Pastor, Patricia N; Reuben, Cynthia A
This report describes trends in health conditions reported by parents as the limitations leading to special education services for their children. Data are reported for children ages 6-17 (N=182,998) surveyed in households in the 2001-2012 National Health Interview Survey. Between 2001 and 2012, the overall percentage of U.S. children ages 6-17 who were receiving special education services increased from 7.2% to 8.7%. Between 2001 and 2012, the leading causes of activity limitations among children receiving special education services included emotional or behavioral problems, which increased from 36% to 43%; speech problems, which increased from 16% to 22%; and learning disability, which decreased from 41% to 27%. There were no significant trends in any of the other conditions considered as possible sources of activity limitations. Emotional and behavioral problems have become the most frequently reported source of activity limitations among children receiving special education services.
Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Harder, Valerie S.; Otten, Laura; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michel; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Goncalves, Miguel; Gudmundsson, Halldor; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Liu, Jianghong; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Machado, Barbara Cesar; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Pluck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Pranvera, Jetishi; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zeynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Yurdusen, Sema; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.
International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1 1/2-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"-oriented scales; a Stress…
Rescorla, Leslie A; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y
International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental...... Disorders-oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; and Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Effect sizes for scale score differences among the 24 societies ranged from small to medium (3-12%). Although societies differed greatly in language, culture, and other characteristics, Total...
Erford, Bradley T.; Alsamadi, Silvana C.
Score reliability and validity of parent responses concerning their 10- to 17-year-old students were analyzed using the Screening Test for Emotional Problems-Parent Report (STEP-P), which assesses a variety of emotional problems classified under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. Score reliability, convergent, and…
Salater, Julie; Røhr, Marthe
Objective : To examine (a) the prevalence of sleep problems among 4-year-olds in the general population, (b) the prevalence of sleep problems among children with emotional and/or behavioural problems, and (c) whether specific sleep problems are associated with particular emotional/behavioural problems. Method: Using The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) , data about sleep and emotional/behavioural problems was obtained from 727 parents of 4-year-olds, recruited for a large...
Kapi, Aikaterini; Veltsista, Alexandra; Sovio, Ulla; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bakoula, Chryssa
To compare self-reported emotional and behavioural problems among Greek and Finnish adolescents. Youth Self-Report scores were analysed for 3373 Greek adolescents aged 18 years and 7039 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years from the general population in both countries. The impact of country, gender, place of residence, socioeconomic status (SES) and family stability on the scores was evaluated. Only country and gender yielded small to medium effect on the scores. Greek boys scored significantly higher than Finns on 10 of the 11 YSR syndromes, particularly on the anxious/depressed scale. Greek girls scored significantly lower than Finnish girls on the somatic complaints and delinquent behaviour scales. In general, girls scored higher than boys on both internalising and externalising problems. The gender by country interaction revealed that Finnish girls reported more externalising problems. The main differences marked in this comparison were the higher level of anxiety and depression in Greeks than Finns and the higher level of externalising problems in Finnish girls than boys. Cultural standards could play an important role in explaining these differences. Overall, it seems that only a small number of differences exist between a northern and southern European region.
Jona, Celine M H; Labuschagne, Izelle; Mercieca, Emily-Clare; Fisher, Fiona; Gluyas, Cathy; Stout, Julie C; Andrews, Sophie C
Family functioning in Huntington's disease (HD) is known from previous studies to be adversely affected. However, which aspects of family functioning are disrupted is unknown, limiting the empirical basis around which to create supportive interventions. The aim of the current study was to assess family functioning in HD families. We assessed family functioning in 61 participants (38 HD gene-expanded participants and 23 family members) using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin and Bishop, 1983), which provides scores for seven domains of functioning: Problem Solving; Communication; Affective Involvement; Affective Responsiveness; Behavior Control; Roles; and General Family Functioning. The most commonly reported disrupted domain for HD participants was Affective Involvement, which was reported by 39.5% of HD participants, followed closely by General Family Functioning (36.8%). For family members, the most commonly reported dysfunctional domains were Affective Involvement and Communication (both 52.2%). Furthermore, symptomatic HD participants reported more disruption to Problem Solving than pre-symptomatic HD participants. In terms of agreement between pre-symptomatic and symptomatic HD participants and their family members, all domains showed moderate to very good agreement. However, on average, family members rated Communication as more disrupted than their HD affected family member. These findings highlight the need to target areas of emotional engagement, communication skills and problem solving in family interventions in HD.
Jona, Celine M.H.; Labuschagne, Izelle; Mercieca, Emily-Clare; Fisher, Fiona; Gluyas, Cathy; Stout, Julie C.; Andrews, Sophie C.
Background: Family functioning in Huntington’s disease (HD) is known from previous studies to be adversely affected. However, which aspects of family functioning are disrupted is unknown, limiting the empirical basis around which to create supportive interventions. Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess family functioning in HD families. Methods: We assessed family functioning in 61 participants (38 HD gene-expanded participants and 23 family members) using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin and Bishop, 1983), which provides scores for seven domains of functioning: Problem Solving; Communication; Affective Involvement; Affective Responsiveness; Behavior Control; Roles; and General Family Functioning. Results: The most commonly reported disrupted domain for HD participants was Affective Involvement, which was reported by 39.5% of HD participants, followed closely by General Family Functioning (36.8%). For family members, the most commonly reported dysfunctional domains were Affective Involvement and Communication (both 52.2%). Furthermore, symptomatic HD participants reported more disruption to Problem Solving than pre-symptomatic HD participants. In terms of agreement between pre-symptomatic and symptomatic HD participants and their family members, all domains showed moderate to very good agreement. However, on average, family members rated Communication as more disrupted than their HD affected family member. Conclusion: These findings highlight the need to target areas of emotional engagement, communication skills and problem solving in family interventions in HD. PMID:28968240
Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Harder, Valerie S.; Otten, Laura; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Döpfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michel; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Gonçalves, Miguel; Guđmundsson, Halldór; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jusiené, Roma; Kim, Young Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Liu, Jianghong; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Machado, Bárbara César; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Plück, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Pranvera, Jetishi; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zeynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, José; van der Ende, Jan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Yurdusen, Sema; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.
International comparisons were conducted of preschool children’s behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½–5 by parents in 24 societies (N =19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; and Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Effect sizes for scale score differences among the 24 societies ranged from small to medium (3–12%). Although societies differed greatly in language, culture, and other characteristics, Total Problems scores for 18 of the 24 societies were within 7.1 points of the omnicultural mean of 33.3 (on a scale of 0–198). Gender and age differences, as well as gender and age interactions with society, were all very small (effect sizes societies, correlations between mean item ratings averaged .78, and correlations between internal consistency alphas for the scales averaged .92, indicating that the rank orders of mean item ratings and internal consistencies of scales were very similar across diverse societies. PMID:21534056
Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Denner, Silvia; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel; Guomundsson, Halldor; Jusiene, Roma; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Lobel, Sofia P.; Machado, Barbara Cesar; Markovic, Jasminka; Mas, Paola A.; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Montirosso, Rosario; Pluck, Julia; Pronaj, Adelina Ahmeti; Rodriguez, Jorge T.; Rojas, Pamela O.; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.
This study tested societal effects on caregiver/teacher ratings of behavioral/emotional problems for 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies. Many societies had problem scale scores within a relatively narrow range, despite differences in language, culture, and other characteristics. The small age and gender effects were quite similar across…
Rescorla, L.; Achenbach, T.; Ivanova, M.Y.
This study compared parents' ratings of behavioral and emotional problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) for general population samples of children ages 6 to 16 from 31 societies (N = 55,508). Effect sizes for society ranged from .03 to .14. Effect s...
Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chen, Wei; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael; Larsson, Bo; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Xianchen; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Weisz, John; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Yang, Hao-Jan; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank
This study compared parents' ratings of behavioral and emotional problems on the "Child Behavior Checklist" (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) for general population samples of children ages 6 to 16 from 31 societies (N = 55,508). Effect sizes for society ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. Effect sizes for gender were less than or…
Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chen, Wei; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael; Larsson, Bo; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Xianchen; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Weisz, John; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Yang, Hao-Jan; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank
This study compared parents' ratings of behavioral and emotional problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 199 1; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) for general population samples of children ages 6 to 16 from 31 societies (N = 55,508). Effect sizes for society ranged from.03 to.14. Effect sizes
Silberg, Tamar; Brezner, Amichai; Gal, Gilad; Ahonniska-Assa, Jaana; Levav, Miriam
Assessments of psychological symptoms in children often rely on caregivers' (usually mothers') reports. However, the reliability may be affected by the caregivers' own emotional distress (ED). The main objectives of this study were to assess the variability in ED of mothers of children with chronic physical disabilities, and its association with the ratings of their children's emotional and behavioral problems. Medical data of children diagnosed with chronic disabilities were analyzed (N = 72). Mothers completed the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (12-GHQ) to measure ED and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess children's emotional and behavioral problems Mothers' ED scores were compared with communitybased counterparts with similar socio-demographic characteristics (N = 657) from the Israel National Health Survey (INHS). Mothers of children with chronic physical disabilities had higher levels of ED compared to mothers in the general population. About 20% of the sample mothers had 12-GHQ scores compatible with DSM- IV depression or anxiety disorders. No differences in ED were found according to the type of child's disability or IQ score. Marked differences in CBCL scores were reported by mothers with high versus low ED, controlling for baseline maternal and child characteristics. High levels of maternal ED were associated with mothers' reports on child's behavioral and emotional problems.This may contaminate the reliability of parental reports on their child's psychological state.
Over half of all significant events that occur in nuclear plants involve human performance problems. There is increasing worldwide recognition that human performance problems have a significant impact on the safety, cost, and efficiency of nuclear plant operations. Emotional stability components have an important direct and indirect impact on human performance problems. This paper examines emotional stability components that are currently incorporated into human performance evaluation systems (HPES) in nuclear plants. It describes HPES programs being developed around the world, the emotional stability components that are currently referred to in these programs, and suggestions for improving HPES programs through a greater understanding of emotion stability components. A review of emotional stability components that may hinder or promote a plant environment that encourages the voluntary reporting and correction of human error is also presented
Nøvik, Torunn Stene; Jozefiak, Thomas
Studies about changes in the prevalence of emotional and behaviour problems across time are lacking, especially among younger children. To determine if the level of parent-reported emotional and behaviour problems and competencies in young Norwegian school children had changed across a 16-year time interval. We compared parent reports obtained by the Child Behavior Checklist in two samples of children aged 7-9 years from the general population assessed in 1991 and 2007. The results demonstrated overall stability or slight decreases of emotional and behaviour problems and a significant increase in competencies, mainly due to increased activity and social competence scores in the 2007 sample. Boys obtained higher scores than girls in Total Problems, Externalizing and Attention problems at both time points and there was a high stability of the rank order of items. The findings suggest stability in child emotional and behaviour problems, and an increase of competencies across the period.
Erford, Bradley T.; Butler, Caitlin; Peacock, Elizabeth
The Screening Test for Emotional Problems-Teacher Version (STEP-T) was designed to identify students aged 7-17 years with wide-ranging emotional disturbances. Coefficients alpha and test-retest reliability were adequate for all subscales except Anxiety. The hypothesized five-factor model fit the data very well and external aspects of validity were…
Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.
This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…
Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) is an approach to counselling and psychotherapy rooted in the CBT tradition and one that has a distinctive perspective on emotional problems.\\ud \\ud Understanding Emotional Problems provides an accurate understanding of the REBT perspective on eight major emotional problems for which help is sought: anxiety, depression, shame, guilt, unhealthy anger, hurt, unhealthy jealousy and unhealthy envy.\\ud \\ud Rather than discussing treatment methods, Windy Dr...
Steensma, Thomas D; Zucker, Kenneth J; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Vanderlaan, Doug P; Wood, Hayley; Fuentes, Amanda; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T
For gender dysphoric children and adolescents, the school environment may be challenging due to peer social ostracism and rejection. To date, information on the psychological functioning and the quality of peer relations in gender dysphoric children and adolescents has been studied via parental report, peer sociometric methods, and social interactions in laboratory play groups. The present study was the first cross-national investigation that assessed behavior and emotional problems and the quality of peer relations, both measured by the Teacher's Report Form (TRF), in a sample of 728 gender dysphoric patients (554 children, 174 adolescents), who were referred to specialized gender identity clinics in the Netherlands and Canada. The gender dysphoric adolescents had significantly more teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems than the gender dysphoric children. In both countries, gender dysphoric natal boys had poorer peer relations and more internalizing than externalizing problems compared to the gender dysphoric natal girls. Furthermore, there were significant between-clinic differences: both the children and the adolescents from Canada had more emotional and behavioral problems and a poorer quality of peer relations than the children and adolescents from the Netherlands. In conclusion, gender dysphoric children and adolescents showed the same pattern of emotional and behavioral problems in both countries. The extent of behavior and emotional problems was, however, higher in Canada than in the Netherlands, which appeared, in part, an effect of a poorer quality of peer relations. Per Bronfenbrenner's (American Psychologist, 32, 513-531, 1977) ecological model of human development and well-being, we consider various interpretations of the cross-national, cross-clinic differences on TRF behavior problems at the level of the family, the peer group, and the culture at large.
de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J
This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents.
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Silberg, Tamar; Tal-Jacobi, Dana; Levav, Miriam; Brezner, Amichai; Rassovsky, Yuri
Gathering information from parents and teachers following paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) has substantial clinical value for diagnostic decisions. Yet, a multi-informant approach has rarely been addressed when evaluating children at the chronic stage post-injury. In the current study, the goals were to examine (1) differences between parents' and teachers' reports on a child's emotional and behavioural problems and (2) the effect of time elapsed since injury on each rater's report. A sample of 42 parents and 42 teachers of children following severe TBI completed two standard rating scales. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine whether time elapsed since injury reliably distinguished children falling above and below clinical levels. Emotional-behavioural scores of children following severe TBI fell within normal range, according to both teachers and parents. Significant differences were found between parents' reports relatively close to the time of injury and 2 years post-injury. However, no such differences were observed in teachers' ratings. Parents and teachers of children following severe TBI differ in their reports on a child's emotional and behavioural problems. The present study not only underscores the importance of multiple informants, but also highlights, for the first time, the possibility that informants' perceptions may vary across time.
Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje
The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.
Bardack, Sarah; Obradovic´, Jelena
Research Findings: Drawing from a diverse community sample of 89 children, ages 4-6, their primary caregivers and teachers, this study examined the interplay of child emotional behavior problems, parent emotion socialization practices, and gender in predicting teacher-child closeness. Teachers reported on perceptions of closeness with children.…
Practical relevance: Despite its importance, emotional health is a subject that is sadly neglected in the context of companion animals. Understanding emotions is at the heart of veterinary behavioural medicine and is key to preventing, managing and treating reported behavioural problems in domestic cats. Clinical challenges: On a daily basis, veterinary practices are presented with the physical health impact of emotional health and with emotionally motivated behaviours that are undesirable to owners and/or detrimental to the cat. Emotional health is of equal importance to physical health and lies at the very core of veterinary medicine. Clinically, the emotional motivation for a behaviour must be identified before an assessment is made of whether the motivation is contextually appropriate and whether the cat's response is justified and normal, or abnormal in the circumstances. Evidence base: The majority of referenced evidence for our understanding of emotional motivations in mammals has come from the human field, but recently there has been increasing interest in the emotional health of non-human animals and a resulting growth in research. This review draws on the published literature and the author's personal experience to explore how emotions can influence feline behaviours. Global importance: Understanding the importance of emotional health is a major factor in ensuring positive welfare for cats, wherever they are kept as companion animals. It impacts on their physical health and their quality of life, and also on the relationship between cat and owner.
Sjursø, Ida Risanger; Fandrem, Hildegunn; Roland, Erling
Previous studies show an association between traditional and cyber victimization. However, there seem to be differences in how these forms of being bullied relates to emotional problems in the victims. Few studies focus on symptoms of general anxiety and depression as separate variables when comparing traditional and cyber victimization.…
Rescorla, L.A.; Achenbach, T.M.; Ivanova, M.Y.
This study tested societal effects on caregiver/teacher ratings of behavioral/emotional problems for 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies. Many societies had problem scale scores within a relatively narrow range, despite differences in language, culture, and other characteristics. The small age...... and gender effects were quite similar across societies. The rank orders of mean item ratings were similar across diverse societies. For 7,380 children from 13 societies, ratings were also obtained from a parent. In all 13 societies, mean Total Problems scores derived from parent ratings were significantly...
Haney, Jolynn L.; Houser, Linda; Cullen, Jennifer A.
Emotional and behavioral difficulties in children with autism often present problems for families seeking appropriate treatment interventions. Using data from the 2011 Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services, ordinal logistic regression models were used to examine the association between parental perceptions about autism and their reports of…
Berzenski, Sara R
Efforts to differentiate between the developmental sequelae of childhood emotional abuse and childhood emotional neglect are critical to both research and practice efforts. As an oft-identified mechanism of the effects of child maltreatment on later adjustment, emotion dysregulation represents a key potential pathway. The present study explored a higher order factor model of specific emotion regulation skills, and the extent to which these skill sets would indicate distinct developmental pathways from unique emotional maltreatment experiences to multidomain adjustment. A sample of 500 ethnoracially diverse college students reported on their experiences. A two-factor model of emotion regulation skills based on subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale was revealed. Significant indirect effects of childhood emotional abuse on psychopathology and problems in social relationships were found through response-focused difficulties in emotion regulation, whereas a significant indirect effect of childhood emotional neglect on problems in social relationships was found through antecedent-focused difficulties in emotion regulation. These results are consistent with theoretical models and empirical evidence suggesting differential effects of childhood emotional abuse and emotional neglect, and provide an important indication for developing targeted interventions focusing on specific higher order emotion dysregulation skill clusters.
Schwenck, Christina; Gensthaler, Angelika; Romanos, Marcel; Freitag, Christine M; Schneider, Wolfgang; Taurines, Regina
A deficit in emotion recognition has been suggested to underlie conduct problems. Although several studies have been conducted on this topic so far, most concentrated on male participants. The aim of the current study was to compare recognition of morphed emotional faces in girls with conduct problems (CP) with elevated or low callous-unemotional (CU+ vs. CU-) traits and a matched healthy developing control group (CG). Sixteen girls with CP-CU+, 16 girls with CP-CU- and 32 controls (mean age: 13.23 years, SD=2.33 years) were included. Video clips with morphed faces were presented in two runs to assess emotion recognition. Multivariate analysis of variance with the factors group and run was performed. Girls with CP-CU- needed more time than the CG to encode sad, fearful, and happy faces and they correctly identified sadness less often. Girls with CP-CU+ outperformed the other groups in the identification of fear. Learning effects throughout runs were the same for all groups except that girls with CP-CU- correctly identified fear less often in the second run compared to the first run. Results need to be replicated with comparable tasks, which might result in subgroup-specific therapeutic recommendations.
Full Text Available Many psychiatric problem domains have been associated with emotion-specific biases or general deficiencies in facial emotion identification. However, both within and between psychiatric problem domains, large variability exists in the types of emotion identification problems that were reported. Moreover, since the domain-specificity of the findings was often not addressed, it remains unclear whether patterns found for specific problem domains can be better explained by co-occurrence of other psychiatric problems or by more generic characteristics of psychopathology, for example, problem severity. In this study, we aimed to investigate associations between emotion identification biases and five psychiatric problem domains, and to determine the domain-specificity of these biases. Data were collected as part of the ‘No Fun No Glory’ study and involved 2,577 young adults. The study participants completed a dynamic facial emotion identification task involving happy, sad, angry, and fearful faces, and filled in the Adult Self-Report Questionnaire, of which we used the scales depressive problems, anxiety problems, avoidance problems, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD problems and antisocial problems. Our results suggest that participants with antisocial problems were significantly less sensitive to happy facial emotions, participants with ADHD problems were less sensitive to angry emotions, and participants with avoidance problems were less sensitive to both angry and happy emotions. These effects could not be fully explained by co-occurring psychiatric problems. Whereas this seems to indicate domain-specificity, inspection of the overall pattern of effect sizes regardless of statistical significance reveals generic patterns as well, in that for all psychiatric problem domains the effect sizes for happy and angry emotions were larger than the effect sizes for sad and fearful emotions. As happy and angry emotions are strongly associated
Vrijen, Charlotte; Hartman, Catharina A.; Lodder, Gerine M. A.; Verhagen, Maaike; de Jonge, Peter; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
Many psychiatric problem domains have been associated with emotion-specific biases or general deficiencies in facial emotion identification. However, both within and between psychiatric problem domains, large variability exists in the types of emotion identification problems that were reported. Moreover, since the domain-specificity of the findings was often not addressed, it remains unclear whether patterns found for specific problem domains can be better explained by co-occurrence of other psychiatric problems or by more generic characteristics of psychopathology, for example, problem severity. In this study, we aimed to investigate associations between emotion identification biases and five psychiatric problem domains, and to determine the domain-specificity of these biases. Data were collected as part of the ‘No Fun No Glory’ study and involved 2,577 young adults. The study participants completed a dynamic facial emotion identification task involving happy, sad, angry, and fearful faces, and filled in the Adult Self-Report Questionnaire, of which we used the scales depressive problems, anxiety problems, avoidance problems, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) problems and antisocial problems. Our results suggest that participants with antisocial problems were significantly less sensitive to happy facial emotions, participants with ADHD problems were less sensitive to angry emotions, and participants with avoidance problems were less sensitive to both angry and happy emotions. These effects could not be fully explained by co-occurring psychiatric problems. Whereas this seems to indicate domain-specificity, inspection of the overall pattern of effect sizes regardless of statistical significance reveals generic patterns as well, in that for all psychiatric problem domains the effect sizes for happy and angry emotions were larger than the effect sizes for sad and fearful emotions. As happy and angry emotions are strongly associated with approach and
Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda
Young, middle-aged, and older adults' emotion regulation strategies in interpersonal problems were examined. Participants imagined themselves in anger- or sadness-eliciting situations with a close friend. Factor analyses of a new questionnaire supported a 4-factor model of emotion regulation strategies, including passivity, expressing emotions, seeking emotional information or support, and solving the problem. Results suggest that age differences in emotion regulation (such as older adults' increased endorsement of passive emotion regulation relative to young adults) are partially due to older adults' decreased ability to integrate emotion and cognition, increased prioritization of emotion regulation goals, and decreased tendency to express anger. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Dealing with Emotional Problems offers clear, practical advice on how to deal with some of the most common emotional difficulties.\\ud \\ud Rational-Emotive Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (RECBT) is a technique that encourages a direct focus on emotional problems, helping you to understand the thoughts, beliefs and behaviours that cause you to maintain these problems. This understanding will enable you to overcome problems and lead a happier and more fulfilling life.\\ud \\ud The book begins by outl...
Full Text Available Emotional processing and social problem-solving are important for mental well-being. For example, impaired emotional processing is linked with depression and psychosomatic problems. However, little is known about crosscultural differences in emotional processing and social problem-solving and whether these constructs are linked. This study examines whether emotional processing and social problem-solving differs between Western (British and Eastern European (Polish cultures. Participants (N = 172 completed questionnaires assessing both constructs. Emotional processing did not differ according to culture, but Polish participants reported more effective social problem-solving abilities than British participants. Poorer emotional processing was also found to relate to poorer social problem-solving. Possible societal reasons for the findings and the implications of the findings for culture and clinical practice are discussed.
T P Lavanya
Full Text Available Background: Study of emotion regulation strategies used by youth becomes necessary in the background of the high prevalence of emotional disorders in this population. This study examined emotion regulation and psychological problems among college youth as well as the relationship between the two. Methodology: Four hundred and nineteen students, who were divided into two groups (older adolescents, aged 16-17 years - group 1, n = 217; young adults aged 18-25 years - group 2, n = 202 participated in this exploratory study. Results: Predominantly positive emotion regulation strategies were used by group 1 (positive refocusing, refocus on planning, and positive reappraisal, respectively. The sample as a whole used more positive strategies (positive refocusing: 82% and 64% and refocus on planning: 93% and 87% in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Significant correlations between emotion regulation strategies (CERQ and psychological problems (YSR/YASR were found, thereby indicating that negative emotion regulation strategies were associated with psychological problems and vice versa. Females were found to have more of anxiety problems as opposed to males with more of conduct problems. However with increase in age, increase in the percentage of psychological problems and usage of negative emotion regulation strategies was observed. Conclusion: The findings of the present study contribute to understanding the patterns of emotion regulation in various emotional disorders. Findings could also contribute to developing an intervention program to help students having difficulty in regulation of their emotions.
