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Sample records for reported greater difficulty

  1. Do older people with visual impairment and living alone in a rural developing country report greater difficulty in managing stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairi, Noran N; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Mudla, Izzuna

    2013-01-01

    Managing stairs is a challenging activity of daily living (ADL) for older people. This study aims to examine the association between visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone and those living with others. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted in rural Malaysia from 2007 till 2008. Seven hundred and sixty five older people aged 60 years and over underwent eye examination for visual impairment. Visual acuity criteria were used to define visual impairment. Presenting visual acuity was assessed using a standard metric Snellen Chart of E type. Difficulty in managing stairs was measured according to a question drawn from the Barthel Index which asks "do you need help in climbing stairs". Overall, the prevalence of difficulty in managing stairs among older people in our population was 135 (18.3%, 95% CI 15.7-21.2). After adjusting for important confounders the odds ratio (OR) for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone was 5.04 (95% CI 2.27, 10.62). Among older people living with others, the adjusted OR for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs was 3.10 (95% CI 1.52, 6.80). In a sample of older people aged 60 years and over, those living alone with visual impairment had greater difficulty in managing stairs than those living with others. Identification of these groups of older people is useful for targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbon markets proliferating despite difficulties, report notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    Although some existing carbon markets are facing structural issues and economic difficulties in Europe have put a damper on the European Union emissions trading system, new carbon pricing initiatives are developing rapidly, and these initiatives could help slow down greenhouse gas emissions, according to a 29 May report from the World Bank.

  3. Female Entrepreneurship: difficulties reported in life stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Dias Alperstedt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the problems detected along the entrepreneurial process, from the life stories of the SEBRAE Award Business woman participants in Santa Catarina state. Therefore, were analyzed the stories of 86 entrepreneurs participating of Prize 2010 edition. These reports were analyzed by interpretation. How to difficulties encountered in the entrepreneurial process are the perceived lack of trust placed in them, as well as the personal, family and business conflict, being the latters conflicting dimensions in the lives of these women as competing for their attention. Are still pointed aspects of business management, and financial issues and market the most serious..

  4. Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Sean P; Hovasapian, Arpine; Graham, Jesse; Motyl, Matt; Ditto, Peter H

    2015-03-13

    Research suggesting that political conservatives are happier than political liberals has relied exclusively on self-report measures of subjective well-being. We show that this finding is fully mediated by conservatives' self-enhancing style of self-report (study 1; N = 1433) and then describe three studies drawing from "big data" sources to assess liberal-conservative differences in happiness-related behavior (studies 2 to 4; N = 4936). Relative to conservatives, liberals more frequently used positive emotional language in their speech and smiled more intensely and genuinely in photographs. Our results were consistent across large samples of online survey takers, U.S. politicians, Twitter users, and LinkedIn users. Our findings illustrate the nuanced relationship between political ideology, self-enhancement, and happiness and illuminate the contradictory ways that happiness differences can manifest across behavior and self-reports.

  5. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  6. Wen's Report: No Difficulty Can Daunt China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ On March 5, China's Premier Wen Jiabao delivered a government work report to the 3,000 or so National People's Congress (NPC) deputies and more than 2,000 members of the Chinese People's Political Consulta-tive Conference (CPPCC) National Committee.

  7. 14 CFR 135.415 - Service difficulty reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service difficulty reports. 135.415 Section 135.415 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT...

  8. DIFFICULTIeS OF TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Tikhilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A distinctive feature of patients with ankylosing spondylitis is the formation of hip ankylosis in an extremely unfavorable functional position combined with upset of sagittal balance of the body along with a thoracolumbar kyphosis. Treatment of these patients poses considerable technical difficulties and is often associated with complications. The authors report a clinical case of a female 40 years old patient with confirmed rhizomelic spondylitis. The patient mainly complained of fixed malposition of the right lower extremity (hip ankylosis in extreme 1450 flexion and 1500 abduction combined with a severe fixed spine deformity (thoracic kyphosis 920, lumbar lordosis 170. Considering significant sagittal balance disorder it was decided to go for a two-stage procedure. Total hip arthroplasty of the right joint was performed at the first stage. At the second stage the authors corrected thoracolumbar spinal deformity by Th12 (type PSO 4 and L2 (type PSO 3 wedge resections and converging resected vertebral bodies by a multilevel fixation system with transpedicular support elements. The interval between the stages was 11 months. Two-stage treatment of this patient al-lowed to avoid adverse postoperative complications and to achieve a significant functional improvement in one year after treatment started. The sum of points before and after the treat-ment amounted respectively to 46 and 79 on Harris Hip Score, 17 and 38 points on Oxford Hip Score (OHS. To summarize, comprehensive treatment with planning of all subsequent steps prior to hip replacement is the method of choice for avoidance of postoperative complications in patients with ankylosing spondylitis accompanied by a significant upset of sagittal balance.

  9. Discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, and self-reported sleep duration and difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R

    2014-01-01

    To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Cross-sectional probability sample. Chicago, IL. There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity and sleep duration (β = -0.09, P Racial (β = 0.04) and non-racial (β = 0.05) everyday discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P Racial/ethnic differences in sleep duration and difficulties were not significant after adjustment for discrimination (P > 0.05). Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties, independent of socioeconomic status and other stressors, and may account for some of the racial/ethnic differences in sleep.

  10. Increased pain intensity is associated with greater verbal communication difficulty and increased production of speech and co-speech gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, Samantha; Wardy, April J; Lloyd, Donna M; Wearden, Alison; Holler, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Effective pain communication is essential if adequate treatment and support are to be provided. Pain communication is often multimodal, with sufferers utilising speech, nonverbal behaviours (such as facial expressions), and co-speech gestures (bodily movements, primarily of the hands and arms that accompany speech and can convey semantic information) to communicate their experience. Research suggests that the production of nonverbal pain behaviours is positively associated with pain intensity, but it is not known whether this is also the case for speech and co-speech gestures. The present study explored whether increased pain intensity is associated with greater speech and gesture production during face-to-face communication about acute, experimental pain. Participants (N = 26) were exposed to experimentally elicited pressure pain to the fingernail bed at high and low intensities and took part in video-recorded semi-structured interviews. Despite rating more intense pain as more difficult to communicate (t(25)  = 2.21, p =  .037), participants produced significantly longer verbal pain descriptions and more co-speech gestures in the high intensity pain condition (Words: t(25)  = 3.57, p  = .001; Gestures: t(25)  = 3.66, p =  .001). This suggests that spoken and gestural communication about pain is enhanced when pain is more intense. Thus, in addition to conveying detailed semantic information about pain, speech and co-speech gestures may provide a cue to pain intensity, with implications for the treatment and support received by pain sufferers. Future work should consider whether these findings are applicable within the context of clinical interactions about pain.

  11. Individuals with chronic low back pain have greater difficulty in engaging in positive lifestyle behaviours than those without back pain: An assessment of health literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnett Angus F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the large volume of research dedicated to understanding chronic low back pain (CLBP, patient outcomes remain modest while healthcare costs continue to rise, creating a major public health burden. Health literacy - the ability to seek, understand and utilise health information - has been identified as an important factor in the course of other chronic conditions and may be important in the aetiology of CLBP. Many of the currently available health literacy measurement tools are limited since they measure narrow aspects of health literacy. The Health Literacy Measurement Scale (HeLMS was developed recently to measure broader elements of health literacy. The aim of this study was to measure broad elements of health literacy among individuals with CLBP and without LBP using the HeLMS. Methods Thirty-six community-dwelling adults with CLBP and 44 with no history of LBP responded to the HeLMS. Individuals were recruited as part of a larger community-based spinal health study in Western Australia. Scores for the eight domains of the HeLMS as well as individual item responses were compared between the groups. Results HeLMS scores were similar between individuals with and without CLBP for seven of the eight health literacy domains (p > 0.05. However, compared to individuals with no history of LBP, those with CLBP had a significantly lower score in the domain 'Patient attitudes towards their health' (mean difference [95% CI]: 0.46 [0.11-0.82] and significantly lower scores for each of the individual items within this domain (p d = 0.47-0.65. Conclusions Although no differences were identified in HeLMS scores between the groups for seven of the health literacy domains, adults with CLBP reported greater difficulty in engaging in general positive health behaviours. This aspect of health literacy suggests that self-management support initiatives may benefit individuals with CLBP.

  12. Self-reported difficulty in climbing up or down stairs in nondisabled elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Joe; Wang, Cuiling; Xue, Xiaonan; Holtzer, Roee

    2008-01-01

    To examine clinical and functional correlates of self-reported difficulty in climbing up or climbing down stairs in older adults. Cross-sectional survey. Community sample. Older adults (N=310; mean age, 79.7 y; 62% women), without disability or dementia. Not applicable. Clinical and functional status as well as activity limitations (able to perform activities of daily living [ADLs] with some difficulty). Of the 310 subjects, 140 reported difficulties in climbing up and 83 in climbing down stairs (59 both). Self-reported difficulty in climbing up stairs was associated with hypertension, arthritis, and depressive symptoms. Difficulty in climbing up stairs was also associated with poor balance and grip strength as well as neurologic gait abnormalities. Subjects with difficulty climbing down stairs had more falls. Both activities were associated with leg claudication, fear of falling, non-neurologic gait abnormalities, and slow gait. Examined individually, self-reported difficulty climbing down stairs captured a wider spectrum of ADL limitations than climbing up stairs. However, combined difficulty in both phases of stair climbing had a stronger association with activity limitations (vs no difficulty; odds ratio, 6.58; 95% confidence interval, 3.35-12.91) than difficulty in any one phase alone. Self-reported difficulty in climbing up and down stairs revealed commonalities as well as differences in related clinical correlates. Difficulty in both climbing up and down stairs should be separately assessed to better capture clinical and functional status in older adults.

  13. Greater functional connectivity between reading and error-detection regions following training with the reading acceleration program in children with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Holland, Scott K

    2015-04-01

    The Reading Acceleration Program is a computerized program that improves reading and the activation of the error-detection mechanism in individuals with reading difficulty (RD) and typical readers (TRs). The current study aims to find the neural correlates for this effect in English-speaking 8-12-year-old children with RD and TRs using a functional connectivity analysis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected during a lexical decision task before and after 4 weeks of training with the program, together with reading and executive functions measures. Results indicated improvement in reading, visual attention, and speed of processing in children with RD. Following training, greater functional connectivity was observed between the left fusiform gyrus and the right anterior cingulate cortex in children with RD and between the left fusiform gyrus and the left anterior cingulate cortex in TRs. The change in functional connectivity after training was correlated with increased behavioral scores for word reading and visual attention in both groups. The results support previous findings of improved monitoring and mental lexicon after training with the Reading Acceleration Program in children with RD and TRs. The differences in laterality of the anterior cingulate cortex in children with RD and the presumable role of the cingulo-opercular control network in language processing are discussed.

  14. Diagnostic Difficulties in a Pediatric Insulinoma: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Ingrith; Diaconescu, Smaranda; Aprodu, Gabriel; Ioniuc, Ileana; Diaconescu, Mihai Radu; Miron, Lucian

    2016-03-01

    Insulinomas are functional neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors rarely encountered in pediatric pathology. Insulinomas are usually solitary and sporadic, but may occur in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Whipple's triad-hypoglycemia, simultaneous compatible adrenergic and/or neurological signs, and relief of symptoms upon the administration of glucose-remains the fundamental diagnostic tool. We report a case of insulinoma in an 11-year-old boy with malnutrition and mild psychic retardation. History revealed neuroglycopenic symptoms associated with hypoglycemia that returned to normal values after glucose intravenous infusion; before admission in our unit, the levels of circulating insulin, as well as the abdominal ultrasound and abdominal computed tomography scan, were reported within normal range. During hospitalization in our service, the glycemic curves showed recurring low values associated with low glycated hemoglobin, positive fasting test, and elevated C-peptide. The pancreatic ultrasound was inconclusive, but the magnetic resonance imaging revealed a high signal focal area with a diameter of 1 cm, located in the tail of pancreas. Conventional enucleation of the lesion prompted a spectacular normalization of glucose metabolism and the alleviation of the main clinical symptoms. The child had a favorable evolution in the clinical follow-up, presenting with weight gain and progressive remission to complete disappearance of most symptoms-except for the mental impairments. Although in our case Whipple's triad was apparent from the beginning, the diagnosis was delayed due to the failure of conventional imaging methods in locating the tumor. Weight loss and mental impairment contributed to the diagnosis pitfalls. Pediatricians should be aware of confusing and nonspecific symptoms, especially when children with insulinoma present mental or neurological retardation. Despite the existence of medical regimens, surgery remains the gold standard for the

  15. Williams Syndrome: The extent of agreement between parent and self report of psychological difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Freeman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: People with Williams syndrome (WS have been reported by their carers to have problems with attention, anxiety and social relationships. People with WS have been shown to report their anxieties. This study extends our knowledge of how people with WS see themselves in terms of behaviour and social relationships. Methods: A survey using self and parent report forms of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results: Both parents and individuals with WS (N = 31 reported difficulties in emotional disorder and hyperactivity symptoms and strengths in prosocial behaviours such as altruism and empathy. They disagreed about peer problems. Conclusions: People with WS understand some but not all of their difficulties. In particular they fail to recognize their social difficulties which may lead them to be vulnerable to exploitation.

  16. Greater repertoire and temporal variability of cross-frequency coupling (CFC modes in resting-state neuromagnetic recordings among children with reading difficulties

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    Stavros I Dimitriadis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCross-frequency, phase-to-amplitude coupling (PAC between neuronal oscillations at rest may serve as the substrate that supports information exchange between functionally specialized neuronal populations both within and between cortical regions. The study utilizes novel algorithms to identify prominent instantaneous modes of cross-frequency coupling and their temporal stability in resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG data from 23 students experiencing severe reading difficulties (RD and 27 age-matched non-impaired readers (NI.Phase coherence estimates were computed in order to identify the prominent mode of PAC interaction for each sensor, sensor pair, and pair of frequency bands (from δ to γ at successive temporal segments of the continuous MEG record. The degree of variability in the characteristic frequency-pair PACf1-f2 modes over time was also estimated. Results revealed a wider repertoire of prominent PAC interactions in RD as compared to NI students, suggesting an altered functional substrate for information exchange between neuronal assemblies in the former group. Moreover, RD students showed significant variability in PAC modes over time. This temporal instability of PAC values was particularly prominent: (a within and between right hemisphere temporal and occipitotemporal sensors and, (b between left hemisphere frontal, temporal, and occipitotemporal sensors and corresponding right hemisphere sites. Altered modes of neuronal population coupling may help account for extant data revealing reduced, task-related neurophysiological and hemodynamic activation in left hemisphere regions involved in the reading network in RD. Moreover, the spatial distribution of pronounced instability of cross-frequency coupling modes in this group may provide an explanation for previous reports suggesting the presence of inefficient compensatory mechanisms to support reading.

  17. Arthroscopic Tuberoplasty for a Malunited Greater Tuberosity Fracture: A Case Report.

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    Killen, Maire-Clare; Charalambous, Charalambos P

    2015-01-01

    Superior migration and malunion of a fractured greater tuberosity can lead to mechanical subacromial impingement with resultant ongoing pain and limitation of abduction. We describe such a case successfully treated with arthroscopic excision of the protruding portion of the greater tuberosity, with marked improvement in pain and range of movement. The greater tuberosity was exposed by elevating the supraspinatus tendon, which was reattached at the end of the procedure. This case, along with outcomes of similar techniques previously reported in literature suggest that arthroscopic excision of a superiorly malunited greater tuberosity is associated with good symptomatic outcome and preservation of rotator cuff function.

  18. Why do Greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) die? - An evaluation of necropsy reports

    OpenAIRE

    Wyss, F; Wenker, C; Robert, N.; Clauss, Marcus; von Houwald, F

    2012-01-01

    Many case reports about different diseases in greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) have been published, but an overview of the prevalence of diseases and an evaluation of causes of death is lacking. Necropsy reports of 106 greater one-horned rhinoceroses from 38 zoos worldwide were evaluated. Half of them were from adult animals, a third from perinatal deaths/stillbirths and the rest from juveniles and sub adults. Cardiac problems (cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, heart infarct)...

  19. Inservice Teachers' Difficulties with and Resistance to Curricular Innovation: A Solution-Finding Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Innovations in Learning, Temple University, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Solution-Finding Report provides references and information requested on the topic of inservice teachers finding it difficult to implement, or resisting, curricular innovation. Many of the citations in this bibliography also deal with ways to overcome these difficulties and this resistance. Solution-finding Reports are intended to provide a…

  20. Patient-reported speech in noise difficulties and hyperacusis symptoms and correlation with test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridakou, Chrysa; Luxon, Linda M; Bamiou, Doris E

    2012-07-01

    To compare self-reported symptoms of difficulty hearing speech in noise and hyperacusis in adults with auditory processing disorders (APDs) and normal controls; and to compare self-reported symptoms to objective test results (speech in babble test, transient evoked otoacoustic emission [TEOAE] suppression test using contralateral noise). A prospective case-control pilot study. Twenty-two participants were recruited in the study: 10 patients with reported hearing difficulty, normal audiometry, and a clinical diagnosis of APD; and 12 normal age-matched controls with no reported hearing difficulty. All participants completed the validated Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability questionnaire, a hyperacusis questionnaire, a speech in babble test, and a TEOAE suppression test using contralateral noise. Patients had significantly worse scores than controls in all domains of the Amsterdam Inventory questionnaire (with the exception of sound detection) and the hyperacusis questionnaire (P correction. Strong correlations were observed between self-reported symptoms of difficulty hearing speech in noise and speech in babble test results in the right ear (ρ = 0.624, P = .002), and between self-reported symptoms of hyperacusis and TEOAE suppression test results in the right ear (ρ = -0.597 P = .003). There was no significant correlation between the two tests. A strong correlation was observed between right ear speech in babble and patient-reported intelligibility of speech in noise, and right ear TEOAE suppression by contralateral noise and hyperacusis questionnaire. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Early Evidence of the Italian Parent-Report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bin; Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Lis, Adriana; Salcuni, Silvia

    2017-04-01

    The parent-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-P) is a widely used scale that assesses children's and adolescents' strengths and difficulties. The present study applied this scale to Italian adolescents and compared the current results with previous Chinese findings and the United Kingdom norm. Participants were 422 Italian parents and their adolescent children. Parents and adolescents answered the parent-report and the self-report SDQ, respectively. Results showed that the five-factor first-order model was better than other competing models. Cronbach's alpha of emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, prosocial behavior, and total difficulties was .63, .52, .69, .51, .59, and .77 respectively for mother-report measure, and .67, .48, .67, .46, .55, and .79 respectively for father-report measure. Parent-adolescent agreements ranged from low to medium, whereas mother-father agreements were large. Parents did not rate boys and girls as well as early-adolescence and mid-adolescence differently. Italian parents rated their adolescent children to have lower levels of hyperactivity, peer problems, total difficulties, and higher levels of prosocial behavior than Chinese parents; and Italian mothers rated their adolescent children to have lower levels of hyperactivity than United Kingdom parents. In conclusion, the current findings suggest both strengths and inadequacies of the SDQ-P for Italian adolescents.

  2. Validity of a Protocol for Adult Self-Report of Dyslexia and Related Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret; Dawes, Piers; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an increased prevalence of reading and related difficulties in children of dyslexic parents. In order to understand the causes of these difficulties, it is important to quantify the risk factors passed from parents to their offspring. Method 417 adults completed a protocol comprising a 15-item questionnaire rating reading and related skills and a scale assessing ADHD symptoms; 344 completed reading, nonword reading and spelling tests. Results A confirmatory factor analysis with four factors (Reading, Word Finding, Attention and Hyperactivity) provided a reasonable fit to the data. The Reading Factor showed robust correlations with measured literacy skills. Adults who reported as dyslexic, or rated their reading difficulties as more severe, gained lower scores on objective measures of literacy skills. Although the sensitivity of the new scale was acceptable, it tended to miss some cases of low literacy. Conclusions Self-report scales of reading and of attention difficulties are useful for identifying adults with reading and attention difficulties which may confer risks on their children of related problems. It is important for research following children at family risk of dyslexia to be aware of these effects. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22271419

  3. Difficulties in daily life reported by patients with homonymous visual field defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, Jochem; de Haan, Gera; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Brouwer, Wiebo; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Background: Homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) are a common consequence of posterior brain injury and may have a substantial influence on ADL and participation in society. In this study we analysed self-reported visionrelated difficulties in daily life in a group of patients with HVFDs. Methods

  4. Difficulties in daily life reported by patients with homonymous visual field defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, Jochem; de Haan, Gera; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Brouwer, Wiebo; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Background: Homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) are a common consequence of posterior brain injury and may have a substantial influence on ADL and participation in society. In this study we analysed self-reported visionrelated difficulties in daily life in a group of patients with HVFDs.

  5. Undergraduate ESL Students' Difficulties in Writing the Introduction for Research Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznun, Mirrah Diyana Binti; Monsefi, Roya; Nimehchisalem, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the difficulties encountered by undergraduate ESL students in writing the introduction section of their project reports. Five introduction sections of bachelor of arts students, majoring in English language, were analyzed and a lecturer was interviewed regarding the areas of the students' weaknesses. Swales'…

  6. Screening Bilingual Preschoolers for Language Difficulties: Utility of Teacher and Parent Reports

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    Pua, Emmanuel Peng Kiat; Lee, Mary Lay Choo; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The utility of parent and teacher reports for screening 3 types of bilingual preschoolers (English-first language [L1]/Mandarin-second language[L2], Mandarin-L1/English-L2, or Malay-L1/English-L2) for language difficulty was investigated in Singapore with reference to measures of reliability, validity, sensitivity, and specificity in an…

  7. Difficulties reported by hiv-infected patients using antiretroviral therapy in brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the degree of difficulty that HIV-infected patients have with therapy treatment. INTRODUCTION: Patients’ perceptions about their treatment are a determinant factor for improved adherence and a better quality of life. METHODS: Two cross-sectional analyses were conducted in public AIDS referral centers in Brazil among patients initiating treatment. Patients interviewed at baseline, after one month, and after seven months following the beginning of treatment were asked to classify and justify the degree of difficulty with treatment. Logistic regression was used for analysis. RESULTS: Among 406 patients initiating treatment, 350 (86.2% and 209 (51.5% returned for their first and third visits, respectively. Treatment perceptions ranged from medium to very difficult for 51.4% and 37.3% on the first and third visits, respectively. The main difficulties reported were adverse reactions to the medication and scheduling. A separate logistic regression indicated that the HIV-seropositive status disclosure, symptoms of anxiety, absence of psychotherapy, higher CD4+ cell count (> 200/mm³ and high (> 4 adverse reaction count reported were independently associated with the degree of difficulty in the first visit, while CDC clinical category A, pill burden (> 7 pills, use of other medications, high (> 4 adverse reaction count reported and low understanding of medical orientation showed independent association for the third visit. CONCLUSIONS: A significant level of difficulty was observed with treatment. Our analyses suggest the need for early assessment of difficulties with treatment, highlighting the importance of modifiable factors that may contribute to better adherence to the treatment protocol.

  8. Diagnosing companies in financial difficulty based on the auditor’s report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zenzerović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The approach used in this paper expands on existing research that focuses on devising prediction models for companies experiencing financial difficulties and which in turn serves as a criteria-based diagnosis tool for distinguishing healthy companies from those facing seriously financial difficulties. It draws on auditors’ reports on company financial statements that emphasize a company’s ability to continue as a going concern as the main criterion used to distinguish companies experiencing financial difficulties from companies that are not. Two closely-related hypotheses were tested in this paper. First, the authors tested the hypothesis that an auditor’s report accompanied by an explanatory paragraph pointing out issues associated with the going concern assumption is the proper criterion for differentiating companies experiencing financial difficulties from those that are not. Second, the central assumption that is tested relates to a combination of financial ratios whereby authors presume that an appropriate combination of financial ratios is a good analytical tool for distinguishing companies experiencing serious financial difficulties from those that are not. Research results conducted among 191 companies listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange confirm both hypotheses. The LRA model – a diagnosis tool for identifying companies with financial problems, was also derived using logistic regression analysis. The statistical adequacy and quality of the model was tested using measures like Nagelkerke R2, type 1 and type 2 errors that appear when calculating the classification ability of the model. All measures indicated that model was statistically sufficient and validated its use as a diagnosis tool in recognizing the companies facing financial difficulties.

  9. Metastasis of greater wing of sphenoid bone in bronchogenic carcinoma: a unusual case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prashant K; Mital, Mukta; Dwivedi, Amit; Gupta, Kumkum

    2011-01-01

    Orbital metastasis in systemic cancer is known to occur and occurs in up to 7% of all systemic cancers. Orbital features typically present after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. In about 20% of cases, there is no known primary cancer at the time of presentation with orbital metastatic disease. Here we report a case of a 60-year-old male smoker, in whom proptosis, due to metastasis in greater wing of left sphenoid bone secondary to bronchogenic carcinoma, was the initial symptom. We could not find in literature metastasis to greater wing of sphenoid bone due to small cell carcinoma of lung.

  10. Relating aviation service difficulty reports to accident data for safety trend prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.; Hall, R.; Martinez, G.; Uryasev, S.

    1996-03-13

    This work explores the hypothesis that Service Difficulty Reports (SDR - primarily inspection reports) are related to Accident Incident Data System (AIDS - reports primarily compiled from National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigations). This work sought and found relations between equipment operability reported in the SDR and aviation safety reported in AIDS. Equipment is not the only factor in aviation accidents, but it is the factor reported in the SDR. Two approaches to risk analysis were used: (1) The conventional method, in which reporting frequencies are taken from a data base (SDR), and used with an aircraft reliability block diagram model of the critical systems to predict aircraft failure, and (2) Shape analysis that uses the magnitude and shape of the SDR distribution compared with the AIDS distribution to predict aircraft failure.

  11. [Delayed discovery of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: diagnostic difficulties. A report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, C; Jouvencel, P; Debuch, C; Argote, C; Lavrand, F; Feghali, H; Brissaud, O

    2004-08-01

    Delayed revelation of congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH) is not uncommon and can represent 5-30% of total CDHs. Time before diagnosis may be prolonged, sometimes to the adult period. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are frequent but not specific. The clinical presentation of delayed CDH may thus mislead the practitioner. Diagnosis can be approached and/or confirmed by plain radiography. Outcome is usually favorable after surgery. We report two cases of delayed CDH and we discuss the difficulty of diagnosis.

  12. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising from the greater omentum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunaga Masakazu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are rare soft tissue tumors that arise from a peripheral nerve or exhibit nerve sheath differentiation. Most of these tumors arise on the trunk, extremities, or head and neck regions; they are very rarely located in the abdominal cavity. The patient was a 71-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for a mass and pain in the right lower abdomen. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large (9 × 9 cm, well-circumscribed, lobulated, heterogeneously enhanced mass in the pelvis. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large mass in the greater omentum, and the tumor was completely excised. Histopathological analysis revealed that the tumor was composed of spindle cells with high mitotic activity. On staining the tumor, positive results were obtained for S-100 but negative results were obtained for c-kit, cluster of differentiation (CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, and desmin. These findings strongly supported a diagnosis of MPNST primarily arising from the greater omentum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an MPNST arising from the greater omentum. In this report, we have described the case of a patient with an MPNST arising from the greater omentum and have discussed the clinical characteristics and management of MPNSTs.

  13. Undergraduate ESL Students’ Difficulties in Writing the Introduction for Research Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirrah Diyana Binti Maznun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the difficulties encountered by undergraduate ESL students in writing the introduction section of their project reports. Five introduction sections of bachelor of arts students, majoring in English language, were analyzed and a lecturer was interviewed regarding the areas of the students’ weaknesses. Swales’ create-a-research-space (cars model was used as the analytical framework of the study. The results revealed that students confronted problems in writing their introduction for each move especially for move 2, which consists of counter claiming, indicating research gap, raising questions from previous research and continuing tradition. It was also found that the students had difficulty in writing the background of the study, theoretical framework, and statement of the problem which indicated their unawareness of the appropriate rhetorical structure of the introduction section.

  14. Variations in band reporting rate and implications for kill rate in Greater Snow Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Souchay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed spatial and temporal variation in reporting probability of banded Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica shot by hunters in eastern North America and evaluated potential residual biases in kill rate estimation. Adult Greater Snow Geese were marked with reward (value: US$10, $20, $30, $50, and $100 and standard bands ($0, control in the Canadian Arctic from 2003 to 2005. We used a spatially explicit multinomial model based on 200 direct recoveries from 4256 banded geese to estimate reporting rate and harvest rate. We found that reporting rate for standard bands varied over time whereas harvest rate was higher in Canada than in the U.S. The reporting probability increased from 0.40 ± 0.11 in the first year of the study to 0.82 ± 0.14 and 0.84 ± 0.13 the second and third years, respectively. Overall, these reporting rates are higher than two previous estimates for this population, which leads to lower estimates of kill rate. However, the large annual differences in reporting rates found in this study lead to uncertainty in the estimation of kill rate. We suggest that the increase in reporting rate in the last two year of the study may be due to the dissemination of information among hunters regarding the presence of reward bands on birds, resulting in increased reporting rate for all bands. This raises issues about the need to adequately inform the public in such large-scale studies to avoid undesirable temporal trends over the course of the study.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Arabic self-report version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Abu Hilal, Maher M; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Alkharousi, Suad Juma

    2016-12-01

    Students in middle school tend to display emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBDs) compared to other forms of psychopathology. Early identification of EBDs is therefore a priority in order to prevent the chronic co-morbidity with other forms of psychopathology which may affect students' academic achievement. Assessment of EBDs has been traditionally undertaken via proxy reporting; but psychometrically rigorous instruments are needed so that children and adolescents can report on their own emotions and behaviours. Such need increases in the Omani context given the lack of EBDs adequate assessment instruments. In the current study the factor structure of the Arabic self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (A-SDQ) was examined in a sample of 815 middle school students (mean age=14 years). The study tested the SDQ original five-factor model which received considerable empirical support. Responses on the A-SDQ were compared to responses obtained via proxy reports from teachers and parents through confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). Results showed a reasonable fit for the three informant forms. Nevertheless, there were differences in item loadings across the three informant forms. Additionally, participants' self-report responses were tested for invariance across gender. CFAs provided support to the invariance hypothesis for item loadings, indicating that the items were similarly valid indices of the five factors for males and females. Factor correlations, factor variances and item residuals were not invariant across gender.

  16. Screening Bilingual Preschoolers for Language Difficulties: Utility of Teacher and Parent Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Emmanuel Peng Kiat; Lee, Mary Lay Choo; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2017-04-14

    The utility of parent and teacher reports for screening 3 types of bilingual preschoolers (English-first language [L1]/Mandarin-second language[L2], Mandarin-L1/English-L2, or Malay-L1/English-L2) for language difficulty was investigated in Singapore with reference to measures of reliability, validity, sensitivity, and specificity in an English-medium kindergarten setting. The index tests were teachers' ratings of the English language ability of 5-year-olds (N = 85) on the Bilingual Language Assessment Battery (BLAB): Preschool Teacher Report (Pua, Lee, & Rickard Liow, 2013) and parents' ratings of their child's home language ability (N = 78 English-L1, Mandarin-L1, or Malay-L1) on the BLAB: Preschool Parent Report (Pua, Lee, & Rickard Liow, 2013). The reference standards were objective measures of single-word receptive vocabulary (80 items) and expressive vocabulary (140 items) in the child's L1 and L2, as proxies for language ability. BLAB Teacher Reports for the English receptive and expressive subscales showed concurrent validity for all 3 bilingual groups, as well as generally high sensitivity and specificity. In contrast, BLAB Parent Reports for L1 receptive ability failed to show significant correlations with the objective measures of receptive vocabulary. Subjective teacher ratings may be an effective method of screening bilingual preschoolers for language difficulty, thereby prompting referral to clinicians.

  17. Hepatitis from Greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.): review of literature and report of a new case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Paola A; Cassetti, Federica; Giugliano, Gianni; Falce, Maria T; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Menniti-Ippolito, Francesca; Raschetti, Roberto; Santuccio, Carmela

    2009-07-15

    Folk medicine is a rich source of useful therapeutic tools. Nevertheless, use of medicinal plants can have unwanted, negative effects. By means of the description of an adverse reaction to a herbal remedy, we highlight the need for better efficacy-toxicity studies on these products. To report a case of possible Chelidonium majus L. (Greater celandine)-induced hepatitis and evaluate the past published cases. We outlined the main features of hepatitis associated with use of Chelidonium majus by providing a review of cases reported and analysing in detail a new one. Several cases of acute hepatitis related to Greater celandine consumption were found in the literature. The assessment for causality using Naranjo probability scale showed a probable relationship between the liver injury and the consumption of Chelidonium majus in the case we described. Our case, along with the other ones reported in the literature, increases the concern about the safety of oral use of Chelidonium majus. Plants used in traditional medicine are not necessarily harmless. Customers and prescribers should be aware of this, especially when a herbal drug is used with therapeutic purposes in absence of reliable studies of clinical efficacy and benefit-risk assessment.

  18. Childhood osteosarcoma of greater wing of sphenoid: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, Rachna; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Jagadesan, Pandjatcharan; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan; Sharma, Suresh Chandra; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2012-03-01

    Primary osteosarcoma of skull base is extremely rare. We present a case of primary osteosarcoma arising in greater wing of sphenoid in a child. Our patient had an incomplete excision after which he received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There was good response to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and the patient is disease free at a follow-up of 18 months. Treatment of skull base osteosarcomas is difficult, as complete excision is often not possible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of sphenoid wing osteosarcoma in childhood to be reported in literature.

  19. College students who have an eveningness preference report lower self-control and greater procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digdon, Nancy L; Howell, Andrew J

    2008-11-01

    Previous research suggests a possible link between eveningness and general difficulties with self-regulation (e.g., evening types are more likely than other chronotypes to have irregular sleep schedules and social rhythms and use substances). Our study investigated the relationship between eveningness and self-regulation by using two standardized measures of self-regulation: the Self-Control Scale and the Procrastination Scale. We predicted that an eveningness preference would be associated with poorer self-control and greater procrastination than would an intermediate or morningness preference. Participants were 308 psychology students (mean age=19.92 yrs) at a small Canadian college. Students completed the self-regulation questionnaires and Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) online. The mean MEQ score was 46.69 (SD=8.20), which is intermediate between morningness and eveningness. MEQ scores ranged from definite morningness to definite eveningness, but the dispersion of scores was skewed toward more eveningness. Pearson and partial correlations (controlling for age) were used to assess the relationship between MEQ score and the Self-Control Scale (global score and 5 subscale scores) and Procrastination Scale (global score). All correlations were significant. The magnitude of the effects was medium for all measures except one of the Self-Control subscales, which was small. A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ score using the Self-Control Scale (global score), Procrastination Scale, and age as predictors indicated the Self-Control Scale was a significant predictor (accounting for 20% of the variance). A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ scores using the five subscales of the Self-Control Scale and age as predictors showed the subscales for reliability and work ethic were significant predictors (accounting for 33% of the variance). Our study showed a relationship between eveningness and low self-control, but it did not address whether the

  20. Relating aviation service difficulty reports to accident data for safety trend prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Hall, R.E.; Martinez-Guridi, G.; Uryasev, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sampath, S.G. [Federal Aviation Administration, Atlantic City, NJ (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A synthetic model of scheduled-commercial U.S. aviation fatalities was constructed from linear combinations of the time-spectra of critical systems reporting using 5.5 years of Service Difficulty Reports (SDR){sup 2} and Accident Incident Data System (AIDS) records{sup 3}. This model, used to predict near-future trends in aviation accidents, was tested by using the first 36 months of data to construct the synthetic model which was used to predict fatalities during the following eight months. These predictions were tested by comparison with the fatality data. A reliability block diagram (RBD) and third-order extrapolations also were used as predictive models and compared with actuality. The synthetic model was the best predictor because of its use of systems data. Other results of the study are a database of service difficulties for major aviation systems, and a rank ordering of systems according to their contribution to the synthesis. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Actigraphic and parental reports of sleep difficulties in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan; Bilenberg, Niels

    2008-01-01

    (Fourth Edition) criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Actigraphically measured sleep variables and parent-estimated sleep by diary. RESULTS: We found that children with ADHD have significantly longer sleep onset latency and a more irregular sleep pattern than the psychiatric control or healthy reference...... the objectively measured sleep variables and those reported by parents, who overestimated sleep onset latency. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study allow us to conclude that some children with ADHD have impaired sleep that cannot be referred to comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. However, it is important......OBJECTIVES: To describe actigraphically detected and parent-reported sleep problems in nonmedicated children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); to clarify whether or not comorbid oppositional defiant disorder contributes to sleep difficulties; and to compare objectively measured...

  2. DIFFICULTIES RELATED TO THE FINANCIAL POSITION REPORTING INTO THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of a turbulent economic environment with impact on the vulnerability of the public sector entities, the stakeholders’ needs of information are focussed on the assessment of liquidities and their solvency, on the sustenability of service offerring, as well as on the capacity of the entities to answer a dynamic environment in terms of cost, quality and continuity. In this respect, the current study has as objective to identify the difficulties of reporting the financial position into the public sector in Romania. In order to reach the proposed objective, an interpretative research methodology was used. The results of this study has pointed out that the prevalence of divergences between the national view versus IPSAS in terms of reporting the financial position into the public sector limits the informational value and its relevance both for the management of the entities and their stakeholders.

  3. Self-Reported Hearing Difficulties Among Adults With Normal Audiograms: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Kelly L; Pinto, Alex; Fischer, Mary E; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Levy, Sarah; Tweed, Ted S; Cruickshanks, Karen J

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians encounter patients who report experiencing hearing difficulty (HD) even when audiometric thresholds fall within normal limits. When there is no evidence of audiometric hearing loss, it generates debate over possible biomedical and psychosocial etiologies. It is possible that self-reported HDs relate to variables within and/or outside the scope of audiology. The purpose of this study is to identify how often, on a population basis, people with normal audiometric thresholds self-report HD and to identify factors associated with such HDs. This was a cross-sectional investigation of participants in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. HD was defined as a self-reported HD on a four-item scale despite having pure-tone audiometric thresholds within normal limits (hearing assessments, relevant factors such as sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, medical history, health-related quality of life, and symptoms of neurological disorders were also examined as possible risk factors. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression was used to probe symptoms associated with depression, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 mental score was used to quantify psychological stress and social and role disability due to emotional problems. The Visual Function Questionnaire-25 and contrast sensitivity test were used to query vision difficulties. Of the 2783 participants, 686 participants had normal audiometric thresholds. An additional grouping variable was created based on the available scores of HD (four self-report questions), which reduced the total dataset to n = 682 (age range, 21-67 years). The percentage of individuals with normal audiometric thresholds who self-reported HD was 12.0% (82 of 682). The prevalence in the entire cohort was therefore 2.9% (82 of 2783). Performance on audiological tests (distortion product otoacoustic emissions and word-recognition tests) did not differ between the group self-reporting HD and the group

  4. Suspected Greater Celandine hepatotoxicity: liver-specific causality evaluation of published case reports from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-03-01

    In 21 published case reports, the use of the herb Greater Celandine (GC) (Chelidonium majus L.) has been causally related to liver injury, but a variety of confounding variables were evident that might have offset causality. This study reanalyses causality levels in these cases with a liver-specific causality evaluation method. All 21 cases were submitted to the liver-specific, standardized, structured, quantitative and updated scale of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. This scale considers, among other items, latency period, course of alanine aminotransferase after treatment discontinuation, risk factors, comedication and alternative causes. Using this method for assessment, causality for GC was highly probable in two and probable in six cases, with lower causality grading in the remaining 13 cases. In these patients, causality for GC was possible in 10 cases and excluded in three cases. On the basis of the eight cases with highly probable and probable causality gradings, GC hepatotoxicity represents an idiosyncratic reaction of the metabolic type, whereas immunologic or obligatory hepatotoxic features are lacking. In some cases, alternative diagnoses and poor data quality were confounding variables that reduced causality levels. Confounding variables reduced causality levels for GC in reported cases of liver injury, but there is still striking evidence for herb-induced liver injury by GC with high causality gradings. GC hepatotoxicity is caused by an idiosyncratic reaction of the metabolic form, but there is uncertainty with respect to its culprit(s).

  5. Greater Confinement Disposal Test at the Nevada Test Site, Final Technology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickman, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) was conducted at the Nevada Test Site to demonstrate an alternative method for management of high-specific-activity (HSA) low-level waste (LLW). The GCDT was initially conceived as a method for managing small volumes of highly concentrated tritium wastes, which, due to their environmental mobiilty, are considered unsuitable for routine shallow land disposal. Later, the scope of the GCDT was increased to address a variety of other "problem" HSA wastes including isotope sources and thermal generating wastes. The basic design for the GCDT evolved from a series of studies and assessments. Operational design objectives were to (1) emplace the wastes at a depth sufficient to minimize or eliminate routine environmental transport mechanisms and instrusion scenarios and (2) provide sufficient protection for operations personnel in the handling of HSA sources. To achieve both objectives, a large diameter borehole was selected. The GCDT consisted of a borehole 3 meters (10 feet) in diameter and 36 meters (120 feet) deep, surrounded by nine monitoring holes at varying radii. The GCDT was instrumented for the measurement of temperature, moisture, and soil-gas content. Over one million curies of HSA LLW were emplaced in GCDT. This report reviews the development of the GCDT project and presents analyses of data collected.

