and fatal outcome should be interpreted with particular caution. Baclofen self-poisoning by alcohol-dependent patients is a serious concern for the French health authorities. Our results are similar to those previously published, suggesting that most patients with baclofen overdose should be admitted to an intermediate or intensive care unit as the clinical course requires close monitoring. Because suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are more prevalent in people with substance use disorders than in the general population, and because of the lack of

  6. Self-control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske eKoordeman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: In movies alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals.Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30 watched a 1-hour movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  7. Self-control and the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on immediate alcohol consumption in male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  8. Mixing an energy drink with an alcoholic beverage increases motivation for more alcohol in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Henges, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Young, Chelsea R

    2013-02-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate whether the consumption of AmEDs would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone. Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended 1 session where they were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink [AmED], or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire for Drug questionnaire. The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of "desire" for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmEDs compared with alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions. An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Compendium on Financing of Higher Education: Final Report of the Financing the Students' Future Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Bethan; Charonis, George-Konstantinos; Haaristo, Hanna-Stella; Maurer, Moritz; Kaiser, Florian; Siegrist, Rahel; McVitty, Debbie; Gruber, Angelika; Heerens, Nik; Xhomaqi, Brikena; Nötzl, Tina; Semjonov, Meeli; Primožic, Rok

    2013-01-01

    Higher education plays a vital role in society and the quality, accessibility, and form of higher education is highly dependent on financing. Financing of higher education is conceived to be of central importance for the future creation and dissemination of knowledge and research. Therefore, the financing of higher education is a topic that has…

  10. FY 1998 annual report on the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo suiso alcohol biomass gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Murase, a NEDO's director, outlines R and D of techniques for hydrogen-utilizing international clean energy systems, high-efficiency power generation by wastes, reutilization of combustible wastes as fuels, high-efficiency clean energy vehicles and pioneer techniques for utilization of supercritical fluids, and commercialization of waste water treatment techniques for prevention of global warming, in the report entitled (General situations of the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology development group). The researchers presented the R and D results of development of externally circulating type fluidized bed, demonstration tests therefor by a pilot plant, phase 1 WE-NET project, phase 1 hydrogen-fueled turbine, phase 1 closed type high-efficiency gas turbine system equipped with a CO2 recovery system, and simple systems for cleaning up industrial wastes. (NEDO)

  11. Dry Eye Disease Patients with Xerostomia Report Higher Symptom Load and Have Poorer Meibum Expressibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostad, Ida G; Eidet, Jon R; Utheim, Tor P; Ræder, Sten; Lagali, Neil S; Messelt, Edvard B; Dartt, Darlene A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if xerostomia (dry mouth) is associated with symptoms and signs of dry eye disease (DED). At the Norwegian Dry Eye Clinic, patients with symptomatic DED with different etiologies were consecutively included in the study. The patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological work-up and completed self-questionnaires on symptoms of ocular dryness (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] and McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire) and the Sjögren's syndrome (SS) questionnaire (SSQ). Three hundred and eighteen patients (52% women and 48% men) with DED were included. Patient demographics were: 0 to 19 years (1%), 20 to 39 (25%), 40 to 59 (34%), 60 to 79 (35%) and 80 to 99 (5%). Xerostomia, defined as "daily symptoms of dry mouth the last three months" (as presented in SSQ) was reported by 23% of the patients. Female sex was more common among patients with xerostomia (81%) than among non-xerostomia patients (44%; Pxerostomia (60 ± 15 years) were older than those without xerostomia (51 ± 17; Pxerostomia patients (65%) than among non-xerostomia patients (35%; Pxerostomia had a higher OSDI score (19.0 ± 10.0) than those without xerostomia (12.9 ± 8.0; Pxerostomia patients had more pathological meibum expressibility (0.9 ± 0.7) than those without xerostomia (0.7 ± 0.8; P = 0.046). Comparisons of OSDI and ocular signs were performed after controlling for the effects of sex, age and the number of systemic prescription drugs used. In conclusion, xerostomia patients demonstrated a higher DED symptom load and had poorer meibum expressibility than non-xerostomia patients.

  12. Novel Approaches to the Production of Higher Alcohols From Synthesis Gas. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, George W

    1998-12-11

    A modified analytical system was assembled and calibrated, in preparation for a second run with cesium (Cs)-promoted "zinc chromite" catalyst. A new column for the on-line gas chromatography (GC) was purchased for the analysis of various light olefin and paraffin isomers. A run was carried out in the continuous stirred autoclave using the Cs-promoted catalyst. Decahydronaphfialene was used as the slurry liquid. Reaction conditions were 375°C, 2000 psig total pressure, 0.5 H₂/CO ratio, and 5000 sL/Kg (cat.)-hr. Analysis of the data from this run is in progress. A manuscript on the thermal stability of potential slurry liquids was submitted to 'Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research,' and a paper was presented at the 1997 Spring National Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Houston, Texas.

  13. [Unerupted first deciduous molar located higher to the first premolar: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Y; Liu, H

    2017-02-18

    Tooth eruption is defined as the movement of a tooth from its site of development within the alveolar process to its functional position in the oral cavity. The process of tooth eruption can be divided into different phases: pre-eruptive bone stage, alveolar bone stage, mucosal stage, preocclusal stage, occlusal stage and maturation stage. Any disturbance in these phases can lead to eruptive anomalies. The incidence of unerupted teeth is usually higher among permanent teeth than among deciduous ones. Of the primary teeth reported as unerupted, second deciduous molars are the teeth most frequently involved, followed by primary central incisors. At present almost no coverage is seen about the impaction of the first deciduous molar. In this case, a 4-year-old boy who presented with an impacted left maxillary first deciduous molar came to the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. This tooth, located higher to the left maxillary first premolar, was well near to the maxillary sinus. The family and medical histories were noncontributory and his physical findings were within normal limits. The mother was reported as having experienced no illness or other complications and taken no medications during pregnancy. His clinical extraoral examination was noncontributory. His clinical intra-oral examination revealed that the maxillary left first primary molar was not present. No enlargement of the area was apparent visually or on palpation. The remaining primary dentition was well aligned and in good condition. His oral hygiene was good, although there were incipient occlusal carious lesions in the mandibular second primary molars. There was no history or evidence of dental trauma. A diagnosis of a left maxillary first deciduous molar was made on the basis of the clinical and radiographic evidence. Numerous local etiologic factors have been described for impacted teeth. These include anomalous teeth, malposition, fusion with

  14. Alcohol consumption and self-reported (SF12) physical and mental health among working aged-men in a typical Russian city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Nete; Gil, Artyom; Keenan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    the associations with PCS considerably. CONCLUSION: Among working age male adults in Russia, hazardous patterns of alcohol drinking are associated with poorer self-reported physical health, and even more strongly with poorer self-reported mental health. Physical health appears to be lower in those reporting......AIM: To investigate the association between patterns of alcohol consumption and self-reported physical and mental health in a population with a high prevalence of hazardous drinking. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of an age-stratified random sample of a population register. SETTING: The city...... of Izhevsk, The Russian Federation, 2008-9. PARTICIPANTS: 1031 men aged 25 to 60 years (68% response rate). MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported health was evaluated with the SF12 physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summaries. Measures of hazardous drinking (based on frequency of adverse effects of alcohol...

  15. Institutional wide implementation of key advice for socially inclusive teaching in higher education. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Government policy and institutional initiatives have influenced increases in enrolment of non-traditional students to Australian universities. For these students, university culture is often incongruent with their own, making it difficult to understand the tacit requirements for participation and success. Academic teaching staff are important in creating socially inclusive learning experiences, particularly in first year subjects. This paper presents an institution-wide approach to enhancing socially inclusive teaching at one Australian university. Underpinned by a framework of ”bridging social-incongruity” the initiative was guided by six principles of socially inclusive teaching to support practice as proposed in the 2012 “Effective support of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds in higher education” report commissioned by the Australian Office of Learning and Teaching. Feedback from 150 academic teaching staff from various disciplines and campus locations, suggests this initiative was effective in increasing understanding of socially inclusive teaching practices with many participants indicating the teaching enhancements were applicable for their teaching context.

  16. Influence of unrecorded alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-06-21

    Unrecorded alcohol includes illegally distributed alcohol as well as homemade or surrogate alcohol which is unintended for consumption by humans (e.g., cosmetics containing alcohol). The highest unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in Eastern Europe and some of these countries have an over proportional liver cirrhosis mortality. Compounds besides ethanol have been hypothesized as being responsible for this observation. On the other hand, chemical investigations were unable to prove that unrecorded alcohol regularly contains contaminants above toxicological thresholds. However, illegally produced spirits regularly contain higher percentages of alcohol (above 45% by volume), but for considerably less costs compared with licit beverages, potentially causing more problematic patterns of drinking. In this review, it is investigated whether patterns of drinking rather than product composition can explain the liver cirrhosis mortality rates. Statistical examination of World Health Organization country data shows that the originally detected correlation of the percentage of unrecorded alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality rates disappears when the data is adjusted for the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking. It may be concluded that there is currently a lack of data to demonstrate causality between the composition of illicit spirits (e.g., higher levels of certain contaminants in home-produced products) and liver toxicity on a population scale. Exceptions may be cases of poisoning with antiseptic liquids containing compounds such as polyhexamethyleneguanidine, which were reported to be consumed as surrogate alcohol in Russia, leading to an outbreak of acute cholestatic liver injury, histologically different from conventional alcoholic liver disease.

  17. The effects of alcohol expectancy priming on group bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltisanti, Allison J; Below, Maureen C; Brandon, Karen O; Goldman, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    According to alcohol expectancy theory, drinking-related information is stored in memory and, when cue activated, influences alcohol-related behavior. Priming of alcohol cues and expectancies has been shown to elicit both drinking and nonconsumptive behavior associated with alcohol consumption, such as willingness to meet with a stranger and aggression. These social influence effects have been shown to be moderated by individual differences in alcohol expectancies. In the present study, we tested whether an alcohol prime would facilitate social group bonding even in the absence of consumption, and whether such group bonding would be moderated by individually held social expectancies. One hundred twenty undergraduates (75% female) completed an alcohol expectancy measure prior to participation. Participants were primed with either alcohol or neutral beverage words and completed a collaborative group activity followed by questionnaires measuring perceived group cohesion. Several interactions were found between condition and expectancy reflecting that those in the alcohol prime condition with higher social alcohol expectancies reported greater cohesion on task-related, but not emotion-related, group measures. These findings underscore the complexity of the impact of expectancy and social behavior on drinking: the priming of alcohol expectancies may activate aspects of pro-social behavior, which may influence drinking, which in turn may feedback to positively reinforce social expectancies.

  18. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  19. Reliability of a self-report Italian version of the AUDIT-C questionnaire, used to estimate alcohol consumption by pregnant women in an obstetric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzo, Stefania; Battistella, Giuseppe; Riscica, Patrizia; Moino, Giuliana; Dal Pozzo, Giuseppe; Bottarel, Mery; Geromel, Mariasole; Czerwinsky, Loredana

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can result in a range of harmful effects on the developing foetus and newborn, called Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). The identification of pregnant women who use alcohol enables to provide information, support and treatment for women and the surveillance of their children. The AUDIT-C (the shortened consumption version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) is used for investigating risky drinking with different populations, and has been applied to estimate alcohol use and risky drinking also in antenatal clinics. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability of a self-report Italian version of the AUDIT-C questionnaire to detect alcohol consumption during pregnancy, regardless of its use as a screening tool. The questionnaire was filled in by two independent consecutive series of pregnant women at the 38th gestation week visit in the two birth locations of the Local Health Authority of Treviso (Italy), during the years 2010 and 2011 (n=220 and n=239). Reliability analysis was performed using internal consistency, item-total score correlations, and inter-item correlations. The "discriminatory power" of the test was also evaluated. Results. Overall, about one third of women recalled alcohol consumption at least once during the current pregnancy. The questionnaire had an internal consistency of 0.565 for the group of the year 2010, of 0.516 for the year 2011, and of 0.542 for the overall group. The highest item total correlations' coefficient was 0.687 and the highest inter-item correlations' coefficient was 0.675. As for the discriminatory power of the questionnaire, the highest Ferguson's delta coefficient was 0.623. These findings suggest that the Italian self-report version of the AUDIT-C possesses unsatisfactory reliability to estimate alcohol consumption during pregnancy when used as self-report questionnaire in an obstetric setting.

  20. Sharing of Alcohol-Related Content on Social Networking Sites: Frequency, Content, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erevik, Eilin K; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Vedaa, Øystein; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to explore students' reports of their sharing of alcohol-related content on different social networking sites (i.e., frequency of sharing and connotations of alcohol-related posts), and to identify indicators of such posting. Students at the four largest institutions for higher education in Bergen, Norway, were invited to participate in an Internet-based survey. The sample size was 11,236 (a 39.4% response rate). The survey included questions about disclosure of alcohol-related content on social networking sites, alcohol use (using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), personality factors (using the Mini-IPIP), and demographic characteristics. Binary logistic regressions were used to analyze indicators of frequent sharing of alcohol-related content depicting positive and negative aspects of alcohol use. A majority of the students had posted alcohol-related content (71.0%), although few reported having done so frequently. Positive aspects of alcohol use (e.g., enjoyment or social community) were most frequently shared. Young, single, and extroverted students with high alcohol consumption were more likely to report frequent sharing of alcohol-related content. Positive attitudes toward posting alcohol-related content and reports of exposure to such content particularly increased the likelihood of one's own posting of alcohol-related content. Positive aspects of alcohol use seem to be emphasized on social networking sites. Sharing of alcohol-related content is associated with heightened alcohol use, which implies that such sites can be relevant for prevention agents. Social influence from social networking sites, such as exposure to others' alcohol-related content, is associated with one's own sharing of similar content.

  1. Higher self-reported prevalence of hypertension among Moluccan-Dutch than among the general population of The Netherlands: results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Junus M; Bodewes, Adee J; Agyemang, Charles O; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-12-15

    Several studies in The Netherlands revealed ethnic disparities in hypertension prevalence, but none have focused on the Moluccan-Dutch, a migrant group from Indonesia that settled in The Netherlands in 1951. The Moluccan-Dutch are considered to be fairly well integrated in Dutch society. The aim of this study was to compare hypertension prevalence among the Moluccan-Dutch to the native Dutch and to explore the contribution of known risk factors. A health interview survey was conducted from August 2012 till March 2013 among nineteen Moluccan neighborhoods, resulting in the inclusion of 708 participants. The primary outcome variable was self-reported prevalence of hypertension. Explanatory variables were BMI, exercise, smoking, alcohol intake and mental health status. Data on the control group was extracted from the Dutch National Health Survey 2011, using a similar questionnaire. Differences in risk factor exposure were explored using Chi-square tests and the contribution of risk factors, separately and combined, was explored using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Moluccan-Dutch showed higher odds for reporting hypertension when compared to native Dutch, after adjusting for age and level of education (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.13-1.69) and additional risk factors (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.19-1.88). A higher prevalence of hypertension was found in both Moluccan-Dutch men (26.4% vs. 16.7%; p Dutch men showed higher prevalence of hypertension. The Moluccan-Dutch may be at increased risk for reporting hypertension. These results suggest that long-term stay over several generations does not necessarily result in similar levels of hypertension prevalence as the host population.

  2. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  3. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seid, Abdu K.; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n = 5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  4. Alcohol consumption and the risk of self-reported perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis in young adult women in a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, P; Grønbæk, M; Kjær, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption has been suggested to be associated with the development of allergic rhinitis (AR), but there is limited data on the topic. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of developing AR among young...... women. Methods Five thousand eight hundred and seventy Danish women aged 20-29 years participated in a prospective cohort study, and were free of seasonal and perennial AR at baseline (1991-1993). Alcohol consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The main outcome measures were self......-reported information on seasonal and perennial AR debuting during a mean follow-up period of 7.8 years. Results During follow-up, 831 women developed seasonal AR and 523 women developed perennial AR, corresponding to 14% and 9%. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with the risk of developing perennial AR...

  5. Definition of Terms in Mental Health, Alcohol Abuse, Drug Abuse, and Mental Retardation: Methodology Reports. Mental Health Statistics Series C, No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This report seeks to define basic terms for use in mental health, alcoholism, drug abuse and mental retardation programs in order to achieve some progress toward a long-range goal of improved communication and exchange of information among concerned disciplines in these fields. While the report does represent the most complete and developed work…

  6. Equal Educational Opportunity. The Status of Black Americans in Higher Education, 1975-1977. ISEP Third Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for the Study of Educational Policy.

    This report analyzes the status of black Americans in higher education from 1975-1977. The book opens with a review of basic concepts of equal educational opportunity and the Federal role in guaranteeing equal opportunity. The social and economic context for higher education is then examined with a focus on the national commitment to higher…

  7. The Hunt Report and Higher Education Policy in the Republic of Ireland: "An International Solution to an Irish Problem?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John; Loxley, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The "National Strategy for Higher Education to 2030" in the Republic of Ireland (universally known as the Hunt Report) represents the latest and most assertive attempt by the Irish state to re-construct higher education in accordance with economic utilitarian objectives. This paper sets out to analyse the historical context, key themes…

  8. Pellagroid Dermatitis in an Alcoholic and Hypothyroid Patient. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Cabrera Acea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pellagroid dermatitis is a condition resulting from the deficiency of niacin and/or tryptophan that causes dermatological, gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms. It is very rare in our country, a fact that motivated us to present this case. The patient was a 49-year-old white man diagnosed with pellagroid dermatitis. He also suffered from hypothyroidism, alcohol dependence and had poor eating habits due to his frequent drinking. He had a medical history of hypertension and presented cutaneous manifestations of pellagroid dermatitis. The erythematous and scaly manifestations were located on the back of both arms. They resembled scalded skin; some had an ulcerated and blistered center and were similar to those in the neck, deltoid region and other sites exposed to sunlight. The lesions were permanently cured after vitamin therapy and skin protection from solar radiation.

  9. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2012 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Testing continued in FY 2012 to further improve the Ir-promoted RhMn catalysts on both silica and carbon supports for producing mixed oxygenates from synthesis gas. This testing re-examined selected alternative silica and carbon supports to follow up on some uncertainties in the results with previous test results. Additional tests were conducted to further optimize the total and relative concentrations of Rh, Mn, and Ir, and to examine selected promoters and promoter combinations based on earlier results. To establish optimum operating conditions, the effects of the process pressure and the feed gas composition also were evaluated.

  10. Saturday night palsy or Sunday morning hangover? A case report of alcohol-induced Crush Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Devitt, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    Saturday night palsy is a colloquial term given to brachial plexus injuries of the arm resulting from stretching or direct pressure against a firm object, often after alcohol or drug consumption. In most circumstances, this condition gives rise to a temporary plexopathy, which generally resolves. However, if the compression is severe and prolonged, a more grave form of this condition known as \\'Crush Syndrome\\' may occur. Skeletal muscle injury, brought about by protracted immobilization, leads to muscle decay, causing rhabdomyolysis, which may in turn precipitate acute renal failure. This condition is potentially fatal and has an extremely high morbidity. The case presented below demonstrates the drastic consequences that can result following an episode of \\'binge\\' drinking in a young man. What is most concerning is that this trend is increasing across society and cases like this may not be as rare in the future.

  11. Temporal patterns of alcohol consumption and attempts to reduce alcohol intake in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank de Vocht

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS is a monthly survey of approximately 1700 adults per month aged 16 years of age or more in England. We aimed to explore patterns of alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce alcohol use in England throughout the year. Methods Data from 38,372 participants who answered questions about alcohol consumption (March 2014 to January 2016 were analysed using weighted regression using the R survey package. Questions assessed alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C and attempts to reduce consumption. Results Sixty-seven percent of participants reported using alcohol, with a small negative trend of about 2 % reduction over 12 months in the studied period (P < 0.01. These include ~25 % higher risk drinkers and ~10 % regular binge drinkers. About 20 % of higher risk drinkers indicated they were attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption. Attempts were lowest in December (−20 %; 95 % CI 0–35 %, but increases significantly in January (+41 %; 95 % CI 16–73 % compared with other months (P < 0.001, indicating a small net gain; at least in attempts to reduce. However, there was no evidence that the increased motivation in January was accompanied by a reported decrease in consumption or binge drinking events. This could be an artefact of the use of AUDIT questions, but could also reflect a disconnect between attempting to reduce alcohol consumption and subsequent change; maybe as a result of lack of continuing support. Conclusions January is associated with moderate increased attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. However, we find little evidence of a change in alcohol consumption. In part, this may be due to temporal insensitivity of the AUDIT questions.

  12. Physical Aggression in Higher Education: Student-Athletes' Perceptions and Reporting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Jason Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This study examined internal (personal) and external (situational) factors that previous research found affected perceptions of physical aggression and associated reporting behaviors among student-athletes. Results of this study suggested certain factors significantly impacted a student-athlete's decision to report and who received that report.…

  13. Alcohol policy and taxation in South Africa: an examination of the economic burden of alcohol tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataguba, John Ele-Ojo

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption accounts for over 4% of the global burden of disease and an even higher figure in developing countries. Several policies have been proposed to curb the negative impact of alcohol misuse. Apart from South Africa, which has witnessed a rapid development in alcohol policy, such policies are poorly developed in most African countries. South Africa uses taxation as a policy lever, in line with international evidence, to reduce alcohol consumption. However, the problem of alcohol abuse still exists. The objective of this article is to present an analysis of alcohol tax incidence for the first time in South Africa. This was done for each category of alcohol tax (wines, spirits, beer and traditional brew [sorghum beer]) and for alcohol tax as a whole. The paper also uses the results to point to the areas where a greater understanding of the issues surrounding alcohol abuse needs to be developed. Data were drawn from the 2005/06 South African Income and Expenditure Survey. Reported expenditures on alcohol beverages were used to obtain the tax component paid by households. This was done under certain assumptions relating to alcohol content and the price per litre of alcohol. Per adult equivalent consumption expenditure was used as the measure of relative living standards and concentration curves and Kakwani indices to assess relative progressivity of alcohol taxes. Statistical dominance tests were also performed. Most sorghum beer and malt beer drinkers were in the poorer quintiles. The reverse was the case for wines and spirits. Overall, alcohol tax in South Africa was regressive (Kakwani index -0.353). The individual categories were found to be regressive. The most regressive tax was that on sorghum beer (Kakwani index -1.01); the least regressive was that on spirits (Kakwani index -0.09), although this was not statistically significant at conventional levels. These results were confirmed by the test of dominance. In South Africa, there has been a

  14. Medical Education for Tennessee. A Report of the Tennessee Higher Education Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Jerry N.; Woods, Myra S.

    This study of medical education was conducted as a part of the Tennessee Higher Education Commission's responsibility to design a master plan for higher education in Tennessee. It provides a background of information on Tennessee's needs for physicians and on the production of physicians by the three medical schools in the state. The study…

  15. Egyptian greenhouse cultivation at a higher level with Dutch Technology ; Annual Report 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.; Helm, van der F.P.M.; Blok, C.; Meijer, R.J.M.; Lahiani, Y.; Janmaat, A.; Zaki, M.; Hassan, H.

    2014-01-01

    The project ‘Egyptian greenhouse cultivation at a higher level with Dutch technology’ is co-funded under the Top Sector Programme Horticulture and Starting Materials. The project wants to realizes through the use of Dutch technology a higher level of sustainability of Egyptian protected cultivation,

  16. Governance and Adaptation to Innovative Modes of Higher Education Provision. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Cecile Hoareau; Hofman, Joanna; Bajziková, Lubica; Harte, Emma; Lasakova, Anna; Pankowska, Paulina; Sasso, S.; Belanger, Julie; Florea, S.; Krivogra, J.

    2016-01-01

    At a time when more students than ever are attending higher education, its provision is becoming more fluid, global and competitive. For example, developments in new technologies mean that higher education institutions (HEIs) can make their courses available all over the world. These developments bring into question the traditional delivery model…

  17. Measuring the Contribution of Higher Education to Innovation Capacity in the EU. Final Report: Revised Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Commission, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This current study is part of the actions taken aiming to analyse the links between the operations and effects of higher-education institutions on the capacity to innovate in the economies in Europe. Providing insights into the contribution of higher education to the innovative capacity of the EU economies is crucial for policy making and the…

  18. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  19. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  20. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  1. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increase in alcohol marketing activities by the transnational alcohol corporations in Nigeria .... were recorded with a digital device with ..... era (i.e., before alcohol industry was es- tablished in ..... university student drinking: A na-.