Gerits, L.; Derksen, J.J.L.; Verbruggen, A.B.P.M.
This paper reports on a two-year longitudinal study on the emotional intelligence profiles of 380 nurses caring for clients with highly frequent and extremely severe behaviour problems. The aim was to identify emotional intelligence cluster types for those nurses reporting the fewest symptoms of
van der Wal, Marcel F.; van Eijsden, Manon; Bonsel, Gouke J.
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that stress and emotional problems during pregnancy are related to adverse health outcomes of the child at birth and in later life. The aim of this study was to determine the association between stress and emotional problems during pregnancy and excessive infant crying.
Brad M. Farrant
Full Text Available Conduct problems that emerge in childhood often persist into adolescence and are associated with a range of negative outcomes. It is therefore important to identify the factors that predict conduct problems in early childhood. The present study investigated the relations among maternal attachment status, mother-child emotion talk, child emotion understanding, and conduct problems in a sample of 92 (46 males typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months, SD = 8.3 months. The results support a model in which maternal attachment status predicts the level of appropriate/responsive mother-child emotion talk, which predicts child emotion understanding, which in turn negatively predicts child conduct problems. These findings further underline the developmental role of mother-child emotion talk as well as the importance of involving parents in programs designed to increase children’s emotion understanding and/or decrease the incidence of conduct problems.
Wolke, Dieter; Baumann, Nicole; Strauss, Victoria; Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil
To investigate whether adolescents who were born extremely preterm (weight (bullied, and whether this contributes to higher emotional problem scores. We used 2 whole population samples: the German Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS) (287 very preterm/very low birth weight and 293 term comparison children) and the UK EPICure Study (183 extremely preterm and 102 term comparison children). Peer bullying was assessed by parent report in both cohorts at school years 2 and 6/7. The primary outcome was emotional problems in year 6/7. The effects of prematurity and bullying on emotional problems were investigated with regression analysis and controlled for sex, socioeconomic status, disability, and preexisting emotional problems. Preterm-born children were more often bullied in both cohorts than term comparisons (BLS: relative risk, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.50; EPICure: relative risk, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.19-2.41). Both preterm birth and being bullied predicted emotional problems, but after controlling for confounders, only being bullied at both ages remained a significant predictor of emotional problem scores in both cohorts (BLS: B, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.28-1.27; P bullied at just a single time point also predicted emotional problems. Preterm-born children are more vulnerable to being bullied by peers. Those children who experience bullying over years are more likely to develop emotional problems. Health professionals should routinely ask about peer relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella
We tested whether emotion regulation (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and coping (distraction, avoidance, support seeking and active coping) mediate or moderate the association between change in life stress (change in number of adverse life events) and change in adolescent problem behaviour. We used prospective and retrospective longitudinal data from a community sample. We measured change in problem behaviour as emotional and behavioural problems at Time 2 controlling for emotional and behavioural problems at Time 1, a year earlier. We measured change in life stress as life stress between Times 1 and 2, controlling for total previous life stress (before Time 1). Neither coping nor emotion regulation mediated the association between change in life stress and change in problem behaviour. Avoidance and expressive suppression were related to an increase in problem behaviour. Only cognitive reappraisal moderated the effect of increase in life stress on worsening of problem behaviour, suggesting that, as expected, cognitive reappraisal was a protective factor. In adolescents who reported they habitually reappraise, the association between change in life stress and change in emotional and behavioural problems was non-significant. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne
This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachm...
Webber, Jo; Coleman, Maggie
Teachers are encouraged to utilize rational-emotive therapy to prevent and deal with classroom behavior problems. Rational-emotive therapy is defined, the ABC model of rational thinking briefly explained, types of irrational thinking identified, and suggestions for becoming a rational thinker are offered. Classroom examples are given. (DB)
O. I. Afonina
In the dif?cult conditions of the contemporary society which are far from being favorable to maintain one’s emotional and physical health the problem of development and achievement of emotional maturity as a factor of the well-being is getting more signi?cant. Based on the theoretical concepts of different scientists who de?ned the construct of emotional maturity three groups of psychological methods for assessing emotional maturity are analyzed. The ?rst group includes the methods that are u...
The author examined the association between emotional autonomy and problem behavior among Chinese adolescents living in Hong Kong. The respondents were 512 adolescents, 16 to 18 years of age, who were interviewed for a cross-sectional study. Three dimensions of emotional autonomy including individuation, nondependency on parents, and de-idealization of parents were significantly and positively correlated with the amount of problem behavior the participants engaged in during the past 6 months. Using a simple linear multiple regression model, the author found that problem behavior was associated with only one aspect of emotional autonomy-individuation. Results indicated that the relationship between problem behavior and three aspects of emotional autonomy was similar in both individualistic and collectivistic societies.
Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Tucker, Dawn; Bayer, Jordana; Romaniuk, Helena; Sawyer, Susan; Lietz, Petra; Redmond, Gerry; Proimos, Jenny; Allen, Nicholas; Patton, George
Many emotional and behavioral problems first emerge in primary school and are the forerunners of mental health problems occurring in adolescence. However, the extent that these problems may be associated with academic failure has been explored less. We aimed to quantify the association between emotional and behavioral problems with academic performance. A stratified random sample of 8- to 9-year-olds (N = 1239) were recruited from schools in Australia. Data linkage was performed with a national assessment of academic performance to assess reading and numeracy. Parent report assessed emotional and behavioral problems with students dichotomized into "borderline/abnormal" and "normal" categories. One in 5 grade 3 students fell in the "borderline/abnormal" category. Boys with total difficulties (β = -47.8, 95% CI: -62.8 to -32.8), conduct problems, and peer problems scored lower on reading. Numeracy scores were lower in boys with total difficulties (β = -37.7, 95% CI: -53.9 to -21.5) and emotional symptoms. Children with hyperactivity/inattention scored lower in numeracy. Girls with peer problems scored lower in numeracy. Boys with emotional and behavioral problems in mid-primary school were 12 months behind their peers. Children with emotional and behavioral problems are at high risk for academic failure, and this risk is evident in mid-primary school. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Darty , Kevin; Sabouret , Nicolas
International audience; In this paper, we present a programming paradigm for AI problem solving based on computational concepts drawn from Affective Computing. It is believed that emotions participate in human adaptability and reactivity, in behaviour selection and in complex and dynamic environments. We propose to define a mechanism inspired from this observation for general AI problem solving. To this purpose, we synthesize emotions as programming abstractions that represent the perception ...
Troxel, Wendy M; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Forbes, Erika E; Campbell, Susan B
Secure parent-child relationships are implicated in children's self-regulation, including the ability to self-soothe at bedtime. Sleep, in turn, may serve as a pathway linking attachment security with subsequent emotional and behavioral problems in children. We used path analysis to examine the direct relationship between attachment security and maternal reports of sleep problems during toddlerhood and the degree to which sleep serves as a pathway linking attachment with subsequent teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems. We also examined infant negative emotionality as a vulnerability factor that may potentiate attachment-sleep-adjustment outcomes. Data were drawn from 776 mother-infant dyads participating in the National Institute of Child and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. After statistically adjusting for mother and child characteristics, including child sleep and emotional and behavioral problems at 24 months, we found no evidence for a statistically significant direct path between attachment security and sleep problems at 36 months; however, there was a direct relationship between sleep problems at 36 months and internalizing problems at 54 months. Path models that examined the moderating influence of infant negative emotionality demonstrated significant direct relationships between attachment security and toddler sleep problems and between sleep problems and subsequent emotional and behavioral problems, but only among children characterized by high negative emotionality at 6 months. In addition, among this subset, there was a significant indirect path between attachment and internalizing problems through sleep problems. These longitudinal findings implicate sleep as one critical pathway linking attachment security with adjustment difficulties, particularly among temperamentally vulnerable children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
O. I. Afonina
Full Text Available In the dif?cult conditions of the contemporary society which are far from being favorable to maintain one’s emotional and physical health the problem of development and achievement of emotional maturity as a factor of the well-being is getting more signi?cant. Based on the theoretical concepts of different scientists who de?ned the construct of emotional maturity three groups of psychological methods for assessing emotional maturity are analyzed. The ?rst group includes the methods that are used to assess emotional maturity explicitly and have a theoretical or empirical veri?cation. The second group includes the methods that are intended to assess emotional maturity as a separate scale complimented by other scales, related to evaluating other aspects of emotionality in the structure of the personality. The third group includes the methods in which emotional maturity is mentioned in the description of other psychic phenomena, or in the interpretation of certain factors (scales. Psychodiagnostic methods studying different parameters depending on the theoretical concepts of the authors about the structure and content of the emotional maturity of the personality make references to concepts of emotional development, consciousness, cognitive and volitional capacities of the personality and the coping strategies the individual prefer to use. The problem of developing valid and reliable psychodiagnostic methods of studying emotional maturity of the adult personality as a holistic phenomenon still awaits attention and retains its signi?cance.
McCoy, Dana Charles; Raver, C. Cybele
The present study examined the relationships between caregivers' self-reported positive and negative emotional expressiveness, observer assessments of children's emotion regulation, and teachers' reports of children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a sample of 97 primarily African American and Hispanic Head Start families. Results…
Charman, Tony; Ricketts, Jessie; Dockrell, Julie E; Lindsay, Geoff; Palikara, Olympia
Although it is well-established that children with language impairment (LI) and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both show elevated levels of emotional and behavioural problems, the level and types of difficulties across the two groups have not previously been directly compared. To compare levels of emotional and behavioural problems in children with LI and children with ASD recruited from the same mainstream schools. We measured teacher-reported emotional and behavioural problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a sample of 5-13-year-old children with LI (N = 62) and children with ASD (N = 42) attending mainstream school but with identified special educational needs. Both groups showed similarly elevated levels of emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems. The only differences between the LI and ASD groups were on subscales assessing peer problems (which were higher in the ASD group) and prosocial behaviours (which were higher in the LI group). Overall, there were few associations between emotional and behavioural problems and child characteristics, reflecting the pervasive nature of these difficulties in children with LI and children with ASD, although levels of problems were higher in children with ASD with lower language ability. However, in the ASD group only, a measure of family social economic status was associated with language ability and attenuated the association between language ability and emotional and behavioural problems. Children with LI and children with ASD in mainstream school show similarly elevated levels of emotional and behavioural problems, which require monitoring and may benefit from intervention. Further work is required to identify the child, family and situational factors that place children with LI and children with ASD at risk of emotional and behavioural problems, and whether these differ between the two groups. This work can then guide the application of evidence-based interventions to
Hirasing, R.A.; Leerdam, F. van; Bolk-Bennink, L.B.; Bosch, J.D.
Objective: To assess the link between enuresis nocturna and the severity of behavioural and/or emotional problems in Dutch children and the course of these problems. Setting: West-Mine Region in the Netherlands: Subjects and methods: Prospective cohort study involving 66 of the 80 bedwetting
... regarding government operating status and resumption of normal operations can be found at https://www.opm.gov/ . Section navigation Your feelings: Being happy Could I have a mental health problem? Feeling sad Having body image issues ...
Muthupalaniappen, Leelavathi; Omar, Juslina; Omar, Khairani; Iryani, Tuti; Hamid, Siti Norain
We carried out a cross sectional study to detect emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents who smoke and their help-seeking behavior. This study was conducted in Sarawak, East Malaysia, between July and September 2006. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR/11-18) questionnaire; help seeking behavior was assessed using a help-seeking questionnaire. Three hundred ninety-nine students participated in the study; the smoking prevalence was 32.8%. The mean scores for emotional and behavioral problems were higher among smokers than non-smokers in all domains (internalizing, p = 0.028; externalizing, p = 0.001; other behavior, p = 0.001). The majority of students who smoked (94.7%) did not seek help from a primary health care provider for their emotional or behavioral problems. Common barriers to help-seeking were: the perception their problems were trivial (60.3%) and the preference to solve problems on their own (45.8%). Our findings suggest adolescent smokers in Sarawak, East Malaysia were more likely to break rules, exhibit aggressive behavior and have somatic complaints than non-smoking adolescents. Adolescent smokers preferred to seek help for their problems from informal sources. Physicians treating adolescents should inquire about smoking habits, emotional and behavioral problems and offer counseling if required.
I. A. Kelmanson
Full Text Available The paper considers whether parasomnia may be associated with emotional and behavioral problems. It gives data on the relationship of impaired sleep duration and integrity to increased emotional responsiveness and lability, high levels of anxiety, and depression symptoms. Whether the clinical symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, aggression, and academic underachievement are related to sleep disorders, including those in the presence of sleep disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder, is discussed. There are data on the characteristic polysomnographic changes detected in the presence of the discussed emotional and behavioral disorders in children. A possible pathophysiological rationale is provided for the found associations. Practical guidelines for examination of children with complaints about emotional and behavioral disorders for possible concomitant parasomnias are substantiated.
Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Coats, Abby Heckman
The authors examined regulation of the discrete emotions anger and sadness in adolescents through older adults in the context of describing everyday problem situations. The results support previous work; in comparison to younger age groups, older adults reported that they experienced less anger and reported that they used more passive and fewer…
Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Lundervold, Astri J
by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and performance-based tests (i.e.,Color Trail Test and Digit Span Test). Symptoms of inattention and emotional problems were measured with parent and teacher reports on Swanson Nolan and Pelham-IV questionnaire and Strengths and Difficulties......Objective: The present study investigated the predictive value of parent/teacher reports of inattention and emotional problems on cognitive control function in 241 children in primary school. Method: Cognitive control was measured by functions of set-shifting and working memory as assessed...
Ferro, M A; Van Lieshout, R J; Ohayon, J; Scott, J G
Adolescents with food allergy have poorer psychosocial outcomes compared with their nonallergic counterparts; however, few studies have prospectively examined the mental health of adolescents and young adults in this vulnerable population. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in an epidemiological sample of adolescents and young adults with food allergy; determine whether food allergy is associated with adolescent and maternal reports of such problems; and examine the patterns of change in emotional and behavioral problems from adolescence to young adulthood among individuals with and without food allergy. Data came from 1303 participants at 14 and 21 years of age in the Mater University Study of Pregnancy. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using self- and maternal-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Maternal, but not self-reports suggested that emotional and behavioral problems were higher among adolescents with food allergy. Food allergy was associated with increased odds of elevated levels of maternal-reported symptoms of depression [OR = 4.50 (1.83, 11.07)], anxiety [OR = 2.68 (1.12, 6.44)], and ADHD [OR = 3.14 (1.07, 9.19)] in adolescence. Food allergy was also associated with depressive symptoms that persisted from adolescence to young adulthood [OR = 2.05 (1.04, 4.03)]. Emotional and behavioral problems, particularly symptoms of depression, anxiety, and ADHD, are common among adolescents with food allergy in the general population and, in the case of elevated levels of depressive symptoms, persist into young adulthood. Healthcare professionals should seek adolescent and parental perspectives when assessing emotional and behavioral problems and monitor mental health during the transition to adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hsieh, Manying; Stright, Anne Dopkins
This study examined the relationships among adolescents' emotion regulation strategies (suppression and cognitive reappraisal), self-concept, and internalizing problems using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 438 early adolescents (13 to 15 years old) in Taiwan, including 215 boys and 223 girls. For both boys and girls,…
Mazza, Elena T.
The professional literature on gatekeeping in social work education has grown; however, there remains a dearth in the literature regarding how educators truly work to engage students who are experiencing a psychiatric disability or other emotional problem. This qualitative study explored the experiences of 26 social work educators from 22 colleges…
Cho, Sangmi; Bae, Sung-Woo
This study attempted to identify emotional problems and examine the related demographic and psychosocial factors of 340 Korean American adolescents in a major metropolitan area. Results revealed that lower GPA, longer length of residence in the United States, subjects' poor self-esteem, greater severity of conflict with parents, and poor…
Theunissen, M.H.C.; Klein Velderman, M.; Cloostermans, A.P.G.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background: This study examines the link between divorce or separation and emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in children aged 2–4 years. Methods: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 2–4 years within the setting of the national system
Theunissen, Meinou H C; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Cloostermans, Anne P G; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
This study examines the link between divorce or separation and emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in children aged 2-4 years. We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 2-4 years within the setting of the national system of routine visits to
Garofalo, C.; Velotti, Patrizia; Zavattini, Giulio Cesare; Kosson, D.S.
Despite evidence that individual differences in defensiveness (typically measured with social desirability scales) may affect associations among self-report measures, little is known about the impact of defensiveness in the well-established relations between self-report emotion dysregulation and
Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Boricevic Maršanic, Vlatka; Aukst Margetic, Branka; Paradžik, Ljubica; Vidovic, Domagoj; Buljan Flander, Gordana
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male veterans has been linked with impaired family relationships and psychopathology in their children. Less is known about symptoms in children of veterans with partial PTSD. Objective: To compare mental health problems, family functioning and parent-child bonding among adolescent offspring of…
Moulton, Vanessa; Flouri, Eirini; Joshi, Heather; Sullivan, Alice
Using data from a large UK cohort (n = 11,656), we investigated the determinants of 7-year-old children's aspirations, and the role of these aspirations in emotional and behavioural problems, as reported by both parents and teachers. Aspirations were classified to reflect their occupational status, masculinity/femininity and intrinsic/extrinsic…
Suveg, Cynthia; Jacob, Marni L.; Payne, Mary
We examined the relations between parental interpersonal sensitivity and youth social problems and explored the mediational role of child emotion dysregulation. Mothers (N = 42; M age = 39.38) and fathers (N = 41; M age = 39.38) of youth aged 7-12 (N = 42; M age = 9.12) completed measures of their own interpersonal sensitivity and reported on…
Reichenberg, K; Broberg, A G
The purpose of this study is to compare emotional and behavioural problems between preadolescent children with asthma and healthy children, and to explore if disease factors relate to problem scores. This was a cross-sectional study of 59 children, 34 boys and 25 girls, aged 7-9 years with mild (n = 11), moderate (n = 38) or severe (n = 10) asthma. A normative sample of 306 children in the same age range, 150 boys and 156 girls, was used as a comparison group. Parents assessed emotional and behavioural problems using the Child Behaviour Checklist. Peak expiratory flow rate and urinary eosinophil protein X were used as measures of lung function and inflammation. Children were interviewed about activity restriction and symptoms during the last week using the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. Parents scored day, night and exercise-induced symptoms during the same week. On average, children with asthma were attributed more problems than healthy children of the same age and comparable family socio-economic status. Effect sizes were 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.52-1.09) for total problems, 0.89 (0.60-1.18) for internalizing problems and 0.67 (0.38-0.95) for externalizing problems. The relative risk for children with asthma exceeding the 95% cut-offpoint for total problems was 4.2 (2.1-8.3) compared to healthy children. Children with parent-reported exercise-induced asthma symptoms were attributed more total problems than asthmatic children without such symptoms. Parent-reported day symptoms and child report of symptoms and restricted activities related with problem scores to a lesser degree. Objective measures of lung function and inflammation were not related to problem scores. Concurrent eczema increased problem scores. It is concluded that asthma in preadolescent children is associated with emotional and behavioural problems. Special attention should be paid to children reported to have exercise-induced symptoms.
Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line
years from a random sample of Danish schools. Students answered a questionnaire including mental health and the classroom environment. The outcome measure emotional problems was defined as daily presence of at least one of four symptoms: feeling low; irritable or bad tempered; feeling nervous and having...... and conditions at the individual-, classroom- and school level that are associated with students´ experiences of emotional problems. Methods Data come from the Danish contribution to the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in 2010 and include 4,922 students aged 11, 13 and 15...... difficulties falling asleep. Further, school-administrators answered a questionnaire on school environment and characteristics, e.g. policies against bullying. We applied multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify and quantify explanatory factors at individual, classroom and school levels...
Wang, J-N; Liu, L; Wang, L
Emotional and behavioural problems are key health issues in adolescence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems in Chinese school adolescents and to explore associated factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of November/December 2009. A questionnaire including the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) self-reported version, and the characteristics of child (age, gender, only child and study pressure), parents (parent-adolescent relationship and parental expectations) and families (living area, family structure, socio-economic status and negative life events) was distributed to our study population. A total of 5220 Chinese adolescents (aged 11-18) from 30 public schools in Liaoning province completed the questionnaire. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to explore the factors associated with emotional and behavioural problems. The average problem score was 11.28 (SD = 5.86) and the 10.7% scored above the cut-off for emotional and behavioural problems. Factors that increased the risk of having emotional and behavioural problems were: poor parent-adolescent relationship, experiencing more negative life events, older age, having study pressure, living in rural areas, boys and lower parental expectations. The prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems among Chinese adolescents was lower level compared with those reported in other countries. We found parent-adolescent relationship, negative life events and age to be the strongest contributing factors of emotional and behavioural problems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gerits, Linda; Derksen, Jan J. L.; Verbruggen, Antoine B.
The emotional intelligence profiles, gender differences, and adaptive success of 380 Dutch nurses caring for people with mental retardation and accompanying severe behavior problems are reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Utrecht-Coping List, Utrecht-Burnout Scale, MMPI-2, and GAMA. Absence due to illness…
Johnson, Helen R.; Thompson, Margaret J. J.; Wilkinson, Suzanne; Walsh, Louise; Balding, Jonathon; Wright, Victoria
Reports an investigation of whether certain behaviors in children resulted in bullying. Explains that teachers (n=25) completed an assessment for 523 children (ages 7-11) while children completed a questionnaire about school. Offers new evidence that teachers recognize social behavior and interactions that can significantly affect whether primary…
Abd Rahman, Fairuz Nazri; Mohd Daud, Tuti Iryani; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Wan Ismail, Wan Salwina
There is a dearth of studies on behavioral and emotional problems in residential care children in Malaysia. This study describes the behavioral and emotional problems in a sample of children in a government residential care home and compares them with their classmates living with their birth parents. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out where carers from both groups were asked to fill in the translated Bahasa Melayu version of the Child Behavior Check List. Forms for 53 residential care children and 61 classmates were completed. The residential care children had significantly higher scores on the rule-breaking (P breaking (P = 0.008), DSM conduct problems (P = 0.018) and externalizing scores (P = 0.017). Abuse and neglect cases had higher anxiety and depression scores (P = 0.024). Number of reasons in care positively correlated with several subscales, including total behavioral problem score (P = 0.005). Logistic regression revealed the greater number of reasons for placement a child had was significantly associated with having externalizing scores in the clinical range (P = 0.016). However, after Bonferroni correction, only the initial findings regarding rule-breaking and DSM conduct problem scores remained significant. Challenges exist in managing residential care children in Malaysia, especially regarding externalizing behavior. More studies are required to describe the Malaysian scene. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.
Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne
This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
D'Amico, Antonella; Guastaferro, Teresa
The purpose of this study was to analyse adjustment problems in a group of adolescents with a Specific Learning Disorder (SLD), examining to what extent they depend on the severity level of the learning disorder and/or on the individual's level of emotional intelligence. Adjustment problems,, perceived severity levels of SLD, and emotional and…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse adjustment problems in a group of adolescents with a Specific Learning Disorder (SLD, examining to what extent they depend on the severity level of the learning disorder and/or on the individual‟s level of emotional intelligence. Adjustment problems,, perceived severity levels of SLD, and emotional and meta-emotional intelligence were examined in 34 adolescents with SLD. Results demonstrated that emotional beliefs, emotional self-concept and emotional intelligence are very important factors in the psychological adjustment of adolescents with SLD. These results provide evidence for the importance of considering meta-emotional intelligence in both diagnostic and intervention protocols, as well as in the inclusive education of students with SLD.