  6. Adrenal Rest Tumor from the Greater Omentum Mimicking Exophytic Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyung Jo; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Hyun Woong [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Bok [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun Chul; Son, Mi Young; Kim, Tae Bong [Daegu Veterans Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Adrenal rest tumors are aberrant adrenocortical tissue which has been most commonly described in abdominal and pelvic sites. To our knowledge, there has been no previous description of an adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum. We present a case of a pathologically confirmed adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum in a 76-year- old man

  7. Pregnancy hypertension and the risk for neuropsychological difficulties across early development: A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Mark; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    Despite documented effects on fetal brain development, little is currently known about the relationship between maternal pregnancy hypertension and child neuropsychological outcomes. This brief report examined the association between maternal hypertension during pregnancy and children's social cognition and executive functioning when children were 18 months, 3 years, and 4.5 years. A community sample of 501 families (23 hypertensive mothers; 478 nonhypertensive) was recruited when children were newborns. Social cognition (including theory of mind [ToM]) and executive functioning (EF) were measured using a battery of age-appropriate standardized and/or observational tasks. Information on pregnancy and prenatal factors were measured via maternal report when children were newborns. After controlling for prenatal and demographic covariates, the presence of hypertension difficulties during pregnancy was associated with all measures of social cognition, ToM, and EF. A secondary analysis comparing the hypertension group (n = 23) to a nonhypertensive matched control group (n = 23) supported the effect of pregnancy hypertension on children's social-cognitive and EF development. Future studies using obstetrical records are encouraged based on these preliminary findings.

  8. The Positive Facet of Self-compassion Predicts Self-reported Use of and Attitudes toward Desirable Difficulties in Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K. Wagner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research found that introducing difficulties and challenges during learning has desirable outcomes. With the present work, we investigated the question how the use of and the attitudes toward such learning strategies (so-called desirable difficulties are related to self-compassion, a concept that describes the tendency to be understanding and kind to oneself when confronted with negative experiences. Evidence suggests self-compassion to be linked to less fear of failing, and further to higher control beliefs and mastery goals in learning. Given that applying desirable difficulties in self-regulated learning implies increased challenges, and further, a higher likelihood to experience a feeling of failing, we expected that the use of desirable difficulties increases with levels of self-compassion. We tested this hypothesis in an online study (N = 136 in which self-compassion and the self-reported use of and attitudes toward strategies of desirable difficulties were assessed via respective questionnaires. Results of a correlation analysis yielded first evidence for our idea. Decomposing self-compassion into a positive and a negative facet showed that the positive, but not the negative, facet is positively correlated with attitudes toward and the use of desirable difficulties. Additionally, a regression analysis showed that the positive but not the negative facet predicted attitudes toward and use of desirable difficulties, when entering both facets simultaneously as predictors. Practical implications for learners are discussed.

  9. Nesting ecology of greater white-fronted geese on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge: 1988 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the nesting ecology of greater white-fronted geese on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. Aerial surveys to document spring phenology and...

  10. Brief report: Response inhibition and processing speed in children with motor difficulties and developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Marialivia; Leonard, Hayley C; Hill, Elisabeth L; Henry, Lucy A

    2016-01-01

    A previous study reported that children with poor motor skills, classified as having motor difficulties (MD) or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), produced more errors in a motor response inhibition task compared to typically developing (TD) children but did not differ in verbal inhibition errors. The present study investigated whether these groups differed in the length of time they took to respond in order to achieve these levels of accuracy, and whether any differences in response speed could be explained by generally slow information processing in children with poor motor skills. Timing data from the Verbal Inhibition Motor Inhibition test were analyzed to identify differences in performance between the groups on verbal and motor inhibition, as well as on processing speed measures from standardized batteries. Although children with MD and DCD produced more errors in the motor inhibition task than TD children, the current analyses found that they did not take longer to complete the task. Children with DCD were slower at inhibiting verbal responses than TD children, while the MD group seemed to perform at an intermediate level between the other groups in terms of verbal inhibition speed. Slow processing speed did not account for these group differences. Results extended previous research into response inhibition in children with poor motor skills by explicitly comparing motor and verbal responses, and suggesting that slow performance, even when accurate, may be attributable to an inefficient way of inhibiting responses, rather than slow information processing speed per se.

  11. Psychological problems in Iranian adolescents: application of the self report form of strengths and difficulties questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychological problems in adolescents in five provinces of Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Isfahan, East Azerbaijan and Fars in Iran.In the present cross-sectional and descriptive - analytical study, 5171 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were selected through multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Khorasan Razavi and East Azarbaijan provinces. The self-report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to obtain the demographic data of each adolescent. Descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval were used to investigate the relationship between scores of the SDQ questionnaire and demographic factors.Based on the results, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems (24%, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems (5.76%. Also, comparison of 95% confidence interval of prevalence of psychological problems between the two genders suggested a significant difference only in emotional problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two genders. The result revealed no significant difference in the psychological problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two age's groups and between the middle and high school graduates (p≤0.05. Among the 5 provinces, Fars allocated the highest rates of conduct problems (28.4, hyperactivity problems (21.5% and overall criterion problems (17.3%; Esfahan had the highest rates of emotional problems (9.1% and problems with peers (8.1%; and Khorasan Razavi had the highest rates of social problems (7.6%.In this study, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems. It was determined that girls have more emotional problems than boys. Also, no significant difference was found in the psychological problems of 12

  12. Resting Heart Rate Variability Predicts Self-Reported Difficulties in Emotion Regulation: A Focus on Emotional Clarity and Impulse Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeWayne P Williams

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Model of Neurovisceral Integration suggests that vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV represents a psychophysiological index of inhibitory control and thus, is associated with emotion regulation capacity. Over the past decade, growing empirical evidence supports this notion, showing that those with higher resting vmHRV can regulate and control negative emotions more adequately. However, to our knowledge, no study has previously examined how resting vmHRV may relate to everyday perceived difficulties in emotion regulation. The present study attempts to examine such relationship in 183 undergraduate students (98 female, 60 minority, mean Age = 19.34. Resting vmHRV was collected during a 5-minute resting baseline period, and everyday difficulties in emotion regulation were assessed using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS. Controlling for potential confounds (including both trait anxiety and rumination, results revealed a negative relationship between resting vmHRV and DERS such that lower resting vmHRV was associated with greater difficulties in emotional control, especially a lack of emotional clarity and impulse control, as indicated by the respective subscales of the DERS. These findings provide further evidence for the Neurovisceral Integration Model, suggesting that emotional control and autonomic regulation share neural networks within the brain. Moreover, the present study extends prior research by highlighting two distinct facets of emotion regulation (impulse control and emotional clarity that should be of particular interest when investigating the link between emotion regulation, resting vmHRV, and related health outcomes including morbidity and mortality.

  13. Case report 358: Desmoid tumor of the greater wing of the right sphenoid bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisi, G.; Calo, M.; Mauri, C.

    1986-03-01

    In summary, a case has been presented of a 26-year-old man who on admission showed a mild right proptosis and swelling of the right temple. Roentgenograms of the skull demonstrated loss of the right innominate line. CT studies after contrast demonstrated a sharply-demarcated, destructive area of the right greater sphenoid wing with an enhancing, spindle-shaped, soft tissue mass observed around the bony defect. Increased uptake was demonstrated on a radionuclide scan. The lesion was surgically removed and proved to be a desmoid. (orig./SHA).

  14. How report cards on physicians, physician groups, and hospitals can have greater impact on consumer choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Eastman, Diana; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2012-03-01

    Public report cards with quality and cost information on physicians, physician groups, and hospital providers have proliferated in recent years. However, many of these report cards are difficult for consumers to interpret and have had little impact on the provider choices consumers are making. To gain a more focused understanding of why these reports cards have not been more successful and what improvements could be made, we interviewed experts and surveyed registrants at the March 2011 AHRQ National Summit on Public Reporting for Consumers in Health Care. We found broad agreement that public reporting has been disconnected from consumer decisions about providers because of weaknesses in report card content, design, and accessibility. Policy makers have an opportunity to change the landscape of public reporting by taking advantage of advances in measurement, data collection, and information technology to deliver a more consumer-centered report card. Overcoming the constraint of limited public funding, and achieving the acceptance of providers, is critical to realizing future success.

  15. Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy report and institutional plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains two parts. Part I, Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy, addresses the requirements, responsibilities, and strategy to transport and receive these wastes. The strategy covers (a) transportation packaging, which includes shipping casks and waste containers; (b) transportation operations relating to the five facilities involved in transportation, i.e., waste originator, interim storage, dedicated storage, treatment, and disposal; (c) system safety and risk analysis; (d) routes; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (o safeguards and security. A summary of strategic actions is provided at the conclusion of Part 1. Part II, Institutional Plan for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Packaging and Transportation, addresses the assumptions, requirements, and institutional plan elements and actions. As documented in the Strategy and Institutional Plan, the most challenging issues facing the GTCC LLW Program shipping campaign are institutional issues closely related to the strategy. How the Program addresses those issues and demonstrates to the states, local governments, and private citizens that the shipments can and will be made safely will strongly affect the success or failure of the campaign.

  16. Difficulties in Daily Life Reported by Patients With Homonymous Visual Field Defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Gera A.; Heutink, Joost; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Background:Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common after postchiasmatic acquired brain injury and may have a significant impact on independent living and participation in society. Vision-related difficulties experienced in daily life are usually assessed using questionnaires. The current s

  17. Self reported behavioral and emotional difficulties in relation to dentition status among school going children of Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepu Srilatha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social projections, which influence the quality of life. Thus, developing a common vision and a comprehensive approach to address children′s social, emotional, and behavioral health needs is an integral part of the child and adolescent′s overall health. Aim: To assess and compare the behavior and emotional difficulties among 15-year-olds and to correlate it with their dentition status based on gender. Study Settings and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 15-year-old schoolgoing children in six private schools in Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India. Materials and Methods: The behavior and emotional difficulties were assessed using self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The dentition status was recorded by the criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO in the Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form (1997. Statistical Analysis: Independent Student′s t-test was used for comparison among the variables. Correlation between scales of SDQ and dentition status was done using Karl Pearson′s correlation coefficient method. Results: Girls reported more emotional problems and good prosocial behavior and males had more conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and total difficulty problems. Total decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT and decayed component were significantly and positively correlated with total difficulty, emotional symptom, and conduct problems scale while missing component was correlated with the hyperactivity scale and filled component with prosocial behavior. Conclusion: DMFT and its components showed an association with all scales of SDQ except for peer problem scale. Thus, the oral health of children was significantly influenced by behavioral and emotional difficulties; so, changes in the mental health status will affect the oral health of children.

  18. Capillary haemangioma of the greater omentum in a 5-month-old female infant: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateil, J.F. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France). Service de Neuro-Radiologie; Unite de Radiopediatrie, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Saragne-Feuga, C.; Brun, M.; Diard, F. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France). Service de Neuro-Radiologie; Perel, Y. [Service de Pediatrie A, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Neuenschwander, S. [Service de Radiologie, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Vergnes, P. [Service de Chirurgie Pediatrique, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    2000-12-01

    Capillary haemangiomas are frequent benign tumours in infancy. The authors report a case of capillary haemangioma of the greater omentum, discovered in a child of 5 months of age and studied with US, CT and MRI. The localization of such a lesion in the greater omentum is exceptional. Abdominal US revealed a heterogeneous, multinodular intraperitoneal mass. Doppler study demonstrated hypervascularity of the lesion. CT localized the mass to the greater omentum. The mass was hypodense on the unenhanced scan and enhanced massively after injection. The infant suffered a reaction to contrast medium during the CT. MRI demonstrated a mass which was hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Laparotomy confirmed the location of the mass within the greater omentum and allowed resection of the tumour. (orig.)

  19. Herbal hepatotoxicity by Greater Celandine (Chelidonium majus): causality assessment of 22 spontaneous reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes

    2011-12-01

    Toxic liver injury due to the herb Greater Celandine (GC) (Chelidonium majus L.) has been assumed in patients originating from various European countries and created concern. Based on regulatory and liver unspecific ad hoc causality assessments in 22 spontaneous cases of Germany, causality levels for GC were considered probable in 16 and possible in 6 cases. We now analyzed the data of these 22 cases regarding their causality levels employing the liver specific, standardized, structured and quantitative assessment method of the updated scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). Causality for GC was found highly probable (n=2), probable (n=6), possible (n=10), unlikely (n=1), and excluded (n=3). Thus, causality could be upgraded in 2 cases to a highly probable causality level, but had to be down graded to excluded, unlikely, or possible causality levels in 3, 1, or 9 cases, respectively. GC hepatotoxicity shows a hepatocellular pattern of liver injury with female gender predominance. On average, age of the patients was 56.4 years, treatment 36.4 days, and latency period until first symptoms and jaundice 29.8 and 35.6 days, respectively. This analysis therefore provides further evidence for the existence of GC hepatotoxicity as a distinct form of herb induced liver injury, but due to poor data quality the causal association between GC use and liver injury is less strong than hitherto assumed. We propose replacement of the regulatory organ unspecific by a liver specific causality assessment method in cases of herb induced liver injury as well as stricter pharmacovigilance strategies towards improvements of data quality. Toxicological studies are now warranted to elucidate the mechanism(s) of human GC hepatotoxicity that represents a European issue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Greater Green River Basin production improvement project, Phase 1: Site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H.; Poe, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    Several tight, naturally-fractured, gas-productive formations in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) in Wyoming have been exploited using conventional vertical well technology. Typically, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed in completing these wells to increase gas production rates to economic levels. However, with the maturation of horizontal drilling technology hydraulic fracture treatments may not be the most effective method for improving gas production from these tight reservoirs. Two of the most prolific tight gas reservoirs in the Green River Basin, the Frontier and the Mesaverde, are candidates for the application of horizontal well completion technology. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the DOE`s technical concept to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift. Previous industry attempts to produce in commercial quantities from the Second Frontier Formation have been hampered by lack of understanding of both the in-situ natural fracture system and lack of adequate stimulation treatments. The proposed technical approach involves drilling a vertical characterization well to the Second Frontier Formation at a depth of approximately 16,000 ft. from a site located about 18 miles northwest of Rock Springs, Wyoming. Logging, coring, and well testing information from the vertical well will be used to design a hydraulic fracturing treatment and to assess the resulting production performance. Data from the vertical drilling phase will be used to design a 2,500 to 3,000-ft lateral wellbore which will be kicked off from the vertical hole and extend into the blanket marine sandstone bench of the Second Frontier Formation. The trajectory of this wellbore will be designed to intersect the maximum number of natural fractures to maximize production rates. Production testing of the resulting completion will provide an assessment of reserve potential related to horizontal lateral completions.

  1. Self-reported posttraumatic growth predicts greater subsequent posttraumatic stress amidst war and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalta, Alyson K; Gerhart, James; Hall, Brian J; Rajan, Kumar B; Vechiu, Catalina; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2017-03-01

    This study tested three alternative explanations for research indicating a positive, but heterogeneous relationship between self-reported posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS): (a) the third-variable hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is a spurious one driven by positive relationships with resource loss, (b) the growth over time hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is initially a positive one, but becomes negative over time, and (c) the moderator hypothesis that resource loss moderates the relationship between PTG and PSS such that PTG is associated with lower levels of PSS as loss increases. A nationally representative sample (N = 1622) of Israelis was assessed at three time points during a period of ongoing violence. PTG, resource loss, and the interaction between PTG and loss were examined as lagged predictors of PSS to test the proposed hypotheses. Results were inconsistent with all three hypotheses, showing that PTG positively predicted subsequent PSS when accounting for main and interactive effects of loss. Our results suggest that self-reported PTG is a meaningful but counterintuitive predictor of poorer mental health following trauma.

  2. Solitary peripheral ivory osteoma of the mandible presenting with difficulty in deglutition: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Nilesh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteomas are benign bone tumors which arise from the cortex or medulla of craniofacial and jaw bones. They are usually asymptomatic or present as slow-growing painless masses. Larger lesions may present with aesthetic (facial asymmetry and functional disturbances (jaw deviation, difficulty in breathing, pain, and sensory deficits. This paper highlights a case of solitary peripheral osteoma composed of a compact bony mass arising from the lower border of the mandible in an adult female patient. The lesion presented with discomfort during deglutition, which was attributed to impingement of muscles of the oral cavity floor, including the anterior belly of digastric muscle.

  3. Solitary peripheral ivory osteoma of the mandible presenting with difficulty in deglutition: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilesh, Kumar; V Vande, Aaditee; K Veerabhadrappa, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Osteomas are benign bone tumors which arise from the cortex or medulla of craniofacial and jaw bones. They are usually asymptomatic or present as slow-growing painless masses. Larger lesions may present with aesthetic (facial asymmetry) and functional disturbances (jaw deviation, difficulty in breathing, pain, and sensory deficits). This paper highlights a case of solitary peripheral osteoma composed of a compact bony mass arising from the lower border of the mandible in an adult female patient. The lesion presented with discomfort during deglutition, which was attributed to impingement of muscles of the oral cavity floor, including the anterior belly of digastric muscle.

  4. Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camel: with a case report of zoonosis in greater Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Fouad M; El-Metwally, Mohamed Tolba; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2011-04-01

    Trypanosoma evansi (Steel, 1885) Balbiani, is the cause of trypanosomiasis (Surra) which multiples in the blood and body fluids. The incubation period varies from 7-15 days. The mortality rate was up to 20% and fatality rate may reach up to 100% in untreated camels. Three hundred randomly selected camels were 200 males 4-6 years old and 100 females 10-15 years. They were examined clinically and diagnosed by Giemsa stained blood smear, anti- trypanosomiasis-antibodies by ELISA and urine Thymol turbidity test for natural infection with T. evani (Surra). The results showed that camels were naturally infected with T. evansi as indicated by stained blood film examination and/or ELISA. Infection in males was 6.0% (stained blood smears), 8.0% (ELISA) and 5.0% (urine thymol turbidity test). In females the infection rate was 9.0%, 24.0% and 12% respectively. By correlation with suggestive clinical manifestations, ELISA proved to be more sensitive and specific (13.3%) than stained blood films (10.0%) and urine Thymol turbidity test (7.3%). Regarding humans, one out of 30 was positive as indicated by ELISA and stained blood smear but was negative by urine thymol turbidity test. The human case was successfully treated as indicated clinically, parasitologically and serologically. This is the first reported Egyptian human case of trypanosomiasis evansi, a neglected zoonosis.

  5. Self Reported Childhood Difficulties, Adult Multimorbidity and Allostatic Load. A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Norwegian HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margret Olafia Tomasdottir

    Full Text Available Multimorbidity receives increasing scientific attention. So does the detrimental health impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACE. Aetiological pathways from ACE to complex disease burdens are under investigation. In this context, the concept of allostatic overload is relevant, denoting the link between chronic detrimental stress, widespread biological perturbations and disease development. This study aimed to explore associations between self-reported childhood quality, biological perturbations and multimorbidity in adulthood.We included 37 612 participants, 30-69 years, from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT3 (2006-8. Twenty one chronic diseases, twelve biological parameters associated with allostatic load and four behavioural factors were analysed. Participants were categorised according to the self-reported quality of their childhood, as reflected in one question, alternatives ranging from 'very good' to 'very difficult'. The association between childhood quality, behavioural patterns, allostatic load and multimorbidity was compared between groups.Overall, 85.4% of participants reported a 'good' or 'very good' childhood; 10.6% average, 3.3% 'difficult' and 0.8% 'very difficult'. Childhood difficulties were reported more often among women, smokers, individuals with sleep problems, less physical activity and lower education. In total, 44.8% of participants with a very good childhood had multimorbidity compared to 77.1% of those with a very difficult childhood (Odds ratio: 5.08; 95% CI: 3.63-7.11. Prevalences of individual diseases also differed significantly according to childhood quality; all but two (cancer and hypertension showed a significantly higher prevalence (p<0.05 as childhood was categorised as more difficult. Eight of the 12 allostatic parameters differed significantly between childhood groups.We found a general, graded association between self-reported childhood difficulties on the one hand and multimorbidity, individual

  6. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  7. Self-reported difficulties with everyday function, cognitive symptoms and cognitive function in people with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laverick, Rosanna; Haddow, Lewis J; Daskalopoulou, Marina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive (HIV+) adults in five European clinics. METHODS: HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and ques......BACKGROUND: We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive (HIV+) adults in five European clinics. METHODS: HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests...... when assessing HIV-associated cognitive impairment in clinical care or research studies.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work...

  8. Comment on Cameron and Cameron (2002): "children of homosexual parents report childhood difficulties".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Lowell L

    2002-08-01

    Cameron and Cameron's reanalysis of published data in 2002 indicates children being raised in a home environment with at least one homosexual parent report some negative consequences. However, a closer look at the information presented suggests (especially in the absence of control groups) that the negative consequences documented do not constitute major psychological trauma. Rather, they are more in the nature of the teasing and bullying that plagues any child who comes from a home that may be atypical in any fashion.

  9. Hepatic angiosarcoma and liver transplant: a report of 2 cases with diagnostic difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Ayşen; Deniz, Emine Ebru; Haberal, Nihan; Moray, Gökhan; Özdemir, Binnaz Handan

    2014-03-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare primary malignant mesenchymal tumor of the liver. The prognosis of hepatic angiosarcoma is poor with an average life expectancy of 6 months after diagnosis. Diagnosing hepatic angiosarcoma is challenging because of nondiagnostic liver biopsy or specious history and radiologic presentation. We report 2 cases with hepatic angiosarcoma which were diagnosed histopathologically in the native liver after liver transplant. One of 2 patients was lost to follow-up, and another patient died of relapsing hepatic angiosarcoma 18 months after the liver transplant.

  10. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report.

  11. Vitamin D dependent rickets, diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donghi, Valentina; Di Frenna, Marianna; di Lascio, Alessandra; Chiumello, Giuseppe; Weber, Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    There are two types of vitamin D dependent rickets (VDDR) that cause rickets in children. Vitamin D dependent rickets type 1 (VDDR-I) is caused by an inborn error of vitamin D metabolism, which interferes with renal conversion of calcidiol (25OHD) to calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D) by the enzyme 1alpha-hydroxylase. Vitamin D dependent rickets type 2 (VDDR-II) is caused by a defect in the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We report cases of two African children affected by VDDR-I and VDDR-II, respectively. Establishing an early diagnosis of these genetic forms of rickets is challenging, especially in developing countries where nutritional rickets (NR) is the most common variety of the disease. A prompt diagnosis is necessary to initiate adequate treatment, resolve biochemical features and prevent complications, such as severe deformities that may require surgical intervention.

  12. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Blake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS. Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n=19,003. Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups.

  13. Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Future. Ad hoc working group report, Key Biscayne, Florida, October 26-28, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorhaug, A. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    This report of Workshop I (presented in outline form) by the Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation begin an intensive focus on the energy problems of the Caribbean. The process by which environmental assessments by tropical experts can be successfully integrated into energy decisions is by: (1) international loan institutions requiring or strongly recommending excellent assessments; (2) engineering awareness of total effects of energy projects; (3) governmental environmental consciousness-raising with regard to natural resource value and potential inadvertent and unnecessary resource losses during energy development; and (4) media participation. Section headings in the outline are: preamble; introduction; research tasks: today and twenty years hence; needed research, demonstration and information dissemination projects to get knowledge about Caribbean energy-environment used; summary; recommendations; generalized conclusions; and background literature. (JGB)

  14. THE FARSI VERSION OF THE STRENGTH AND DIFFICULTIES QUESTIONNAIRE SELF REPORT FORM: THE NORMATIVE DATA AND SCALE PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This study was performed to evaluate the normative data and psychometric properties and the internal consistency of the Farsi (Persian version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ self-report form, as a screening tool in a community-based sample of 12 to 17 year-old adolescents of urban Tehran.Materials & Methods: In this investigation, 1105 adolescents (12 to 17 years old, selected from 250 clusters from all the 22 municipality areas of Tehran, responded to 25 questions of the Farsi version of SDQ self-report form. The frequency of each symptom domains according to Goodman's cutoff points and 90th percentile and the mean score in each subscale were determined.Results:The 90th percentile cutoff points were somewhat different from those of the previous reports. Using Goodman's cutoff points, the prevalence of symptom domains was relatively high. For example, 13.7 percent of the adolescents studied had total scores equal to 20 or more. There were significant correlations between different subscales and their constituting questions.Conclusion:Self-report form of SDQ is a valuable tool in the screening of adolescent psychopathologies. Frequency of majority of the symptom domains seems to be higher in the adolescents in Tehran urban areas.

  15. New reports, phylogenetic analysis, and a key to Lactarius Pers. in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem informed by molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G. Barge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE, located in the Central Rocky Mountains of western North America, is one of the largest nearly intact temperate-zone ecosystems on Earth. Here, Lactarius is an important component of ectomycorrhizal communities in many habitat types, from low elevation riparian areas to high elevation conifer forests and alpine tundra. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS and RPB2 gene sequences along with detailed morphological examination confirm at least 20 Lactarius species, as well as three varieties, and one unresolved species group in the GYE. Eight taxa are reported from the GYE for the first time, and nearly every major ectomycorrhizal host plant in the GYE appears to have at least one Lactarius species associated with it. Broad intercontinental distributions are suggested for alpine Salix and Betula associates, and for certain subalpine Picea and aspen (Populus spp. associates. Some species appear to be restricted to western North America with Pinus, Pseudotsuga or Abies. The distribution and/or host affinities of others is not clear due in part to ambiguous host assignment, taxonomic problems or the relative rarity with which they have been reported.

  16. Young adult cannabis users report greater propensity for risk-taking only in non-monetary domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Jodi M; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T; Evins, A Eden

    2015-02-01

    Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18-25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Population Estimates, Health Care Characteristics, and Material Hardship Experiences of U.S. Children With Parent-Reported Speech-Language Difficulties: Evidence From Three Nationally Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan A; Parish, Susan L; Akorbirshoev, Ilhom; Son, Esther; Rosenthal, Eliana

    2017-10-05

    To provide estimates for the prevalence of parent-reported speech-language difficulties in U.S. children, and to describe the levels of health care access and material hardship in this population. We tabulated descriptive and bivariate statistics using cross-sectional data from the 2007 and 2011/2012 iterations of the National Survey of Children's Health, the 2005/2006 and 2009/2010 iterations of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, and the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Prevalence estimates ranged from 1.8% to 5.0%, with data from two of the three surveys preliminarily indicating increased prevalence in recent years. The largest health care challenge was in accessing care coordination, with 49%-56% of children with parent-reported speech-language difficulties lacking full access. Children with parent-reported speech-language difficulties were more likely than peers without any indications of speech-language difficulties to live in households experiencing each measured material hardship and participating in each measured public benefit program (e.g., 20%-22% experiencing food insecurity, compared to 11%-14% of their peers without any indications of speech-language difficulties). We found mixed preliminary evidence to suggest that the prevalence of parent-reported speech-language difficulties among children may be rising. These children face heightened levels of material hardship and barriers in accessing health care.

  18. Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports

  19. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded 'Project Star' report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report ('Project Star', PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18,056). Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data. Published by the BMJ

  20. Asperger syndrome and nonverbal learning difficulties in adult males: self- and parent-reported autism, attention and executive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Nydén, Agneta; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    A specific overlap between Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning difficulties (NLD) has been proposed, based on the observation that, as a group, people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal IQ (VIQ) than performance IQ (PIQ), one of the core features of NLD. The primary aim was to assess the longer term outcome of NLD--broken down into persistent and transient forms. The present study of 68 individuals was performed in the context of a larger prospective longitudinal study to late adolescence/early adult life of 100 boys with AS. Using self- and parent-report measures, we studied the longer term outcome of the NLD (defined as VIQ > PIQ by 15 points) as regards social communication, repetitive behaviour, attention, and executive function (EF) was studied. Three subgroups were identified: (1) Persistent NLD (P-NLD), (2) Childhood "only" NLD (CO-NLD) and (3) Never NLD (NO-NLD). The P-NLD group had the worst outcome overall. The CO-NLD group had better reported EF scores than the two other AS subgroups. There were no differences between the subgroups regarding social communication, repetitive behaviour, or attentional skills. Low PIQ increased the risk of ADHD symptoms. In the context of AS in males, P-NLD carries a relatively poor outcome, particularly with regard to self-reported EF. However, CO-NLD appears to entail a significantly better outcome. The results underscore the importance of analysing the cognitive profile both at diagnosis and after several years, so as to be able to formulate a realistic prognosis.

  1. Progress report 1988: predator control to enhance production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 181 pairs in 1986 when predator control began to 137...

  2. Progress report 1989: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  3. Progress report 1987: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  4. Progress Report 1986 : Predator Control to Enhance the Production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  5. Progress report 1991: predator control to enhance the production of greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  6. Progress Report 1990: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  7. Case Report: Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele with a clinically silent lateral bony defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anoop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele is the least common type of temporal encephalocele. It commonly presents with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in adults. This article presents the CT cisternography and MRI findings of one such case, which also had an associated clinically silent defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid on the same side.

  8. Self-reported hearing difficulties, main income sources, and socio-economic status; a cross-sectional population-based study in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Pernilla

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hearing difficulties constitute the most common cause of disability globally. Yet, studies on people with hearing difficulties regarding socio-economic status (SES, work, long-term unemployment, sickness absence, and disability pension are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the main income sources of men and women of working ages with and without self-reported hearing difficulties and associations with gender, age, SES, type of living area, and country of birth. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study, using information on self-reported hearing difficulties and SES of 19 045 subjects aged 20–64 years participating in Statistics Sweden’s annual Living Conditions Surveys in any of the years 2004 through 2008. The information was linked to a nationwide database containing data on demographics and income sources. Odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated, using binary logistic regression analysis. Results Hearing difficulties increased with age and were more common in men (age-adjusted OR: 1.42 (95% CI: 1.30-1.56 with an overall prevalence of 13.1% in men and 9.8% in women. Using working men as reference, the OR of having hearing difficulties was 1.23 (0.94-1.60 in men with unemployment benefits and 1.36 (1.13-1.65 in men with sickness benefits or disability pension, when adjusting for age and SES. The corresponding figures in women were 1.59 (1.17-2.16 and 1.73 (1.46-2.06. The OR of having sickness benefits or disability pension in subjects with hearing difficulties was 1.36 (1.12-1.64 in men and 1.70 (1.43-2.01 in women, when adjusting for age and SES and using men and women with no hearing difficulties as reference. Conclusions Hearing difficulties were more prevalent in men. After adjustment with age and SES as well as with type of living area and country of birth, a significant association with unemployment benefits was found only in women, and the associations

  9. Self-reported hearing difficulties, main income sources, and socio-economic status; a cross-sectional population-based study in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hearing difficulties constitute the most common cause of disability globally. Yet, studies on people with hearing difficulties regarding socio-economic status (SES), work, long-term unemployment, sickness absence, and disability pension are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the main income sources of men and women of working ages with and without self-reported hearing difficulties and associations with gender, age, SES, type of living area, and country of birth. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study, using information on self-reported hearing difficulties and SES of 19 045 subjects aged 20–64 years participating in Statistics Sweden’s annual Living Conditions Surveys in any of the years 2004 through 2008. The information was linked to a nationwide database containing data on demographics and income sources. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, using binary logistic regression analysis. Results Hearing difficulties increased with age and were more common in men (age-adjusted OR: 1.42 (95% CI: 1.30-1.56)) with an overall prevalence of 13.1% in men and 9.8% in women. Using working men as reference, the OR of having hearing difficulties was 1.23 (0.94-1.60) in men with unemployment benefits and 1.36 (1.13-1.65) in men with sickness benefits or disability pension, when adjusting for age and SES. The corresponding figures in women were 1.59 (1.17-2.16) and 1.73 (1.46-2.06). The OR of having sickness benefits or disability pension in subjects with hearing difficulties was 1.36 (1.12-1.64) in men and 1.70 (1.43-2.01) in women, when adjusting for age and SES and using men and women with no hearing difficulties as reference. Conclusions Hearing difficulties were more prevalent in men. After adjustment with age and SES as well as with type of living area and country of birth, a significant association with unemployment benefits was found only in women, and the associations with long

  10. Indeterminate Texts, Responsive Readers, and the Idea of Difficulty in Literature Learning. Report Series 4.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    Assessors of literature learning have long been concerned with the issue of difficulty and the fundamental contradictions in the term "examination of literary understanding." An alternate view of literature is that although texts are finally indeterminate, a group of them has been set aside by communities as forming a part of the communal…

  11. Complicated sternal dehiscence treated with the strasbourg thoracic osteosyntheses system (STRATOS and the transposition of greater omentum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casablanca Giuseppe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sternal dehiscence is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. Sternal refixation, performed by simple rewiring or techniqual modification of rewiring as described by Robicsek, can fail, overall when the bone quality is poor or the sternum is completely destroyed. The sternal closure systems, consisting of plates, screws or rib clips and titanium bars, have been recently introduced to treat the complicated sternal dehiscence. We describe for the first time the use of the Strasbourg Thoracic Osteosyntheses System (STRATOS and the greater omentum, to treat a complicated sternal dehiscence, causing chest pain and respiratory failure.

  12. EnergyWorks Final Report: A Better Buildings Neighborhood Program in the Five-County Greater Philadelphia Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Katherine [City of Philadelphia

    2014-03-05

    This report covers the grant performance period of July 1, 2010-September 30, 2013 and discusses of the program design, outcomes and best practices as they relate to the following six areas: 1. Institutional Design and Business Model; 2. Program Design and Customer Experience; 3. Driving Demand; 4. Workforce Development; 5. Financing and Incentives; 6. Data and Evaluation.

  13. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  14. Individual differences in hemispheric preference and emotion regulation difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemisphericity or individual difference in the preference to use the left or the right hemispheric mode of information processing has been associated with various emotion-related differences. For example, the right hemisphericity has been linked with inhibition of emotional expression, feeling of tension, greater impulsivity etc. These observations suggest that right hemisphericity may be associated with greater difficulties in regulating emotions. However, direct empirical tests of such theoretical proposition are very thin. Aim: In view of this, the present study aims to investigate how and to what extent individual difference in hemispheric preference relate to emotion regulation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two right-handed male subjects in the age range 18 to 20 years were assessed on self-report measures of hemispheric preference and emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation between dimensions of hemispheric preference and difficulties in regulating emotions was computed. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were also done to explore the relative significance of various dimensions of hemispheric preference in predicting emotion regulation difficulties. Results: The findings revealed that in general a preference for the right hemispheric mode of information processing was associated with greater emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation analysis indicated that while impulse control difficulties and difficulties in engaging goal directed behavior was associated with preference for almost all the right hemispheric mode of information processing, the nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to emotion regulation was related to preference for only global/synthetic (a right hemispheric mode of information processing. Similarly, the lack of emotional clarity facet of emotion regulation difficulties correlated significantly with a preference for the emotional mode of information processing

  15. Reading difficulties in Albanian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    Albanian is an Indo-European language with a shallow orthography, in which there is an absolute correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. We aimed to know reading strategies used by Albanian disabled children during word and pseudoword reading. A pool of 114 Kosovar reading disabled children matched with 150 normal readers aged 6 to 11 years old were tested. They had to read 120 stimuli varied in lexicality, frequency, and length. The results in terms of reading accuracy as well as in reading times show that both groups were affected by lexicality and length effects. In both groups, length and lexicality effects were significantly modulated by school year being greater in early grades and later diminish in length and just the opposite in lexicality. However, the reading difficulties group was less accurate and slower than the control group across all school grades. Analyses of the error patterns showed that phonological errors, when the letter replacement leading to new nonwords, are the most common error type in both groups, although as grade rises, visual errors and lexicalizations increased more in the control group than the reading difficulties group. These findings suggest that Albanian normal children use both routes (lexical and sublexical) from the beginning of reading despite of the complete regularity of Albanian, while children with reading difficulties start using sublexical reading and the lexical reading takes more time to acquire, but finally both routes are functional.

  16. Idiopathic chondrolysis - diagnostic difficulties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Scougall, J.

    1984-07-01

    Four cases of idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip in three white girls and one Maori girl are reported. The authors stress the causes why a disease with characteristic clinical and radiographic appearances and normal biochemical findings presents diagnostic difficulties. It is suspected that idiopathic chondrolysis is a metabolic disorder of chondrocytes, triggered by environment circumstances in susceptible individuals. Idiopathic chondrolysis is probably one of the most common causes of coxarthrosis in women.

  17. Gender Ratios for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcut, Erik G.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of reading difficulties is typically higher in males than females in both referred and research-identified samples, and the ratio of males to females is greater in more affected samples. To explore possible gender differences in reading performance, we analysed data from 1133 twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair had…

  18. Yoga Meditation Practitioners Exhibit Greater Gray Matter Volume and Fewer Reported Cognitive Failures: Results of a Preliminary Voxel-Based Morphometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Froeliger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hatha yoga techniques, including physical postures (asanas, breathing exercises (pranayama, and meditation, involve the practice of mindfulness. In turn, yoga meditation practices may induce the state of mindfulness, which, when evoked recurrently through repeated practice, may accrue into trait or dispositional mindfulness. Putatively, these changes may be mediated by experience-dependent neuroplastic changes. Though prior studies have identified differences in gray matter volume (GMV between long-term mindfulness practitioners and controls, no studies to date have reported on whether yoga meditation is associated with GMV differences. The present study investigated GMV differences between yoga meditation practitioners (YMP and a matched control group (CG. The YMP group exhibited greater GM volume in frontal, limbic, temporal, occipital, and cerebellar regions; whereas the CG had no greater regional greater GMV. In addition, the YMP group reported significantly fewer cognitive failures on the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ, the magnitude of which was positively correlated with GMV in numerous regions identified in the primary analysis. Lastly, GMV was positively correlated with the duration of yoga practice. Results from this preliminary study suggest that hatha yoga practice may be associated with the promotion of neuroplastic changes in executive brain systems, which may confer therapeutic benefits that accrue with repeated practice.

  19. Systemic Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection not associated with endocarditis highlighting bacteriological diagnosis difficulties Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volard, Bertrand; Mignot, Loïc; Piednoir, Emmanuel; de Champs, Christophe; Limelette, Anne; Guillard, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is mostly isolated in swine causing erysipelas. Human invasive infections due to E. rhusiopathiae remain poorly described and interestingly bacteraemia associated with endocarditis are a source of ineffective empirical antibiotherapy. We report a case of sepsis without endocarditis due to E. rhusiopathiae and a review of the literature.

  20. Do self-report measures of social anxiety reflect cultural bias or real difficulties for Asian American college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lorinda Y; Lau, Anna S

    2011-01-01

    Construal of the self as independent or interdependent in relation to others has been found to correlate significantly with social anxiety symptom ratings, raising concerns about possible cultural bias in these measures for Asian Americans. To investigate the validity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms, we examined the role of ethnicity in the associations among social anxiety, self-construal, and adaptive social functioning in a sample of 229 Asian- and European American college students. Results revealed that ethnicity moderated the relationship between self-construal and social anxiety such that interdependent self-construal was associated with higher social anxiety only for first generation Asian Americans. However, there were no significant ethnic differences in the associations between social anxiety self-reports and several measures of social functioning.

  1. Instrumental activities of daily living among community-dwelling older adults: personality associations with self-report, performance, and awareness of functional difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchy, Yana; Williams, Paula G; Kraybill, Matthew L; Franchow, Emilie; Butner, Jonathan

    2010-09-01

    Self-reports of the ability to engage in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among older adults are known to be related to personality traits. However, self-reports are sometimes discrepant with performance-based IADL assessments, and little is known about personality associations with objective functionality or with poor insight about functional deficits. This study examined the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised profiles associated with (a) self-report of functional problems, (b) functional errors evidenced on performance-based IADL assessment, and (c) discrepancies between self-report and performance. Participants were 65 community-dwelling individuals ranging in age from 60 to 87 years. The results showed that self-report of IADL problems are associated with higher neuroticism and lower conscientiousness, actual IADL difficulties with higher neuroticism and lower agreeableness and openness to experience, underreporting of problems with higher conscientiousness, and overreporting of problems with higher extraversion and neuroticism. These relationships were partly mediated by age, education, and cognitive status. When unique personality associations with self-report and performance were examined, neuroticism and agreeableness, respectively, emerged as the strongest predictors.

  2. Gender ratios for reading difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of reading difficulties is typically higher in males than females in both referred and research-identified samples, and the ratio of males to females is greater in more affected samples. To explore possible gender differences in reading performance, we analyzed data from 1,133 twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair had a school-history of reading problems and from 684 twin pairs from a comparison sample with no reading difficulties. Although the difference between...

  3. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a predictor of parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginny Russell

    Full Text Available The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ is widely used as an international standardised instrument measuring child behaviour. The primary aim of our study was to examine whether behavioral symptoms measured by SDQ were elevated among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD relative to the rest of the population, and to examine the predictive value of the SDQ for outcome of parent-reported clinical diagnosis of ASD/ADHD. A secondary aim was to examine the extent of overlap in symptoms between children diagnosed with these two disorders, as measured by the SDQ subscales. A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Birth Cohort (n = 19,519, was conducted. Data were weighted to be representative of the UK population as a whole. ADHD or ASD identified by a medical doctor or health professional were reported by parents in 2008 and this was the case definition of diagnosis; (ADHD n = 173, ASD n = 209, excluding twins and triplets. Study children's ages ranged from 6.3-8.2 years; (mean 7.2 years. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the parent-reported clinical diagnosis of ASD/ADHD and teacher and parent-reported SDQ subscales. All SDQ subscales were strongly associated with both ASD and ADHD. There was substantial co-occurrence of behavioral difficulties between children diagnosed with ASD and those diagnosed with ADHD. After adjustment for other subscales, the final model for ADHD, contained hyperactivity/inattention and impact symptoms only and had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 90%; (AUC = 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90-0.97. The final model for ASD was composed of all subscales except the 'peer problems' scales, indicating of the complexity of behavioural difficulties that may accompany ASD. A threshold of 0.03 produced model sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 93% respectively; AUC = 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86-0.95. The

  4. Adolescent Bullying and Sleep Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Hunter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated whether adolescents who report having been bullied, being bullies, or report both being a bully and being bullied experience more sleep difficulties than children uninvolved in bullying. The study drew upon cognitive theories of insomnia, investigating whether the extent to which young people report worrying about bullying can moderate associations between victimization and sleep difficulties. Participants were 5420 adolescents who completed a self-report questionnaire. Pure Victims (OR = 1.72, 95% CI [1.07, 2.75], Pure Bullies (OR = 1.80, 95% CI [1.16, 2.81], and Bully-Victims (OR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.17, 4.92] were all more likely to experience sleep difficulties when compared to uninvolved young people. The extent to which young people reported worrying about being bullied did not moderate the links between victimization and sleep difficulties. In this way, bullying is clearly related to sleep difficulties among adolescents but the conceptual reach of the cognitive model of insomnia in this domain is questioned.