  2. Leveraging Sustainability Reporting in Higher Education Institutions--A Multidimensional Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoormann, Thorsten; Bührig, Jan; Behrens, Dennis; Knackstedt, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become increasingly important to research and practice. In order to determine impacts, identify improvement potential and to disclose efforts towards sustainability, an organization needs appropriate reporting. Thus, sustainability reporting has become a topic of broader interest, for example, to assess own situations, enable…

  3. Higher association of coronary artery calcification with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than with abdominal obesity in middle-aged Korean men: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Kyung; Park, Hye-Jeong; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2015-07-15

    It is uncertain whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or abdominal obesity is more associated with atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether NAFLD or abdominal obesity is more strongly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis represented by coronary artery calcification (CAC). A total of 21,335 male participants in a health screening program (mean age 41 years) were enrolled. Ultrasonographic measurements of fatty liver and multi-detector computed tomography were performed to determine the coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The presence of CAC was defined as CACS > 0. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the presence or absence of NAFLD and/or abdominal obesity as assessed by waist-hip ratio (WHR) > 0.9. The presence of CAC was detected in 2,385 subjects (11.2%). The proportion of subjects with CAC was highest in the abdominal obesity only group (23.2%). After adjustment for age, diabetes history, hypertension, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity, the odds ratio (OR) for CAC was the highest in the group with both abnormalities [1.465 (1.324-1.623)]. The NAFLD only group showed significantly increased OR for CAC compared to that in the abdominal obesity only group [1.286 (1.151-1.436) vs. 1.076 (0.939-1.233)]. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is more closely associated with CAC than abdominal obesity as assessed by the WHR. NAFLD could be considered an independent determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by CAC.

  4. Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha in therapy of severe alcoholic hepatitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and effects of a single dose of infliximab combined with steroid therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS A 44-years old man patient with chronic alcohol abuse, obesity, dyslipidemia and diabetes with AH (Maddrey’s score 32 received an association of prednisolone (80 mg/day ev and infliximab (5 mg/kg once. RESULTS At 2 weeks bilirubin decreased from 18.1 mg/dL to 6 mg/dL. At 4 weeks AST decreased from 1042 U/L to 154 U/L, ALT from 1112 U/L to 151 U/L, Maddrey’s score decreased to 17.4. Infliximab was well tolerated, but after 5 weeks the patient suffered an adverse event characterized by fever, panniculitis, septicaemia of Staphylococcus aureus treated with specific therapy. At 60 days the patient was asymptomatic and the liver function tests were normal (Maddrey’s score 10. At 6 months of follow-up: Maddrey’s score 6. CONCLUSIONS In AH, infliximab was well tolerated and associated with significant improvement in LFTs and Maddrey’s score, but these promising results should encourage large trials assessing better the strategy of therapy and criteria for enrolment of the patients.

  5. Gratitude, abstinence, and alcohol use disorders: Report of a preliminary finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R

    2017-07-01

    Gratitude is a central component of addiction recovery for many, yet it has received scant attention in addiction research. In a sample of 67 individuals entering abstinence-based alcohol-use-disorder treatment, this study employed gratitude and abstinence variables from sequential assessments (baseline, 6months, 12months) to model theorized causal relationships: gratitude would increase pre-post treatment and gratitude after treatment would predict greater percent days abstinent 6months later. Neither hypothesis was supported. This unexpected result led to the theory that gratitude for sobriety was the construct of interest; therefore, the association between gratitude and future abstinence would be positive among those already abstinent. Thus, post-treatment abstinence was tested as a moderator of the effect of gratitude on future abstinence: this effect was statistically significant. For those who were abstinent after treatment, the relationship between gratitude and future abstinence was positive; for those drinking most frequently after treatment, the relationship between gratitude and future abstinence was negative. In this preliminary study, dispositional tendency to affirm that there is much to be thankful for appeared to perpetuate the status quo-frequent drinkers with high gratitude were drinking frequently 6months later; abstinent individuals with high gratitude were abstinent 6months later. Gratitude exercises might be contraindicated for clients who are drinking frequently and have abstinence as their treatment goal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation of prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus in alcoholic subjects on exposure to alcohol-specific cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M S; Anton, R F; Bloomer, C; Teneback, C; Drobes, D J; Lorberbaum, J P; Nahas, Z; Vincent, D J

    2001-04-01

    Functional imaging studies have recently demonstrated that specific brain regions become active in cocaine addicts when they are exposed to cocaine stimuli. To test whether there are regional brain activity differences during alcohol cue exposure between alcoholic subjects and social drinkers, we designed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol involving alcohol-specific cues. Ten non-treatment-seeking adult alcoholic subjects (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.9 [9.9] years) as well as 10 healthy social drinking controls of similar age (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.4 [8.9] years) were recruited, screened, and scanned. In the 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner, subjects were serially rated for alcohol craving before and after a sip of alcohol, and after a 9-minute randomized presentation of pictures of alcoholic beverages, control nonalcoholic beverages, and 2 different visual control tasks. During picture presentation, changes in regional brain activity were measured with the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Alcoholic subjects, compared with the social drinking subjects, reported higher overall craving ratings for alcohol. After a sip of alcohol, while viewing alcohol cues compared with viewing other beverage cues, only the alcoholic subjects had increased activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior thalamus. The social drinkers exhibited specific activation only while viewing the control beverage pictures. When exposed to alcohol cues, alcoholic subjects have increased brain activity in the prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus-brain regions associated with emotion regulation, attention, and appetitive behavior.

  7. Risky sexual behavior among married alcoholic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie H; Fals-Stewart, William; Fincham, Frank D

    2008-04-01

    The current study explored whether the wives of men entering alcoholism treatment are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) exposure as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. The extramarital relationships of married alcoholic men entering outpatient treatment (n = 125) were compared with those of a demographically matched community sample of nonalcoholic married men (n = 125). The proportion of alcoholic men who reported 1 or more extramarital affairs in the previous year (14%) was significantly higher than that of the community sample (4%). Additionally, only 2 alcoholic husbands and 1 nonalcoholic husband reported that his wife was aware of the extramarital relationship. For both groups, none of the men who engaged in extramarital relationships reported consistent use of condoms when having sexual intercourse with their wives or with their extramarital partners. These results suggest that wives of alcoholic men are unknowingly placed at risk for indirect exposure to STIs as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. Thus, infidelity in treatment-seeking alcohol-abusing men represents a significant public health issue. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Inconsistencies between alcohol screening results based on AUDIT-C scores and reported drinking on the AUDIT-C questions: prevalence in two US national samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The AUDIT-C is an extensively validated screen for unhealthy alcohol use (i.e. drinking above recommended limits or alcohol use disorder), which consists of three questions about alcohol consumption. AUDIT-C scores ≥4 points for men and ≥3 for women are considered positive screens based on US validation studies that compared the AUDIT-C to “gold standard” measures of unhealthy alcohol use from independent, detailed interviews. However, results of screening—positive or negative based on AUDIT-C scores—can be inconsistent with reported drinking on the AUDIT-C questions. For example, individuals can screen positive based on the AUDIT-C score while reporting drinking below US recommended limits on the same AUDIT-C. Alternatively, they can screen negative based on the AUDIT-C score while reporting drinking above US recommended limits. Such inconsistencies could complicate interpretation of screening results, but it is unclear how often they occur in practice. Methods This study used AUDIT-C data from respondents who reported past-year drinking on one of two national US surveys: a general population survey (N = 26,610) and a Veterans Health Administration (VA) outpatient survey (N = 467,416). Gender-stratified analyses estimated the prevalence of AUDIT-C screen results—positive or negative screens based on the AUDIT-C score—that were inconsistent with reported drinking (above or below US recommended limits) on the same AUDIT-C. Results Among men who reported drinking, 13.8% and 21.1% of US general population and VA samples, respectively, had screening results based on AUDIT-C scores (positive or negative) that were inconsistent with reported drinking on the AUDIT-C questions (above or below US recommended limits). Among women who reported drinking, 18.3% and 20.7% of US general population and VA samples, respectively, had screening results that were inconsistent with reported drinking. Limitations This study did not include an

  9. The Need for Higher Education in Iran. Technical Report No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusignan, Bruce B.; And Others

    The role of television in meeting the need for higher education in Iran is discussed. Topics covered in the first chapter include impact on a typical curriculum, transition characteristics, television production techniques, cost effectiveness, additional applications, and centralization or duplication. The second chapter presents a planning…

  10. 2014-2015 State of CRM Use in Higher Education Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) periodically undertakes research projects to keep themselves and the higher education community in general, informed about relevant current and emerging practices. The aim of this survey was to measure the extent of ownership of Constituent (or Customer)…

  11. The system of higher education in Morocco : a brief introductory report

    OpenAIRE

    Meziani, Ahmed

    1999-01-01

    Describes higher education in Morocco, briefly touching on the country's socioeconomic history, then explaining Morocco's three types of post secondary institutions: the public university system, the public non-university system, and the private system. Presents details about Moroccan universities, which are state institutions, focusing on autonomy, financing, and the teaching staff.

  12. The System of Higher Education in Morocco: A Brief Introductory Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziani, Ahmed

    1999-01-01

    Describes higher education in Morocco, briefly touching on the country's socioeconomic history, then explaining Morocco's three types of postsecondary institutions: the public university system, the public non-university system, and the private system. Presents details about Moroccan universities, which are state institutions, focusing on…

  13. 2015 Global Information Technology Report: Consequences on Knowledge Management in Higher Education Institutions in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince; Agbor, Comfort Nkogho; Major, Nanighe Baldwin; Agabi, Chinyere O.; Wali, Worlu I.

    2016-01-01

    This research is a continuation of a theoretical review that evaluated ICT Policy Outcomes for National Development in relation to Networked Readiness Index (NRI) and the impact it has on knowledge integration and management in higher education institutions in Nigeria. A new dawn in information technology (IT) has initiated new trends in…

  14. Brief Report: Joint Attention and Information Processing in Children with Higher Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Kim, Kwnanguk; McIntyre, Nancy; Lerro, Lindsay; Jarrold, William

    2016-01-01

    Theory suggests that information processing during joint attention may be atypical in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This hypothesis was tested in a study of school-aged children with higher functioning ASD and groups of children with symptoms of ADHD or typical development. The results indicated that the control groups displayed…

  15. Brief Report: Joint Attention and Information Processing in Children with Higher Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Kim, Kwanguk; McIntyre, Nancy; Lerro, Lindsay; Jarrold, William

    2016-01-01

    Theory suggests that information processing during joint attention may be atypical in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This hypothesis was tested in a study of school-aged children with higher functioning ASD and groups of children with symptoms of ADHD or typical development. The results indicated that the control groups displayed…

  16. Evaluation and Development of Administrators. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Report No. 6, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvall, Robert C.

    Needs and methods for the evaluation and development of higher education administrators are reviewed in this monograph. Three major reasons for evaluation are cited: external and internal pressure, improvement of performance of individual administrators, and improvement of performance of the institution. Different approaches to evaluation are…

  17. Assessing Tuition- and Debt-Free Higher Education. NASFAA Task Force Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The Assessing Tuition- and Debt-Free Higher Education Task Force was convened in July 2016. Charged by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators's (NASFAA's) Board of Directors with evaluating the existing landscape of state and local promise programs with a focus on scaling such models to the national level, the task force…

  18. Toward a Definition of Verbal Reasoning in Higher Education. Research Report. ETS RR-09-33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Nancy W.; Welsh, Cynthia; Kostin, Irene; VanEssen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the literatures of reading and reasoning in the last quarter century, focusing mainly on the disciplines of cognitive science, cognitive developmental psychology, linguistics, and educational psychology. These literatures were synthesized to create a framework for defining verbal reasoning in higher education. Eight…

  19. The State of Early Childhood Higher Education in California. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Lea J. E.; Kipnis, Fran; Whitebook, Marcy; Sakai, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Teacher preparation in the field of early childhood education (ECE) has historically included a variety of higher education degree programs, in various child-related disciplines, all of which have generally been considered equally acceptable. And too often, these highly diverse degree programs are assumed to produce equivalent results. In…

  20. The State of Early Childhood Higher Education in Nebraska. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Laura; Austin, Lea J. E.; Bloechliger, Olivia; Whitebook, Marcy; Amanta, Felippa

    2015-01-01

    Teacher preparation in the field of early childhood education (ECE) has historically included a variety of higher education degree programs, in various child-related disciplines, all of which have generally been considered equally acceptable. And too often, these highly diverse degree programs are assumed to produce equivalent results (Maxwell,…

  1. Student Support Funding for Higher Education Institutions, 2001-02. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This publication provides information about the allocation of funds for student support to higher education institutions in England in 2001-2002 and requests monitoring information on the use of these funds. Student support funds include a variety of services to students, including fee waivers, help with living costs in some cases, and child care…

  2. Gender and HIV infection in the context of alcoholism in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa account for more than half (58%) of people living with the HIV and it is the only continent where HIV prevalence is higher for women than for men. Studies have attributed alcoholism with the high rates of HIV infection due to its impact on sexual behaviour and arousal. African countries with high rates of alcoholism also reportedly have higher rates of HIV infection. This study explores rural communities' perspectives on the risk factors for HIV infection among women who are in alcohol discordant relationships where the man drinks alcohol excessively. Data were gathered through focus group discussions in rural central Kenya where alcoholism has reached epidemic levels. Key findings indicate the perceived severity of alcoholism, the perceived impact of alcoholism on men's reproductive health and the unmet sexual and reproductive needs of women in alcohol discordant relationships. Women engage in risky sexual behaviours in an attempt to meet these needs. Such risky behaviour in addition to alcohol-related sexual violence and low response-efficacy for safer sexual practices make them vulnerable to HIV infection and enhances the spread of HIV within communities. The study concludes that in preventing HIV infection among women in alcohol communities affected by alcohol, it is important to focus on their response efficacy. Intervention programmes that focus on HIV prevention among older married women and that integrate alcohol and HIV prevention are long overdue.

  3. Impact of alcohol checks and social norm on driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesmann, Uta; Martensen, Heike; Dupont, Emmanuelle

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the influence of alcohol checks and social norm on self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol above the legal limit (DUI). The analysis was based on the responses of 12,507 car drivers from 19 European countries to the SARTRE-4 survey (2010). The data were analysed by means of a multiple logistic regression-model on two levels: (1) individual and (2) national level. On the individual level the results revealed that driving under the influence (DUI) was positively associated with male gender, young age (17-34), personal experience with alcohol checks, the perceived likelihood of being checked for alcohol, perceived drunk driving behaviour of friends (social norm) and was negatively associated with higher age (55+). On a national level, the results showed a negative association with a lower legal alcohol limit (BAC 0.2g/l compared with BAC 0.5g/l) and the percentage of drivers checked for alcohol. DUI was positively associated with the percentage of respondents in the country that reported that their friends drink and drive (social norm). The comparison of the results obtained on national and individual levels shows a paradoxical effect of alcohol checks: Countries with more alcohol checks show lower DUI (negative association) but respondents who have been personally checked for alcohol show a higher chance of DUI (positive association). Possible explanations of this paradox are discussed. The effects of the social norm variable (perceived drunk driving behaviour of friends) are positively associated with DUI on both levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C(sub 2) to C(sub 5+)) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline

  5. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

  6. Giving to Excellence: Generating Philanthropic Support for UK Higher Education. Ross-CASE Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Yashraj

    2016-01-01

    This report presents findings from the 2016 Ross-CASE Survey of Philanthropic Giving to Universities in UK. The project was conducted by CASE Europe and funded by HEFCE and the Ross-Group. This year's survey comes at a time of great change for the UK charity sector. The historical trend data of previous surveys will be invaluable in helping…

  7. CEBAF at higher energies: Working group report on hadron spectroscopy and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)]| [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Napolitano, J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes topics in hadron spectroscopy and production which could be addressed at CEBAF with an energy upgrade to E{sub {gamma}} = 8 GeV and beyond. The topics discussed include conventional meson and baryon spectrocopy, spectroscopy of exotica (especially molecules and hybrids), CP and CPT tests using {phi} mesons, and new detector and accelerator options.

  8. Varenicline Reduces Alcohol Intake During Repeated Cycles of Alcohol Reaccess Following Deprivation in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Janice C; Nicholson, Emily R; Dilley, Julian E; Filosa, Nick J; Rademacher, Logan C; Smith, Teal N

    2017-08-01

    Most alcoholics experience periods of voluntary alcohol abstinence or imposed alcohol deprivation followed by a return to alcohol drinking. This study examined whether varenicline (VAR) reduces alcohol intake during a return to drinking after periods of alcohol deprivation in rats selectively bred for high alcohol drinking (the alcohol preferring or "P" rats). Alcohol-experienced P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to alcohol (15% and 30% v/v) for 2 h/d. After 4 weeks, rats were deprived of alcohol for 2 weeks, followed by reaccess to alcohol for 2 weeks, and this pattern was repeated for a total of 3 cycles. Rats were fed either vehicle (VEH) or VAR, in doses of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW, at 1 hour prior to onset of the daily alcohol reaccess period for the first 5 days of each of the 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. Low-dose VAR (0.5 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of drug treatment in alcohol reaccess cycles 1 and 2. Higher doses of VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW and 2.0 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of treatment in all 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. The decrease in alcohol intake disappeared with termination of VAR treatment in all alcohol reaccess cycles. The results demonstrate that VAR decreases alcohol intake during multiple cycles of alcohol reaccess following alcohol deprivation in rats and suggests that it may prevent a return to heavy alcohol drinking during a lapse from alcohol abstinence in humans with alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  10. 高级醇和烃类化合物含量对甲醇水混溶性的影响%Impact of the Contents of Higher Alcohols and Hydrocarbon Compounds of Methanol upon the Methanol-Water Compatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟艳春

    2012-01-01

    基于工业甲醇中高级醇、烃类化合物与水以一定比例混合后澄清度的差异,在规定的条件下,利用气相色谱法,分析了高级醇、烃类化合物含量的高低对甲醇水混溶性的影响.试验结果表明:高级醇含量增加,甲醇的水混溶性变差;烃类物质含量越高,甲醇的水混溶性越差.%Methanol is an important and widely used raw material in basic organic chemistry. A gas chromatography test was done under specified conditions to show the impact of the amount of higher alcohol and hydrocarbon compounds upon the water compatibility of methanol. The result showed that the existence of higher alcohol and hydrocarbon compounds in methanol makes it not clear, which great affected the quality of the product, besides, it affected the adjustment of the process parameters.

  11. Gene-enzyme relationships in somatic cells and their organismal derivatives in higher plants. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids have been isolated from Nicotiana silvestris. Isozymes of chlorismate mutase were isolated, partially purified and subjected to enzyme kinetic analysis. In addition, studies investigating the role of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthetase, 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthetase, shikimate dehydrogenase, prephenate aminotransferase, arogenate dehydrogenase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in regulation of aromatic amino acids levels in tobacco are reported

  12. Reports of past alcohol and drug use following participation in a motivation enhancing intervention: Implications for clinical assessment and program evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosengren David B

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is significant interest in the value of motivational approaches that enhance participant readiness to change, but less is known about clients’ self-reports of problematic behavior when participating in such interventions. Methods We examined whether participants in a motivationally-based intervention for DUI offenders changed their reports of substance use at postintervention (when reporting on the same 30 days that they reported on at preintervention. Specifically, Study 1 (N = 8,387 tested whether participants in PRIME For Life (PFL changed their reports about baseline substance levels when asked at postintervention versus at preintervention. Study 2 (N = 192 compared changes in self-reported baseline drinking between PFL and intervention as usual (IAU participants. Results Many participants in Study 1 did not change their reports about how much they used substances during the 30-day period before baseline. Among those who did, the most common change was an increase in reported amounts of baseline drug use, and typical and peak alcohol use. This sample also showed changes in reports of their baseline pattern of high-risk-use (consistent versus occasional. At postintervention, participants who were younger, single, or endorsing more indicators of alcohol dependence were more likely to later report greater frequency of baseline drug use, and greater peak and typical number of baseline drinks. Gender, education, and race were also associated with reporting inconsistency on some behaviors. In Study 2, PFL participants showed greater increases in reports of peak alcohol use compared to IAU, but both conditions showed similar increases for drugs and typical alcohol use. Conclusions In both research and clinical settings, a segment of participants may initially report less substance use than they do when asked later about the same baseline period. These preliminary findings suggest clinicians and researchers may

  13. Religious beliefs and alcohol control policies: a Brazilian nationwide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Lucchetti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The connection between lower alcohol use and religiousness has been extensively examined. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed how religion and religiousness influence public policies. The present study seeks to understand the influence of religious beliefs on attitudes toward alcohol use. Methods: A door-to-door, nationwide, multistage population-based survey was carried out. Self-reported religiousness, religious attendance, and attitudes toward use of alcohol policies (such as approval of public health interventions, attitudes about drinking and driving, and attitudes toward other alcohol problems and their harmful effects were examined. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for confounders and to assess explanatory variables. Results: The sample was composed of 3,007 participants; 57.3% were female and mean age was 35.7 years. Religiousness was generally associated with more negative attitudes toward alcohol, such as limiting hours of sale (p < 0.01, not having alcohol available in corner shops (p < 0.01, prohibiting alcohol advertisements on TV (p < 0.01, raising the legal drinking age (p < 0.01, and raising taxes on alcohol (p < 0.05. Higher religious attendance was associated with less alcohol problems (OR: 0.61, 95%CI 0.40-0.91, p = 0.017, and self-reported religiousness was associated with less harmful effects of drinking (OR: 0.61, 95%CI 0.43-0.88, p = 0.009. Conclusions: Those with high levels of religiousness support more restrictive alcohol policies. These findings corroborate previous studies showing that religious people consume less alcohol and have fewer alcohol-related problems.

  14. Stakeholder Engagement in Sustainability Reporting in Higher Education: An Analysis of Key Internal Stakeholders' Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero-Ferrero, Idoya; Fernández-Izquierdo, María Ángeles; Muñoz-Torres, María Jesús; Bellés-Colomer, Lucía

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of stakeholder engagement in the context of sustainability reporting (SR) for higher education institutions (HEIs), together with the materiality principle and stakeholder expectations. Design/methodology/approach: This research uses an exploratory approach based on content…

  15. Higher Education in Further Education Colleges: Indirectly Funded Partnerships: Codes of Practice for Franchise and Consortia Arrangements. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This report provides codes of practice for two types of indirectly funded partnerships entered into by higher education institutions and further education sector colleges: franchises and consortia. The codes of practice set out guidance on the principles that should be reflected in the franchise and consortia agreements that underpin indirectly…

  16. Quality of Higher Education: Organisational or Educational? A Content Analysis of Chinese University Self-Evaluation Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yihuan; Du, Xiangyun; Rasmussen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Based on a study of Chinese university self-evaluation reports, this paper argues that higher education institutions are trying to manage the tensions between educational and organisational quality and the increasing and worldwide concerns about quality assurance. After 30 years of dramatic educational reform, China has established a nationwide…

  17. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  18. Flipped Classroom Implementation: A Case Report of Two Higher Education Institutions in the United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.; White, Paul J.; Khanova, Julia; Yuriev, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This case report explored the implementation of flipped classrooms at two higher education institutions. Experiences and publications from the institutions were used to identify and describe common themes, including successes and challenges encountered along with potential solutions to common misalignments, particularly as related to…

  19. Sustainability in Higher Education's Annual Reports: An Empirical Study on Australian and Austrian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser-Linzatti, Michaela Maria; Ossmann, Stefan F.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Higher education institutions are regarded as forerunners and pioneers of sustainability. However, it is to question whether they actually fulfill their role model function. This paper aims to reveal whether selected universities in Australia and Austria meet the reporting expectations about their activities on sustainability in very…

  20. Mit Expertenwissen zu Aussagen über künftige Entwicklungen — der Horizon Report Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Mumenthaler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Horizon Report Higher Education dient auch für Hochschulbibliotheken als wichtige Referenz zur Bewertung aktueller Trends und künftiger Entwicklungen. Der Autor stellt die dem Report zugrunde liegende Methode vor, beleuchtet diese kritisch und reflektiert die Aussagekraft der Prognosen. Die Stärken des Horizon Report liegen in der breiten Abstützung, der Offenheit des Verfahrens und der Publikation sowie der Ausarbeitung der von Expertinnen und Experten ausgewählten Themen. Gewisse Schwächen sieht der Autor in der Abhängigkeit von anderen Trendstudien sowie beim Auswahlverfahren der Trendthemen.

  1. Brief Report: Joint Attention and Information Processing in Children with Higher Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Kim, Kwanguk; McIntyre, Nancy; Lerro, Lindsay; Jarrold, William

    2016-07-01

    Theory suggests that information processing during joint attention may be atypical in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This hypothesis was tested in a study of school-aged children with higher functioning ASD and groups of children with symptoms of ADHD or typical development. The results indicated that the control groups displayed significantly better recognition memory for pictures studied in an initiating joint attention (IJA) rather than responding to joint attention (RJA) condition. This effect was not evident in the ASD group. The ASD group also recognized fewer pictures from the IJA condition than controls, but not the RJA condition. Atypical information processing may be a marker of the continued effects of joint attention disturbance in school aged children with ASD.

  2. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  3. Predictors of Detection of Alcohol Use Episodes Using a Transdermal Alcohol Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Nancy P.; Meade, E.B.; Glynn, Tiffany R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish the ability of the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) alcohol sensor to detect different levels of self-reported alcohol consumption, and to determine whether gender and body mass index, alcohol dependence, bracelet version, and age of bracelet influenced detection of alcohol use.