Tsai, Fang-Ju; Liu, Shu-Tsen; Lee, Chi-Mei; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6-16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parental education-matched school controls. Data on demographics, parental reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV), and medical records were collected. The average full-scale intelligence quotient of the case group was 95.8. There were 11 (18.0%), 7 (11.5%), 26 (42.6%), and 26 (42.6%) of children with epilepsy ever clinically diagnosed with developmental delay, overt ADHD symptoms, allergies reported by physicians, and behavior problems measured by the CBCL, respectively. Those children with epilepsy had more severe ADHD-related symptoms and a wider range of emotional/behavioral problems than controls (Cohen's d 0.36-0.80). The rate of potential cases of ADHD among children with epilepsy was 24.6%. A history of developmental delay predicted ADHD- related symptoms and internalizing and externalizing problems. Among children with epilepsy, a longer duration of treatment with antiepileptic drugs predicted externalizing problems, and an earlier onset of epilepsy predicted inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings imply that clinicians should assess physical and emotional/behavioral problems among children with epilepsy in order to provide interventions to offset possible adverse psychiatric outcomes. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Fischer, Agneta H; Kret, Mariska E; Broekens, Joost
Previous meta-analyses and reviews on gender differences in emotion recognition have shown a small to moderate female advantage. However, inconsistent evidence from recent studies has raised questions regarding the implications of different methodologies, stimuli, and samples. In the present research based on a community sample of more than 5000 participants, we tested the emotional sensitivity hypothesis, stating that women are more sensitive to perceive subtle, i.e. low intense or ambiguous, emotion cues. In addition, we included a self-report emotional intelligence test in order to examine any discrepancy between self-perceptions and actual performance for both men and women. We used a wide range of stimuli and models, displaying six different emotions at two different intensity levels. In order to better tap sensitivity for subtle emotion cues, we did not use a forced choice format, but rather intensity measures of different emotions. We found no support for the emotional sensitivity account, as both genders rated the target emotions as similarly intense at both levels of stimulus intensity. Men, however, more strongly perceived non-target emotions to be present than women. In addition, we also found that the lower scores of men in self-reported EI was not related to their actual perception of target emotions, but it was to the perception of non-target emotions.
Kret, Mariska E.; Broekens, Joost
Previous meta-analyses and reviews on gender differences in emotion recognition have shown a small to moderate female advantage. However, inconsistent evidence from recent studies has raised questions regarding the implications of different methodologies, stimuli, and samples. In the present research based on a community sample of more than 5000 participants, we tested the emotional sensitivity hypothesis, stating that women are more sensitive to perceive subtle, i.e. low intense or ambiguous, emotion cues. In addition, we included a self-report emotional intelligence test in order to examine any discrepancy between self-perceptions and actual performance for both men and women. We used a wide range of stimuli and models, displaying six different emotions at two different intensity levels. In order to better tap sensitivity for subtle emotion cues, we did not use a forced choice format, but rather intensity measures of different emotions. We found no support for the emotional sensitivity account, as both genders rated the target emotions as similarly intense at both levels of stimulus intensity. Men, however, more strongly perceived non-target emotions to be present than women. In addition, we also found that the lower scores of men in self-reported EI was not related to their actual perception of target emotions, but it was to the perception of non-target emotions. PMID:29370198
Holm, A L; Bégat, I; Severinsson, E
Emotional pain is described as intense by women who suffer from borderline personality disorder (BPD), and a high prevalence of reported childhood abuse was found in the literature and in research. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of women suffering from BPD with focus on emotional pain related to childhood. An explorative design was used. Data were collected from in-depth interviews consisting of women suffering from BPD (n = 13) and an interpretive content analysis was used to analyse the text. The findings revealed two main themes: 'Power' and 'Assessment of vulnerability'. The main theme 'Power' resulted in two categories: 'Surviving the feeling of being forced' and 'Surviving the feeling of having to assume responsibility'. The other main theme 'Assessment of vulnerability' had two categories: 'Surviving the feeling of being victimized' and 'Surviving the feeling of not being loved'. The findings suggest that nursing care need to develop an understanding of how these women endure their emotional pain, and try to survive as fighting spirits and how struggling became their way of life.
J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien); S.J. Roza (Sabine); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)
textabstractBackground: Maternal prenatal folate status has been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, but the association with child emotional and behavioral problems is unclear. Objectives: We assessed the association of maternal folate status during pregnancy with child emotional and behavioral
Chen Su-may Sheih
Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that emotional healing reading materials can sooth readers’ negative emotions. Among the various reading materials, the romance fiction is a genre of high healing efficacy for undergraduate students who encounter love-related emotional disturbance. To explore the problems they experience in love relationships and the emotional healing efficacy of romance fictions for such situations, this study first employed content analysis to identify a list of fictions that are considered of emotional healing efficacy. It continued to conduct an online survey to examine the emotional healing process in undergraduate students’ reading experiences. The results showed that undergraduate students often experienced one-sided love, ambiguous relationship, lack of intimacy, rivalry, conflict, and breakup. It also identified 18 Chinese romance titles that may assist the readers to go through the emotional healing stages of identification, catharsis, and insight. [Article content in Chinese
Hourigan, Shannon E.; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.
The ability to regulate one's emotions effectively has been linked with many aspects of well-being. The current study examined discrepancies between mothers' and children's reports of child emotion regulation. This investigation examined patterns of discrepancies for key aspects of emotion regulation (i.e., inhibition and dysregulated expression)…
Lotze, Geri M.; Ravindran, Neeraja; Myers, Barbara J.
Children with incarcerated mothers are at high risk for developing problem behaviors. Fifty children (6-12 years; 62% girls) participated in summer camps, along with adult mentors. Regression analyses of child and adult measures of child's emotion self-regulation and callous-unemotional traits, and a child measure of moral emotions, showed that…
Alyanak, Behiye; Kılınçaslan, Ayşe; Harmancı, Halime Sözen; Demirkaya, Sevcan Karakoç; Yurtbay, Tülin; Vehid, Hayriye Ertem
The present study investigated emotional and behavioral problems in children with selective mutism (SM) along with the psychological adjustment and parenting attitudes of their mothers and fathers. Participants included 26 children with SM (mean age = 8.11 ± 2.11 years), 32 healthy controls (mean age = 8.18 ± 2.55 years) and the parents of all children. Children with SM displayed higher problem scores than controls in a variety of emotional and behavioral parameters. They predominantly displayed internalizing problems, whereas aggressive and delinquent behavior was described among a subsample of the children. Significant differences existed between the SM and control groups only in paternal psychopathology, which included anxiety and depression. They did not differ with respect to maternal psychological distress or mother or father reported parental attitudes. Another important result of the present study was that the severity of emotional and behavioral problems of children with SM was correlated with maternal psychopathology but not paternal psychopathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available "nObjective: Wars' stress and violence can have tremendous effects on children's and adolescents' health and general well being; it may result in patterns of bio-psychosocial problems. The goal of this study was to compare emotional and behavioral problems in Afghan refugees and war-zone adolescents. "n Method: One hundred and eighty high school students (90 students in the refugee group and 90 in the war-zone group in Harat were included in this research. All participants completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR. War zone and refugee adolescents were compared based on their scores on different scales of behavioral and emotional problems. "n Results: War-zone adolescents scored significantly higher on Anxious/Depression, Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Attention Problems, and Internalizing Problems scales than refugee adolescents. In this study, no significant difference was found between the two groups on Social Problems, Thought Problems, Delinquent Behavior, Aggressive Behavior, and Externalizing scales. "nConclusion: Findings revealed that although asylum is not an ideal condition for children's and adolescents' psychological development and prosperity, it can have a protective role in comparison with war zone's circumstances. Further investigation is needed, however, to elucidate the lack of significant differences in externalizing scales among war zone and refugee adolescents
Huang, Xue-zhu; Guo, Lan-ting; Tang, Guang-zheng
To study the life events which are correlated with adolescent's emotion and behavior problems, and to provide evidence for clinicians and school staff to develop intervention for those problems. Youth's Self Report (YSR) and Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC) were used to assess adolescent's emotional and behavioral problems and life events by 'spot' study. The referred group consisted of 585 patients from 11 to 18 years old in a Mental Health Centre of West China Hospital of Sichuan University from July in 2002 to March in 2004. Level of IQ was above 5th grade of primary school among the study subjects who were willing to fill in the YSR and ASLEC. The non-referred group was selected in a 1280 students cluster-sample from the schools of Chengdu city, whose sex, age and father's career were matched with the referred group. Variance inflation factor (VIF) was used to verify that there was no collinearity to each other in the 6 factors of ASLEC: interpersonal relationship, learning pressure, being punished, losing good adaptation and other. Linear stepwise regression was adopted. The YSR scores in referred group were higher than those in non-referred group, and the referred group had more emotional and behavioral problems than the non-referred one. Partial correlations ranged from 0.124 to 0.418 in referred group, and from 0.104 to 0.388 in non-referred group. Unsatisfied interpersonal relationship, heavy learning pressure, having been punished and poor adaptation were likely to increase the risk of youth's emotional and behavioral problems. More attention should be paid to help adolescents in the following areas: solving intrapersonal affairs, relieving pressure from learning, avoiding punishment, and improving ability to fit themselves to their surroundings.
Morrison, Eleshia J; Novotny, Paul J; Sloan, Jeff A; Yang, Ping; Patten, Christi A; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Clark, Matthew M
Lung cancer is associated with a greater symptom burden than other cancers, yet little is known about the prevalence of emotional problems and how emotional problems may be related to the physical symptom burden and quality of life in newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer. This study aimed to identify the patient and disease characteristics of patients with lung cancer experiencing emotional problems and to examine how emotional problems relate to quality of life and symptom burden. A total of 2205 newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer completed questionnaires on emotional problems, quality of life, and symptom burden. Emotional problems at diagnosis were associated with younger age, female gender, current cigarette smoking, current employment, advanced lung cancer disease, surgical or chemotherapy treatment, and a lower Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score. Additionally, strong associations were found between greater severity of emotional problems, lower quality of life, and greater symptom burden. Certain characteristics place patients with lung cancer at greater risk for emotional problems, which are associated with a reduced quality of life and greater symptom burden. Assessment of the presence of emotional problems at the time of lung cancer diagnosis provides the opportunity to offer tailored strategies for managing negative mood, and for improving the quality of life and symptom burden management of patients with lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yalın, Elif; SÖZEN, İlyas
The aim of the study is to reveal the effects of emotional intelligence upon problem-solving for business challenges that an employee meets at any time in business life. For this purpose, it is aimed to analyze behaviors of 135 white collars working in textile and food industry by making them complete self-report surveys. Prior to the survey, it has highly been suggested that emotional traits consisting of intrapersonal, interpersonal, motivation and self management are effective. Daniel Gole...
Shakoor, Sania; McGuire, Philip; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica
Childhood emotional and behaviour problems are antecedents for later psychopathology. This study investigated genetic and environmental influences shaping the longitudinal association between childhood emotional and behaviour problems and specific PEs. In a community-based twin sample, parents reported on emotional and behaviour problems when twins were ages 7 and 12 years. At age 16 years, specific PEs were measured using self-reports and parent reports. Structural equation model-fitting was conducted. Childhood emotional and behaviour problems were significantly associated with paranoia, cognitive disorganisation and parent-rated negative symptoms in adolescence (mean r = .15-.38), and to a lesser extent with hallucinations, grandiosity and anhedonia (mean r = .04-.12). Genetic influences on childhood emotional and behaviour problems explained significant proportions of variance in adolescent paranoia (4%), cognitive disorganisation (8%) and parent-rated negative symptoms (3%). Unique environmental influences on childhood emotional and behaviour problems explained ≤1% of variance in PEs. Common environmental influences were only relevant for the relationship between childhood emotional and behaviour problems and parent-rated negative symptoms (explaining 28% of variance) and are partly due to correlated rater effects. Childhood emotional and behaviour problems are significantly, if weakly, associated with adolescent PEs. These associations are driven in part by common genetic influences underlying both emotional and behaviour problems and PEs. However, psychotic experiences in adolescence are largely influenced by genetic and environmental factors that are independent of general childhood emotional and behaviour problems, suggesting they are not merely an extension of childhood emotional and behaviour problems. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and
Pontoppidan, Maiken; Niss, Nete K; Pejtersen, Jan H
Background. Identifying young children at risk for socio-emotional developmental problems at an early stage, to prevent serious problems later in life, is crucial. Therefore, we need high quality measures to identify those children at risk for social-emotional problems who require further...... evaluation and intervention. Objective. To systematically identify parent report measures of infant and toddler (0–24 months) social-emotional development for use in primary care settings. Methods. We conducted a systematic review applying a narrative synthesis approach. We searched Medline, Psych......Info, Embase and SocIndex for articles published from 2008 through September 2015 to identify parent-report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development. Data on the characteristics of the measures, including psychometric data, were collected. Results. Based on 3310 screened articles, we located...
Recent studies reported a negative association between emotional intelligence (EI: defined here as individual predispositions associated with effective identification and regulation of emotions) and emotional eating. Although theory provides some insights into how the concept represents mechanisms that may serve as protective factors, empirical evidence of the mechanism behind the association has yet to be presented. This study tested a proposed model in which anxiety levels mediate the association between emotional intelligence and emotional-eating patterns in a normative sample of women in Israel. A cross-sectional/correlational design was used to gather data from 208 generally healthy female participants who completed measures of trait emotional intelligence, anxiety, and tendency toward emotional eating, as well as demographics. Anxiety levels mediated the negative association between emotional intelligence and emotional eating. Background variables had only marginal involvement in this model. The results shed light on the mechanisms underlying the association between emotional intelligence and emotional eating. Should future studies corroborate the findings, they may serve as a basis for future screening protocols, prevention and interventions with individuals and groups at risk of EE and eating disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daunic, Ann P; Smith, Stephen W; Garvan, Cynthia W; Barber, Brian R; Becker, Mallory K; Peters, Christine D; Taylor, Gregory G; Van Loan, Christopher L; Li, Wei; Naranjo, Arlene H
Researchers have demonstrated that cognitive-behavioral intervention strategies - such as social problem solving - provided in school settings can help ameliorate the developmental risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties. In this study, we report the results of a randomized controlled trial of Tools for Getting Along (TFGA), a social problem-solving universally delivered curriculum designed to reduce the developmental risk for serious emotional or behavioral problems among upper elementary grade students. We analyzed pre-intervention and post-intervention teacher-report and student self-report data from 14 schools, 87 classrooms, and a total of 1296 students using multilevel modeling. Results (effect sizes calculated using Hedges' g) indicated that students who were taught TFGA had a more positive approach to problem solving (g=.11) and a more rational problem-solving style (g=.16). Treated students with relatively poor baseline scores benefited from TFGA on (a) problem-solving knowledge (g=1.54); (b) teacher-rated executive functioning (g=.35 for Behavior Regulation and .32 for Metacognition), and proactive aggression (g=.20); and (c) self-reported trait anger (g=.17) and anger expression (g=.21). Thus, TFGA may reduce risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties by improving students' cognitive and emotional self-regulation and increasing their pro-social choices. Copyright Â© 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pontoppidan, Maiken; Niss, Nete K; Pejtersen, Jan H; Julian, Megan M; Væver, Mette S
Identifying young children at risk for socio-emotional developmental problems at an early stage, to prevent serious problems later in life, is crucial. Therefore, we need high quality measures to identify those children at risk for social-emotional problems who require further evaluation and intervention. To systematically identify parent report measures of infant and toddler (0-24 months) social-emotional development for use in primary care settings. We conducted a systematic review applying a narrative synthesis approach. We searched Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and SocIndex for articles published from 2008 through September 2015 to identify parent-report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development. Data on the characteristics of the measures, including psychometric data, were collected. Based on 3310 screened articles, we located 242 measures that were screened for eligibility. In all 18 measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development were included. Ten of the measures were developed specifically for measuring social-emotional development, and eight were measures including subscales of social-emotional development. The measures varied with respect to, e.g. the time of publication, number of items, age span, cost and amount of psychometric data available. Several measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development have been developed within the last decade. The majority of psychometric data are available through manuals, not peer-reviewed journals. Although all measures show acceptable reliability, the most comprehensive and psychometrically sound measures are the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional-2, Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment and Child Behaviour Checklist 1½-5. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Wiegersma, P Auke; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Jansen, Danielle E M C
While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants, for ages 10-19 years. We obtained longitudinal data on 2,230 adolescents during ages 10-19 from four measurements regarding use of general care and specialized care (youth social care and mental healthcare) in the preceding 6 months, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report, and child and family characteristics. We analyzed data by multilevel logistic regression. Overall rates of use increased from 20.1% at age 10/11 to 32.2% at age 19: general care was used most. At age 10/11 use was higher among boys, at age 19 among girls. Use of general care increased for both genders, whereas use of specialized care increased among girls but decreased among boys. This differential change was associated with CBCL externalizing and internalizing problems, school problems, family socioeconomic status, and parental divorce. Preceding CBCL problems predicted more use: most for mental health care and least for general care. Moreover, general care was used more frequently by low and medium socioeconomic status families, with odds ratios (95%-confidence intervals): 1.52 (1.23;1.88) and 1.40 (1.17;1.67); youth social care in case of parental divorce, 2.07 (1.36;3.17); and of special education, 2.66 (1.78;3.95); and mental healthcare in case of special education, 2.66 (1.60;4.51). Adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems use general care most frequently. Overall use increases with age. Determinants of use vary per type.
Sijmen A Reijneveld
Full Text Available While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants, for ages 10-19 years.We obtained longitudinal data on 2,230 adolescents during ages 10-19 from four measurements regarding use of general care and specialized care (youth social care and mental healthcare in the preceding 6 months, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Youth Self-Report, and child and family characteristics. We analyzed data by multilevel logistic regression.Overall rates of use increased from 20.1% at age 10/11 to 32.2% at age 19: general care was used most. At age 10/11 use was higher among boys, at age 19 among girls. Use of general care increased for both genders, whereas use of specialized care increased among girls but decreased among boys. This differential change was associated with CBCL externalizing and internalizing problems, school problems, family socioeconomic status, and parental divorce. Preceding CBCL problems predicted more use: most for mental health care and least for general care. Moreover, general care was used more frequently by low and medium socioeconomic status families, with odds ratios (95%-confidence intervals: 1.52 (1.23;1.88 and 1.40 (1.17;1.67; youth social care in case of parental divorce, 2.07 (1.36;3.17; and of special education, 2.66 (1.78;3.95; and mental healthcare in case of special education, 2.66 (1.60;4.51.Adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems use general care most frequently. Overall use increases with age. Determinants of use vary per type.
Richard, Patrick; Gaskin, Darrell J; Alexandre, Pierre K; Burke, Laura S; Younis, Mustafa
It has been documented that about 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder in the United States. The high prevalence of children's emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) might have a negative effect on their mothers' labor market outcomes because children with EBP require additional time for treatment. However, these children may require additional financial resources, which might promote mothers' labor supply. Previous studies have only considered chronic conditions in analyzing the impact of children's health on parental work activities. Moreover, most of these studies have not accounted for endogeneity in children's health. This article estimates the effects of children's EBP on their mothers' labor supply by family structure while accounting for endogeneity in children's health. We used the 1997 and 2002 Child Development Supplements (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). We used probit and bivariate probit models to estimate mothers' probability of employment, and tobit and instrumental variable tobit models to estimate the effects of children's EBP on their mothers' work hours. Findings show negative effects of children's EBP on their married mothers' employment and on their single mothers' work hours. © The Author(s) 2014.
Theunissen, Meinou H C; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Cloostermans, Anne P G; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
This study examines the link between divorce or separation and emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in children aged 2-4 years. We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 2-4 years within the setting of the national system of routine visits to well-child clinics. A total of 2600 children participated (response rate: 70%). Before the visit, parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist and a questionnaire with questions about divorce or separation. We assessed the associations of children's EBP with a divorce either in the previous year or at any time in the past after adjustment for other child and family factors. Four percent of the children had parents who had divorced before the child reached the age of 2-4 years, and 3.4% of these parents had divorced in the previous year. EBP (and particularly behavioural problems) were more likely in children aged 2-4 years old in cases of lifetime divorce or separation. This association was weaker after adjustment for relevant child and family characteristics: it may be partly due to confounding factors such as paternal education level, ethnicity and family size. A divorce in the previous year was not linked to child EBP. These findings show the importance of identifying care needs and providing care for pre-school children whose parents have divorced since they suggest that there may be negative effects in the longer term. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
S.A. Reijneveld (Sijmen); P.A. Wiegersma (Auke); J. Ormel (Johan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W.A.M. Vollebergh (Wilma); D.E.M.C. Jansen (Daniëlle)
textabstractObjective: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants,
Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Wiegersma, P. Auke; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.
Objective: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants, for ages
Conclusion We conclude that the training intervention (especially, emotion management training for mothers who have male offspring with behavioral problems is beneficial not only for strengthening the parents to manage their emotions effectively but also for reducing behavioral problems in their offspring.
Coyne, Lisa W.; Thompson, Alysha D.
Childhood internalizing problems may occur as early as preschool, tend to be stable over time, and undermine social and academic functioning. Parent emotion regulatory behaviors may contribute to child internalizing problems and may be especially important during the preschool years when parents model emotion coping and regulation for their…
Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Vincent, Lucy C; Cooper, Francesca A; Hawes, David J; Brennan, John
This study examined relationships between parent-child emotional communication and callous-unemotional (CU) traits and conduct problems. References to negative and positive emotions made by clinic-referred boys (3-9 years) and their parents were coded from direct observations of family interactions involving the discussion of shared emotional experiences. Although frequencies of parents' emotion expression did not generally relate to levels of CU traits, boys higher on CU traits were observed to be more expressive of negative emotions in conversation with their caregivers-specifically for sadness and fear. Independent coders did not judge these children to be less genuine in their emotion expression compared to their low-CU counterparts. We also examined whether CU traits moderated the relationship between parents' focus on emotions and conduct problem severity. Higher levels of maternal focus on negative emotions were found to be associated with lower conduct problems in high-CU boys but related to higher conduct problems in low-CU boys. Frequencies of fathers' emotional communication were unrelated to either child CU traits or conduct problems. We discuss the implications of these findings for the conceptualization of CU traits in preadolescent children, and interventions for conduct problems in children elevated on these traits.
G N Kazantseva
Full Text Available The structurally functional model of emotional culture of the personality and the characteristics of the three levels of its development is submitted in the article. The empirical check of the model is described in the course of the implementation of the program of emotional culture formation of musical college students.
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa
The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point…
Hannigan, L J; Walaker, N; Waszczuk, M A; McAdams, T A; Eley, T C
Emotional and behavioural problems in childhood and adolescence can be chronic and are predictive of future psychiatric problems. Understanding what factors drive the development and maintenance of these problems is therefore crucial. Longitudinal behavioural genetic studies using twin, sibling or adoption data can be used to explore the developmental aetiology of stability and change in childhood and adolescent psychopathology. We present a systematic review of longitudinal, behavioural genetic analyses of emotional and behavioural problems between ages 0 to 18 years. We identified 58 studies, of which 19 examined emotional problems, 30 examined behavioural problems, and 9 examined both. In the majority of studies, stability in emotional and behavioural problems was primarily genetically influenced. Stable environmental factors were also widely found, although these typically played a smaller role. Both genetic and environmental factors were involved in change across development. We discuss the findings in the context of the wider developmental literature and make recommendations for future research.
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two training methods of emotional regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT and gross emotion regulation process model(GERM in reducing symptoms of emotional problems (depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity and hostility. Materials and Method: In this semi-experimental study, 45 students who referred to Isfahan university center by themselves, randomly selected between the students who have emotional problems, they randomly assigned into three groups (two experimental and a waiting list group. One of the experimental group received DBT and another on GERM. The data obtained using SCL-90-R and psychological interview (in pre- post test and follow-up. Results: 1- Both experimental methods reduce interpersonal sensitivity of students. 2- Just DBT reduced depression symptoms. 3- Both experimental methods reduce anxiety symptoms but in DBT, recurrent anxiety symptoms were observed in follow up stage. Also these methods had different effect on anxiety symptoms. 4- None of the above methods could reduce hostility symptoms. Conclusion: Those findings showed effectiveness of two training methods of emotional regulation on emotion problems. We could use GERM method for intervention in anxiety, DBT method for intervention in depression and both method for intervention in interpersonal sensitivity
van Tol, Marie-José; Demenescu, Liliana R.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, André; van Buchem, Mark A.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Elzinga, Bernet M.