  5. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8, have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area. Lions (Panthera leo and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species’ range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  6. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Louis J; Reininghaus, Björn; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-11-20

    At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8), have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area). Lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species' range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  7. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  8. Emotion regulation difficulties and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom cluster severity among trauma-exposed college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Emily M; McLeish, Alison C; Kraemer, Kristen M; Fleming, John B

    2015-03-01

    The present investigation examined the role of emotion regulation difficulties in predicting severity of the 3 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters (i.e., reexperiencing, hyperarousal, avoidance) in a sample of undergraduates who reported exposure to at least 1 DSM-IV-TR Criterion A traumatic event (n = 297; 77.1% female, Mage = 20.46, SD = 4.64, range = 18-50 years). Results indicated that greater difficulties with emotional acceptance significantly predicted greater avoidance and hyperarousal symptom severity above and beyond the effects of number of trauma types endorsed and negative affect. Emotion regulation difficulties were not significantly predictive of reexperiencing symptom severity. Results from an exploratory analysis indicated that greater difficulties with emotional acceptance and greater difficulties accessing effective emotion regulation strategies when upset significantly predicted the DSM-5 negative alterations in cognitions and mood symptom cluster. These findings suggest that difficulties accepting one's emotional responses, in particular, may heighten emotional responding to and avoidance of trauma-related cues. Thus, individuals who experience such difficulties may be more likely to experience negative outcomes after experiencing a traumatic event.

  9. The association of sleep difficulties with health-related quality of life among patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Jan-Samuel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Difficulty sleeping is common among patients with fibromyalgia (FM; however, its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to assess the burden of sleep difficulty symptoms on HRQoL among patients with FM. Methods The current study included data from the 2009 National Health and Wellness Survey (N=75,000, which is a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey representative of the adult US population. The prevalence of sleep difficulty symptoms among patients with FM (n=2,196 were compared with matched controls (n=2,194, identified using propensity-score matching. Additionally, the relationship between the number of sleep difficulty symptoms (none, one, or two or more and HRQoL (using the SF-12v2 was assessed using regression modeling, controlling for demographic and health history variables. Results Of the 2,196 patients with FM, 11.2% reported no sleep difficulty symptoms, 25.7% reported one sleep difficulty symptom, and 63.05% reported two or more sleep difficulty symptoms. The prevalence of sleep difficulty symptoms was significantly higher than matched controls. Patients with one and two sleep difficulty symptoms both reported significantly worse HRQoL summary and domain scores relative to those with no sleep difficulty symptoms (all p Conclusions Among the FM population, sleep difficulty symptoms were independently associated with clinically-meaningful decrements in mental and physical HRQoL. These results suggest that greater emphasis in the treatment of sleep difficulty symptoms among the FM population may be warranted.

  10. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18 056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and

  11. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  12. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh;

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand......Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world...... such as the Scandinavian countries, where healthcare systems are slightly different. The aim of this study was to examine prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in one out of three postgraduate medical training regions in Denmark, and to produce both a quantifiable overview and in-depth understanding...

  13. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette K.; O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hansen, Dorthe H.;

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand......Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world...... of the topic. Methods We performed a mixed methods study. All regional residency program directors (N = 157) were invited to participate in an e-survey about residents in difficulty. Survey data were combined with database data on demographical characteristics of the background population (N = 2399...

  14. Lodging Update: Greater Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roginsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinnacle Advisory Group provides an update of lodging industry performance in New England and Boston for the first half of 2012. While the New England region outpaced the nation, the specific story varies from state to state. Only Massachusetts and Vermont achieved REVPAR performance better than the national average. A review of the Greater Boston lodging market reveals that a healthy local economy and strong convention calendar, combined with a number of one-time events and limited new supply, boosted the local market in 2012. The outlook for 2013 in Greater Boston remains positive, with expectations of a 4.7% growth in REVPAR.

  15. Relationship between Fear of Falling and Preceived Difficulty with Grocery Shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C S; McLeod, K M

    2017-01-01

    Fear of falling is associated with self-imposed restrictions of basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL), leading greater risk for functional decline and falls. The inability to independently grocery shop, a food-related IADL, negatively affects nutritional status and survival among seniors. Thus, this study examined the relationship between the fear of falling and difficulty with grocery shopping among seniors (n=98, mean age=82, 83% female), taking into account their functional capacity. Demographic profile, eating problems, physical fitness (mobility, balance, endurance, leg strength), and fear of falling (balance confidence, falls efficacy) were measured. Fifty-six percent of participants reported difficulty with grocery shopping. Those who reported difficulty had significantly lower scores for dynamic balance, balance confidence and fall efficacy compared to those who did not. This study revealed a relationship between the fear of falling and perceived difficulty with grocery shopping. Interventions should address fear of falling among the frail seniors.

  16. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

    2014-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90 %. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases.

  17. A Field Study in the Application of CONSULT-I to the Problem of Inconsistency in Diagnosis and Treatment of Reading Difficulties. Proffitt Grant Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anabel P.; Metz, Elizabeth

    A field study tested the application of the CONSULT-I (R) program, which uses artificial intelligence with statistical pattern recognition in constructing a diagnosis and recommending treatment of reading difficulties. Participants in the field study came from 10 southern and central Indiana school districts, both public and parochial, and one…

  18. Self and Informant Reports of Mental Health Difficulties among Adults with Autism Findings from a Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Philippa; Howlin, Patricia; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Data on psychiatric problems in adults with autism are inconsistent, with estimated rates ranging from around 25% to over 75%. We assessed difficulties related to mental health in 58 adults with autism (10 females, 48 males; mean age 44?years) whom we have followed over four decades. All were of average non-verbal intelligence quotient when…

  19. Associations between narcissism and emotion regulation difficulties: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhenhong; You, Xuqun; Lü, Wei; Luo, Yun

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the direct and interactive effects of two types of narcissism (overt and covert) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity on emotion regulation difficulties in 227 undergraduate students. Overt and covert narcissism and emotion regulation difficulties were assessed with self-report measures (narcissistic personality inventory (NPI)-16, hypersensitive narcissism scale (HSNS), and difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS)), and physiological data were measured during the baseline, stress (a public-speaking task), and recovery periods in the laboratory. Results indicated that overt narcissism was negatively related to a lack of emotional awareness and emotional clarity, whereas covert narcissism was positively related to overall emotion regulation difficulties, nonacceptance of emotional responses, impulse control difficulties, limited access to emotion regulation strategies, and a lack of emotional clarity. RSA reactivity in response to a mock job interview moderated the associations between covert narcissism (as a predictor) and overall emotion regulation difficulties and impulse control difficulties (as outcomes). This finding showed that a greater stress-induced RSA decrease may serve as a protective factor and ameliorate the effect of covert narcissism on individuals' emotion regulation difficulties.

  20. Mathematical Difficulties and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucangeli, Daniela; Cabrele, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    Most of the research on academics and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has focused on reading disorders in children with ADHD rather than difficulties in mathematics. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of studies focusing on students with attention deficit disorders with or without hyperactivity and 1 area of…

  1. Raising aspirations: increasing the participation of students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (Social Communication Difficulties) in Higher Education: report of the HEFCE strand two disability ASPIHE project

    OpenAIRE

    Blamires, M.; Gee, S; HEFCE strand two disability

    2002-01-01

    The Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) funded a Social Communication and Understanding Project in Higher Education (ASPIHE) for a period of two years during 2000-2002. This was a strand two disability project, which aimed to promote and disseminate existing expertise and good practice across the higher education community. The focus was on support for students in higher education who have difficulties in social understanding and communication. This largely consists of studen...

  2. Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    characteristics, and difficulty with reintegration . Our recruitment procedures were so successful that we are working to double our sample to take...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0131 TITLE: Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Leanne K...TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE July 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1July2014 - 30June2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reintegration

  3. [School difficulties in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberg, T L; Buffone, M R; Scardia, C; Facente, C

    2002-12-01

    Loss, failure and desertion are those words, which better describe the most frequent difficulties incurred by teenagers, and their relation to the school environment, and indicate, as well, the lack of connection between individual aspirations and school achievements obtained. Despite the likelihood of school difficulties throughout the entire educational career, from the kindergarten to the college, we are able to recognize certain specific "disturbances" which come out during the adolescence, basically relating to the school experiences. School failure, school desertion and school abandonment are, in fact, issues mainly discussed in coincidence with the beginning of the adolescent age and the attending of the high school. The aetiopathogenesis of school discomfort is mostly determined by more than only one factor: psychological, physical, cognitive and environmental aspects, all together, contribute in various ways, to the rise and persisting of the above described problems. Suggesting a univocal characterization of the adolescent with school difficulties, is indeed a hard task, since school failure is not an exclusive feature of only one kind of personality or the expression of only one type of conflict. Once identified the individuals more subject to risk, and the warning signs of actual uneasiness, it is important therefore to intervene timely and in different ways in order to avoid the worsening or the excessive extension of the school difficulties and of their frequent and serious consequences on the teenagers' individual and domestic well-being. Such type of prevention definitely belongs to the Adolescent Medicine, and must be developed on different levels, by involving not only the teenagers, but also their families, the school, and the whole social environment in which the teenagers live and with which they interact.

  4. Hearing difficulty and its psychological implications for the elderly.

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Jones; Victor, C.R.; Vetter, N. J.

    1984-01-01

    A random sample of patients aged 70 and over from a general practice were interviewed in their own homes. Information was sought on their hearing difficulty and mental state: standardised measures of anxiety, depression, and memory loss were used. Of the 657 subjects interviewed, 33% reported having difficulty hearing normal conversations and 6% reported experiencing "much difficulty." Hearing difficulty was associated with both depression and anxiety, but the associations weakened when adjus...

  5. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Wolves of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Area Gray wolves (Canis lupus) appeared in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) in October of 1998, two years after being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Since that time, five packs have been within the GRTE borders - Gros Ventre Pack, Nez Perce Pack, Yellowstone Delta Pack, Teton Pack, and Green River Pack (Table 1). Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Area are increasing and spreading out geographically (USFWS and others, 2004). This dispersion was demonstrated recently by the death of a 2-year-old female wolf from the Swan Lake pack on I-70 in Colorado (June 7, 2004; http://mountain-prairie.USFWS.gov/pressrel /04-43.htm). The organization of wolf packs in the GYA is dynamic and highly structured. In 2003, for example, a wolf from the Teton Pack joined with the Green River Pack, and several young wolves left the Teton Pack and moved south (USFWS and others, 2004). Pack size (averaging five to ten members) is dependent on hunting efficiency, which depends on prey size, type, and density. Each pack defends home ranges of several hundred square miles. The social structure of the pack is based on a breeding pair (an alpha male and female). Other wolves in the pack can be categorized as betas (males and/or females second in rank to the alphas), subordinates, pups, and occasional omegas (outcasts). Because generally only the alpha pair breeds, subordinate wolves of reproductive age must disperse from their packs and form new associations in order to breed. (http://www.nps.gov/grte/wolf/biolo.htm). The reintroduced wolves are classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as "nonessential experimental" under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act. The recovery criteria for the GYA wolves were met in 2002 for removing the wolves from the Endangered Species List (30 or more breeding pairs). Currently, the USFWS manages wolf populations in the GYA until delisting occurs

  6. Assessing speech perception in children with language difficulties: effects of background noise and phonetic contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Maggie; Martindale, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    Deficits in speech perception are reported for some children with language impairments. This deficit is more marked when listening against background noise. This study investigated the speech perception skills of young children with and without language difficulties. A speech discrimination task, using non-word minimal pairs in an XAB paradigm, was presented to 20 5-7-year-old children with language difficulties and 33 typically-developing (TD) children aged between 4- to 7-years. Stimuli were presented in quiet and in background noise (babble), and stimuli varied in phonetic contrasts, differing in either place of articulation or presence/absence of voicing. Children with language difficulties performed less well than TD children in all conditions. There was an interaction between group and noise condition, such that children with language difficulties were more affected by the presence of noise. Both groups of children made more errors with one voicing contrast /s z/ and there was some indication that children with language difficulties had proportionately greater difficulty with this contrast. Speech discrimination scores were significantly correlated with language scores for children with language difficulties. Issues in developing material for assessment of speech discrimination in children with LI are discussed.

  7. Emotional scenes elicit more pronounced self-reported emotional experience and greater EPN and LPP modulation when compared to emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Nathaniel; Knight, Justin; Dishman, Rod; Sabatinelli, Dean; Johnson, Douglas C; Clementz, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Emotional faces and scenes carry a wealth of overlapping and distinct perceptual information. Despite widespread use in the investigation of emotional perception, expressive face and evocative scene stimuli are rarely assessed in the same experiment. Here, we evaluated self-reports of arousal and pleasantness, as well as early and late event-related potentials (e.g., N170, early posterior negativity [EPN], late positive potential [LPP]) as subjects viewed neutral and emotional faces and scenes, including contents representing anger, fear, and joy. Results demonstrate that emotional scenes were rated as more evocative than emotional faces, as only scenes produced elevated self-reports of arousal. In addition, viewing scenes resulted in more extreme ratings of pleasantness (and unpleasantness) than did faces. EEG results indicate that both expressive faces and emotional scenes evoke enhanced negativity in the N170 component, while the EPN and LPP components show significantly enhanced modulation only by scene, relative to face stimuli. These data suggest that viewing emotional scenes results in a more pronounced emotional experience that is associated with reliable modulation of visual event-related potentials that are implicated in emotional circuits in the brain.

  8. Dyscalculia ≠ maths difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2016-01-01

    Using Bourdieu’s notion of field, the Scandinavian field of maths pedagogy occurs at a time characterised by increasing inclusion efforts in primary school. Various stakeholders in maths pedagogy are arguing about what should be done about pupils who perform poorly in mathematics and what causes...... their difficulties. Four analytical positions are presented here: the diagnostic, the structural, the interventionist and the complementary. The literature examined includes academic articles on math pedagogy and scholarly journals for maths teachers from the period 1995–2014. A total of 103 articles were analysed...

  9. Difficulty of pinching behind the back: an atypical symptom of carpal tunnel syndrome related to a specific wrist position. Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Satoru; Tachibana, Shigekuni; Fujii, Kiyotaka

    2012-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) may be overlooked in the absence of typical sensory symptoms. Two patients with CTS lacked the attendant sensory symptoms but experienced difficulties performing a pinching action behind the back (manipulation of the buckle of a baby sling or the hook of a brassiere), a mode of pinching that required wrist flexion. The causative mechanism was probably exacerbation of a latent weakness of the intrinsic muscles of the thumb by wrist flexion, in which the strength of the extrinsic flexors of the thumb and index finger were decreased due to loosening of the tendons. Such symptoms, induced by a specific wrist position, may be help to diagnose a latent weakness in the intrinsic muscles of the thumb, present in patients with CTS.

  10. Mathematics difficulties & classroom leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates possible links between inclusion, students, for whom mathematics is extensively difficult, and classroom leadership through a case study on teaching strategies and student participation in four classrooms at two different primary schools in Denmark. Three sets of results...... are presented: 1) descriptions of the teachers’ classroom leadership to include all their students in the learning community, 2) the learning community produced by stated and practiced rules for teaching and learning behavior, 3) the classroom behavior of students who experience difficulties with mathematics....... The findings suggest that the teachers’ pedagogical choices and actions support an active learning environment for students in diverse learning needs, and that the teachers practise dimensions of inclusive classroom leadership that are known to be successful for teaching mathematics to all students. Despite...

  11. The Difficulties in Determining Time of the Operation in the Total Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries with Severe Left AV Valve Regurgitation: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erden İ et al.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (L-TGA is characterized by discordance between the atria and ventricles, as well as between the ventricles and the great arteries. As a result, the morphologic right ventricle lies to the left of the morphologic left ventricle and becomes the systemic ventricle. The morphologic right ventricle gives rise to the aorta, which is anterior of the pulmonary artery. As a result of discordance at both the atrioventricular (AV and the great vessel level, physiologic blood flow remains normal. It was shown that the decreased RV functions are related with increased mortality rates in long term follow up. Most of these patients have RV failure due to abnormal pressure load of systemic RV, imbalance between O2 supply and myocardial demand and development of systemic AV valvular regurgitation in most of the patients. Therefore, the most important and difficult point in the follow up of these patients is evaluation of RV functions and degree of systemic AV valve regurgitation. In this review, we discussed the difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients in the light of a typical TGA case.

  12. Overcoming Algebraic and Graphic Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana Lucia Braz

    This paper describes student difficulties in first-year calculus classes and suggests some instructional strategies to address these difficulties. Participants in this study were 200 low socio-economic background freshmen majoring in business in Brazil. Results show that the main difficulties are related to lack of understanding of algebraic…

  13. 长处与困难问卷父母评和自评的一致性%The Agreement of Results Between Parents and Self Report of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冰; 黄峥; 郭菲; 胡毅; 陈祉妍

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究长处与困难问卷(SDQ)父母卷和自评卷应用情况,分析父亲、母亲、青少年三者对SDQ问卷评价的异同.方法:采用全国青少年心理健康调查数据,对4644名11岁到21岁的在校学生长处与困难问卷的父母卷和自评卷数据进行分析.结果:问卷信度、效度总体良好.父亲评与母亲评在多动-注意、同伴关系、亲社会维度上有差异,在青少年早、中、晚期,自评分数普遍高于父母评,父母评和自评在大部分维度上有差异,如情绪症状、行为问题、多动注意三个维度,男生组和女生组结果在同伴关系和亲社会维度上略有不同.结论:长处与困难问卷父母评结果趋于一致,父母评和自评结果在各个维度上普遍存在差异.%Objective: To study the application status of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire(SDQ), and explore the agreement and differences of SDQ results among father report, mother report and self report. Methods: Data were derived from the Chinese Mental Health Survey Database, and SDQ results of parents report and self report from 4644 students aged 11-21 years. Results: Reliability and validity were in general acceptable. There was no discrepancy in emotion symptom, conduct problem and total difficulties between father rating and mother rating. At different stages of puberty, parents report and self report in most dimensions were different, generally adolescents rated themselves higher than the parents. In the medium-term of youth, there was no discrepancy in pro-social dimensions between mother rating and self rating, in late adolescents, there was no discrepancy in peer relationships dimension among mother rating, father rating and self rating. Conclusion: For Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, mother rating and father rating are consistent, while the parents rating and self rating are different in most dimensions.

  14. Social and emotional loneliness and self-reported difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS) in a sample of Norwegian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Amie C; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Sivertsen, Børge; Knapstad, Marit; Øverland, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Social and emotional loneliness negatively impact several areas of health, including sleep. However, few comprehensive population-based studies have evaluated this relationship. Over 12,000 students aged 21-35 years who participated in the student survey for higher education in Norway (the SHoT study) were assessed. Loneliness was assessed using the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale. Difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS) was assessed by a single-item subjective response on the depression scale of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25). Social loneliness was associated with more serious DIMS (unadjusted proportional odds-ratio [OR] = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.46-2.95). This association was attenuated following adjustment for anxiety (adjusted OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.75-2.10) and depression (adjusted OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.34-1.63), however was not substantially altered when all demographics and psychological distress were accounted for (fully adjusted OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.30-1.63). Emotional loneliness was also associated with more serious DIMS (unadjusted proportional OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 2.12-2.57). Adjustment for anxiety (adjusted OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.78-2.15) and depression (adjusted OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.48-1.80) attenuated, but did not extinguish this relationship in the fully adjusted model (adjusted OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.09-1.31). Mediation analyses revealed that the social loneliness-DIMS association was fully attributed to psychological distress, while the emotional loneliness-DIMS association was only partially mediated, and a direct association was still observed. Associations between social and emotional loneliness and subjective DIMS were embedded in a larger pattern of psychological distress. Mitigating underlying feelings of loneliness may reduce potentially deleterious effects on sleep health and psychological wellbeing in young adults.

  15. Perceptual discrimination difficulty and familiarity in the Uncanny Valley: More like a ‘Happy Valley’.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eCheetham

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (UVH predicts that enhanced difficulty perceptually discriminating between categorically ambiguous human and humanlike characters (e.g., highly realistic robot evokes negatively valenced (i.e., uncanny experience. An ABX perceptual discrimination task and signal detection analysis was used to examine perceptual discrimination (PD difficulty along the UVH' dimension of human likeness (DHL represented using avatar-to-human morph continua. Rejecting the implicit assumption underlying the UVH' prediction, Experiment 1 confirmed that PD difficulty was lowest for categorically ambiguous (and avatar faces and, notably, greatest for human faces. Rejecting the UVH’ predicted positive relationship between greater PD difficulty and negative affective experience (i.e. assessed in terms of the UVH' familiarity dimension, Experiment 2 demonstrated that greater PD difficulty correlates with more positively rather than negatively valenced affective experience. Critically, this effect was strongest for ambiguous faces, suggesting a relationship between PD difficulty and familiarity more consistent with the metaphor happy valley. These findings are also consistent with a fluency amplification instead of the hitherto proposed hedonic fluency account of experienced affect along the DHL. Experiment 3 found no evidence to suggest that the reported asymmetry in the profile of PD along the DHL is attributable to a differential processing strategy (as in the other-race effect, i.e., processing avatars at a category and human faces at an individual level. In conclusion, these findings for static faces strongly challenge the UVH’ prediction, demonstrating no support for the UVH' assumed distribution of PD difficulty along the DHL and the predicted relationship between this and familiarity.

  16. User perspectives on query difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Schütze, Hinrich

    2011-01-01

    , or to statistical and linguistic features of the queries that may render them difficult. This work addresses query difficulty from a different angle, namely the users’ own perspectives on query difficulty. Two research questions are asked: (1) Are users aware that the query they submit to an IR system may......The difficulty of a user query can affect the performance of Information Retrieval (IR) systems. What makes a query difficult and how one may predict this is an active research area, focusing mainly on factors relating to the retrieval algorithm, to the properties of the retrieval data...... for synthesising the user-assessed causes of query difficulty through opinion fusion into an overall assessment of query difficulty. The resulting assessments of query difficulty are found to agree notably more to the TREC categories than the direct user assessments....

  17. Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Neomi; Beeri, Catriel; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on difficulties related to the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in the course, as well as on…

  18. Adolescents with a history of specific language impairment (SLI): strengths and difficulties in social, emotional and behavioral functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Mok, Pearl L H; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) are at a greater risk of emotional and behavioral problems compared to their typically developing (TD) peers, but little is known about their self-perceived strengths and difficulties. In this study, the self-reported social, emotional and behavioral functioning of 139 adolescents with a history of SLI and 124 TD individuals at age 16 was examined. The self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess their prosocial behavior and levels of peer, emotional and behavioral difficulties. Associations of these areas of functioning with gender, verbal and non-verbal skills were also investigated. Adolescents with a history of SLI were more likely than their TD peers to report higher levels of peer problems, emotional symptoms, hyperactivity and conduct problems. The majority of adolescents in both groups (87% SLI and 96% TD), however, reported prosocial behavior within the typical range. Difficulty with peer relations was the strongest differentiator between the groups, with the odds of reporting borderline or abnormally high levels of peer problems being 12 times higher for individuals with a history of SLI. Adolescents with poorer receptive language skills were also more likely to report higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties. The findings of this study identify likely traits that may lead to referral to services. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin N Javaras; Schaefer, Stacey M.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Bachuber, David R.; Love, Gale; Ryff, Carol D.; Richard J Davidson

    2012-01-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease\\ud negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35 - 85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed\\ud on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotio...

  20. Students' Difficulties with Quantum Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Guangtian

    2016-01-01

    We describe some common difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with concepts related to quantum measurement. We administered written tests to students enrolled in quantum mechanics courses and interviewed a subset of them to probe the difficulties in-depth and analyze their possible origins. Results from this research can be applied to develop learning tools to improve students' understanding of quantum measurement.

  1. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...

  2. Tricotilomania: dificuldades diagnósticas e relato de dois casos Trichotillomania: difficulties in diagnosis and report of two clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina P. Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar dois casos de tricotilomania, um transtorno psiquiátrico ainda subdiagnosticado e que pode estar associado a problemas sociais e clínicos relevantes. Pretende-se destacar as características clínicas, discutindo as implicações do diagnóstico precoce para a evolução dos pacientes. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Uma adolescente com diagnóstico de tricotilomania "pura" e outra menina cujo quadro estava associado ao transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo. Embora com o tratamento, a evolução de ambas tenha sido favorável, houve demora significativa para estabelecer o diagnóstico e encaminhá-las a um serviço de saúde mental, com prejuízos escolares e sociais. COMENTÁRIOS: A tricotilomania difere dos quadros benignos e transitórios de arrancar cabelos observados nos primeiros anos de vida e ainda é subdiagnosticada. A vergonha dos sintomas observada nos portadores e o desconhecimento por parte dos profissionais de saúde contribuem para essa situação. O quadro pode ser grave, particularmente se acompanhado de tricofagia. Profissionais da saúde precisam identificar o transtorno precocemente e encaminhar as crianças para tratamento especializado antes das possíveis complicações clínicas e repercussões psicossociaisOBJECTIVE: To report two cases of trichotillomania, an underdiagnosed psychiatric disorder that may be associated with important social and clinical problems. The clinical features will be highlighted considering the implications of early diagnosis on patients' outcome. CASE DESCRIPTION: An adolescent with isolated trichotillomania and another girl whose symptoms were associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder are described. Although both patients presented a favorable outcome with treatment, there was a significant delay in establishing the diagnosis and in referring them to a mental health service, leading to negative impact in educational and social domains. COMMENTS: Trichotillomania differs from the benign

  3. Infantile Feeding Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. McCarthy DO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastric volvulus refers to a torsion of all or part of the stomach that may cause an obstruction of the foregut. The clinical symptoms of gastric volvulus range from asymptomatic to life-threatening and thus must be rapidly diagnosed. However, the presenting symptoms of gastric volvulus vary widely, which may cause diagnosis to be delayed or missed. Objective. Describe varying presentations of gastric volvulus (including a case report of a rare presentation, pathophysiology of the entity, and how to diagnose/treat the phenomenon. Design/Method. Article review and case presentation. Results. Our patient was taken to the operating room for a gastropexy and G-tube placement. During surgery, the stomach was redundant and large, but not currently torsed, consistent with intermittent organoaxial volvulus. There are several approaches to classifying gastric volvulus as well as different theories on how to treat the volvulus based on type and degree of rotation that this article aims to detail more thoroughly. Conclusion. There are a growing number of case reports describing gastric volvulus, which had historically been viewed as a rare finding. The presenting symptoms of gastric volvulus commonly mimic other, more benign newborn diagnoses, and thus can be difficult to diagnose. We present our patient as well as an article review of other cases to highlight the diverse presentations of gastric volvulus so this potentially devastating disease can be diagnosed quickly with prompt treatment initiation.

  4. DIAGNOSTIC DIFFICULTIES IN BACTERIAL SPONDYLODISCITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Orso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To analyze aspects related to the diagnostic difficulty in patients with bacterial spondylodiscitis. Methods : Cross-sectional observational study with retrospective data collected in the period from March 2004 to January 2014.Twenty-one patients diagnosed with bacterial spondylodiscitis were analyzed. Results : Women were the most affected, as well as older individuals. Pain in the affected region was the initial symptom in 52% of patients, and 45.5% of the patients had low back pain, and those with dorsal discitis had back pain as the main complaint; the patients with thoracolumbar discitis had pain in that region, and only one patient had sacroiliac discitis. The average time between onset of symptoms and treatment was five months. The lumbar segment was the most affected with 11 cases (52%, followed by thoracolumbar in 24%, dorsal in 19% of cases and a case in the sacroiliac segment. Only seven patients had fever. Pain in the affected level was coincidentally the most common symptom. Conclusions : Early diagnosis of bacterial spondylodiscitis remains a challenge due to the nonspecific signs and symptoms reported by the patient and the wide variability of laboratory results and imaging. The basis for early diagnosis remains the clinical suspicion at the time of initial treatment.

  5. Sleeping difficulties reported by patients with heart failure Dificultades para dormir por los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca Dificuldades do sono relatadas por pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Alvina dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the reports of heart failure patients on the factors that cause difficulties to sleep and the association of these factors with the quality of sleep. This cross-sectional study involved a non-probabilistic sample of 400 patients (mean age 57.8 years, 64.8% were men, average education of 6.1 years, 82.5% in functional class II or III with heart failure. The main factors associated with sleeping difficulty were: nocturia, interrupted sleep at night and breathing difficulty. Sleeping difficulties in heart failure patients are diverse and there is an association between these difficulties and quality of sleep. Most of these disorders warrant professional nursing interventions.El objetivo del estudio fue describir los informes de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca en los factores que causan dificultades para dormir y la asociación de estos factores con la calidad del sueño. Se trata de un estudio transversal con muestra no probabilística de 400 pacientes (edad media de 57,8 años, 64,8% eran hombres, el promedio de escolaridad de 6,1 años, 82,5% en clase funcional II o III con insuficiencia cardíaca. Los principales factores asociados con dificultad para dormir son: nicturia, interrupción del sueño en la noche y dificultad para respirar. Las dificultades en el sueño de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca son diversas y existe una asociación entre estas dificultades y la calidad del sueño. Estos trastornos, la mayoría son susceptibles de intervención por el personal de enfermería.O estudo teve o objetivo de descrever os relatos de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca sobre os fatores que causam dificuldades para dormir e a associação desses fatores com a qualidade do sono. Trata-se de estudo transversal, com amostra não probabilística de 400 pacientes (idade média 57,8 anos; 64,8% eram homens; escolaridade média de 6,1 anos; 82,5% em classe funcional II ou III com insuficiência card

  6. Children of homosexual parents report childhood difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Paul; Cameron, Kirk

    2002-02-01

    Referenced as both supporting and weakening the case for parenting by homosexuals, 57 life-story narratives of children with homosexual parents published by Rafkin in 1990 and Saffron in 1996 were subjected to content analysis. Children mentioned one or more problems or concerns in 48 (92%) of 52 families. Of the 213 scored problems, 201 (94%) were attributed to the homosexual parent(s). Older daughters in at least 8 (27%) of 30 families and older sons in at least 2 (20%) of 10 families described themselves as homosexual or bisexual. These findings are inconsistent with propositions that children of homosexuals do not differ appreciably from those who live with married parents or that children of homosexuals are not more apt to engage in homosexuality.

  7. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  8. User perspectives on query difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Schütze, Hinrich

    2011-01-01

    The difficulty of a user query can affect the performance of Information Retrieval (IR) systems. What makes a query difficult and how one may predict this is an active research area, focusing mainly on factors relating to the retrieval algorithm, to the properties of the retrieval data, or to sta......The difficulty of a user query can affect the performance of Information Retrieval (IR) systems. What makes a query difficult and how one may predict this is an active research area, focusing mainly on factors relating to the retrieval algorithm, to the properties of the retrieval data......, or to statistical and linguistic features of the queries that may render them difficult. This work addresses query difficulty from a different angle, namely the users’ own perspectives on query difficulty. Two research questions are asked: (1) Are users aware that the query they submit to an IR system may...

  9. Common Difficulties with Probabilistic Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jack A.; Kelly, Ivan W.

    1983-01-01

    Several common errors reflecting difficulties in probabilistic reasoning are identified, relating to ambiguity, previous outcomes, sampling, unusual events, and estimating. Knowledge of these mistakes and interpretations may help mathematics teachers understand the thought processes of their students. (MNS)

  10. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heroes Among Us Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia) Updated:Nov 15,2016 Excerpted and adapted from "Swallowing Disorders After a Stroke," Stroke Connection Magazine July/August ...

  11. Development and validation of the response to sexual difficulties scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallis, Erin E; Purdon, Christine; Rehman, Uzma S

    2013-01-01

    Leading models of sexual dysfunction, such as those proposed by Masters and Johnson (1970), Barlow (1986), and Janssen, Everaerd, Spiering, and Janssen (2000), emphasize the role of anxiety and self-monitoring in the development and persistence of sexual difficulties. These models have considerable explanatory power, but focus on the intrapersonal factors that yield anxiety and self-monitoring. Accounting for the interpersonal context in which sexual activity occurs is also likely to be important. For example, anxiety and self-monitoring may arise from negative, yet accurate, predictions about how one's partner will respond to one's own sexual functioning difficulties. The current studies describe the development and validation of the Response to Sexual Difficulties Scale (RSDS), which was designed to assess how one expects one's partner to respond to one's own sexual difficulties (RSDS-Own Difficulties) and how one expects oneself to respond to one's partner's sexual difficulties (RSDS-Partner Difficulties). Study 1 established the initial reliability and construct validity of the RSDS-Own Difficulties in a sample of adults in committed relationships (N = 59). Study 2 further examined the construct and discriminant validity of the RSDS Own Difficulties and Partner Difficulties in a sample of heterosexual couples (N = 87). Results indicated that both measures had strong internal consistency and were not redundant with measures of mood or personality. Scores on the RSDS-Own Difficulties and Partner Difficulties were strongly associated, indicating that reports of one's own response to one's partner's difficulty matched the partner's assessment of the reaction. RSDS scores predicted sexual functioning, relationship satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and sexual communication. The RSDS may, then, provide a useful means of assessing the role of interpersonal factors in the development and persistence of sexual difficulties.

  12. Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, RA; Kroll, JF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is underst...

  13. Workplace bullying and sleep difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied/witnesses, and whe......PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied....../witnesses, and whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. METHODS: A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health....... The overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. RESULTS: Bullied persons and witnesses...

  14. The Mathematics Skills of Children with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Lesaux, Nonie K.; Siegel, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    Although many children with reading difficulty (RD) are reported to struggle with mathematics, little research has empirically investigated whether this is the case for different types of RD. This study examined the mathematics skills of third graders with one of two types of RD: dyslexia (n = 18) or specific reading comprehension difficulty (n =…

  15. University Students with Reading Difficulties: Do Perceived Supports and Comorbid Difficulties Predict Well-being and GPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Torppa, Minna

    2016-01-01

    We examined the impact of the number of comorbid difficulties, social support, and community support on life satisfaction and academic achievement among 120 university students or recent graduates with self-reported reading difficulties. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, perceived community support, the…

  16. Economic difficulties and subsequent disability retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Mauramo, Elina; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2015-03-01

    This study examined whether economic difficulties are associated with subsequent disability retirement while controlling for covariates. Survey data among middle-aged employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2002 were linked with the Finnish Centre for Pensions register data on all-cause disability retirement among women (n=4816) and men (n=1354) until the end of 2010. Additionally, disability retirement due to musculoskeletal diseases and mental disorders (ICD-10) was examined among women. Frequency in difficulties paying pills and buying food and clothes, and covariates (occupational class, income, housing tenure, and work- and health-related covariates) were self-reported at baseline. Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated from Cox regression analysis. Frequent economic difficulties were associated with all-cause disability retirement after adjusting for age among both women (HR=2.11; 95% CI 1.63-2.73) and men (HR=2.69; 95% CI 1.65-4.41). Adjustment for covariates somewhat attenuated the associations, but they remained. Economic difficulties were also associated with disability retirement due to both mental disorders (HR=3.29; 95% CI 1.98-5.46) and musculoskeletal diseases (HR=1.85; 95% CI 1.24-2.75) among women. Adjustments made a minor contribution to the risk of disability retirement due to mental disorders, whereas the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal diseases reduced after considering socioeconomic circumstances. Conclusions: economic difficulties are independently associated with disability retirement. Thus, they should be considered in attempts to tackle early exit from the labour market due to disability. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Framing difficulties in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Modir, Bahar; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2016-01-01

    Students' difficulties in quantum mechanics may be the result of unproductive framing and not fundamental inability to solve the problems or misconceptions about physics content. We observed groups of students solving quantum mechanics problems in an upper-division physics course. Using the lens of the epistemological framing, we investigated four frames in our observational data: algorithmic math, conceptual math, algorithmic physics, and conceptual physics. We then used our framework to seek an underlying structure to the long lists of published difficulties that span many topics in quantum mechanics. We mapped descriptions of published difficulties into errors in epistemological framing and resource use. We analyzed descriptions of students' problem solving to find their frames, and compared students' framing to framing (and frame shifting) required by problem statements. We found three categories of error: mismatches between students' framing and problem statement framing; inappropriate or absent transiti...

  18. Adopted youth and sleep difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radcliff Z

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zach Radcliff, Allison Baylor, Bruce Rybarczyk Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: Sleep is a critical component of healthy development for youth, with cascading effects on youth’s biological growth, psychological well-being, and overall functioning. Increased sleep difficulties are one of many disruptions that adopted youth may face throughout the adoption process. Sleep difficulties have been frequently cited as a major concern by adoptive parents and hypothesized in the literature as a problem that may affect multiple areas of development and functioning in adopted youth. However, there is limited research exploring this relationship. Using a biopsychosocial framework, this paper reviews the extant literature to explore the development, maintenance, and impact of sleep difficulties in adopted youth. Finally, implications for future research and clinical interventions are outlined. Keywords: adoption, sleep, youth

  19. Comparison of parent adolescent scores on Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Soroor; Amel, Afsaneh Karbasi; Maracy, Mohamad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Child and adolescent psychiatry has benefited from the application of self-report questionnaires because it is short, less costly and easy to apply. So we select the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and evaluate the agreement between the self-report and parent report form. Materials and Methods: Subjects were 1934 Adolescents, 11-18 years old. After obtaining the samples consent, SDQ parent rated form and self-rated form were filled. The collected data were analyzed using the STATA statistical package version 9. Results: The adolescents obtained higher total difficulty scores than their parents, but it was not significant (P = 0.203). Boys had higher total difficulty scores than girls by parent informant (P = 0.001), but by self-report girls had higher total difficulty scores than boys (P = 0.42). 11-14 years had higher total difficulty scores by parent report than self-report (P = 0.42), but 15-18 years had higher total difficulty scores by self-report than parent report (P = 0.36). Conclusion: SDQ self-rating from adolescents may contribute better to the diagnostic process in the clinical setting. PMID:24250700

  20. Comparison of parent adolescent scores on Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroor Arman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child and adolescent psychiatry has benefited from the application of self-report questionnaires because it is short, less costly and easy to apply. So we select the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and evaluate the agreement between the self-report and parent report form. Materials and Methods: Subjects were 1934 Adolescents , 11-18 years old. After obtaining the samples consent, SDQ parent rated form and self-rated form were filled. The collected data were analyzed using the STATA statistical package version 9. Results: The adolescents obtained higher total difficulty scores than their parents, but it was not significant (P = 0.203. Boys had higher total difficulty scores than girls by parent informant (P = 0.001, but by self-report girls had higher total difficulty scores than boys (P = 0.42. 11-14 years had higher total difficulty scores by parent report than self-report (P = 0.42, but 15-18 years had higher total difficulty scores by self-report than parent report (P = 0.36. Conclusion: SDQ self-rating from adolescents may contribute better to the diagnostic process in the clinical setting .

  1. Indicators of Difficulty in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the correlation between indicators of difficulty observable in translation product and translation process data respectively. It has been claimed that the number of alternative renditions in the target text across a group of subjects translating the same source...... text item indicates the degree of cognitive effort. We identified words with high versus low target text variability across eight subjects and related these to various indicators of difficulty observable in process data from eye-tracking and keystroke logging: number of fixations, gaze time, pauses...

  2. Student difficulties with Boundary Conditions in electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Qing X; Wilcox, Bethany R

    2015-01-01

    Boundary conditions (BCs) are considered as an important topic that advanced physics under- graduates are expected to understand and apply. We report findings from an investigation of student difficulties using boundary conditions (BCs) in electrodynamics. Our data sources include student responses to traditional exam questions, conceptual survey questions, and think-aloud interviews. The analysis was guided by an analytical framework that characterizes how students activate, con- struct, execute, and reflect on boundary conditions. Common student difficulties include: activating boundary conditions in appropriate contexts; constructing a complex expression for the E&M waves; mathematically simplifying complex exponentials and checking if the reflection and transmission co- efficient are physical. We also present potential pedagogical implications based on our observations.

  3. Diffie-Hellman without Difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    An excellent way for a protocol to obtain shared keys is Diffie-Hellman. For the automated verification of security protocols, the use of Diffie-Hellman poses a certain amount of difficulty, because it requires algebraic reasoning. Several tools work in the free algebra and even for tools that do...

  4. Visual-spatial functioning as an early indicator of socioemotional difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, James; Yates, Phil; Slater, Alan; Williams, W Huw; Frampton, Ian

    2009-01-01

    As children with acquired brain injuries (ABI) mature to become adolescents they develop a range of previously undetected social and emotional difficulties, which are commonly associated with executive dysfunctions. The authors wanted to determine whether visual-spatial performance is subject to age-related improvement, whether such skills can differentiate between children with ABI and healthy children and whether visual-spatial performance is a correlate of socioemotional functioning. The 'Cube analysis' and 'Dot discrimination' tests from the 'Visual Object Space Perception (VOSP)' battery and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were administered for 18 children, 9-15 years, with ABI and compared against 67 'healthy' children. Cube analysis scores improved significantly at approximately 10 years old in the control group. The ABI group performed the task significantly poorer than controls. Analysis indicated that visual discrimination skill did not account for performance difficulties. Visual-spatial performance was correlated with greater impact of reported difficulties on the SDQ. Visual-spatial tests are sensitive in differentiating between healthy children and children with ABI. Impairment of visuo-spatial skills may provide an index of psychosocial risk during later teenage years and adulthood.