  4. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Elizabeth Allison; Ireland, Lana; Forsyth, Alasdair; Godwin, Jon; Laxton, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Scotland has a particular problem with alcohol, and the links between intimate partner abuse (IPA) and alcohol appear stronger here than elsewhere across Europe. This study explored differences in alcohol use, related aggression and relationship conflict across a number of groups: men convicted for intimate partner abuse, men convicted of general offences and men recruited from community sports teams. Participants (n = 64) completed three questionnaires exploring their experiences of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, AUDIT); alcohol and aggression (Alcohol Related Aggression Questionnaire, ARAQ-28), and relationship conflict (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, CTS-2). There were significant differences across the groups in terms of AUDIT and ARAQ-28 scores, IPA and general offenders scored higher than the community sample. CTS-2 scores showed significant differences: both offender groups reported more use of negotiation and psychological abuse, than the community men, and IPA offenders reported causing more physical harm than either general offenders or the community sample. ARAQ-28 scores correlated with psychological abuse for general offenders. Alcohol use was very high across all groups, but the community group did not endorse an aggression-precipitating view of alcohol and did not report high IPA. Discussed is the need for cross-cultural research to explore putative mediators and moderators in the relationship between alcohol, aggressiveness and IPA. [Gilchrist EA, Ireland L, Forsyth A, Godwin J, Laxton T. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:20-23]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Regional alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality in Great Britain: novel insights using retail sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Shipton, Deborah; Walsh, David; Whyte, Bruce; McCartney, Gerry

    2015-01-07

    Regional differences in population levels of alcohol-related harm exist across Great Britain, but these are not entirely consistent with differences in population levels of alcohol consumption. This incongruence may be due to the use of self-report surveys to estimate consumption. Survey data are subject to various biases and typically produce consumption estimates much lower than those based on objective alcohol sales data. However, sales data have never been used to estimate regional consumption within Great Britain (GB). This ecological study uses alcohol retail sales data to provide novel insights into regional alcohol consumption in GB, and to explore the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality. Alcohol sales estimates derived from electronic sales, delivery records and retail outlet sampling were obtained. The volume of pure alcohol sold was used to estimate per adult consumption, by market sector and drink type, across eleven GB regions in 2010-11. Alcohol-related mortality rates were calculated for the same regions and a cross-sectional correlation analysis between consumption and mortality was performed. Per adult consumption in northern England was above the GB average and characterised by high beer sales. A high level of consumption in South West England was driven by on-trade sales of cider and spirits and off-trade wine sales. Scottish regions had substantially higher spirits sales than elsewhere in GB, particularly through the off-trade. London had the lowest per adult consumption, attributable to lower off-trade sales across most drink types. Alcohol-related mortality was generally higher in regions with higher per adult consumption. The relationship was weakened by the South West and Central Scotland regions, which had the highest consumption levels, but discordantly low and very high alcohol-related mortality rates, respectively. This study provides support for the ecological relationship between alcohol

  6. Underage alcohol sales-it only takes a minute: A new approach to underage alcohol availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because minors generally report higher accessibility than one would expect on the basis of the "compliance rates" established by researchers (the percentage of stores that comply with age limits for sales of age-restricted products such as alcoholic beverages), we propose a new method to

  7. Alcohol marketing and youth alcohol consumption: a systematic review of longitudinal studies published since 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David; Noel, Jonathan; Landon, Jane; Thornton, Nicole; Lobstein, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Youth alcohol consumption is a major global public health concern. Previous reviews have concluded that exposure to alcohol marketing was associated with earlier drinking initiation and higher alcohol consumption among youth. This review examined longitudinal studies published since those earlier reviews. Peer-reviewed papers were identified in medical, scientific and social science databases, supplemented by examination of reference lists. Non-peer-reviewed papers were included if they were published by organizations deemed to be authoritative, were fully referenced and contained primary data not available elsewhere. Papers were restricted to those that included measures of marketing exposure and alcohol consumption for at least 500 underage people. Multiple authors reviewed studies for inclusion and assessed their quality using the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Quality Assessment Tool for Observation Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Twelve studies (ranging in duration from 9 months to 8 years), following nine unique cohorts not reported on previously involving 35 219 participants from Europe, Asia and North America, met inclusion criteria. All 12 found evidence of a positive association between level of marketing exposure and level of youth alcohol consumption. Some found significant associations between youth exposure to alcohol marketing and initiation of alcohol use (odds ratios ranging from 1.00 to 1.69), and there were clear associations between exposure and subsequent binge or hazardous drinking (odds ratios ranging from 1.38 to 2.15). Mediators included marketing receptivity, brand recognition and alcohol expectancies. Levels of marketing exposure among younger adolescents were similar to those found among older adolescents and young adults. Young people who have greater exposure to alcohol marketing appear to be more likely subsequently to initiate alcohol use and engage in binge and hazardous drinking. © 2016 Society for the Study of

  8. Suicidal behavior and haplotypes of the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2 and ANKK1 gene polymorphisms in patients with alcohol dependence--preliminary report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jasiewicz

    Full Text Available Suicide is a significant public health issue and a major cause of death throughout the world. According to WHO it accounts for almost 2% of deaths worldwide. The etiology of suicidal behavior is complex but the results of many studies suggest that genetic determinants are of significant importance. In our study,--we have analyzed selected SNPs polymorphisms in the DRD2 and ANKK1 genes in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (169 Caucasian subjects including a subgroup of individuals (n = 61 who have experienced at least one suicide attempt. The aim of the study was to verify if various haplotypes of selected genes, comprising Taq1A, Taq1B, and Taq1D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, play any role in the development of alcohol dependence and suicidal behavior. The control group comprised 157 unrelated individuals matched for ethnicity, gender,- and age and included no individuals with mental disorders. All subjects were recruited in the North West region of Poland. The study showed that alcohol dependent subjects with a history of at least one suicidal attempt were characterized by a significantly higher frequency of the T-G-A2 haplotype when compared to individuals in whom alcohol dependence was not associated with suicidal behavior (p = 0.006. It appears that studies based on identifying correlation between SNPs is the future for research on genetic risk factors that contribute to the development of alcohol addiction and other associated disorders. To sum up, there is a necessity to perform further research to explain dependencies between the dopaminergic system, alcohol use disorders and suicidal behavior.

  9. Increased deep sleep in a medication-free, detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and a history of attempted homicide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailas Eila

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Both schizophrenia and alcoholism are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep, the physiologically significant, refreshing part of the sleep. Antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, has been reported to associate with increased deep sleep reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of sleep patterns. The authors are not aware of previous sleep studies in patients with both schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder. Case presentation The aim of the present case-study was to characterize the sleep architecture of a violent, medication-free and detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and features of antisocial personality disorder using polysomnography. The controls consisted of three healthy, age-matched women with no history of physical violence. The offender's sleep architecture was otherwise very typical for patients with schizophrenia and/or alcoholism, but an extremely high amount of deep sleep was observed in her sleep recording. Conclusions The finding strengthens the view that severe aggression is related to an abnormal sleep pattern with increased deep sleep. The authors were able to observe this phenomenon in an antisocially behaving, violent female offender with schizophrenia and alcohol dependence, the latter disorders previously reported to be associated with low levels of slow wave sleep. New studies are, however, needed to confirm and explain this preliminary finding.

  10. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

  11. Prevalence of psoriasis in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, A M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use has been implicated as a risk factor in the development of psoriasis, particularly in men. Despite this, little is known of the incidence or prevalence of psoriasis in patients who misuse alcohol. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psoriasis in patients with alcoholic liver disease. METHODS: In total, 100 patients with proven alcoholic liver disease were surveyed for a history of psoriasis and a full skin examination was performed if relevant. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients, 15 reported a history of psoriasis and another 8 had evidence of current activity, suggesting a prevalence (past or present) of 15% in this group of patients. CONCLUSION: It would appear that the prevalence of psoriasis in patients who misuse alcohol is much higher than the 1-3% variously quoted in the general population.

  12. Alcohol-related dementia: an update of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of dementia relating to excessive alcohol use have received increased research interest in recent times. In this paper, the neuropathology, nosology, epidemiology, clinical features, and neuropsychology of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) and alcohol-induced persisting amnestic syndrome (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, or WKS) are reviewed. Neuropathological and imaging studies suggest that excessive and prolonged use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional damage that is permanent in nature; however, there is debate about the relative contributions of the direct toxic effect of alcohol (neurotoxicity hypothesis), and the impact of thiamine deficiency, to lasting damage. Investigation of alcohol-related cognitive impairment has been further complicated by differing definitions of patterns of alcohol use and associated lifestyle factors related to the abuse of alcohol. Present diagnostic systems identify two main syndromes of alcohol-related cognitive impairment: ARD and WKS. However, 'alcohol-related brain damage' is increasingly used as an umbrella term to encompass the heterogeneity of these disorders. It is unclear what level of drinking may pose a risk for the development of brain damage or, in fact, whether lower levels of alcohol may protect against other forms of dementia. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with ARD typically have a younger age of onset than those with other forms of dementia, are more likely to be male, and often are socially isolated. The cognitive profile of ARD appears to involve both cortical and subcortical pathology, and deficits are most frequently observed on tasks of visuospatial function as well as memory and higher-order (executive) tasks. The WKS appears more heterogeneous in nature than originally documented, and deficits on executive tasks commonly are reported in conjunction with characteristic memory deficits. Individuals with alcohol-related disorders have the potential to at least

  13. Alcohol use among amateur sportsmen in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, Anne M

    2010-11-18

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. FINDINGS: The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960) players completed questionnaires (72% response rate). Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2). Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90%) were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31%) of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3 %) reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking). Of those who (self) completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7%) had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6%) of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.02, p<0.001), missing time from work or college (adjusted OR 1.39, p=0.04) or being in an accident (adjusted OR 1.78, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These male amateur

  14. Polygenic risk for alcohol consumption and its association with alcohol-related phenotypes: Do stress and life satisfaction moderate these relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mies, Gabry W; Verweij, Karin J H; Treur, Jorien L; Ligthart, Lannie; Fedko, Iryna O; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2018-02-01

    Genetic and environmental factors contribute about equally to alcohol-related phenotypes in adulthood. In the present study, we examined whether more stress at home or low satisfaction with life might be associated with heavier drinking or more alcohol-related problems in individuals with a high genetic susceptibility to alcohol use. Information on polygenic scores and drinking behavior was available in 6705 adults (65% female; 18-83 years) registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were constructed for all subjects based on the summary statistics of a large genome-wide association meta-analysis on alcohol consumption (grams per day). Outcome measures were quantity of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Stress at home and life satisfaction were moderating variables whose significance was tested by Generalized Estimating Equation analyses taking familial relatedness, age and sex into account. PRSs for alcohol were significantly associated with quantity of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in the past year (R 2 =0.11% and 0.10% respectively). Participants who reported to have experienced more stress in the past year and lower life satisfaction, scored higher on alcohol-related problems (R 2 =0.27% and 0.29 respectively), but not on alcohol consumption. Stress and life satisfaction did not moderate the association between PRSs and the alcohol outcome measures. There were significant main effects of polygenic scores and of stress and life satisfaction on drinking behavior, but there was no support for PRS-by-stress or PRS-by-life satisfaction interactions on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. School spirits: alcohol and collegiate sports fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Toben F; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-01-01

    While studies have addressed alcohol use and related problems among college athletes, little is known about the drinking patterns of non-athletes who are sports fans. This study examines the relationship between alcohol use and interest in collegiate sports on two levels. First, do sports fans in college binge drink more and exhibit more negative alcohol-related outcomes than other students? Second, do colleges with large numbers of sports fans have higher rates of heavy drinking and accompanying secondhand effects affecting other students? The study analyzed the responses of a nationally representative sample of students who completed questionnaires in the spring of 1999 regarding their extracurricular activities and substance use. The responses of 3445 student sports fans were compared to those of 8405 students who were not sports fans. More sports fans drank alcohol, engaged in binge drinking, had a heavy drinking style and reported alcohol-related problems than nonfans. The percentage of sports fans at a school was associated with binge drinking rates and the secondhand effects. The implications for those working with college athletics and for alcohol prevention personnel are discussed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Report of the Two-Day National Seminar on New Directions in Higher Education, Organized by the Kerala State Higher Education Council on 12th and 13th July 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, C.

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of the Two-Day National Seminar on New Directions in Higher Education, organized by the Kerala State Higher Education Council on 12th and 13th July 2010. The objective of the seminar was to deliberate upon the reforms being undertaken by the Government of India in Higher Education. Reputed scholars from within and outside the…

  17. Improvement of the structure of reports of Ukrainian higher educational institutions in terms of deregulation and state authority decentralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Ambarchian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the structure and content of financial and budgetary reports of domestic higher educational institutions, enhance of financial statements completeness in order to enable citizens to control a university activity. During the research both general scientific and specific scientific economic methods were implemented. The general methods include induction, deduction, analogy and comparison. Among specific methods of economic research grouping, table method, graphical method, method of informational and logical analysis were used. The paper characterizes legal documents which regulate the process of university financial statements preparation and presentation in different countries. Financial reports of Ukrainian, American and British universities are compared. The author determines the major directions of improvement of the structure and content of domestic university reports with the purpose of their completeness enhancing. As a result of the research performed the proper recommendations of improvement of domestic universities reporting are suggested. The author conforms the reporting information with the Managerial report which discloses the information about the reporting period achievements and the efficiency of budget resources expenditure.

  18. Self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol and cannabis among Ontario students: Associations with graduated licensing, risk taking, and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven; Shank, Danielle; Bruno, Tara; Turner, Nigel E; Mann, Robert E

    2017-07-04

    This article describes the patterns of self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) and driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) among licensed Ontario students in 2009 and examines their associations with graduated licensing, risk taking, and substance use problems for understanding DUIA and DUIC behaviors. Ontario's graduated licensing system requires new drivers to hold a G1 license for a minimum of 8 months and a G2 license for a minimum of 12 months before a full and unrestricted G license can be obtained. Among other restrictions, G1 drivers must maintain a 0 blood alcohol content (BAC), have an experienced driver in the passenger seat, not drive on any high-speed expressways, and not drive between the hours of midnight and 5 a.m. A G2 license is more similar to a G license, with fewer restrictions. This study analyzed data from the 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). The OSDUHS is a biennial population-based survey of students (grades 7 to 12) in Ontario, Canada. The results showed that 16.3% of licensed students in Ontario reported DUIC and 11.5% reported DUIA during the past year. After controlling for the effect of age, type of license emerged as a robust predictor for both DUIA and DUIC behavior, because students with a G2 and full license were significantly more likely to report DUIA and DUIC than drivers with a G1 license. Multivariate analyses suggested that risk-seeking behaviors were more important for understanding DUIA behavior than for DUIC behavior. Elevated problem indicators for alcohol and for cannabis were associated with DUIA and DUIC, respectively. Though much attention has been paid to drinking and driving among adolescents, this research shows that more Ontario students now report driving after cannabis use than after drinking alcohol. The results identify important correlates of both behaviors that may be useful for prevention purposes.

  19. Alcohol Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Trkovská, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The thesis concerns itself with alcohol advertising. Alcohol is the most widespread habit-forming substance, yet its consumption is permitted in most countries all around the world, possibly restricted by the age of consumers only. Drinking alcohol cannot be either regulated or prohibited today. It has become commonplace for the majority of our lives. Being aware of its apparent risks, however, there is an effort to regulate at least alcohol advertising. The main objective of this work was to...

  20. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  1. Librarian co-authors correlated with higher quality reported search strategies in general internal medicine systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethlefsen, Melissa L; Farrell, Ann M; Osterhaus Trzasko, Leah C; Brigham, Tara J

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether librarian and information specialist authorship was associated with better reported systematic review (SR) search quality. SRs from high-impact general internal medicine journals were reviewed for search quality characteristics and reporting quality by independent reviewers using three instruments, including a checklist of Institute of Medicine Recommended Standards for the Search Process and a scored modification of the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies instrument. The level of librarian and information specialist participation was significantly associated with search reproducibility from reported search strategies (Χ(2) = 23.5; P Librarian co-authored SRs had significantly higher odds of meeting 8 of 13 analyzed search standards than those with no librarian participation and six more than those with mentioned librarian participation. One-way ANOVA showed that differences in total search quality scores between all three groups were statistically significant (F2,267 = 10.1233; P librarian or information specialist co-authors are correlated with significantly higher quality reported search strategies. To minimize bias in SRs, authors and editors could encourage librarian engagement in SRs including authorship as a potential way to help improve documentation of the search strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Disease burden and costs from excess alcohol consumption, obesity, and viral hepatitis: fourth report of the Lancet Standing Commission on Liver Disease in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roger; Alexander, Graeme; Armstrong, Iain; Baker, Alastair; Bhala, Neeraj; Camps-Walsh, Ginny; Cramp, Matthew E; de Lusignan, Simon; Day, Natalie; Dhawan, Anil; Dillon, John; Drummond, Colin; Dyson, Jessica; Foster, Graham; Gilmore, Ian; Hudson, Mark; Kelly, Deirdre; Langford, Andrew; McDougall, Neil; Meier, Petra; Moriarty, Kieran; Newsome, Philip; O'Grady, John; Pryke, Rachel; Rolfe, Liz; Rice, Peter; Rutter, Harry; Sheron, Nick; Taylor, Alison; Thompson, Jeremy; Thorburn, Douglas; Verne, Julia; Wass, John; Yeoman, Andrew

    2018-03-17

    This report contains new and follow-up metric data relating to the eight main recommendations of the Lancet Standing Commission on Liver Disease in the UK, which aim to reduce the unacceptable harmful consequences of excess alcohol consumption, obesity, and viral hepatitis. For alcohol, we provide data on alcohol dependence, damage to families, and the documented increase in alcohol consumption since removal of the above-inflation alcohol duty escalator. Alcoholic liver disease will shortly overtake ischaemic heart disease with regard to years of working life lost. The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, affecting more than 60% of adults in the UK, is leading to an increasing liver disease burden. Favourable responses by industry to the UK Government's soft drinks industry levy have been seen, but the government cannot continue to ignore the number of adults being affected by diabetes, hypertension, and liver disease. New direct-acting antiviral drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection have reduced mortality and the number of patients requiring liver transplantation, but more screening campaigns are needed for identification of infected people in high-risk migrant communities, prisons, and addiction centres. Provision of care continues to be worst in regions with the greatest socioeconomic deprivation, and deficiencies exist in training programmes in hepatology for specialist registrars. Firm guidance is needed for primary care on the use of liver blood tests in detection of early disease and the need for specialist referral. This report also brings together all the evidence on costs to the National Health Service and wider society, in addition to the loss of tax revenue, with alcohol misuse in England and Wales costing £21 billion a year (possibly up to £52 billion) and obesity costing £27 billion a year (treasury estimates are as high as £46 billion). Voluntary restraints by the food and drinks industry have had little effect on

  3. Maternal Alcohol Use and Nutrition During Pregnancy: Diet and Anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R Colin; Senekal, Marjanne; Dodge, Neil C; Bechard, Lori J; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Molteno, Christopher D; Duggan, Christopher P; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2017-12-01

    Despite known risks of prenatal nutritional deficiencies and studies documenting increased prevalence of poor dietary intake among nonpregnant alcohol abusers, the nutritional status of heavy drinking pregnant women remains largely unstudied. Animal models have found interactions between prenatal ethanol exposure and micronutrients, such as choline, folate, B12, and iron, and human studies have reported that lower maternal weight and body mass confer increased fetal alcohol-related risk. One hundred and twenty-three heavy drinking Cape Coloured pregnant women and 83 abstaining controls were recruited at their first antenatal clinic visit. At 3 prenatal study visits, each gravida was interviewed about alcohol, smoking, and drug use and weight, height, and arm skinfolds were measured. Dietary intakes of energy, protein, fat, and major micronutrients were assessed from three 24-hour recall interviews. The majority of women gained less than the recommended 0.42 kg/wk during pregnancy. Whereas methamphetamine use was associated with smaller biceps skinfolds, an indicator of body fat, alcohol consumption was not related to any anthropometric indicator. Alcohol was related to higher intake of phosphorus, choline, and vitamins B12 and D. Alcohol, cigarette, and methamphetamine use were related to lower vitamin C intake. Insufficient intake was reported by >85% of women for 10 of 22 key nutrients, and >50% for an additional 3 nutrients. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was not associated with meaningful changes in diet or anthropometric measures in this population, suggesting that poor nutrition among drinkers does not confound the extensively reported effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on growth and neurobehavior. The poor gestational weight gain and high rates of insufficient intake for several nutrients in both the alcohol-exposed and control groups are also of public health importance. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  5. Total Quality Management in Higher Education: Clearing the Hurdles. A Survey on Strategies for Implementing Quality Management Practices in Higher Education. A GOAL/QPC Application Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Daniel

    Based on a survey of Quality Management (QM) practitioners at 21 colleges, this study presents the 10 most difficult implementation hurdles to QM in higher education and a set of hurdle-clearing strategies. The hurdles are: (1) lack of time to implement QM; (2) perception that QM is something for janitorial and housing staffs but not applicable to…

  6. The Uses of Institutional Culture: Strengthening Identification and Building Brand Equity in Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 31, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, J. Douglas, Ed.; Dubrow, Greg, Ed.; Hartley, Matthew, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Institutional culture matters in higher education, and universities and colleges commonly express the need to strengthen their culture. A strong culture is perceived, correctly so, to engender a needed sense of connectedness between and among the varied constituents associated with a campus. Linking organizational culture and social cohesion is…

  7. Prevalence of intestinal nematodes in alcoholic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zago-Gomes Maria P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a retrospective study on the frequency of intestinal nematodes among 198 alcoholic and 440 nonalcoholic patients at the University Hospital Cassiano Antonio Moraes in Vitória, ES, Brazil. The control sample included 194 nonalcoholic patients matched according to age, sex and neighborhood and a random sample of 296 adults admitted at the same hospital. Stool examination by sedimentation method (three samples was performed in all patients. There was a significantly higher frequency of intestinal nematodes in alcoholics than in controls (35.3% and 19.2%, respectively, due to a higher frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis (21.7% and 4.1%, respectively. Disregarding this parasite, the frequency of the other nematodes was similar in both groups. The higher frequency of S. stercoralis infection in alcoholics could be explained by immune modulation and/or by some alteration in corticosteroid metabolism induced by chronic ethanol ingestion. Corticosteroid metabolites would mimic the worm ecdisteroids, that would in turn increase the fecundity of females in duodenum and survival of larvae. Consequently, the higher frequency of Strongyloides larvae in stool of alcoholics does not necessarily reflect an increased frequency of infection rate, but only an increased chance to present a positive stool examination using sedimentation methods.

  8. Longitudinal cohort study of depression, post-traumatic stress, and alcohol use in South African women who attend alcohol serving venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Laurie A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A; Choi, Karmel W; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2014-08-06

    interaction between depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms; women reported more alcohol use than usual at times when they had higher post-traumatic stress symptoms, and this increase in alcohol use was further exacerbated for women who also had higher depressive symptoms than usual. These findings suggest that interventions targeting post-traumatic stress, especially when post-traumatic stress is comorbid with depression, may reduce alcohol use among South African women who drink.

  9. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impulsivity, Working Memory, and Impaired Control over Alcohol: A Latent Variable Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Quilty, Lena C.; Hendershot, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    Impaired control over alcohol is an important risk factor for heavy drinking among young adults and may mediate, in part, the association between personality risk and alcohol problems. Research suggests that trait impulsivity is associated with impaired control over alcohol; however, few studies of this association have included a range of impulsivity facets. The purpose of this study was to examine specific pathways from higher-order impulsivity factors to alcohol problems mediated via impaired control over alcohol. We also examined the moderating role of working memory in these associations. Young heavy drinkers (N=300) completed two multidimensional impulsivity measures (UPPS-P and BIS-11) along with self-report measures of impaired control over alcohol, alcohol use, and alcohol problems. Working memory was assessed using a computerized digit span task. Results showed that the impulsivity facets loaded onto two higher-order factors that were labeled response and reflection impulsivity. Response impulsivity predicted unique variance in self-reported impaired control and alcohol problems, whereas reflection impulsivity predicted unique variance in heavy drinking frequency only. Further, significant indirect associations were observed from response and reflection impulsivity to alcohol problems mediated via impaired control and heavy drinking frequency, respectively. Working memory and sensation seeking were not uniquely associated with the alcohol variables, and no support was found for the moderating role of working memory. The results help to clarify associations among impulsivity, impaired control, and alcohol problems, suggesting that impaired control may play a specific role in the pathway to alcohol problems from response impulsivity but not from reflection impulsivity. PMID:27269291

  11. The association between alcohol drinking and self-reported mental and physical functioning: a prospective cohort study among City of Helsinki employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonsalmi, Aino; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko

    2017-05-04

    Alcohol drinking is associated with ill health but less is known about its contribution to overall functioning. We aimed to examine whether alcohol drinking predicts self-reported mental and physical functioning 5-7 years later. A prospective cohort study. Helsinki, Finland. 40-year-old to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (5301 women and 1230 men) who participated in a postal survey in 2000-2002 and a follow-up survey in 2007. Mental and physical functioning measured by the Short Form 36 Health Survey. Alcohol drinking was differently associated with mental and physical functioning. Heavy average drinking, binge drinking and problem drinking were all associated with subsequent poor mental functioning except for heavy average drinking among men, whereas only problem drinking was associated with poor physical functioning. Also, non-drinking was associated with poor physical functioning. Problem drinking was the drinking habit showing most widespread and strongest associations with health functioning. The associations between problem drinking and poor mental functioning and with poor physical functioning among women remained after adjusting for baseline mental functioning, sociodemographic factors, working conditions and other health behaviours. Alcohol drinking is associated especially with poor mental functioning. Problem drinking was the drinking habit strongest associated with poor health functioning. The results call for early recognition and prevention of alcohol problems in order to improve health functioning among employees. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. A typology of alcohol consumption among young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoren, M.P.; Cronin, M; Perry, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    information from studies that produced types of alcohol consumption among young people. Method Quantitative and qualitative literature investigating the different types of drinkers among young people [aged 12–24 years], published in peer reviewed journals, were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review...... In total, 13 studies were eligible for inclusion: 11 quantitative, one qualitative and one mixed methods. Six classes of drinkers were formed within this typology. Abstainers reported no alcohol consumption. Light drinkers reported drinking small amounts of alcohol infrequently. In comparison, social......Background Currently, alcohol consumption levels are significantly higher among younger age groups. However, previous research has noted the diversity of motivations and patterns. These patterns of drinking have yet to be synthesised into a typology. The aim of the current study was to synthesise...