In the context of chronic childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM; emotional abuse and/or neglect), adequately responding to facial expressions is an important skill. Over time, however, this adaptive response may lead to a persistent vigilance for emotional facial expressions. The amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are key regions in face processing. However, the neurobiological correlates of face processing in adults reporting CEM are yet unknown. We examined amydala and mPFC reactivity to emotional faces (Angry, Fearful, Sad, Happy, Neutral) vs scrambled faces in healthy controls and unmedicated patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders reporting CEM before the age of 16 years (n = 60), and controls and patients who report no childhood abuse (n = 75). We found that CEM was associated with enhanced bilateral amygdala reactivity to emotional faces in general, and independent of psychiatric status. Furthermore, we found no support for differential mPFC functioning, suggesting that amygdala hyper-responsivity to emotional facial perception in adults reporting CEM may be independent from top–down influences of the mPFC. These findings may be key in understanding the increased emotional sensitivity and interpersonal difficulties, that have been reported in individuals with a history of CEM. PMID:22258799
Fink, Elian; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meijden, Sandra; Begeer, Sander
This study examined the association between peer-reported bullying-related behaviours (bully, victim, outsider and defender), age, gender, autism severity and teacher-rated emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, using a multi-informant approach. The sample
Gonzálvez, María T; Espada, José P; Tejeiro, Ricardo
Problem use of video games is an increasing risk behaviour. High exposure of adolescents to video games has been linked to a variety of disorders, but the relationship between problem video game playing and emotional welfare is unknown. The aim of the study is to analyse problem video game playing in a sample of adolescents and to determine whether there are differences between online and offline players, in addition to examining its relationship with anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A sample of adolescents (N = 380) completed self-reports measuring video game use and symptoms of anxiety and depression. We found that 7.4% of females and 30% of males can be considered as playing at problem levels. Online players were almost 12 times more likely to play at high frequency than offline players (χ2 (1, 267) = 72.72, p < .001, OR = 11.63, 95% CI [6.31, 21.43]). Males play more frequently, and play more online (χ2 (1, 267) = 50.85, p < .001, OR = 6.74, 95% CI [3.90, 11.64]), with a clear relationship between problem video game playing and anxiety (r = .24; p < .001). In females, there is a relationship between problem video game playing and depression (r = .19; p < .05). Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the psychological variables involved in problem video game playing. The implementation of strategies is suggested in order to prevent pathological gaming and associated problems.
Walton, A; Flouri, Eirini
The objective of this study was to test if emotion regulation mediates the association between mothers' parenting and adolescents' externalizing behaviour problems (conduct problems and hyperactivity). The parenting dimensions were warmth, psychological control and behavioural control (measured with knowledge, monitoring and discipline). Adjustment was made for contextual risk (measured with the number of proximal adverse life events experienced), gender, age and English as an additional language. Data were from a UK community sample of adolescents aged 11-18 from a comprehensive school in a disadvantaged area. At the multivariate level, none of the parenting variables predicted hyperactivity, which was associated only with difficulties in emotion regulation, contextual risk and English as a first language. The parenting variables predicting conduct problems at the multivariate level were warmth and knowledge. Knowledge did not predict emotion regulation. However, warmth predicted emotion regulation, which was negatively associated with conduct problems. Contextual risk was a significant predictor of both difficulties in emotion regulation and externalizing behaviour problems. Its effect on conduct problems was independent of parenting and was not via its association with difficulties in emotion regulation. The findings add to the evidence for the importance of maternal warmth and contextual risk for both regulated emotion and regulated behaviour. The small maternal control effects on both emotion regulation and externalizing behaviour could suggest the importance of paternal control for adolescent outcomes.
Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra
The provision and receipt of emotion work-defined as intentional activities done to promote another's emotional well-being-are central dimensions of marriage. However, emotion work in response to physical health problems is a largely unexplored, yet likely important, aspect of the marital experience. We analyze dyadic in-depth interviews with husbands and wives in 21 mid- to later-life couples to examine the ways that health-impaired people and their spouses provide, interpret, and explain emotion work. Because physical health problems, emotion work, and marital dynamics are gendered, we consider how these processes differ for women and men. We find that wives provide emotion work regardless of their own health status. Husbands provide emotion work less consistently, typically only when the husbands see themselves as their wife's primary source of stability or when the husbands view their marriage as balanced. Notions of traditional masculinity preclude some husbands from providing emotion work even when their wife is health-impaired. This study articulates emotion work around physical health problems as one factor that sustains and exacerbates gender inequalities in marriage with implications for emotional and physical well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra
The provision and receipt of emotion work—defined as intentional activities done to promote another’s emotional well-being—are central dimensions of marriage. However, emotion work in response to physical health problems is a largely unexplored, yet likely important, aspect of the marital experience. We analyze dyadic in-depth interviews with husbands and wives in 21 mid-to later-life couples to examine the ways that health-impaired people and their spouses provide, interpret, and explain emotion work. Because physical health problems, emotion work, and marital dynamics are gendered, we consider how these processes differ for women and men. We find that wives provide emotion work regardless of their own health status. Husbands provide emotion work less consistently, typically only when the husbands see themselves as their wife’s primary source of stability or when the husbands view their marriage as balanced. Notions of traditional masculinity preclude some husbands from providing emotion work even when their wife is health-impaired. This study articulates emotion work around physical health problems as one factor that sustains and exacerbates gender inequalities in marriage with implications for emotional and physical well-being. PMID:25661852
Clarizio, Harvey F.
Several controversies surround differentiation between socially maladjusted and seriously emotionally disturbed. Central to controversy is interpretation of social maladjustment as restricted to include socialized aggressive and adjudicated delinquents or broadened to include Conduct Disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and antisocial…
Sophie D Walsh
Full Text Available Then aims of the current study were 1 to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11-15 years; (2 To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11-15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents.
Simons, Raluca M; Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Murase, Hanako
This study examined the relationships between emotion dysregulation, peer drinking norms, drinking motives, and alcohol-related outcomes among 435 college students. We examined the mediating roles of drinking motives when predicting alcohol consumption and related problems from the subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer, 2004) via negative and positive reinforcement models. First, we hypothesized that individuals who lack in emotion regulation strategies or have difficulties in accepting negative emotions are more likely to drink to cope. Additionally, we hypothesized that individuals who act impulsively or become distracted when upset as well as those with higher peer drinking norms are more likely to drink for social and enhancement motives. The results of the path model indicated that limited access to emotion regulation strategies significantly predicted alcohol-related problems via both depression and anxiety coping motives, but did not predict alcohol consumption. Nonacceptance of emotional responses was not significantly associated with coping motives. Impulsivity had a significant direct relationship with alcohol problems. Difficulty in engaging in goal-directed behaviors predicted both enhancement and social motives, but only enhancement motives in turn predicted consumption. Norms indirectly predicted problems via enhancement motives and consumption. The results indicated that using alcohol to reduce negative or to increase positive emotions increases alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Overall, results advance our understanding of the mechanisms of increased alcohol use and problems among college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.
Background Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) (ID-adolescents) and adolescents with chronic diseases are both more likely to have emotional and behavioural problems. The aim of this study was to assess the association between chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and emotional and
Pasalich, Dave S.; Dadds, Mark R.; Vincent, Lucy C.; Cooper, Francesca A.; Hawes, David J.; Brennan, John
This study examined relationships between parent-child emotional communication and callous-unemotional (CU) traits and conduct problems. References to negative and positive emotions made by clinic-referred boys (3-9 years) and their parents were coded from direct observations of family interactions involving the discussion of shared emotional…
Jee, Sandra H.; Conn, Anne-Marie; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Blumkin, Aaron; Baldwin, Constance D.; Szilagyi, Moira A.
Background: Little is known about how best to implement behavioral screening recommendations in practice, especially for children in foster care, who are at risk for having social-emotional problems. Two validated screening tools are recommended for use with young children: the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) identifies…
Hudson, Amanda; Jacques, Sophie; Stewart, Sherry H
Problem gambling may reflect a maladaptive means of fulfilling specific affect-regulation motives, such as enhancing positive affect or coping with negative affect. Research with clinical populations indicates that disorders with prominent affective symptoms are characterized by attentional biases for symptom-congruent information. Thus, we assessed whether problem gamblers with enhancement motives for gambling would demonstrate attentional biases for positive emotional information, relative to other types of emotional information, and problem gamblers with coping motives for gambling would demonstrate attentional biases for negative emotional information, compared with other types of emotional information. In addition, we expected motive-congruent biases to be stronger in problem gamblers than nonproblem gamblers. To test these hypotheses, problem and nonproblem gamblers received an emotional orienting task in which neutral, negative, and positive pictorial cues appeared to one side of the computer screen, followed by target words in cued or uncued locations. In a look-away condition, participants had to shift attention away from pictures to respond to predominantly uncued targets, whereas in a look-toward condition, they had to orient to pictures to categorize predominantly cued targets. The results revealed motive-congruent orienting biases and disengagement lags for emotional pictures in problem gamblers. The link between motives and affective biases was less apparent in nonproblem gamblers. Results suggest that attentional measures may provide a useful complement to the subjective methodologies that are typically employed in studying problem gamblers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Aurora, Pallavi; Klanecky, Alicia K
Problem drinking in college places students at an increased risk for a wealth of negative consequences including alcohol use disorders. Most research has shown that greater emotion regulation difficulties are related to increased problem drinking, and studies generally assume that drinking is motivated by efforts to cope with or enhance affective experiences. However, there is a lack of research specifically testing this assumption. The current study sought to examine the mediating potential of drinking motives, specifically coping and enhancement, on the relationship between emotion regulation and problem drinking. College participants (N = 200) completed an online survey, consisting of a battery of measures assessing alcohol use behaviors and related variables. Coping drinking motives fully mediated the emotion regulation/problem drinking relationship, and enhancement motives partially mediated this relationship. Exploratory analyses indicated that all four drinking motives (i.e. coping, enhancement, social, and conformity) simultaneously mediated the relationship between emotion regulation and quantity/frequency of alcohol use. However, only coping and enhancement significantly mediated the relationship between emotion regulation and alcohol-related consequences (e.g. alcohol dependence symptoms, alcohol-related injuries). The current results offer direction for potentially modifying brief alcohol interventions in efforts to reduce students' engagement in problem drinking behaviors. For example, interventions might incorporate information on the risks of using alcohol as a means of emotion regulation and offer alternative emotion regulation strategies.
Conclusion: Our findings imply that clinicians should assess physical and emotional/behavioral problems among children with epilepsy in order to provide interventions to offset possible adverse psychiatric outcomes.
Fang-Ju Tsai; Shu-Tsen Liu; Chi-Mei Lee; Wang-Tso Lee; Pi-Chuan Fan; Wei-Sheng Lin; Yen-Nan Chiu; Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. Methods: We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6–16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parenta...
Larisa Valentinovna Shipova
Full Text Available The review of psychology and pedagogical researches of the mentally retarded children devoted to studying of a problem of emotional development in foreign science and practice is presented in article. Various approaches to an assessment of the importance of violations of the emotional sphere of the personality at mentally retarded children for all mental development of the child are considered, need of the accounting of emotional frustration of mentally retarded children for their education and education, and also social adaptation and integration into sociocultural and educational space is discussed. Research of emotional development of mentally retarded children in the course of training is important for development of programs of psychology and pedagogical diagnostics and correction of emotional violations at this category of school students, formation of their self-control, development of the emotional relations.
Kristine Rømer Thomsen
Full Text Available Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs directly in the ACC in a chronic pain patient. Behavioural findings were replicated: the patient was more confident and accurate when (consciously seeing happy versus sad faces, while no effect was seen in subliminal trials. Mirroring behavioural findings, we found significant differences in the LFPs after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies, the data indicate a key role of the ACC, but goes beyond earlier work by providing the first direct evidence of interaction between emotion and conscious experience in the human
Browne, Dillon T; Kumar, Aarti; Puente-Duran, Sofia; Georgiades, Katholiki; Leckie, George; Jenkins, Jennifer
The present study examined predictors of emotional problems amongst a nationally representative cohort of recent immigrants in Canada. Specifically, the effects of parenting status were examined given the association between parenting stress and mental health. Data came from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (N = 7055). Participants were recruited 6-months post landing (2001-2002) and followed up at 2 and 4 years. Self-reported emotional problems over time were considered as a function of parenting status (Two Parent, Lone Parent, Divorced Non-Parent, Non-Divorced Non-Parent) and sociodemographic characteristics. Odds of emotional problems were higher among Two Parent, OR = 1.12 (1.01, 1.24), Lone Parent, OR = 2.24 (1.75, 2.88), and Divorced Non-Parent, OR = 1.30 (1.01, 1.66) immigrants compared to Non-Divorced Non-Parents. Visible minority status, female gender, low income, and refugee status were associated with elevated risk. Findings reveal that immigrant parents are at risk for emotional health problems during the post-migration period. Such challenges may be compounded by other sociodemographic risk.
Dillon T Browne
Full Text Available The present study examined predictors of emotional problems amongst a nationally representative cohort of recent immigrants in Canada. Specifically, the effects of parenting status were examined given the association between parenting stress and mental health. Data came from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (N = 7055. Participants were recruited 6-months post landing (2001-2002 and followed up at 2 and 4 years. Self-reported emotional problems over time were considered as a function of parenting status (Two Parent, Lone Parent, Divorced Non-Parent, Non-Divorced Non-Parent and sociodemographic characteristics. Odds of emotional problems were higher among Two Parent, OR = 1.12 (1.01, 1.24, Lone Parent, OR = 2.24 (1.75, 2.88, and Divorced Non-Parent, OR = 1.30 (1.01, 1.66 immigrants compared to Non-Divorced Non-Parents. Visible minority status, female gender, low income, and refugee status were associated with elevated risk. Findings reveal that immigrant parents are at risk for emotional health problems during the post-migration period. Such challenges may be compounded by other sociodemographic risk.
Lipscomb, Shannon T; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Scaramella, Laura V; Ge, Xiaojia; Conger, Rand D; Reid, John B; Reiss, David
The current study examines the interplay between parental overreactivity and children's genetic backgrounds as inferred from birth parent characteristics on the development of negative emotionality during infancy, and in turn, to individual differences in externalizing problems in toddlerhood. The sample included 361 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Data were collected when the children were 9, 18, and 27 months old. Results indicated links between individual levels and changes in negative emotionality during infancy and toddlerhood to externalizing problems early in the third year of life. Findings also revealed an interaction between birth mother negative affect and adoptive mother overreactive parenting on children's negative emotionality. This Genotype × Environment interaction predicted externalizing problems indirectly through its association with negative emotionality and revealed stronger effects of genetic risk for children with less overreactive parenting from their mothers. Limitations of this study and directions for future research are discussed.
Drury, Helena; Wilkinson, Verity; Robertson, Mary M; Channon, Shelley
Recent work has reported mild impairments in social and emotional processing in Tourette's syndrome (TS), but deliberate attempts to use specific emotion regulation strategies have not been investigated previously. In the present study, adult participants with TS and no comorbidities (TS-alone) were compared to healthy control participants on several self-report measures assessing habitual use of reappraisal and suppression emotion regulation strategies. There were no group differences on measures of reappraisal, but the TS-alone group reported using suppression more frequently than the control group and this was true across a range of negative emotions. The groups did not differ on symptomatology scores of anxiety or depression, although more frequent use of suppression was associated with higher depressive symptomatology for the TS-alone group only. Further work is needed to examine potential factors that may influence emotion regulation in TS, including increased emotional reactivity or expertise in applying strategies to suppress tic symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Larson, R; Lampman-Petraitis, C
Hour-to-hour emotional states reported by children, ages 9-15, were examined in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the onset of adolescence is associated with increased emotional variability. These youths carried electronic pagers for 1 week and filled out reports on their emotional states in response to signals received at random times. To evaluate possible age-related response sets, a subset of children was asked to use the same scales to rate the emotions shown in drawings of 6 faces. The expected relation between daily emotional variability and age was not found among the boys and was small among the girls. There was, however, a linear relation between age and average mood states, with the older participants reporting more dysphoric average states, especially more mildly negative states. An absence of age difference in the ratings of the faces indicated that this relation could not be attributed to age differences in response set. Thus, these findings provide little support for the hypothesis that the onset of adolescence is associated with increased emotionality but indicate significant alterations in everyday experience associated with this age period.
Sirvinskiene, Giedre; Zemaitiene, Nida; Jusiene, Roma; Markuniene, Egle
Emotional and behavioral problems at an early age can reasonably be considered a high-risk factor for later mental health disorders. The aim of the article is to reveal predictive factors of 1½-year-old children's emotional and behavioral problems. The study was a part of a prospective birth-cohort study. The study sample consisted of 172 full-term infants (born during Gestational Weeks 37-42) and their mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at the age of 1½ years were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 (T. Achenbach & L. Rescorla, 2000), which was completed by mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at age of 1½ years were more prevalent in infants born via cesarean section, as compared to infants born vaginally without administration of medication. Newborns' suboptimal functioning after birth, complicated emotional acceptance of pregnancy, a couple's nonsatisfactory relationship during pregnancy, maternal distress during pregnancy and in the first months after childbirth, and inflexible and parent-oriented attitudes toward infant-rearing also predicted children's emotional and behavioral problems independent of sociodemographic factors. Results suggest that biomedical and psychosocial factors which manifest themselves in the prenatal and perinatal periods can have associations with later infant and child mental health. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Motamedi, Farzaneh; Ghobari-Bonab, Bagher; Beh-pajooh, Ahmad; Yekta, Mohsen Shokoohi; Afrooz, Gholam Ali
Development of children and adolescents' personality is strongly affected by their parents, and absence of one of them has an undesirable effect on their development, and makes them vulnerable to later psychological disorders and behavioral problems. The purpose of this study was to develop an emotional intelligence training program and to…
Full Text Available Today’s research on emotion regulation reveals its importance on many mental and physical heath related issues. One of the problems to deregulation of emotions is anxiety disorders subject. The aim of this research is to identify the relationship between emotional management problems including emotional inhibition, emotional deregulation and emotional coping on children’s anxiety symptoms, where it includes separation anxiety, social anxiety, panic disorder, school phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms. The sample was consisted of 307 primary students including boy and girl aged between 9-13 years old in city of Isfahan selected by simple random sampling. The instruments were Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED, child Sadness Management Scale (CSMS and child Anger Management Scale (CAMS. The results shows that problems of children in management of anger and sadness consist of anger and sadness inhibition; anger and sadness deregulation predicts anxiety symptoms in children (p<0.0001. However, emotional coping could not predict children's anxiety symptoms, significantly. In addition, deregulation and inhibition of sadness and anger predicts anxiety in children.
Bunford, Nóra; Wymbs, Brian T; Dawson, Anne E; Shorey, Ryan C
Childhood maltreatment and alcohol problems are common among young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the degree to which maltreatment and alcohol problems are associated; potential pertinent mediating or moderating mechanisms, such as emotional lability; and whether this association varies by sex. We examined, in a sample of adults at risk for ADHD (N = 122, 37% male), the association between childhood maltreatment and alcohol problems, whether emotional lability mediated or moderated this association, and whether either role of emotional lability differed between men and women. Emotional lability moderated the association between emotional neglect and alcohol problems; maltreatment increased risk for alcohol problems for those scoring high tovery high on emotional lability, but not for those with very low-moderate levels. The association between emotional abuse and alcohol problems depended both on emotional lability and sex; emotional abuse decreased the risk for alcohol problems among men very low/low on emotional lability, but not for men who were moderate to very high on emotional lability, or for women. These findings have implications for the way in which targeting maltreatment and emotional lability may be incorporated into prevention and intervention programs to prevent alcohol problems among men and women at risk for ADHD.
Beblo, Thomas; Pastuszak, Anna; Griepenstroh, Julia; Fernando, Silvia; Driessen, Martin; Schütz, Astrid; Rentzsch, Katrin; Schlosser, Nicole
Emotional dysfunction is a key feature of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) but emotional intelligence (EI) has rarely been investigated in this sample. This study aimed at an investigation of ability EI, general intelligence, and self-reported emotion regulation in BPD. We included 19 patients with BPD and 20 healthy control subjects in the study. EI was assessed by means of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test and the test of emotional intelligence. For the assessment of general intelligence, we administered the multidimensional "Leistungsprüfsystem-Kurzversion." The emotion regulation questionnaire and the difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale were used to assess emotion regulation. The patients with BPD did not exhibit impairments of ability EI and general intelligence but reported severe impairments in emotion regulation. Ability EI was related both to general intelligence (patients and controls) and to self-reported emotion regulation (patients). In conclusion, emotional dysfunction in BPD might primarily affect self-perceived behavior rather than abilities. Intense negative emotions in everyday life may trigger dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies in BPD although patients possess sufficient theoretical knowledge about optimal regulation strategies.
Cassiano, Rafaela G M; Gaspardo, Claudia M; Linhares, Maria Beatriz M
Preterm birth can impact on child development. As seen previously, children born preterm present more behavioral and/or emotional problems than do full-term counterparts. In addition to gestational age, neonatal clinical status should be examined to better understand the differential impact of premature birth on later developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review empirical studies on the relationship between prematurity, neonatal health status, and behavioral and/or emotional problems in children. A systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and LILACS databases for articles published from 2009 to 2014 was performed. The inclusion criteria were empirical studies that evaluated behavioral and/or emotional problems that are related to clinical neonatal variables in children born preterm. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Results showed that the degree of prematurity and birth weight were associated with emotional and/or behavioral problems in children at different ages. Prematurity that was associated with neonatal clinical conditions (e.g., sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and hemorrhage) and such treatments as corticoids and steroids increased the risk for these problems. The volume and abnormalities of specific brain structures also were associated with these outcomes. In conclusion, the neonatal health problems associated with prematurity present a negative impact on later child emotional and adapted behavior. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Littell, J H; Popa, M; Forsythe, B
Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is an intensive, home-based intervention for families of youth with social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Masters-level therapists engage family members in identifying and changing individual, family, and environmental factors thought to contribute to problem behavior. Intervention may include efforts to improve communication, parenting skills, peer relations, school performance, and social networks. Most MST trials were conducted by program developers in the USA; results of one independent trial are available and others are in progress. To provide unbiased estimates of the impacts of MST on restrictive out-of-home living placements, crime and delinquency, and other behavioral and psychosocial outcomes for youth and families. Electronic searches were made of bibliographic databases including the Cochrane Library, C2-SPECTR, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Sociological Abstracts) as well as government and professional websites, from 1985 to January 2003. Reference lists of articles were examined, and experts were contacted. Studies where youth (age 10-17) with social, emotional, and/or behavioral problems were randomised to licensed MST programs or other conditions (usual services or alternative treatments). Two reviewers independently reviewed 266 titles and abstracts; 95 full-text reports were retrieved, and 35 unique studies were identified. Two reviewers independently read all study reports for inclusion. Eight studies were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently assessed study quality and extracted data from these studies.Significant heterogeneity among studies was identified (assessed using Chi-square and I(2)), hence random effects models were used to pool data across studies. Odds ratios were used in analyses of dichotomous outcomes; standardised mean differences were used with continuous outcomes. Adjustments were made for small sample sizes (using Hedges g). Pooled estimates were weighted with inverse variance
Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Smoking is a highly addictive behaviour, often initiated during adolescence. It is suggested that smoking is associated with behavioural and emotional problems. This study aims to assess the impact of psychosocial problems on smoking initiation and vice versa. Method: We obtained data on
de Meer, G.; Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background: Emotional and behavioural problems are a risk factor for the initiation of smoking. In this study, we aimed to assess this relationship beyond clinical cut-off values of problem behaviour. Methods: Cross-sectional national survey among 9-13 year old children with data on smoking and
Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan
This study examined the extent to which effortful control moderated the risk of internalizing or externalizing problems associated with high negative emotionality in a Dutch population sample of pre- and early adolescents (N = 1,922). Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed with the
Sugden, Karen; Arseneault, Louise; Harrington, HonaLee; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Williams, Benjamin; Caspi, Avshalom
Objective: Bullying is the act of intentionally and repeatedly causing harm to someone who has difficulty defending him- or herself, and is a relatively widespread school-age phenomenon. Being the victim of bullying is associated with a broad spectrum of emotional problems; however, not all children who are bullied go on to develop such problems.…
The author presents a strategy for helping students with emotional and behavioral disorders become more proficient at solving math word problems. Math word problems require students to go beyond simple computation in mathematics (e.g., adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing) and use higher level reasoning that includes recognizing relevant…
Full Text Available Mathematical problem solving is among the most valuable aspects of mathematics education. It is also the hardest for elementary school students (Verschaffel, Greer & De Corte, 2000. Students experience cognitive and metacognitive difficulties in this area and develop negative emotions and poor motivation which hamper their efforts (Kramarski, Weiss, & Kololshi-Minsker, 2010. 9–11 seems the critical stage for developing attitudes and emotional reactions towards mathematics (Artino, 2009. These metacognitive and motivational-emotional factors are fundamental components of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL, a non-innate process requiring systematic, explicit student training (Pintrich, 2000; Zimmerman, 2000. Most self-regulation studies relating to problem-solving focus on metacognition. Few explore the motivational-emotional component. This study aimed to develop, examine, and compare two SRL interventions dealing with two additional components of self-regulation: metacognitive regulation (MC and motivational-emotional regulation (ME. It also sought to examine the significance of these components and their contribution to learners' problem-solving achievements and self-regulation. The study examined 118 fifth grade students, randomly assigned to two groups. Pre- and post-intervention, the two groups completed self-regulation questionnaires relating to metacognition, motivation, and emotion. They also solved arithmetic series problems presented in two ways (verbal form and numeric form. After intervention we also examined a novel transfer problem. The intervention consisted of 10 hours for 5 weeks. Following the intervention the groups exhibited similar improvements across all the problems. The MC group performed best in metacognitive self-regulation and the ME group performed best in certain motivational-emotional aspects of self-regulation. Research implications are discussed.