  5. Social and emotional difficulties in children with ADHD and the impact on school attendance and healthcare utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Classi Peter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the impact of co-occurring social and emotional difficulties on missed school days and healthcare utilization among children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and were based on parental proxy responses to questions in the Sample Child Core, which includes questions on demographics, health, healthcare treatment, and social and emotional status as measured by questions about depression, anxiety, and phobias, as well as items from the brief version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between co-occurring social and emotional difficulties with missed school days and healthcare utilization, adjusting for demographics. Results Of the 5896 children aged 6–17 years in the 2007 NHIS, 432 (7.3% had ADHD, based on parental report. Children with ADHD and comorbid depression, anxiety, or phobias had significantly greater odds of experiencing > 2 weeks of missed school days, ≥ 6 visits to a healthcare provider (HCP, and ≥ 2 visits to the ER, compared with ADHD children without those comorbidities (OR range: 2.1 to 10.4. Significantly greater odds of missed school days, HCP visits, and ER visits were also experienced by children with ADHD who were worried, unhappy/depressed, or having emotional difficulties as assessed by the SDQ, compared with ADHD children without those difficulties (OR range: 2.2 to 4.4. Conclusions In children with ADHD, the presence of social and emotional problems resulted in greater odds of missed school days and healthcare utilization. These findings should be viewed in light of the limited nature of the parent-report measures used to assess social and emotional problems.

  6. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  7. Indicators of Difficulty in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the correlation between indicators of difficulty observable in translation product and translation process data respectively. It has been claimed that the number of alternative renditions in the target text across a group of subjects translating the same source...... and self-corrections. We found highly significant correlations between product and process data: high target text variability across subjects correlated with high fixation counts, long gaze time and long pauses. High variability in the target text was also associated with more self-corrections, but we...... text item indicates the degree of cognitive effort. We identified words with high versus low target text variability across eight subjects and related these to various indicators of difficulty observable in process data from eye-tracking and keystroke logging: number of fixations, gaze time, pauses...

  8. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Dantas Soares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning.

  9. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ciro Dantas; Gurgel, Alberto Costa; de Souza Júnior, Francisco de Assis; de Oliveira, Samila Neres; de Carvalho, Maria Goretti Freire; Oliveira, Hanieri Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning. PMID:26180645

  10. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  11. Greater Trochanter Tuberculosis : MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Youssef Alaoui Lamrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis has been reported in almost all bones of body. The great trochanter tuberculosis (GTT installation is insidious and clinical symptoms are often vague with moderate painful swelling and stiffness. GTT is about 0,2 to 2% of all osteo-articular tuberculosis, occurring most commonly by hematogenous seeding secondary to primary focus elsewhere, more commonly in the lungs. Isolated GTT is unusual and thus its awareness is slow and diagnosis is often delayed.

  12. Prospective prediction of functional difficulties among recently separated Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald E. Larson, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports of functional problems are common among Veterans who served post-9/11 (more than 25% report functional difficulties in at least one domain. However, little prospective work has examined the risk and protective factors for functional difficulties among Veterans. In a sample of recently separated Marines, we used stepwise logistic and multiple regressions to identify predictors of functional impairment, including work-related problems, financial problems, unlawful behavior, activity limitations due to mental health symptoms, and perceived difficulty reintegrating into civilian life. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms assessed both before and after military separation significantly predicted functional difficulties across all domains except unlawful behavior. Certain outcomes, such as unlawful behavior and activity limitations due to mental health symptoms, were predicted by other or additional predictors. Although several forms of functioning were examined, the list was not exhaustive. The results highlight a number of areas where targeted interventions may facilitate the reintegration of military servicemembers into civilian life.

  13. Ghosts, Troubles, Difficulties, and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2016-01-01

    not consider ‘ghosts’ or ‘haunting’ as a possible explanation. This causes difficulties when they narrate and contextualise their experience, and typically they present ambiguous narratives and stress their disbelief at and bewilderment with the experiences. Still, as I will try to show in my article......, their bewilderment and the way they use the notions ‘ghost’ and ‘haunting’ point to possible reinterpretations of these notions, so that the narrative mediation shapes not only the experience but also the ways that ‘ghosts’ and ‘haunting’ are reinterpreted in contemporary Denmark....

  14. Romantic Ideals, Mate Preferences, and Anticipation of Future Difficulties in Marital Life: A comparative study of young adults in India and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrine eBejanyan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have established that Indians tend to be greater in collectivism and gender role traditionalism than Americans. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these differences explained further cultural differences in romantic beliefs, traditional mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life. Results revealed that Indians reported greater collectivism than Americans and, in turn, held stronger romantic beliefs. Additionally, Indians’ greater collectivism and endorsement of more traditional gender roles in part predicted their preferences for a marital partner possessing traditional characteristics, and fully accounted for their heightened concerns about encountering future difficulties in marital life. These results shed light on the processes underlying cultural differences in relationship attitudes and preferences, and point to culture-specific therapies to enhance marital functioning.

  15. Romantic ideals, mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life: a comparative study of young adults in India and America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C; Ferenczi, Nelli

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have established that Indians tend to be greater in collectivism and gender role traditionalism than Americans. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these differences explained further cultural differences in romantic beliefs, traditional mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life. Results revealed that Indians reported greater collectivism than Americans and, in turn, held stronger romantic beliefs. Additionally, Indians' greater collectivism and endorsement of more traditional gender roles in part predicted their preferences for a marital partner possessing traditional characteristics, and fully accounted for their heightened concerns about encountering future difficulties in marital life. These results shed light on the processes underlying cultural differences in relationship attitudes and preferences, and point to culture-specific therapies to enhance marital functioning.

  16. The influence of age-related health difficulties and attitudes toward driving on driving self-regulation in the baby boomer and older adult generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Elizabeth G; Rahaley, Nicole; Davis, Jessica

    2017-05-01

    Our study aimed to determine how age- and disease-related difficulties were associated with attitudes and beliefs about driving self-regulation in men and women in the baby boomer and older generations. Three hundred and ninety-nine men (n=204) and women (n=195) aged between 48 and 91 years participated in a cross-sectional study of Australian drivers. Demographic characteristics and measures of driving confidence, driving difficulty and driving self-regulation; perceptions of visual, physical and cognitive capacity; and attitudes and beliefs about driving were obtained. Driving self-regulation in men and women was explained by different mechanisms. For men, self-report of visual and cognitive difficulties and poor driving confidence predicted driving self-regulation. For women, negative attitudes toward driving mediated the associations found between health-related difficulties and driving self-regulation. Barriers to driving self-regulation were not associated with the driving self-regulatory practices of men or women. Regardless of generation, women reported poorer driving confidence, greater driving difficulty and more driving self-regulation than men. We concluded that age- and disease-related difficulties are related to increasing driving self-regulation in mature men and women. These results indicate that different pathways are needed in models of driving self-regulation for men and women regardless of generational cohort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship between complexity (taxonomy) and difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yih Tyng; Othman, Abdul Rahman

    2013-04-01

    Difficulty and complexity are important factors that occur in every test questions. These two factors will also affect the reliability of the test. Hence, difficulty and complexity must be considered by educators during preparation of the test questions. The relationship between difficulty and complexity is studied. Complexity is defined as the level in Bloom's Taxonomy. Difficulty is represented by the proportion of students scoring between specific score intervals. A chi-square test of independence between difficulty and complexity was conducted on the results of a continuous assessment of a third year undergraduate course, Probability Theory. The independence test showed that the difficulty and complexity are related. However, this relationship is small.

  18. Trevor's Disease: Management Difficulties and Proposed Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Daine O

    2016-09-01

    Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica, also known as Trevor's disease, is a rare developmental disorder with osteocartilagenous overgrowth of the epiphysis or epiphyseal equivalent. The condition bears similarities to osteochondroma in terms of its radiographic appearance, but differs in its pathobiology and geographic occurrence. Unlike the metaphyseal occurrence of osteochondromata, it arises from the epiphysis. The clinical presentation is wide and varied, but mechanical symptoms and deformities predominate. Early reports of the condition suggested involvement of the lower limbs only. However, since then, numerous reports have indicated a more generalized distribution. Difficulties in management and recurrence rates seem to hinge on whether its origin is intra-articular or extra-articular. A new classification system to include these parameters is discussed. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e967-e969.].

  19. Ghosts, Troubles, Difficulties, and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2016-01-01

    , especially if he or she does not think that this kind of occurrence is possible. Based on my fieldwork on haunted houses in Denmark today, this article deals with the narratives of people who have experiences that they cannot explain and that they consider to be on the limits of reason. Many of them do...... not consider ‘ghosts’ or ‘haunting’ as a possible explanation. This causes difficulties when they narrate and contextualise their experience, and typically they present ambiguous narratives and stress their disbelief at and bewilderment with the experiences. Still, as I will try to show in my article......, their bewilderment and the way they use the notions ‘ghost’ and ‘haunting’ point to possible reinterpretations of these notions, so that the narrative mediation shapes not only the experience but also the ways that ‘ghosts’ and ‘haunting’ are reinterpreted in contemporary Denmark....

  20. Factors Affecting the Difficulty of Verbal Analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccas, Sonia; Moshinsky, Avital

    2003-01-01

    Examined factors affecting the difficulty of verbal analogies in a psychometric examination by characterizing 104 analogies using 5 defined attributes. Both knowledge and process attributes were found to contribute to the difficulty of verbal analogies assessed by 10 judges. (SLD)

  1. Childhood maltreatment and difficulties in emotion regulation: associations with sexual and relationship satisfaction among young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Vujanovic, Anka A; Gilbert, Myani; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations among childhood maltreatment, difficulties in emotion regulation, and sexual and relationship satisfaction among young adult women reporting current involvement in committed, romantic relationships. A sample of 192 women (ages 18-25) completed self-report questionnaires as part of an Internet-based survey. It was hypothesized that severity of childhood maltreatment and difficulties in emotion regulation would each independently and negatively predict (a) sexual satisfaction, (b) relationship intimacy, and (c) expression of affection within the context of the relationship. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that greater emotion regulation difficulties would moderate the effects of childhood maltreatment on these sexual and relationship variables (i.e., sexual satisfaction, relationship intimacy, and expression of affection). Findings suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation demonstrated an incremental effect with regard to sexual satisfaction, but not with intimacy and affection expression. In contrast to predictions, no significant interactive effects were documented. Clinical implications and future directions related to this line of inquiry are discussed.

  2. Military to civilian questionnaire: a measure of postdeployment community reintegration difficulty among veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Nina A; Frazier, Patricia; Orazem, Robert J; Murdoch, Maureen; Gravely, Amy; Carlson, Kathleen F; Hintz, Samuel; Noorbaloochi, Siamak

    2011-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe the development, reliability, and construct validity of scores on the Military to Civilian Questionnaire (M2C-Q), a 16-item self-report measure of postdeployment community reintegration difficulty. We surveyed a national, stratified sample of 1,226 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who used U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical care; 745 completed the M2C-Q and validated mental health screening measures. All analyses were based on weighted estimates. The internal consistency of the M2C-Q was .95 in this sample. Factor analyses indicated a single total score was the best-fitting model. Total scores were associated with measures theoretically related to reintegration difficulties including perception of overall difficulty readjusting back into civilian life (R(2) = .49), probable PTSD (d = 1.07), probable problem drug or alcohol use (d = 0.34), and overall mental health (r = -.83). Subgroup analyses revealed a similar pattern of findings in those who screened negative for PTSD. Nonwhite and unemployed veterans reported greater community reintegration difficulty (d = 0.20 and 0.45, respectively). Findings offer preliminary support for the reliability and construct validity of M2C-Q scores.

  3. Facets of Career Decision-Making Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Tami; Gati, Itamar

    2006-01-01

    The present research investigated the relations among the measured and the expressed career decision-making difficulties in a sample of 299 young adults who intended to apply to college or university. As hypothesised, the correlations between career decision-making difficulties, as measured by the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire…

  4. Student Difficulties with Quantum Mechanics Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss student difficulties in distinguishing between the physical space and Hilbert space and difficulties related to the Time-independent Schroedinger equation and measurements in quantum mechanics. These difficulties were identified by administering written surveys and by conducting individual interviews with students.

  5. Preference-for-solitude and adjustment difficulties in early and late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jennifer M; Rubin, Kenneth H; Laursen, Brett; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Social withdrawal has been associated with adjustment difficulties across development. Although much is known about shyness, little is known about preference-for-solitude; even less is known about its relations with adjustment across different periods of adolescence. We examined whether preference-for-solitude might be differentially associated with adjustment difficulties in early and late adolescence. Self- and parent-reports of withdrawal motivations and adjustment were collected from 234 eighth graders (113 boys; M age = 13.43) and 204 twelfth graders (91 boys; M age = 17.25). Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that above and beyond the effects of shyness, preference-for-solitude was more strongly associated with adjustment difficulties in 8th grade than in 12th grade. Preference-for-solitude was associated with greater anxiety/depression, emotion dysregulation, and lower self-esteem in 8th grade; these relations were not found in 12th grade. Although preference-for-solitude was associated with lower social competence in both 8th and 12th grades, this relation was significantly stronger in 8th grade than in 12th grade. Findings suggest preference-for-solitude has closer ties to maladjustment in early adolescence than in late adolescence. Interventions targeting preferred-solitary youth in early adolescence may be particularly fruitful.

  6. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  7. A stakeholder-collaborative evaluation of intervention for students with greater psychosocial needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-17

    The Tier 2 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) in Hong Kong was designed and implemented by school social workers targeting adolescents with greater psychosocial needs. Based on the responses of 237 participants, 48 program implementers wrote down five conclusions on the program effectiveness in their reports submitted to the funding body. Based on a stakeholder-collaborative approach involving secondary data analyses, results showed that most conclusions were positive regarding participants' perceptions of the program, instructors and their perceived program effectiveness, although there were also conclusions reflecting difficulties encountered and suggestions for improvements. In conjunction with the previous evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the Tier 2 Program was well received by the stakeholders and the program was beneficial to the development of the program participants.

  8. Mathematics difficulties in children born very preterm: current research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Victoria; Cragg, Lucy; Gilmore, Camilla; Marlow, Neil; Johnson, Samantha

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm have poorer attainment in all school subjects, and a markedly greater reliance on special educational support than their term-born peers. In particular, difficulties with mathematics are especially common and account for the vast majority of learning difficulties in this population. In this paper, we review research relating to the causes of mathematics learning difficulties in typically developing children, and the impact of very preterm birth on attainment in mathematics. Research is needed to understand the specific nature and origins of mathematics difficulties in very preterm children to target the development of effective intervention strategies.

  9. Sensory Processing Difficulties in Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome: A Pilot Project of Presentation and Possible Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dido; Lim, Ming; Lang, Bethan; Pohl, Keith; Turk, Jeremy

    2016-07-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is a rare but serious neurological condition resulting in loss of control of eye movements, often accompanied by difficulties in posture and movement control with reports of sensory sensitivities potentially impacting on behavior. This pilot study characterizes the presence of atypical sensory behaviors in opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome through questionnaire survey of a cohort of families. The Short Sensory Profile, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and Developmental Behaviour Checklist were distributed to 30 families; 16 were returned anonymously. Atypical sensory behaviors were identified in a large proportion (62.5%). Children reported as being more anxious showed greater sensitivity to auditory stimuli, U(14) 11, P = .026. This is consistent with recent recognition of more extensive disease neurocognitive effects in Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. Further research is needed to increase understanding of the complex pathology of this disease and to provide indicators for sensory and behavioral as well as pharmacological interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. DIFFICULTIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING GRAMMAR IN AN EFL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu Mohammed Al-Mekhlafi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at best, and an avoidable burden at worst. The paper reports a study undertaken to investigate the difficulties teachers face in teaching grammar to EFL students as well as those faced by students in learning it, in the teachers' perception. The study aimed to find out whether there are significant differences in teachers' perceptions of difficulties in relation to their gender, qualification, teaching experience, and the level they teach in school, thus providing insights into their own and their students' difficulties. Mean scores and t-test were used to interpret the data. The main findings are reported with implications.

  11. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westenberg, A.H.; Wiggers, T.; Henzen-Logmans, S.C.; Verweij, J.; Meerwaldt, J.A.; Geel, A.N. van (Dr Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. The authors describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum. (author).

  12. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenberg, A H; Wiggers, T; Henzen-Logmans, S C; Verweij, J; Meerwaldt, J A; van Geel, A N

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. We describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum.

  13. [The Influence of the Functioning of Brain Regulatory Systems onto the Voluntary Regulation of Cognitive Performance in Children. Report 2. Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Assessment of Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 10-12 with Learning Difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, O A; Machinskaya, R I

    2015-01-01

    A total number of 172 children aged 10-12 were electrophysiologically and neuropsychologically assessed in order to analyze the influence of the functioning of brain regulatory systems onto the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance during the preteen years. EEG patterns associated with the nonoptimal functioning of brain regulatory systems, particularly fronto-thalamic, limbic and fronto-striatal structures were significantly more often observed in children with learning and behavioral difficulties, as compared to the control group. Neuropsychological assessment showed that the nonoptimal functioning of different brain regulatory systems specifically affect the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-thalamic nonoptimal functioning demonstrated poor voluntary regulation such as impulsiveness and difficulties in continuing the same algorithms. Children with EEG patterns of limbic nonoptimal functioning showed a less pronounced executive dysfunction manifested only in poor switching between program units within a task. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-striatal nonoptimal functioning struggled with such executive dysfunctions as motor and tactile perseverations and emotional-motivational deviations such as poor motivation and communicative skills.

  14. Monitoring and research on the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Pine Nut Mountains, California and Nevada—Study progress report, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Andrle, Katie M.; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-09-29

    The Bi-State distinct population segment (DPS) of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that occurs along the Nevada–California border was proposed for listing as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in October 2013. However, in April 2015, the FWS determined that the Bi-State DPS no longer required protection under the ESA and withdrew the proposed rule to list the Bi-State DPS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015). The Bi-State DPS occupies portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo Counties in California, and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, Carson City, and Mineral Counties in Nevada. Unique threats facing this population include geographic isolation, expansion of single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), anthropogenic activities, and recent changes in predator communities. Estimating population vital rates, identifying seasonal habitat, quantifying threats, and identifying movement patterns are important first steps in developing effective sage-grouse management and conservation plans. During 2011–15, we radio- and Global Positioning System (GPS)-marked (2012–14 only) 44, 47, 17, 9, and 3 sage-grouse, respectively, for a total of 120, in the Pine Nut Mountains Population Management Unit (PMU). No change in lek attendance was detected at Mill Canyon (maximum=18 males) between 2011 and 2012; however, 1 male was observed in 2014 and no males were observed in 2013 and 2015. Males were observed near Bald Mountain in 2013, making it the first year this lek was observed to be active during the study period. Males were observed at a new site in the Buckskin Range in 2014 during trapping efforts and again observed during surveys in 2015. Findings indicate that pinyon-juniper is avoided by sage-grouse during every life stage. Nesting females selected increased sagebrush cover, sagebrush height, and understory horizontal cover, and brood-rearing females selected similar areas

  15. Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Grant Monitoring: Department of Education Could Improve Its Processes with Greater Focus on Assessing Risks, Acquiring Financial Skills, and Sharing Information. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Education (Education) awards about $45 billion in grants each year to school districts, states, and other entities. In addition, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided an additional $97 billion in grant funding. In a series of reports from 2002 to 2009, Education's Inspector General cited a number of grantees…

  17. Randomized Controlled Trial of Online Expressive Writing to Address Readjustment Difficulties Among U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Nina A; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Frazier, Patricia A; Pennebaker, James W; Orazem, Robert J; Schnurr, Paula P; Murdoch, Maureen; Carlson, Kathleen F; Gravely, Amy; Litz, Brett T

    2015-10-01

    We examined the efficacy of a brief, accessible, nonstigmatizing online intervention-writing expressively about transitioning to civilian life. U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with self-reported reintegration difficulty (N = 1,292, 39.3% female, M = 36.87, SD = 9.78 years) were randomly assigned to expressive writing (n = 508), factual control writing (n = 507), or no writing (n = 277). Using intention to treat, generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that 6-months postintervention, veterans who wrote expressively experienced greater reductions in physical complaints, anger, and distress compared with veterans who wrote factually (ds = 0.13 to 0.20; ps reintegration difficulty compared with veterans who did not write at all (ds = 0.22 to 0.35; ps ≤ .001). Veterans who wrote expressively also experienced greater improvement in social support compared to those who did not write (d = 0.17). Relative to both control conditions, expressive writing did not lead to improved life satisfaction. Secondary analyses also found beneficial effects of expressive writing on clinically significant distress, PTSD screening, and employment status. Online expressive writing holds promise for improving health and functioning among veterans experiencing reintegration difficulty, albeit with small effect sizes.

  18. Pre-matriculation indicators of academic difficulty during veterinary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Bonnie R; Sanderson, Michael W; Elmore, Ronnie G

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess pre-matriculation academic and demographic data to identify risk factors for academic difficulty and failure to graduate among veterinary students. Admissions data were compiled for 1,098 students admitted to veterinary college between 1989 and 2000 inclusive. Students were classified by (a) academic success, consisting of students who completed veterinary school within four years in the top 90% of the class or (b) academic difficulty, including students dismissed for academic reasons, students who experienced academic delay, and students who graduated with a cumulative GPA in the 10th percentile of their class. Of 1,098 admitted students, 930 (84.7%) completed veterinary school within four years in the top 90% of their class. Among students with academic difficulty, 94 (8.6%) completed veterinary school in four years in the 10th percentile, 44 (4%) experienced academic delay, and 30 (2.7%) were dismissed. Academic difficulty was associated with a low prerequisite GPA, a low GRE score, poor undergraduate institutional selectivity, and older age (> or =35 years). Students who attended three-or-more undergraduate institutions or two-year colleges prior to attending a four year institution were 1.9 times more likely to experience academic difficulty and 3.87 times more likely to fail to graduate than students who attended a four-year institution (major or small) to complete their prerequisites. These study findings may assist with early identification of students at greater risk of experiencing academic difficulty and support the consideration of cognitive selection criteria (GRE and GPA) and undergraduate institutional experience during the admissions process.

  19. Patients' and relatives' experience of difficulties following severe traumatic brain injury: the sub-acute stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sara; Schönberger, Michael; Poulsen, Ingrid;

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to (1) identify the difficulties most frequently reported by individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) at the time of discharge from a sub-acute rehabilitation brain injury unit as well as difficulties reported by their relatives, (2) compare patients......' and relatives' reports of patient difficulties, and (3) explore the role of injury severity, disability and other factors on subjective experience of difficulties. The primary measure was the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ) administered to patients and to one of their close relatives at discharge...

  20. Evaluation of a Positive Youth Development Program for Adolescents with Greater Psychosocial Needs: Integrated Views of Program Implementers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To help adolescents with greater psychosocial needs, the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes was designed and implemented by school social workers and teachers. Based on subjective outcome evaluation data collected from the program participants (n = 2,542 in 49 schools, program implementers were invited to write down five conclusions based on an integration of the evaluation findings. With reference to 245 conclusions included in the 49 evaluation reports, secondary data analyses showed that most of the conclusions concerning perceptions of the Tier 2 Program, instructors, and program effectiveness were positive. In addition, difficulties encountered and recommendations for program improvement were highlighted. In conjunction with previous evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the Tier 2 Program was well received and was perceived to be beneficial to the development of adolescents with greater psychosocial needs.

  1. Evaluation of a positive youth development program for adolescents with greater psychosocial needs: integrated views of program implementers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Ma, Cecilia M S; Sun, Rachel C F

    2010-10-01

    To help adolescents with greater psychosocial needs, the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) was designed and implemented by school social workers and teachers. Based on subjective outcome evaluation data collected from the program participants (n = 2,542) in 49 schools, program implementers were invited to write down five conclusions based on an integration of the evaluation findings. With reference to 245 conclusions included in the 49 evaluation reports, secondary data analyses showed that most of the conclusions concerning perceptions of the Tier 2 Program, instructors, and program effectiveness were positive. In addition, difficulties encountered and recommendations for program improvement were highlighted. In conjunction with previous evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the Tier 2 Program was well received and was perceived to be beneficial to the development of adolescents with greater psychosocial needs.

  2. [Pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumor: difficulties in diagnosis and prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi-Kaddour, Aïda; Abid, Leïla; Braham, Emna; Saïji, Essia; Ismail, Olfa; Smati, Belhassen; Kilani, Tarek; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2006-03-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumors are uncommon benign lesions of the lung of unknown origin, that may show aggressive behavior. Although pseudotumors constitute less than 1% of all lung tumors, they are reported to be the most common cause of solitary lung masses in children. Complete resection, when possible, is safe and leads to excellent survival. The case presented here highlights difficulties in clinical and histologic diagnosis.

  3. Behaviour Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Children Born Very Prematurely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Sarah; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Stevenson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Children born very prematurely are at risk of low average IQ and behaviour difficulties throughout childhood and adolescence. Associations among preterm birth, IQ and behaviour have been reported; however, the nature of the relationship among these outcomes is not fully understood. Some studies have proposed that the consequences of preterm birth,…

  4. Response Time in Adults with a History of Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A.; Poll, Gerard H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate speed of processing in college students with a history of problems with language. Affected individuals (n = 16) were identified through a self-reported history of language and/or reading difficulties, and compared to a group of 16 unaffected individuals. Measures of language ability and a battery of…

  5. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  6. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  7. Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David

    2012-01-01

    Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in…

  8. Lupus vulgaris: difficulties in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Julia; Caccetta, Tony Philip; Tait, Clare

    2013-05-01

    Lupus vulgaris is one of the most common forms of cutaneous tuberculosis. It presents a diagnostic challenge due to its paucibacillary nature. This is a report of a case of a delayed diagnosis of lupus vulgaris, presenting as perianal and peristomal plaques, followed by a review of the diagnostic tools for lupus vulgaris and their limitations.

  9. Transsexual aging: needs and difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Fernández-Rouco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief overview of some of the most important questions facing transsexual individuals throughout the aging process. This report starts by discussing the current state of aging, and the various studies that have specifically addressed aging in transsexual individuals. Finally, it proposes various suggestions for improving the future wellbeing of elderly transsexual individuals.

  10. Swallowing difficulties with oral drugs among polypharmacy patients attending community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Julien; Schneider, Marie-Paule; Payot, Valérie; Cordonier, Anne-Christine; Bugnon, Olivier; Hersberger, Kurt E; Arnet, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    Swallowing difficulties are common and can affect patients' ability to take solid oral dosage forms, thus compromising medication adherence. Strategies developed by patients to overcome such difficulties while taking medicines have seldom been described. To determine prevalence and characteristics of swallowing difficulties among primary care patients attending their community pharmacies; to explore strategies developed by patients to overcome their difficulties, and health professionals' awareness of these problems. Prospective study with a semi-structured questionnaire in random community pharmacies located in two Swiss regions. In each pharmacy, an interviewer asked 16 questions to each consecutive patient (18 years and older) with a prescription for at least 3 different solid oral forms. Quantification of number of patients with swallowing difficulties and detailed description of difficulties. Among 122 pharmacies, 59 (48 %) accepted to join the study and 410 patients were enrolled. Thirty-seven patients (9.0 %) reported ongoing swallowing difficulties, while 55 patients (13.4 %) reported past difficulties. For the majority of patients, difficulties occurred at each single dose (83.7 %), with a single medication (59.8 %) and lasted for less than 12 months (53.8 %). Number of tablets was not the main trigger. Swallowing difficulties impaired extremely daily life in 12 % of the patients. Intentional non adherence (23 % of patients) and altering the oral dose formulation were the most common and potentially harmful strategies used by patients to overcome their swallowing difficulties. According to the patients, pharmacists and physicians rarely inquired about their swallowing difficulties. We report a fairly high prevalence of swallowing difficulties in polypharmacy patients attending their community pharmacies. Pharmacists have to interview patients on their swallowing difficulties in a more systematic way, support patients in finding solutions and refer them to

  11. Mental Verbs and Pragmatic Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George; Natsopoulos, Demetrios; Panayiotou, Georgia

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pragmatic language impairment has recently been the subject of a number of studies that attempted to illuminate classification and diagnostic issues, and identify the profile of children with pragmatic language difficulties. Although much progress has been made, the nature of pragmatic difficulties remains unclear. Aims: To contrast…

  12. Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Samokhvalova, Anna G.; Kryukova, Tatyana L.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged ...

  13. Parallel Processing and Sentence Comprehension Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Marisa Ferrara; Hale, John T.; Vasishth, Shravan; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    Eye fixation durations during normal reading correlate with processing difficulty, but the specific cognitive mechanisms reflected in these measures are not well understood. This study finds support in German readers' eye fixations for two distinct difficulty metrics: surprisal, which reflects the change in probabilities across syntactic analyses…

  14. Mental Verbs and Pragmatic Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George; Natsopoulos, Demetrios; Panayiotou, Georgia

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pragmatic language impairment has recently been the subject of a number of studies that attempted to illuminate classification and diagnostic issues, and identify the profile of children with pragmatic language difficulties. Although much progress has been made, the nature of pragmatic difficulties remains unclear. Aims: To contrast…

  15. Rule Difficulty: Teachers' Intuitions and Learners' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The need for some form of explicit grammar instruction is recognised in most current approaches to second language teaching. Since the usefulness of explicit instruction is at least to some extent dependent on the difficulty of the rules that are taught, an important question for teachers is whether their judgements of rule difficulty are…

  16. Defining Grammatical Difficulty: A Student Teacher Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, Johan; Coppen, Peter-Arno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous second language acquisition (SLA) researchers have tried to define grammatical difficulty in second and foreign language acquisition--often as part of an attempt to relate the efficacy of different types of instruction to the degree of difficulty of grammatical structures. The resulting proliferation of definitions and the lack of a…

  17. Difficulties in academic writing and cognitive functions: review of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rodrigo Avendaño Castro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze some of the difficulties of academic writing at postgraduate level, reported in certain studies within the framework of the cognitive functions concept developed by Reuven Feuerstein and other works, which allow to evidence the possible relationship between these two phenomena. To do this, we explored the conceptual framework of cognitive functions and mental operations, based on the theory of Feuerstein, et al. (1994; later, it was performed a synthesis of the difficulties described by Carlino (2007, Slafer (2009 and Hernández (2009; finally, it was established evidence of the relationship between cognitive functions and difficulties in academic writing. The results show that the different difficulties evidenced in the writing processes at postgraduate level have their source in the cognitive deficits presented in each phase of the mental act (entry, elaboration and output. It is concluded that the difficulties in academic writing recorded in the studies have a close link with cognitive functions of the elaboration and output stages of thought, even though they are only associated with the input phase.

  18. Malaria, in second place, sees fewer victims, but greater difficulty of control. With climate, including global warming, as complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is an article on malarial risks and prevention. Malaria is the deadliest tropical parasitic disease and one of the leading causes of death. The risk for this disease has been linked with changes in land use related to road building, mining, logging, and agricultural and irrigation projects. Global climatic change, disintegration of health services, armed conflicts, and mass movements of refugees also contribute to the increasing risk for malaria. Disease prevention includes a variety of measures that may protect against infection. They may be directed against the mosquito vector or against the development of disease in infected individuals. The WHO stresses the curability of malaria in spite of the occurrence of drug resistance. If the antimalarial drugs are used properly and targeted to those at risk, malarial disease and death can be reduced. Vaccines are also in development; an effective one could be available within the next 7-15 years.

  19. Greater Celandine hepatotoxicity: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare and poorly described disease because reported cases are mostly scattered and lack an appropriate causality assessment. We now describe in detail the clinical picture of herbal hepatotoxicity by extracts of Greater Celandine (GC), syn. Chelidonium majus L. from the Papaveraceae family, which contain more than 20 ingredients including various biologically active isoquinoline alkaloids. For this purpose, we analyzed and reviewed published cases of 16 patients from various European countries. In all patients, herbal hepatotoxicity was of probable and highly probable causality for GC, using the original and updated scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). GC associated hepatotoxicity usually has an acute clinical course exhibiting a hepatocellular pattern of injury and is correlated to an idiosyncratic reaction with its metabolic subtype. Jaundice combined with high values of serum aminotransferases was present in virtually all cases with favourable outcome despite severe clinical course. In conclusion, GC hepatotoxicity is a typical herbal hepatotoxicity with a sound causality track for GC, but there is uncertainty regarding the respective causative compound(s). The present detailed review of GC hepatotoxicity may serve as an example for clinical causality assessments of future cases of liver injury due to other herbs.

  20. [Psychologic, pedagogical and hygienic analysis of educational difficulties in students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostankina, E N; Artemenkov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Educational difficulties in students are studied. Classification of the difficulties is suggested. Causes of the difficulties (outer and inner factors) are shown. Psychologic portrait of a student facing educational difficulties is presented.

  1. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome in general Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brinks (Tineke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. These patients suffer from local pain at the lateral side of the hip. The syndrome is characterized by chronic intermittent or continuous pain at and around the greater trochanter, sometimes radiating to the lateral

  2. Mastoidectomy: anatomical parameters x surgical difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Júnior, Anastácio Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lowered temporal meninges and/ or anterior sigmoid sinus are contiditions that can determine surgical difficulties in performing mastoidectomy. Objective: To correlate in the tomography the extent of the prolapse of the sigmoid sinus and of temporal meninges with the surgical difficulty in the mastoidectomy. Method: The tomographic measurements of prolapse sigmoid and of temporal meninges were correlated with the presence or non-presence of the surgical difficulty observed during the mastoidectomy procedure in patients with ostomatoiditis chronic (n=30. Form of study: Contemporary cohort transverse. Results: In 10 patients were observed surgical difficulty distributed as: due to prolapse of the sigmoid sinus (n = 2 or temporal meninges prolapse (n = 7 or both (n = 1. In patients in which the surgical difficulty was due to sigmoid sinus prolapse, the tomography distance of the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus to posterior wall of external auditory canal was lower than 9 mm. In patients in which surgical difficulty was due to temporal meninges prolapse, the tomographic distance to the upper plane of the petrous bone was 7 mm. Conclusion: The computerized tomography distance between the temporal meninges and the upper plane of the petrous bone 7 mm and the distance of the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus to posterior wall of external auditory canal was lower than 9 mm are predictive to the surgical difficulties to perform mastoidectomy.

  3. The difficulties of Slovenian high-school students in deciding on further education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Zagoričnik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In research we investigated the difficulties faced by Slovenian high school students when choosing a university programme. A theoretical taxonomy of career decision making difficulties proposed by Gati, Krausz and Osipow was examined with Career decision making difficulties Questionnaire which was translated into Slovenian language and adapted to the context of choosing a university programme. The questionnaire was administrated to a sample of 179 fourth grade high school students. The results showed that students in general face small to medium difficulties when choosing a university programme. They have the greatest difficulties in the fields of general indecisiveness, disfunctional beliefs, and lack of information about existing university programmes, and the smallest in the fields of external conflicts and lack of motivation. In general there were no important differences in difficulties between boys and girls. The exception was the field of lack of motivation, where girls reported fewer difficulties than boys. Determined students reported fewer difficulties than undetermined. When comparing the empirical structure of high school students' difficulties when choosing the university programme to theoretical taxonomy of career decision making difficulties, we found more differences than similarities.

  4. Workplace bullying and sleep difficulties: a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene; Persson, Roger

    2014-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied/witnesses, and whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health. The overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. Bullied persons and witnesses reported more sleep difficulties than those who were neither bullied nor witnesses to bullying at baseline. Frequently bullied/witnesses reported more sleep difficulties than respondents who were occasionally bullied or witnessing bullying at baseline. Further, odds ratios for subsequent sleep difficulties were increased among the occasionally bullied, but not among witnesses. However, the associations weakened when adjusting for sleep difficulties at baseline. Being subjected to occasional bullying at baseline was predictive of subsequent sleep difficulties. Witnessing bullying at baseline did not predict sleep difficulties at follow-up.

  5. Dyslexia and English: Degree of Difficulties Faced by the Students with Dyslexia while Learning English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Kaperoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the hypothesis that students diagnosed with dyslexia face a greater amount of difficulty when they attempt to learn a foreign language and especially English. On a survey carried out in the form of a questionnaire, two groups of students completed the same questionnaire regarding their difficulty to learn the basic skills such as reading, writing, listening, and speaking. The questions mostly focused on the difficulty they may face in spelling, reading, and listening which are the main aspects of the language dyslexic students’ score lower than students without dyslexia. The answers were evaluated with the use of the statistical method of t-test. The findings of the survey displayed a great difference on the score chosen by the two teams, which indicates the greater degree of difficulty the dyslexic students face confirming the original hypothesis.

  6. Students' Difficulties with Equations involving Circuit Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We discuss an investigation exploring students' difficulties with equations involving resistance, capacitance and inductance. We find that introductory physics students have great difficulty understanding, e.g., how the resistance of an ohmic resistor can be written in terms of the potential difference across it and the current through it, but it does not change when the potential difference across the resistor is varied. Similar confusions arose in problems relating to capacitors and inductors. We discuss these difficulties with equations in the context of introductory physics students' performance on questions about circuit elements both in the free-response and multiple-choice formats.

  7. LEARNING DIFFICULTIES: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON VIGOTSKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Cenci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed, along the text, to bring a reflection upon learning difficulties based on Socio-Historical Theory, relating what is observed in schools to what has been discussed about learning difficulties and the theory proposed by Vygotsky in the early XX century. We understand that children enter school carrying experiences and knowledge from their cultural group and that school ignores such knowledge very often. Then, it is in such disengagement that emerges what we started to call learning difficulties. One cannot forget to see a child as a whole – a student is a social being constituted by culture, language and specific values to which one must be attentive.

  8. Feeding difficulties in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Morag J; Parr, Jeremy R; Sullivan, Peter B

    2012-12-01

    Feeding difficulties are common in children with cerebral palsy and have an effect on growth, nutritional state, general health, social interaction and behaviour and developmental outcomes. Many factors have an effect on feeding ability. Identification of these factors and amelioration of their impact on feeding difficulties is essential to promote adequate growth and nutrition. Appropriate assessment and management is best achieved by a multiprofessional team skilled in the care of children with cerebral palsy and feeding impairments. Feeding difficulties must be considered within the wider context of family and social circumstance.

  9. Students' difficulties with tension in massless strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-García, S.; Alfaro-Avena, L. L.; Chávez-Pierce, J. E.; Luna-González, J.; González-Quezada, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    Many students enrolled in introductory mechanics courses have difficulties with understanding the concept of static equilibrium. Some of these difficulties are related to the concept of force in the context of tension in massless strings. We identify three kinds of misconceptions: Students' beliefs that the angle of the string and proximity to the object are related to the tension. Students also use incorrect compensation arguments to reason about situations where both the angle and proximity change simultaneously. These difficulties were identified during investigations conducted in laboratory and lecture sessions at three universities in the United States and Mexico.

  10. Positive youth development program targeting students with greater psychosocial needs: Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Sun, Rachel C F; Tsui, Pik Fong

    2011-01-01

    The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. targets adolescents with greater psychosocial needs. Based on subjective outcome evaluation data collected from 2173 participants recruited in 52 schools, 257 conclusions were reported by the program implementers in the evaluation reports. These conclusions were further analyzed via secondary data analyses. Although most of the conclusions concerning perceptions of the Tier 2 Program, instructors, and program effectiveness were positive in nature, there were also conclusions on the difficulties encountered and suggestions for improvements. Consistent with the previous evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the Tier 2 Program was well received by different stakeholders and the program was beneficial to the development of the program participants in the first year of the Experimental Implementation Phase.

  11. Increased Difficulties in Managing Stairs in Visually Impaired Older Adults: A Community-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wei Pan

    Full Text Available Managing stairs is a challenging aspect of daily activities of living for older people. We assessed whether older adults with visual impairment (VI have greater difficulties of managing stairs in daily lives.The study was designed as a community-based cross-sectional study based on a Chinese cohort aged 60 years and older in rural China. Visual acuity (VA was measured in both eyes using a retro-illuminated Snellen chart with tumbling-E optotypes. VI (including blindness was defined as presenting VA of worse than 20/60 in either eye. Having any difficulties in managing stairs was self-reported based on a question drawn from the Barthel Index. Information on participants' socioeconomic status, lifestyle-related factors, diseases histories and medication intake was collected using a questionnaire.The Barthel Index, Activities of Daily Living questionnaire was completed by 4597 (99.7% participants including 2218 men and 2379 women. The age of the participants ranged from 60 to 93 years with a mean of 67.6 ± 6.3 years. In age and gender adjusted models, adults with VI had a higher likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 3.7 compared with those without. The association of VI with the likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs was stronger in older adults who lived alone (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 1.8, 4.5 compared with those who lived with other family members (OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.3, 4.3. Compared with hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cognitive dysfunction, VI had the greatest impact on people's abilities of managing stairs.VI was associated with an increased likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs, especially in those who lived alone. However, whether the finding could be extrapolated to other populations warrants further studies as different environmental exposures such as illumination and types of stairs may alter the association observed in this study.