  13. Alcohol consumption and violence among Argentine adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierobon, Mariaelena; Barak, Mariam; Hazrati, Sahel; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between alcohol and violence among Argentine youth. Data from the 2007 Argentina Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), a nationally representative survey of middle school students, were examined using age-adjusted logistic regression models. Of the 1,328 participating students aged 13 to 15 years old, 51.9% reported drinking alcohol in the previous month, with higher rates among males (p=0.04) and older students (pbullying, used tobacco or drugs, or skipped school without permission were approximately twice as likely as other drinkers to have engaged in violent activities. Public health interventions targeting violence among young adolescents should be developed in combination with alcohol education programs. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. A multimodal investigation of contextual effects on alcohol's emotional rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Bresin, Konrad; Kang, Dahyeon; Rosen, I Gary; Ariss, Talia; Luczak, Susan E; Barnett, Nancy P; Eckland, Nathaniel S

    2018-05-01

    Regular alcohol consumption in unfamiliar social settings has been linked to problematic drinking. A large body of indirect evidence has accumulated to suggest that alcohol's rewarding emotional effects-both negative-mood relieving and positive-mood enhancing-will be magnified when alcohol is consumed within unfamiliar versus familiar social contexts. But empirical research has never directly examined links between contextual familiarity and alcohol reward. In the current study, we mobilized novel ambulatory technology to examine the effect of social familiarity on alcohol reward in everyday drinking contexts while also examining how alcohol reward observed in these field contexts corresponds to reward observed in the laboratory. Heavy social drinking participants (N = 48, 50% male) engaged in an intensive week of ambulatory assessment. Participants wore transdermal alcohol sensors while they reported on their mood and took photographs of their social contexts in response to random prompts. Participants also attended 2 laboratory beverage-administration sessions, during which their emotional responses were assessed and transdermal sensors were calibrated to estimate breathalyzer readings (eBrACs). Results indicated a significant interaction between social familiarity and alcohol episode in everyday drinking settings, with alcohol enhancing mood to a greater extent in relatively unfamiliar versus familiar social contexts. Findings also indicated that drinking in relatively unfamiliar social settings was associated with higher eBrACs. Finally, results indicated a correspondence between some mood effects of alcohol experienced inside and outside the laboratory. This study presents a novel methodology for examining alcohol reward and indicates social familiarity as a promising direction for research seeking to explain problematic drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Alcohol consumption and low-risk drinking guidelines among adults: a cross-sectional analysis from Alberta's Tomorrow Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Darren R; Haig, Tiffany R; Poirier, Abbey E; Akawung, Alianu; Friedenreich, Christine M; Robson, Paula J

    2017-12-01

    Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for all-cause mortality and cancer incidence. Although cross-sectional data are available through national surveys, data on alcohol consumption in Alberta from a large prospective cohort were not previously available. The goal of these analyses was to characterize the levels of alcohol consumption among adults from the Alberta's Tomorrow Project in the context of cancer prevention guidelines. Furthermore, we conducted analyses to examine the relationships between alcohol consumption and other high-risk or risk-related behaviours. Between 2001 and 2009, 31 072 men and women aged 35 to 69 years were enrolled into Alberta's Tomorrow Project, a large provincial cohort study. Data concerning alcohol consumption in the past 12 months were obtained from 26 842 participants who completed self-administered health and lifestyle questionnaires. We conducted cross-sectional analyses on daily alcohol consumption and cancer prevention guidelines for alcohol use in relation to sociodemographic factors. We also examined the combined prevalence of alcohol consumption and tobacco use, obesity and comorbidities. Approximately 14% of men and 12% of women reported alcohol consumption exceeding recommendations for cancer prevention. Higher alcohol consumption was reported in younger age groups, urban dwellers, those with higher incomes and those who consumed more red meat. Moreover, volume of daily alcohol consumption was positively associated with current tobacco use in both men and women. Overall, men were more likely to fall in the moderate and high-risk behavioural profiles and show higher daily alcohol consumption patterns compared to women. Despite public health messages concerning the adverse impact of alcohol consumption, a sizeable proportion of Alberta's Tomorrow Project participants consumed alcohol in excess of cancer prevention recommendations. Continued strategies to promote low-risk drinking among those who choose to

  16. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot

  17. Modified A{sup ++}-standard refrigerator with 30% reduction of energy consumption. Higher efficiency by compressor modification - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, M.; Stahl, S.; Ganz, J.

    2010-06-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how a modified refrigerator can be given a higher efficiency by modifying the compressor. The modified refrigerator was fitted with a variable-speed compressor. This compressor could be run at much lower speeds so that it was in operation for up to 90% of the time. It was shown that less electricity was consumed the more the compressor ran. The report discusses the aims of the work and presents details on the standard refrigerator used for the tests. The compressor normally used and the variable-speed compressor used in the test are described. Systems for temperature control and data acquisition during the tests are described. The results obtained are examined and the influence of various factors is discussed.

  18. A cis-eQTL in OPRM1 is Associated with Subjective Response to Alcohol and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Jacqueline M; Gizer, Ian R; Deak, Joseph D; Fleming, Kimberly A; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2017-05-01

    A functional polymorphism within the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene, rs1799971 (A118G), previously has been associated with measures of alcohol use and sensitivity to its effects, but findings have been inconclusive. A recent study suggested that a second nearby variant within OPRM1, rs3778150, is robustly associated with heroin dependence and fully explained a smaller observed association with rs1799971. Given evidence that the rs3778150-C allele is associated with decreased OPRM1 expression levels in the human brain, the current study sought to test the hypothesis that rs3778150 represents a causal variant within OPRM1 that increases risk for a variety of alcohol use phenotypes. Participants with genotype and phenotype data from a larger experimental study (N = 152) were assessed on measures of subjective response to alcohol and alcohol use. Measures included (i) the Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol and the Alcohol Sensitivity Questionnaire, (ii) the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) and ratings of subjective intoxication, and (iii) average number of drinks per week in the past month. Compared to rs3778150-T homozygous individuals, carriers of the rs3778150-C allele exhibited significantly lower retrospective self-report levels of alcohol sensitivity. Carriers of the rs3778150-C allele also exhibited lower levels of BAES alcohol-related stimulation during an alcohol challenge and reported higher levels of drinking in the last 30 days. With the exception of lower levels of BAES alcohol-related sedation, the rs1799971 variant did not show consistent significant association with any of the alcohol phenotypes in the presence of rs3778150. Results suggest that rs3778150 may be causally related to alcohol use phenotypes, and could potentially account for previously observed associations of rs1799971 with substance use phenotypes. Future studies may investigate potential causal relations among genetic variants in OPRM1, subjective response to alcohol, and

  19. Psychometric properties of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and prevalence of alcohol use among Iranian psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Shams, Jamal; Faghihimohamadi, Mohamadmahdi; Zahiroddin, Hanieh; Hallgren, Mats; Kallmen, Hakan

    2018-01-30

    Iran is a developing and Islamic country where the consumption of alcoholic beverages is banned. However, psychiatric disorders and alcohol use disorders are often co-occurring. We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use and examined the psychometric properties of the test among psychiatric outpatients in Teheran, Iran. AUDIT was completed by 846 consecutive (sequential) patients. Descriptive statistics, internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to analyze the prevalence of alcohol use, reliability and construct validity. 12% of men and 1% of women were hazardous alcohol consumers. Internal reliability of the Iranian version of AUDIT was excellent. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the construct validity and the fit of previous factor structures (1, 2 and 3 factors) to data were not good and seemingly contradicted results from the explorative principal axis factoring, which showed that a 1-factor solution explained 77% of the co-variances. We could not reproduce the suggested factor structure of AUDIT, probably due to the skewed distribution of alcohol consumption. Only 19% of men and 3% of women scored above 0 on AUDIT. This could be explained by the fact that alcohol is illegal in Iran. In conclusion the AUDIT exhibited good internal reliability when used as a single scale. The prevalence estimates according to AUDIT were somewhat higher among psychiatric patients compared to what was reported by WHO regarding the general population.

  20. Effect of Alcohol References in Music on Alcohol Consumption in Public Drinking Places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, R.C.M.E.; Slettenhaar, H.G.J.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs

  1. Alcohol marketing in televised international football: frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Coleman, James; White, Martin

    2014-05-20

    Alcohol marketing includes sponsorship of individuals, organisations and sporting events. Football (soccer) is one of the most popular spectator sports worldwide. No previous studies have quantified the frequency of alcohol marketing in a high profile international football tournament. The aims were to determine: the frequency and nature of visual references to alcohol in a representative sample of EURO2012 matches broadcast in the UK; and if frequency or nature varied between matches broadcast on public service and commercial channels, or between matches that did and did not feature England. Eight matches selected by stratified random sampling were recorded. All visual references to alcohol were identified using a tool with high inter-rater reliability. 1846 visual references to alcohol were identified over 1487 minutes of broadcast--an average of 1.24 references per minute. The mean number of references per minute was higher in matches that did vs did not feature England (p = 0.004), but did not differ between matches broadcast on public service vs commercial channels (p = 0.92). The frequency of visual references to alcohol was universally high and higher in matches featuring the only UK home team--England--suggesting that there may be targeting of particularly highly viewed matches. References were embedded in broadcasts, and not particular to commercial channels including paid-for advertising. New UK codes-of-conduct on alcohol marketing at sporting events will not reduce the level of marketing reported here.

  2. Corneal melanosis successfully treated using topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy: a 3-year follow-up case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balcı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe report a case of primary acquired corneal melanosis without atypia associated with corneal haze in a patient with a history of limbal malignant melanoma and the effect of mitomycin-C. A 75-year-old woman with a history of limbal malignant melanoma presented with loss of vision in right eye. Corneal examination showed a patchy melanotic pigmentation with a central haze. Topical mitomycin-C improved visual acuity and corneal haze. However, the pigmented lesions persisted, and they were removed with alcohol corneal epitheliectomy. Histopathological examination demonstrated primary acquired melanosis without atypia. The lesions were successfully removed, and there were no recurrences during the follow-up period of 36 months. The association of conjunctival and corneal melanosis without atypia is a rare condition. In addition, co-existence of central corneal haze and melanosis may decrease visual acuity. Topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy can be useful treatments in this condition.

  3. Pills and pints: risky drinking and alcohol-related harms among regular ecstasy users in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Stuart A; George, Jessica; Johnston, Jennifer; Dunn, Matthew; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2012-05-01

    A significant proportion of young Australians engage in risky alcohol consumption, and an increasing minority are regular ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) users. Risky alcohol use, alone or in combination with ecstasy, is associated with a range of acute and chronic health risks. The aim of this study was to document the incidence and some health-related correlates of alcohol use, and concurrent alcohol and ecstasy use, among a large, national sample of regular ecstasy users (REU) in Australia. National, cross-sectional surveys of REU in Australia 2003-2008. Among REU in 2008 (n=678) usual alcohol use, psychological distress and health-related quality of life were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and Short Form-8 Survey respectively. Among REU in 2008, 36% reported high-risk patterns of usual alcohol consumption, 62% reported usually consuming more than five standard drinks with ecstasy, and 24% reported currently experiencing high or very high levels of psychological distress. Controlling for age and education, high-risk drinking among REU was associated with higher levels of psychological distress and poorer health-related functioning; however, the associations between concurrent alcohol and ecstasy use, and health outcomes, were not significant (P>0.05). A large and increasing proportion of REU in Australia engage in high-risk patterns of alcohol consumption, including in combination with ecstasy. High-risk alcohol consumption among this group is associated with adverse health-related outcomes. Prevention and harm reduction interventions for REU should incorporate messages about the risks associated with alcohol use. There is an ongoing need for youth-specific, coordinated alcohol and other drug and mental health services. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Association between alcohol abuse, childhood adverse events and suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Ana Politakis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Negative life events present a risk for suicidal behaviour. The occurrence of suicidal behaviour also depends on type of negative life events, time of their appearance and the support person has in their environment, and can be part of a process triggered by a stressful event. the aim of the study was to investigate adverse childhood events, parental alcoholism and alcohol abuse in association with suicidal behaviour of suicide victims. Methods: A case-control study was conducted involving 90 individuals from Slovenian population who committed suicide and 90 age-sex matched controls drawn from the living population. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews with key informants by the principles of psychological autopsy. Results: Alcohol abuse was reported more ofen for suicide victims than for controls. The same was true for severe deprivation in childhood and alcoholism of one or both parents. Differences between groups in separation from one or both parents, death of one or both parents, reported parental divorce in childhood or sexual abuse in childhood were not observed. Conclusions: We should conclude that negative events in childhood and alcohol abuse in adulthood of suicide victims could be related to suicidal behaviour in population with higher suicide rate. When planning measures for the prevention of suicidal behaviour, adverse events in childhood and alcohol abuse should not be neglected to plan measures to prevent such events accordingly and to raise awareness about the dangers of alcohol abuse for suicidal behaviour.

  5. Pathophysiology of alcoholic pancreatitis: An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimal Chowdhury; Priya Gupta

    2006-01-01

    Use of alcohol is a worldwide habit regardless of socioeconomic background. Heavy alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for induction of pancreatitis. The current review cites the updated literature on the alcohol metabolism, its effects on gastrointestinal and pancreatic function and in causing pancreatic injury, genetic predisposition of alcohol induced pancreatitis. Reports describing prospective mechanisms of action of alcohol activating the signal transduction pathways, induction of oxidative stress parameters through the development of animal models are being presented.

  6. Daily Reports of Positive and Negative Affect and Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among College Student and Nonstudent Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria; Griffin, Jamie

    2016-01-02

    Daily affect and substance use covary among college students, but little is known about these associations among young adults not in college. The current pilot study examines associations between positive and negative affect and alcohol and marijuana use, with a focus on differences between college student and nonstudent young adults. High school seniors completed a baseline survey during the spring of 2012 and were then randomly selected to participate in an intensive measurement follow-up. Participants in the follow-up (N = 72, 40.3% men, 77.8% White, 66.7% full-time college students) completed up to 14 consecutive web-based daily surveys during the fall after high school completion. Multilevel models in which days (Level 1) were nested in persons (Level 2) were estimated. Weekend days were associated with increased alcohol use among all young adults, increased marijuana use among college students, and decreased marijuana use among nonstudents. For young adults not in college, greater daily positive affect was associated with increased likelihood of binge drinking, consuming a greater number of drinks, and lower odds of marijuana use; greater daily negative affect was associated with lower odds of alcohol use and lower odds of binge drinking for non-students. For college students, greater daily negative affect was associated with lower odds of marijuana use. Daily affect and alcohol and marijuana use covary among young adults, though these associations differ between students and non-students. Results highlight the need to examine predictors of alcohol and marijuana use among young adults who do not attend college.

  7. The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of self-reported hand eczema: a cross-sectional population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2010-01-01

    heavy smokers (OR = 1.38; CI = 0.99-1.92) compared with never-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking was positively associated with hand eczema among adults from the general population in Denmark. Apparently, current light smokers (... were analysed with logistic regression analyses and associations were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The prevalence of hand eczema was higher among previous smokers (OR = 1.13; CI = 0.90-1.40), current light smokers (OR = 1.51; CI = 1.14-2.02) and current...... smokers (> 15 g daily) but this needs to be reconfirmed. Alcohol consumption was not associated with hand eczema....

  8. Association of attention-deficit hyperkinetic disorder with alcohol use disorders in fishermen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol use is a widely prevalent problem and poses hazard during work for certain groups such as fishermen. Disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD correlate with early onset and greater severity of alcohol use disorders. Aims: We planned to study the frequency of ADHD among fishermen in a fishing hamlet of southern India using adult ADHD self-reported scale (ASRS and correlated with the severity of alcohol use disorder as evidenced by age at initiation of alcohol use, presence of harmful use, or dependence use as defined by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Subjects and Methods: This was a community-based interview using AUDIT questionnaire for severity of alcohol use and the ASRS to detect ADHD. Results: The prevalence of adult ADHD among fishermen in this study was 25.7% using the critical items of the ASRS. ADHD was about twice as likely in participants with dependence as those without dependence (odds ratio = 2.10. ADHD was also more likely in participants with onset of use before 30 years of age than others (25.1% vs. 15.4% (P = 0.27. Discussion: We found a high frequency of alcohol use among fishermen (79.8%. However, only 9.9% had alcohol dependence which is higher than the general population (2.3% in the region. Fishermen with alcohol dependence were twice as likely to have ADHD as those without alcohol dependence. Conclusion: In a community-based survey of fishermen, the prevalence of alcohol dependence was about 10%. The presence of alcohol dependence predicted a two times higher likelihood of ADHD among fishermen than those without alcohol dependence.

  9. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  10. Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Comorbid Alcohol Abuse with Buspirone in a Patient with Antidepressant-Induced Platelet Dysfunction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mazhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of abnormal bleeding with serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been known, but there is insufficient evidence base to guide pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with underlying haematological conditions. The following case report is about a 50-year-old female with generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and alcohol abuse where pharmacological treatment of anxiety symptoms has been difficult as it would lead to bruising due to the patient’s underlying qualitative platelet dysfunction. Treatment with venlafaxine, citalopram, escitalopram, and clomipramine resulted in improvement and anxiety symptoms, as well as reduction in alcohol use, but pharmacological treatment has to be discontinued because of bruising and hematomas. In view of an active substance use disorder, benzodiazepines were avoided as a treatment option. The patient’s anxiety symptoms and comorbid alcohol abuse responded well to pharmacological treatment with buspirone which gradually titrated up to a dose of 30 mg BID. Patient was followed for around a six-month period while she was on buspirone before being discharged to family doctor’s care. Buspirone is unlikely to have a significant effect on platelet serotonin transponder and could be an effective alternative for pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with a bleeding diathesis.

  11. Profile of Class I Histone Deacetylases (HDAC) by Human Dendritic Cells after Alcohol Consumption and In Vitro Alcohol Treatment and Their Implication in Oxidative Stress: Role of HDAC Inhibitors Trichostatin A and Mocetinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Marisela; Figueroa, Gloria; Parira, Tiyash; Yndart, Adriana; Muñoz, Karla; Atluri, Venkata; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Nair, Madhavan P

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to play a role in alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and may prove to be valuable therapeutic targets. However, the involvement of histone deacetylases (HDACs) on alcohol-induced oxidative stress of human primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) has not been elucidated. In the current study, we took a novel approach combining ex vivo, in vitro and in silico analyses to elucidate the mechanisms of alcohol-induced oxidative stress and role of HDACs in the periphery. ex vivo and in vitro analyses of alcohol-modulation of class I HDACs and activity by MDDCs from self-reported alcohol users and non-alcohol users was performed. Additionally, MDDCs treated with alcohol were assessed using qRT-PCR, western blot, and fluorometric assay. The functional effects of alcohol-induce oxidative stress were measured in vitro using PCR array and in silico using gene expression network analysis. Our findings show, for the first time, that MDDCs from self-reported alcohol users have higher levels of class I HDACs compare to controls and alcohol treatment in vitro differentially modulates HDACs expression. Further, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) blocked alcohol-induction of class I HDACs and modulated alcohol-induced oxidative stress related genes expressed by MDDCs. In silico analysis revealed new target genes and pathways on the mode of action of alcohol and HDACi. Findings elucidating the ability of alcohol to modulate class I HDACs may be useful for the treatment of alcohol-induced oxidative damage and may delineate new potential immune-modulatory mechanisms.

  12. Alcohol and the young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, D E

    1984-01-01

    With the increasing availability of alcohol in modern times, the child neglect and abuse portrayed in Hogarth's engraving Gin Lane may once again be witnessed. Reports occur occasionally of alcohol being given deliberately to infants to quieten them, but alcohol poisoning in the slightly older child is not uncommon. The introduction of child-proof containers has altered poisoning figures recently. However, alcohol poisoning tends to occur at ages 3 and 4, that is, about 2 years after the peak of all poisonings in children. This difference may be an indication that alcohol is taken in imitation of parents' drinking, a suggestion which has some support from reported cases of mouthwash poisoning. Holidays and high days where children and alcohol mix, are potentially dangerous periods. Since alcohol poisoning can be fatal, yet if recognised is relatively easily managed, every child with the slightest degree of drowsiness should be suspect until proven or not by blood alcohol. The prevention of alcohol poisoning in the young child consists in protecting the alcohol by lock and key, not setting an example by drinking or gargling in front of children. Many substances such as mouthwash and perfume should also be under supervision. Once actual poisoning has occurred blood sugar is probably more important than the level of blood ethanol and blood sugar levels should be monitored frequently and the child treated with glucose, preferably intravenously.

  13. Alcohol Consumption among College Students: Chief Student Affairs Officers' Perspectives on Evidence-Based Alcohol Consumption Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, David F., III

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among college students can lead to negative consequences for those consuming alcohol as well as for their classmates. The 2002 report from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Task Force on College Drinking described a "three-in-one" evidence-based approach for alcohol consumption reduction…

  14. Meconium indicators of maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy and association with patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goecke, Tamme W; Burger, Pascal; Fasching, Peter A; Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Engel, Anne; Häberle, Lothar; Voigt, Franziska; Faschingbauer, Florian; Raabe, Eva; Maass, Nicolai; Rothe, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W; Pragst, Fritz; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Identification of women with moderate alcohol abuse during pregnancy is difficult. We correlated self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy and patient characteristics with objective alcohol indicators measured in fetal meconium. A total of 557 women singleton births and available psychological tests, obstetric data and meconium samples were included in statistical analysis. Alcohol metabolites (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG)), were determined from meconium and correlated with patient characteristics. We found that 21.2% of the 557 participants admitted low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Of the parameters analyzed from meconium, only EtG showed an association with alcohol history (P alcohol consumption, who obviously denied having consumed alcohol during pregnancy. No other associations between socioeconomic or psychological characteristics and the drinking status (via meconium alcohol metabolites) could be found. Women who drink higher doses of ethanol during pregnancy, according to metabolite measures in meconium, might be less likely to admit alcohol consumption. No profile of socioeconomic or psychological characteristics of those women positively tested via meconium could be established.

  15. Concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among a middle-aged and elderly population in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prakash C; Maulik, Pallab K; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Saxena, Shekhar

    2005-01-01

    The concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco and its deleterious effects have been reported in the western literature. However, studies on the relationship between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use in India are limited. This study outlines the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among a middle-aged and elderly population in a western Indian cohort after controlling for various sociodemographic factors. A total of 35 102 men, 45 years of age and above were interviewed for concurrent alcohol and tobacco use. The sample was part of an earlier cohort drawn from the general population. The data were analysed after controlling for age, education, religion and mother-tongue. Among alcohol users, 51.1% smoked tobacco and 35.6% used smokeless tobacco. The relative risk of alcohol use was highest among those smoking cigarettes or beedis and among those using mishri with betel quid and tobacco. The risk of alcohol use increased with the frequency of tobacco use. The risk also increased with higher amounts of alcohol consumption, but peaked at around 100-150 ml of absolute alcohol use. The study highlights the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among the Indian population. This has important public health implications since concurrent use of these is synergistic for increased risk of oropharyngeal cancers.