Kosar Moghaddam POUR
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.
Mazefsky, Carla A; Schreiber, Dana R; Olino, Thomas M; Minshew, Nancy J
This study investigated the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and a broad set of emotional and behavioral concerns in 95 children with high-functioning autism and IQ scores ≥ 80. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed via the Autism Treatment Network's Gastrointestinal Symptom Inventory, and data were gathered on autism symptom severity, adaptive behavior, and multiple internalizing and externalizing problems. The majority (61%) of children had at least one reported gastrointestinal symptom. Emotional and behavioral problems were also common but with a high degree of variability. Children with and without gastrointestinal problems did not differ in autism symptom severity, adaptive behavior, or total internalizing or externalizing problem scores. However, participants with gastrointestinal problems had significantly higher levels of affective problems. This finding is consistent with a small body of research noting a relationship between gastrointestinal problems, irritability, and mood problems in autism spectrum disorder. More research to identify the mechanisms underlying this relationship in autism spectrum disorder is warranted. Future research should include a medical assessment of gastrointestinal concerns, longitudinal design, and participants with a range of autism spectrum disorder severity in order to clarify the directionality of this relationship and to identify factors that may impact heterogeneity in the behavioral manifestation of gastrointestinal concerns. © The Author(s) 2013.
Full Text Available Studies of emotional intelligence (EI initially appeared in academic journals in the early 1990s. The majority of studies on emotional intelligence have relied on self-ratings. In spite of the critics of self-report scales, there are a large number of self-report measures of EI present in recent literature. The main aim of this paper is to present the constructing procedure, together with the basic psychometric properties of Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ as a self-report measure of EI. Originally, this measure was developed in Croatian settings, using the theoretical framework from the Mayer-Salovey emotional intelligence model. The ESCQ instrument has been translated into several languages. The results have showed that ESCQ has three subscales with decent reliability. They share some amount of common variance with similar well-established constructs such as alexithymia, social skills, and personality traits, but they are not correlated with cognitive abilities. However, due to its sufficient reliability, a great deal of unique variance remains. This unique variance of the ESCQ scales has an incremental contribution in explaining life satisfaction and empathy (as the crucial criteria for EI, and has significant relations with relevant real-life criteria such as quality of leadership, health risk behaviors, and school achievement.
Norberg, Melissa M; Ham, Lindsay S; Olivier, Jake; Zamboanga, Byron L; Melkonian, Alexander; Fugitt, Jessica L
Pregaming is a high-risk drinking behavior associated with increased alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Quantity of alcohol consumed does not fully explain the level of problems associated with pregaming; yet, limited research has examined factors that may interact with pregaming behavior to contribute to the experience of alcohol-related problems. The current study examined whether use of two emotion regulation strategies influence pregaming's contribution to alcohol-related problems. Undergraduates (N = 1857) aged 18-25 years attending 19 different colleges completed an online survey in 2008-2009. Linear mixed models were used to test whether emotion regulation strategies moderate the association between pregaming status (pregamers vs. non/infrequent pregamers) and alcohol-related problems, when controlling for alcohol consumption, demographic covariates, and site as a random effect. Greater use of cognitive reappraisal was associated with decreased alcohol problems. Expressive suppression interacted with pregaming status. There was no relationship between pregaming status and alcohol problems for students who rarely used expression suppression; however, the relationship between pregaming status and alcohol problems was statistically significant for students who occasionally to frequently used expression suppression. Findings suggest that the relationship between pregaming and alcohol-related problems is complex. Accordingly, future studies should utilize event-level methodology to understand how emotion regulation strategies influence alcohol-related problems. Further, clinicians should tailor alcohol treatments to help students increase their use of cognitive reappraisal and decrease their use of suppression.
Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D; Wiltink, Jörg
The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N = 2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The correlational trends found in a representative
Molenaar, Dylan; Middeldorp, Christel; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Boomsma, Dorret I
This study tested for Genotype × Environment (G × E) interaction on behavioral and emotional problems in children using new methods that do not require identification of candidate genes or environments, can distinguish between interaction with shared and unique environment, and are insensitive to scale effects. Parental ratings of problem behavior from 14,755 twin pairs (5.3 years, SD = 0.22) indicated G × E interaction on emotional liability, social isolation, aggression, attention problems, dependency, anxiety, and physical coordination. Environmental influences increased in children who were genetically more predisposed to problem behavior, with ~20% of the variance due to G × E interaction (8% for anxiety to 37% for attention problems). Ignoring G × E interaction does not greatly bias heritability estimates, but it does offer a comprehensive model of the etiology for childhood problems. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees, and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts, and problems in research. They were all researchers at the postdoctoral ...
Goetz, Thomas; Becker, Eva S; Bieg, Madeleine; Keller, Melanie M; Frenzel, Anne C; Hall, Nathan C
Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers' reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, "real") emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers' emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed.
Goetz, Thomas; Becker, Eva S.; Bieg, Madeleine; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.
Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers’ reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, “real”) emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers’ emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:26368911
Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y
In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ran...
Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Broberg, Anders; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Forns, Maria; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank
In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 3% to 9%, whereas those for gender and age…
Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Bocknek, Erika London; Vallotton, Claire D; Stansbury, Kathy E; Senehi, Neda; Dalimonte-Merckling, Danielle; Lee, Young-Eun
To test the hypothesis that toddlers at highest risk for behavioral problems from the most economically vulnerable families will benefit most from maternal talk about emotions. This study included 89 toddlers and mothers from low-income families. Behavioral problems were rated at 2 time points by masters-level trained Early Head Start home visiting specialists. Maternal emotion talk was coded from a wordless book-sharing task. Coding focused on mothers' emotion bridging, which included labeling emotions, explaining the context of emotions, noting the behavioral cues of emotions, and linking emotions to toddlers' own experiences. Maternal demographic risk reflected a composite score of 5 risk factors. A significant 3-way interaction between Time 1 toddler behavior problems, maternal emotion talk, and maternal demographic risk (p = .001) and examination of slope difference tests revealed that when maternal demographic risk was greater, more maternal emotion talk buffered associations between earlier and later behavior problems. Greater demographic risk and lower maternal emotion talk intensified Time 1 behavior problems as a predictor of Time 2 behavior problems. The model explained 54% of the variance in toddlers' Time 2 behavior problems. Analyses controlled for maternal warmth to better examine the unique contributions of emotion bridging to toddlers' behaviors. Toddlers at highest risk, those with more early behavioral problems from higher demographic-risk families, benefit the most from mothers' emotion talk. Informing parents about the use of emotion talk may be a cost-effective, simple strategy to support at-risk toddlers' social-emotional development and reduce behavioral problems.
Pouwer, Francois; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Lubach, Caroline
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how often emotional problems were recognized and registered by diabetes nurses. METHODS: We studied medical charts and questionnaire data of 112 diabetes patients. The hospital anxiety, depression scale and the problem areas in diabetes survey...... were used to measure anxiety, depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress. RESULTS: In patients with moderate to severe levels of anxiety or depression, the presence of an emotional problem was recorded in the medical chart in 20-25% of the cases. The registration-rate of diabetes......-specific emotional distress was also found to be low, ranging from 0% (treatment-related problems) to 29% (diabetes-related emotional problems). CONCLUSION: Registration-rates of emotional problems by diabetes nurses were found to be low, but quite similar to detection rates of physicians and nurses in studies...
Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim
psychosomatic symptoms than native adolescents. Effect sizes varied considerable for the different outcomes, and similar effects were found for first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents. Differences in these indicators of emotional and behavioral problems between immigrant and native adolescents did......PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral...... not vary significantly with the receiving country. With two exceptions, effects of immigrant status were similar for boys and girls. Although no differences in psychosomatic symptoms were found between first-generation immigrant and native girls, first-generation immigrant boys reported less psychosomatic...
Lenzen, Christoph; Fischer, Gloria; Jentzsch, Anika; Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Danuta; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald
Data about the prevalence of school absenteeism and its correlation with emotional and behavioural problems in Germany is scarce, in particular regarding excused absenteeism. This study aims to close the gap by examining a sample of 2,679 pupils attending the different types of secondary school (Hauptschule, Realschule, Gymnasium), who participated in a clinical trial for the prevention of truancy (WE-STAY-Project). Pupils' mean age was 14 years (M = 13.94, SD = 0.85, Range = 11-19) and gender distribution was balanced (49.35% males, 50.65% females). Using a self-report questionnaire, pupils where asked on how many days they had missed school on average per month during the last school year (excused and unexcused). Emotional and behavioural problems were measured by using the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire" (SDQ). 4.1% of the pupils reported to have missed school without a valid excuse on more than four days per month (unexcused absenteeism). 6.1% had missed school having an excuse on more than ten days per month (excused absenteeism). Both, unexcused and excused absenteeism, showed an increase of emotional and behavioural problems dependent on the intensity of absenteeism. In conclusion, these findings show the relevance of school absenteeism in Germany. In the future, more attention should be given to pupils with also excused absenteeism.
King-Dowling, Sara; Missiuna, Cheryl; Rodriguez, M Christine; Greenway, Matt; Cairney, John
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) has been shown to co-occur with behavioral and language problems in school-aged children, but little is known as to when these problems begin to emerge, or if they are inherent in children with DCD. The purpose of this study was to determine if deficits in language and emotional-behavioral problems are apparent in preschool-aged children with movement difficulties. Two hundred and fourteen children (mean age 4years 11months, SD 9.8months, 103 male) performed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2nd Edition (MABC-2). Children falling at or below the 16th percentile were classified as being at risk for movement difficulties (MD risk). Auditory comprehension and expressive communication were examined using the Preschool Language Scales 4th Edition (PLS-4). Parent-reported emotional and behavioral problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Preschool children with diminished motor coordination (n=37) were found to have lower language scores, higher externalizing behaviors in the form of increased aggression, as well as increased withdrawn and other behavior symptoms compared with their typically developing peers. Motor coordination, language and emotional-behavioral difficulties tend to co-occur in young children aged 3-6years. These results highlight the need for early intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Altınoğlu Dikmeer, Ilkiz; Erol, Neşe; Gençöz, Tülin
This study aimed to investigate and compare emotional and behavioral problems in Turkish adoptees and non-adopted peers raised by their biological parents. The study included 61 adopted children (34 female and 27 male) aged 6-18 years and 62 age- and gender-matched non-adopted children (35 female and 27 male). Parents rated their children's problem behaviors using the Child Behavior Checklist/6-18, temperament characteristics using the School Age Temperament Inventory, their own personality traits using the Basic Personality Traits Inventory, and their parenting styles using the Measure of Child Rearing Styles. Children rated their parents' availability and reliability as attachment figures using the Kerns Security Scale and parenting styles using the Measure of Child Rearing Styles. Adolescents aged 11-18 years self-rated their problem behaviors using the Youth Self Report. Group differences and correlations were analyzed. There were non-significant differences in all scale scores between the adopted and non-adopted groups. In contrast to the literature, age of the children at the time of adoption was not associated with problem behaviors or attachment relationships. On the other hand, the findings indicate that as the age at which the children learned that they had been adopted increased emotional and behavioral problems increased. Adoption alone could not explain the problem behaviors observed in the adopted children; the observed problem behaviors should be considered within the context of the developmental process.
Truong, Khiet Phuong; van Leeuwen, David A.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.
The differences between self-reported and observed emotion have only marginally been investigated in the context of speech-based automatic emotion recognition. We address this issue by comparing self-reported emotion ratings to observed emotion ratings and look at how differences between these two
Joreintje D Mackenbach
Full Text Available Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately.
Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Ringoot, Ank P; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Jansen, Pauline W; Tiemeier, Henning W
Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately.
McElwain, Nancy L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Volling, Brenda L.
Mother- and father-reported reactions to children's negative emotions were examined as correlates of emotional understanding (Study 1, N = 55, 5- to 6-year-olds) and friendship quality (Study 2, N = 49, 3- to 5-year-olds). Mothers' and fathers' supportive reactions together contributed to greater child-friend coordinated play during a sharing task. Further, when one parent reported low support, greater support by the other parent was related to better understanding of emotions and less intens...
Full Text Available During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., “you are worthless”. These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories.Until now, studies that examined suppressive coping styles in individuals reporting CEM have utilized self-report questionnaires. Therefore, it is unclear what the consequences will be of emotion inhibition styles on the intrusion of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting CEM.Using a thought suppression task, this study aimed to investigate the experience of intrusions during suppression of, and when no longer instructed to actively suppress, positive and negative autobiographical memories in individuals reporting Low, Moderate, and Severe CEM compared to No Abuse (total N = 83.We found no group differences during active suppression of negative and positive autobiographical memories. However, when individuals reporting Severe CEM were no longer instructed to suppress thinking about the memory, individuals reporting No Abuse, Low CEM, or Moderate CEM reported fewer intrusions of both positive and negative autobiographical memories than individuals reporting Severe CEM. Finally, we found that intrusions of negative memories are strongly related with psychiatric distress.The present study results provide initial insights into the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment and suggests avenues for successful interventions.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online
Trach, Jessica; Lee, Matthew; Hymel, Shelley
A substantial body of evidence verifies that social-emotional learning (SEL) can be effectively taught in schools and can reduce the prevalence and impact of emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) among children and youth. Although the positive effects of SEL on individual student's emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes have been…
S.J. Roza (Sabine); M.B. Hofstra (Marijke); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to predict the onset of mood and anxiety disorders from parent-reported emotional and behavioral problems in childhood across a 14-year period from childhood into young adulthood. METHOD: In 1983, parent reports of behavioral and
Çolpan, Merve; Eray, Şafak; Eren, Erdal; Vural, Ayşe Pınar
Obesity is a chronic disease which causes medical and psychiatric complications. Family climate is also a critical factor in the presence and treatment of obesity and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In our study, perceived expressed emotion (EE), psychopathology, self-esteem and emotional and behavioural problems among obese adolescents will be investigated by comparison with their non-obese peers. This study was carried out with 49 obese adolescents and 47 non-obese adolescents as a control group. All participants were requested to fill out the Socio-demographic Data Form, Shortened Level of Expressed Emotion Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire-Adolescent Form. In our study, obese adolescents showed a significant difference in perceived EE (pself-esteem (pself esteem. A higher rate of perceived EE, psychopathology and low self-esteem among obese adolescents showed that obesity prevention and treatment are also crucial for mental health in adolescents. With the help of our study results, we aimed to emphasize the role of the family in obese adolescent's mental health and their treatment. By the help of our results we try to identifying risk factors in childhood that promote obesity in order to help develop targeted intervention and prevention programs.
Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K
In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed.
Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K.
In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed. PMID:17045726
Ricarte Trives, Jorge Javier; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre Postigo, José Miguel; Ros Segura, Laura; Watkins, Ed
Our study tested the hypothesis that older adults and men use more adaptive emotion regulatory strategies but fewer negative emotion regulatory strategies than younger adults and women. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that rumination acts as a mediator variable for the effect of age and gender on depression scores. Differences in rumination, problem solving, distraction, autobiographical recall and depression were assessed in a group of young adults (18-29 years) compared to a group of older adults (50-76 years). The older group used more problem solving and distraction strategies when in a depressed state than their younger counterparts (ps .06). Ordinary least squares regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that rumination mediated the association between age, gender and depression scores. These results suggest that older adults and men select more adaptive strategies to regulate emotions than young adults and women with rumination acting as a significant mediator variable in the association between age, gender, and depression.
Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D
Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.
This study aims to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and problem solving. The sample set of the research was taken from the Faculty of Education of Mugla University by the random sampling method. The participants were 386 students--prospective teachers--(224 females; 182 males) who took part in the study voluntarily.…
Bagner, Daniel M.; Rodriguez, Gabriela M.; Blake, Clair A.; Linares, Dainelys; Carter, Alice S.
Behavioral and emotional problems are highly prevalent in early childhood and represent an important focus of practice for clinical child and pediatric psychologists. Although psychological or psychiatric disorders are not typically diagnosed in children under the age of 2 years, recent research has demonstrated the appropriateness of assessing…
McInerney, John F.
Parents of exceptional children face numerous challenges in their efforts to meet the needs of their child. Reaction to the realization that a problem exists in the child's development or educational achievement may lead to emotional distress which can be self-defeating. Such parents often benefit from a direct approach to addressing these issues…
Tzohar-Rozen, Meirav; Kramarski, Bracha
Mathematical problem solving is one of the most valuable aspects of mathematics education. It is also the most difficult for elementary-school students (Verschaffel, Greer, & De Corte, 2000). Students experience cognitive and metacognitive difficulties in this area and develop negative emotions and poor motivation, which hamper their efforts…
Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Goldston, David B.; Walsh, Adam K.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Hickman, Enith; Wood, Frank B.
The purpose of this study was to examine the severity of behavioral and emotional problems among adolescents with poor and typical single word reading ability (N = 188) recruited from public schools and followed for a median of 2.4 years. Youth and parents were repeatedly assessed to obtain information regarding the severity and course of symptoms…
Molenaar, D.; Middeldorp, C.; van Beijsterveldt, T.; Boomsma, D.I.
This study tested for Genotype × Environment (G × E) interaction on behavioral and emotional problems in children using new methods that do not require identification of candidate genes or environments, can distinguish between interaction with shared and unique environment, and are insensitive to
Burt, Keith B.; Paysnick, Amy A.
The present study examined sense of identity (assessed using the Identity subscale of the Psychosocial Maturity Inventory) as a moderator of associations between stressful life events, behavioral/emotional problems, and substance abuse in a sample of 187 college undergraduates (67% female). Correlations showed evidence for positive associations…
Endendijk, J. J.; de Bruijn, A.; van Bakel, H.J.A.; Wijnen, H.; Pop, V.J.M.; van Baar, A.L.
The role of mother-infant interaction quality is studied in the relation between prenatal maternal emotional symptoms and child behavioral problems. Healthy pregnant, Dutch women (N = 96, M = 31.6, SD = 3.3) were allocated to the "exposed group" (n = 46), consisting of mothers with high levels of
State, Talida M.; Kern, Lee
Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in measuring life satisfaction among children and adolescents as an indicator of broad well-being and happiness. Although limited, existing research with students with social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) problems indicates they experience lower life satisfaction compared with their…
Molenaar, D.; Middeldorp, C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.
This study tested for Genotype × Environment (G × E) interaction on behavioral and emotional problems in children using new methods that do not require identification of candidate genes or environments, can distinguish between interaction with shared and unique environment, and are insensitive to
Finkenauer, C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Baumeister, R.F.
Cross-sectional data from 1359 boys and girls aged 10-14 years investigated whether parenting behaviours are directly or indirectly (through building self-control) associated with emotional (depression, stress, low self-esteem) and behavioural (delinquency, aggression) problems among adolescents.
Harland, P.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Verhulst, F.C.
Abstract The aim of this study was to identify groups of children at increased risk of behavioural or emotional problems on the basis of socio-demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and recent life events with a focus on unemployment and divorce or separation. We obtained data on the
Mazzucchelli, Trevor G.; Sanders, Matthew R.
Children with developmental disabilities are at substantially greater risk of developing emotional and behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. While the quality of parenting that children receive has a major effect on their development, empirically supported parenting programs reach relatively few parents. A recent trend…
Lüdtke, Janine; Weizenegger, Benedict; Rauber, Rachel; Contin, Brigitte; In-Albon, Tina; Schmid, Marc
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent among adolescents and associated with various mental health problems and suicidality. Previous studies have found that certain personality traits are related to NSSI behavior, however only few studies examined personality traits in adolescents with NSSI. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between personality traits and emotional and behavioral problems in predicting repetitive NSSI among adolescents from a school sample. Four hundred and forty-seven students (M=14.95years, SD=0.74, 52% male) completed self-report measures on NSSI, personality traits, and emotional and behavioral problems. The past year prevalence of occasional and repetitive NSSI was 4.9% and 6.3% respectively. Repetitive NSSI was significantly associated with female gender, higher levels of age, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-transcendence, antisocial behavior, and positive self and lower levels of persistence and self-directedness in univariate analyses. However, multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only high levels of antisocial behavior and low levels of self-directedness significantly predicted repetitive NSSI. The association between a lack of self-directedness and NSSI emphasizes the significance of targeting self-directedness in psychotherapy by strengthening self-awareness, affect tolerance and emotion regulation, as well as establishing and pursuing long-term goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peplak, Joanna; Song, Ju-Hyun; Colasante, Tyler; Malti, Tina
This study examined the development of children's decisions, reasoning, and emotions in contexts of peer inclusion/exclusion. We asked an ethnically diverse sample of 117 children aged 4years (n=59; 60% girls) and 8years (n=58; 49% girls) to choose between including hypothetical peers of the same or opposite gender and with or without attention deficit/hyperactivity problems and aggressive behavior. Children also provided justifications for, and emotions associated with, their inclusion decisions. Both 4- and 8-year-olds predominantly chose to include the in-group peer (i.e., the same-gender peer and peers without behavior problems), thereby demonstrating a normative in-group inclusive bias. Nevertheless, children included the out-group peer more in the gender context than in the behavior problem contexts. The majority of children reported group functioning-related, group identity-related, and stereotype-related reasoning after their in-group inclusion decisions, and they associated happy feelings with such decisions. Although most children attributed sadness to the excluded out-group peer, they attributed more anger to the excluded out-group peer in the aggression context compared with other contexts. We discuss the implications of our findings for current theorizing about children's social-cognitive and emotional development in contexts of peer inclusion and exclusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Yadan; Xiao, Xiao; Ma, Wenjuan; Jiang, Jun; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin
Accumulating evidence suggests that insight can be substantially influenced by task-irrelevant emotion stimuli and interpersonal competitive situation, and a close link might exist between them. Using a learning-testing paradigm and Event-Related Potentials (ERPs), the present study investigated the independent and joint effects of emotional and competitive information on insight problem solving especially their neural mechanisms. Subjects situated in either competitive or non-competitive condition learned heuristic logogriphs first and then viewed task-irrelevant positive or negative emotional pictures, which were followed by test logogriphs to solve. Both behavioral and ERP findings showed a more evident insight boost following negative emotional pictures in competitive context. Results demonstrated that negative emotion and competitive situation might promote insight by a defocused mode of attention (as indicated by N1 and P2), the enhanced semantic integration and breaking mental set (as indicated by N450), and the increased forming of novel associations activated by motivational arousal originating from competition (as indicated by P800-1600 and P1600-2500). These results indicate that the dynamic interactions between emotional valence and competitive arousal effects on insight. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yeung, Rachel; Leadbeater, Bonnie
This longitudinal study investigated the associations between peer victimization and maladaptive outcomes (emotional and behavioral problems) among 580 adolescents concurrently and across a 2-year period, and proposed that adult emotional support moderated this association. Peer victimization and maladaptive outcomes were assessed from…
I. Kruizinga (Ingrid); W. Jansen (Wilma); A.S. Carter (Alice); H. Raat (Hein)
textabstractBackground: The prevalence of social-emotional and behavioral problems is estimated to be 8 to 9% among preschool children. Effective early detection tools are needed to promote the provision of adequate care at an early stage. The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment
Eichler, Anna K; Glaubitz, Katharina A; Hartmann, Luisa C; Spangler, Gottfried
Parental stress is increased in clinical contexts (e.g., child psychiatry) and correlates with behavioral and emotional problems of children. In addition, parental stress can result in a biased parental perception of child's behavior and emotions. These interrelations were examined in a normal (N = 320) and a clinical (N = 75) sample. The "Eltern-Belastungs-Screening zur Kindeswohlgefährdung" (EBSK; Deegener, Spangler, Körner & Becker, 2009) was used for the assessment of parental stress. As expected, increased EBSK scores were overrepresented in the clinical sample. In both samples stressed parents reported having children with more behavioral and emotional problems. Children of stressed parents in turn reported significantly less problems than their parents did. The rating of independent third persons, e.g. teachers, was not available and should be added in future research. Restrictions in methodology and conclusions for practice are discussed.