  12. Greater happiness for a greater number: is that possible and desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGREATER HAPPINESS FOR A GREATER NUMBER: IS THAT POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE? Utilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at greater happiness for a greater number of people. This moral tenet meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on ideolo

  13. Greater happiness for a greater number: is that possible and desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGREATER HAPPINESS FOR A GREATER NUMBER: IS THAT POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE? Utilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at greater happiness for a greater number of people. This moral tenet meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on

  14. G132 Which cut off should we choose? Is severity of motor coordination difficulties related to co-morbidity in children at risk for DCD?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingam, R; Schoemaker, M; Jongmans, M; van Heuvelena, M; Emond, A

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether children aged 7–9 year old with severe motor difficulties had a greater risk of additional difficulties in activities in daily living (ADL), academic skills, attention and social skills than children with moderate motor difficulties. Methods Children (N=69

  15. The psychosocial burden of childhood overweight and obesity: evidence for persisting difficulties in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lisa Y; Allen, Karina L; Davis, Elizabeth; Blair, Eve; Zubrick, Stephen R; Byrne, Susan M

    2017-07-01

    There is evidence that overweight and obese children tend to remain overweight or obese into adolescence and adulthood. However, little is known about the long-term psychosocial outcomes of childhood overweight and obesity. This study aimed to investigate the course of psychosocial difficulties over a 2-year period for children who were overweight or obese at baseline, and a sample of children who were a healthy weight at baseline. Participants were 212 children aged 8 to 13 years at baseline, who were participating in the Childhood Growth and Development (GAD) Study. Questionnaire and interview measures were used to assess children's self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body image, eating disorder symptoms, experiences with bullying, family satisfaction and quality of life. Linear mixed models were used to consider longitudinal changes in psychosocial variables. Overweight and obese children reported greater psychosocial distress than healthy weight children, and these differences were more pronounced for girls than boys. Weight and psychosocial impairment showed stability from baseline to 2-year follow-up. The results of this study suggest that psychosocial difficulties show considerable stability in childhood, for overweight/obese and healthy weight children. What is Known: • Childhood obesity tracks into adolescence and adulthood. • Physical health problems associated with childhood obesity also persist to adulthood. What is New: • Overweight and obese children are at risk of ongoing psychosocial distress from childhood into early adolescence.

  16. Do dyslexics have auditory input processing difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether...

  17. New Parkinson's Drug May Combat Movement Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162855.html New Parkinson's Drug May Combat Movement Difficulties Opicapone, added to ... HealthDay News) -- New research suggests that people with Parkinson's disease may achieve better and more reliable motor ...

  18. A Structuration Theory Analysis of the Refugee Action Support Program in Greater Western Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2009-01-01

    This article uses Gidden's structuration theory to analyse the Refugee Action Support program in Greater Western Sydney. The study shows that many refugee students in Australian high schools experience difficulty with academic transition in mainstream classrooms due to their previous experiences in war-torn countries. As a result of the trauma…

  19. The difficulty of measuring orbital angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Preece

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Light can carry angular momentum as well as energy and momentum; the transfer of this angular momentum to an object results in an optical torque. The development of a rotational analogue to the force measurement capability of optical tweezers is hampered by the difficulty of optical measurement of orbital angular momentum. We present an experiment with encouraging results, but emphasise the difficulty of the task.

  20. Managing activity difficulties at home: a survey of Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudgeon, Brian J; Hoffman, Jeanne M; Ciol, Marcia A; Shumway-Cook, Anne; Yorkston, Kathryn M; Chan, Leighton

    2008-07-01

    To describe assistance from helpers and use of assistive technology and environmental modification by community-dwelling people with difficulties in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Cross-sectional study using the 2004 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Community. Nationally representative sample of 14,500 Medicare beneficiaries (mean age, 71.5 y; 55% female; 49% currently married; 68% living with others; 84% white). Not applicable. Self-reported difficulty with ADLs and IADLs; uses of help, assistive technology, and/or environmental modification. Difficulties were reported most frequently for heavy housework, walking, and shopping; money management, shopping, and light housework were reported as activities most often needing a helper. Walking, bathing, and toileting were activities most often needing uses of assistive technology. Bathroom modifications were the most commonly reported environmental modification. Results from a logistic regression showed that advancing age was the primary factor associated with increasing use of helpers and assistive technology or both for difficult activities. Uses of helpers, assistive technology, and environmental modification are common but vary by type of ADL and/or IADL and age. Focused studies regarding uses of help and access to assistive technology and environmental modification appear needed to support community living. Public education about methods and types of accommodations appears needed and may substitute for or augment guidance from care providers.

  1. Country Report on China's Participation in Greater Mekong Subregion Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1.Executive SummaryThe Mekong River,which originates from the Danggula Mountain Range on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China and runs 4,880 km southward through six countries,namely,China,Myartmar,Laos,Thailand,Cambodia and Viet Nam,is an important transnational river in Asia and even the world.The section in China is called the Lancang River.Since the 1990s,the international cooperation in the Lancang-Mekong subregiun has received wide attention from the international community.Related countries and intemational organizations have carried out extensive cooperation,which has produced good results and forcefully facilitated economic and social development of the subregion.

  2. Difficulties and coping strategies of Sudanese refugees: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Nigar G; White, Katherine M; Schweitzer, Robert; Greenslade, Jaimi

    2008-09-01

    A qualitative approach was used to interview 23 Sudanese refugees residing in Brisbane, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to examine the participants' pre-migration, transit and post-migration experiences. Refugees reported traumatic and life-threatening experiences during the pre-migration and transit phases, and difficulties with resettlement during the post-migration phase. Nevertheless, participants reported using a number of coping strategies across all phases, including: reliance on religious beliefs, cognitive strategies such as reframing the situation, relying on their inner resources, and focusing on future wishes and aspirations. Social support also emerged as a salient coping strategy. The findings are useful for mental health professionals as they highlight the difficulties experienced by refugees across phases of migration as well as strategies they use to manage these traumas and stresses.

  3. Understanding the mediating role of corporal punishment in the association between maternal stress, efficacy, co-parenting and children's adjustment difficulties among Arab mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet; Zur, Hana

    2014-06-01

    This study, guided by the Family Systems Theory, examines the direct effect of maternal use of corporal punishment on children's adjustment difficulties. Also, it explores whether corporal punishment serves as a mediating factor in the relationship between several maternal characteristics, marital relationships, and children's adjustment difficulties. A total of 2,447 Arab mothers completed anonymous, structured, self-report questionnaires. The use of corporal punishment was generally strongly supported by the Arab mothers in our sample. A greater likelihood of using corporal punishment was found among mothers of boys rather than girls, among mothers with lower perceived self-efficacy to discipline children, and among mothers with a lower perception of their husbands' participation in child-related labor. In addition, the higher a mother's reports on disagreement with her husband about discipline methods and the stronger her level of maternal stress, the more likely she was to use corporal punishment. Corporal punishment also mediated the association between the above mentioned factors and child adjustment difficulties. Furthermore, a husband's emotional support and family socioeconomic status were directly associated to children's adjustment difficulties. The results of the current study emphasize the need to observe children's development within the context of their family systems and to consider the mutual influences of different subsystems such as marital relationships and mother-child interactions. Prevention and intervention programs should raise parents' awareness concerning the harmful effects of corporal punishment and take into account the impact of dynamic transactions of parental conflicts and disagreements regarding discipline methods on child outcomes.

  4. Career Decision-Making Difficulties and Help-Seeking among Israeli Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertsberger, Dana; Gati, Itamar

    2016-01-01

    The present research focused on the various types of support young adults consider using when making career decisions and located factors that affect their intentions to seek help. Career decision-making difficulties (assessed by the Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire), self-reported intentions to seek help, and career decision…

  5. Learning Difficulty in Applying Notion of Vector in Physics among "A" Level Students in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Teck-Chee

    Many high school and college students experience serious difficulties in understanding as well as applying fundamental concepts in physics. The study reported in this paper focused on the difficulties in learning about vectors in physics and strategies for making the teaching of vectors more interesting and meaningful for students. Specifically,…

  6. Kindergarten Adjustment Difficulty: The Contribution of Children's Effortful Control and Parental Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Lori; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: This paper examines the extent to which children's effortful control and early family experiences predict difficulty in kindergarten adjustment. One hundred and eighty-two children from 31 kindergarten classrooms in rural elementary schools in the Southeast participated. Teachers reported on children's difficulty with…

  7. Predicting Item Difficulty in a Reading Comprehension Test with an Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kyle; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article reports the results of using a three-layer back propagation artificial neural network to predict item difficulty in a reading comprehension test. Three classes of variables were examined: text structure, propositional analysis, and cognitive demand. Results demonstrate that the networks can consistently predict item difficulty. (JL)

  8. Children's History of Speech-Language Difficulties: Genetic Influences and Associations with Reading-Related Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee Anne; Schatschneider, Chris; Davison, Megan Dunn

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined (a) the extent of genetic and environmental influences on children's articulation and language difficulties and (b) the phenotypic associations between such difficulties and direct assessments of reading-related skills during early school-age years. Method: Behavioral genetic analyses focused on parent-report data…

  9. Stigma and difficulty accessing medical care in a sample of adults with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, Laysha; Manderscheid, Ron; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2014-11-01

    Wellness of people with mental illness is increasingly a public health priority. This study examined factors associated with difficulties receiving medical care in adults with mental illness. In a sample of 1,670 adults with mental illness, we assessed difficulties in accessing medical care and stigma. A total of 465 (28%) participants reported difficulties in accessing medical care; 211 (13%) attributed difficulties in access to stigma. Lack of comprehensive medical care coverage and mental health symptoms were associated with increased odds of perceived difficulties in accessing medical care; personal empowerment was negatively associated with perceived difficulties attributed to stigma; education was positively associated. The findings highlight unmet need for medical care in this population and the need to recognize stigma as a barrier medical care. Interventions to empower patients and educate medical providers about wellness for people with serious mental illness could help to reduce barriers.

  10. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rasuly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs. The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2–11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1–5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan

  11. Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-12-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was significantly below the average student performance in other Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore. This fact gave rise to this study which aims to investigate Indonesian students' difficulties in algebra. In order to do so, a literature study was carried out on students' difficulties in initial algebra. Next, an individual written test on algebra tasks was administered, followed by interviews. A sample of 51 grade VII Indonesian students worked the written test, and 37 of them were interviewed afterwards. Data analysis revealed that mathematization, i.e., the ability to translate back and forth between the world of the problem situation and the world of mathematics and to reorganize the mathematical system itself, constituted the most frequently observed difficulty in both the written test and the interview data. Other observed difficulties concerned understanding algebraic expressions, applying arithmetic operations in numerical and algebraic expressions, understanding the different meanings of the equal sign, and understanding variables. The consequences of these findings on both task design and further research in algebra education are discussed.

  12. Bullying among school-age children in the greater Beirut area: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of bullying at schools in the Greater Beirut Area and the extent to which differences in children's sociodemographics, family and school environment, and coping strategies could account for variation in academic achievement, PTSD and emotional and behavioral disorders. Participants were 665 male and female children of mean age 13.8 years. Results indicated that a high proportion of children had been involved in bullying on a regular basis with victims having a higher prevalence ratio than bullies and bully/victims. Verbal bullying including spreading rumors was the most common type of victimization, followed by being rejected from a group. Being bullied about one's religion or sect comprised one of the most common bullying behaviors in schools. Students rarely tried to stop a student from being bullied and teachers were reported to have done relatively little or nothing to counteract bullying. Prevalence of bullying was more among boys than girls. School bullying was not associated with academic achievement or with having difficulties in reading and math. Children who were identified as bully/victim, victim, and bully suffered from PTSD compared to those who were not identified as being involved in bullying The study showed that both bullies and victims are at-risk for short term and long-term adjustment difficulties including hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. Child's gender and emotion-focused coping stood out as risk factors for the development of bullying behaviors whereas age, problem-focused coping, family environment, and school environment were significant protective factors.

  13. Adverse childhood event experiences, fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Marni B; Boynton-Jarrett, Renee D; Harville, Emily W

    2015-01-01

    Increased childhood adversity may be affect adult fertility, however, the mechanism through which this occurs is unclear. Menstrual cycle abnormalities are predictive of fertility difficulties, and stress influences menstrual cycle characteristics. Here, we assess whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle dysregulation, offering a plausible mechanism for the link between lifetime stress and fertility. From April 2012 to February 2014, 742 pregnant and non-pregnant women aged 18-45 years residing in southeastern Louisiana provided information on childhood adversity and reproductive history. Associations between ACEs and fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle patterns were evaluated. As the number of ACEs increased, risk of fertility difficulties and amenorrhea increased (RR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.13 and RR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10, respectively), while fecundability decreased [fecundability ratio (FR) = 0.97, 95% CI 0.95-1.00]. Compared to women with no adversity, women in the high adversity group were more likely to experience both infertility and amenorrhea (RR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.45-5.21 and RR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.52-4.25, respectively), and reduced fecundability (FR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.56-1.00). Although similar patterns were seen for menstrual cycle irregularity, associations were diminished. Associations did not materially change following adjustment for age, body mass index, race, education, smoking and income. Results are constrained by the self-report nature of the study and the limited generalizability of the study population. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present evidence of a link between childhood stressors, menstrual cycle disruption and fertility difficulties. The effect of childhood stress on fertility may be mediated through altered functioning of the HPA axis, acting to suppress fertility in response to less than optimal reproductive circumstances.

  14. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost ter...

  15. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  16. NEW CONTRIBUTIONS TO READING DIFFICULTIES INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR SANTIUSTE BERMEJO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of the intervention programs and strategies to treat reading difficulties. The synthesisincludes a review of the last published articles on the issue, both in Spanish and English. It also presents the visits todifferent Language Rehabilitation Centers in the Community of Madrid including the approaches applied in thesecenters. Besides the description of the general intervention strategies applied to reading problems, some of theprograms to treat specific difficulties of words decoding and recognizing are explained, and the programs to treatreading comprehension and fluidity.

  17. How specific are specific comprehension difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the occurrence of poor comprehenders, i.e., children identified with reading comprehension difficulties in spite of age-appropriate word reading skills. It supports the findings that some children do show poor reading comprehension in spite of age-appropriate word reading as m...... and daily reading of literary texts were significantly below that of average readers. This study indicates that a lack of reading experience and, likewise, a lack of fluent word reading may be important factors in understanding nine-year-old poor comprehenders’ difficulties....

  18. Do dyslexics have auditory input processing difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether...... a group of dyslexics had word level receptive difficulties using an auditory lexical decision task with long words and nonsense words. The dyslexics were slower and less accurate than chronological age controls in an auditory lexical decision task, with disproportionate low performance on nonsense words...

  19. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  20. Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…

  1. Difficulties in Lexical Stress versus Difficulties in Segmental Phonology among Adolescents with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Protopapas, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    Dyslexic difficulties in lexical stress were compared to difficulties in segmental phonology. Twenty-nine adolescents with dyslexia and 29 typically developing adolescents, matched on age and nonverbal ability, were assessed on reading, spelling, phonological and stress awareness, rapid naming, and short-term memory. Group differences in stress…

  2. Difficulties in Lexical Stress versus Difficulties in Segmental Phonology among Adolescents with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Protopapas, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    Dyslexic difficulties in lexical stress were compared to difficulties in segmental phonology. Twenty-nine adolescents with dyslexia and 29 typically developing adolescents, matched on age and nonverbal ability, were assessed on reading, spelling, phonological and stress awareness, rapid naming, and short-term memory. Group differences in stress…

  3. Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…

  4. Task Difficulty in Oral Speech Act Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2007-01-01

    This study took a pragmatic approach to examining the effects of task difficulty on L2 oral output. Twenty native English speakers and 59 Japanese students of English at two different proficiency levels produced speech acts of requests and refusals in a role play task. The task had two situation types based on three social variables:…

  5. Mathematics Difficulties: Does One Approach Fit All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Sue; Rockliffe, Freda

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the nature of learning difficulties in mathematics and, in particular, the nature and prevalence of dyscalculia, a condition that affects the acquisition of arithmetical skills. The evidence reviewed suggests that younger children (under the age of 10) often display a combination of problems, including minor physical…

  6. College Student Debt and Anticipated Repayment Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jonathan J.; Bartholomae, Suzanne; Letkiewicz, Jodi C.; Montalto, Catherine P.

    This study analyzes factors associated with anticipated difficulty with repayment of debt accumulated during college using a basic model of credit risk that includes socialization processes influencing college student financial decisions. The empirical analysis uses data from the 2010 Ohio Student Financial Wellness Study. Results provide evidence…

  7. Difficulties in Initial Algebra Learning in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…

  8. Difficulties in Initial Algebra Learning in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…

  9. Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paulus|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074302922; van den Heuvel - Panhuizen, Marja|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069266255

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian

  10. Older Adults Have Difficulty in Decoding Sarcasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Louise H.; Allen, Roy; Bull, Rebecca; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Channon, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Younger and older adults differ in performance on a range of social-cognitive skills, with older adults having difficulties in decoding nonverbal cues to emotion and intentions. Such skills are likely to be important when deciding whether someone is being sarcastic. In the current study we investigated in a life span sample whether there are…

  11. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-01-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…

  12. Students' Difficulties with Proof by Mathematical Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John Douglas

    The cognitive difficulties encountered by 40 high school and 13 college students beginning to learn the proof technique of mathematical induction were investigated. Students provided data in the form of proof-writing and proof-analysis tasks followed by interviews to clarify their written responses. Both groups of students had significant…

  13. Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…

  14. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-01-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…

  15. Time Estimation Deficits in Childhood Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurks, Petra P. M.; van Loosbroek, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Time perception has not been comprehensively examined in mathematics difficulties (MD). Therefore, verbal time estimation, production, and reproduction were tested in 13 individuals with MD and 16 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and intellectual skills. Individuals with MD performed comparably to controls in time reproduction, but showed a…

  16. Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paulus; van den Heuvel - Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian student

  17. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties and Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tiffini

    2008-01-01

    Beginning foreign language (FL) courses in high school often have high numbers of learning disabled (LED) and at-risk students, perhaps because many students who are considered to be college bound begin foreign language study in middle school. This paper examines FL difficulties as well as effective strategies that others have used to conquer…

  18. Learning Styles and Foreign Language Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Obdulia; Peck, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify what other elements besides linguistic deficits could be playing a role in foreign language learning difficulties, the Kolb Learning Styles Inventory was administered to students enrolled in regular and modified Spanish classes at a major U.S. university. Preliminary results gathered as part of a longitudinal study on learning…

  19. The Development of the Concept of Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, John G.

    1980-01-01

    The central idea behind this study is that at about seven years of age the concept of normative difficulty emerges, resulting in changes in interpretation of terms such as "hard" and "easy," as well as of normative cues. (Author/DB)

  20. Learning Difficulties and Nutrition: Pills or Pedagogy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Examines the efforts to find effective ameliorative measures for literacy difficulties such as dyslexia and dyspraxia, focusing on noneducational techniques found in holistic medicine, complementary therapies, and nutritional supplements. Maintains that dyslexia has become big business for drug companies and that the appropriate research regarding…

  1. Difficulties in Initial Algebra Learning in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…

  2. Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…

  3. Fractions Learning in Children with Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Learning of fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind TA peers in…

  4. A simple question about falls to distinguish balance and gait difficulties in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Abraham; Krishnamurthi, Narayanan; Dhall, Rohit; Santiago, Anthony; Moguel-Cobos, Guillermo; Sadreddin, Arshia; Husain, Sameea; Salins, Naomi; Pan, Di

    2012-12-01

    Although gait and balance difficulties often occur together in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, it is believed that they are actually two eparate symptoms. However, there are no simple tests to distinguish them. We have developed the self-administered Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) question to distinguish between gait and balance issues in PD and it was tested in 102 consecutive PD patients. The responses were compared with those of the walking and balance question (item # 2.12) of the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), and the MDS-UPDRS motor examination and its subsets such as gait and postural stability (PS). Fifty-five patients reported balance difficulty on the BNI question and 64 reported walking and balance difficulty on the MDS-UPDRS question. Of the patients who reported balance difficulty on the BNI question, 74.5% had a PS score ≥2 and 25.4% fell at least three times per month. Of the patients who reported walking and balance difficulty on the MDS-UPDRS question, only 59.4% had a PS score ≥2 and only 10.9% fell three or more times per month. These statistically significant results suggest that the BNI question is better able to detect balance difficulty and its associated falls in PD and can be a supplement to the MDS-UPDRS or a stand-alone question to evaluate balance difficulty and its associated falls in PD.

  5. Do age-related word retrieval difficulties appear (or disappear) in connected speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavé, Gitit; Goral, Mira

    2017-09-01

    We conducted a comprehensive literature review of studies of word retrieval in connected speech in healthy aging and reviewed relevant aphasia research that could shed light on the aging literature. Four main hypotheses guided the review: (1) Significant retrieval difficulties would lead to reduced output in connected speech. (2) Significant retrieval difficulties would lead to a more limited lexical variety in connected speech. (3) Significant retrieval difficulties would lead to an increase in word substitution errors and in pronoun use as well as to greater dysfluency and hesitation in connected speech. (4) Retrieval difficulties on tests of single-word production would be associated with measures of word retrieval in connected speech. Studies on aging did not confirm these four hypotheses, unlike studies on aphasia that generally did. The review suggests that future research should investigate how context facilitates word production in old age.

  6. Prevalence of functioning difficulties and disability in Mexican adolescent women and their populational characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Allen-Leigh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Report prevalence of functioning difficulties and disabilities among Mexican adolescent women 15-17 years old and identify differences in characteristics of those with and without a functioning difficulty or disability Materials and methods. Using data from the National Survey of Boys, Girls and Women in Mexico 2015 we estimated prevalence of functioning difficulties and disability and used chi square tests for independence and logistic regression to explore associations between this condition and various characteristics. Results. Of Mexican adolescent women 15-17 years old, 11.1% had a functioning difficulty or disability. The group of domains of functioning difficulty and disability with by far the highest prevalence was socio-emotional and behavioral functioning difficulties or disability with 8.6%. Being employed, rural residence and self-reported depression symptoms were associated with having functioning difficulties or disability. Conclusions. This survey constitutes an important initial step in collecting data on functioning difficulty and disability in Mexico although larger samples should be studied.

  7. Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samokhvalova, Anna G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100 and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30, auditory (n = 30, speech (n = 25 and motor (n = 15 impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts. First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.

  8. Environmental planning and management in Greater Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Schirnding, Y E

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the actions among urban environmental, management, and development planners in Greater Johannesburg, South Africa. Initiatives, such as the Healthy Cities Project and Model Communities, are being integrated into an environmental management and development approach that attains the goals of Agenda 21. Greater Johannesburg has housing shortages and homelessness. Priority needs include the areas of housing, water, electricity, public transportation, and sanitation. Clean water and air are inequitably distributed. Other key environmental problems include illegal dumping, inadequate waste disposal, poor environmental hygiene in overcrowded inner city areas, lack of open spaces, flooding, and water scarcities. The newly formed metropolitan authority offers opportunities to improve coordination and integration of environmental problems. Stakeholders from government at all levels, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, and the business sector formed an intersectoral, interdepartmental environment management committee in 1995. Stakeholders will integrate Agenda 21 within broader urban development plans and processes. The executive committee and the full council approved a set of guiding principles on environmental policy and an administrative framework for management. Four workshops were held to ensure a participatory consultation process in 1995. The WHO Collaborating Center for Urban Health will be used to facilitate the work of the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Council. Changes are being made in the way local governments work.

  9. Processing Differences as a Function of Item Difficulty in Verbal Analogy Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitomer, Drew H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Processing of verbal analogies was evaluated by recording eye fixation patterns during solution of problems that represented a broad range of difficulty. Findings on easier problems replicated previous work. On difficult items, high verbal ability individuals adapted processing strategies to a greater extent then did low ability students.…

  10. Greater omentum in reconstruction of refractory wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈余明; 沈祖尧

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of greater omentum in reconstruction of refractory wounds. Methods: From August 1988 to May 2001, 20 patients with refractory wound underwent pedicle or microvascular free transfer of the greater omentum. Indications of surgery were electrical injury of the wrist and hand in 9 patients, electrical injury of the scalp and cranial bones in 3, avulsion injury of the scalp in 2, radiation-related ulcer of the chest wall in 2, ulcer and osteomyelitis following resection of the sternum sarcoma in 1, electrical injury of the abdomen in 1, bone and soft tissue defects following compound fracture of the leg in 1, and extensive scar and ulcer of the leg and footdrop following trauma in 1. Severe infection and extensive tissue necrosis were present prior to surgical operation in 12 patients. Eleven patients were treated with pedicled omental flaps, and 9 patients with free omental flaps. The size of the omental flaps ranged from 20 cm×12 cm to 38 cm×23 cm. Results: All the omental flaps survived. Healing at the first intention of the wounds was achieved in 17 cases. The on-top skin grafts resulted in partial necrosis of lipid liquefaction developed in the omentum and healed with dressing change in 2 cases. A sinus tract of osteomyelitis occurred in one case and healed after delayed excision of the necrosed bone. Follow-up study of all cases from 3 to 24 months showed no recurrent wounds and post-operative abdominal complication. Recovery with acceptable appearance and restoration of function was satisfactory. Conclusions: Greater omentum provides a well-vascularized tissue with lymphatic ducts for wound coverage. It has strong resistance against infection. It is very malleable and can be molded easily. Therefore it is an ideal tissue in filling cavities and repairing defects, especially in covering large and irregular defects that can not be treated with skin or muscle flaps.

  11. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  12. Multisensory perceptual learning is dependent upon task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Niear, Matthew A; Koo, Bonhwang; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-11-01

    There has been a growing interest in developing behavioral tasks to enhance temporal acuity as recent findings have demonstrated changes in temporal processing in a number of clinical conditions. Prior research has demonstrated that perceptual training can enhance temporal acuity both within and across different sensory modalities. Although certain forms of unisensory perceptual learning have been shown to be dependent upon task difficulty, this relationship has not been explored for multisensory learning. The present study sought to determine the effects of task difficulty on multisensory perceptual learning. Prior to and following a single training session, participants completed a simultaneity judgment (SJ) task, which required them to judge whether a visual stimulus (flash) and auditory stimulus (beep) presented in synchrony or at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) occurred synchronously or asynchronously. During the training session, participants completed the same SJ task but received feedback regarding the accuracy of their responses. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three levels of difficulty during training: easy, moderate, and hard, which were distinguished based on the SOAs used during training. We report that only the most difficult (i.e., hard) training protocol enhanced temporal acuity. We conclude that perceptual training protocols for enhancing multisensory temporal acuity may be optimized by employing audiovisual stimuli for which it is difficult to discriminate temporal synchrony from asynchrony.

  13. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  14. Mood Sensitivity to Seasonal Changes in African College Students Living in the Greater Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Guzman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the degree of seasonality and prevalence of winter- and summer-type seasonal affective disorder (SAD in African immigrant college students in comparison with African American peers. A convenience sample of 246 African immigrants and 599 African Americans studying in Washington, D.C. completed the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ, which was used to calculate a global seasonality score (GSS and to estimate the prevalence of winter- and summer-type SAD. Degree of seasonality was related to a complex interaction between having general awareness of SAD, ethnicity, and gender. A greater percentage of African students reported experiencing a problem with seasonal changes relative to African American students, and had summer SAD, but the groups did not differ on GSS and winter SAD. African students reported more difficulties with seasonal changes than their African American peers, which could represent a manifestation of incomplete acclimatization to a higher latitude and temperate climate. As Africans also had a greater rate of summer SAD, this argues against acclimatization to heat.

  15. Military Children's Difficulty With Reintegration After Deployment: A Relational Turbulence Model Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Leanne K; Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Ebata, Aaron T; McGlaughlin, Patricia C

    2017-02-16

    This study drew on the relational turbulence model to investigate how the interpersonal dynamics of military couples predict parents' reports of the reintegration difficulty of military children upon homecoming after deployment. Longitudinal data were collected from 118 military couples once per month for 3 consecutive months after reunion. Military couples reported on their depressive symptoms, characteristics of their romantic relationship, and the reintegration difficulty of their oldest child. Results of dyadic growth curve models indicated that the mean levels of parents' depressive symptoms (H1), relationship uncertainty (H2), and interference from a partner (H3) were positively associated with parents' reports of military children's reintegration difficulty. These findings suggest that the relational turbulence model has utility for illuminating the reintegration difficulty of military children during the postdeployment transition. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Victimisation and psychosocial difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns: a school-based study of adolescents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, P

    2014-11-01

    This study examined victimisation, substance misuse, relationships, sexual activity, mental health difficulties and suicidal behaviour among adolescents with sexual orientation concerns in comparison to those without such concerns. 1112 Irish students (mean age 14 yrs) in 17 mixed-gender secondary schools completed a self-report questionnaire with standardised scales and measures of psychosocial difficulties. 58 students (5%) reported having concerns regarding their sexual orientation. Compared with their peers, they had higher levels of mental health difficulties and a markedly-increased prevalence of attempted suicide (29% vs. 2%), physical assault (40% vs. 8%), sexual assault (16%vs. 1%) and substance misuse. Almost all those (90%) with sexual orientation concerns reported having had sex compared to just 4% of their peers. These results highlight the significant difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns in adolescents in Ireland. Early and targeted interventions are essential to address their needs.

  17. Language difficulties in children adopted internationally: neuropsychological and functional neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, E J; Behen, M E; Wilson, B; Muzik, O; Chugani, H T

    2014-01-01

    Children who have experienced deprivation as a result of orphanage care during early development are at increased risk for a number of cognitive, emotional, and social difficulties (MacLean, 2003). This study examined the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of internationally adopted children with language difficulties, one of the most common cognitive challenges (Behen et al., 2008). In addition to neuropsychological testing, fMRI was utilized to examine activation patterns during expressive fluency and receptive language tasks. In comparison to internationally adopted children without language difficulties and nonadopted controls, participants with language difficulty had worse performance on tasks of verbal memory and reasoning, academic skills, and working memory. Behaviorally, all internationally adopted participants, regardless of language ability, had more parent-reported hyperactivity and impulsivity compared with controls. The fMRI tasks revealed reduced activation in traditional language areas in participants with language difficulty. The impact of early adverse experience on later development is discussed.

  18. Greater trochanteric stippling in trisomy 7p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, Justin R. [Starship Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Auckland (New Zealand); Teele, Rita L. [Starship Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Auckland (New Zealand); Aftimos, Salim [Auckland City Hospital, Northern Regional Genetic Services, Auckland, Private Bag 92024 (New Zealand)

    2006-08-15

    Trisomy 7p is a rare condition involving partial or complete duplication of the short arm of chromosome 7. Radiological features include large fontanelles, widened sutures, dolicocephaly and asymmetrical skull. We report a new radiological finding of punctate calcifications in the region of femoral trochanters. This finding has not previously been reported with chromosome 7p duplication. (orig.)

  19. Diagnosing the Course of Learning – Concept, Difficulties and Chances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Josef Klauer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available To diagnose the course of learning during a longer period of time as it is similarly practiced in curriculum-based measurement (CBM one has to use tests which always are equally difficult and every time measure the same competence. Until today it is not clear how to construct a greater number of tests of equal difficulty und validity. Moreover, it is not clear which test theory is suitable for such tests since classical test theory turns out to be problematic with respect to such tests. Finally, suitable tests should be sensitive even to minor changes of competence. In this article a solution is offered based upon criterion-referenced tests, item sampling and the binomial test model. Finally, a forthcoming computer-based test is described which will overcome most of the problems and which can be used to measure the course of learning of mathematics with children of elementary school.

  20. The difficulties of the Chinese and Indian exchange rate regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Patnaik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available China and India have both sought control over the exchange rate in order to maintain export competitiveness, manage current account balance, and pursue independent monetary policy. In this paper, we examine structural change in the Chinese and Indian de facto exchange rate regimes, focusing on the period from 1998 to 2007. With increasing capital account openness, exchange rate inflexibility has been associated with significant monetary policy distortions. In both countries, the short-term rate expressed in real terms dropped, and achieved very low values, in the unprecedented business cycle expansion of the early 2000s. In the Indian case, difficulties of sterilisation led to a modification of the exchange rate regime, moving towards greater flexibility. In China, in contrast, the exchange rate regime did not change.

  1. Student Difficulties with the Dirac Delta Function

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R

    2014-01-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool used in multiple topical areas in the undergraduate physics curriculum. While Dirac delta functions are usually introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students often struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To better understand student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined responses to traditional exam questions and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Challenges included: invoking the delta function spontaneously, constructing two- and three-dimensional delta functions, integrating novel delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units.

  2. Students’ difficulties with integration in electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hai Nguyen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the common difficulties that students in introductory physics experience when solving problems involving integration in the context of electricity. We conducted teaching-learning interviews with 15 students in a second-semester calculus-based introductory physics course on several problems involving integration. We found that although most of the students could recognize the need for an integral in solving the problem, they failed to set up the desired integral. We provide evidence that this failure can be attributed to students’ inability to understand the infinitesimal term in the integral and/or failure to understand the notion of accumulation of an infinitesimal physical quantity. This work supports and extends previous research on students’ difficulties with integration in physics.

  3. Three Communication Difficulties of EFL Students

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Jiménez, Grettel

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the diversity of resources (media, Internet, software, videos, social networks, etc.) many students present a lot of difficulties in developing their communication skills in learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Indeed, there are three aspects that affect the students’ oral production negatively. First, lack of motivation that could be manifested in anxiety and students’ low self-esteem. Second, the learning environment which includes the teacher’s methodology and classroo...

  4. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, S.; Watkins, K; Bishop, D

    2016-01-01

    Trends Individuals with SLI and dyslexia have impaired or immature learning mechanisms; this hampers their extraction of structure in complex learning environments. These learning difficulties are not general or confined to language. Problems are specific to tasks that involve implicitly learning sequential structure or complex cue–outcome relationships. Such learning is thought to depend upon corticostriatal circuits. In language learning studies, the striatum is recruited when adults extrac...

  5. Students' difficulties with vector calculus in electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven encounter with the divergence and curl of a vector field in mathematical and physical contexts. We have found that they are quite skilled at doing ca...

  6. LUDWIG’S ANGINA AND ANAESTHETIC DIFFICULTIES: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarda Devi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with deep neck infections present challenging airways for an anesthesiologist . Ludwig’s angina is potentially lethal, rapidly spreading cellulitis involving the floor of the mouth and neck. Without aggressive management it often results in life th reatening upper airway obstruction. Securing the airway remains the top priority in treatment of Ludwig’s angina. Although awake fibreoptic intubation remains the ideal method for securing the airway, but it is not available in every set up, so all feasibl e options of securing the airway should be prepared. We present a case successfully managed at our hospital with a brief review of airway management options.

  7. 14 CFR 121.703 - Service difficulty reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that affects fuel flow or causes hazardous leakage during flight; (12) An unwanted landing gear extension or retraction, or an unwanted opening or closing of landing gear doors during flight; (13) Brake... fail to perform the intended functions during an actual emergency or during training,...

  8. [Genital actinomycosis. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. Report of three cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, D; Lizee, D S; Van den Akker, M; Gadonneix, P; Tranbaloc, P; Villet, R

    1999-01-01

    Genital actinomycosis is a rare bacterial infection affecting women of child-bearing age, which is sometimes related to the use of an IUD or an intra-vaginal pessary. Nevertheless, this relationship is at best tenous and actinomycosis is not the only bacterial infection caused by IUD use. Genital actinomycosis often occurs as a pelvic tumour which is sometimes difficult to correctly diagnose and consequently treat accordingly. Rapid diagnosis is essential in order to avoid any irreparable tissue damage. Treatment of this condition consists of a combination of antibiotics and surgery to achieve complete recovery. Three cases are described.

  9. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  10. DIFFICULTY OF AMENDMENT AND INTERPRETATIVE CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme difficulty of amending the U.S. Constitution plays a central but largely unexamined role in theoretical debates over interpretive choice. In particular, conventional wisdom assumes that the extreme difficulty of Article V amendment weakens the case for originalism. This view might ultimately be correct, but it is not the freestanding argument against originalism it is often presumed to be. Rather, it depends on contestable normative and empirical premises that require defense. If those premises are wrong, the stringency of Article V might actually strengthen the case for originalism. Or Article V might have no impact on that case one way or another. This “complexity thesis” highlights and clarifies the role that difficulty of amendment plays across a range of significant interpretive debates, including those surrounding writtenness, John Hart Ely’s representation-reinforcement theory, interpretive pluralism, and originalism as a theory of positive law. It also has important implications for the under-studied relations between statutory and constitutional interpretation and federal and state constitutional interpretation.

  11. 'Theory of mind' II: Difficulties and critiques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastow, Michael

    2012-08-01

    'Theory of mind' will be further examined firstly by looking at the experimental situation that was used to put forward this notion. A fundamental difficulty regarding the failure of 'theory of mind' to account for the misunderstandings of everyday life will be discussed. Other difficulties in the experimental conceptualisation of this notion will then be studied. Critiques that have previously been made of 'theory of mind' will also be examined. 'Theory of mind' proposes an ideal of limpid understanding of the other. It is argued here that this notion of mind-reading is belied by its failure in our everyday lives. The experimental results by which this notion was proposed are neither sensitive nor specific. It is argued that there is also a fundamental error in this conception and its experimental design due to assessing a second-person phenomenon by a third-person method. Critiques of 'theory of mind' emphasise the epistemological difficulties and the fact that it is a poor explanation for the interactions of non-autistic subjects.

  12. Active citizenship and acquired neurological communication difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Bennett, Amanda; Cairney, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    People with communication impairments may face barriers to civic participation, with resulting marginalisation of individuals who wish to be actively involved. The investigation aimed to explore the experience of civically engaged adults with acquired neurological communication difficulties. Six people with acquired neurological communication difficulties were interviewed. Discussion included the definition of active citizenship, their civic involvement, motivations, related barriers and facilitators. Qualitative analysis was undertaken, with data categorised, coded and examined for recurring themes. All participants were active in disability-related organisations and four undertook wider civic roles. Motivations included activity being out with the home and wanting to effect change for themselves and the populations they represented. Disability group meetings were more positive experiences than broader community activities, which were associated with fatigue and frustration, commonly resulting from communication difficulties and unmet support needs. All participants identified a need for professional and public educational about disability and communication and made recommendations on content, methods and priority groups. For these participants civic engagement had positive and negative dimensions. Speech and language therapists should promote reduction of the barriers that impede the active citizenship rights of people with communication support needs. Civic participation may be a relevant measure of outcome in communication impaired populations.

  13. Phonetic difficulty and stuttering in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter; Au-Yeung, James; Yaruss, J Scott; Eldridge, Kevin

    2006-11-01

    Previous work has shown that phonetic difficulty affects older, but not younger, speakers who stutter and that older speakers experience more difficulty on content words than function words. The relationship between stuttering rate and a recently-developed index of phonetic complexity (IPC, Jakielski) was examined in this study separately for function and content words for speakers in 6-11, 11 plus-18 and 18 plus age groups. The hypothesis that stuttering rate on the content words of older speakers, but not younger speakers, would be related to the IPC score was supported. It is argued that the similarity between results using the IPC scores with a previous analysis that looked at late emerging consonants, consonant strings and multiple syllables (also conducted on function and content words separately), validates the former instrument. In further analyses, the factors that are most likely to lead to stuttering in English and their order of importance were established. The order found was consonant by manner, consonant by place, word length and contiguous consonant clusters. As the effects of phonetic difficulty are evident in teenage and adulthood, at least some of the factors may have an acquired influence on stuttering (rather than an innate universal basis, as the theory behind Jakielski's work suggests). This may be established in future work by doing cross-linguistic comparisons to see which factors operate universally. Disfluency on function words in early childhood appears to be responsive to factors other than phonetic complexity.

  14. Greater patient confidence yields greater functional outcomes after primary total shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, Joseph F; Higuera, Carlos A; Strnad, Greg; Iannotti, Joseph P

    2015-08-01

    Patient satisfaction is increasingly being tied to reimbursement rates, and patient satisfaction is often associated with improving functionality and decreasing disability postoperatively. This study sought to determine if a total shoulder arthroplasty patient's preoperative confidence in his or her ability to attain the level of activity desired would influence postoperative functional scores. Patients undergoing a primary total shoulder arthroplasty at a single institution were asked to complete a preoperative questionnaire with multiple items including baseline symptom severity measures and their confidence in reaching their level of desired functionality postoperatively (scored 0-10). Patients then completed an identical postoperative questionnaire at their follow-up visits. Associations between the patient's confidence in attaining treatment goals and functional outcomes was established by multiple linear regression models that were adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, baseline 12-Item Short Form Health Survey mental component scores, college education, smoking status, baseline functional scores, and length of follow-up. Patients had a high level of confidence that their outcome would match their expectations, with an average score of 7.8 (range, 0-10; 28.4% reported a full 10/10 confidence). For every 1-point increase in confidence, patients experienced an average increase in their function score of 2.7 points (P = .039) and improvement in their pain score of 2.0 (P = .033) according to the Penn Shoulder Score. There was no significant association with the patient's 12-Item Short Form Health Survey score postoperatively. Patients with greater preoperative confidence actually have significantly better postoperative functional outcomes than their less confident peers even with adjustment for other known risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Task Difficulty from the Learner's Perspective: Perceptions and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David; Keobke, Ken

    1995-01-01

    This paper explored task difficulty from the perspective of the learner. It investigated the relationship between student perception of task difficulty and actual difficulty as measured by successful completion of a task. The study also collected information on those factors identified by students themselves as implicated in task difficulty.…

  16. Motor Processing Difficulties: Guidance for Teachers in Mainstream Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Sharon; Drysdale, Jill; Jordan, Glenda

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties in motor processing are often seen in children with specific literacy difficulties. Indeed many children with dyslexia may also have a diagnosis of dyspraxia. This article seeks to increase understanding of difficulties in motor processing and to provide practical advice to teachers to assist in identification of such difficulties. It…

  17. Perceived difficulties using everyday technology after acquired brain injury: influence on activity and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, Anita; Lexell, Jan; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2010-12-01

    Using everyday technology (ET) is a prerequisite for activities and participation at home and in the community. It is well known that persons with an acquired brain injury (ABI) can have limitations in activities of daily living but our knowledge of their difficulties using ET is not known. Thirty-six persons (27 men and 9 women, mean age 44 years, age range 26-60) with an ABI (2-10 years post injury) were interviewed, using the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ), about their perceived difficulties using ET and how these difficulties influenced their everyday activities and their possibilities to participate at home and in the community. A majority (78%) of the persons reported difficulties using ET. The most common difficulties were related to the use of telecommunication and computers. Despite these difficulties, a majority still used most objects and services independently. Twenty-six participants (72%) perceived that their difficulties using ET influenced their everyday activities and their possibility to participate at home and in the community. The results indicate that rehabilitation following an ABI should consider whether clients' use of ET influences their activity and participation and adopt interventions accordingly. The results also indicate that difficulties using ET need to be considered in the design of community services to prevent societal barriers.