  16. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  17. Trait mindfulness and protective strategies for alcohol use: Implications for college student drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Emma I; Leffingwell, Thad R; Leavens, Eleanor L

    2017-10-01

    The use of Protective Behavioral Strategies (PBS) has been strongly linked with decreased experience of alcohol-related consequences, making them a potential target for intervention. Additionally, mindfulness is associated with decreased experience of alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a model of PBS as a mediator of the effect of mindfulness on alcohol-related consequences. Additionally, mindfulness as a moderator of the relationship between PBS and alcohol use and consequences was examined. College students (N=239) at a large South Central university completed self-report measures of demographics, alcohol use and consequences, use of PBS, and trait mindfulness. Results indicated that both higher levels of mindfulness and using more PBS predicted decreased alcohol-related consequences and consumption, with PBS mediating both relationships (pmindfulness were more likely to use PBS, with individuals using more PBS experiencing fewer alcohol-related consequences and consuming fewer drinks per week. Mindfulness moderated the relationship between PBS and consequences, with a significantly stronger negative relationship for those with lower levels of mindfulness. Individuals who are higher in trait mindfulness are more likely to use PBS, which leads to a decrease in the experience of alcohol-related consequences. Furthermore, for individuals lower in mindfulness, low PBS use may lead to increased experience of alcohol consequences. Interventions that incorporate PBS may be most beneficial for students who are low in mindfulness and unlikely to engage in drinking control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Cognitive and Behavioural Impact of Alcohol Promoting and Alcohol Warning Advertisements: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyle G.; Stautz, Kaidy; Hollands, Gareth J.; Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess the immediate effect of alcohol promoting and alcohol warning advertisements on implicit and explicit attitudes towards alcohol and on alcohol seeking behaviour. Methods We conducted a between-participants online experiment in which participants were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of advertisements: (a) alcohol promoting, (b) alcohol warning, or (c) unrelated to alcohol. A total of 373 participants (59.5% female) aged 18–40 (M = 28.03) living in the UK were recruited online through a research agency. Positive and negative implicit attitudes and explicit attitudes towards alcohol were assessed before and after advertisements were viewed. Alcohol seeking behaviour was measured by participants' choice of either an alcohol-related or non-alcohol-related voucher offered ostensibly as a reward for participation. Self-reported past week alcohol consumption was also recorded. Results There were no main effects on any of the outcome measures. In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol promoting advertisements increased positive implicit attitudes (standardized beta = 0.15, P = 0.04) and decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = −0.17, P = 0.02). In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol warning advertisements decreased negative implicit attitudes (standardized beta = −0.19, P = 0.01). Conclusions Viewing alcohol promoting advertisements has a cognitive impact on heavier drinkers, increasing positive and reducing negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol. Viewing alcohol warning advertisements reduces negative implicit attitudes towards alcohol in heavier drinkers, suggestive of a reactance effect. PMID:26391367

  19. Higher Drop in Speed during a Repeated Sprint Test in Soccer Players Reporting Former Hamstring Strain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røksund, Ola D.; Kristoffersen, Morten; Bogen, Bård E.; Wisnes, Alexander; Engeseth, Merete S.; Nilsen, Ann-Kristin; Iversen, Vegard V.; Mæland, Silje; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Hamstring strain injury is common in soccer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical capacity of players who have and have not suffered from hamstring strain injury in a sample of semi-professional and professional Norwegian soccer players in order to evaluate characteristics and to identify possible indications of insufficient rehabilitation. Method: Seventy-five semi-professional and professional soccer players (19 ± 3 years) playing at the second and third level in the Norwegian league participated in the study. All players answered a questionnaire, including one question about hamstring strain injury (yes/no) during the previous 2 years. They also performed a 40 m maximal sprint test, a repeated sprint test (8 × 20 m), a countermovement jump, a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) test, strength tests and flexibility tests. Independent sample t-tests were used to evaluate differences in the physical capacity of the players who had suffered from hamstring strain injury and those who had not. Mixed between-within subject's analyses of variance was used to compare changes in speed during the repeated sprint test between groups. Results: Players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous two years (16%) had a significantly higher drop in speed (0.07 vs. 0.02 s, p = 0.007) during the repeated sprint test, compared to players reporting no previous hamstring strain injury. In addition, there was a significant interaction (groups × time) (F = 3.22, p = 0.002), showing that speed in the two groups changed differently during the repeated sprint test. There were no significant differences in relations to age, weight, height, body fat, linear speed, countermovement jump height, leg strength, VO2max, or hamstring flexibility between the groups. Conclusion: Soccer players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous 2 years showed significant higher drop in speed during the repeated sprint test compared to players with no hamstring

  20. Sporadic Retinoblastoma and Parental Smoking and Alcohol Consumption before and after Conception: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Azary

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most frequent tumor of the eye in children and very little is known about the etiology of non-familial (sporadic retinoblastoma. In this study we examined whether parental tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption (pre- or post-conception contribute to the two phenotypes (bilateral or unilateral of sporadic retinoblastoma.Two large multicenter case-control studies identified 488 cases through eye referral centers in the United States and Canada or through the Children's Oncology Group. Controls (n = 424 were selected from among friends and relatives of cases and matched by age. Risk factor information was obtained via telephone interview. We employed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of parental tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on retinoblastoma.Maternal smoking before and during pregnancy contributed to unilateral retinoblastoma risk in the child: year before pregnancy conditional Odds Ratio (OR, 8.9; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.5-51, and unconditional OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.7; month before or during pregnancy, conditional OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.5-20.8, and unconditional OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.0. No association was found for maternal or paternal alcohol consumption.The results of this study indicate that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for sporadic retinoblastoma. Our study supports a role for tobacco exposures in embryonal tumors.

  1. Adult Separation Anxiety and TCI-R Personality Dimensions in Patients with Anxiety, Alcohol Use, and Gambling: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Pozzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nowadays, adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD is an established diagnostic category but is little investigated in subjects with addictive behaviours. Objective. To assess the presence of ASAD among patients with addictive disorders in comparison with anxiety patients and measure the personality correlates in all these groups. Methods. 103 outpatients, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for anxiety disorders (38 patients, alcohol dependence (30 patients, or pathological gambling (35 patients, were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS and the Adult Separation Anxiety Checklist (ASA-27 for separation anxiety and by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R for personality characteristics. Results. ASAD is detected in 34.2% of anxiety patients, 13.3% of alcoholics, and 11.4% of gamblers. Separation anxiety scores correlate positively with harm avoidance and negatively with self-directedness in all groups; further correlations are seen among addictive patients only, that is, self-transcendence for gamblers and cooperativeness for both alcoholics and gamblers. Conclusions. The prevalence of ASAD is lower among addictive patients than in those with anxiety disorders; correlations are found between separation anxiety and specific TCI-R dimensions, with some matching across the three diagnostic groups.

  2. Alcohol intake and risk of acute coronary syndrome and mortality in men and women with and without hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindschou Hansen, Jane; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Jensen, Majken Karoline

    2011-01-01

    Although a light to moderate alcohol intake is associated with a lower risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), alcohol is also associated with risk of hypertension, which in turn is a strong risk factor of ACS. We examined whether middle-aged men and women with hypertension also benefit from a light...... to moderate alcohol intake in relation to risk of ACS and overall mortality. We used data from 57,053 men and women, aged 50-64, who participated in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Information on alcohol intake (amount and frequency) was reported by the participants. Hypertension status was assessed...... at baseline by combining blood pressure measurements and self-reports. During follow-up, 860 and 271 ACS events occurred among men and women. Irrespective of alcohol intake, participants with hypertension had a higher risk than participants with normal blood pressure. Alcohol intake was associated...

  3. Associations of repeated high alcohol use with unsafe driving behaviors, traffic offenses, and traffic crashes among young drivers: Findings from the New Zealand Drivers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Dorothy; Brookland, Rebecca; Connor, Jennie

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to describe self-reported high alcohol use at each of the 3 licensing stages of graduated driver licensing and its relationship to drink-driving behaviors, intentional risky driving, aggressive driving, alcohol traffic offenses, non-alcohol traffic offenses, and traffic crashes. The New Zealand Drivers Study (NZDS) is a multistage, prospective cohort study of newly licensed drivers interviewed at all 3 stages of the graduated driver licensing system: learner (baseline), restricted (intermediate), and full license. At each stage, alcohol use was self-reported using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), with high alcohol use defined as a score of ≥4 for males and ≥3 for females. Sociodemographic and personality data were obtained at the baseline interview. Alcohol-related, intentional risky, and aggressive driving behaviors were self-reported following each license stage. Traffic crashes and offenses were identified from police records. Crashes were also self-reported. Twenty-six percent (n = 397) reported no high alcohol use, 22% at one license stage, 30% at 2 stages, and 22% at 3 stages. Poisson regression results (unadjusted and adjusted) showed that the number of stages where high alcohol use was reported was significantly associated with each of the outcomes. For most outcomes, and especially the alcohol-involved outcomes, the relative risk increased with the number of stages of high alcohol use. We found that high alcohol use was common among young newly licensed drivers and those who repeatedly reported high alcohol use were at a significantly higher risk of unsafe driving behaviors. Recently introduced zero blood alcohol concentration (BAC) should help to address this problem, but other strategies are required to target persistent offenders.

  4. Anxiety, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Perceived Stress as Predictors of Recent Drinking, Alcohol Craving, and Social Stress Response in Heavy Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Mary E; Hutton, Heidi E; Stephens, Mary Ann C; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S

    2017-04-01

    Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self-report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, alcohol craving during early withdrawal, as well as laboratory measures of alcohol craving and stress reactivity among heavy drinkers with AUD. Media-recruited, heavy drinkers with AUD (N = 87) were assessed for recent alcohol consumption. Anxiety and stress levels were characterized using paper-and-pencil measures, including the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Eligible subjects (N = 30) underwent alcohol abstinence on the Clinical Research Unit; twice daily measures of alcohol craving were collected. On day 4, subjects participated in the Trier Social Stress Test; measures of cortisol and alcohol craving were collected. In multivariate analyses, higher BAI scores were associated with lower drinking frequency and reduced drinks/drinking day; in contrast, higher ASI-3 scores were associated with higher drinking frequency. BAI anxiety symptom and ASI-3 scores also were positively related to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total scores and AUD symptom and problem subscale measures. Higher BAI and ASI-3 scores but not PSS scores were related to greater self-reported alcohol craving during early alcohol abstinence. Finally, BAI scores were positively related to laboratory stress-induced cortisol and alcohol craving. In contrast, the PSS showed no relationship with most measures of alcohol craving or stress reactivity. Overall, clinically oriented measures of anxiety compared with perceived stress were more

  5. Oxidation reaction of ferrocytochrome C by ferricyanide as a probe to effects of alcohols on structure and reactivity of the protein. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilan, Y.; Shafferman, A.

    1977-05-01

    Results are reported on the effect of ethanol on the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c by ferricyanide and its cumulative effect with pH and temperature, on structure and spectra of cytochrome c. It is concluded that low concentrations of alcohols which do not change dramatically the structure and physical properties of cytochrome c, but produce changes in the structure of water, cause small changes in the structure of the protein. This is manifested by the shift in the pKa, and also in the retardation of the redox reactions. This indicates that water molecules participate in the reaction complex of cytochrome c with its redox substrates. (DLC)

  6. Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A.; Furr, Susan; Jorgensen, Maribeth

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol- related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male…

  7. Alcohol during pregnancy worsens acute respiratory infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libster, Romina; Ferolla, Fausto M; Hijano, Diego R; Acosta, Patricio L; Erviti, Anabella; Polack, Fernando P

    2015-11-01

    This study explored whether alcohol consumption during pregnancy increased the risk of life-threatening respiratory infections in children. We prospectively evaluated children under the age of two years admitted to hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina, with severe acute respiratory infections during the winters of 2011 and 2012. Information on maternal alcohol consumption during the third trimester of pregnancy was collected using standardised questionnaires and categorised as never, low if it was once a week and high if it was equal or more than once a week. Of the 3423 children hospitalised with acute respiratory infection, 2089 (63.7%) had respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Alcohol consumption during the last trimester was reported by 398 mothers (12.4%) and categorised as low (n = 210, 6.5%) or high (n = 188, 5.9%). A greater effect on life-threatening respiratory infection, defined as oxygen saturation of or up to 87%, was observed with higher alcohol intake due to all viruses and specifically RSV in the logistic regression analyses. Alcohol consumption was strongly associated with life-threatening disease, particularly in boys whose adjusted odds ratio rose from 3.67 to 13.52 when their mothers drank alcohol. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was associated with life-threatening respiratory infections in boys. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Alcohol consumption is associated with high concentrations of urinary hydroxytyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Helmut; de la Torre, Rafael; Estruch, Ramón; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Flores, Gemma; Civit, Ester; Farré, Magí; Fiol, Miguel; Vila, Joan; Fernandez-Crehuet, Joaquín; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, Jose; Sáez, Guillermo; Covas, María-Isabel

    2009-11-01

    Previously, we reported the presence of hydroxytyrosol in red wine and higher human urinary recovery of total hydroxytyrosol than that expected after a single red wine intake. We hypothesized that the alcohol present in wine could promote endogenous hydroxytyrosol generation. The objective was to assess the relation between alcohol consumption and urinary hydroxytyrosol concentrations. This was a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, an intervention study directed at testing the efficacy of the Mediterranean diet on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Participants included 1045 subjects, aged 55-80 y, who were at high cardiovascular risk. Alcohol consumption was estimated through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Urinary hydroxytyrosol and ethyl glucuronide, a biomarker of alcohol consumption, were measured. Urinary ethyl glucuronide concentrations were directly related to alcohol and wine consumption (P logistic regression analyses showed a significant linear trend (P 20 g (2 drinks)/d and >10 g (1 drink)/d alcohol in men and women, respectively, were associated (P wine as a source of hydroxytyrosol and alcohol as an indirect promoter of endogenous hydroxytyrosol generation. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com/isrctn/ as ISRCTN 35739639.

  9. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among individuals presenting to an addiction treatment program for alcohol dependence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective patient record review was conducted to examine comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and comorbid substance use, among 465 patients below 45 years of age, presenting to a national alcohol addiction treatment unit in Dublin, between 1995 and 2006. Rates were high for depressive disorder (25.3%) particularly among females (35.4%). Lifetime reported use of substances other than alcohol was 39.2%, and further analysis showed significantly higher rates of deliberate self-harm among this group. Lifetime reported use of ecstasy was also significantly associated with depression in this alcohol-dependent population using logistic regression analysis. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  10. Relationship between emotional processing, drinking severity and relapse in adults treated for alcohol dependence in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  11. The importance of family management, closeness with father and family structure in early adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Cherine; Santoro, Joseph; Kremer, Peter; Toumbourou, John; Leslie, Eva; Williams, Joanne

    2010-10-01

    To examine the importance of family management, family structure and father-adolescent relationships on early adolescent alcohol use. Cross-sectional data was collected across 30 randomly selected Australian communities stratified to represent a range of socio-economic and regional variation. Data were collected during school time from adolescents attending a broad range of schools. The sample consisted of a combined 8256 students (aged 10-14 years). Students completed a web-based survey as part of the Healthy Neighbourhoods project. Family management-which included practices such as parental monitoring and family rules about alcohol use-had the strongest and most consistent relationship with alcohol use in early adolescence. Adolescents reporting higher family management were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time, less likely to drink alcohol in the preceding 30 days and less likely to have had an alcohol binge. Adolescents reporting emotionally close relationships with their fathers were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time and less likely to have had an alcohol binge in the preceding fortnight. Findings indicate that family management practices may contribute to alcohol abstinence in adolescents. Furthermore, emotionally close father-adolescent relationships may also foster abstinence; however, fathers' drinking behaviours need to be considered. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  13. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  14. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  15. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  16. Alcohol cosurfactants in hydrate antiagglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J Dalton; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2008-08-28

    Because of availability, as well as economical and environmental considerations, natural gas is projected to be the premium fuel of the 21st century. Natural gas production involves risk of the shut down of onshore and offshore operations because of blockage from hydrates formed from coproduced water and hydrate-forming species in natural gas. Industry practice has been usage of thermodynamic inhibitors such as alcohols often in significant amounts, which have undesirable environmental and safety impacts. Thermodynamic inhibitors affect bulk-phase properties and inhibit hydrate formation. An alternative is changing surface properties through usage of polymers and surfactants, effective at 0.5 to 3 weight % of coproduced water. One group of low dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHI) are kinetic inhibitors, which affect nucleation rate and growth. A second group of LDHI are antiagglomerants, which prevent agglomeration of small hydrate crystallites. Despite great potential, work on hydrate antiagglomeration is very limited. This work centers on the effect of small amounts of alcohol cosurfactant in mixtures of two vastly different antiagglomerants. We use a model oil, water, and tetrahydrofuran as a hydrate-forming species. Results show that alcohol cosurfactants may help with antiagglomeration when traditional antiagglomerants alone are ineffective. Specifically, as low as 0.5 wt. % methanol cosurfactant used in this study is shown to be effective in antiagglomeration. Without the cosurfactant there will be agglomeration independent of the AA concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of alcohol cosurfactants in hydrate antiagglomerants. It is also shown that a rhamnolipid biosurfactant is effective down to only 0.5 wt. % in such mixtures, yet a quaternary ammonium chloride salt, i. e., quat, results in hydrate slurries down to 0.01 wt. %. However, biochemical surfactants are less toxic and biodegradable, and thus their use may prove beneficial even if at

  17. The Effects of as-Needed Nalmefene on Patient-Reported Outcomes and Quality of Life in Relation to a Reduction in Alcohol Consumption in Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément François

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to investigate the effect of as-needed nalmefene on health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients with alcohol dependence, and to relate changes in drinking behavior and status to HRQoL outcomes.This post hoc analysis was conducted on a pooled subgroup of patients with at least a high drinking risk level (men: >60 g/day; women: >40 g/day who participated in one of two randomized controlled 6-month studies, ESENSE 1 and ESENSE 2. Patients received nalmefene 18 mg or placebo on an as-needed basis, in addition to a motivational and adherence-enhancing intervention (BRENDA. At baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks questionnaires for the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, European Quality of life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D and the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DrInC-2R were completed.The pooled population consisted of 667 patients (nalmefene: 335; placebo: 332, with no notable between-group differences in baseline patient demographics/characteristics. At week 24, nalmefene had a superior effect compared to placebo in improving SF-36 mental component summary scores (mean difference [95% CI], p-value: 3.09 [1.29, 4.89]; p=0.0008, SF-36 physical component summary scores (1.23 [0.15, 2.31]; p=0.026, EQ-5D utility index scores (0.03 [0.00, 0.06]; p=0.045, EQ-5D health state scores (3.46 [0.75, 6.17]; p=0.012, and DrInC-2R scores (-3.22 [-6.12, 0.33]; p=0.029. The improvements in SF-36 mental component summary scores at week 24, and the DrInC-2R total score change from baseline to week 24, were significantly correlated to reductions in heavy drinking days and total alcohol consumption at week 24.As-needed nalmefene significantly improved almost all patient-reported HRQoL measures included in SF-36 and EQ-5D compared with placebo. These HRQoL gains were significantly correlated to reduced drinking behavior, as determined by reductions in heavy drinking days and total alcohol consumption.

  18. Implications of alcoholic cirrhosis in atherosclerosis of autopsied patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Alves Matias da Silveira

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Alcoholism is a major public health problem, which has a high social cost and affects many aspects of human activity. Liver disease is one of the first consequences of alcohol abuse, and steatosis, liver cirrhosis and hepatitis may occur. Other organs are also affected with pathological changes, such as pancreatitis, cardiomyopathies, dyslipidemias and atherosclerosis. Objective: To identify the occurrence and degree of atherosclerosis in alcohol-dependent individuals with liver cirrhosis, observing macroscopic and microscopic changes in lipid and collagen deposits and in the liver. We also aimed to verify the association of lipid and collagen fiber deposits with gender, age and body mass index, and to relate alcoholism, liver cirrhosis and atherosclerosis. Method: We performed a study based on autopsy reports of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, with analysis of aorta and liver fragments to verify the occurrence and degree of atherosclerosis, as well as collagen contents. Results: Microscopic atherosclerosis was higher in young subjects (early injury and in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The macroscopic analysis of atherosclerosis in aortas showed that patients in more advanced age groups presented more severe classifications. Atherosclerosis, both micro and macroscopically, and the percentage of fibrosis in the liver and aorta were more expressive in females. Conclusion: Cirrhotic patients presented a higher percentage of fibrosis and lipidosis, and may represent a group susceptible to the accelerated progression of cardiovascular diseases. Investigative studies contribute to targeting health-promoting interventions, reducing the mortality and costs of treating cardiovascular disease.

  19. Impact of alcohol advertising and media exposure on adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; de Bruijn, Avalon; Angus, Kathryn; Gordon, Ross; Hastings, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    To assess the impact of alcohol advertising and media exposure on future adolescent alcohol use. We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Sociological Abstracts, and PsycLIT, from 1990 to September 2008, supplemented with searches of Google scholar, hand searches of key journals and reference lists of identified papers and key publications for more recent publications. We selected longitudinal studies that assessed individuals' exposure to commercial communications and media and alcohol drinking behaviour at baseline, and assessed alcohol drinking behaviour at follow-up. Participants were adolescents aged 18 years or younger or below the legal drinking age of the country of origin of the study, whichever was the higher. Thirteen longitudinal studies that followed up a total of over 38,000 young people met inclusion criteria. The studies measured exposure to advertising and promotion in a variety of ways, including estimates of the volume of media and advertising exposure, ownership of branded merchandise, recall and receptivity, and one study on expenditure on advertisements. Follow-up ranged from 8 to 96 months. One study reported outcomes at multiple time-points, 3, 5, and 8 years. Seven studies provided data on initiation of alcohol use amongst non-drinkers, three studies on maintenance and frequency of drinking amongst baseline drinkers, and seven studies on alcohol use of the total sample of non-drinkers and drinkers at baseline. Twelve of the thirteen studies concluded an impact of exposure on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking amongst existing drinkers, with a dose response relationship in all studies that reported such exposure and analysis. There was variation in the strength of association, and the degree to which potential confounders were controlled for. The thirteenth study, which tested the impact of outdoor advertising placed near schools failed to detect an impact on alcohol use, but found an impact on

  20. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  1. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Group Technique, a variant of the Delphi methodology. Experiences with this methodology over the past two years are reported. Finally, conclusions for the monitoring and surveillance at the national level are given.

  2. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fifteenth quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The previous best catalysts consisted of potassium-promoted Pd on a Zn/Cr spinel oxide prepared via controlled pH precipitation. The authors have now examined the effect of cesium addition to the Zn/Cr spinel oxide support. Surprisingly, cesium levels required for optimum performance are similar to those for potassium on a wt% basis. The addition of 3 wt% cesium gives isobutanol rates > 170 g/kg-hr at 440 C and 1,500 psi with selectivity to total alcohols of 77% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 1.4: this performance is as good as their best Pd/K catalyst. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr spinel oxide support gives further performance improvements. The 5 wt% cesium, 5.9 wt% Pd formulation gives isobutanol rates > 150 g/kg-hr at 440 C and only 1,000 psi with a selectivity to total alcohols of 88% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 0.58: this is their best overall performance to date. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide support that contains excess Zn has also been examined. This spinel was the support used in the synthesis of 10-DAN-54, the benchmark catalyst. Formulations made on this support show a lower overall total alcohol rate than those using the spinel without Mn present, and require less cesium for optimal performance.

  3. Alcohol and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    .1-32.2) higher free testosterone than men with a weekly intake between 1 and 10 units. Alcohol intake was not significantly associated with serum inhibin B, FSH or LH levels in either group of men. The study is the largest of its kind and has sufficient power to detect changes in semen quality and reproductive......STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between alcohol intake and semen quality and serum reproductive hormones among healthy men from the USA and Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate alcohol intake is not adversely associated with semen quality in healthy men, whereas it was associated with higher...... serum testosterone levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: High alcohol intake has been associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few studies have examined the correlation between alcohol and reproductive function and most have been conducted in selected populations of infertile men or have a small...

  4. Progress report on the influence of higher interpass temperatures on the integrity of austenitic stainless steel welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmuch, M.; Choi, L. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Armstrong, K.; Radu, I. [PCL Industrial Constructors Inc., Nisku, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This report discussed the progress of the Welding Productivity Group (TWPG) interpass temperature assessment project (ITAP). The project was initiated to evaluate the influence of interpass temperatures on the metallurgical, corrosive, and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel, carbon steel, and low-alloy pressure weldments. To date, the project has conducted experiments to determine if interpass temperatures in austenitic stainless steel weldments are higher than temperatures recommended by API requirements. Elevated interpass temperatures for various base materials have been evaluated. Preliminary metallurgical, mechanical, and laboratory corrosion data from 3 experiments with 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel weldment test specimens has shown that no significant changes occur as a result of elevated interpass temperatures. Results from side bend specimens have demonstrated that elevated interpass temperatures produce acceptable weldment ductility. No intergranular cracking was observed during oxalic acid etch tests conducted for the 316/316L samples. Huey tests performed on the 304/304L specimens indicated that elevated interpass temperatures did not adversely affect the intergranular corrosion resistance of weldments with less than 3 weld passes. Huey tests performed on the 316 specimens showed a marked increase in corrosion rates and normalized weight losses. It was concluded that rates of attack correlate with the maximum interpass temperature and not the average weld metal ferrite number. 22 refs., 11 tabs., 12 figs.

  5. A Young Man with Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Serum Anti-mitochondrial Antibody Positivity: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seike, Takuya; Komura, Takuya; Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Omura, Hitoshi; Kumai, Tatsuo; Kagaya, Takashi; Ohta, Hajime; Kawashima, Atsuhiro; Harada, Kenichi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Unoura, Masashi

    2018-06-06

    A 37-year-old obese man who was a social drinker was admitted to our hospital to undergo a detailed examination for liver injury with anti-mitochondrial antibody positivity. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed moderate fatty liver. A histological analysis showed steatosis of approximately 30% of the hepatocytes, focal necrosis, a few ballooning hepatocytes and lobular inflammation suggestive of steatohepatitis, epithelioid granuloma and irregularity of the sequence of the bile duct epithelium accompanied by lymphocyte infiltration suggestive of chronic cholangitis. He was diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis complicated with primary biliary cholangitis. His liver injury was improved by weight loss and high-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment.