Sugiura, Yoshinori; Sugiura, Tomoko
While research based on the emotion dysregulation model indicates a positive relationship between intense emotions and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms, emotion-focused intervention involves the use of techniques to enhance emotional experiences, based on the notion that GAD patients are engaging in avoidance strategies. To reveal the conditions under which intense emotions lead to reduced GAD symptoms, we designed a longitudinal study to monitor changes in GAD symptoms among students (N = 129) over 3 months. Our focus was on possible moderators of the effect of emotional intensity. Results indicated that when fear of emotions and negative appraisals about problem solving were low, negative emotional intensity reduced later GAD symptoms. Moreover, under the condition of high responsibility to continue thinking, emotional intensity tended to reduce later GAD symptoms. Results suggest that reduced fear of emotions and reduced negative appraisals about problem solving may enhance the use of emotional processing techniques (e.g., emotional exposure). The interaction between responsibility to continue thinking and emotional intensity requires further examination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Decision Neuroscience has shown positive and negative side of emotions in intertemporal choices. Psychological evidences, indeed, point out anomalies (impulsivity modifies the discount function of each individual and the false consensus effect which increases the degree of consensus in a multi-agent decision problem. An experiment (Engelmann and Strobel 2004 demonstrates that the relevance of the false consensus effect depends on the difficulty of the information retrieval, so the underlying mechanism is an information processing deficiency rather than egocentricity. We demonstrate that emotions can not cause anomalies in a cooperative strategic interaction because information is explicit.
Flink, Ilse J. E.; Prins, Rick G.; Mackenbach, Johan J. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning; Raat, Hein
Background Studies suggest that neighborhood ethnic diversity may be important when it comes to understanding ethnic inequalities in mental health. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether neighborhood ethnic diversity moderated the association between the ethnic minority status and child behavioral and emotional problems. Methods We included 3076 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. At child age 3-years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5). Individual-level data, assessed with questionnaires, was combined with neighborhood-level data. Multi-level logistic regression models predicted the Odds Ratios for the CBCL total problems score as a function of maternal ethnic background and neighborhood ethnic diversity, computed with the Racial Diversity Index and categorized into tertiles. Interaction on the additive scale was assessed using Relative Access Risk due to Interaction. Results Being from an ethnic minority was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.88–4.04) and adjusted models (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.79–3.92). Residing in a high diversity neighborhood was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.13–3.64) but not in adjusted models (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.51–1.57). When stratifying by the three levels of neighborhood ethnic diversity, ethnic inequalities in behavioral and emotional problems were greatest in low diversity neighborhoods (OR 5.24, 95%CI 2.47–11.14), smaller in high diversity neighborhoods (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.66–5.99) and smallest in medium diversity neighborhoods (OR 1.59, 95% CI 0.90–2.82). Tests for interaction (when comparing medium to low diversity neighborhoods) trended towards negative on both the additive and multiplicative scale for the maternal-report (RERI: −3.22, 95% CI −0.70–0.59; Ratio of ORs: 0.30, 95% CI 0.12–0
Khor, Angela S.; Melvin, Glenn A.; Reid, Sophie C.; Gray, Kylie M.
Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in…
Trezise, Kelly; Reeve, Robert A.
Surprisingly little is known about whether relationships between cognitive and emotional states remain stable or change over time, or how different patterns of stability and/or change in the relationships affect problem solving abilities. Nevertheless, cross-sectional studies show that anxiety/worry may reduce working memory (WM) resources, and the ability to minimize the effects anxiety/worry is higher in individuals with greater WM capacity. To investigate the patterns of stability and/or change in cognition-emotion relations over time and their implications for problem solving, 126 14-year-olds’ algebraic WM and worry levels were assessed twice in a single day before completing an algebraic math problem solving test. We used latent transition analysis to identify stability/change in cognition-emotion relations, which yielded a six subgroup solution. Subgroups varied in WM capacity, worry, and stability/change relationships. Among the subgroups, we identified a high WM/low worry subgroup that remained stable over time and a high WM/high worry, and a moderate WM/low worry subgroup that changed to low WM subgroups over time. Patterns of stability/change in subgroup membership predicted algebraic test results. The stable high WM/low worry subgroup performed best and the low WM capacity-high worry “unstable across time” subgroup performed worst. The findings highlight the importance of assessing variations in cognition-emotion relationships over time (rather than assessing cognition or emotion states alone) to account for differences in problem solving abilities. PMID:25132830
Full Text Available Surprisingly little is known about whether relationships between cognitive and emotional states remain stable or change over time, or how different patterns of stability and/or change in the relationships affect problem solving abilities. Nevertheless, cross-sectional studies show that anxiety/worry may reduce working memory resources, and the ability to minimize the effects anxiety/worry is higher in individuals with greater WM capacity. To investigate the patterns of stability and/or change in cognition-emotion relations over time and their implications for problem solving, 126 14-year-olds’ algebraic WM and worry levels were assessed twice in a single day before completing an algebraic math problem solving test. We used latent transition analysis to identify stability/change in cognition-emotion relations, which yielded a six subgroup solution. Subgroups varied in WM capacity, worry, and stability/change relationships. Among the subgroups, we identified a high WM/low worry subgroup that remained stable over time and a high WM/high worry, and a moderate WM/low worry subgroup that changed to low WM subgroups over time. Patterns of stability/change in subgroup membership predicted algebraic test results. The stable high WM/low worry subgroup performed best and the low WM capacity-high worry unstable across time subgroup performed worst. The findings highlight the importance of assessing variations in cognition-emotion relationships over time (rather than assessing cognition or emotion states alone to account for differences in problem solving abilities.
Raval, Vaishali V; Ward, Rose M; Raval, Pratiksha H; Trivedi, Shwetang S
Much like other parts of Asia, late adolescence in India is a particularly stressful time with academic pressures of a highly competitive examination system that determines future occupational success. The present study examined interrelations among reports of parenting, adolescents' regulation of academics-related emotions, school engagement, adolescent socio-emotional functioning and state-exam performance. Four hundred and fifty 10th and 12th graders from suburban high schools in India participated, along with their mothers. At the beginning of the school year, mothers completed measures of parenting, and adolescents completed measures of emotion regulation, school engagement and behaviour problems. At the end of the school year, grades from state exams were obtained from the schools. A multiple mediator model was tested using structural equation modelling. Authoritarian parenting was positively related to adolescent behaviour problems, but not adolescent state-exam performance. Maternal non-supportive responses to adolescent negative emotion were indirectly positively related to adolescent behaviour problems through adolescent emotion dysregulation. Adolescent school engagement mediated the positive relation between maternal supportive responses to adolescent negative emotion and adolescent state-exam performance. These findings underscore the relevance of adolescent emotions for their academic functioning, with implications for the development of interventions for those who struggle during these highly stressful years. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.
Pressman, Sarah D; Gallagher, Matthew W; Lopez, Shane J
Emotions have been shown to play a critical role in health outcomes, but research on this topic has been limited to studies in industrialized countries, which prevents broad generalizations. This study assessed whether emotion-health connections persist across various regions, including less-developed countries, where the degree to which people's fundamental needs are met might be a better predictor of physical well-being. Individuals from 142 countries (N = 150,048) were surveyed about their emotions, health, hunger, shelter, and threats to safety. Both positive and negative emotions exhibited unique, moderate effects on self-reported health, and together, they accounted for 46.1% of the variance. These associations were stronger than the relative impact of hunger, homelessness, and threats to safety and were not simply attributable to countries' gross domestic products (GDPs). Furthermore, connections between positive emotion and health were stronger in low-GDP countries than in high-GDP countries. Our findings suggest that emotion matters for health around the globe and may in fact be more critical in less-developed areas.
Verhulp, Esmée E; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Pels, Trees V M; Van Weert, Caroline M C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
Individuals' lay beliefs about mental health problems and attitudes toward mental health care are thought to be influenced by the cultural background of these individuals. In the current study, we investigated differences between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents and adolescents in lay beliefs about emotional problems and attitudes toward mental health care. Additionally, among immigrant Dutch parents, we examined the associations between acculturation orientations and lay beliefs about emotional problems as well as attitudes toward mental health care. In total, 349 pairs of parents and their adolescent children participated in our study (95 native Dutch, 85 Surinamese-Dutch, 87 Turkish-Dutch, 82 Moroccan-Dutch). A vignette was used to examine participants' lay beliefs. Immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents differed in their lay beliefs and attitudes toward mental health care, whereas hardly any differences were revealed among their children. Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch parents showed more passive and fewer active solutions to emotional problems compared to native Dutch parents. Additionally, Moroccan-Dutch and Surinamese-Dutch parents reported greater fear of mental health care compared to native Dutch parents. Furthermore, the results showed that immigrant Dutch parents who were more strongly oriented toward the Dutch culture reported less fear of mental health care. Our results showed clear differences in lay beliefs and attitudes toward mental health care between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents but not between their children. Substantial differences were also found between parents from different immigrant Dutch populations as well as within the population of immigrant Dutch parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton
The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099
Neacsiu, Andrada D; Tkachuck, Mathew A
Emotion dysregulation is a critical transdiagnostic mental health problem that needs to be further examined in personality disorders (PDs). The current study examined dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) skills use, emotion dysregulation, and dysfunctional coping among adults who endorsed symptoms of cluster B PDs and psychopathy. We hypothesized that skills taught in DBT and emotion dysregulation are useful for adults with PDs other than borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using a self-report questionnaire, we examined these constructs in three groups of community adults: those who reported symptoms consistent with borderline personality disorder (BPD; N = 29), those who reported symptoms consistent with any other cluster B PD (N = 22), and those with no reported cluster B PD symptoms (N = 77) as measured by the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 + . Both PD groups reported higher emotion dysregulation and dysfunctional coping when compared to the no PD group. Only the BPD group had significantly lower DBT skills use. DBT skills use was found to be a significant predictor of cluster B psychopathology but only before accounting for emotion dysregulation. When added to the regression model, emotion dysregulation was found to be a significant predictor of cluster B psychopathology but DBT skills use no longer had a significant effect. Across all groups, DBT skills use deficits and maladaptive coping, but not emotion dysregulation, predicted different facets of psychopathy. Emotion dysregulation and use of maladaptive coping are problems in cluster B PDs, outside of BPD, but not in psychopathy. Inability to use DBT skills may be unique to BPD. Because this study relied exclusively on self-report, this data is preliminary and warrants further investigation.
Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Bastian, Brock; Harmon-Jones, Eddie
Several discrete emotions have broad theoretical and empirical importance, as shown by converging evidence from diverse areas of psychology, including facial displays, developmental behaviors, and neuroscience. However, the measurement of these states has not progressed along with theory, such that when researchers measure subjectively experienced emotions, they commonly rely on scales assessing broad dimensions of affect (positivity and negativity), rather than discrete emotions. The current manuscript presents four studies that validate a new instrument, the Discrete Emotions Questionnaire (DEQ), that is sensitive to eight distinct state emotions: anger, disgust, fear, anxiety, sadness, happiness, relaxation, and desire. Emotion theory supporting the importance of distinguishing these specific emotions is reviewed.
This report highlights significant operating events involving observed or potential failures of safety-related systems in U.S. plants that resulted from degraded or malfunctioning non-safety grade air systems. Based upon the evaluation of these events, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) concludes that the issue of air systems problems is an important one which requires additional NRC and industry attention. This report also provides AEOD's recommendations for corrective actions to deal with the issue. (author)
Vannatta, David S.
This paper proposes the Problem Reporting Management System (PRMS) model as an effective discrete simulation tool that determines the risks involved during the development phase of a Trouble Tracking Reporting Data Base replacement system. The model considers the type of equipment and networks which will be used in the replacement system as well as varying user loads, size of the database, and expected operational availability. The paper discusses the dynamics, stability, and application of the PRMS and addresses suggested concepts to enhance the service performance and enrich them.
VAN Son, Jenny; Nyklíček, Ivan; Pop, Victor J M
OBJECTIVE: The DiaMind trial showed beneficial immediate effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on emotional distress, but not on diabetes distress and HbA1c. The aim of the present report was to examine if the effects would be sustained after six month follow-up. METHODS: In the Dia...
In this study, structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating role of resilience and self-esteem in the relationships between psychological maltreatment-emotional problems and psychological maltreatment-behavioral problems in adolescents. Participants were 937 adolescents from different high schools in Turkey. The sample included 502 female (53.6%) and 435 male (46.4%) students, 14-19 years old (mean age=16.51, SD=1.15). Results indicated that psychological maltreatment was negatively correlated with resilience and self-esteem, and positively correlated with behavioral problems and emotional problems. Resilience and self-esteem also predicted behavioral problems and emotional problems. Finally, psychological maltreatment predicted emotional and behavioral problems mediated by resilience and self-esteem. Resilience and self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between psychological maltreatment-behavioral and psychological maltreatment-emotional problems in adolescents. Thus, resilience and self-esteem appear to play a protective role in emotional problems and behavioral problems in psychologically maltreated individuals. Implications are discussed and suggestions for psychological counselors and other mental health professionals are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ritchie, Stephen M.; Hudson, Peter; Bellocchi, Alberto; Henderson, Senka; King, Donna; Tobin, Kenneth
Emotion researchers have grappled with challenging methodological issues in capturing emotions of participants in naturalistic settings such as school or university classrooms. Self-reporting methods have been used frequently, yet these methods are inadequate when used alone. We argue that the self-reporting methods of emotion diaries and…
Hum, Sandra; Carr, Sherilene M
Loneliness and adapting to an unfamiliar environment can increase emotional vulnerability in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) university students. According to Blaszczynski and Nower's pathways model of problem and pathological gambling, this emotional vulnerability could increase the risk of problem gambling. The current study examined whether loneliness was associated with problem gambling risk in CALD students relative to their Australian peers. Additionally, differences in coping strategies were examined to determine their buffering effect on the relationship. A total of 463 female and 165 male university students (aged 18-38) from Australian (38%), mixed Australian and CALD (23%) and CALD (28%) backgrounds responded to an online survey of problem gambling behaviour, loneliness, and coping strategies. The results supported the hypothesis that loneliness would be related to problem gambling in CALD students. There was no evidence of a moderating effect of coping strategies. Future research could test whether the introduction of programs designed to alleviate loneliness in culturally diverse university students reduces their risk of developing problem gambling.
Kirkhaug, Bente; Drugli, May Britt; Klockner, Christian A.; Morch, Willy-Tore
The present study examined the factor structure of the Teacher Involvement Questionnaire (Involve-T) by means of exploratory factor analysis and examined the association between children's socio-emotional and behavioural problems and teacher-reported parental involvement in school, using structural equation modelling. The study was conducted with…
Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ginzburg, Sofia; Ivanova, Masha; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bathiche, Marie; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Domuta, Anca; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio; Frigerio, Alessandra; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Liu, Xianchen; Leung, Patrick; Minaei, Asghar; Roussos, Alexandra; Simsek, Zeynep; Weintraub, Sheila; Weisz, John; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank
This study compared teachers' ratings of behavioral and emotional problems on the Teacher's Report Form for general population samples in 21 countries (N = 30,957). Correlations between internal consistency coefficients in different countries averaged 0.90. Effects of country on scale scores ranged from 3% to 13%. Gender effects ranged from less…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a transition period that involves physiological, psychological, and social changes. Emotional problems such as symptoms of anxiety and depression may develop due to these changes. Although many of these problems may not meet diagnostic thresholds, they may develop into more severe disorders and may impact on functioning. However, there are barriers that may make it difficult for adolescents to receive help from health professionals for such problems, one of which is the limited availability of formal psychological therapy. One way of increasing access to help for such problems is through self help technology (i.e. delivery of psychological help through information technology or paper based formats. Although there is a significant evidence base concerning self help in adults, the evidence base is much weaker in adolescents. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of self help technology for the treatment of emotional problems in adolescents by conducting a systematic review of randomized and quasi-experimental evidence. Methods Five major electronic databases were searched: Medline, PsycInfo, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and CINAHL. In addition, nine journals were handsearched and the reference lists of all studies were examined for any additional studies. Fourteen studies were identified. Effect sizes were calculated across 3 outcome measures: attitude towards self (e.g. self esteem; social cognition (e.g. self efficacy; and emotional symptoms (i.e. depression and anxiety symptoms. Results Meta analysis showed small, non-significant effect size for attitude towards self (ES = -0.14, 95% CI = -0.72 to 0.43, a medium, non-significant effect size for social cognition (ES = -0.49, 95% CI = -1.23 to 0.25 and a medium, non-significant effect size for emotional symptoms (ES = -0.47, 95% CI = -1.00 to 0.07. However, these findings must be considered preliminary, because of the small number of
Hastings, R P; Petalas, M A
There are few published research studies in which siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide self-reports about their own behavioural and emotional problems and their sibling relationships. Reliance on parent reports may lead to incomplete conclusions about the experiences of siblings themselves. Siblings 7-17 years and their mothers from 94 families of children with ASD were recruited. Mothers reported on family demographics, the behavioural and emotional problems of their child with ASD, and on their own symptoms of depression. Siblings reported on their relationship with their brother or sister with ASD, and siblings 11+ years of age also self-reported on their behavioural and emotional problems. Compared with normative British data, siblings reported very slightly elevated levels of behavioural and emotional problems. However, none of the mean differences were statistically significant and all group differences were associated with small or very small effect sizes - the largest being for peer problems (effect size = 0.31). Regression analysis was used to explore family systems relationships, with sibling self-reports predicted by the behaviour problems scores for the child with ASD and by maternal depression. Maternal depression did not emerge as a predictor of siblings' self-reported sibling relationships or their behavioural and emotional problems. Higher levels of behaviour problems in the child with ASD predicted decreased warmth/closeness and increased conflict in the sibling relationship. These data support the general findings of recent research in that there was little indication of clinically meaningful elevations in behavioural and emotional problems in siblings of children with ASD. Although further research replication is required, there was some indication that sibling relationships may be at risk where the child with ASD has significant behaviour problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Xu, Jianzhong; Du, Jianxia; Fan, Xitao
Emotion and emotion regulation are increasingly viewed as critical issues in online learning environments. Online collaborative environments in particular create novel challenges for emotion regulation. Few studies, however, have focused on a range of factors that may influence students' efforts to manage their emotion in online collaborative…
Reducing difficulties in social interactions and negative classroom climate at an early age may prevent escalation into severe problems that are harder to treat and save society from the associated costs and risks. Topper Training (Kanjertraining in Dutch) has been widely implemented in Dutch
Full Text Available In this article, deviant behavior is considered as a combination of different manifestations of personality, leading eventually to its social desaptation. It is shown that an effective method of preventing deviant behavior is psychological training. Group training activity helps to solve the problems associated with the development of various behavioral skills, to provide psychological support, and can be used as a means of psychological work with teenagers with behavioral problems. We discuss the basic points required to effectively create and conduct training programs in general, as well as the challenges and opportunities of designing trainings in order to develop emotional intelligence as a method of prevention of deviant behavior
Cowen, Alan S; Keltner, Dacher
Emotions are centered in subjective experiences that people represent, in part, with hundreds, if not thousands, of semantic terms. Claims about the distribution of reported emotional states and the boundaries between emotion categories-that is, the geometric organization of the semantic space of emotion-have sparked intense debate. Here we introduce a conceptual framework to analyze reported emotional states elicited by 2,185 short videos, examining the richest array of reported emotional experiences studied to date and the extent to which reported experiences of emotion are structured by discrete and dimensional geometries. Across self-report methods, we find that the videos reliably elicit 27 distinct varieties of reported emotional experience. Further analyses revealed that categorical labels such as amusement better capture reports of subjective experience than commonly measured affective dimensions (e.g., valence and arousal). Although reported emotional experiences are represented within a semantic space best captured by categorical labels, the boundaries between categories of emotion are fuzzy rather than discrete. By analyzing the distribution of reported emotional states we uncover gradients of emotion-from anxiety to fear to horror to disgust, calmness to aesthetic appreciation to awe, and others-that correspond to smooth variation in affective dimensions such as valence and dominance. Reported emotional states occupy a complex, high-dimensional categorical space. In addition, our library of videos and an interactive map of the emotional states they elicit (https://s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/emogifs/map.html) are made available to advance the science of emotion.
Caillaud, Sabine; Bonnot, Virginie; Ratiu, Eugenia; Krauth-Gruber, Silvia
This study explores the way groups cope with collective responsibility for ecological problems. The social representations approach was adopted, and the collective symbolic coping model was used as a frame of analysis, integrating collective emotions to enhance the understanding of coping processes. The original feature of this study is that the analysis is at group level. Seven focus groups were conducted with French students. An original use of focus groups was proposed: Discussions were structured to induce feelings of collective responsibility and enable observation of how groups cope with such feelings at various levels (social knowledge; social identities; group dynamics). Two analyses were conducted: Qualitative analysis of participants' use of various kinds of knowledge, social categories and the group dynamics, and lexicometric analysis to reveal how emotions varied during the different discussion phases. Results showed that groups' emotional states moved from negative to positive: They used specific social categories and resorted to shared stereotypes to cope with collective responsibility and maintain the integrity of their worldview. Only then did debate become possible again; it was anchored in the nature-culture dichotomy such that groups switched from group-based to system-based emotions. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Wang, Jiana; Liu, Li; Wu, Hui; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Lie
Most studies about informant agreements on adolescents' emotional and behavioral problems have been conducted in Western countries, but this subject has not been well researched in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of parent-adolescent agreement on adolescents' problems and its associated factors among school-age adolescents in China. This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2010. A questionnaire including the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Youth Self-Report (YSR), the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the characteristics of the child (age and gender), parents (parent-adolescent relationship and parental expectations) and family (family structure, negative life events) was distributed to our study population. A total of 2,199 Chinese adolescents (aged 11-18) from 15 public schools in Liaoning Province, who completed the questionnaire, became our final participants. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess parent-adolescent agreement, and linear regression analysis was used to explore the associated factors of parent-adolescent discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems. The parent-adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was high (mean r = 0.6). The scores of YSR were higher than those of CBCL. Factors that increased informant discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems were boys, older age, the experience of negative life events, low levels of cohesion and organization, and high levels of conflict in the family. A high level of parent-adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was found. Adolescents reported more problems than their parents did. Family environment is an important factor to be considered when interpreting informant discrepancies on the mental health of Chinese adolescents.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this survey is to compare the emotional and behavioral problems of children with only one parent versus those from two-parent families. We analyzed behavioral problems such as aggression, delinquency and socialization issues, as well as emotional problems such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.Methods: Using a multi-stage cluster sampling, 10 of the 20 geographic regions covered by Imam Khomeini Charity were selected. Using systematic random sampling, 460 families with children aged 4-18 years were selected. All children were evaluated using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL to determine behavioral and emotional problems. Logistic regression tests were conducted to measure the effects variables, including age, gender, number of parents in the family, psychiatric history of each child and history of parental psychiatric treatment, on the internalizing, externalizing and total CBCL scores. A cut-off score of 64 was used to convert raw scores.Results: No differences were observed in CBCL subscales between single-parent children vs. children of two-parent families.Conclusion: Regarding the two-parent families among the study population, the results could not be generalized. As these families have qualified for assistance, the father cannot manage the family because of his disability, such as physical or mental problems. This minimizes the effect of having a father in a two-parent family, rendering them similar to single-parent families. Thus, differences were not observed between the two types of families. Further studies are necessary to compare single-parent families with two-parent families among the community.