  18. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2006-03-01

    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  19. What Teachers Say About Student Difficulties Solving Mathematical Word Problems in Grades 2-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Pearce, Faye Bruun, Kimberly Skinner, & Claricia Lopez-Mohler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Close This study investigated teachers' perspectives of difficulties students have solving mathematical word problems and causes of those difficulties. Classroom practices and strategies teachers used in their attempts to foster student problem solving success were also studied. Participants were 70 second-fifth grade teachers from 42 different schools in a south central region of the United States. Data included analyses of interview transcriptions of teachers' responses. Findings from teachers' responses showed students' abilities to read and understand the problem was the most frequently cited difficulty; standardized testing and text difficulties were the most cited causes of those difficulties. Examination of teachers' responses to practices and strategies used in the classroom revealed the most cited practice was working the problem independently and the most cited strategy taught to students was to identify key words. This study revealed the significant role reading plays in teachers' perspectives of students' difficulties solving mathematical word problems and provided insight into practices and strategies teachers reported using to teach word problems. With attention to teacher-reported causes of difficulties and importance of this ability for students, this study also showed the impact state mandated testing has on instruction of mathematical word problems

  20. On the study and difficulties of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    De Morgan, Augustus

    2005-01-01

    One of the twentieth century's most eminent mathematical writers, Augustus De Morgan enriched his expositions with insights from history and psychology. On the Study and Difficulties of Mathematics represents some of his best work, containing points usually overlooked by elementary treatises, and written in a fresh and natural tone that provides a refreshing contrast to the mechanical character of common textbooks.Presuming only a knowledge of the rules of algebra and Euclidean theorems, De Morgan begins with some introductory remarks on the nature and objects of mathematics. He discusses the

  1. Anal fistula: Intraoperative difficulties and unexpected findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed A Abou-Zeid

    2011-01-01

    Anal fistula surgery is a commonly performed procedure. The diverse anatomy of anal fistulae and their proximity to anal sphincters make accurate preoperative diagnosis essential to avoid recurrence and fecal incontinence. De-spite the fact that proper preoperative diagnosis can be reached in the majority of patients by simple clinical ex-amination, endoanal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, on many occasions, unexpected findings can be encountered during surgery that can make the oper-ation difficult and correct decision-making crucial. In this article we discuss the difficulties and unexpected find-ings that can be encountered during anal fistula sur-gery and how to overcome them.

  2. Difficulties of Biography Writing: A Philosophical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vefa TAŞDELEN

    2014-01-01

    In this article can be also entitled “Difficulties of Biography Writing: A Philosophical Approach” what biography and biography writing means will be dealt with from a partly existentialist and hermeneutic view point by taking questions such as; “what is biography?”, “why human beings want to understand the other?”, “what is the nature of biography: is it history or literature?” into consideration. In this respect; knowledge value, art value, ethical value, existential value and educational v...

  3. Anal fistula: intraoperative difficulties and unexpected findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zeid, Ahmed A

    2011-07-28

    Anal fistula surgery is a commonly performed procedure. The diverse anatomy of anal fistulae and their proximity to anal sphincters make accurate preoperative diagnosis essential to avoid recurrence and fecal incontinence. Despite the fact that proper preoperative diagnosis can be reached in the majority of patients by simple clinical examination, endoanal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, on many occasions, unexpected findings can be encountered during surgery that can make the operation difficult and correct decision-making crucial. In this article we discuss the difficulties and unexpected findings that can be encountered during anal fistula surgery and how to overcome them.

  4. Electropalatography in the assessment and treatment of speech difficulties in children with Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Many children with Down syndrome experience significant speech difficulties which in turn affects their speech intelligibility. This paper describes how electropalatography, a computer-based technique which uses visual feedback to alter speech production, is being used at Queen Margaret University, to assess and treat speech difficulties in a group of children and young people with Down syndrome. Encouraging results from a single case are reported.

  5. Difficulties of diabetic patients in the illness control: feelings and behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Siqueira Péres; Manoel Antônio dos Santos; Maria Lúcia Zanetti; Antônio Augusto Ferronato

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to identify difficulties diabetic patients face during treatment in controlling the disease. A total of 24 diabetic patients, attended in the Nurse Educational Center for Adults and Elders in 2003, participated in the study. The data was collected individually, through a written report guided by a question previously elaborated, on a pre-scheduled date. The Content Analysis technique was used in the data analysis. The results showed several difficulties related to the treatme...

  6. The degree of intubation difficulties and the frequency of complications in obese patients at the Hospital Emergency Department and the Intensive Care Unit: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierniak, Marcin; Sobczak, Renata; Timler, Dariusz; Wieczorek, Andrzej; Borkowski, Bartosz; Gaszyński, Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    The intubation difficulties in obese patients are not a new problem. They may result from an accumulation of fat in the oral cavity and cheeks. A thick tongue is also a significant factor. The literature reports that some tests to determine the intubation difficulties in obese people may be unreliable. The observed predictors of difficult intubation were the thyromental and sternomental distance and the intubation difficulty scale: FRONT score.The aim of this study was to assess the degree of difficult intubation in obese patients by the parameters such as the thyromental and sternomental distance. The authors also tried to evaluate the frequency of the guidewire usage and the number of intubation attempts in obese patients in the research sample.The study included the group of 153 patients intubated in prehospital conditions. The research was conducted in 3 clinical centers receiving patients from prehospital care. Among the members of the research sample, obese patients with body mass index >35 were selected and evaluated for various predictors of intubation difficulties. Quantitative analysis of differences in the incidence of the variables was assessed using the chi-squared test for P < 0.05. Analyses were performed in STATISTICA.Complications such as postintubation hematomas were more frequent in obese patients of the research sample. The frequency of the guidewire usage observed in that group was also higher. As anticipated by the adopted predictors, most of the obese patients were classified as difficult to intubate.There is a correlation between the occurrence of injuries and the prevalence of obesity in the research sample and the same dependency has been demonstrated in the issue concerning the use of the guidewire. Although the majority of predictors indicated patients with intubation difficulties, many predictors could show falsely positive results. The greater amount of intubation attempts was observed in obese patients. Further studies devoted to

  7. Emotional regulation difficulties and premenstrual symptoms among Israeli students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Inbal; Dan, Rotem; Segman, Ronen; Evron, Ron; Laufer, Sofia; Goelman, Gadi; Bonne, Omer; Canetti, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) reported to affect 3-8 % of women of reproductive age and resulting in marked emotional and occupational impairment. Despite its prevalence, the etiology of PMDD is largely unknown, and patients remain mostly undiagnosed and poorly treated. It has been suggested that PMDD is a manifestation of underlying depressive disorder which is associated with the inability to regulate emotions in an adaptive manner. Therefore, we hypothesized that women with PMDD would exhibit increased difficulty with emotional regulation. A total of 648 female Israeli college students were assessed by the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST) and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Of these women, 166 (25.6 %) met the criteria for PMS. Sixty-four (9.9 %) suffered from PMDD. More emotion regulation deficits were observed in the PMDD and PMS groups compared to the control group. Furthermore, there were more emotional regulation deficits among the predominantly psychological and mixed symptom subtype compared to the predominantly physical symptom subtype group. This is the first study to report an association between emotional dysregulation and PMDD. These findings may lead to development of more individually tailored treatment protocols focused on improving emotional regulation techniques.

  8. Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David

    2012-08-01

    Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in classroom interactions, and what consequences these interactions have for individual students' conceptual understanding. This paper reports a detailed analysis of two lessons on density in a 7th Grade Australian science classroom, employing the theory of Distributed Cognition (Hollan et al. 1999; Hutchins 1995). The analysis demonstrated that student understanding of density was shaped strongly by the public classroom discussion on the density of two metal blocks. It also revealed the ambiguities associated with the teacher demonstration and the student practical work. These ambiguities contributed to student difficulties with the concept of density identified in this classroom. The results of this study suggest that deliberate effort is needed to establish shared understanding not only about the purpose of the activities, but also about the meaning of scientific language and the utility of tools. It also suggests the importance of appropriate employment of instructional resources in order to facilitate student scientific understanding.

  9. Evaluating the User Experience of Exercising Reaching Motions With a Robot That Predicts Desired Movement Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2016-01-01

    The notion of an optimal difficulty during practice has been articulated in many areas of cognitive psychology: flow theory, the challenge point framework, and desirable difficulties. Delivering exercises at a participant's desired difficulty has the potential to improve both motor learning and users' engagement in therapy. Motivation and engagement are among the contributing factors to the success of exercise programs. The authors previously demonstrated that error amplification can be used to introduce levels of challenge into a robotic reaching task, and that machine-learning algorithms can dynamically adjust difficulty to the desired level with 85% accuracy. Building on these findings, we present the results of a proof-of-concept study investigating the impacts of practicing under desirable difficulty conditions. A control condition with a predefined random order for difficulty levels was deemed more suitable for this study (compared to constant or continuously increasing difficulty). By practicing the task at their desirable difficulties, participants in the experimental group perceived their performance at a significantly higher level and reported lower required effort to complete the task, in comparison to a control group. Moreover, based on self-reports, participants in the experimental group were willing, on average, to continue the training session for 4.6 more training blocks (∼45 min) compared to the control group's average. This study demonstrates the efficiency of delivering the exercises at the user's desired difficulty level to improve the user's engagement in exercise tasks. Future work will focus on clinical feasibility of this approach in increasing stroke survivors' engagement in their therapy programs.

  10. F-35 Sustainment: Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    F - 35 SUSTAINMENT Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates Report...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F - 35 Sustainment: Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater...House of Representatives September 2014 F - 35 SUSTAINMENT Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates Why

  11. [Overcoming difficulties is our goal in 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2011-03-01

    During the past two years, Investigación Clínica has undergone a substantial reduction in its funding caused by the insufficient budget allotment that the University of Zulia has received from the Venezuelan Government. The progressive increase in the number of articles contained in each issue of the journal caused its weight to exceed the established limits, affecting the distribution costs. Therefore, some adjustments to its structure and distribution are required to maintain its frequency and quality, including reducing the number of papers per issue and sacrificing free shipping to many libraries and health centers in our country and abroad. The "Instructions to Authors" will appear only in the first issue and we will keep the "Index of Authors" in the last issue of the year. Also the publishing of reprints will be limited and only will be sent to authors upon request and shipment pre-payment. Likewise, color pages fees will be canceled to the Publishers, prior to printing. For the above mentioned difficulties, we recommend our regular readers to use the website https://sites.google.com/site/revistainvestigacionesclinicas/, where all articles can be found in PDF format, as they appear in our printed edition. Despite these difficulties, all our collaborators will keep working to maintain the high standards that have characterized this journal for over 50 years, inspired by our founder, Dr. Américo Negrette.

  12. Difficulties of Just-In-Time Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many companies experience difficulty in implementing Just-in-Time (JIT in their manufacturing system. Based on observations, the article argues that the problem is partly due to confusion about JIT and its implications and partly due to a desire to implement JIT within an existing organisational structure. A four-level classification system is presented as a way of summarising the different degrees of JIT implementation and their difficulties.JIT philosophy has been of great interest to the manufacturers and researchers over the past few decades. JIT systems are designed to produce the goods & deliver services as and when required.JIT systems are capable to attain the far-reaching productivity and quality standards. Numerous benefits have been claimed by the firms implementing JIT across the World. Efforts are being made day-by-day to look into the benefits and their feasibility in the Manufacturing Industries. Despite the profound interest in it, the extent of implementation in India has not been satisfactory. Many firms which had benefitted from JIT systems appear to address only a few features, rather than looking into the whole philosophy of JIT. The paper attempts to address the necessary initiatives required to be taken by the Management of Indian Manufacturing Industry for the implementation of the various JIT subsets, through a survey based on previous literature. Further, it analyzes and concludes the modification of procedures and operations required for its successful implementation along with the challenges encountered during the JIT philosophy implementation.

  13. Cultural Discrepancies Multiply Difficulties in Translating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨姝

    2016-01-01

    Translators always face dilemmas while translating source text into target text. Whether the language form is more im-portant than the real underlying meaning is constantly a controversial issue in translation. In practice, to keep the target text in the same genre and form as the source text and accurately render the original meaning from the author is highly difficult, espe-cially in literature translation. Therefore, previous research regarding difficulties in translating various languages in diverse cul-tures are to be reviewed, followed by a more specific context in which literature translations from Chinese to English and Eng-lish to Chinese are analyzed. Difficulties exposed in these translations are dealt with by experienced translators who employ vari-ous strategies. How effective these translations are in transmitting the original source language in both form and other functions are then evaluated. Moreover, the impacts that culture have on translation are further discussed. It comes to conclude that transla-tors may apply effective methods to minimize the gap between source language and target language, despite being unable to ex-actly render the meaning and form of the source text, especially when over one source language is involved.

  14. Intervention program efficacy for spelling difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Maria Nobre; Capellini, Simone Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    To develop an intervention procedure for spelling difficulties and to verify the effectiveness of the intervention program in students with lower spelling performance. We developed an intervention program for spelling difficulties, according to the semiology of the errors. The program consisted of three modules totaling 16 sessions. The study included 40 students of the third to fifth grade of public elementary education of the city of Marilia (SP), of both genders, in aged of eight to 12 years old, being distributed in the following groups: GI (20 students with lower spelling performance) and GII (20 students with higher spelling performance). In situation of pre and post-testing, all groups were submitted to the Pro-Orthography. The results statistically analyzed showed that, in general, all groups had average of right that has higher in post-testing, reducing the types of errors second semiologycal classification, mainly related to natural spelling errors. However, the results also showed that the groups submitted to the intervention program showed better performance on spelling tests in relation to not submitted. The intervention program developed was effective once the groups submitted showed better performance on spelling tests in relation to not submitted. Therefore, the intervention program can help professionals in the Health and Education to minimize the problems related to spelling, giving students an intervention that is effective for the development of the spelling knowledge.

  15. Grassroots Action Research and the Greater Good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainey Isobel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This study examines the action research topics and topic preferences of two groups of grassroots teachers: active researchers, and potential researchers. The analysis of the topics appears to indicate that, over the past decade, action research at the teaching of English at the grassroots level to speakers of other languages has been principally understood in terms of professional development with respect to teachers’ methodologies and learners’ learning behaviours. A nascent concern for a more ample approach to professional development and issues conducive to the greater good of the profession can, it is mooted, flourish only with the collaboration of all relevant stakeholders.

    En este estudio se examinan los temas de investigación acción y los temas preferidos por dos grupos de profesores de base: uno de investigadores activos y otro de investigadores potenciales. El análisis sugiere que, durante la última década, la investigación acción en el aula de inglés para hablantes de otras lenguas se ha entendido principalmente en términos del desarrollo profesional con respecto a las metodologías de los profesores y las conductas estudiantiles de aprendizaje. Se considera que un incipiente interés por un enfoque más amplio y por asuntos conducentes al beneficio general de la profesión, solamente puede florecer con la colaboración de todos los actores más importantes.

  16. Potentials for Heat Savings in Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    are suggested. Two scenarios for future heat savings are established, deviating in the rates of renovation, demolition, and construction of buildings, as well as in the thermal insulation standards, ventilation systems ,and in the daily behaviour. The results are that compared to the base year 1995, heat......This report describes methodologies for analysing heat saving potentials. The background for the lack of activities in that field is suggested. Various elements of heat savings are described, including changes in daily behaviour and life styles. Definition of various levels of potentials...

  17. Appeal for legislation on greater safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    An Essex-headquartered company which claims to manufacture the world's leading "brand" of glass vision panel, is calling for legislation to regulate the quality and design of such products. With no statutory governance currently in place, it is concerned that a rash of badly-designed, poorer quality variants, that it says have emerged in recent years, pose a significant self-harm and ligature risk to mentally unwell patients in hospitals, and a potential danger to staff when components like internal fittings and the glass itself, especially should the latter be too thin and thus easy to break, are used as "weapons". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports.

  18. Inferior glenohumeral joint dislocation with greater tuberosity avulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd Faizan; Latif Zafar Jilani; Mazhar Abbas; Yasir Salam Siddiqui; Aamir Bin Sabir; M.K.A.Sherwani; Saifullah Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Inferior glenohumeral dislocation is the least common type of glenohumeral dislocations.It may be associated with fractures of the adjacent bones and neurovascular compromise.It should be treated immediately by close reduction.The associated neuropraxia usually recovers with time.Traction-counter traction method is commonly used for reduction followed by immobilization of the shoulder for three weeks.Here,we report a case of inferior glenohumeral joint dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture with transient neurovascular compromise and present a brief review of the literature.

  19. Conceptual and practical difficulties with the economic evaluation of health services developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, J; Hensher, M; Mulligan, J A; Shepperd, S; Jones, J

    2000-01-01

    Five recent economic evaluations comparing hospital at home schemes with acute hospital care faced remarkably similar problems. This paper outlines these problems and considers what strategies can be derived from these experiences, which will be relevant to economic evaluations of other aspects of the organisation of care, particularly those crossing the interfaces between primary and secondary health care or the interface between health and social services. The difficulties experienced can be divided into conceptual and practical problems. Conceptual problems were primarily associated with issues of context and related to the choice of comparator, capacity constraints and size of schemes, and the choice between a short or a long run perspective. Practical problems were connected with the time at which schemes were evaluated, the type of clinical study alongside which studies were conducted and the types of data available for use in the analysis. Strategies which can be pursued in conducting economic evaluations of organisational change include giving greater attention to conceptual and hence contextual problems as well as reporting these contextual issues in detail, accepting the need for repeated economic evaluations as organisational changes become more widespread and considering carefully the clinical study design where economic evaluations of organisational change are conducted alongside. These strategies are of importance not just to those conducting economic evaluations but also to those funding appraisals of changes in the organisation of care. Use of different strategies such as those suggested here should be evaluated.

  20. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  1. Rural New Zealand health professionals' perceived barriers to greater use of the internet for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Ron; Arroll, Bruce; Buetow, Stephen; Coster, Gregor; McCormick, Ross; Hague, Iain

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate rural North Island (New Zealand) health professionals' attitudes and perceived barriers to using the internet for ongoing professional learning. A cross-sectional postal survey of all rural North Island GPs, practice nurses and pharmacists was conducted in mid-2003. The questionnaire contained both quantitative and qualitative questions. The transcripts from two open questions requiring written answers were analysed for emergent themes, which are reported here. The first open question asked: 'Do you have any comments on the questionnaire, learning, computers or the Internet?' The second open question asked those who had taken a distance-learning course using the internet to list positive and negative aspects of their course, and suggest improvements. Out of 735 rural North Island health professionals surveyed, 430 returned useable questionnaires (a response rate of 59%). Of these, 137 answered the question asking for comments on learning, computers and the internet. Twenty-eight individuals who had completed a distance-learning course using the internet, provided written responses to the second question. Multiple barriers to greater use of the internet were identified. They included lack of access to computers, poor availability of broadband (fast) internet access, lack of IT skills/knowledge, lack of time, concerns about IT costs and database security, difficulty finding quality information, lack of time, energy or motivation to learn new skills, competing priorities (eg family), and a preference for learning modalities which include more social interaction. Individuals also stated that rural health professionals needed to engage the technology, because it provided rapid, flexible access from home or work to a significant health information resource, and would save money and travelling time to urban-based education. In mid-2003, there were multiple barriers to rural North Island health professionals making greater

  2. Difficulties in clinical diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi B. Channaiah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM is a disorder which describes initial left ventricular dysfunction and symptoms of cardiac failure between the late stages of pregnancy and the first five months after delivery. PPCM is a difficult diagnosis to make because it resembles common cardiac issues that are normally experienced during pregnancy. Clinical presentation is representative of cardiac failure and is commonly misdiagnosed until further progression. This disorder is commonly seen in some regions of the world and rare in others. Proper evaluation and rapid treatment are crucial for an effective recovery. Subsequent pregnancies should be evaluated before pursuing. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the difficulties in clinical diagnosis and provide a concise and practical approach to treatment of suspected PPCM. [J Exp Integr Med 2015; 5(2.000: 69-74

  3. Exploring student difficulties with observation location

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, Jaime; Fischer, Susan M; Kustusch, Mary Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Throughout introductory physics, students create and interpret free body diagrams in which multiple forces act on an object, typically at a single location (the object's center of mass). The situation increases in difficulty when multiple objects are involved, and further when electric and magnetic fields are present. In the latter, sources of the fields are often identified as a set of electric charges or current-carrying wires, and students are asked to determine the electric or magnetic field at a separate location defined as the observation location. Previous research suggests students struggle with accounting for how a measurement or calculation depends on the observation location. We present preliminary results from a studio-style, algebra-based, introductory electricity and magnetism course exploring the extent to which students struggle with observation location by analyzing student written work involving vector addition of fields.

  4. Time estimation deficits in childhood mathematics difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurks, Petra P M; van Loosbroek, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Time perception has not been comprehensively examined in mathematics difficulties (MD). Therefore, verbal time estimation, production, and reproduction were tested in 13 individuals with MD and 16 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and intellectual skills. Individuals with MD performed comparably to controls in time reproduction, but showed a tendency to be less accurate on tasks of verbal time estimation and time production. More specifically, these individuals overestimated the duration of a time interval in the verbal time estimation task and showed underproduction when required to produce a time sample. All previous significant comparisons remained significant after controlling for the effects of interval duration, working memory, attention allocation, and quantity estimation. These findings lead us to suggest that time estimation, and more specifically the "internal clock," is abnormally fast in individuals with MD. Results are discussed in terms of Meck and Church's model of temporal processing and Dehaene's triple code model for number processing.

  5. Students’ difficulties with vector calculus in electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Bollen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Maxwell’s equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven encounter with the divergence and curl of a vector field in mathematical and physical contexts. We have found that they are quite skilled at doing calculations, but struggle with interpreting graphical representations of vector fields and applying vector calculus to physical situations. We have found strong indications that traditional instruction is not sufficient for our students to fully understand the meaning and power of Maxwell’s equations in electrodynamics.

  6. A Twin-Study of Sleep Difficulties in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines frequency, overlap, and genetic and environmental influences on sleep difficulties, which are understudied in school-aged children. The Sleep Self Report and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were completed by 300 twin pairs (aged 8 years) and their parents. Child report suggested more frequent sleep problems than…

  7. Vulnerability to Bullying in Children with a History of Specific Speech and Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie E.; Mackie, Clare

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the susceptibility to problems with peer relationships and being bullied in a UK sample of 12-year-old children with a history of specific speech and language difficulties. Data were derived from the children's self-reports and the reports of parents and teachers using measures of victimization, emotional and behavioral…

  8. The Impact of Working Memory Training in Young People with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughan, Laura; Hadwin, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a working memory (WM) training programme on measures of WM, IQ, behavioural inhibition, self-report test and trait anxiety and teacher reported emotional and behavioural difficulties and attentional control before and after WM training and at a 3 month follow-up. The WM training group (N = 7) showed significantly…

  9. Reasons Why Students Have Difficulties with Mathematical Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Lane

    2007-01-01

    Many difficulties surrounding mathematical induction have been described by researchers. In this paper, I describe several underlying causes for these difficulties. In particular, the symbolic nature of induction is discussed, along with student cognitive levels, validation abilities, and proof schemes.

  10. Numerical Magnitude Representation in Children with Mathematical Difficulties with or without Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Fasola, Anna; Lupieri, Alice; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the spatial numerical association of response codes (SNARC), the flanker, and the numerical distance effects in children with mathematical difficulties. From a sample of 720 third, fourth, and fifth graders, 60 children were selected and divided into the following three groups: typically developing children (TD; n =…

  11. The Development of Cognitive Mediation of Difficulty Level Preferences with Different Difficulty Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, John G.

    This study examines the development of children's preference for task difficulty levels. Subjects were 78 boys and 66 girls, aged 63 to 105 months. The sample was separated into older and younger groups. Within each age group, half the children of each sex were randomly assigned to one of two forms to test their level of aspiration. Subjects were…

  12. Foreign language learning difficulties in Italian children: are they associated with other learning difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Marcella; Palladino, Paola

    2007-01-01

    A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and nonverbal learning skills, such as native language reading accuracy, speed and comprehension, calculation, and attention and self-regulation. Both experiments showed that the LA group seemed at risk for reading comprehension difficulties, but its reading speed and accuracy were within the average range according to Italian norms. The results also excluded the possibility that FL learning difficulties of LA participants could be associated with a deficit in calculation. Furthermore, according to teachers' ratings, children with LA appeared at risk for attention-deficit disorder (ADD). The pattern of learning difficulties of seventh- and eighth-grade participants with LA appeared to be not completely comparable with that of high school students at risk of FL learning difficulties as described in the literature.

  13. Six-month-old infants' interaction difficulties are mirrored in their preference for perfect contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmyj, Norbert; Klein-Radukic, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    During the first months of life, infants switch from a preference for perfect contingent feedback to a preference for less-than-perfect contingent feedback of their own movements. This is an indicator of increasing social interest since others provide less-than-perfect contingent feedback whereas the self provides perfect contingent feedback. We presented 117 6-month-olds with real-time and delayed video feedback of self-performed leg movements and asked parents about difficulties in various socioemotional domains. It was hypothesized that the more infants prefer real-time and therefore perfect contingent feedback over 7 s delayed and therefore perceived noncontingent feedback, the more difficulties parents will report in interaction and communication with their child. Preference for real-time feedback was related to difficulties in interaction, but not to difficulties in communication. Implications of this finding for infants' socioemotional development and health are discussed.

  14. Double Dissociations in Reading Comprehension Difficulties among Chinese-English Bilinguals and Their Association with Tone Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, William; Tong, Xiuli; Deacon, S. Hélène

    2017-01-01

    Poor comprehenders have reading comprehension difficulties but normal word recognition ability. Here, we report the first study, which investigated (i) the dissociation and (ii) the prevalence of L1-L2 reading comprehension difficulties, and (iii) the levels of key metalinguistic skills in poor comprehenders among Chinese-English bilingual…

  15. Community Teaching Practice for Greater Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siao-cing Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experience has been considered a vital part of teacher education. Universities have to search for ways for student teachers to gain experience in an authentic teaching environment. Several successful models incorporating service learning have been reported across fields (Brooks & Schramm, 2007; Nandan, 2010; Salas, Safaradan, & Ugarte, 2008, but there is still insufficient research found that combined English teacher preparation and service learning (Hsieh, 2002. Consequently, this researcher incorporated service learning into an English methodology course in Taiwan to engage students in higher learning experiences that take them beyond traditional teacher training. This paper describes a four-stage process of community service teaching, presenting its benefits and challenges. This study which incorporated quantitative and qualitative methodologies proved that teaching practices in collaboration with community libraries created three-way benefits: advancing the quality of college education and bringing valuable learning opportunities to the student teachers as well as the children who participated; and creating memorable experiences for the students and the communities that participated. Keywords: service learning, teacher preparation, university partnership, higher education

  16. Intradermal normal saline solution, self-selected music, and insertion difficulty effects on intravenous insertion pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A F

    1999-01-01

    To examine the effect of listening to self-selected music versus an intradermal injection of normal saline solution on the intensity and distress of intravenous (IV) catheter insertion pain. Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Inpatient and outpatient units in 2 university-affiliated southwestern medical centers. One hundred ten adult inpatients and outpatients undergoing IV therapy. Pain intensity, pain distress, and IV insertion difficulty visual analog scales. Patients were randomly assigned to receive an intradermal injection of normal saline solution, listen with headphones to self-selected music, or be in a control group for IV insertion. A MANOVA revealed no statistically significant multivariate or univariate differences in pain by treatment group, but significantly higher pain distress scores with failed IV insertions. The pain intensity and distress scores were significantly higher in the saline solution group when compared with the music and control groups combined. Insertion difficulty was significantly positively correlated with pain intensity and distress for the entire sample, with weak, nonsignificant correlations in the music group. Intradermal unpreserved saline solution contributes to greater pain intensity and distress, greater insertion difficulty, and a higher failure rate than the use of music or routine IV insertion. Listening to preferred music attenuates the effect of insertion difficulty on IV insertion pain. Intravenous insertion attempts were unsuccessful in more than one third of the subjects, resulting in higher pain distress scores. Further research is needed on interventions to reduce IV insertion pain and on factors contributing to IV insertion failure.

  17. Pallister-Killian syndrome: difficulties of prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doray, Bérénice; Girard-Lemaire, Françoise; Gasser, Bernard; Baldauf, Jean-Jacques; De Geeter, Bernard; Spizzo, Michèle; Zeidan, Charles; Flori, Elisabeth

    2002-06-01

    The first prenatal diagnosis of Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) was reported by Gilgenkrantz et al. in1985. Since this report, about 60 prenatal cases have been reported but both sonographic and cytogenetic diagnoses remain difficult. Although ultrasound anomalies such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia, polyhydramnios and rhizomelic micromelia in association with fetal overgrowth are very suggestive of the syndrome, they are inconstant and they may even be absent. The mosaic distribution of the supernumerary isochromosome 12p greatly increases these difficulties. No prenatal cytogenetic technique is sensitive enough to ensure prenatal diagnosis and false-negative results have been described on fetal blood, chorionic villi and amniocentesis. We report here two prenatal cases of PKS which illustrate the great variability of the fetal phenotype. In reviewing the 63 reported cases, we attempt to determine ultrasound indicators of the syndrome and to define a cytogenetic strategy. In cases where ultrasound indicators are present, our proposal is first to perform chorionic villus or placental sampling and then amniocentesis when the first cytogenetic result is normal. Fetal blood sampling is the least indicated method because of the low frequency of the isochromosome in lymphocytes. In this cytogenetic strategy, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and especially interphase FISH on non-cultured cells increases the probability or identifying the isochromosome. A misdiagnosis remains possible when ultrasound is not contributory; the identification of new discriminating ultrasound indicators would be very helpful in this context.

  18. Cultural Dimensions of Career Decision-Making Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Wei-Cheng J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated cultural dimensions of career decision-making difficulties using the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire. Career decision-making difficulties were compared among White, African, Hispanic, and Asian American high school and university students at U.S. schools. Results indicated Asian American students perceived…

  19. A Diary Study of Difficulties and Constraints in EFL Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on learners' course diaries, this paper explores Chinese EFL learners' perceptions of difficulties and constraints in EFL learning and their responses to the perceived difficulties and constraints. The diary data appear to indicate that the students' learning difficulties lay mainly with their linguistic competence, but a closer scrutiny…

  20. Status of Muslim Immigrants' Children with Learning Difficulties in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, M. Naeem; Shabbir, Muhammad; Saeed, Wizra; Mohsin, M. Saleem

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to know the status of Muslim immigrants' children with learning difficulties and importance of parents' involvement for the education whose children are with learning difficulties, and the factors responsible for the learning difficulties among immigrants' children. There were 81 immigrant children with learning…

  1. Early Identification and Interventions for Students With Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten,Russell; Jordan,Nancy C.; Flojo,Jonathan R.

    2005-01-01

    This article highlights key findings from the small body of research on mathematics difficulties (MD) relevant to early identification and early intervention. The research demonstrates that (a) for many children, mathematics difficulties are not stable over time; (b) the presence of reading difficulties seems related to slower progress in many…

  2. Mathematical Competencies in Children with Different Types of Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical performance of 182 third and fourth graders in 8 different areas of mathematics was examined. The children belonged to 4 achievement groups: children with mathematic difficulties (MD only), children with both mathematic and reading difficulties (MD-RD), children with reading difficulties (RD only), and normally achieving children…

  3. Student Perception of Topic Difficulty: Lecture Capture in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunn, Patrick; Newton, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Perception of topic difficulty is a likely predictor of lecture capture video use, as student perception of difficulty has been shown to affect a variety of outcomes in academic settings. This study measured the relationship between perceived difficulty and the use of lecture capture technology in a second year biochemistry course while…

  4. Form cues and content difficulty as determinants of children's cognitive processing of televised educational messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, T A; Wright, J C; Huston, A C

    1987-06-01

    An experiment was designed to assess the effects of formal production features and content difficulty on children's processing of televised messages about nutrition. Messages with identical content (the same script and visual shot sequence) were made in two forms: child program forms (animated film, second-person address, and character voice narration with sprightly music) and adult program forms (live photography, third-person address, and adult male narration with sedate background music). For each form, messages were made at three levels of content difficulty. Easier versions were longer, more redundant, and used simpler language; difficult versions presented information more quickly with less redundancy and more abstract language. Regardless of form or difficulty level, each set of bits presented the same basic information. Kindergarten children (N = 120) were assigned to view three different bits of the same form type and difficulty embedded in a miniprogram. Visual attention to child forms was significantly greater than to adult forms; free and cued recall scores were also higher for child than for adult forms. Although all recall and recognition scores were best for easy versions and worst for difficult versions, attention showed only minor variation as a function of content difficulty. Results are interpreted to indicate that formal production features, independently of content, influence the effort and level of processing that children use to understand televised educational messages.

  5. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.

  6. Difficulties in Parenting Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Gita Movallali

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Despite the abundance of literature about deaf children, few works specifically address the concept and practice of difficulties in parenting hearing-impaired children. The first interactions of the child are with his parents, and parents have the most important role in child improvements during early intervention programs. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate different aspects of parenting hearing-impaired children.Methods: In this article, we reviewed all aspects of parenting hearing-impaired children in papers from 1984-2009 in Medline, Scopus and Proquest and relative textbooks. The semi-professional role of parents of hearing-impaired children make them feel under excessive stress and this usually affects their other roles as fathers and mothers. Many factors including child age, type of hearing loss and parents’ individual characteristics may influence the impact of child’s hearing loss on parents.Conclusion: Parenting a hearing-impaired child is both similar and different to parenting any other child. Where there are differences, there are usually challenges too. Taking support and advice from professionals and other parents are necessary and invaluable for parents of hearing-impaired children.

  7. A Case of Undiagnosed Sleep Disorder with Hearing Difficulty and Dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiyuki Goto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this case report was to investigate the relationship between sleep disorders and audio vestibular symptoms.   Case Report: A case of undiagnosed sleep disorder, presenting as a temporary auditory processing difficulty, is presented. The disorder was initially treated as sudden deafness with dizziness. A 23-year-old male patient complained of acute hearing disturbance despite normal results on pure tone audiometry. The patient was initially administered a steroid injection in the hospital. After treatment, his hearing symptoms improved only slightly and he reported balance difficulty with rightward spontaneous nystagmus. Vestibular rehabilitation was performed. We also suspected that his hearing symptom was due to an auditory processing difficulty. Despite steroid treatment and vestibular rehabilitation, neither of his symptoms improved. We subsequently identified the presence of insomnia. He was prescribed zolpidem 5 mg, which slightly improved his symptoms, and referred to a sleep specialist for further examination. Polysomnography was performed, which identified restless leg syndrome and sleep disturbance with delayed sleep phase syndrome. After pharmacological treatment, his sleep disturbance, hearing difficulty, and balance disorder completely resolved.   Conclusion: Sleep disorders may provoke reversible auditory processing difficulties. We should carefully evaluate patients for a potentially undiagnosed sleep disorder, even in patients chiefly complaining of intractable sensory dysfunction such as hearing or balance disturbance.

  8. Analysing Psychosocial Difficulties in Depression: A Content Comparison between Systematic Literature Review and Patient Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloyan Kamenov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all the knowledge on depression, it is still unclear whether current literature covers all the psychosocial difficulties (PSDs important for depressed patients. The aim of the present study was to identify the gaps in the recent literature concerning PSDs and their related variables. Psychosocial difficulties were defined according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. A comparative approach between a systematic literature review, a focus group, and individual interviews with depressed patients was used. Literature reported the main psychosocial difficulties almost fully, but not in the same degree of importance as patients’ reports. Furthermore, the covered areas were very general and related to symptomatology. Regarding the related variables, literature focused on clinical variables and treatments above all but did not report that many psychosocial difficulties influence other PSDs. This study identified many existing research gaps in recent literature mainly in the area of related variables of PSDs. Future steps in this direction are needed. Moreover, we suggest that clinicians select interventions covering not only symptoms, but also PSDs and their modifiable related variables. Furthermore, identification of interventions for particular psychosocial difficulties and personalisation of therapies according to individuals’ PSDs are necessary.

  9. Analysing Psychosocial Difficulties in Depression: A Content Comparison between Systematic Literature Review and Patient Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Mellor-Marsá, Blanca; Leal, Itziar; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Cabello, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Despite all the knowledge on depression, it is still unclear whether current literature covers all the psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) important for depressed patients. The aim of the present study was to identify the gaps in the recent literature concerning PSDs and their related variables. Psychosocial difficulties were defined according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). A comparative approach between a systematic literature review, a focus group, and individual interviews with depressed patients was used. Literature reported the main psychosocial difficulties almost fully, but not in the same degree of importance as patients' reports. Furthermore, the covered areas were very general and related to symptomatology. Regarding the related variables, literature focused on clinical variables and treatments above all but did not report that many psychosocial difficulties influence other PSDs. This study identified many existing research gaps in recent literature mainly in the area of related variables of PSDs. Future steps in this direction are needed. Moreover, we suggest that clinicians select interventions covering not only symptoms, but also PSDs and their modifiable related variables. Furthermore, identification of interventions for particular psychosocial difficulties and personalisation of therapies according to individuals' PSDs are necessary. PMID:25009814

  10. Neuropsychological factors and cognitive processes in children with writing difficulties and without writing difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C. Canales

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sought to contribute to the knowledge of the differences in the level of development of neuropsychological factors and cognitive processes in children with and without writing difficulties. Similarly, we wanted to see if there was an association between neuropsychological factors and processes involved in writing. Descriptive design was causal comparative, examining 80 children in third through sixth grade, studying in state schools of Callao using EPRE Test (Velarde, Canales, Melendez & Lingán, 2014, Child Neuropsychological Diagnostic Test Luria-DNI Test and Wechsler intelligence: WISC-IV. The results showed significant differences in all neuropsychological factors favoring the group without writing difficulties. Also, no relationship between most neuropsychological factors and psychological processes involved in writing. The instruments demonstrated their validity and usefulness.

  11. Greater Happiness for a Greater Number: Did the Promise of Enlightenment Come True?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2017-01-01

    In the eighteenth century 'Enlightened' thinkers challenged the belief that happiness exists only in Heaven. They claimed that happiness is possible in earthly life and foresaw that greater happiness would be achieved using reason. Did this promise of greater happiness come true? Several scholars doubt that we have become any happier and some claim that happiness has declined. These critical claims are tested using the time trend data available in the World Database of Happiness, which cover the period 1950-2010 and involve 1531 data points in 67 nations yielding 199 time-series ranging for 10 to more than 40 years. The analysis reveals that happiness has risen in most nations. The average yearly rise in the 67 nations was +0.012 on scale 0-10, which equals a rise of one full point every 83 years. At this rate happiness must have improved by more than two points over the past two centuries and, together with increasing longevity, this denotes an unprecedented rise in happy life years.

  12. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ABDUL

    reported a case of Ogilvie's syndrome following a caesarean delivery ... perinatal mortality has been attributed to the difficulty in the early diagnosis ... The abdomen was full, moved with respiration and soft. There .... Acute intestinal obstruction.

  13. A longitudinal study of behavioral, emotional and social difficulties in individuals with a history of specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Michelle C; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have often been reported to have associated behavioral, emotional and social difficulties. Most previous studies involve observations at a single time point, or cross sectional designs, and longitudinal evidence of the developmental trajectories of particular difficulties is limited. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure behavioral (hyperactivity and conduct), emotional and social (peer) problems in a sample of individuals with a history of SLI at four time points from childhood (age 7) to adolescence (age 16). A decrease in behavioral and emotional problems was observed from childhood to adolescence, although emotional problems were still evident in adolescence. In contrast, there was an increase in social problems. Reading skills and expressive language were related only to behavioral problems. Pragmatic abilities were related to behavioral, emotional and social difficulties. As a group, those with a history of SLI have poorer long term social and, to a lesser extent, emotional outcomes. In contrast, behavioral difficulties appear to decrease to normative levels by adolescence. Different aspects of early language abilities and reading skills exert different types and degrees of influence on behavioral, emotional and social difficulties. Readers will be able to: (1) understand the types of behavioral, emotional and social difficulties present in individuals with a history of SLI; (2) be familiar with the developmental trajectory of these difficulties from childhood to adolescence; and (3) understand the relationships between behavioral, emotional and social difficulties and early language and literacy ability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Difficulties of students with limited english language skills in pre-service mathematics education courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Kaye; MacGregor, Mollie

    1991-06-01

    Student teachers who are recent migrants to Australia from non-English-speaking countries experience difficulties in mathematics method courses and in teaching practice, but there are no published reports of research into their difficulties. This paper reports on a preliminary investigation into how students with limited English skills perceive their problems and how they think courses could be adapted to meet their needs. Information was obtained from a questionnaire, by conversation with individual students, by observation of micro-teaching sessions and teaching practice, and from a student counsellor. The factor which most concerned the repondents to the questionnaire was the difficulty which pupils might have in understanding their speech. The results of the study highlight the present lack of resources to provide intensive training for student teachers in the use of specifically mathematical English. The teacher education course was identified as the only vehicle available to them for improving their English.