  6. Patterns of Alcohol Abuse, Depression, and Intimate Partner Violence Among Township Mothers in South Africa Over 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Emily C; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weichle, Thomas W; Rezai, Roxana; Tomlinson, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In South Africa, alcohol abuse is hypothesized to correlate with women's HIV status, mental health, and partner relationships over time. All pregnant women in 12 urban, low-income, Cape Town neighborhoods were interviewed at baseline, post-birth, and at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months following delivery with retention rates from 82.5 to 94%. Women were assessed for any alcohol use, problematic drinking, depression, intimate partner violence, and HIV status. Prior to pregnancy discovery and 5 years after giving birth, alcohol use was 25.8 and 24.7%, respectively. Most women decreased their alcohol use during pregnancy. Twenty-one percent reported alcohol use on two or more assessments, and only 15% of the mothers drinking alcohol at 5 years were also drinking at baseline. Mothers with depression had a higher likelihood of drinking alcohol compared to mothers who were not depressed only at baseline and 6 months post-birth. Mothers who experienced IPV had more than twice the likelihood of drinking alcohol compared to non-IPV mothers at all assessments. HIV positive mothers were more likely to drink alcohol compared to mothers without HIV prior to pregnancy discovery and at 5 years post-birth. These longitudinal trends in alcohol use among young women in South Africa represent a large economic, social, and health burden and must be addressed in a comprehensive manner.

  7. Parental alcohol dependence and the transmission of adolescent behavioral disinhibition: a study of adoptive and non-adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Serena M; Keyes, Margaret; Malone, Stephen M; Elkins, Irene; Legrand, Lisa N; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2009-04-01

    To examine the genetic and environmental influences of parental alcoholism on offspring disinhibited behavior. We compared the effect of parental alcoholism history on offspring in adoptive and non-adoptive families. In families with a history of parental alcohol dependence, we examined the effect of exposure to parental alcoholism symptoms during the life-time of the adolescent. Setting Assessments occurred at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2004. Adolescents adopted in infancy were ascertained systematically from records of three private Minnesota adoption agencies; non-adopted adolescents were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Adolescents and their rearing parents participated in in-person assessments. For adolescents, measures included self- reports of delinquency, deviant peers, substance use, antisocial attitudes and personality. For parents, we conducted DSM-IV clinical assessments of alcohol abuse and dependence. A history of parental alcohol dependence was associated with higher levels of disinhibition only when adolescents were related biologically to their rearing parents. Within families with a history of parental alcoholism, exposure to parental alcohol misuse during the life-time of the adolescent was associated with increased odds of using alcohol in adopted adolescents only. These findings suggest that the association between a history of parental alcohol dependence and adolescent offspring behavioral disinhibition is attributable largely to genetic rather than environmental transmission. We also obtained some evidence for parental alcohol misuse as a shared environmental risk factor in adoptive families.

  8. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 whi...

  9. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  10. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be ...

  11. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently inspecting the feet and shoes to reduce injury caused by pressure or objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent ...

  12. Alcohol use, anxiety, and insomnia in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, M. Cristina; Amspoker, Amber B.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Kunik, Mark E.; Cully, Jeffrey A.; Wilson, Nancy; Calleo, Jessica; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We examined the presence and frequency of alcohol consumption among older primary care patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and their relation to demographic variables, insomnia, worry, and anxiety. We expected alcohol-use distribution to be similar to previous reports and alcohol use to be associated with higher anxiety and insomnia. A third aim was to examine the moderating role of alcohol use on the relation between anxiety and insomnia. We expected alcohol use to worsen the relation between anxiety and insomnia. Design Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial Sample 223 patients, age 60 and older, with DSM-IV GAD diagnoses Setting Patients were recruited through internal medicine, family practice, and geriatric clinics at 2 diverse healthcare settings: Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Administration Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine. Measurements Measures addressed alcohol use (presence and frequency); insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index); self-reported worry severity (Penn State Worry Questionnaire − Abbreviated); clinician-rated worry severity (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale); self-reported anxiety severity (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait); and clinician-rated anxiety (Structured Interview Guidelines for the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale). Results Most patients endorsed alcohol use in the past month, but overall weekly frequency was low. Presence and frequency of use among patients with GAD were greater than in prior reports of primary care samples. Alcohol use among patients with GAD was associated with higher education and female gender. Higher education also was associated with more drinks per week, and Caucasians reported more drinks per week than African Americans. Alcohol use was associated with less severe insomnia, lower self-reported anxiety, and less clinician-rated worry and anxiety. More drinks per week were associated with lower clinician-rated anxiety. Moderation analyses revealed lower

  13. Determination of Ethyl Glucuronide in Hair for Detection of Alcohol Consumption in Patients After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; von Rothkirch, Gregor; Vettorazzi, Eik; Mueller, Alexander; Lohse, Ansgar W; Frederking, Dorothea; Seegers, Barbara; Nashan, Bjoern; Sterneck, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Early detection of alcohol misuse in orthotopic liver transplantation recipients is essential to offer patients support and prevent organ damage. Here, ethyl glucuronide, a metabolite of ethanol found in hair (hEtG), was evaluated for detection of alcohol consumption. In 104 transplant recipients, 31 with underlying alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and 73 with non-ALD, hEtG was determined in addition to the alcohol markers urine EtG, blood ethanol, methanol, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin. Results were compared with patients' self-reports in a questionnaire and with physicians' assessments. By physicians' assessments, 22% of the patients were suspected of consuming alcohol regularly, although only 6% of the patients acknowledged consumption of a moderate or high amount of alcohol. By testing all markers except for hEtG, alcohol consumption was detected in 7% of the patients. When hEtG testing was added to the assessment, consumption was detected in 17% of the patients. Hair-EtG determination alone revealed chronic alcohol consumption of >10 g/d in 15% of the patients. ALD patients had a positive hEtG result significantly more often than non-ALD patients did (32% versus 8%; P = 0.003). Also, the concentration of hEtG was higher in ALD patients (P = 0.049) and revealed alcohol abuse with consumption of >60 g ethanol per day in 23% of ALD and 3% of non-ALD patients. Patients' self-reports and physicians' assessments had a low sensitivity of 27% and 67%, respectively, for detecting regular alcohol intake as indicated by hEtG. Hair-EtG determination improved the detection of liver transplant patients who used alcohol, and revealed regular alcohol consumption in 32% of ALD and 8% of non-ALD patients.

  14. Quality of illegally and informally produced alcohol in Europe: Results from the AMPHORA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Leitz, Jenny; Schoeberl, Kerstin; Kuballa, Thomas; Straub, Irene; Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    In the WHO region Europe, the average unrecorded adult per capita alcohol consumption was 2.67 L pure ethanol in 2005, which is 22% of the total consumption of 12.20 L. Despite concerns about potential health harms from the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol, there are surprisingly few data on the problem in the European Region. This study reports the results from the Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance (AMPHORA) project, which assessed the quality of unrecorded alcohol in a Europe-wide study. Samples of unrecorded alcohol were collected in 16 European countries and chemically analyzed for potentially health-relevant parameters. Thresholds for parameters were defined based on potential health hazards of daily drinking. The average alcoholic strength of unrecorded wine products was 14.9% vol, and 47.8% vol in unrecorded spirits. One half of the samples (n=57) showed acceptable alcohol quality. The other half (n=58) showed one or several deficits with the most prevalent problem being ethyl carbamate contamination (n=29). Other problems included copper (n=20), manganese (n=16) and acetaldehyde (n=12). All other parameters (including methanol, higher alcohols, phthalates) were only seldom problematic (limit exceedance in less than 10 samples). The price of unrecorded alcohol was approximately 45% of the price of recorded alcohol. The major problem regarding unrecorded alcohol appears to be ethanol itself, as it is often higher in strength and its lower price may further contribute to higher drinking amounts. Compared to the health effects of ethanol, the contamination problems detected may be of minor importance as exposure will only in worst-case scenarios reach tolerable daily intakes of these substances.

  15. Alcohol consumption and low-risk drinking guidelines among adults: a cross-sectional analysis from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darren R., Brenner; Tiffany R., Haig; Abbey E, Poirier; Alianu, Akawung; Christine M., Friedenreich; Paula J., Robson

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for all-cause mortality and cancer incidence. Although cross-sectional data are available through national surveys, data on alcohol consumption in Alberta from a large prospective cohort were not previously available. The goal of these analyses was to characterize the levels of alcohol consumption among adults from the Alberta’s Tomorrow Project in the context of cancer prevention guidelines. Furthermore, we conducted analyses to examine the relationships between alcohol consumption and other high-risk or risk-related behaviours. Methods: Between 2001 and 2009, 31 072 men and women aged 35 to 69 years were enrolled into Alberta’s Tomorrow Project, a large provincial cohort study. Data concerning alcohol consumption in the past 12 months were obtained from 26 842 participants who completed self-administered health and lifestyle questionnaires. We conducted cross-sectional analyses on daily alcohol consumption and cancer prevention guidelines for alcohol use in relation to sociodemographic factors. We also examined the combined prevalence of alcohol consumption and tobacco use, obesity and comorbidities. Results: Approximately 14% of men and 12% of women reported alcohol consumption exceeding recommendations for cancer prevention. Higher alcohol consumption was reported in younger age groups, urban dwellers, those with higher incomes and those who consumed more red meat. Moreover, volume of daily alcohol consumption was positively associated with current tobacco use in both men and women. Overall, men were more likely to fall in the moderate and high-risk behavioural profiles and show higher daily alcohol consumption patterns compared to women. Conclusion: Despite public health messages concerning the adverse impact of alcohol consumption, a sizeable proportion of Alberta’s Tomorrow Project participants consumed alcohol in excess of cancer prevention recommendations. Continued

  16. Alcohol and Suicide: Neurobiological and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism, is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3—5% of women. An additional 5—10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  17. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-05-01

    Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers' consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The present study therefore tested the immediate effects of alcohol advertisements on the alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Weekly drinking, problem drinking, positive and arousal expectancies of alcohol, ad recall, attitude, and skepticism toward the ads were tested as moderators. An experimental design comparing 2 advertisement conditions (alcohol ads vs. nonalcohol ads) was used. A total of 80 men, young adult friendly dyads (ages 18 to 29) participated. The study examined actual alcohol consumption while watching a 1-hour movie with 3 advertising breaks. A multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the effects of advertisement condition on alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol advertisement condition did not increase alcohol consumption. In addition, no moderating effects between advertisement condition and the individual factors on alcohol consumption were found. Viewing alcohol advertising did not lead to higher alcohol consumption in young men while watching a movie. However, replications of this study using other samples (e.g., different countries and cultures), other settings (e.g., movie theater, home), and with other designs (e.g., different movies and alcohol ads, cumulative exposure, extended exposure effects) are warranted. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Alcohol consumption among partners of pregnant women in Sweden: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjördis Högberg

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care in Sweden involves a visit in pregnancy week 6–7 for counseling about lifestyle issues, including alcohol. The aim of this study was to investigate alcohol consumption among partners of pregnant women, their motives for changing drinking patterns when becoming a parent and their perceptions of the midwife’s counseling about alcohol. Method The study was conducted at 30 antenatal care centers across Sweden in 2009–2010. All partners who accompanied a pregnant women in pregnancy week >17 were asked to participate. The questionnaire included questions on alcohol consumption. Results Questionnaires from 444 partners were analyzed. Most, 95 %, of the partners reported alcohol consumption before pregnancy; 18 % were binge drinking (6 standard drinks or more per occasion, each drink containing 12 grams of pure alcohol at least once every month during the last year. More than half, 58 %, of all partners had decreased their alcohol consumption following pregnancy recognition and a higher proportion of binge drinkers decreased their consumption compared to non-frequent binge drinkers (p = 0.025. Their motives varied; the pregnancy itself, fewer social gatherings (potentially involving alcohol consumption and a sense of responsibility for the pregnant partner were reported. Of the partners, 37 % reported support for decreased drinking from others (pregnant partner, parents, friend or workmates. Further, most partners appreciated the midwife’s counseling on alcohol. Conclusion A majority of partners decreased their alcohol consumption in transition to parenthood, which also appears to be a crucial time for changing alcohol-drinking patterns. The partners with higher AUDIT-C scores reported more support for decreased drinking. Most partners appreciated the midwife’s talk about alcohol and pregnancy and those who filled out AUDIT in early pregnancy reported that the counseling was more engaging. During

  19. Thermochemical study of deuterium exchange reactions in water-alcohol and alcohol-alcohol systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurma, J.R.; Fenby, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    Molar excess enthalpies of water-alcohol systems have been analyzed to give equilibrium constants and enthalpies of the reactions 2ROH + D 2 O = 2ROD + H 2 O (R = CH 3 , C 2 H 5 , n-C 3 H 7 ). The equilibrium constants are significantly greater than the ''random'' value. Molar excess enthalpies of alcohol-alcohol systems have been analyzed to give enthalpies of reactions ROH + R'OD = ROD + R'OH. The enthalpies of water-alcohol and alcohol-alcohol exchange reactions form a self-consistent set and are in good agreement with values from earlier studies. Molar excess enthalpies at 298.15 K are reported for n-C 3 H 7 OH and n-C 3 H 7 OD with H 2 O, D 2 O, CH 3 OH, CH 3 OD, C 2 H 5 OH, and C 2 H 5 OD

  20. Alcohol's Effects on Lipid Bilayer Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohols are known modulators of lipid bilayer properties. Their biological effects have long been attributed to their bilayer-modifying effects, but alcohols can also alter protein function through direct protein interactions. This raises the question: Do alcohol's biological actions result predominantly from direct protein-alcohol interactions or from general changes in the membrane properties? The efficacy of alcohols of various chain lengths tends to exhibit a so-called cutoff effect (i.e., increasing potency with increased chain length, which that eventually levels off). The cutoff varies depending on the assay, and numerous mechanisms have been proposed such as: limited size of the alcohol-protein interaction site, limited alcohol solubility, and a chain-length-dependent lipid bilayer-alcohol interaction. To address these issues, we determined the bilayer-modifying potency of 27 aliphatic alcohols using a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay. All of the alcohols tested (with chain lengths of 1–16 carbons) alter the bilayer properties, as sensed by a bilayer-spanning channel. The bilayer-modifying potency of the short-chain alcohols scales linearly with their bilayer partitioning; the potency tapers off at higher chain lengths, and eventually changes sign for the longest-chain alcohols, demonstrating an alcohol cutoff effect in a system that has no alcohol-binding pocket. PMID:21843475

  1. Binge drinking in undergraduates: relationships with sex, drinking behaviors, impulsivity, and the perceived effects of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, Iris M; Potenza, Marc N; Olmstead, Mary C

    2009-09-01

    Binge drinking on university campuses is associated with social and health-related problems. To determine the factors that may predict this behavior, we collected information on alcohol use, alcohol expectations, and impulsivity from 428 undergraduate students attending a Canadian university. The subjective effects of a binge drinking dose of alcohol were assessed in a subset of participants. In the larger sample, 72% of students reported drinking at or above binge drinking thresholds on a regular basis. Men reported alcohol consumption per drinking occasion, which was consistent with other studies, but the frequency of drinking occasions among women was higher than in earlier studies, suggesting that consumption in women may be increasing. Compared with men, women reported different expectations of alcohol, specifically related to sociability and sexuality. Self-reported impulsivity scores were related, albeit weakly, to drinking behaviors and to expectations in both the sexes. Finally, intoxicated binge drinkers reported feeling less intoxicated, liking the effects more, and wanting more alcohol than did non-binge drinkers receiving an equivalent dose of alcohol. These results have implications for sex-specific prevention strategies for binge drinking on university campuses.

  2. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... daily rhythm for various functions (e.g., body temperature or blood pressure) that is controlled by certain “ ... A special section delves more deeply into specific classes of genes and their relationship to alcoholism. The ...

  3. Methodology for determining motorcycle operator crash risk and alcohol impairment. Vol. 1, Synthesis report on alternative approaches with priorities for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Alcohol-involvement continues to be a prominent factor in motorcycle crashes. Automobile-driver drinking and driving has been researched extensively, and the relationship between drivers' blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and crash risk is well-unde...

  4. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: misconceptions, myths, and facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verster JC

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Joris C Verster1, Christoph Aufricht2, Chris Alford31Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Währinger Gürtel, Wien, Austria; 3University of the West of England, Psychology Department, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, UKBackground: Whilst energy drinks improve performance and feelings of alertness, recent articles suggest that energy drink consumption combined with alcohol may reduce perception of alcohol intoxication, or lead to increased alcohol or drug use. This review discusses the available scientific evidence on the effects of mixing energy drinks with alcohol.Methods: A literature search was performed using the keywords “energy drink and Red Bull®” and consulting Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Embase.Results: There is little evidence that energy drinks antagonize the behavioral effects of alcohol, and there is no consistent evidence that energy drinks alter the perceived level of intoxication of people who mix energy drinks with alcohol. No clinically relevant cardiovascular or other adverse effects have been reported for healthy subjects combining energy drinks with alcohol, although there are no long-term investigations currently available. Finally, whilst several surveys have shown associations, there is no direct evidence that coadministration of energy drinks increases alcohol consumption, or initiates drug and alcohol dependence or abuse.Conclusion: Although some reports suggest that energy drinks lead to reduced awareness of intoxication and increased alcohol consumption, a review of the available literature shows that these views are not supported by direct or reliable scientific evidence. A personality with higher levels of risk-taking behavior may be the primary reason for increased alcohol and drug abuse per se. The

  5. The Alcohol Environment Protocol: A new tool for alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally; Morojele, Neo; Williams, Petal Petersen; Chaiyasong, Surasak; Gordon, Ross; Gray-Philip, Gaile; Viet Cuong, Pham; MacKintosh, Anne-Marie; Halliday, Sharon; Railton, Renee; Randerson, Steve; Parry, Charles D H

    2018-01-04

    To report data on the implementation of alcohol policies regarding availability and marketing, and drink driving, along with ratings of enforcement from two small high-income to three high-middle income countries, and one low-middle income country. This study uses the Alcohol Environment Protocol, an International Alcohol Control study research tool, which documents the alcohol policy environment by standardised collection of data from administrative sources, observational studies and interviews with key informants to allow for cross-country comparison and change over time. All countries showed adoption to varying extents of key effective policy approaches outlined in the World Health Organization Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol (2010). High-income countries were more likely to allocate resources to enforcement. However, where enforcement and implementation were high, policy on availability was fairly liberal. Key Informants judged alcohol to be very available in both high- and middle-income countries, reflecting liberal policy in the former and less implementation and enforcement and informal (unlicensed) sale of alcohol in the latter. Marketing was largely unrestricted in all countries and while drink-driving legislation was in place, it was less well enforced in middle-income countries. In countries with fewer resources, alcohol policies are less effective because of lack of implementation and enforcement and, in the case of marketing, lack of regulation. This has implications for the increase in consumption taking place as a result of the expanding distribution and marketing of commercial alcohol and consequent increases in alcohol-related harm. © 2018 The Authors Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Kauffman Teen Survey. An Annual Report on Teen Health Behaviors: Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs among 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-Grade Students in Greater Kansas City, 1991-92 to 2000-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation began surveying Kansas City area teens during the 1984-85 school year. The Kauffman Teen Survey now addresses two sets of issues for teens. Teen Health Behaviors, addressed in this report, have been a focus of the survey since its inception. The report focuses on teen use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in…

  7. Genetic variation and epigenetic modification of the prodynorphin gene in peripheral blood cells in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Claudio; Shchetynsky, Klementy; Pucci, Mariangela; Cifani, Carlo; Gunnar, Agneta; Vukojević, Vladana; Padyukov, Leonid; Terenius, Lars

    2017-06-02

    Dynorphins are critically involved in the development, maintenance and relapse of alcoholism. Alcohol-induced changes in the prodynorphin gene expression may be influenced by both gene polymorphisms and epigenetic modifications. The present study of human alcoholics aims to evaluate DNA methylation patterns in the prodynorphin gene (PDYN) promoter and to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with alcohol dependence and with altered DNA methylation. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells of alcoholics and healthy controls, and DNA methylation was studied in the PDYN promoter by bisulfite pyrosequencing. In alcoholics, DNA methylation increased in three of the seven CpG sites investigated, as well as in the average of the seven CpG sites. Data stratification showed lower increase in DNA methylation levels in individuals reporting craving and with higher levels of alcohol consumption. Association with alcoholism was observed for rs2235751 and the presence of the minor allele G was associated with reduced DNA methylation at PDYN promoter in females and younger subjects. Genetic and epigenetic factors within PDYN are related to risk for alcoholism, providing further evidence of its involvement on ethanol effects. These results might be of relevance for developing new biomarkers to predict disease trajectories and therapeutic outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancing global control of alcohol to reduce unsafe sex and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rees Helen V

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa carries a massive dual burden of HIV and alcohol disease, and these pandemics are inextricably linked. Physiological and behavioural research indicates that alcohol independently affects decision-making concerning sex, and skills for negotiating condoms and their correct use. More than 20 studies in Africa have reported higher occurrence of HIV among people with problem drinking; a finding strongly consistent across studies and similar among women and men. Conflation of HIV and alcohol disease in these setting is not surprising given patterns of heavy-episodic drinking and that drinking contexts are often coterminous with opportunities for sexual encounters. HIV and alcohol also share common ground with sexual violence. Both perpetrators and victims of sexual violence have a high likelihood of having drunk alcohol prior to the incident, as with most forms of violence and injury in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing alcohol harms necessitates multi-level interventions and should be considered a key component of structural interventions to alleviate the burden of HIV and sexual violence. Brief interventions for people with problem drinking (an important component of primary health care, must incorporate specific discussion of links between alcohol and unsafe sex, and consequences thereof. Interventions to reduce alcohol harm among HIV-infected persons are also an important element in positive-prevention initiatives. Most importantly, implementation of known effective interventions could alleviate a large portion of the alcohol-attributable burden of disease, including its effects on unsafe sex, unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission.

  9. Demographic Predictors of Event-Level Associations between Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brooke E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Kelly, Brian C; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with sexual behavior and outcomes, though research indicates a variety of moderating factors, including demographic characteristics. To better target interventions aimed at alcohol-related sexual risk behavior, our analyses simultaneously examine demographic predictors of both day- and event-level associations between alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in a sample of young adults (N = 301) who are sexually active and consume alcohol. Young adults (aged 18-29) recruited using time-space sampling and incentivized snowball sampling completed a survey and a timeline follow-back calendar reporting alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in the past 30 days. On a given day, a greater number of drinks consumed was associated with higher likelihood of sex occurring, particularly for women and single participants. During a given sexual event, number of drinks consumed was not associated with condom use, nor did any demographic predictors predict that association. Findings highlight associations between alcohol and sexual behavior, though not between alcohol and sexual risk behavior, highlighting the need for additional research exploring the complex role of alcohol in sexual risk behavior and the need to develop prevention efforts to minimize the role of alcohol in the initiation of sexual encounters.

  10. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  11. 2007 national roadside survey of alcohol and drug use by drivers : alcohol results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report presents the prevalence estimates for alcohol-involved driving derived from the recently completed U.S. : national field survey of alcohol- and drug-involved driving (primarily of nighttime weekend drivers, but also daytime : Friday drive...

  12. Tobacco use, Alcohol Consumption and Self-rated Oral Health among Nigerian Prison Officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Chinedu Azodo

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Data from this survey revealed that the majority of the participants rated their oral health as good/excellent. The prevalence of tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials was higher than reported values among the general population in Nigeria. This indicates that more surveillance and intervention studies are needed to evaluate the best way to control tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials in Nigeria.

  13. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms influence susceptibility to esophageal cancer in Japanese alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, A; Muramatsu, T; Omori, T; Matsushita, S; Yoshimizu, H; Higuchi, S; Yokoyama, T; Maruyama, K; Ishii, H

    1999-11-01

    Studies have consistently demonstrated that inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), encoded by ALDH2*1/2*2, is closely associated with alcohol-related carcinogenesis. Recently, the contributions of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) polymorphism to alcoholism, esophageal cancer, and the flushing response have also been described. To determine the effects of ALDH2 and ADH2 genotypes in genetically based cancer susceptibility, lymphocyte DNA samples from 668 Japanese alcoholic men more than 40 years of age (91 with and 577 without esophageal cancer) were genotyped and the results were expressed as odds ratios (ORs). This study also tested 82 of the alcoholics with esophageal cancer to determine whether cancer susceptibility is associated with patients' responses to simple questions about current or former flushing after drinking a glass of beer. The frequencies of ADH2*1/2*1 and ALDH2*1/2*2 were significantly higher in alcoholics with, than in those without, esophageal cancer (0.473 vs. 0.289 and 0.560 vs. 0.099, respectively). After adjustment for drinking and smoking, the analysis showed significantly increased cancer risk for alcoholics with either ADH2*1/2*I (OR = 2.03) or ALDH2*1/2*2 (OR = 12.76). For those having ADH2*1/2*1 combined with ALDH2*1/2*2, the esophageal cancer risk was enhanced in a multiplicative fashion (OR = 27.66). Responses to flushing questions showed that only 47.8% of the ALDH2*1/2*2 heterozygotes with ADH2*1/ 2*1, compared with 92.3% of those with ALDH2*1/2*2 and the ADH2*2 allele, reported current or former flushing. Genotyping showed that for alcoholics who reported ever flushing, the questionnaire was 71.4% correct in identifying ALDH2*1/2*2 and 87.9% correct in identifying ALDH2*1/2*1. Japanese alcoholics can be divided into cancer susceptibility groups on the basis of their combined ADH2 and ALDH2 genotypes. The flushing questionnaire can predict high risk ALDH2*1/2*2 fairly accurately in persons with ADH2*2 allele, but a reliable

  14. Measuring the Contribution of Higher Education to Innovation Capacity in the EU. Executive Summary of the Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Commission, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This current study is part of the actions taken aiming to analyse the links between the operations and effects of higher-education institutions on the capacity to innovate in the economies in Europe. Providing insights into the contribution of higher education to the innovative capacity of the EU economies is crucial for policy making and the…

  15. Parental Alcoholism, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Later Risk of Personal Alcohol Abuse among Chinese Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.