Kristensen, Liv Kondrup; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin
Observing science classroom activities presents an opportunity to observe the emotional aspect of interactions, and this chapter presents how this can be done and why. Drawing on ideas proposed by French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, emotions are theorized as publicly embodied enactments......, where differences in behavior between people shape emotional responses. Merleau-Ponty’s theorization of the body and feelings is connected to embodiment while examining central concepts such as consciousness and perception. Merleau-Ponty describes what he calls the emotional atmosphere and how it shapes...... the ways we experience events and activities. We use our interpretation of his understanding of emotions to examine an example of a group of year 8 science students who were engaged in a physics activity. Using the analytical framework of analyzing bodily stance by Goodwin, Cekaite, and Goodwin...
Full Text Available Background: Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social projections, which influence the quality of life. Thus, developing a common vision and a comprehensive approach to address children′s social, emotional, and behavioral health needs is an integral part of the child and adolescent′s overall health. Aim: To assess and compare the behavior and emotional difficulties among 15-year-olds and to correlate it with their dentition status based on gender. Study Settings and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 15-year-old schoolgoing children in six private schools in Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India. Materials and Methods: The behavior and emotional difficulties were assessed using self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The dentition status was recorded by the criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO in the Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form (1997. Statistical Analysis: Independent Student′s t-test was used for comparison among the variables. Correlation between scales of SDQ and dentition status was done using Karl Pearson′s correlation coefficient method. Results: Girls reported more emotional problems and good prosocial behavior and males had more conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and total difficulty problems. Total decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT and decayed component were significantly and positively correlated with total difficulty, emotional symptom, and conduct problems scale while missing component was correlated with the hyperactivity scale and filled component with prosocial behavior. Conclusion: DMFT and its components showed an association with all scales of SDQ except for peer problem scale. Thus, the oral health of children was significantly influenced by behavioral and emotional difficulties; so, changes in the mental health status will affect the oral health of children.
Srilatha, Adepu; Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, Madupu Padma; Kulkarni, Suhas; Reddy, Bandari Srikanth
Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social projections, which influence the quality of life. Thus, developing a common vision and a comprehensive approach to address children's social, emotional, and behavioral health needs is an integral part of the child and adolescent's overall health. To assess and compare the behavior and emotional difficulties among 15-year-olds and to correlate it with their dentition status based on gender. Study Settings and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 15-year-old schoolgoing children in six private schools in Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India. The behavior and emotional difficulties were assessed using self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The dentition status was recorded by the criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form (1997). Independent Student's t-test was used for comparison among the variables. Correlation between scales of SDQ and dentition status was done using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient method. Girls reported more emotional problems and good prosocial behavior and males had more conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and total difficulty problems. Total decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed component were significantly and positively correlated with total difficulty, emotional symptom, and conduct problems scale while missing component was correlated with the hyperactivity scale and filled component with prosocial behavior. DMFT and its components showed an association with all scales of SDQ except for peer problem scale. Thus, the oral health of children was significantly influenced by behavioral and emotional difficulties; so, changes in the mental health status will affect the oral health of children.
Loughry, M; Flouri, E
The objective of this study was to examine the behavioral and emotional problems of former unaccompanied refugee children who had repatriated to Vietnam from refugee centers in Hong Kong and South East Asia. The children were compared with a matched sample of children who had never left Vietnam. The participants consisted of 455 Vietnamese children aged between 10 and 22 years; 238 of the children had formerly resided in refugee camps without their parents. Data were collected using the Achenbach Youth Self-Report, the Cowen Perceived Self-Efficacy scale, a Social Support scale as well as an Exposure to Trauma scale. No significant difference was found between the two groups of children on the YSR Total Score. The former refugee children had significantly lower Externalizing scores and failed marginally to report significantly higher Internalizing scores than the local children. The study showed that the perceived self-efficacy, number of social supports and experience of social support did not differ between the two groups of children. Further analysis showed that a significant interaction between the immigration status of the children and the children's subjective perception of their current standard of living explained the differences in the YSR. The results suggest that the experience of living without parents in a refugee camp does not lead to increased behavioral and emotional problems in the immediate years after repatriation.
Hastings, Janna; Brass, Andy; Caine, Colin; Jay, Caroline; Stevens, Robert
We evaluate the application of the Emotion Ontology (EM) to the task of self-reporting of emotional experience in the context of audience response to academic presentations at the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO). Ontology evaluation is regarded as a difficult task. Types of ontology evaluation range from gauging adherence to some philosophical principles, following some engineering method, to assessing fitness for purpose. The Emotion Ontology (EM) represents emotions and all related affective phenomena, and should enable self-reporting or articulation of emotional states and responses; how do we know if this is the case? Here we use the EM 'in the wild' in order to evaluate the EM's ability to capture people's self-reported emotional responses to a situation through use of the vocabulary provided by the EM. To achieve this evaluation we developed a tool, EmOntoTag, in which audience members were able to capture their self-reported emotional responses to scientific presentations using the vocabulary offered by the EM. We furthermore asked participants using the tool to rate the appropriateness of an EM vocabulary term for capturing their self-assessed emotional response. Participants were also able to suggest improvements to the EM using a free-text feedback facility. Here, we present the data captured and analyse the EM's fitness for purpose in reporting emotional responses to conference talks. Based on our analysis of this data set, our primary finding is that the audience are able to articulate their emotional response to a talk via the EM, and reporting via the EM ontology is able to draw distinctions between the audience's response to a speaker and between the speakers (or talks) themselves. Thus we can conclude that the vocabulary provided at the leaves of the EM are fit for purpose in this setting. We additionally obtained interesting observations from the experiment as a whole, such as that the majority of emotions captured had
Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Martin, Meredith J.
This study examined specific forms of emotional reactivity to conflict and temperamental emotionality as explanatory mechanisms in pathways among interparental aggression and child psychological problems. Participants of the multimethod, longitudinal study included 201 two-year-old children and their mothers who had experienced elevated violence…
Averill-Roper, Gillian; Ricklidge, Julia J.
This study compared emotions, assessed during fair and unfair situations, between children (aged 8 to 11) with and without behaviour problems, controlling for SES, depression, anxiety, IQ and educational achievement in order to study the relationship between emotional responses and subclinical antisocial behaviours. Group allocation was determined…
Endendijk, Joyce J; De Bruijn, Anouk T C E; Van Bakel, Hedwig J A; Wijnen, Hennie A A; Pop, Victor J M; Van Baar, Anneloes L
The role of mother-infant interaction quality is studied in the relation between prenatal maternal emotional symptoms and child behavioral problems. Healthy pregnant, Dutch women (N = 96, M = 31.6, SD = 3.3) were allocated to the "exposed group" (n = 46), consisting of mothers with high levels of prenatal feelings of anxiety and depression, or the "low-exposed group" (n = 50), consisting of mothers with normal levels of depressive or anxious symptoms during pregnancy. When the children (49 girls, 47 boys) were 23 to 60 months of age (M = 39.0, SD = 9.6), parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (T.M. Achenbach & L.A. Rescorla, ), and mother-child interaction quality during a home visit was rated using the Emotional Availability Scales. There were no differences in mother-child interaction quality between the prenatally exposed and low-exposed groups. Girls exposed to high prenatal emotional symptoms showed more internalizing problems, if maternal interaction quality was less optimal. No significant effects were found for boys. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Resett, Santiago; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel
Few studies have examined differences in emotional problems and personality of traditional bullies and cyberbullies. The present study aimed to determine whether those engaged in cyberbullying differ in emotional problems, and personality from those engage in traditional bullying perpetration. An Argentinean sample of 898 high school students was recruited (56% female; mean age = 15.2 SD = 1.6). Adolescents completed measures of traditional bullying, cyberbullying, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and personality. A 6% were traditional bullies; 8%, cyberbullies; and 4% were involved in both forms; the remainders were non involved. Results indicated that cyberbullies showed less depression and anxiety than traditional bullies. Also, cyberbullies scored low in neuroticism and high in agreeableness compared to traditional bullies. The results suggest that cyberbullies are characterized by an emotional and personality profile different from traditional bullies. In the discussion we analyze the implications of these results. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ntontis, Evangelos; Hopkins, Nick
Social psychological research on activism typically focuses on individuals' social identifications. We complement such research through exploring how activists frame an issue as a social problem. Specifically, we explore anti-abortion activists' representation of abortion and the abortion debate's protagonists so as to recruit support for the anti-abortion cause. Using interview data obtained with UK-based anti-abortion activists (N = 15), we consider how activists characterized women having abortions, pro-abortion campaigners, and anti-abortion campaigners. In particular, we consider the varied ways in which emotion featured in the representation of these social actors. Emotion featured in different ways. Sometimes, it was depicted as constituting embodied testament to the nature of reality. Sometimes, it was depicted as blocking the rational appraisal of reality. Our analysis considers how such varied meanings of emotion shaped the characterization of abortion and the abortion debate's protagonists such that anti-abortion activists were construed as speaking for women and their interests. We discuss how our analysis of the framing of issues as social problems complements and extends social psychological analyses of activism. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Tong, Lian; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Onda, Yoko; Kawashima, Yuri; Yato, Yuko; Yamakawa, Noriko; Koeda, Tatsuya; Ishida, Hiraku; Terakawa, Shinako; Seki, Ayumi; Anme, Tokie
The present study examines gender differences in the correlations between intelligence and developmental problems as well as social competence in first graders. Ninety parent-child dyads participated in this study. The children comprised 7-year-olds recruited from the first grade of an elementary school. All the children were administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III), Parent-child Interaction Rating Scale (IRS), and the parent report version of Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The findings clarified that the processing speed of boys significantly correlated with their peer relationship. On the other hand, the emotional symptoms exhibited by girls had a more common association with their intellectual abilities. The correlations between parenting and intellectual abilities differed in boys and girls. Children's gender should be taken into account when assessing the diversity in their intellectual abilities and developmental problems. Moreover, parenting also influences the development of children in various ways.
Full Text Available This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children's emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728.
Operto, Francesca Felicia; Craig, Francesco; Peschechera, Antonia; Mazza, Roberta; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Margari, Lucia
Primary headache is a frequent and disabling disorder, common among children and adolescents, and it is a painful syndrome often accompanied by functional impairment and associated with emotional and behavior problems. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting stress and emotional/behavioral problems in adolescents affected by primary headache compared with healthy adolescents. The study population consisted of 35 adolescents and a control group of 23 healthy subjects. The assessment included the administration of clinical standardized scales such as Parent Stress Index-Short Form, Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Score Questionnaire, and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Headache group and control group did not differ in terms of parenting stress ( p = 0.29). On the contrary, headache group showed more internalizing problems ( p = 0.023), affective problems ( p = 0.01), anxious ( p = 0.001), and somatic complaints ( p headache group. The findings emphasize the need for expanded intervention in the clinical treatment of pediatric headache, a treatment that may also include the family members. Further research is needed.
Full Text Available Background: Street adolescents were psychosocial problem that increased in number each year and was worsened by their low-moral subculture-value that could cause them more vulnerable in having emotional and behavioral problems. This study aims to describe the characteristics, emotional and behavioral problems of the street adolescent in Bandung. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in October–December 2012. From 22 shelters in Bandung, two shelters (RPA GANK and Pesantren Kolong Nurul Hayat were selected and organized into 4 areas: Cihampelas, ‘Samsat’, Laswi Street and Kiaracondong. A hundred-seven street adolescents aged 11 to 16 years were participated in this study. They were divided into small groups and filled in the sociodemographic questionnaire and the Indonesian version of standardized Strength and Difficulty Questionnaires (SDQ. Only 100 questionnaires were filled in completely. Data were analyzed using frequency tabulation and bar chart Results: Sixty-five percent were boys, 53% were aged 11–13 years, and 53% were students, 76% related to more than one sibling, still lived with their families (81%, and had parents. Their parents had low educational background, had job, and implemented authoritative parenting pattern (41%. In becoming street adolescent, 63% were caused by their own motivation, 81% were children on street, and 55% had lived in the street more than 5 years. Approximately 27% of street adolescents were rated as abnormal on the total difficulty score. Conclusion: Street adolescent in Bandung still have emotional and behavioral problems, which mostly were boys, in the early adolescence stage, school student, had more than one sibling, permissive parenting pattern, and lived in the street for more than 5 years.
Ban, Jiyoon; Oh, Insoo
The current study examined the mediating effects of the teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and a child's emotional/behavioral problems. A total of 2070 student surveys from the panel of the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) were analyzed by path analysis. The key findings of this study are outlined below. Firstly, parental physical and emotional abuse and neglect had significant effects on children's problems. The direct effect of parental abuse on emotional/behavioral problems was higher than the direct effect of parental neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Secondly, the teacher relationship partially mediated the effects of the parental abuse/neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Thirdly, the peer relationship also partially mediated the effects of parental abuse/neglect on children's emotional/behavioral problems. The indirect effect of parental neglect via teacher relationships and peer relationships was stronger than the indirect effect of parental abuse. This study is significant in that it identified that parental abuse/neglect was mediated by the teacher and peer relationship, thereby suggesting an implication for effective intervention with children who have suffered abuse and neglect. In terms of the teacher and peer relationship, understanding the influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's problems was discussed, and the limitations and recommendations for future study were suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khafi, Tamar Y.; Yates, Tuppett M.; Sher-Censor, Efrat
Emotional Overinvolvement (EOI) in parents’ Five Minute Speech Samples (FMSS; Magaña-Amato, 1993) is thought to measure overconcern and enmeshment with one’s child. Although related to maladaptive outcomes in studies of adult children, FMSS-EOI evidences varied relations with behavior problems in studies with young children. These mixed findings may indicate that certain FMSS-EOI criteria reflect inappropriate and excessive involvement with adult children, but do not indicate maladaptive processes when parenting younger children. Thus, this study evaluated relations of each FMSS-EOI criterion with changes in child behavior problems from preschool to first grade in a community sample of 223 child-mother dyads (47.98% female; Mage_W1 = 49.08 months; 56.50% Hispanic/Latina). Maternal FMSS-EOI ratings were obtained at wave 1, and independent examiners rated child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems at wave 1 and two years later. Path analyses indicated that both the Self-Sacrifice/Overprotection (SSOP) and Statements of Attitude (SOAs) FMSS-EOI criteria predicted increased externalizing problems. In contrast, Excessive Detail and Exaggerated Praise were not related to child externalizing behavior problems, and Emotional Display was not evident in this sample. None of the FMSS-EOI criteria evidenced significant relations with internalizing behavior problems. Multigroup comparisons indicated that the effect of SOAs on externalizing behavior problems was significant for boys but not for girls, and there were no significant group differences by race/ethnicity. These findings point to the salience of SSOP and SOAs for understanding the developmental significance of EOI in early development. PMID:26147935
Miguel, Rosanna F.; Allen, Scott J.
The present study was designed to examine the measurement of the Emotionally Intelligent Leadership (EIL) construct and to provide evidence of validation for the multidimensional Emotionally Intelligence Leadership for Students: Inventory 2.0 (EILS:I 2.0). The EILS:I 2.0 is a self-report assessment of emotionally intelligent leadership in the…
Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim; Maes, Marlies; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Cavallo, Franco; Molcho, Michal
PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral
Reuben, Julia D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Brennan, Lauretta M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.
Objective This study focused on whether a brief family-based intervention for toddlers, the Family Check-Up (FCU), designed to address parent management skills and prevent early conduct problems, would have collateral effects on maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent child emotional problems. Method Parents with toddlers were recruited from the Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement Program based on the presence of socioeconomic, family, and child risk (N= 731). Families were randomly assigned to the FCU intervention or control group with yearly assessments beginning at child age 2. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale at child ages 2 and 3. Child internalizing problems were collected from primary caregivers, alternative caregivers, and teachers using the Child Behavior Checklist at ages 7.5 and 8.5. Results Structural equation models revealed that mothers in families randomly assigned to the FCU showed lower levels of depressive symptoms at child age 3, which in turn were related to lower levels of child depressed/withdrawal symptoms as reported by primary caregivers, alternative caregivers, and teacher at ages 7.5–8.5. Conclusions Findings suggest that a brief, preventive intervention improving maternal depressive symptoms can have enduring effects on child emotional problems that are generalizable across contexts. As there is a growing emphasis for the use of evidence-based and cost-efficient interventions that can be delivered in multiple delivery settings serving low-income families and their children, clinicians and researchers welcome evidence that interventions can promote change in multiple problem areas. The FCU appears to hold such promise. PMID:26302250
Kariuki, Symon M.; Abubakar Ali, Amina; Kombe, Martha; Kazungu, Michael; Odhiambo, Rachael; Stein, Alan; Newton, Charles R J C
BACKGROUND: Three-quarters of the burden of mental health problems occurs in low-and-middle-income countries, but few epidemiological studies of these problems in preschool children from sub-Saharan Africa have been published. Behavioural and emotional problems often start in early childhood, and
Smith, Rhiannon L
Although empathetic distress (i.e., taking on a friend's emotional distress as one's own) has been examined as a "cost of caring" especially common among girls, relations with adjustment remain untested. The current study tested associations of empathetic distress with friendship quality, depression, and anxiety. Adolescents (N = 300, ages 12-18) reported on their perceived experience of empathetic distress following a conversation with a friend about problems. The study also considered youths' emotional engagement in friends' positive life events, referred to as empathetic joy. Results indicated that girls reported greater empathetic distress and empathetic joy compared with boys. Findings also suggest that although empathetic distress may have positive implications for youths' friendship adjustment, this may come at the expense of emotional well-being. In contrast, empathetic joy was associated with greater positive friendship quality and fewer internalizing symptoms. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Besier, T; Hölling, H; Schlack, R; West, C; Goldbeck, L
To evaluate the impact of a family-oriented inpatient rehabilitation programme on behavioural and emotional problems in healthy siblings of chronically ill children and to assess the association between these problems and quality of life. A total of 259 healthy children (4-16 years, M = 8.6 years, SD = 3.3) with a chronically ill sibling were enrolled in the study. Parents filled in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, while the children answered a self-report quality of life instrument (LQ-KID) at the time of admission and discharge from the clinic and at a 6-month follow-up. Comparisons were performed with a matched control group from the German general population (n= 777). Significant behavioural or emotional symptoms were found in 30.5% of the healthy siblings, the relative risk of having elevated scores being 2.2 compared with the control group. Symptoms were inversely correlated with quality of life (r=-0.42). During the inpatient rehabilitation, symptoms decreased significantly to a normal level. Similarly, quality of life significantly improved, except in the dimension family relations. Family-oriented inpatient rehabilitation is a promising approach to improve the mental health of children with a chronically ill sibling.
Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina
The aim of this study was to test for gender differences in how negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the association between adverse life events and adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). The sample consisted of 202 boys and 227 girls (aged 11-15 years) from three state secondary schools in disadvantaged areas in one county in the South East of England. Control variables were age, ethnicity, special educational needs, exclusion history, family structure, family socio-economic disadvantage, and verbal cognitive ability. Adverse life events were measured with Tiet et al.'s (1998) Adverse Life Events Scale. For both genders, we assumed a pathway from adverse life events to emotional and behavioural problems via cognitive errors. We found no gender differences in life adversity, cognitive errors, total difficulties, peer problems, or hyperactivity. In both boys and girls, even after adjustment for controls, cognitive errors were related to total difficulties and emotional symptoms, and life adversity was related to total difficulties and conduct problems. The life adversity/conduct problems association was not explained by negative cognitive errors in either gender. However, we found gender differences in how adversity and cognitive errors produced hyperactivity and internalizing problems. In particular, life adversity was not related, after adjustment for controls, to hyperactivity in girls and to peer problems and emotional symptoms in boys. Cognitive errors fully mediated the effect of life adversity on hyperactivity in boys and on peer and emotional problems in girls.
It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial
Cabaj, Jason L; McDonald, Sheila W; Tough, Suzanne C
Mental disorders in childhood have a considerable health and societal impact but the associated negative consequences may be ameliorated through early identification of risk and protective factors that can guide health promoting and preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to inform health policy and practice through identification of demographic, familial and environmental factors associated with emotional or behavioural problems in middle childhood, and the predictors of resilience in the presence of identified risk factors. A cohort of 706 mothers followed from early pregnancy was surveyed at six to eight years post-partum by a mail-out questionnaire, which included questions on demographics, children's health, development, activities, media and technology, family, friends, community, school life, and mother's health. Although most children do well in middle childhood, of 450 respondents (64% response rate), 29.5% and 25.6% of children were found to have internalising and externalising behaviour problem scores in the lowest quintile on the NSCLY Child Behaviour Scales. Independent predictors for problem behaviours identified through multivariable logistic regression modelling included being male, demographic risk, maternal mental health risk, poor parenting interactions, and low parenting morale. Among children at high risk for behaviour problems, protective factors included high maternal and child self-esteem, good maternal emotional health, adequate social support, good academic performance, and adequate quality parenting time. These findings demonstrate that several individual and social resilience factors can counter the influence of early adversities on the likelihood of developing problem behaviours in middle childhood, thus informing enhanced public health interventions for this understudied life course phase.
Fischer, Agneta H.; Kret, Mariska E.; Broekens, Joost
Previous meta-analyses and reviews on gender differences in emotion recognition have shown a small to moderate female advantage. However, inconsistent evidence from recent studies has raised questions regarding the implications of different methodologies, stimuli, and samples. In the present research based on a community sample of more than 5000 participants, we tested the emotional sensitivity hypothesis, stating that women are more sensitive to perceive subtle, i.e. low intense or ambiguous...