  15. Word-finding difficulties, verbal paraphasias, and verbal dyspraxia in ten individuals with fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, M; Rocha, A C; Giacheti, C M; Richieri-Costa, A

    1995-02-27

    Speech/language disorders are common in the fragile X syndrome. [Howard-Peebles, 1979: Am J Hom Genet 31:214-222; Renier et al., 1983: J Ment Defic Res 27:51-59; Sparks, 1984: Birth Defects and Speech-Language Disorders, pp. 39-43; Hanson et al., 1986: Am J Med Genet 23:195-206]. Verbal paraphasias have been considered a rare feature and word-finding difficulties have seldom been reported. Here we report on ten Brazilian patients who were evaluated for speech/language disturbances and found that word-finding difficulties were present in 50% of the cases, which is a slightly higher frequency than that of clear dyspraxia. We suggest, therefore, that word-finding difficulties and verbal dyspraxia can be a common feature within the spectrum of this syndrome. Additional speech findings are discussed.

  16. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  17. Development of a difficulty score for spinal anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, M M; Demian, A D; Shorrab, A A

    2004-03-01

    Multiple attempts at spinal puncture may be hazardous. Accurate preoperative prediction of difficulty adds to the delivery of high quality care. This clinical trial was designed to: (i). determine the predictive performance of difficulty variables; (ii). compare senior and junior anaesthetists; (iii). develop a score to predict difficulty during the performance of spinal anaesthesia. A total of 300 patients subjected to urological procedures and scheduled for spinal anaesthesia were independently assessed and stratified according to the categories of the difficulty predictors of spinal anaesthesia into one of nine grades (0-8) and randomized according to the experience of the anaesthetist into two groups (group A, staff with more than 15 yrs' experience; group B, resident with more than 6 months but less than 1 yr in training). The number of attempts and levels, and success rate of the technique were the outcome variables. Data were analysed by multivariate analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The bony landmarks of the back and the radiological characteristics of the lumbar vertebrae were two independent predictors of difficulty. Multivariate analysis indicated differences between junior and senior staff but ROC curves indicated no difference. Grade 4 was the difficulty score at or above which difficulty was expected whether or not radiological characteristics of the vertebrae were included. Spinal bony landmarks and radiological characteristics of the lumbar vertebrae are independent predictors of difficulty during spinal anaesthesia. There is no difference between senior and junior anaesthetists. Grade 4 is the difficulty score at or above which difficulty is expected.

  18. Solitary fibrous tumor of the greater omentum mimicking an ovarian tumor in a young woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Rodriguez Tarrega

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT of greater omentum in a young woman. SFT arising from the greater omentum can mimic a gynecologic neoplasm. SFTs are generally benign but some of them are malignant and have uncertain prognosis. An adequate follow-up is essential in these patients.

  19. Pedaling power and speed production vs. technical factors and track difficulty in bicycle motocross cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Manuel; Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Zabala, Mikel

    2011-12-01

    Mateo, M, Blasco-Lafarga, C, and Zabala, M. Pedaling power and speed production vs. technical factors and track difficulty in BMX cycling. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3248-3256, 2011-This article analyzes whether there is a determined profile in the production of cyclic and acyclic periods in relation to the phases of a bicycle motocross (BMX) race and whether this profile is related to the variables, Difficulty of track and Techniques used. After an initial test for determining maximum pedaling power (Pmax), 9 athletes belonging to the Spanish national team completed 3 series of 3 different types of races: (a) Complete track without pedaling; (b) Track, pedaling only at the gate start; and (c) track with free pedaling. The triple test was carried out over 3 days and on different level tracks: (a) high difficulty (HD), (b) medium difficulty (MD), and (c) low difficulty (LD). Our results show that average peak power applied in the BMX race was 85.21 ± 2.15% Pmax, coming down to 73.02 ± 18.38% at the gate start and to 51.37 ± 15.84% on the first straight. On the other hand, mean power (MP) in the BMX race is 33.79 ± 8.60% MPmax, with statistically significant differences in relation to the difficulty of the track (p < 0.000; 0.009; higher in the easiest). The mean velocity developed is 34.21 ± 1.0 km·h with significant differences (p < 0.000) in relation to the difficulty of the track. Acyclic efforts accounted for 86.3%, and cyclic efforts accounted for the remaining 16.7% of the overall performance in the race, with differences in relation to the difficulty of the track (p ≤ 0.003). Both power profile and performance (measured as velocity) are dependent on the phases and techniques of the race and are significantly affected by the level of difficulty of the track. The greater the technical level of the track, the lesser the possibility of developing cyclic power and vice versa.

  20. Linking Sleep to Hypertension: Greater Risk for Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (8 hour sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18–85 years. Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (8 hours sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR = 1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P<0.01. Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension.

  1. Food Accessibility and Perceptions of Shopping Difficulty among Elderly People Living Alone in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M; Yokoyama, T; Nakaya, T; Fukuda, Y; Takemi, Y; Kusama, K; Yoshiike, N; Nozue, M; Yoshiba, K; Murayama, N

    2016-01-01

    This aim of this study was to describe the association between shopping difficulty and food accessibility for elderly people living alone in Japan. A cross-sectoral, multilevel survey was designed to measure shopping difficulty from a food accessibility perspective. The questionnaire was distributed by mail. The sample was drawn from seven towns and cities across Japan. A geographic information system was used to select the sample: it identified the proximity of elderly people living alone to a supermarket. In total, 2,028 elderly people (725 men and 1,303 women) responded to the questionnaire. The binary dependent variables were shopping is easy/shopping is difficult. A logistic regression analysis adjusting for age and area of residence and using stepwise variable analyses was performed. The response rate was 58.6%. Overall, 14.6% of elderly men and 21.7% of elderly women consider shopping difficult. The stepwise logistic analysis showed that the food accessibility factors strongly related to shopping difficulty are infrequent car use (women: OR = 6.97), walking difficulties (men: OR = 2.81, women: OR = 3.48), poor eyesight (men: OR = 2.26, women: OR = 1.75), not cooking lunch by oneself (men: OR = 1.63, women: OR = 1.72), not having anyone to help with food shopping (women: OR = 1.45) and living over 1 km away from a supermarket (men: OR = 2.30, women: OR = 2.97). The study concludes that elderly people's assessment of shopping difficulty is related to their food accessibility. Important food accessibility aspects include car or motorbike ownership, walking continuously for 1 km, poor eyesight, and having cooking skills and having someone to help with shopping. These physical activity restrictions have a greater influence on shopping difficulty than do either income or proximity to a supermarket.

  2. Adjustment Difficulties and Caregiving Burdens Faced by College Students with a Parent with Bipolar or Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Erin K.; Ruggero, Camilo J.; Bain, Kathleen; Kilmer, Jared

    2014-01-01

    College campuses often host students who come from families where one or more parent has been affected by a bipolar or depressive disorder. The present study sought to determine whether these students face unique challenges in college, including increased adjustment difficulties as well as greater caregiving burden associated with their…

  3. Greater Sandhill Crane colt survival on the Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report details Greater Sandhill Crane colt survival at Ruby lake NWR during the time period from 1984 to 2006. Management recommendations are suggested to...

  4. Task difficulty in mental arithmetic affects microsaccadic rates and magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Eva; Costela, Francisco M; McCamy, Michael B; Di Stasi, Leandro L; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Sonderegger, Andreas; Groner, Rudolf; Macknik, Stephen; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Microsaccades are involuntary, small-magnitude saccadic eye movements that occur during attempted visual fixation. Recent research has found that attention can modulate microsaccade dynamics, but few studies have addressed the effects of task difficulty on microsaccade parameters, and those have obtained contradictory results. Further, no study to date has investigated the influence of task difficulty on microsaccade production during the performance of non-visual tasks. Thus, the effects of task difficulty on microsaccades, isolated from sensory modality, remain unclear. Here we investigated the effects of task difficulty on microsaccades during the performance of a non-visual, mental arithmetic task with two levels of complexity. We found that microsaccade rates decreased and microsaccade magnitudes increased with increased task difficulty. We propose that changes in microsaccade rates and magnitudes with task difficulty are mediated by the effects of varying attentional inputs on the rostral superior colliculus activity map.

  5. Financial Difficulty Effects on Depressive Symptoms Among Dementia Patient Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ilsung

    2016-11-01

    The financial difficulty of dementia caregivers and its effects on mental health has gained increasing attention from researchers. The present study examines the longitudinal relationship between financial difficulty and the depressive symptoms of dementia caregivers using matching methods to account for potential selection bias. Propensity score matching methods and mixed-effects models were used to determine the effects of financial difficulty on depressive symptoms among caregivers participating in the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) intervention program. Propensity score matching confirmed that caregivers experiencing financial difficulty were more likely to have depressive symptoms. The results suggest that dementia caregivers require support for their financial difficulty. Future research should fully examine the complex relationship between financial difficulty and the mental health of caregivers and how this issue can be addressed through assessment and intervention methods.

  6. Brief Report: Fathers' and Mothers' Ratings of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Gemma M.; Hastings, Richard P.; Petalas, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Debate is ongoing about whether typically developing siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at greater risk of behavioral or emotional problems than siblings of children without ASD. Most data on behavior is provided by mothers, and we do not know whether fathers' reports differ. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire…

  7. [Difficulties of the care of public antigen alloimmunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amor, I; Rekik, T; Louati, N; Lahiani, W; Rekik, H; Peyrard, T; Menif, H; Gargouri, J

    2016-05-01

    Alloimmunization against high-frequency erythrocyte antigens is a problematic situation in terms of laboratory diagnosis, transfusion and obstetrical management. We report the case of a pregnant woman alloimmunized against public Ag. We detail the difficulties of alloantibody (Ab) identification and transfusion management of the deliveries. A 29-year-old pregnant woman was hospitalized in gynecology and obstetrics departments at 36 weeks of gestation for assessment of hydrops fetalis. Antibody identification test revealed the presence of a pan-reactive antibody. Investigations realized in CNRGS (Paris) concluded in anti-GE2+anti-RH3+autoantibody. The red cell phenotype was GE: -2,3. A therapeutic interruption of the pregnancy was indicated. A program of autologous transfusion was organized with withdrawal of 2 units of blood. The 2nd pregnancy took place normally. Before delivery, an autologous blood reserve consisting of 2 red cell packs and 2 fresh frozen plasma was withdrawn and transfused after delivery. The management of anti-public alloimmunization poses several problems. The first one is of diagnostic nature with, on the one hand, the difficulty of Ab identification by the available red cell panels and, on the other hand, the possible presence of alloantibodies of transfusional or obstetric interest masked by anti-public Ab. The second is represented by transfusional care of these patients. In the absence of a national reserve of frozen rare blood, the autologous transfusion remains the only alternative. However, it can answer only a limited number of indications and only in case of moderate blood loss.

  8. Difficulties and solutions of learning Icelandic for foreigners

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Soffía Yujing, 1989-

    2012-01-01

    This thesis mainly focuses on difficulties in learning Icelandic, as well as analyzing and suggesting measures for improvements of these difficulties. Icelandic is a hard language to learn and many foreigners have encountered great difficulties in the learning process. The syntax of Icelandic is unique and complex, take the nouns for example, this part of speech can be divided into three genders, each with very complex transformations. Icelandic pronunciation of some letters is unusual, an...

  9. Procedural learning difficulties in children with Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Desmottes, Lise; Meulemans, Thierry; Maillart, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Through a review of the literature, this paper shows that linguistic and non-linguistic disorders in children with specific language impairment might be linked to difficulties in procedural learning, especially regarding sequential abilities. Indeed, children with specific language impairment encounter difficulties to learn visuo-motor and linguistic sequences. These difficulties are not limited to initial learning but extend to the consolidation stage in long-term memory. Finally, recent ...

  10. Brain injury and severe eating difficulties at admission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Annette; Kaae Kristensen, Hanne

    with acquired brain injury were interviewed via qualitative semi-structured interviews. An explorative study was conducted to study eating difficulties. Qualitative content analysis was used. Results: Four main themes emerged from the analysis: personal values related to eating, swallowing difficulties, eating......Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to explore and interpret the way that individuals with acquired brain injury, admitted to inpatient neurorehabilitation with severe eating difficulties, experienced eating nine to fifteen months after discharge. Methods: Four individuals...

  11. [Psychiatric comorbidities and secondary emotional difficulties in Asperger syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Toru

    2007-03-01

    People with developmental disorders frequently have psychiatric comorbidities and problematic emotional reactions and behaviors. We commonly calls these conditions "nizi-shougai (secondary difficulties)" in Japan. But there is no clear definition of "nizi-shougai", and it is impossible to distinguish "secondary difficulties" from the problems derived from Asperger syndrome itself. In this paper, I focus on psychiatric comorbidities and emotional difficulties of Asperger syndrome. Early detection and intervention for children with developmental disorders can prevent some kind of "secondary difficulties". Treatment for Asperger syndrome should be tailored to meet individual characteristics and needs.

  12. Decided and Undecided Students: Career Self-Efficacy, Negative Thinking, and Decision-Making Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock-Yowell, Emily; McConnell, Amy E.; Schedin, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    The career concern differences between undecided and decided college students (N = 223) are examined. Undecided college students (n = 83) reported lower career decision-making self-efficacy, higher incidences of negative career thoughts, and more career decision-making difficulties than their decided peers (n = 143). Results reveal that undecided…

  13. Factorial Invariance of the Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents across Spanish and Chinese Adolescent Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; Zhou, Xinyue; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    The Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents (QIDA) is a self-report instrument designed to measure adolescents' perceived interpersonal anxiety levels in a wide range of relationships with people of different ages, genders, levels of authority, and levels of intimacy and in several contexts: family, school, friends, opposite…

  14. Factorial Invariance of the Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents across Spanish and Chinese Adolescent Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; Zhou, Xinyue; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    The Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents (QIDA) is a self-report instrument designed to measure adolescents' perceived interpersonal anxiety levels in a wide range of relationships with people of different ages, genders, levels of authority, and levels of intimacy and in several contexts: family, school, friends, opposite…

  15. Perceived Sexual Difficulties and Sexual Counseling in Men and Women Across Heart Diagnoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rundblad, Lucas; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe; Johansen, Pernille Palm

    2017-01-01

    perceived sexual difficulties and associated factors in a mixed population of men and women newly diagnosed with heart disease and provide insight into sexual counseling and information given by health care professionals. METHODS: This article reports on a cross-sectional, questionnaire study sent...

  16. Concurrent diphtheria and infectious mononucleosis: difficulties for management, investigation and control of diphtheria in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos-Guaraldi, A L; Damasco, P V; Gomes, D L R; Melendez, M G; Santos, L S; Marinelli, R S; Napoleão, F; Sabbadini, P S; Santos, C S; Moreira, L O; Hirata, R

    2011-11-01

    We report a case of concurrent diphtheria and infectious mononucleosis in an 11-year-old Brazilian child. Two days after specific treatment for diphtheria was started the patient was discharged following clinical recovery. This case highlights the difficulties in the clinical diagnosis of diphtheria in partially immunized individuals, and for the management and control of diphtheria in developing countries.

  17. How University Students with Reading Difficulties Are Supported in Achieving Their Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    We examine (a) what social ties university students with a history of reading difficulty (RD) report assisting them to achieve their goals, (b) outlets available for developing social ties, (c) resources mobilized within these relationships, and (d) the impact of social ties' status on academic achievement. Participants were 107 university…

  18. Towards Motivation-Based Adaptation of Difficulty in E-Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Anke; Rey, Gunter Daniel; Butz, Martin V.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if an e-learning environment may use measurements of the user's current motivation to adapt the level of task difficulty for more effective learning. In the reported study, motivation-based adaptation was applied randomly to collect a wide range of data for different adaptations in a variety of…

  19. Teaching Writing to Students with Learning Difficulties in Inclusive English Classrooms: Lessons from an Exemplary Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kraayenoord, Christina E.; Miller, Robyn; Moni, Karen B.; Jobling, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of an exemplary teacher who was a participant in a professional learning project, WriteIdeas. The teacher provided instructional support in writing to a targeted student with learning difficulties in an inclusive Year 8 English classroom. Analytical frameworks were developed and applied to the data that had…

  20. Identifying Student Difficulties with Entropy, Heat Engines, and the Carnot Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.; Christensen, Warren M.; Mountcastle, Donald B.; Thompson, John R.

    2015-01-01

    We report on several specific student difficulties regarding the second law of thermodynamics in the context of heat engines within upper-division undergraduate thermal physics courses. Data come from ungraded written surveys, graded homework assignments, and videotaped classroom observations of tutorial activities. Written data show that students…

  1. The Differential Effects of Labelling: How Do "Dyslexia" and "Reading Difficulties" Affect Teachers' Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Simon; Elliott, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a survey of primary school teachers' beliefs about working with poor readers. The primary research question was "does the way difficulties with reading are labelled affect the teachers' beliefs about their ability to intervene effectively?" An opportunity sample of teachers was surveyed using 2 questionnaires. One…

  2. Self-Correction Rates in Oral Reading; Indices of Efficient Reading or Artefact of Text Difficulty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Presents results of a study comparing self-correction rates among good and poor readers in a reading level design that controlled text difficulty. Reports no significant differences between the groups when reading identical passages at equivalent error rates. Concludes that self-correction rates correlate with reading accuracy but not…

  3. Evidence for effects of task difficulty but not learning on neurophysiological variables associated with effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Holewijn, M.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2014-01-01

    Learning to master a task is expected to be accompanied by a decrease in effort during task execution. We examine the possibility to monitor learning using physiological measures that have been reported to reflect effort or workload. Thirty-five participants performed different difficulty levels of

  4. Lexical Difficulty--Using Elicited Imitation to Study Child L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campfield, Dorota E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a post-hoc analysis of the influence of lexical difficulty of cue sentences on performance in an elicited imitation (EI) task to assess oral production skills for 645 child L2 English learners in instructional settings. This formed part of a large-scale investigation into effectiveness of foreign language teaching in Polish…

  5. Adult Attachment, Culturally Adjusted Attachment, and Interpersonal Difficulties of Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Scalise, Dominick A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of Western adult attachment perspectives to interpersonal difficulties experienced by individuals with indigenous Chinese cultural backgrounds. A total of 275 Taiwanese university students completed self-report surveys of adult attachment, ideal attachment, and interpersonal problems. Culturally adjusted…

  6. Can Excess Bilirubin Levels Cause Learning Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.; Becker, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined learning problems in South African sample of 7- to 14-year-olds whose mothers reported excessively high infant bilirubin shortly after the child's birth. Found that this sample had lowered verbal ability with the majority also showing impaired short-term and long-term memory. Findings suggested that impaired formation of astrocytes…

  7. Is effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on visuomotor coordination dependent on task difficulty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hyun Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, an emerging technique for non-invasive brain stimulation, is increasingly used to induce changes in cortical excitability and modulate motor behavior, especially for upper limbs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tDCS of the primary motor cortex on visuomotor coordination based on three levels of task difficulty in healthy subjects. Thirty-eight healthy participants underwent real tDCS or sham tDCS. Using a single-blind, sham-controlled crossover design, tDCS was applied to the primary motor cortex. For real tDCS conditions, tDCS intensity was 1 mA while stimulation was applied for 15 minutes. For the sham tDCS, electrodes were placed in the same position, but the stimulator was turned off after 5 seconds. Visuomotor tracking task, consisting of three levels (levels 1, 2, 3 of difficulty with higher level indicating greater difficulty, was performed before and after tDCS application. At level 2, real tDCS of the primary motor cortex improved the accurate index compared to the sham tDCS. However, at levels 1 and 3, the accurate index was not significantly increased after real tDCS compared to the sham tDCS. These findings suggest that tasks of moderate difficulty may improve visuomotor coordination in healthy subjects when tDCS is applied compared with easier or more difficult tasks.

  8. Teacher-identified oral language difficulties among boys with attention problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T; Koltun, H; Malone, M; Roberts, W

    1994-04-01

    Teachers evaluated the language functioning of 95 boys, aged 6.5 to 13.8 years, identified as having attention problems (AP, n = 30), learning disability (LD, n = 33), or average achievement (AA, n = 32). The three groups did not differ significantly (p > .05) in their frequency of articulation problems. Significantly (p pragmatics problems than both of the other groups. AP boys were also viewed as having a higher frequency of receptive/expressive language problems than were AA boys, but not compared with LD boys. LD and AA boys did not differ in their ratings for pragmatics problems, but more LD than AA boys were perceived as having receptive/expressive problems. The average incidence of all types of language problems was highest for the AP boys at 42% with poor pragmatics representing their most frequently rated language difficulty. AP boys' pragmatics difficulties seemed to be characterized by greater difficulty in maintaining than initiating a conversation compared with the other two groups. This difficulty was positively associated with the teachers' ratings of the AP boys' impulsivity.

  9. Task difficulty and life changes among stroke family caregivers: relationship to depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennon, Susan M; Bakas, Tamilyn; Jessup, Nenette M; Habermann, Barbara; Weaver, Michael T

    2014-12-01

    To investigate differences in stroke caregiver task difficulty and life changes based on level of caregiver depressive symptoms, and to estimate probabilities among task difficulty and life change items. Descriptive analysis of baseline data from an ongoing stroke caregiver intervention trial. Hospitals and rehabilitation facilities. Caregivers (N=242; 78.6% women; 47.7% spouses; 71.8% white; mean age, 54.2±12.1y) caring for stroke survivors within 8 weeks of discharge to home. Not applicable. Baseline measures for task difficulty (Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale) and life changes (Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale) were compared based on level of depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] scores Caregivers with mild to severe depressive symptoms have greater difficulty with tasks and worse life changes than those with no depressive symptoms (Pstroke caregivers during or shortly after discharge. Assisting caregivers with depressive symptoms to arrange for respite care and addressing negative physical and psychological changes may be priority areas for future interventions. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Children with Speech Difficulties: A survey of clinical practice in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pascoe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a study by Joffe and Pring (2008 which investigated assessment and therapy methods used by Speech Language Therapists (SLTs in the United Kingdom for children with phonological difficulties. Joffe and Pring reported SLTs’ most favoured assessments and therapy approaches in that context. Children with speech difficulties are likely to form a considerable part of SLT caseloads in South Africa, but the choice of assessments may not be so clearcut given the linguistic diversity of the region and the fact that few assessments have been developed specifically for the SA population. Linked to difficulties with assessment, selection of intervention approaches may also pose challenges. This study aimed to investigate the methods of assessment and intervention used by SLTs in the Western Cape when working with children with speech difficulties. A questionnaire was sent to SLTs working with pre and/ or primary school- aged children. Twenty-nine clinicians of varying experience responded. The majority of SLTs (89% use informal assessment tools in combination with formal assessment. When using formal assessments, more than 50% of SLTs make modifications to better suit the population. Participants use a variety of intervention approaches, often in combination, and based on a child’s individual profile of difficulties and available resources. Forty-six percent of SLTs felt unsure about the selection of assessments and intervention for bi/multilingual children with speech difficulties. SLTs suggested that guidelines about accepted / typical speech development in the region would be helpful for their clinical practice. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed together with some suggestions for developing knowledge of children’s speech difficulties in the South African context.

  11. Difficulties in Diagnosing Food-Borne Botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Forss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A–G produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12–36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  12. Diagnostic Difficulties in a Pediatric Insulinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Miron, Ingrith; Smaranda DIACONESCU; Aprodu, Gabriel; Ioniuc, Ileana; Diaconescu, Mihai Radu; Miron, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Insulinomas are functional neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors rarely encountered in pediatric pathology. Insulinomas are usually solitary and sporadic, but may occur in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Whipple's triad?hypoglycemia, simultaneous compatible adrenergic and/or neurological signs, and relief of symptoms upon the administration of glucose?remains the fundamental diagnostic tool. We report a case of insulinoma in an 11-year-old boy with malnutrition and m...

  13. Difficulties in Diagnosing Food-Borne Botulism

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A–G) produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12–36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  14. Difficulties in diagnosing food-borne botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, Nina; Ramstad, Raimo; Bäcklund, Tom; Lindström, Miia; Kolho, Elina

    2012-05-01

    Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A-G) produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12-36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  15. Difficulties with True Interoperability in Modeling & Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Standards in M&S cover multiple layers of technical abstraction. There are middleware specifica- tions, such as the High Level Architecture (HLA) ( IEEE Xplore ... IEEE Xplore Digital Library. 2010. 1516-2010 IEEE Standard for Modeling and Simulation (M&S) High Level Architecture (HLA) – Framework and Rules...using different communication protocols being able to allow da- 2642978-1-4577-2109-0/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No

  16. Hypertensive diabetic patients: guidelines for conduct and their difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimar K. S. Barroso

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of blood pressure (BP control and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with diabetes mellitus in a referral service for the treatment of hypertension. METHODS: A retrospective study where diabetic patients (at least 2 fasting glucose levels above 126 mg/dL, use of hypoglycemic agents or insulin, or both of these were included. They were evaluated at the first appointment (M1 and at the last appointment (M2, regarding blood pressure, body mass index (BMI, use of hypertensive drugs, glycemia, total cholesterol (TC, creatinine, and potassium. RESULTS: Of 1,032 patients studied, 146 patients with a mean age of 61.6 years had diabetes, and 27 were men (18.5%. Mean follow-up was 5.5 years. BP values were 161.6 x 99.9 mmHg in M1 and 146.3 x 89.5 mmHg in M2. In M1, 10.4% of the patients did not use medications, 50.6% used just 1 drug, 30.8% used 2 drugs, and 8.2% used 3 or more drugs. In M2, these values were 10.9%, 39%, 39.7%, and 10.4%, respectively. Diuretics were the most commonly used medication, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors were those drugs which presented greater increase when comparing M1 to M2 (24.6% and 41.7%, respectively. Only 17,1% reached the recommended goal (BP<130x85 mmhg. The other cardiovascular risk factors did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: Our data reinforce the necessity of a more aggressive approach in the treatment of these patients, despite the social and economic difficulties in adhering to treatment.

  17. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  18. Enzootic reticuloendotheliosis in the endangered Attwater's and greater prairie chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Guillermo; Cheng, Sunny; Barbosa, Taylor; Haefele, Holly

    2006-12-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in captive greater prairie chickens (GPC, Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and Attwater's prairie chickens (APC, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) was first reported in 1998. RE is caused by avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an oncogenic and immunosuppressive retrovirus infecting multiple species of wild and domestic birds. During August 2004 through May 2006 a captive population of prairie chickens was affected simultaneously with a neoplastic condition and also avian pox, the latter being detected in 7.4% (2 of 27) of all birds submitted for histopathology. A survey for REV was conducted in order to examine its possible role in mortality observed primarily in juvenile and adult specimens of prairie chickens. The investigative procedures included postmortem examinations, histopathology, molecular detection, and virus isolation. In total, 57 Attwater's prairie chickens and two greater prairie chickens were included in the study. REV infection was diagnosed using virus isolation or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or both in 59.5% (28 of 47) of blood samples and/or tumors from suspect birds. Lymphosarcomas were detected in the tissues of 37% (10 of 27) of the birds submitted for histopathology. Such lymphosarcomas suggestive of RE represented the most frequent morphologic diagnosis on histopathology among 27 separate submissions of naturally dead prairie chickens. Overall, REV was detected or RE diagnosed in 34 of 59 prairie chickens (57.62%). The average death age of all birds diagnosed with lymphosarcomas on histopathology was 2.2 yr, ranging from birds of undetermined gender). Reticuloendotheliosis virus was confirmed as a significant cause of mortality in captive prairie chickens.

  19. Identifying Student Difficulties with Entropy, Heat Engines, and the Carnot Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Trevor I; Mountcastle, Donald B; Thompson, John R

    2015-01-01

    We report on several specific student difficulties regarding the Second Law of Thermodynamics in the context of heat engines within upper-division undergraduates thermal physics courses. Data come from ungraded written surveys, graded homework assignments, and videotaped classroom observations of tutorial activities. Written data show that students in these courses do not clearly articulate the connection between the Carnot cycle and the Second Law after lecture instruction. This result is consistent both within and across student populations. Observation data provide evidence for myriad difficulties related to entropy and heat engines, including students' struggles in reasoning about situations that are physically impossible and failures to differentiate between differential and net changes of state properties of a system. Results herein may be seen as the application of previously documented difficulties in the context of heat engines, but others are novel and emphasize the subtle and complex nature of cycl...

  20. Guidance on Compatibility of UST Systems with Ethanol Blends Greater Than 10 Percent and Biodiesel Blends Greater Than 20 Percent

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA guidance on complying with the federal compatibility requirement for underground storage tank (UST) systems storing gasoline containing greater than 10 percent ethanol or diesel containing greater than 20 percent biodiesel.

  1. High School Students' Career-Related Decision-Making Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, Itamar; Saka, Noa

    2001-01-01

    Examines the construct of career-related decision-making difficulties among 1,843 Israeli adolescents. Three versions of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ) were constructed to match three decision situations. The structures of the revised CDDQ were found similar to that proposed by I. Gati et al. (1996). Boys reported…

  2. A Taxonomy of Difficulties in Career Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, Itamar; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines a taxonomy of career decision-making difficulties. A questionnaire was administered to 563 young adults at the beginning of their career decision-making process. The relations among the 10 scales, which represent 10 theoretical categories of difficulties, and those among the items within 2 selected categories, were similar in the 2…

  3. Dysfunctional Thinking and Difficulties in Career Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Tali; Gati, Itamar; Peterson, Gary; Sampson, James; Reardon, Robert; Lenz, Janet

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between two measures of career readiness and difficulties--the Career Thoughts Inventory (CTI) and the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ)--as well as the relations between these measures and the individual's degree of decidedness regarding his or her career plans. A total of 192…

  4. Emotional Intelligence, Personality Traits and Career Decision Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to take an in-depth look at the role of emotional intelligence and personality traits in relation to career decision difficulties. The Italian version of the Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short (Bar-On EQ-i: S), and the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) were administered to…

  5. Physiological workload reactions to increasing levels of task difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    1998-01-01

    The sensitivity of physiological measures to mental workload has been investigated in a flight simulator. Twelve pilots had to fly through a tunnel with different levels of difficulty. Additionally, they had to perform a memory task with four levels of difficulty. The easiest memory task was combine

  6. A Theoretical Framework towards Understanding of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are the result of multiple individual, social and contextual factors working in concert. The current paper proposes a theoretical framework to interpret students' emotional and behavioural difficulties in schools, by taking into consideration teacher-student relationships, students'…

  7. Emotional Intelligence, Personality Traits and Career Decision Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to take an in-depth look at the role of emotional intelligence and personality traits in relation to career decision difficulties. The Italian version of the Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short (Bar-On EQ-i: S), and the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) were administered to…

  8. CHINESE EFL UNDERGRADUATES’ ACADEMIC WRITING: RHETORICAL DIFFICULTIES AND SUGGESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Bian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties encountered by students in L2 academic writing has been a subject of research for several decades. However, to date, there still remains a lack of detailed and in-depth investigation into this area of interest. This qualitative study thoroughly investigated the rhetorical difficulties faced by Chinese EFL undergraduate academic writers, and collected suggestions on how to address these rhetorical issues. To be sufficiently detailed and thorough, this study divided students' difficulties into process- and product-related difficulties, and used triangulated data from supervisors' perspectives, students' perspectives, and supervisors' comments to address research questions. Although there were no strong generalizations derived from data from different perspectives and sources, the findings of this study showed supervisor perceptions of the rhetorical difficulties the students experienced were almost identical. In nature these rhetorical difficulties were culturallyembedded and genre-related issues; and the degree of difficulty experienced by each student varied. In this study, supervisors and students both suggested that, to solve rhetorical difficulties, teacher student communication should be improved. This study provided empirical evidence to contrastive rhetoric theory and socio-cultural theory. It also offered suggestions on how to strengthen future research in this area of inquiry, and how to improve academic writing teaching in L2 educational contexts.

  9. A Cognitive View of Reading Comprehension: Implications for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne; Karlsson, Josefine

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in the present paper is to discuss a "cognitive view" of reading comprehension, with particular attention to research findings that have the potential to improve our understanding of difficulties in reading comprehension. We provide an overview of how specific sources of difficulties in inference making, executive functions, and…

  10. Physiological workload reactions to increasing levels of task difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    1998-01-01

    The sensitivity of physiological measures to mental workload has been investigated in a flight simulator. Twelve pilots had to fly through a tunnel with different levels of difficulty. Additionally, they had to perform a memory task with four levels of difficulty. The easiest memory task was

  11. School Success for Kids with Dyslexia and Other Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Walter E.

    2012-01-01

    "School Success for Kids With Dyslexia and Other Reading Difficulties" provides parents and teachers with goals that will meet the needs of students who are struggling with reading, leading them to work through their difficulties and enjoy reading. It includes information, assessments, and techniques that parents, teachers, and school…

  12. The Cognitive Profile of Chinese Children with Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Becky Mee-yin; Ho, Connie Suk-han

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how four domain-specific skills (arithmetic procedural skills, number fact retrieval, place value concept, and number sense) and two domain-general processing skills (working memory and processing speed) may account for Chinese children's mathematics learning difficulties. Children with mathematics difficulties (MD) of two age…

  13. A Cognitive View of Reading Comprehension: Implications for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne; Karlsson, Josefine

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in the present paper is to discuss a "cognitive view" of reading comprehension, with particular attention to research findings that have the potential to improve our understanding of difficulties in reading comprehension. We provide an overview of how specific sources of difficulties in inference making, executive functions, and…

  14. Learner's Learning Experiences & Difficulties towards (ESL) among UKM Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarof, Nooreiny; Munusamy, Indira Malani A/P

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the learners learning experiences and difficulties of ESL among the UKM undergraduates. This study will be focusing on identifying the factors behind Malaysian undergraduate's experiences and also their difficulties in the English as Second Language (ESL) classroom. This paper discusses some of the issues of English…

  15. The role of sensorimotor difficulties in autism spectrum conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Hannant

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn addition to difficulties in social communication, current diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC also incorporate sensorimotor difficulties; repetitive motor movements and atypical reactivity to sensory input (APA, 2013. This paper explores whether sensorimotor difficulties are associated with the development and maintenance of symptoms in ASC. Firstly, studies have shown difficulties coordinating sensory input into planning and executing movement effectively in ASC. Secondly, studies have shown associations between sensory reactivity and motor coordination with core ASC symptoms, suggesting these areas each strongly influence the development of social and communication skills. Thirdly, studies have begun to demonstrate that sensorimotor difficulties in ASC could account for reduced social attention early in development, with a cascading effect on later social, communicative and emotional development. These results suggest that sensorimotor difficulties not only contribute to non-social difficulties such as narrow circumscribed interests, but also to the development of social behaviours such as effectively coordinating eye contact with speech and gesture, interpreting others’ behaviour and responding appropriately. Further research is needed to explore the link between sensory and motor difficulties in ASC, and their contribution to the development and maintenance of ASC.

  16. Feeding and Sleep Difficulties in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present with a variety of comorbid difficulties, some of which relate to seemingly simply activities of daily living. Feeding and sleep difficulties are purportedly common within the ASD population, although the association between these problems and ASD symptomatology has rarely been addressed. The…

  17. The Differentiation of the Concepts of Difficulty and Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, John G.; Miller, Arden T.

    1983-01-01

    Deals with (1) developmental changes in children's concepts of difficulty and ability and (2) individual differences within different developmental levels. Three levels of understanding of ability and difficulty are proposed, and cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence of progressive development through the stages is presented. (Author/RH)

  18. Word Difficulty and Learning among Native Arabic Learners of EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrai, Ahmed; Milton, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates word difficulty and learning among learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Saudi Arabia. Difficulty factors examined in the study include repetition of words in learners' EFL textbooks, word length and parts of speech, and adds a further consideration which is underexplored in the literature; word translation…

  19. Dysfunctional Thinking and Difficulties in Career Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Tali; Gati, Itamar; Peterson, Gary; Sampson, James; Reardon, Robert; Lenz, Janet

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between two measures of career readiness and difficulties--the Career Thoughts Inventory (CTI) and the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ)--as well as the relations between these measures and the individual's degree of decidedness regarding his or her career plans. A total of 192…

  20. Language difficulties and criminal justice: the need for earlier identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Karen; Garvani, Gillian; Gregory, Juliette; Kilner, Karen

    2015-01-01

    At least 60% of young people in the UK who are accessing youth justice services present with speech, language and communication difficulties which are largely unrecognized. The contributing reasons for this are discussed, suggesting that early language difficulty is a risk factor for other problems such as literacy difficulties and educational failure that may increasingly put the young person at risk of offending. Opportunities for identification and remediation of language difficulties before young people reach youth justice services are also outlined. To examine language skills in a sample of children in a secure children's home aged 11-17 years. A sample of 118 males were routinely assessed on four Comprehensive Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) subtests and the British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS). Around 30% of the participants presented with language difficulties scoring 1.5 SD (standard deviation) below the mean on the assessments. Despite them entering the home because their vulnerability was recognized, only two participants had a previous record of language difficulties. A total of 20% of the participants had a diagnosis of mental illness, 50% had a history of drug abuse and 31% had looked-after status prior to entry to the home. Children experiencing educational or emotional difficulties need to be routinely assessed for speech, language and communication difficulties. More population-based approaches to supporting the development of oral language skills in children and young people are also supported. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  1. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  2. School Readiness among Children with Varying Histories of Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Pence Turnbull, Khara L.; Skibbe, Lori E.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that (a) persistent language difficulties during childhood would predict lower school readiness and (b) language difficulties present just prior to school entry would predict lower school readiness beyond any effects of persistence. The study involved examining indicators of school readiness collected at…

  3. Improving students’ understanding of quantum measurement. I. Investigation of difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangtian Zhu1,2

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the difficulties that advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement within the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics. We explore the possible origins of these difficulties by analyzing student responses to questions from both surveys and interviews. Results from this research are applied to develop research-based learning tutorials to improve students’ understanding of quantum measurement.

  4. Confronting Task Difficulty in Ego Involvement: Change in Performance Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shamala; Jagacinski, Carolyn M.

    2011-01-01

    Both Dweck (1986) and Nicholls (1984) proposed that when ego-involved individuals encounter difficulty, they would begin to doubt their level of ability, and as a consequence, their commitment to the goal of demonstrating high ability would decline. As difficulty continued, perceived ability would decline, and eventually the goal would be…

  5. A Theoretical Framework towards Understanding of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are the result of multiple individual, social and contextual factors working in concert. The current paper proposes a theoretical framework to interpret students' emotional and behavioural difficulties in schools, by taking into consideration teacher-student relationships, students'…

  6. The Effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy in Reducing Adolescent Mental Health Risk and Family Adjustment Difficulties in an Irish Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Dan; Carr, Alan; Sexton, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy (FFT) 42 cases were randomized to FFT and 55 to a waiting-list control group. Minimization procedures controlled the effects of potentially confounding baseline variables. Cases were treated by a team of five therapists who implemented FFT with a moderate degree of fidelity. Rates of clinical recovery were significantly higher in the FFT group than in the control group. Compared to the comparison group, parents in the FFT group reported significantly greater improvement in adolescent problems on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and both parents and adolescents reported improvements in family adjustment on the Systemic Clinical Outcomes and Routine Evaluation (SCORE). In addition, 93% of youth and families in the treatment condition completed FFT. Improvements shown immediately after treatment were sustained at 3-month follow-up. Results provide a current demonstration of FFT's effectiveness for youth with behavior problems in community-based settings, expand our understanding of the range of positive outcomes of FFT to include mental health risk and family-defined problem severity and impact, and suggests that it is an effective intervention when implemented in an Irish context. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  7. Coralistas amadores: auto-imagem, dificuldades e sintomas na voz cantada Amateur choir singers: self-image, difficulties and symptoms of the singing voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina de Castro Coelho

    2013-04-01

    containing identification data, information about self-perception of the singing voice, difficulties with singing and negative symptoms after singing. RESULTS: the comparison considering vocal classification evidenced greater difficulties with high notes for altos and basses, greater difficulty regarding the transition to high notes for basses and greater vocal fatigue for altos. Comparing the singers by age, both adults and young adults referred more breathiness than the elderly. The adults referred better vocal intensity than the young adults. The young adults referred better timbre than adults. Regarding the experience, the less experienced singers reported self-perception of hoarseness and presence of hoarseness after singing in greater number than the experienced singers. CONCLUSION: the difficulties with singing are connected to the vocal classification and do not depend on age or experience. Vocal symptoms are related to the vocal classification and to the experience with singing. Negative self-perception is also related the vocal classification and to the experience with singing, and positive self-perception was more reported by experienced singers.

  8. Correlation between oro and hypopharynx shape and position with endotracheal intubation difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daher Rabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Prediction of intubation difficulty can save patients from major preoperative morbidity or mortality. The purpose of this paper is to assess the correlation between oro-hypo pharynx position, neck size, and length with endotracheal intubation difficulty. The study also explored the diagnostic value of Friedman Staging System in prediction cases with difficult intubation. Method: The consecutive 500 ASA (I, II adult patients undergoing elective surgery were evaluated for oro and hypopharynx shape and position by modified Mallampati, Cormack and Lehane score as well as Friedman obstructive sleep apnea classification systems. Neck circumference and length were also measured. All cases were intubated by a single anesthesiologist who was uninformed of the above evaluation and graded intubation difficulty in visual analog score. Correlation between these findings and difficulty of intubation was assessed. Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive and Negative Predictive Values were also reported. Results: Cormack-Lehane grade had the strongest correlation with difficulty of intubation followed by Friedman palate position. Friedman palate position was the most sensitive and had higher positive and negative predictive values than modified Mallampati classification. Cormack-Lehane grade was found to be the most specific with the highest negative predictive value among the four studied classifications. Conclusion: Friedman palate position is a more useful, valuable and sensitive test compared to the modified Mallampati screening test for pre-anesthetic prediction of difficult intubation where its involvement in Multivariate model may raise the accuracy and diagnostic value of preoperative assessment of difficult airway.