  16. Paradoxical effects of alcohol information on alcohol outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krank, Marvin D; Ames, Susan L; Grenard, Jerry L; Schoenfeld, Tara; Stacy, Alan W

    2010-07-01

    Cognitive associations with alcohol predict both current and future use in youth and young adults. Much cognitive and social cognitive research suggests that exposure to information may have unconscious influences on thinking and behavior. The present study assessed the impact of information statements on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. The 2 studies reported here investigated the effects of exposure to alcohol statements typical of informational approaches to prevention on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. High school and university students were presented with information statements about the effects of alcohol and other commercial products. The alcohol statements were taken from expectancy questionnaires. Some of these statements were presented as facts and others as myths. The retention of detailed information about these statements was manipulated by (i) divided attention versus focused attention or (ii) immediate versus delayed testing. Accessibility of personal alcohol outcome expectancies was subsequently measured using an open-ended question about the expected effects of alcohol. Participants reported more alcohol outcomes seen during the information task as personal expectations about the effects of alcohol use than similar unseen items. Paradoxically, myth statements were also more likely to be reported as expectancies than unseen items in all conditions. Additionally, myth statements were generated less often than fact statements only under the condition of immediate testing with strong content processing instructions. These observations are consistent with findings from cognitive research where familiarity in the absence of explicit memory can have an unconscious influence on performance. In particular, the exposure to these items in an informational format increases accessibility of the seen items even when the participants were told that they were myths. The findings have implications for the development of

  17. Relationship Between Emotional Processing, Drinking Severity and Relapse in Adults Treated for Alcohol Dependence in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. Results: At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. Conclusions: These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25543129

  18. Binge drinking: a pattern associated with a risk of problems of alcohol use among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bedendo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate problems associated with alcohol use among university students who reported binge drinking in comparison to students who consumed alcohol without binging. Method: a cross-sectional study among university students (N=2,408 who accessed the website about alcohol use. Logistic and linear regression models were included in the statistical analyzes. Results: alcohol use in the last three months was reported by 89.2% of university students; 51.6% reported binge drinking. Compared to students who did not binge drink, university students who presented this pattern were more likely to report all evaluated problems, among them: black out (aOR: 5.4; having academic problems (aOR: 3.4; acting impulsively and having regrets (aOR: 2.9; getting involved in fights (aOR: 2.6; drinking and driving (aOR: 2.6 and accepting a ride with someone who had drunk alcohol (aOR: 1.8. Students who binged also had higher scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (b=4.6; p<0.001, more negative consequences (b=1.0; p<0.001 and a reduced perception of the negativity of the consequences (b=-0.5; p<0.01. Conclusion: binge drinking was associated with an increase in the chances of manifesting problems related to alcohol use. The conclusions of this study cannot be generalized for all of the Brazilian population.

  19. Alcohol and Psychoactive Substance Use among University Students in Edirne and Related Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgülü, Yasemin; Çakir, Diğdem; Sönmez, Mehmet Bülent; Köse Çinar, Rugül; Vardar, Mehmet Erdal

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol and psychoactive substance use and their effects are an important issue among adolescents and young adults. Different results have been reported about the frequency of alcohol and psychoactive substance use among university students in studies conducted both in Turkey and in different places worldwide. The frequency of alcohol and psychoactive substance use among Trakya University students (n=1385) and the related parameters were studied cross-sectionally using a self-reporting questionnaire. Alcohol was the most common substance used (30%), followed by tobacco (29.9%) and marijuana (3.1%). The frequency of alcohol and psychoactive substance use was found to be higher among males with higher amounts of pocket money, whose parents experienced more conflict in their relationship, and who belong to families with a higher education and income level. The frequency of alcohol and psychoactive substance use among Trakya University students was found to be lower than other regions in Turkey and particularly lower than the levels reported in studies conducted in other countries.

  20. Consumer demand for low-alcohol wine in an Australian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba AJ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Saliba, Linda A Ovington, Carmen C MoranCharles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: The aim of this paper is to inform wine producers and marketers of those in the population who are interested in low-alcohol wine by describing the results of an Australian survey.Method: In the present study, 851 adult wine consumers completed an online questionnaire on their purchasing and consumption of wine, demographics, knowledge, and reasons for consuming wine. Reasons for consumption were defined using Brunner and Siegrist’s validated model. Self-reported interest in low-alcohol wine was used to determine the likely maximum possible market size.Results: The majority of respondents considered “low-alcohol wine” to contain around 3%–8% alcohol. Results indicated that those most likely to purchase low-alcohol wine were female and those who drink wine with food. Those who drank wine more frequently showed interest in wine sold in known-dose quantities, such as one standard drink. Reasons for preferring a low-alcohol wine included driving after drinking, to lessen the adverse effects of alcohol, and to consume more without the effects of a higher-alcohol wine. Finally, results pointed to the importance of taste as a driver of consumption.Conclusion: This is the first study to define the opportunity market for low-alcohol wine in Australia agnostic to intervening variables, thus defines the likely upper limit. Further, we showed what consumers currently define as low alcohol. Both of these findings allow wine companies to make a decision on the profitability of the low-alcohol market in Australia.Keywords: consumer demand, low alcohol, wine, consumer preference

  1. Metabolic Engineering of Oleaginous Yeasts for Fatty Alcohol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Knoshaug, Eric; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Xu, Qi; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2016-04-25

    To develop pathways for advanced biological upgrading of sugars to hydrocarbons, we are seeking biological approaches to produce high carbon efficiency intermediates amenable to separations and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. In this study, we successfully demonstrated fatty alcohol production by oleaginous yeasts Yarrowia lipolytica and Lipomyces starkeyi by expressing a bacteria-derived fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR). Moreover, we find higher extracellular distribution of fatty alcohols produced by FAR-expressing L. starkeyi strain as compared to Y. lipolytica strain, which would benefit the downstream product recovery process. In both oleaginous yeasts, long chain length saturated fatty alcohols were predominant, accounting for more than 85% of the total fatty alcohols produced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of fatty alcohol production in L. starkeyi. Taken together, our work demonstrates that in addition to Y. lipolytica, L. starkeyi can also serve as a platform organism for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and bioproducts via metabolic engineering. We believe strain and process development both will significantly contribute to our goal of producing scalable and cost-effective fatty alcohols from renewable biomass.

  2. Alcohol-related crime in city entertainment precincts: Public perception and experience of alcohol-related crime and support for strategies to reduce such crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Jenny; Groombridge, Daniel; Wiggers, John; Gillham, Karen; Palmer, Darren; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Miller, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Bars, pubs and taverns in cities are often concentrated in entertainment precincts that are associated with higher rates of alcohol-related crime. This study assessed public perception and experiences of such crime in two city entertainment precincts, and support for alcohol-related crime reduction strategies. A cross-sectional household telephone survey in two Australian regions assessed: perception and experiences of crime; support for crime reduction strategies; and differences in such perceptions and support. Six hundred ninety-four people completed the survey (32%). Most agreed that alcohol was a problem in their entertainment precinct (90%) with violence the most common alcohol-related problem reported (97%). Almost all crime reduction strategies were supported by more than 50% of participants, including visitors to the entertainment precincts, with the latter being slightly less likely to support earlier closing and restrictions on premises density. Participants in one region were more likely to support earlier closing and lock-out times. Those at-risk of acute alcohol harm were less likely to support more restrictive policies. High levels of community concern and support for alcohol harm-reduction strategies, including restrictive strategies, provide policy makers with a basis for implementing evidence-based strategies to reduce such harms in city entertainment precincts. [Tindall J, Groombridge D, Wiggers J, Gillham K, Palmer D, Clinton-McHarg T, Lecathelinais C, Miller P. Alcohol-related crime in city entertainment precincts: Public perception and experience of alcohol-related crime and support for strategies to reduce such crime. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:263-272]. © 2015 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Population Level Effects of a Mass Media Alcohol and Breast Cancer Campaign: A Cross-Sectional Pre-Intervention and Post-Intervention Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neil; Buykx, Penny; Shevills, Colin; Sullivan, Claire; Clark, Lynsey; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2018-01-01

    To examine the relationship between a TV-led breast cancer mass-media campaign in the North East of England (conducted in two waves: Jul/2015 and Nov/2015), awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer, intention to reduce alcohol consumption and support for alcohol related policies. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted; one over the 2 weeks pre-campaign (n = 572); one immediately following campaign wave 1 (n = 576); and another immediately following campaign wave 2 (n = 552). Survey questions assessed; campaign exposure; awareness of the links between alcohol and related cancers; intention to change alcohol consumption; and support for alcohol related policies. The proportion of respondents indicating awareness of alcohol as a cancer risk factor was larger post-campaign compared to pre-campaign. The largest increase was seen for breast cancer with 45% aware of the links post-campaign wave 2 compared to 33% pre-campaign. The proportion of respondents indicating 'strong support' of the seven alcohol related policies significantly increased between surveys. The proportion of respondents both aware of alcohol as a cancer risk factor and supportive of the seven alcohol related policies significantly increased between surveys. There was no significant change in self-reported intention to reduce alcohol consumption amongst increasing/higher risk drinkers. These findings indicate that a mass-media campaign raising awareness of the links between alcohol and breast cancer is associated with increased awareness and alcohol related policy support at a population level. However, there was no association found with a change in short-term drinking intentions. A mass-media campaign raising awareness of the links between alcohol and breast cancer is associated with increased awareness and alcohol policy support at a population level but does not appear to be associated with a change in short term drinking intentions. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and

  4. Perceptions of Family Alcohol Use in a Young Adult Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly A; Stewart, David G

    2015-09-01

    Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants' self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negative consequences of use, and sibling relationship quality. They also reported their perceptions of alcohol use for siblings and parents during a typical week. Perceptions of siblings' quantity of weekly alcohol use were significantly associated with participants' quantity of alcohol use (r = .21, p = .006) and frequency of alcohol use (r = .23, p = .002). Perceptions of parental alcohol use were not related to the participants' alcohol use patterns.

  5. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  6. Determination of the alcohol-yielding capacity of cereals. A method for the determination of the alcohol-yielding capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, A; Hoppe, W

    1957-01-01

    A laboratory method is reported for the determination of the alcohol yielding capacity of starch-containing distillery raw materials. The starch is inverted with dilute HCl under pressure, after which the material is fermented with yeast at pH 5.4. After distillation, the alcohol is determined pyknometrically. The influence of such factors as amount of yeast was determined experimentally. Analysis of the time curves for the hydrolysis of starch (by paper-chromatographic techniques) in relation to pH showed glucose to be the principal reaction product, with only slight amounts of maltose and higher sugars being formed.

  7. Workplace Discrimination Is Associated With Alcohol Abuse Among Ethnically Diverse Hospital Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Angela D; Wells, Anita M; Spencer, S Melinda; Cofie, Leslie; Yen, Irene H

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that workplace discrimination plays a role in absenteeism, productivity, and turnover. A link among workplace discrimination, mental health, and health disparities may also exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported workplace discrimination is associated with alcohol abuse among hospital workers. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from a prospective cohort study of workers in two healthcare institutions (n = 664) was conducted. Workplace discrimination in the previous 12 months was reported by 14% (n = 91) of participants who were four times more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than their peers. White participants who reported any discrimination were more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than racial/ethnic minority participants who reported any discrimination. Given a diversifying workforce, further research is needed on how workplace discrimination contributes to stress and maladaptive coping, and ultimately health disparities. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2010-03-17

    from one study, 72 participants, favour paraldehyde plus chloral hydrate versus chlordiazepoxide, for the severe-life threatening side effects, RR 0.12 (0.03 to 0.44). Results of this review do not provide sufficient evidence in favour of anticonvulsants for the treatment of AWS. There are some suggestions that carbamazepine may actually be more effective in treating some aspects of alcohol withdrawal when compared to benzodiazepines, the current first-line regimen for alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Anticonvulsants seem to have limited side effects, although adverse effects are not rigorously reported in the analysed trials.

  9. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    , also emphasizing advanced engine concepts. Research results addressing combustion reaction mechanisms have been reported based on results from pyrolysis and oxidation reactors, shock tubes, rapid compression machines, and research engines. This work is complemented by the development of detailed combustion models with the support of chemical kinetics and quantum chemistry. This paper seeks to provide an introduction to and overview of recent results on alcohol combustion by highlighting pertinent aspects of this rich and rapidly increasing body of information. As such, this paper provides an initial source of references and guidance regarding the present status of combustion experiments on alcohols and models of alcohol combustion. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of an Australian Alcohol Media Literacy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chloe S; Howard, Steven J; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa K

    2016-11-01

    A 10-lesson alcohol media literacy program was developed, underpinned by the message interpretation processing model, inoculation theory, and constructivist learning theory, and was tailored to be culturally relevant to the Australian context. This program aimed to increase students' media deconstruction skills and reduce intent to drink alcohol. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in achieving these goals through a short-term quasi-experimental trial. Elementary schools were assigned to either the intervention group (83 students) or a wait-list control group (82 students). Student questionnaires were administered at three time points (baseline, after the intervention group completed the program, and after the wait-list control group completed the program) to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The intervention and wait-list control groups reported significantly higher media deconstruction skills as a result of the intervention. Both groups reported significantly lower social norms, whereas the wait-list control group reported significantly lower positive alcohol expectancies. There were no significant changes to self-efficacy to refuse alcohol, preference for alcohol-branded merchandise, and understanding of persuasive intent as a result of the intervention. To date, the majority of alcohol media literacy studies have been conducted in the United States and have focused on deconstructing television and print-based ads. This evaluation provides evidence that an alcohol media literacy program that was developed for a specific cultural context, and that incorporates a broad range of multimodal advertisements, can have a positive impact on beliefs and attitudes that are known predictors/precursors of drinking behaviors.

  11. Orosensory responsiveness and alcohol behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Margaret; Bajec, Martha; Pickering, Gary

    2017-08-01

    Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widespread through much of the world, and significantly impacts human health and well-being. We sought to determine the contribution of orosensation ('taste') to several alcohol intake measures by examining general responsiveness to taste and somatosensory stimuli in a convenience sample of 435 adults recruited from six cohorts. Each cohort was divided into quantiles based on their responsiveness to sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami, metallic, and astringent stimuli, and the resulting quantiles pooled for analysis (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA). Responsiveness to bitter and astringent stimuli was associated in a non-linear fashion with intake of all alcoholic beverage types, with the highest consumption observed in middle quantiles. Sourness responsiveness tended to be inversely associated with all measures of alcohol consumption. Regardless of sensation, the most responsive quantiles tended to drink less, although sweetness showed little relationship between responsiveness and intake. For wine, increased umami and metallic responsiveness tended to predict lower total consumption and frequency. A limited examination of individuals who abstain from all alcohol indicated a tendency toward higher responsiveness than alcohol consumers to sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness (biserial correlation), suggesting that broadly-tuned orosensory responsiveness may be protective against alcohol use and possibly misuse. Overall, these findings confirm the importance of orosensory responsiveness in mediating consumption of alcohol, and indicate areas for further research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Alcohol, aging, and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2017-07-01

    The global population is aging: in 2010, 8% of the population was older than 65 y, and that is expected to double to 16% by 2050. With advanced age comes a heightened prevalence of chronic diseases. Moreover, elderly humans fair worse after acute diseases, namely infection, leading to higher rates of infection-mediated mortality. Advanced age alters many aspects of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to impaired responses to primary infection and poor development of immunologic memory. An often overlooked, yet increasingly common, behavior in older individuals is alcohol consumption. In fact, it has been estimated that >40% of older adults consume alcohol, and evidence reveals that >10% of this group is drinking more than the recommended limit by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol consumption, at any level, alters host immune responses, including changes in the number, phenotype, and function of innate and adaptive immune cells. Thus, understanding the effect of alcohol ingestion on the immune system of older individuals, who are already less capable of combating infection, merits further study. However, there is currently almost nothing known about how drinking alters innate immunity in older subjects, despite innate immune cells being critical for host defense, resolution of inflammation, and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we review the effects of aging and alcohol consumption on innate immune cells independently and highlight the few studies that have examined the effects of alcohol ingestion in aged individuals. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  13. Bullying perpetration and victimization as externalizing and internalizing pathways: A retrospective study linking parenting styles and self-esteem to depression, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique in structural equation modeling. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may respectively serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use. PMID:26757486

  14. Bullying Perpetration and Victimization as Externalizing and Internalizing Pathways: A Retrospective Study Linking Parenting Styles and Self-Esteem to Depression, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-02

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique within a structural equation modeling framework. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn, was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may, respectively, serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use.

  15. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  16. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  17. Perspectives on and obstacles to the internal reporting reform at higher education institutions – Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Dragija Kostić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions are going through a different reform processes that differ from country to country. However, the common challenge of higher education institutions is to assure the financial sustainability and only those institutions that have stable financial structure will be able to fulfil their missions and goals in conditions of limited financial resources. One of very important preconditions for assuring financial sustainability is a high quality reporting system, providing comprehensive and detailed information about all aspects of the activities, performed by an institution of higher education and, especially, its full costs. The objective of the paper is two-fold. On the one hand, its aim is to address reform processes regarding reporting systems at higher education institutions in selected countries; Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia, and on the other hand, to highlight most important obstacles for development of efficient internal reporting systems. The empirical research was conducted in 2016 and data collection was based on the survey method. The questionnaires were sent to all public higher education institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia. The results of research have shown that, even though there is a positive perception regarding the need to improve existing internal reporting systems, there are significant differences in obstacles for development of efficient internal reporting systems in observed countries.

  18. Alcohol use among Hispanic college students along the US/Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jared A; Wittenburg, David; Martinez, Vanessa

    2016-11-01

    The trend of alcohol use among college students has been shown to vary by ethnicity and has been linked to acculturation among Hispanics. Consistent findings indicate that males consume alcohol more frequently and in greater quantities compared to females. This study investigated the drinking habits of Hispanic college students living in the border region of South Texas. The study evaluated the influence of acculturation on alcohol consumption among Hispanic males and females. Two hundred and ninety-six Hispanic students participated in this study. The participants reported their drinking behaviors over the past 30 days and completed a measure of acculturation. Fifty-nine percent of the participants reported consuming alcohol in the past 30 days with more males than females reporting alcohol consumption. Logistic regression analysis indicated that age and gender, and not acculturation or enculturation, predicted drinking in the last 30 days. Among drinkers, the regression analyses indicated that gender and lower levels of Anglo orientation were linked to increased alcohol consumption, suggesting that Hispanics who were less oriented toward the Anglo culture consumed more alcohol than those more oriented toward the Anglo culture. Among drinkers, males and females did not differ in frequency or binge drinking, but males consumed more alcohol than females. Previous research indicates that greater acculturation is linked to greater consumption of alcohol; however, we found it to be associated with less consumption. The findings regarding gender represent some consistencies with previous research but there are some inconsistencies as well. These results suggest that less acculturated Hispanic male college students residing in the border region may be at a higher risk of alcohol abuse than Hispanic female students and more acculturated male students.

  19. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    A base case flow sheet for the production of higher alcohols from coal derived synthesis gas has been completed, including an economic analysis. The details of the flow sheet and economics are in Appendix 1. The pay back period for the capital investment for the plant has been calculated as a function of the market price of the product, and this figure is also shown as Figure I in Appendix 1. The estimated installed cost is almost $500 MM, and the estimated annual operating cost is $64 MM. At a price in the vicinity of $1.00/gal for the alcohol product, the pay back period for construction of the plant is four years. These values should be considered preliminary, since many of the capital costs were obtained from other paper studies sponsored by DOE and TVA and very few values could be found from actual plants which were built. This issue is currently being addressed. The most expensive capital costs were found to be the gasifier, the cryogenic air separation plant, the steam/power generation plant and the acid gas/sulfur removal processes taken as a whole. It is planned to focus attention on alternatives to the base case. The problem is that it is less expensive to make syngas from natural gas. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the cost of syngas from coal. This is where the energy park concept becomes important. In order for this process to be economical (at current market and political conditions) a method must be found to reduce the cost of syngas manufacture either by producing energy or by-products. Energy is produced in the base case, but the amount and method has not been optimized. The economic arguments for this concept are detailed in Appendix 2.

  20. Alcohol hyper-responsiveness in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schryver, Els; Derycke, Lara; Campo, Paloma; Gabriels, Eline; Joos, Guy F; Van Zele, Thibaut; Bachert, Claus; Hellings, Peter W; Gevaert, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    An important percentage of subjects diagnosed with chronic upper airway disease report alcohol-induced worsening of their symptoms. The prevalence and characteristics of respiratory reactions provoked by alcohol-containing drinks have not been fully investigated yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of alcohol hyper-responsiveness in patients with chronic airway disease and healthy controls. Furthermore, nasal inflammation was evaluated in nasal polyp patients with and without hyper-responsiveness. We evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of alcohol-induced respiratory complaints in 1281 subjects. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) patients with and without NSAID exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD), chronic rhinosinusitis patients without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), allergic rhinitis (AR) patients and healthy controls were approached by means of a questionnaire. Inflammatory markers (eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), IL-5, IgE, SAE-specific IgE, IL-17, TNFα and IFNγ) in tissue were then compared between alcohol hyper-responsive and non-hyper-responsive CRSwNP patients. The highest prevalence of nasal and bronchial alcohol hyper-responsiveness was observed in patients with NERD, followed by CRSwNP, and less frequent in CRSsNP, AR and healthy controls. Alcohol hyper-responsiveness is significantly more prevalent in CRSwNP patients suffering from recurrent disease and in patients with severe symptomatology. In nasal tissue of the hyper-responsive CRSwNP group, we observed significantly higher nasal levels of the eosinophilic biomarker ECP. Nasal hyper-responsiveness to alcohol is significantly more prevalent in severe eosinophilic upper airway disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Gender and Impulsivity: Effects on Cue-Induced Alcohol Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmush, Devorah E; Manchery, Linda; Luehring-Jones, Peter; Erblich, Joel

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that trait impulsivity is linked to increased risk of developing alcohol-use disorders and other substance abuse. Impulsivity has also been shown in some studies to potentiate cue-induced drug cravings. Despite considerable evidence of gender differences in impulsivity and drug craving among individuals suffering from alcohol dependence and other drug use, little research has focused on these processes in healthy young men and women who may be at risk for developing alcohol-use disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between impulsivity and cue-induced craving, as well as possible gender differences in these effects among healthy young adults. To that end, female (n = 22) and male (n = 14) social drinkers aged 18 to 25, recruited from an urban university campus, completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and reported their alcohol cravings immediately before and after laboratory exposure to alcohol cues. Findings indicated that exposure to cues elicited increased alcohol cravings, but these effects did not differ by gender. Interestingly, a significant interaction of impulsivity and gender revealed that impulsivity predicted significantly higher cue-induced cravings in women, but not men. Findings underscore the importance of better understanding the interaction of situational factors (e.g., exposure to alcohol cues) and dispositional factors (e.g., impulsivity) as potential contributors to drinking motivation. Future prospective research is needed to identify gender-specific risk factors for the development of problem drinking. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Predicting Student Engagement by Disability Type at Four-Year Baccalaureate Higher Education Institutions Using Self-Reported Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziswiler, Korrin M.

    2014-01-01

    The number of students with disabilities accessing higher education continues to increase, yet persistence and graduation rates for this population of students are considerably lower than those of students without disabilities. Previous research suggests that a key factor in improving post-secondary outcomes is increasing the level with which…

  3. Considering Teaching Excellence in Higher Education: 2007-2013. A Literature Review since the CHERI Report 2007. HEA Research Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Vicky; Fisk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This research review explores both the research and the grey literature on university teaching excellence with a specific remit to update an earlier review, "Excellence in Teaching and Learning: a review of literature for the Higher Education Academy". Little, B., et al (2007) The two main aims are: (1) to suggest further areas of…

  4. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: A Report by the Universities UK Efficiency and Modernisation Task Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness, efficiency and value for money are central concerns for the higher education sector. In England, decisions made by the current Government will effect a radical change in the funding for teaching. Institutions will be managing a reduction in public funding for teaching and the transition to the new system of graduate contributions,…

  5. Monkey alcohol tissue research resource: banking tissues for alcohol research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunais, James B; Davenport, April T; Helms, Christa M; Gonzales, Steven W; Hemby, Scott E; Friedman, David P; Farro, Jonathan P; Baker, Erich J; Grant, Kathleen A

    2014-07-01

    An estimated 18 million adults in the United States meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, a disorder ranked as the third leading cause of preventable death. In addition to brain pathology, heavy alcohol consumption is comorbid with damage to major organs including heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Much of what is known about risk for and consequences of heavy consumption derive from rodent or retrospective human studies. The neurobiological effects of chronic intake in rodent studies may not easily translate to humans due to key differences in brain structure and organization between species, including a lack of higher-order cognitive functions, and differences in underlying prefrontal cortical neural structures that characterize the primate brain. Further, rodents do not voluntarily consume large quantities of ethanol (EtOH) and they metabolize it more rapidly than primates. The basis of the Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is that nonhuman primates, specifically monkeys, show a range of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (>3.0 g/kg or a 12 drink equivalent per day) over long periods of time (12 to 30 months) with concomitant pathological changes in endocrine, hepatic, and central nervous system (CNS) processes. The patterns and range of alcohol intake that monkeys voluntarily consume parallel what is observed in humans with alcohol use disorders and the longitudinal experimental design spans stages of drinking from the EtOH-naïve state to early exposure through chronic abuse. Age- and sex-matched control animals self-administer an isocaloric solution under identical operant procedures. The MATRR is a unique postmortem tissue bank that provides CNS and peripheral tissues, and associated bioinformatics from monkeys that self-administer EtOH using a standardized experimental paradigm to the broader alcohol research community. This resource provides a translational platform from which we can better

  6. Sexual orientation, treatment utilization, and barriers for alcohol related problems: Findings from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Junior Lloyd; Mowbray, Orion

    2016-04-01

    Gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) individuals appear to have an increased likelihood of alcohol use disorders and treatment utilization for alcohol related problems compared to heterosexual individuals. Despite this increase, treatment utilization rates among GLB individuals remain low. In an effort to address this, our paper examined whether or not GLB individuals encounter unique barriers when pursuing treatment for alcohol related problems. Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC), we examined service sector specific factors, some of which included (a) utilization rates, (b) self-reported treatment barriers, and (c) whether or not there were emergent differences among GLB individuals, after controlling for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Findings indicated that GLB individuals reported higher severity rates for alcohol use disorders when compared to heterosexual individuals, and were significantly more likely to utilize treatment services for alcohol related problems, however, not across all treatment sectors. While similar patterns were observed when examining barriers to treatment, bisexual individuals reported significantly more barriers than heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. These findings underscored the importance of identifying and developing interventions that addresses treatment barriers associated with alcohol use service utilization among GLB populations, and creating improved outreach and education programs to better address stigmas associated with substance use and sexuality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Brazilian teenagers and beer advertising: relationship between exposure, positive response, and alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Alan; Pinsky, Ilana; Faria, Roberta; Silva, Rebeca

    2009-02-01

    Brazilian teenagers report problematic patterns of alcohol consumption. Alcohol advertising strategies are one of the main factors influencing adolescents' alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between positive responses to TV beer commercials, exposure, and alcohol consumption. Thirty-two recent TV commercials were shown to 133 high school students from public schools in São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo State, Brazil. The subjects recorded how well they liked the ads and how often they had already watched each commercial. The teenagers also reported their alcohol consumption rates. The ten commercials analyzed in this article were the five most popular and the five least popular. The analysis showed that subjects had already seen the five most popular ads, but not the five least popular. In addition, the five most popular ads received higher scores from teenagers that reported having consumed beer during the previous month. The study found a positive relationship between enjoying beer advertising and exposure to beer ads, as well as between alcohol consumption and positive responses to alcohol commercials.

  8. Alcoholic Ketosis: Prevalence, Determinants, and Ketohepatitis in Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsui, Toshifumi; Shiraishi, Koichi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2014-11-01

    Alcoholic ketosis and ketoacidosis are metabolic abnormalities often diagnosed in alcoholics in emergency departments. We attempted to identify determinants or factors associated with alcoholic ketosis. The subjects of this cross-sectional survey were 1588 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who came to an addiction center within 14 days of their last drink. The results of the dipstick urinalyses revealed a prevalence of ketosis of 34.0% (±, 21.5%; +, 8.9%; and 2+/3+; 3.6%) in the alcoholics. Higher urine ketone levels were associated with higher serum total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. A multivariate analysis by the proportional odds model showed that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for an increase in ketosis by one category was 0.94 (0.84-1.06) per 10-year increase in age, 0.93 (0.89-0.97) per 1-day increase in interval since the last drink, 1.78 (1.41-2.26) in the presence of slow-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B*1/*1), 1.61 (1.10-2.36) and 1.30 (1.03-1.65) when the beverage of choice was whiskey and shochu, respectively (distilled no-carbohydrate beverages vs. the other beverages), 2.05 (1.27-3.32) in the presence of hypoglycemia Ketosis was a very common complication and frequently accompanied by alcoholic liver injury in our Japanese male alcoholic population, in which ADH1B*1/*1 genotype, consumption of whiskey or shochu, hypoglycemia, lower BMI and smoking were significant determinants of the development of ketosis. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors Associated With Risky Alcohol Consumption Among Male Street Laborers in Urban Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylona, Lamprini; Huy, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Nguyen; Riggi, Emilia; Marrone, Gaetano

    2017-07-29

    Alcohol consumption is of global concern. However, drinking patterns and associated factors remain under-investigated, especially among low socioeconomic groups such as street laborers. Using the social cognitive model as a framework for the study we aimed to identify factors associated with risky alcohol consumption. In a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires, 450 male street laborers searching for casual works in Hanoi, Vietnam were interviewed. A logistic regression was applied in order to detect predictors of risky alcohol drinking. During the last month, 45% of the participants reported daily consumption while the other 55% consumed weekly or less. Among the drinkers (416 out of 450, 92%), 27% were identified as high-risk drinkers who reported more than 14 standard drinks per week, while only 8% were lifetime abstainers. The multivariable logistic regression showed that older age, higher income were positively associated with a higher likelihood of drinking alcohol, while high school level negatively. The environmental predictor was the higher level of peer connection. The association between drinking and risky behavior was found positive with regards to the number of sexual partners. The study suggests that male street laborers are vulnerable to health risks. Decision makers should note that a significant proportion of this target group exceeds the guidelines for alcohol use and this should be included in future interventions or further research. A multisectoral approach together with an important strategy of education is needed to control alcohol use.

  10. Sub-populations of alcohol-dependent patients: differences in psychological functioning between high- and low-frequency alcohol consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, A J; Koechling, U M; Voltaire-Carlsson, A; Borg, S

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the processes underlying relapse to drinking using objective biological validation of self-reported recent alcohol consumption, using the ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid (5-HTOL/5-HIAA), a new biological marker to detect single episodes of drinking, in a sample of 38 male alcohol-dependent patients (DSM-III-R) who were assessed prospectively in terms of their clinical symptomatology over a 6-month treatment period. Results showed that nearly all patients obtained positive 5-HTOL/5-HIAA samples during the course of treatment. However, upon closer inspection, results revealed a bimodal distribution for alcohol intake with high and low frequency of consumption episodes. Results showed that high frequency consumers obtained higher ratings of clinical symptoms as measured by the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS) and by the St Göran's Semi-structured Interview (SGSI) compared to low frequency alcohol consumers on symptoms of inner tension, lack of initiative, risk of relapse (as rated by therapists and as rated by patients themselves), dysphoria, negative craving for alcohol, and positive craving for alcohol. The present results provided evidence for the existence of two sub-populations of alcoholics, those who have frequent lapses and those who have low frequency of sporadic lapses. Further, these two sub-populations were shown to differ with respect to overall psychological functioning, and craving for alcohol. In conclusion, the present findings have important treatment implications in that reliable identification of patients' consumption patterns using biological markers would allow for the design of individually tailored treatment needs.

  11. Production de méthanol et d'alcools supérieurs à partir de gaz via (CO + H2 Production of Methanol and Higher Alcohols from Gas via (Co + H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawata N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre des procédés en développement pour la synthèse d'alcools à partir de syngas (CO + H2, ce mémoire présente certains résultats récents de l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP (France et Idemitsu Kosan (Japon. La première démonstration du procédé, sous programme R et D du RAPAD-Japon, a confirmé les performances et la faisabilité. Les alcools sélectivement produits, après fractionnement, présentent de bonnes propriétés pour l'usage carburant. L'optimisation de l'ensemble constitué par la production du syngas, la synthèse, le fractionnement des alcools, a permis une simplification sensible du procédé, une optimisation spécifique des performances, ce qui conduit à des données économiques plus favorables. Within the framework of processes being developed for alcohol synthesis from syngas, this article describes some recent results obtained by Idemitsu-Kosan (Japan and Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP (France. The first demonstration of the process as part of the RAPAD-Japan R & D program has confirmed both its performances and feasibility. The alcohols selectively produced, after suitable fractionation, present good properties as a blend for motor fuels. The optimization of the overall process for syngas production, alcohol synthesis and alcohol fractionation has led to a significant simplification of the process and to the optimization of its performances, leading to better economics.

  12. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Allebeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. Aim: This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females aged 18–60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. Results: The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women. The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Conclusion: Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in

  13. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Allebeck, Peter

    2013-01-28

    Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females) aged 18-60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women). The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women) occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in the alcohol policy debate.

  14. Analyzing of the self reported ICT literacy level of Slovakian and Serbian Students in the higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Gabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The students generally use technology for communication in the European Union and outside of the Union. First of all we have to see in this research the ICT knowledge level of the students in the higher education to make decision about the application and retraining methods. It is important to know can we find any difference in ICT literacy between the Slovakian and the Serbian students to see how long is the way to finish the ICT revolution in these countries. On the other hand is it important to see which topic need more attention from the teachers in the high school to give a good knowledge for the student before they go in the higher education. We measured the ICT literacy level with a tool consisting of 15 items (Likert scaled. The data analysis was performed with SPSS software using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney test.

  15. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  16. There's alcohol in my soap: Portrayal and effects of alcohol use in a popular television series.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Fennis, B.M.; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported addressing the media influences on adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviours. A content analysis was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol portrayal in a Dutch soap series. The coding scheme covered the alcohol consumption per soap character,

  17. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  18. Alcoholic epilepsy. A definition and a description of other convulsions related to alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, H; Katoh, N

    1981-01-01

    The role of alcohol intake and withdrawal in so-called alcoholic epilepsy is discussed and illustrated by case reports. A classification is made which includes definitions of withdrawal convulsions, tetany-like withdrawal convulsions and alcohol-induced epileptic fits, with or without predisposing features.

  19. Changes in alcohol consumption between 2009 and 2014 assessed with the AUDIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källmén, Håkan; Wennberg, P; Ramstedt, M; Hallgren, M

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol habits in Sweden, assessed as sales and estimates of unrecorded consumption, have changed since joining the EU. Earlier studies using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) showed that reported consumption is consistent with sales data, which makes it possible to assess consumption according to sex and age. This study reports the changes in alcohol habits between 2009 and 2014, a period starting a couple of years after Sweden joined the EU. The AUDIT was sent to a random sample of the Swedish population aged between 17 and 80 years old. No statistically significant changes were shown in six age and sex groups. Alcohol habits have stabilised in Sweden but on a higher consumption level than before. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Alcohol use and its consequences in South India: views from a marginalised tribal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, K S; Narayana, D; Anushreedha, S S; Haddad, Slim

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol consumption in India is disproportionately higher among poorer and socially marginalised groups, notably Scheduled Tribes (STs). We lack an understanding of STs own views with regard to alcohol, which is important for implementing appropriate interventions. This study was undertaken with the Paniyas (a previously enslaved ST) in a rural community in Kerala, South India. The study, nested in a participatory poverty and health assessment (PPHA). PPHA aims to enable marginalized groups to define, describe, analyze, and express their own perceptions through a combination of qualitative methods and participatory approaches (e.g. participatory mapping and ranking exercises). We worked with 5 Paniya colonies between January and June 2008. Alcohol is viewed as a problem among the Paniyas who reported that consumption is increasing, notably among younger men. Alcohol is easily available in licensed shops and is produced illicitly in some colonies. There is evidence that local employers are using alcohol to attract Paniyas for work. Male alcohol consumption is associated with a range of social and economic consequences that are rooted in historical oppression and social discrimination. Future research should examine the views of alcohol use among a variety of marginalised groups in developing countries and the different policy options available for these populations. In addition, there is a need for studies that untangle the potential linkages between both historical and current exploitation of marginalized populations and alcohol use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy in Argentina: prevalence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mariana B; Filippetti, Vanessa Arán; Cremonte, Mariana

    2015-05-01

    Describe alcohol consumption by Argentine women before and during pregnancy and identify the factors associated with consumption- and pregnancy-related changes. Cross-sectional observational study. Women were interviewed after giving birth and receiving care at two perinatal health care centers in Santa Fe, Argentina. Sociodemographic information, data on their alcohol use, and other information were obtained from the participants. A descriptive analysis of consumption prevalence rates was made and the factors associated with patterns of alcohol use were identified by means of repeated measure analysis. Of the 614 participants, 75.2% had had at least one alcoholic drink (standard unit) during pregnancy and 83.3% had done so in the previous year; 15.1% admitted having at least one episode of binge drinking (five or more drinks) during pregnancy and 27.6% in the year prior to pregnancy. Only 30.6% of the women said they had made any change in consumption during the previous year; of those, 55.6% reduced their consumption and 41.8% stopped drinking. Women who consumed the most alcohol before and during pregnancy reported higher consumption by their partners, smoked, and had more permissive attitudes about alcohol use during pregnancy. A specific prevention plan is required in Argentina to reduce alcohol use in pregnant women, adjusted to local patterns of use, with interventions that include couples, and focused on the youngest women, those who use tobacco, and those who have more permissive attitudes about alcohol use.

  2. Rapid spontaneous resolution and redistribution of acute subdural hematoma in a patient with chronic alcoholism: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, Edmund Yik Kong. E-mail: yktsui@hongkong.com; Fai Ma, Ka; Cheung, Yu Keung; Chan, Jimmy Hon Mo; Yuen, Ming Keung

    2000-10-01

    We report a case of a 54-year-old man who had documented traumatic acute subdural hematoma. He suffered from a transient episode of confusion and a follow-up CT scan of brain 6 h after the initial scan showed resolution and redistribution of the subdural hematoma. In this case report, we review the literature for the underlying pathophysiology of this uncommon phenomenon.

  3. Rapid spontaneous resolution and redistribution of acute subdural hematoma in a patient with chronic alcoholism: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, Edmund Yik Kong.; Fai Ma, Ka; Cheung, Yu Keung; Chan, Jimmy Hon Mo; Yuen, Ming Keung

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of a 54-year-old man who had documented traumatic acute subdural hematoma. He suffered from a transient episode of confusion and a follow-up CT scan of brain 6 h after the initial scan showed resolution and redistribution of the subdural hematoma. In this case report, we review the literature for the underlying pathophysiology of this uncommon phenomenon

  4. Staff in Higher Education Salary Report: Key Findings, Trends, and Comprehensive Tables for the 2016-17 Academic Year. Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, Jacqueline; McChesney, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    This year is a momentous one for College and University Professional Association for Human Resources (CUPA-HR) research. As they celebrate their 50th anniversary of collecting salary data, they are also celebrating transformations in the way data are collected for all salary surveys and in the ways these data are reported. Rather than contributing…

  5. Malaysia and the Knowledge Economy: Building a World-Class Higher Education System. Human Development Sector Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel, Omporn; Salmi, Jamil; Watkins, Alfred; Tan, Hong; Dawkins, John; Saroyan, Alenoush; Vestergaard, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the Government of Malaysia (GOM) as a contribution to the long term development objectives for the university sector under the Ninth Malaysia Plan. The GOM is considering new policy directions to make the country a more competitive player in the world economy. Such a strategy will require bold innovations…

  6. Size Constancy Is Preserved but Afterimages Are Prolonged in Typical Individuals with Higher Degrees of Self-Reported Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Irene; Unwin, Katy L.; Landry, Oriane; Chouinard, Philippe A.

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in perceptual constancies from early infancy have been proposed to contribute to autism and exacerbate its symptoms (Hellendoorn et al., "Frontiers in Psychology" 6:1-16, 2015). Here, we examined size constancy in adults from the general population (N = 106) with different levels of self-reported autistic traits using an…

  7. On the Brink: How the Recession of 2009 Will Affect Post-Secondary Education. Canadian Higher Education Report Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Alex; Dunn, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    With the global recession in full effect, post-secondary education in Canada is about to face some very significant challenges. The purpose of this report is to outline the likely main effects of this global recession on the Canadian post-secondary education (PSE) sector, as well as suggest a series of measures that governments can take to help…

  8. A Multidimensional Model of Mothers’ Perceptions of Parent Alcohol Socialization and Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, Susan T.; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T.; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A.; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J.; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents’ mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers’ reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: two profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and two reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from grade 6 through 10 in the two alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. PMID:26415053

  9. A multidimensional model of mothers' perceptions of parent alcohol socialization and adolescent alcohol misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, Susan T; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J; Cai, Li

    2016-02-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents' mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers' reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: 2 profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and 2 reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from Grade 6 through 10 in the 2 alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M J Anacker

    Full Text Available Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP or by a single mother (SM. BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10% and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  11. Beyond Leisure: The Role of Alcohol in the Lives of Nigerian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbili, Emeka W; Onyima, Blessing N

    2017-12-26

    Alcohol consumption among young people in Nigeria has traditionally been constrained due to the socio-cultural belief that alcohol is for adults. In contemporary Nigeria, media reports indicate that young people drink alcohol regularly in large quantities, but empirical research on what motivates their alcohol use is lacking. To explore the motives for consuming alcohol among male and female students at a Nigerian university. Drawing on motivational theories of alcohol use, 31 semi-structured interviews were conducted with students (aged 19-23 years). The data were analyzed to generate themes with the aid of NVivo software. Three themes (drinking to cope; overcoming academic performance anxiety; and drinking to socialize) were identified under coping, enhancement and social motives. First, while both male and female participants used alcohol to attenuate sorrow, anger, and stress, females also drank to ameliorate depression and heartbreak due to relationship problems. Second, men and women perceived that alcohol provided them with "academic courage." Hence, they drank to boost their confidence in delivering class seminars. Relatedly, women used alcohol in a bid to enhance their retentive memory before taking written examinations. Third, men and women engaged in gendered heavy drinking rituals purposefully to get drunk and loosen up. This enables men to discuss what they referred to as "men's affairs" while it enables women to "reveal deep secrets" (to inebriated group members) that they would not ordinarily reveal when they are sober. Women's drink choice was associated with social motives because spirits were used purposefully to quicken their intoxication. Participants who drank due to coping and social motives consumed larger quantities of alcohol than they consumed on "normal" drinking occasions. We discuss the implications of these findings and offer suggestions for public health interventions that policymakers might consider implementing, to reduce alcohol

  12. Impact of Maryland's 2011 alcohol sales tax increase on alcoholic beverage sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Waters, Hugh; Smart, Mieka; Jernigan, David H

    2016-07-01

    Increasing alcohol taxes has proven effective in reducing alcohol consumption, but the effects of alcohol sales taxes on sales of specific alcoholic beverages have received little research attention. Data on sales are generally less subject to reporting biases than self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption. We aimed to assess the effects of Maryland's July 1, 2011 three percentage point increase in the alcohol sales tax (6-9%) on beverage-specific and total alcohol sales. Using county-level data on Maryland's monthly alcohol sales in gallons for 2010-2012, by beverage type, multilevel mixed effects multiple linear regression models estimated the effects of the tax increase on alcohol sales. We controlled for seasonality, county characteristics, and national unemployment rates in the main analyses. In the 18 months after the tax increase, average per capita sales of spirits were 5.1% lower (p sales were 3.2% lower (p sales were 2.5% lower (p sales trends in the 18 months prior to the tax increase. Overall, the alcohol sales tax increase was associated with a 3.8% decline in total alcohol sold relative to what would have been expected based on sales in the prior 18 months (p increased alcohol sales taxes may be as effective as excise taxes in reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. Sales taxes also have the added advantages of rising with inflation and taxing the highest priced beverages most heavily.

  13. Weight patterns in children with higher risk ALL: A report from the Children's Oncology Group (COG) for CCG 1961.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withycombe, Janice S; Post-White, Janice E; Meza, Jane L; Hawks, Ria G; Smith, Lynette M; Sacks, Nancy; Seibel, Nita L

    2009-12-15

    This retrospective analysis defined and described patterns and predictors of weight change during treatment in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) with high-risk features who received treatment on Children's Cancer Group protocol CCG 1961. Patients (1,638) were enrolled in CCG 1961 from November 1996 to May 2002. Weight was measured as BMI percent (%), specific for age and gender, and defined as 100 x ln(BMI/median BMI). By the end of treatment, 23% of children were obese (BMI >or=95%), compared with 14% at diagnosis. Children who received post-induction intensified therapy (arms C, D, SER with Doxorubicin or Idarubicin) had higher gastrointestinal toxicities and lower BMI% from consolidation through interim maintenance 1. BMI% then increased for all arms between delayed intensification and maintenance 1 or 2. Children who were of Black or Hispanic race, obese at diagnosis, or who had grade 3 or 4 pancreatitis/glucose toxicities during induction had higher BMI% throughout treatment. Children were more likely to be obese at the end of the study if they were aged 5-9 years at diagnosis or female gender. Cranial radiation was not a predictor of obesity. Successful treatment of higher risk childhood ALL was associated with obesity, independent of cranial irradiation. The beginning of maintenance therapy may be the best time to intervene with nutritional and behavioral interventions, particularly for children who are obese or aged 5-9 years at diagnosis, female, Black or Hispanic, or those with metabolic toxicities during induction. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The Relationship between Reports of Psychological Capital and Reports of Job Satisfaction among Administrative Personnel at a Private Institution of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to investigate the relationship between administrative personnel's reports of psychological capital (Luthans, Youssef, & Avolio, 2007) and their reports of job satisfaction (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). Specifically, two surveys, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (Luthans, Youssef, &…

  15. Student Retention Indicators Benchmark Report for Four-Year and Two-Year Institutions, 2013. Noel-Levitz Report on Undergraduate Trends in Enrollment Management. Higher Ed Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Levitz, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    This biennial report from Noel-Levitz assists colleges and universities with raising the bar on student retention and degree completion subgoals by benchmarking key predictive indicators such as term-to-term persistence and the ratio of credit hours completed vs. credit hours attempted. The report is based on a Web-based poll of campus officials…

  16. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  17. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozkurt M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Muge Bozkurt,1 Cuneyt Evren,1 Gokhan Umut,1 Bilge Evren2 1Research, Treatment and Training Center for Alcohol and Substance Dependence, Bakirkoy Prof Dr Mazhar Osman Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery, 2Department of Psychiatry, Baltalimani State Hospital for Muskuloskeletal Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods: Participants (n=190 were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results: Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion: These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients

  18. Social anxiety symptoms in alcohol-dependent outpatients: prevalence, severity and predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoli Tamie Yoshimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives High rates of comorbidity between social anxiety disorder (SAD and alcohol use disorders have been reported, but the predictors of this comorbidity are poorly known and most studies involve primary SAD samples. The aims were to estimate the prevalence and severity of SAD symptoms among alcohol-dependent patients and to investigate sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with SAD comorbidity, including suicidal behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional study with 53 adults who were in treatment for alcohol dependence at a Brazilian public university outpatient service. Assessment instruments Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, Short Alcohol Dependence Data and Beck Depression Inventory. Bivariate analyses between the categorical outcome (Probable SAD: SPIN ≥ 19 and explanatory variables were conducted. Correlates of SPIN total and subscales scores (dimensional outcomes were also investigated. Results The diagnosis and treatment of alcohol dependence occurred, on average, 30 years after the onset of alcohol use and 39.6% of the 53 patients (37 men and 16 women reported alleviation of social anxiety symptoms with alcohol use. Twenty-four (45.3% patients presented probable SAD. These patients differed from non-SAD alcohol-dependent individuals by having lower income and higher frequency of depression, suicidal ideation, suicide plans and attempts. The SPIN subscales mostly associated with suicidal behaviors were social inadequacy and social inferiority. Conclusions SAD symptoms are common among help-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals and should be directly investigated and treated, since depression and suicidality are associated with this comorbidity. Prospective studies are needed to assess the impact of SAD treatment on the clinical course of alcohol dependence.

  19. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Association of Alcohol Misuse With Sexual Identity and Sexual Behavior in Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Williams, Emily C; Millard, Steven P; Bradley, Katharine A; Simpson, Tracy L

    2016-01-28

    Sexual minority women report greater alcohol misuse than heterosexual women in the general population, with more pronounced differences found among younger age groups. It is unknown whether these differences exist among women veterans. We evaluated differences in alcohol misuse across two dimensions of sexual orientation (identity and behavior) among women veterans, and examined whether these differences were modified by age. Women veterans were recruited via the internet to participate in an online survey. Participants provided information on their self-reported sexual identity and behavior and responded to the validated 3-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C). Regression models were used to compare the prevalence of alcohol misuse (AUDIT-C ≥ 3) and severity (AUDIT-C scores) across sexual identity and behavior and to test effect modification by age. Among the 702 participants (36% lesbian/bisexual), prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse varied by both sexual identity and behavior, but there were significant interactions with age. Prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse were higher among relatively younger self-identified lesbians compared to heterosexual women. Similarly, both prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse were generally higher among younger women who had any sex with women compared to those who had sex only with men. In this online study of women veterans, younger sexual minority women were more likely to screen positive for alcohol misuse, and they had more severe alcohol misuse, than their heterosexual counterparts. Prevention and treatment efforts focused specifically on sexual minority women veterans may be needed.