  9. Establishment of lactaton rooms in public and private companies: potentialities and difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vanessa Martinhago Borges; Santos, Evanguelia Kotzias Atherino Dos; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Pires, Denise Elvira Pires de; Zampieri, Maria de Fátima Mota; Gregório, Vitória Regina Petters

    2017-06-05

    To know how managers of public and private companies view lactation support rooms and their implantation. This is study is based on qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive research. Twenty managers from Greater Florianópolis participated in the research, in 2015. Data were collected by means of semi-structured/projective interviews, and subjected to content analysis associated with Atlas.ti software. Data analysis led to the following two categories: difficulties and facilities of establishing a lactation room, with a predominance of financial difficulties and the lack of physical space. Dialectically, the subjects also recognised the low cost involved, which facilitates establishment. Financial, cultural, and political aspects make it difficult to set up lactation rooms, but the importance of this measure was acknowledged. Although the success of breastfeeding partly depends on these support rooms, it also requires multiple actions, especially the effective participation of nurses and other health workers.

  10. Children with reading difficulties show differences in brain regions associated with orthographic processing during spoken language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, Amy S; Cone, Nadia E; Bolger, Donald J; Bitan, Tali; Burman, Douglas D; Booth, James R

    2010-10-14

    We explored the neural basis of spoken language deficits in children with reading difficulty, specifically focusing on the role of orthography during spoken language processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine differences in brain activation between children with reading difficulties (aged 9-to-15 years) and age-matched children with typical achievement during an auditory rhyming task. Both groups showed activation in bilateral superior temporal gyri (BA 42 and 22), a region associated with phonological processing, with no significant between-group differences. Interestingly, typically achieving children, but not children with reading difficulties, showed activation of left fusiform cortex (BA 37), a region implicated in orthographic processing. Furthermore, this activation was significantly greater for typically achieving children compared to those with reading difficulties. These findings suggest that typical children automatically activate orthographic representations during spoken language processing, while those with reading difficulties do not. Follow-up analyses revealed that the intensity of the activation in the fusiform gyrus was associated with significantly stronger behavioral conflict effects in typically achieving children only (i.e., longer latencies to rhyming pairs with orthographically dissimilar endings than to those with identical orthographic endings; jazz-has vs. cat-hat). Finally, for reading disabled children, a positive correlation between left fusiform activation and nonword reading was observed, such that greater access to orthography was related to decoding ability. Taken together, the results suggest that the integration of orthographic and phonological processing is directly related to reading ability.

  11. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51. No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64 was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  12. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Chavarro, Jorge E; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-08-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72-1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84-1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women's fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  13. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously. PMID:26225997

  14. Validation of lactate measurement in American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) plasma and correlation with duration and difficulty of capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Wack, Raymund; Ziccardi, Michael; Larsen, R Scott; Hopper, Kate

    2012-09-01

    Capture myopathy and associated death have been reported with capture and restraint of greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) and lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor). In chickens (Gallus gallus), blood lactate concentration levels have been used as indicators of muscle damage. Lactate has also been used to predict survival in humans and dogs. The goals of this study were to validate two common methods for measuring lactate (i-STAT and VetTest analyzers) in flamingo plasma by comparing measurements to a reference analyzer; and to correlate blood lactate concentration levels in captured flamingos with the duration and difficulty of capture as a possible indicator of capture myopathy. Twenty-seven banked flamingo plasma samples were run in triplicate on each of the three blood analyzers. Values from the i-STAT analyzer were consistently lower than those from the ABL analyzer, while values from the VetTest were consistently higher than those from the ABL analyzer. However, there was a good level of correlation between all three analyzers. Two of the three analyzers were determined to have acceptable total allowable error levels, calculated at 3.6% for the ABL and 10.7% for the VetTest. For clinical purposes, both the i-STAT and the VetTest analyzers provide adequate evaluation of lactate levels when serial samples are measured on the same analyzer. After validating the assay, 34 captive flamingos were captured for routine examinations. Blood lactate concentration levels were positively correlated with the length of time of the individual capture, but lactate did not increase significantly as capture difficulty increased. Only one animal was considered to have a difficult capture. No flamingos demonstrated clinical signs of capture myopathy during this study. Further research is required to determine if blood lactate concentration is a useful indicator of capture myopathy.

  15. Subjective word-finding difficulty reduces engagement in social leisure activities in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Meagan T; Zahodne, Laura B; Stern, Yaakov; Dorrejo, Jhedy; Yeung, Philip; Cosentino, Stephanie

    2014-06-01

    To assess the influence of subjective word-finding difficulty on degree of engagement in social leisure activities among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Analysis of data collected from the second cohort of the Multicenter Study of Predictors of Disease Course in Alzheimer's disease. Four study sites in the United States and France. Individuals diagnosed with mild to moderate AD (N = 236). On separate questionnaires, participants were asked to 1) report whether they had trouble finding the right word when speaking (subjective word-finding difficulty) and 2) rate their frequency and enjoyment of social and nonsocial leisure activities. Objective language measures included object naming and verbal fluency. Measures of dependence, depression, cognitive status, age, sex, and education were also included as covariates in regression analyses. Fifty-two percent of the sample reported word-finding difficulty, and subjective complaints were correlated with poorer verbal fluency scores. Subjective word-finding difficulty was selectively related to social but not nonsocial activity measures. Endorsers of word-finding difficulty reported less frequency and enjoyment of social leisure activities, controlling for effects of covariates and objective word-finding ability. In contrast, lower engagement in nonsocial activities was associated with older age and higher depression scores but not with word-finding complaints. Caregivers' reports of study participants' activities corroborated these results. Individuals with AD who are aware of increasing word-finding failures are less likely to participate in and enjoy socially oriented leisure activities. This finding may have significant implications for clinical and health outcomes in AD. Failure to evaluate subjective language complaints could result in social withdrawal symptoms, threatening the individual's quality of life and increasing caregiver burden. Reduced social interaction may ultimately exacerbate language

  16. Alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric Rapid Automatized Naming in children with reading and/or spelling difficulties and mathematical difficulties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, Monika; Kroesbergen, Evelyn; Slot, Esther; Van Viersen, Sietske; De Bree, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Although poor Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is a risk factor for reading and/or spelling difficulties (RSD) as well as for mathematical difficulties (MD), many questions surround this relationship. The main objective of the present study was to obtain insight in the relationship between alphanumeri

  17. Mathematics Difficulty with and without Reading Difficulty: Findings and Implications from a Four-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K.

    2012-01-01

    An overarching question guided this study:What is mathematics difficulty (MD) independent of reading difficulty (RD)? The sample included 203 children whom the researchers followed from kindergarten to third grade. The researchers used latent growth modeling to investigate the relationship between MD and measures of working memory, short-term…

  18. Mathematics Difficulty with and without Reading Difficulty: Findings and Implications from a Four-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K.

    2012-01-01

    An overarching question guided this study:What is mathematics difficulty (MD) independent of reading difficulty (RD)? The sample included 203 children whom the researchers followed from kindergarten to third grade. The researchers used latent growth modeling to investigate the relationship between MD and measures of working memory, short-term…

  19. Determining Which Introductory Physics Topics Pre-Service Physics Teachers Have Difficulty Understanding and What Accounts for These Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Esin; Yagbasan, Rahmi

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at diagnosing which subjects pre-service physics teachers have difficulty understanding in introductory physics courses and what accounts for these difficulties. A questionnaire consisting of two qualitative questions was used to collect data for this study. The questionnaire was administered to 101 pre-service physics teachers who…

  20. Do People with Disabilities Have Difficulty Finding a Family Physician?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann McColl

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary care has been ideally characterized as the medical home for all citizens, and yet recent data shows that approximately 6% do not have a family physician, and only 17.5% of family practices are open to new patients. Given acknowledged shortages of family physicians, this research asks the question: Do people with disabilities have particular difficulty finding a family physician? Health Care Connect (HCC is a government-funded agency in Ontario Canada, designed to “help Ontarians who are without a family health care provider to find one”. Using data from HCC, supplemented by interviews with HCC staff, the study explores the average wait time for patients with disabilities to be linked with a primary care physician, and the challenges faced by agency staff in doing so. The study found that disabled registrants with the program are only slightly disadvantaged in terms of wait times to find a family physician, and success rates are ultimately comparable; however, agency staff report that there are a number of significant challenges associated with placing disabled patients.

  1. Do people with disabilities have difficulty finding a family physician?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Schaub, Michael

    2015-04-28

    Primary care has been ideally characterized as the medical home for all citizens, and yet recent data shows that approximately 6% do not have a family physician, and only 17.5% of family practices are open to new patients. Given acknowledged shortages of family physicians, this research asks the question: Do people with disabilities have particular difficulty finding a family physician? Health Care Connect (HCC) is a government-funded agency in Ontario Canada, designed to "help Ontarians who are without a family health care provider to find one". Using data from HCC, supplemented by interviews with HCC staff, the study explores the average wait time for patients with disabilities to be linked with a primary care physician, and the challenges faced by agency staff in doing so. The study found that disabled registrants with the program are only slightly disadvantaged in terms of wait times to find a family physician, and success rates are ultimately comparable; however, agency staff report that there are a number of significant challenges associated with placing disabled patients.

  2. Response time in adults with a history of language difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A; Poll, Gerard H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate speed of processing in college students with a history of problems with language. Affected individuals (n=16) were identified through a self-reported history of language and/or reading difficulties, and compared to a group of 16 unaffected individuals. Measures of language ability and a battery of response time tasks were administered. Results showed that the affected group had lower language performance and slower response time than the unaffected group. Better language performance was associated with faster response time, and this relationship was stronger in the affected group. These findings are consistent with the literature showing that language impairment often persists into adulthood. Further investigation of the relation between processing speed and language ability may help describe vulnerabilities for adults with language problems, as well as ways to promote compensation for those vulnerabilities. Readers will (1) increase understanding of associations between processing speed and language in children and adults; (2) become familiar with a method for assessing processing speed; and (3) increase understanding of possible vulnerabilities in adults with a history of language and/or reading problems.

  3. Greater Phoenix Forward: Sustaining and Enhancing the Human-Services Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Arizona State University, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report provides descriptive data for understanding the status of human services in Greater Phoenix, describes provocative issues that certain populations and providers face, and offers a starting point for determining Maricopa Valley's aspirations for tomorrow's human-services infrastructure. This report describes an array of populations that…

  4. Stressful events and psychological difficulties: testing alternative candidates for sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceulle, Odilia M; O'Donnell, Kieran; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; Ormel, Johan; van Aken, Marcel A G; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-02-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal, reciprocal associations between stressful events and psychological difficulties from early childhood to mid-adolescence. Child age, sex, prenatal maternal anxiety, and difficult temperament were tested as sources of sensitivity, that is, factors that may make children more sensitive to stressful life events. Analyses were based on data from 10,417 children from a prospective, longitudinal study of child development. At ages 4, 7, 9, 11, and 16 years, stressful events and psychological difficulties were measured. Prenatal anxiety was measured at 32 weeks of gestation and difficult temperament was measured at 6 months. Children exposed to stressful events showed significantly increased psychological difficulties at ages 7 and 11 years; there was consistent evidence of a reciprocal pattern: psychological difficulties predicted stressful events at each stage. Analyses also indicated that the associations between stressful events and psychological difficulties were stronger in girls than in boys. We found no evidence for the hypothesis that prenatal anxiety or difficult temperament increased stress sensitivity, that is, moderated the link between life events and psychological difficulties. The findings extend prior work on stress exposure and psychological difficulties and highlight the need for additional research to investigate sources of sensitivity and the mechanisms that might underlie differences in sensitivity to stressful events.

  5. The Prevalence of Reading Difficulties among Children in Scholar Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosita Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the prevalence of reading difficulties among children in scholar age and analyses the socio-demographic characteristics of learners who presented reading difficulties in central Italy. A sample of 623 students 7-11 aged, was assessed with the Italian MT standardized tests. Information on gender, age, handedness, and other socio-demographic variables were also gathered. The study showed that 11% of learners presented poor comprehension skills. The reading speed difficulties were more common than the reading correctness problems: about 7% of children vs 1% were dyslexics due to slow reading. There were no significant differences regarding gender, age. However, dominant hand and the school location seemed to affect the speed difficulties and the comprehension problems. The analyses showed that attending a school located in a rural area was statistically associated with the reading difficulties. Left-handed children were more likely to be slow decoders and/or poor comprehenders. These findings may be used in the early diagnosis of poor readers. These difficulties often have a chronic progression with substantial psychosocial limitations and psychological stress, so children with reading difficulties should be identified as early as possible.

  6. No One Knows: Offenders with learning disabilities and learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, J

    2009-01-01

    No One Knows is concerned about people with learning disabilities and difficulties who get into trouble with the police and who enter the criminal justice system. The terms 'learning difficulties' and 'learning difficulties' are often used interchangeably to describe people with an intellectual disability, excluding those who, for example, have dyslexia or Asperger syndrome. No One Knows, however, has adopted a more inclusive approach and has included in its remit offenders with learning disabilities as defined by the World Health Organization as well as those with a broader range of learning difficulties. Although there is some discrepancy on prevalence, it is clear that high numbers of people with learning disabilities and difficulties are caught up in the criminal justice system. Once in the criminal justice system it is unlikely that an individual with learning disabilities or difficulties will be identified or that their support needs will be met. This causes difficulties for the individual concerned and for the staff who work with them, who receive little or no training for working with this group of people. The question of whether people with learning disabilities (meaning intellectual disabilities) should be diverted from the criminal justice system is considered.

  7. Age at introduction of solid foods and feeding difficulties in childhood: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, J L; Crozier, S R; Inskip, H M; Cooper, C; Godfrey, K M; Robinson, S M

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether age at introduction of solid foods was associated with feeding difficulties at 3 years of age. The present study was carried out using data from the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS). Women enrolled in the SWS who subsequently became pregnant were followed-up during pregnancy and postpartum, and the offspring have been studied through childhood. Maternal socio-demographic and anthropometric data and child anthropometric and feeding data were collected through interviews and self-administered questionnaires. When the children were 3 years of age, mothers/carers rated six potential child feeding difficulty questions on a four-point Likert scale, including one general question and five specific feeding difficulty questions. Age at introduction of solids as a predictor of feeding difficulties was examined in 2389 mother-child pairs, adjusting for child (age last breast fed, sex, gestation) and maternal characteristics (parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, age, education, employment, parenting difficulties, diet quality). The majority of mothers/carers (61 %) reported some feeding difficulties (general feeding difficulty question) at 3 years of age, specifically with their child eating enough food (61 %), eating the right food (66 %) and being choosy with food (74 %). Children who were introduced to solids ≥6 months had a lower risk of feeding difficulties (RR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·91, P=0·004) than children who were introduced to solids between 4 and 6 months. No other significant associations were found. There were few associations between feeding difficulties in relation to age at introduction of solid foods. However, general feeding difficulties were less common among infants introduced to solid foods ≥6 months of age.

  8. Healthcare costs associated with language difficulties up to 9 years of age: Australian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciberras, Emma; Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Wake, Melissa; Nicholson, Jan M; Lucas, Nina; Mensah, Fiona; Gold, Lisa; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to quantify the non-hospital healthcare costs associated with language difficulties within two nationally representative samples of children. Data were from three biennial waves (2004-2008) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (B cohort: 0-5 years; K cohort: 4-9 years). Language difficulties were defined as scores ≤ 1.25 SD below the mean on measures of parent-reported communication (0-3 years) and directly assessed vocabulary (4-9 years). Participant data were linked to administrative data on non-hospital healthcare attendances and prescription medications from the universal Australian Medicare subsidized healthcare scheme. It was found that healthcare costs over each 2-year age band were higher for children with than without language difficulties at 0-1, 2-3, and 4-5 years, notably 36% higher (mean difference = $AU206, 95% CI = $90, $321) at 4-5 years (B cohort). The slightly higher 2-year healthcare costs for children with language difficulties at 6-7 and 8-9 years were not statistically different from those without language difficulties. Modelled to the corresponding Australian child population, 2-year government costs ranged from $AU1.2-$AU12.1 million (depending on age examined). Six-year healthcare costs increased with the persistence of language difficulties in the K cohort, with total Medicare costs increasing by $192 (95% CI = $74, $311; p = .002) for each additional wave of language difficulties. Language difficulties (whether transient or persistent) were associated with substantial excess population healthcare costs in childhood, which are in addition to the known broader costs incurred through the education system. It is unclear whether healthcare costs were specifically due to the assessment and/or treatment of language difficulties, as opposed to conditions that may be co-morbid with or may cause language difficulties.

  9. Giant solitary fibrous tumor arising from greater omentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zong; Ping Chen; Guang-Yao Wang; Qun-Shan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been described at almost every anatomic location of human body,but reports of SFT in the abdominal cavity are rare.We herein present a rare case of SFT originating from greater omentum.Computed tomography revealed a 15.8 cm x 21.0 cm solid mass located at superior aspect of stomach.Open laparotomy confirmed its mesenchymal origin.Microscopically,its tissue was composed of non-organized and spindle-shaped cells exhibiting atypical nuclei,which were divided up by branching vessel and collagen bundles.Immunohistochemical staining showed that this tumor was negative for CD117,CD99,CD68,cytokeratin,calretinin,desmin,epithelial membrane antigen,F8 and S-100,but positive for CD34,bcl-2,α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin.The patient presented no evidence of recurrence during follow-up.SFT arising from abdominal cavity can be diagnosed by histological findings and immunohistochemical markers,especially for CD34 and bcl-2 positive cases.

  10. Evaluation and management of greater trochanter pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Edward P; Middleton, Emily F; Brunette, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is an enigmatic but common cause of lateral hip symptoms in middle-aged active women. The most common manifestation of this syndrome is a degenerative tendinopathy of the hip abductors similar to the intrinsic changes seen with rotator cuff pathology in the shoulder. There are no definitive tests to isolate the underlying pathology and palpation is a non-specific means by which to differentiate the source of the pain generator. The physical examination must comprehensively evaluate for a cluster of potential impairments and contributing factors that will need to be addressed to effectively manage the likely functional limitations and activity challenges the syndrome presents to the patient. Compressive forces through increased tension in the iliotibial band should be avoided. Intervention strategies should include education regarding postural avoidance, activity modifications, improvement of lumbopelvic control, and a patient approach to resolving hip joint restrictions and restoring the tensile capabilities of the deep rotators and abductors of the hip. A number of reliable and validated hip-specific self-report outcome tools are available to baseline a patient's status and monitor their progress. Further investigations to identify the epidemiological risk factors, establish effective treatment strategies, and predict prognosis are warranted.

  11. Determine the difficulties of home care in children following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıcarslan Toruner, E; Altay, N; Kisecik, Z

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the difficulties regarding the home care of children following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The sample of the study includes the families of 73 children in a bone marrow transplant unit between 2010 and 2013, Turkey. Data were collected using a form included descriptive information and questions about the difficulties and complications of home care. Families were telephoned and problems they had encountered were recorded. Mann-Whitney U-test and the logistic regression analysis were used. The average age of the children was 10.65 ± 5.03 years, the average age was 8.89 ± 4.9 when HSCT was performed, and the average year after HSCT was 1.79 ± 0.74. 41.1% of the children underwent transplantation with diagnoses of anaemia. Primary physical problems that were found after discharge from the hospital were fever (43.8%), decreased appetite (37%), rash (34.2%) and pain (26%). Socially, 43.8% of families reported that their children had difficulties with school. Primary difficulties regarding care and follow-up were reported as skin care (34.2%) and catheter care (33.3%). In the post-transplantation period, it is important to provide information about potential problems and care to patients and families in order to increase the quality of life.

  12. Disability and schizophrenia: a systematic review of experienced psychosocial difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świtaj Piotr

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a significantly disabling disease that affects all major areas of life. There is a lack of comprehensive synthesis of research findings on the full extent of psychosocial difficulties (PSDs experienced by people living with schizophrenia. This paper provides a systematic review of the literature concerning PSDs and their associated factors in schizophrenia. PSDs were conceptualized in accordance with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF as disabilities, in particular impairments of mental functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Methods An electronic search using MEDLINE and PsychINFO plus a manual search of the literature was performed for qualitative and longitudinal studies published in English between 2005 and 2010 that examined PSDs in persons with schizophrenia. The ICF was used as a conceptual framework. Results A total of 104 papers were included. The most frequent PSDs addressed in the literature were not specific ones, directly linkable to the ICF categories of mental functions, activity limitations or participation restrictions, but broad areas of psychosocial functioning, such as psychopathological symptoms (53% of papers or global disability and functioning (37%. Among mental functions, the most extensively studied were cognitive functions (27% and emotional functions (27%. Within the domain of activities and participation, the most widely investigated were difficulties in relationships with others (31% and employment (20%. Of the factors associated with the intensity or course of PSDs, the most commonly identified were treatment modalities (56%, psychopathological symptoms (26%, and socio-demographic variables (24%. Medication tended to improve the most relevant PSD, but at the same time was the only consistently reported determinant of onset of PSDs (emerging as unwanted side-effects. Conclusions The present review illustrates the

  13. Aerobic fitness, physiologic difficulty and physical activity in Black and White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G R; Weinsier, R L; Zuckerman, P A; Darnell, B E

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine if racial differences in maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2) max) and difficulty in doing submaximum (sub) exercise tasks contribute to activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) and activity-related time equivalent (ARTE) index, an index of time spent in physical activity. Subjects were 35 Black and 39 White sedentary premenopausal women group matched for age, weight and body composition. Percent fat was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, AEE by doubly labeled water and sleeping energy expenditure, ARTE index by AEE and energy cost above sleeping for five exercise tasks, and VO(2) max by a graded exercise test. Subexercise oxygen uptake was measured during walking at 3 mph on the flat and up a 2.5% grade, climbing stairs, and riding a bike ergometer at 50 W. Difficulty of exercise was assessed during the subexercise and taken as heart rate, ventilation, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and expressed as a % of the individual's maximum. VO(2) max was related to AEE (r=0.29, P<0.04) and to ARTE index (r=0.37, P<0.01). All three difficulty measures were related to AEE (r=-0.35 to -0.42, P-values<0.02) and the ARTE index (r=-0.49 to -0.52, all P-values<0.01), with the exception of RPE with ARTE (r=-0.27, P=0.10). Compared to Black women, White women had significantly higher VO(2) max (12%), AEE (45%) and ARTE (50%), and significantly less physiologic difficulty of performing the subexercise tasks: heart rate (5%), ventilation (13%), and RPE (8%). Significant racial differences in AEE and ARTE disappeared after adjusting for any of the three difficulty measures. These results show that more participation in free-living physical activity is related to greater VO(2) max and less difficulty in being active. In addition, lower levels of physical activity found in Black women may be partially explained by lower VO(2) max and increased difficulty of engaging in physical activities.

  14. Metacognitive Reading and Study Strategies and Academic Achievement of University Students With and Without a History of Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, Bradley W; Deacon, S Hélène; Parrila, Rauno K

    2017-01-01

    University students who report a history of reading difficulties have been demonstrated to have poorer word reading and reading comprehension skills than their peers; yet, without a diagnosed learning disability, these students do not have access to the same support services, potentially placing them at academic risk. This study provides a comprehensive investigation of first-year academic achievement for students with a history of reading difficulties (n = 244) compared to students with no such history (n = 603). We also examine reported use of metacognitive reading and study strategies and their relations with GPA. Results indicate that students with a history of reading difficulties earn lower GPA and successfully complete fewer credits compared to students with no history of reading difficulty. These patterns varied somewhat by faculty of study. Students with a history of reading difficulties also reported lower scores across multiple metacognitive reading and study strategy scales, yet these scores were not associated with their academic performance. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of identifying students with a history of reading difficulties and that commonly used study strategy inventories have limited value in predicting their academic success.

  15. Pragmatic language difficulties in children with hyperactivity and attention problems: an integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benita C; Johnson, Katherine A; Bretherton, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest a range of difficulties in the pragmatic aspects of language, including excessive talking and interrupting others. Such difficulties have been periodically reported over several decades in studies on the language abilities of children with features of ADHD, yet a comprehensive review of the literature has been lacking. This review aims to integrate evidence from several lines of research from 1979 to the present on pragmatic language difficulties in children with ADHD or symptoms of ADHD. A comprehensive search of empirical literature on pragmatic language in children with ADHD or symptoms of ADHD was conducted using PsycINFO and PubMed databases and through following up relevant references cited in articles. Literature was reviewed with respect to the nature and extent of pragmatic language difficulties in ADHD. Thirty studies met the review inclusion criteria, including recent questionnaire studies, observational studies of children's communication patterns, and studies of higher-level language comprehension and production. The studies indicate a consistent profile of pragmatic language impairments in children with features of ADHD, particularly in the areas of excessive talking, poor conversational turn-taking, and lack of coherence and organization in elicited speech. Pragmatic language difficulties are common in children with features of ADHD. These difficulties are consistent with deficits in executive function that are thought to characterize ADHD, thus providing some support for the theory that executive function contributes to pragmatic language competency. As yet there is very little empirical evidence of specific relationships between particular aspects of pragmatic language and particular domains of executive function. Given the importance of pragmatic language competency for children's social and academic functioning, pragmatic language abilities should be considered during

  16. Diets of greater prairie chickens on the Sheyenne National Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Jay A. Newell; John E. Toepfer

    1988-01-01

    Diets of greater prairie chickens on the Sheyenne National Grassland of North Dakota were examined. During the winter months agricultural crops (primarily corn) were the predominant food items. Green vegetation was consumed in greater quantities as spring progressed. Dandelion flowers and alfalfa/sweetclover were the major vegetative food items through the summer. Both...

  17. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  18. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Greater leave entitlements. 630.1210 Section 630.1210 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall...

  19. Difficulties in assessing outcomes of soil and water conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Difficulties in assessing outcomes of soil and water conservation extension messages in ... learning objective is what the student wants to learn in the process to ... knowledge was done through individual interviews, or oral .... environment.

  20. Towards the full information chain theory: question difficulty

    CERN Document Server

    Perevalov, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    A general problem of optimal information acquisition for its use in decision making problems is considered. This motivates the need for developing quantitative measures of information sources' capabilities for supplying accurate information depending on the particular content of the latter. In this article, the notion of a real valued difficulty functional for questions identified with partitions of problem parameter space is introduced and the overall form of this functional is derived that satisfies a particular system of reasonable postulates. It is found that, in an isotropic case, the resulting difficulty functional depends on a single scalar function on the parameter space that can be interpreted -- using parallels with classical thermodynamics -- as a temperature-like quantity, with the question difficulty itself playing the role of thermal energy. Quantitative relationships between difficulty functionals of different questions are also explored.

  1. common difficulties experienced by grade 12 students in learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    What common difficulties do students experience in learning chemistry in Ebinat .... in learning chemistry were due to lack of proper learning materials in school. .... strategies, large class size, over loaded teachers, wide chemistry syllabus, ...

  2. DIFFICULTIES OF ENGLISH LEARNING AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    KORSHUNOVA I.G.

    2016-01-01

    The article highlights the problems of English learning as a foreign language. Some difficulties are connected with origin of the language, spelling rules and grammar. But in most cases problems are caused by the learner’s personal abilities.

  3. Stressful events and psychological difficulties : Testing alternative candidates for sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364227885; O'Donnell, Kieran; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Ormel, Johan; Van Aken, Marcel A G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/081831218; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal, reciprocal associations between stressful events and psychological difficulties from early childhood to mid-adolescence. Child age, sex, prenatal maternal anxiety, and difficult temperament were tested as sources of sensitivity, that is, factors that

  4. Stressful events and psychological difficulties : testing alternative candidates for sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; O'Donnell, Kieran; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Ormel, Johan; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal, reciprocal associations between stressful events and psychological difficulties from early childhood to mid-adolescence. Child age, sex, prenatal maternal anxiety, and difficult temperament were tested as sources of sensitivity, that is, factors that

  5. Trainee doctors with learning difficulties: recognizing need and providing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Duncan

    2012-06-01

    Specific learning difficulties affect medical students and trainee doctors. These conditions impact on processing and learning skills, and are associated with positive attributes. Having an awareness of these is key for successful and effective medical educators.

  6. Information- Theoretic Analysis for the Difficulty of Extracting Hidden Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-ming; LI Shi-qu; CAO Jia; LIU Jiu-fen

    2005-01-01

    The difficulty of extracting hidden information,which is essentially a kind of secrecy, is analyzed by information-theoretic method. The relations between key rate, message rate, hiding capacity and difficulty of extraction are studied in the terms of unicity distance of stego-key, and the theoretic conclusion is used to analyze the actual extracting attack on Least Significant Bit(LSB) steganographic algorithms.

  7. Clock reading: an underestimated topic in children with mathematics difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that children with mathematics difficulties (MD) have weaknesses in multiple areas of mathematics. Andersson (2008), for example, recently found that children with MD perform significantly worse than other children on clock reading tasks. The present study builds on this recent finding and aims at a more profound understanding of the difficulties that children with MD experience with telling time. Therefore, clock reading abilities of 154 children with MD were compar...

  8. The cognitive profile of Chinese children with mathematics difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how four domain-specific skills (arithmetic procedural skills, number fact retrieval, place value concept, and number sense) and two domain-general processing skills (working memory and processing speed) may account for Chinese children's mathematics learning difficulties. Children with mathematics difficulties (MD) of two age groups (7-8 and 9-11. years) were compared with age-matched typically achieving children. For both age groups, children with MD performed significan...

  9. Social and emotional difficulties among high ability students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Soriano de Alencar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and emotional difficulties observed among highly able students are addressed. The asynchronous development, perfectionism, over-excitability, underachievement, and other social and emotional difficulties are discussed, describing factors related to them. The article finalizes highlighting possible contributions of the psychologist on counseling high ability students, their families and teachers, with the purpose of preventing or reducing maladjustments, as well as of helping them optimize their developmental process.

  10. Women's views of their sexual difficulties: agreement and disagreement with clinical diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael; Holt, Victoria; Nazareth, Irwin

    2007-04-01

    There is controversy about how to conceptualize sexual problems in women. Our purpose in this study was to compare ICD-10 diagnoses of sexual dysfunction in women with whether or not the woman perceived she had a sexual problem, her views on its origins, and its impact on her life. Participants (N = 401, M age, 37.8 years) were consecutive attendees to general practices in London, England. Our main measures were an ICD-10 diagnosis of sexual dysfunction and the woman's own perception of a sexual problem. Based on reported symptoms and behavior, 38% of women had at least one ICD-10 diagnosis of sexual dysfunction. Prevalence fell to 18% in women who also perceived they had a problem and to 6% in women who regarded the problem as moderate or severe. A total of 73 (18%) women were assigned an ICD-10 diagnosis and agreed that they had a problem, 80 (20%) were assigned a diagnosis but reported no problem, 78 (19%) had no diagnosis but reported a sexual problem, and 170 (42%) had no diagnosis and reported no problem. For women with sexual partners, reported sexual satisfaction was lowest in those assigned an ICD-10 diagnosis who also perceived they had a problem and highest in those with no diagnosis and no perceived problem. Relationship and emotional difficulties were the most common perceived causes of sexual difficulties, whether or not an ICD-10 diagnosis was assigned. There were three aspects to sexual difficulties in women. The first concerned symptoms and behavior that clinicians used to make a diagnosis, the second was the woman's own perception that she had a sexual difficulty, and the third was her level of sexual satisfaction. All three appear to be important and may explain why published prevalence rates of sexual dysfunction and associated factors are so conflicting.

  11. Usability Testing for Greater Impact: A Primo Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Marie Perrin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study focuses on a usability test conducted by four librarians at Texas Tech University. Eight students were asked to complete a series of tasks using OneSearch, the TTU Libraries’ implementation of the Primo discovery tool. Based on the test, the team identified three major usability problems, as well as potential solutions. These problems typify the difficulties patrons face while using library search tools, but have a variety of simple solutions.

  12. Specificity of Communication Difficulties оf Children with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samohvalova A.G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to answer the question: «Does disabilities of the child connected with the occurrence of difficulties in communication? » Author tests the hypothesis that adolescents with disabilities along with common age communication problems in the process of interpersonal communication have specific, different from communication difficulties of typically developing peers. Communicative characteristics and specifics communication difficulties of the three groups of younger teenagers (30 in each group aged 12-13 years – children with visual impairment, hearing loss, and children with typical development are compared. Difficulty in communication in adolescents studied in two directions: a subjective component is detected by means of content analysis of pending proposals; objective manifestations recorded by peer review of communicative behavior of the child. The results show that children with disabilities, who live in a state of chronic stress, significantly more often (r≤0,02 compared with peers who have typical development, experience communication difficulties in a communicative situations (basic, meaningful, instrumental, reflexive. Determined individually specific and general communication difficulties inherent in children with various disabilities.

  13. Review of student difficulties in upper-level quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandralekha; Marshman, Emily

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Learning advanced physics, in general, is challenging not only due to the increased mathematical sophistication but also because one must continue to build on all of the prior knowledge acquired at the introductory and intermediate levels. In addition, learning quantum mechanics can be especially challenging because the paradigms of classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are very different. Here, we review research on student reasoning difficulties in learning upper-level quantum mechanics and research on students' problem-solving and metacognitive skills in these courses. Some of these studies were multiuniversity investigations. The investigations suggest that there is large diversity in student performance in upper-level quantum mechanics regardless of the university, textbook, or instructor, and many students in these courses have not acquired a functional understanding of the fundamental concepts. The nature of reasoning difficulties in learning quantum mechanics is analogous to reasoning difficulties found via research in introductory physics courses. The reasoning difficulties were often due to overgeneralizations of concepts learned in one context to another context where they are not directly applicable. Reasoning difficulties in distinguishing between closely related concepts and in making sense of the formalism of quantum mechanics were common. We conclude with a brief summary of the research-based approaches that take advantage of research on student difficulties in order to improve teaching and learning of quantum mechanics.

  14. Review of student difficulties in upper-level quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Learning advanced physics, in general, is challenging not only due to the increased mathematical sophistication but also because one must continue to build on all of the prior knowledge acquired at the introductory and intermediate levels. In addition, learning quantum mechanics can be especially challenging because the paradigms of classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are very different. Here, we review research on student reasoning difficulties in learning upper-level quantum mechanics and research on students’ problem-solving and metacognitive skills in these courses. Some of these studies were multiuniversity investigations. The investigations suggest that there is large diversity in student performance in upper-level quantum mechanics regardless of the university, textbook, or instructor, and many students in these courses have not acquired a functional understanding of the fundamental concepts. The nature of reasoning difficulties in learning quantum mechanics is analogous to reasoning difficulties found via research in introductory physics courses. The reasoning difficulties were often due to overgeneralizations of concepts learned in one context to another context where they are not directly applicable. Reasoning difficulties in distinguishing between closely related concepts and in making sense of the formalism of quantum mechanics were common. We conclude with a brief summary of the research-based approaches that take advantage of research on student difficulties in order to improve teaching and learning of quantum mechanics.

  15. Bedside tests to predict laryngoscopic difficulty in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansano, André Marques; Módolo, Norma Sueli Pinheiro; Silva, Leopoldo Muniz da; Ganem, Eliana Maria; Braz, Leandro Gobbo; Knabe, Andrea de Carvalho; Freitas, Fernanda Moreira de

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric airway management is a priority during anesthesia, critical care and emergency medicine. The purpose of this study is to validate bedside tests that predict airway management difficulty in anesthetized children. Children under 12 years of age were recruited in a cross-sectional study to assess the value of some anthropometric measures as predictors of laryngoscopic difficulty. The patients were divided into three groups by age. Weight, height, neck circumference, BMI (body mass index), inter incisors distance thyromental distance, sternomental distance, frontal plane to chin distance (FPCD) and the Mallampati index were determined and were correlated with the CML (Cormack & Lehane classification). The incidence of difficult laryngoscopy (CML 3 or 4) was 3.58%. Factors that were significantly associated with laryngoscopic difficulty included short inter incisors distance, high FPCD, thyromental distance, sternomental distance and the Mallampati index. The FPCD/weight index exhibited a higher area under the ROC curve than any other variable considered. This study confirms that the FPCD and the FPCD/weight ratio are the most consistent predictors of laryngoscopic difficulty in pediatric patients. For patients over 6 months of age, the IID also correlated with laryngoscopic difficulty. For children who were capable of obeying simple orders, the Mallampati test correlated better with laryngoscopic difficulty than did the Mallampati test with phonation. Our results strongly suggest that skilled professionals should perform airway management in children, especially in patients with a high FPCD or a high FPCD/weight ratio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spanish researchers’ perceived difficulty writing research articles for English-medium journals: the impact of proficiency in English versus publication experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Moreno

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous quantitative studies suggest that the burden researchers who use English as an additional language perceive when writing research articles (RAs for publication in English (as L2 is 24% greater than the burden they perceive when they write RAs for publication in their L1. It remains unclear precisely which aspects of research article (RA writing in English present these writers with the greatest challenge and just why they perceive this increase in difficulty. A structured questionnaire comprising thirty-seven questions about researchers’ publication experiences in scientific journals in English and in Spanish was designed and sent out to all (n = 8,794 Spanish postdoctoral researchers at one research-only institution and four universities in Spain, yielding responses from 1,717 researchers. Our first results show that the discussion is the section that is perceived as more difficult to write for English-medium journals, across the four broad knowledge areas in a way that cannot be fully explained by their lower level of proficiency in English (as L2. This article proposes the rhetorical transfer hypothesis as a possible explanation for their additional difficulty. Our results also reveal that their increased perceived difficulty writing RA discussions in English (as L2 does not decrease noticeably until Spanish researchers report high or very high levels of proficiency in English (as L2 for academic or general purposes or have published on average at least 37 RAs as corresponding author in English-medium journals over the last ten years. Implications for English for Academic Purposes (EAP research and pedagogy are discussed.

  17. Direct investment by stepfathers can mitigate effects on educational outcomes but does not improve behavioural difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmott, Emily H; Mace, Ruth

    2014-09-01

    In contemporary developed populations, stepfather presence has been associated with detrimental effects on child development. However, the proximate mechanisms behind such effects are yet to be fully explored. From a behavioural ecological perspective, the negative effects associated with stepfathers may be due to the reduced quantity and quality of investments children receive within stepfather households. Here, we build on previous studies by investigating whether the effects of stepfather presence on child outcomes are driven by differences in maternal and partner (i.e., father or stepfather) direct investments. We use data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to explore stepfather effects on children's educational achievement and behavioural difficulties at age 7. Our results indicate that, for educational achievement, stepfather effects are due to the lower levels of direct investments children receive. For behavioural difficulty, stepfather effects are due to multiple factors whereby stepfather presence is associated with greater difficulties independent of investment levels, and direct investments from stepfathers are ineffective. Our results suggest that the negative effects of stepfathers on child outcomes can be explained, in part, by the reduced quantity and the ineffectiveness of direct investments children receive from stepfathers. Furthermore, the effects of stepfather direct investments seem to vary between child outcomes.

  18. Parental Depressive Symptoms and Childhood Cancer: The Importance of Financial Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Litzelman, Kristin; Allchin, Adelyn; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Research suggests a relationship between caring for a child with cancer and psychological distress in caregivers. Less evident is the role which financial difficulties might play in this relationship. We sought to determine if caring for a child with cancer was related to clinically relevant depressive symptoms among parents, whether or not financial difficulties mediated this relationship, and if financial difficulties were independently associated with symptoms of depression among parents of children with cancer. Methods Data are from 215 parents of children diagnosed with cancer or brain tumors (n=75) and a comparison group of parents of healthy children (n=140). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the factors associated with reporting clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Results Caring for a child with cancer was associated with increased odds of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in parents (OR: 4.93; 95% CI: 1.97 – 12.30), controlling for covariates. The mediating effect of financial burden on this relationship was not statistically significant. However, among parents of children with cancer, negative financial life events increased the likelihood of reporting symptoms of depression (OR: 4.89; 95% CI: 1.26 – 18.96). Conclusions Caring for a child with cancer was associated with depressive symptoms for parents. Financial difficulties were the strongest correlate of these symptoms among parents of children with cancer. Our results suggest that it may not only be the burden of caring for the child with cancer, but also the associated financial difficulties that contribute to a higher likelihood of depressive symptoms in parents. PMID:24101152

  19. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  20. Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties Over Greater Noida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties over Greater NoidaManish Sharma1, Ramesh P. Singh2 and Rajesh Kumar3 1Research and Technology Development Centre, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. 2School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange 92866, USA 3School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Delhi capital of India is highly polluted during winter and summer seasons. Due to dominant westerly winds the air mass influence its neighboring city Greater Noida which is located 60 km south east of Delhi. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out during 2001-2015. The ground observation and satellite data show dynamic aerosol optical parameters over Greater Noida. During winter and summer seasons, dominant westerly wind outflow pollutants of Delhi that mix with the local anthropogenic emissions of Greater Noida influencing aerosol properties at different pressure levels. The characteristics of trace gases and aerosol parameters over Delhi and Greater Noida will be presented. The air quality is severely affected from the outflow of pollutants from Delhi which is threat to people living in the area. Due to dominant winds the air mass further transported towards eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains affecting weather conditions of the major cities.