Leerkes, Esther M.; Blankson, A. Nayena; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart
Using a sample of 263 mother-child dyads, we examined the extent to which maternal emotional and cognitive support during a joint problem solving task when children were 3-years-old predicted children’s academic skills one year later independent of each other, the quality of the home learning environment, and maternal emotional responsiveness. When all parenting measures were examined simultaneously, only maternal emotional support during problem solving and the quality of the home learning environment predicted unique variation in gains in pre-academic skills from age 3 to age 4. The positive effect of emotional support during problem solving was especially apparent for children whose pre-academic skills were low at age 3. These findings are discussed in light of the changing demands placed on young children and their parents as they prepare for entry to the formal school system. PMID:22121336
Graziano, Paulo A; Hart, Katie
The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; Mage=5.16years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. During the summer between preschool and kindergarten, children were randomized to receive three newly developed intervention packages. The first and most cost effective intervention package was an 8-week School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP). Families randomized into the second and third intervention packages received not only the weekly SRPP, but children also attended two different versions of an intensive kindergarten summer readiness class (M-F, 8a.m.-5p.m.) that was part of an 8-week summer treatment program for pre-kindergarteners (STP-PreK). One version included the standard behavioral modification system and academic curriculum (STP-PreK) while the other additionally contained social-emotional and self-regulation training (STP-PreK Enhanced). Baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up data were collected on children's school readiness outcomes including parent, teacher, and objective assessment measures. Analyses using linear mixed models indicated that children's behavioral functioning significantly improved across all groups in a similar magnitude. Children in the STP-PreK Enhanced group, however, experienced greater growth across time in academic achievement, emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and executive functioning compared to children in the other groups. These findings suggest that while parent training is sufficient to address children's behavioral difficulties, an intensive summer program that goes beyond behavioral modification and academic preparation by targeting socio-emotional and self-regulation skills can have incremental benefits across multiple aspects of school readiness
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbances are increasingly recognized as a common problem for children and adolescents with chronic pain conditions, but little is known about the prevalence, type, and impact of sleep problems in pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs. The objectives of the current study were two-fold: 1 to describe the pattern of sleep disturbances reported in a large sample of children and adolescents with FGIDs; and, 2 to explore the impact of sleep by examining the inter-relationships between sleep disturbance, physical symptoms, emotional problems, and functional disability in this population. Methods Over a 3-year period, 283 children aged 8–17 years who were diagnosed with an FGID and a primary caretaker independently completed questionnaires regarding sleep, emotional functioning, physical symptoms, and functional disability during an initial evaluation for chronic abdominal pain at a pediatric tertiary care center. A verbal review of systems also was collected at that time. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the pattern of sleep disturbances reported, while structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to test theorized meditational relationships between sleep and functional disability through physical and emotional symptoms. Results Clinically significant elevations in sleep problems were found in 45% of the sample, with difficulties related to sleep onset and maintenance being most common. No difference was seen by specific FGID or by sex, although adolescents were more likely to have sleep onset issues than younger children. Sleep problems were positively associated with functional disability and physical symptoms fully mediated this relationship. Emotional symptoms, while associated with sleep problems, evidenced no direct link to functional disability. Conclusions Sleep problems are common in pediatric FGIDs and are associated with functional disability through their impact on physical
Tong, Lian; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Koeda, Tatsuya; Anme, Tokie
Previous research has established links between corporal punishment and children's developmental problems, but few studies have investigated the moderating effect of positive parenting between corporal punishment and children's developmental difficulties in detail. This study investigated the buffering effect of parental engagement on the association between corporal punishment and children's emotional/behavioral problems. The main caregivers completed the Evaluation of Environmental Stimulation Scale (EES), which is an evaluation of daily parenting behaviors, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which evaluates children's developmental problems. Corporal punishment was associated with worse emotional and behavioral problems in children, whereas parental engagement in games or sports was associated with fewer emotional symptoms. Similarly, parental engagement in homework or housework significantly moderated the association between corporal punishment and children's behavioral problems. Parental engagement positively moderated the association between parental corporal punishment and children's developmental difficulties. This association varied with child gender. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Postpartum depression is one of most important health problems in women. This study was performed with the purpose of comparing the frequency of postpartum depression in pregnant women with emotion and problem-focused coping strategies. Methods: This study was conducted as a prospective cohort study on 200 pregnant women with stress (low and high levels. The samples were pregnant women referred to all health-treatment, centers of Ardabil, which were selected using a multi-stage sampling method; and according to coping strategy, they were divided into two groups: emotion-focused and problem-focused. Low-risk pregnant women completed questionnaires about demographic characteristics, perceived stress, and Billings and Moos coping strategies in the 38th to 42th week of their pregnancy, and completed the Edinburgh depression scale in the 3th to 4th weeks after childbirth. Data were analyzed using chi 2 and t tests. p<0.05 considered significant.Results: In this study, 170 participant women (85% used emotion-focused strategy and 30 women (15% used problem-focused strategy. Frequency of postpartum depression was 6.7% in the problem-focused group and 8.2% in the emotion-focused group. There was no significant difference in the frequency of postpartum depression between women with the problem- and emotion-focused strategies. Relative risk for postpartum depression was 1.2 times more among the women used emotion-focused strategy than women used problem-focused strategy (p<0.05.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, there was no significant relationship between postpartum depression and the two emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies. This can be due to high influence of postpartum specific endocrine factors in the etiology of this type of depression compared to other depressions.
Modecki, Kathryn L; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Guerra, Nancy
Research on executive control during the teenage years points to shortfalls in emotion regulation, coping, and decision making as three linked capabilities associated with youth's externalizing behavior problems. Evidence gleaned from a detailed review of the literature makes clear that improvement of all three capabilities is critical to help young people better navigate challenges and prevent or reduce externalizing and related problems. Moreover, interventions can successfully improve these three capabilities and have been found to produce behavioral improvements with real-world significance. Examples of how successful interventions remediate more than one of these capabilities are provided. Future directions in research and practice are also proposed to move the field toward the development of more comprehensive programs for adolescents to foster their integration. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Navarrete, C David; McDonald, Melissa M; Mott, Michael L; Asher, Benjamin
Experimentally investigating the relationship between moral judgment and action is difficult when the action of interest entails harming others. We adopt a new approach to this problem by placing subjects in an immersive, virtual reality environment that simulates the classic "trolley problem." In this moral dilemma, the majority of research participants behaved as "moral utilitarians," either (a) acting to cause the death of one individual in order to save the lives of five others, or (b) abstaining from action, when that action would have caused five deaths versus one. Confirming the emotional distinction between moral actions and omissions, autonomic arousal was greater when the utilitarian outcome required action, and increased arousal was associated with a decreased likelihood of utilitarian-biased behavior. This pattern of results held across individuals of different gender, age, and race. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Sanders, Matthew R
Children with developmental disabilities are at substantially greater risk of developing emotional and behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. While the quality of parenting that children receive has a major effect on their development, empirically supported parenting programs reach relatively few parents. A recent trend in parenting intervention research has been the adoption of a public health approach to improve the quality of parenting at a population level. This has involved delivering parenting interventions on a large scale and in a cost-effective manner. Such trials have been demonstrated to reduce negative parenting practices, prevent child maltreatment, and reduce child behavioural and emotional problems. However, these trials have been restricted to parents of children who are developing typically. This paper explores the rational for the extension of a population health approach to parenting interventions for children with developmental disabilities. It is argued that a population-based implementation and evaluation trial of an empirically supported system of interventions is needed to determine whether this approach is viable and can have a positive impact on parents and their children in a disability context. The Stepping Stones Triple P--Positive Parenting Program is presented as an example of a parenting intervention that satisfies the requirements for such a trial. Tasks and challenges of such a trial are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peter Vincent Livesey
Full Text Available As projects grow in size and complexity the sizes of teams needed to manage them also increases. This places greater emphasis on the need for the project manager to develop people management skills, commonly called soft skills, of which emotional intelligence (EI has been recognised as an important component. The objective of this research was to investigate the relevance of the Goleman-Boyatzis model of EI in dealing with the problems in large projects identified via a literature review. To achieve this end, a Delphi study using project managers who had been involved in the management of projects in excess of $500 million was used. The responses from the Delphi panel were analysed and the results showed that the competencies contained in the Goleman-Boyatzis model had a relevance of 95% or greater to the problems presented to the panel. A ranking of the various competencies contained within the model was also developed, some competencies being found to be more important than others. By confirming the importance of emotional intelligence, as described by the model, this research adds to the understanding of the necessary skills needed by a project manager to successfully manage large projects.
Raval, Vaishali V.; Martini, Tanya S.; Raval, Pratiksha H.
Although cross-cultural research concerning children's emotions is growing, few studies have examined emotion dysregulation in culturally diverse populations. This study compared 6- to 8-year-old children's reported methods of expressing and controlling anger, sadness, and physical pain, and their justifications for doing so across four groups in…
Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael
En emotion er en evaluerende respons på en betydningsfuld hændelse, som har affektiv valens og motiverer organismen i forhold til objektverdenen (omverden). Emotioner fører til affekt: til smerte (negativ) eller glæde (positiv affekt). Både positive og negative emotioner påvirker organismens...
Carter Alice S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of social-emotional and behavioral problems is estimated to be 8 to 9% among preschool children. Effective early detection tools are needed to promote the provision of adequate care at an early stage. The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA was developed for this purpose. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the BITSEA to enhance social-emotional and behavioral health of preschool children. Methods and Design A cluster randomized controlled trial is set up in youth health care centers in the larger Rotterdam area in the Netherlands, to evaluate the BITSEA. The 31 youth health care centers are randomly allocated to either the control group or the intervention group. The intervention group uses the scores on the BITSEA and cut-off points to evaluate a child's social-emotional and behavioral health and to decide whether or not the child should be referred. The control group provides care as usual, which involves administering a questionnaire that structures the conversation between child health professionals and parents. At a one year follow-up measurement the social-emotional and behavioral health of all children included in the study population will be evaluated. Discussion It is hypothesized that better results will be found, in terms of social-emotional and behavioral health in the intervention group, compared to the control group, due to more adequate early detection, referral and more appropriate and timely care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials NTR2035
Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra; Moulton, Vanessa
Previous research shows that, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD have worse socio-emotional outcomes and more experience of socio-economic disadvantage. In this study, we explored if and how the increased emotional and behavioural difficulties faced by children with ADHD may be accounted for by their more disadvantaged socio-economic circumstances. Our study, using data from 180 children (149 boys) with ADHD from the Millennium Cohort Study, had two aims. First, to examine the role of socio-economic disadvantage in the trajectories of emotional and conduct problems in children with ADHD at ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. Second, to explore the roles of the home environment (household chaos) and parenting (quality of emotional support, quality of the parent-child relationship and harsh parental discipline) in mediating any associations between socio-economic disadvantage and child emotional and conduct problems. Using growth curve models, we found that socio-economic disadvantage was associated with emotional and conduct problems but neither the home environment nor parenting attenuated this association. Lower quality of the parent-child relationship and harsher discipline were associated with more conduct problems. It appears that socio-economic disadvantage and parenting contribute independently to the prediction of comorbid psychopathology in children with ADHD.
Peltier, Corey; Vannest, Kimberly J.
The current study examines the effects of schema instruction on the problem-solving performance of four second-grade students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The existence of a functional relationship between the schema instruction intervention and problem-solving accuracy in mathematics is examined through a single case experiment using…
Peltier, Corey; Vannest, Kimberly J.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of schema instruction on the mathematical problem solving of students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD). The participants were two fourth-grade students identified with EBD. The intervention package consisted of schema instruction, strategy instruction on problem-solving heuristics…
Ozkan, Hurside Kubra; Aksoy, Ayse Belgin
Purpose: The present study aims to investigate maternal emotion socialization, children's self-perception, and social problem-solving skills. In addition, this study describes the association between the levels of children's self-perception and social problem-solving skills. Research Methods: This is a quantitative study adopting a relational…
Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Yeung, Jerf W K; Low, Andrew Y T; Lo, Herman H M; Tam, Cherry H L
The study investigated the relationship among physical abuse, positive psychological factors including emotional competence and social problem-solving, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China. The possible moderating effects of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the association between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation were also studied. A cross-sectional survey employing convenience sampling was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were collected from 527 adolescents with mean age of 14 years from the schools in Shanghai. Results showed that physical abuse was significantly and positively related to suicidal ideation in both male and female adolescents. Emotional competence was not found to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation, but rational problem-solving, a sub-scale of social problem-solving, was shown to be significantly and negatively associated with suicidal ideation for males, but not for females. However, emotional competence and rational problem-solving were shown to be a significant and a marginally significant moderator in the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation in females respectively, but not in males. High rational problem-solving buffered the negative impact of physical abuse on suicidal ideation for females. Interestingly, females with higher empathy and who reported being physically abused by their parents have higher suicidal ideation. Findings are discussed and implications are stated. It is suggested to change the attitudes of parents on the concept of physical abuse, guide them on appropriate attitudes, knowledge and skills in parenting, and enhance adolescents' skills in rational problem-solving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Harmelen, A.-L.; Elzinga, B.M.; Kievit, R.A.; Spinhoven, P.
Background: During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., ‘‘you are worthless’’). These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought
Porter, Sam; Holmes, Valerie; McLaughlin, Katrina; Lynn, Fiona; Cardwell, Chris; Braiden, Hannah-Jane; Doran, Jackie; Rogan, Sheelagh
This article is a report of a trial protocol to determine if improvizational music therapy leads to clinically significant improvement in communication and interaction skills for young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural problems. Music therapy is often considered an effective intervention for young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural difficulties. However, this assumption lacks empirical evidence. Music in mind is a multi-centred single-blind randomized controlled trial involving 200 young people (aged 8-16 years) and their parents. Eligible participants will have a working diagnosis within the ambit of international classification of disease 10 mental and behavioural disorders and will be recruited over 15 months from six centres within the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services of a large health and social care trust in Northern Ireland. Participants will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive standard care alone or standard care plus 12 weekly music therapy sessions delivered by the Northern Ireland Music Therapy Trust. Baseline data will be collected from young people and their parents using standardized outcome measures for communicative and interaction skills (primary endpoint), self-esteem, social functioning, depression and family functioning. Follow-up data will be collected 1 and 13 weeks after the final music therapy session. A cost-effectiveness analysis will also be carried out. This study will be the largest trial to date examining the effect of music therapy on young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural difficulties and will provide empirical evidence for the use of music therapy among this population. Trial registration. This study is registered in the ISRCTN Register, ISRCTN96352204. Ethical approval was gained in October 2010. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Early temperamental characteristics may influence children's developmental pathways and predict future psychopathology. However, the environmental context may also shape or interact with infant temperament and indirectly contribute to increased vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study is to explore the long-term contribution of temperamental traits at twelve months of age to the presence of emotional and behavioral problems later in childhood, and whether this association varies with the child's sex, parental separation, family socioeconomic status and maternal depression.1184 mother-child pairs from the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study based in France (2003-2011, were followed from 24-28 weeks of pregnancy to the child's fifth birthday. Infant temperament at 12 months was assessed with the Emotionality Activity and Sociability (EAS questionnaire and behavior at 5.5 years was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ.Emotional temperament in infancy predicts children's overall behavioral scores (β = 1.16, p<0.001, emotional difficulties (β = 0.30, p<0.001, conduct problems (β = 0.51, p<0.001 and symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention (β = 0.31, p = 0.01 at 5.5 years. Infants' active temperament predicts later conduct problems (β = 0.30, p = 0.02, while shyness predicts later emotional problems (β = 0.22, p = 0.04. The association between the child's temperament in infancy and later behavior did not vary with children's own or family characteristics.An emotional temperament in infancy is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties at the age of 5.5 years. Children who show high emotionality early on may require early prevention and intervention efforts to divert possible adverse developmental pathways.
Fischer, A.H.; Kret, M.E.; Broekens, J.
Previous meta-analyses and reviews on gender differences in emotion recognition have shown a small to moderate female advantage. However, inconsistent evidence from recent studies has raised questions regarding the implications of different methodologies, stimuli, and samples. In the present
Quesada, Andrea A; Tristão, Rosana M; Pratesi, Riccardo; Wolf, Oliver T
The prevalence of preterm birth (PTB) is high worldwide, especially in developing countries like Brazil. PTB is marked by a stressful environment in intra- as well as extrauterine life, which can affect neurodevelopment and hormonal and physiological systems and lead to long-term negative outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about PTB and related outcomes later on in childhood. Thus, the goals of the current study were threefold: (1) comparing cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) profiles, including cortisol awakening response (CAR), between preterm and full-term children; (2) evaluating whether preterm children are more responsive to acute stress and (3) assessing their memory skills and emotional and behavioral profiles. Basal cortisol and sAA profiles, including CAR of 30 preterm children, aged 6 to 10 years, were evaluated. Further, we assessed memory functions using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and we screened behavior/emotion using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results of preterm children were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. One week later, participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor [Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)], in which cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline, 1, 10 and 25 min after stressor exposure. Preterm children had higher cortisol concentrations at awakening, a flattened CAR and an exaggerated response to TSST-C compared to full-term children. These alterations were more pronounced in girls. In addition, preterm children were characterized by more emotional problems and poorer memory performance. Our findings illustrate the long-lasting and in part sex-dependent effects of PTB on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, internalizing behavior and memory. The findings are in line with the idea that early adversity alters the set-point of the HPA axis, thereby creating a more vulnerable phenotype.
Jensen, Maria Therese; Rundmo, Torbjørn
The aim of the study was to examine the associations among work-family conflict (WFC), emotional exhaustion, musculoskeletal (MS) pain, and gastrointestinal problems on a sample of business travelers (n = 2,093). An additional aim was to examine differences in the mentioned relationships among three traveler groups: commuters, national travelers, and international travelers. The study was conducted in a large Norwegian oil and gas company, and the company's business travel database was utilized to examine business travel. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed significant relations between WFC and emotional exhaustion and between emotional exhaustion and health problems. Contrary to the expectations, no direct association was found between WFC and health problems. However, we found that emotional exhaustion mediated the relation between WFC and health outcomes. The results from multi-group analysis revealed that associations among WFC, emotional exhaustion, and health-outcomes showed a similar pattern for commuters, national travelers, and international travelers. However, the association between emotional exhaustion and MS pain proved to be significantly stronger for the commuter group compared to the national and international travel groups. Practical implications and the consequences of these findings for future research are discussed. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert
Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…
Layte, Richard; McCrory, Cathal
Chronic illness in childhood is associated with worse educational outcomes. The association is usually explained via lowered cognitive development, decreased readiness to learn and school absence. However, this paper examines whether worse psychological adjustment may also play a role. We use data from the Growing Up in Ireland study, a cohort study, which collected data on 8,568 nine-year-old children through the Irish national school system using a two-stage sampling method. Maximum likelihood path analytic models are used to assess the direct effect of child chronic illness on reading and maths test scores and the mediating role of emotional and behavioural problems. In unadjusted analyses, children with a mental and behavioural condition scored 14.5 % points less on reading tests and 16.9 % points less on maths tests than their healthy peers. Children with non-mental and behavioural conditions scored 3 % points less on both tests, a significant difference. Mental and behavioural (OR, 9.58) and other chronic conditions (OR, 1.61) were significantly more likely to have 'high' levels of difficulties on the SDQ. Path analysis models showed that the association between chronic illness and educational test scores was completely mediated by emotional and behavioural problems controlling for school absence and bullying by peers. Child and adolescent chronic illness can have significant effects on educational development and a long-lasting impact on future life-chances. The psychological adjustment of the child is important in mediating the effect of chronic illness on educational outcomes. Interventions should target this developmental pathway.
Fan, Fang; Su, Linyan; Gill, Mary Kay; Birmaher, Boris
To examine the behavioral and emotional problems and their correlates in left-behindchildren (LBC) in the Hunan Province of China. A sample of 1,274 schoolchildren (48.7% girls; 12.4 +/- 2.2 years old) completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and their current caregivers completed questionnaires about caregiver/bio-parent's demographics and teachers' involvement with the family. There were 629 (49%) children with a history of being left behind, of which 486 were currently cared for by a relative (RLC) and 41 by a non-relative (NRC). As much as 102 had a past history of being left behind, but were currently living with one or more biological parents at the time of the survey (PLB). A total of 645 (51%) children had no history of being left behind and were included as controls. LBC had significantly more psychopathology and less pro-social behaviors than the controls. These differences, with the exception of more hyperactivity and less pro-social behaviors, disappeared after adjusting for age, education and socioeconomic status of the children, parents/caregivers, and the involvement of the teachers. The psychopathology of LBC was significantly inversely correlated with these variables. Long duration and being left behind at a younger age were significantly associated with more psychopathology. Overall, NRC showed more psychopathology, followed by PLB and then RLC. However, with the exception of pro-social behaviors, after adjusting for demographic variables and duration of being left behind, all differences disappeared. LBC are at risk to develop emotional/behavior problems, particularly if they are left behind early in life, for longer periods, in the care of young caregivers or nonrelatives with poor education and low socioeconomic status, and with less teacher support. Strategies to prevent the development of psychopathology and its amelioration, and governmental policies to decrease the rates of LBC are warranted.
Maymon, Rebecca; Hall, Nathan C; Goetz, Thomas; Chiarella, Andrew; Rahimi, Sonia
As technology becomes increasingly integrated with education, research on the relationships between students' computing-related emotions and motivation following technological difficulties is critical to improving learning experiences. Following from Weiner's (2010) attribution theory of achievement motivation, the present research examined relationships between causal attributions and emotions concerning academic computing difficulties in two studies. Study samples consisted of North American university students enrolled in both traditional and online universities (total N = 559) who responded to either hypothetical scenarios or experimental manipulations involving technological challenges experienced in academic settings. Findings from Study 1 showed stable and external attributions to be emotionally maladaptive (more helplessness, boredom, guilt), particularly in response to unexpected computing problems. Additionally, Study 2 found stable attributions for unexpected problems to predict more anxiety for traditional students, with both external and personally controllable attributions for minor problems proving emotionally beneficial for students in online degree programs (more hope, less anxiety). Overall, hypothesized negative effects of stable attributions were observed across both studies, with mixed results for personally controllable attributions and unanticipated emotional benefits of external attributions for academic computing problems warranting further study.
Schoorl, Jantiene; Van Rijn, Sophie; De Wied, Minet; Van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Swaab, Hanna
It is often reported that children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) are under-aroused. However, the evidence is mixed, with some children with ODD/CD displaying high arousal. This has led to the hypothesis that different profiles of arousal dysfunction may exist within children with ODD/CD. This knowledge could explain variability within children with ODD/CD, both in terms of specific types of aggression as well as comorbid symptoms (e.g., other emotional/behavioral problems). We measured heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) during rest and stress, and obtained parent and teacher reports of aggression, anxiety, attention problems and autism traits in a sample of 66 ODD/CD and 36 non-clinical boys (aged 8-12 years). The ODD/CD group scored significantly higher on aggression, anxiety, attention problems and autism traits than the controls; boys with ODD/CD also had higher resting HRs than controls, but HR stress, HRV and SCL did not differ. Hierarchical regressions showed different physiological profiles in subgroups of boys with ODD/CD based on their type of aggression; a pattern of high baseline HR and SCL, but low stress HRV was related to reactive aggression, whereas the opposite physiological pattern (low HR, low stress SCL, high stress HRV) was related to proactive aggression. Furthermore, high stress SCL was related to anxiety symptoms, whereas low stress SCL was related to attention problems. These findings are important because they indicate heterogeneity within boys with ODD/CD and highlight the importance of using physiology to differentiate boys with different ODD/CD subtypes.
Demirci, Esra; Erdogan, Ayten
The objectives of this study were to evaluate both face and emotion recognition, to detect differences among attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subgroups, to identify effects of the gender and to assess the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine treatment on both face and emotion recognition in patients with ADHD. The study sample consisted of 41 male, 29 female patients, 8-15 years of age, who were diagnosed as having combined type ADHD (N = 26), hyperactive/impulsive type ADHD (N = 21) or inattentive type ADHD (N = 23) but had not previously used any medication for ADHD and 35 male, 25 female healthy individuals. Long-acting methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) was prescribed to 38 patients, whereas atomoxetine was prescribed to 32 patients. The reading the mind in the eyes test (RMET) and Benton face recognition test (BFRT) were applied to all participants before and after treatment. The patients with ADHD had a significantly lower number of correct answers in child and adolescent RMET and in BFRT than the healthy controls. Among the ADHD subtypes, the hyperactive/impulsive subtype had a lower number of correct answers in the RMET than the inattentive subtypes, and the hyperactive/impulsive subtype had a lower number of correct answers in short and long form of BFRT than the combined and inattentive subtypes. Male and female patients with ADHD did not differ significantly with respect to the number of correct answers on the RMET and BFRT. The patients showed significant improvement in RMET and BFRT after treatment with OROS-MPH or atomoxetine. Patients with ADHD have difficulties in face recognition as well as emotion recognition. Both OROS-MPH and atomoxetine affect emotion recognition. However, further studies on the face and emotion recognition are needed in ADHD.
The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee conducted operational research in Bangladesh to examine postpartum health problems. Researchers conducted focus groups, indepth interviews, and observation. More than 40% of the postpartum women had a delivery-related health problem by 2 weeks after delivery. 52% had signs or symptoms of anemia. Body needs after pregnancy, lactation, and blood loss during delivery exacerbate the nutritional anemia common to Bangladeshi women. 17% of the postpartum women had signs of infections. More than 50% had severe malnutrition, worsened by food taboos during the postpartum period. 60% of infant deaths occur in the neonatal period. The mortality risk is elevated in low birth weight (LBW) infants. In this study, more than 50% of the newborns were LBW infants. Many Bangladeshi mothers discard the colostrum and begin breast feeding several days after delivery. 11% of the postpartum women had breast problem (e.g., cracked nipples). Women believed that susceptibility to evil spirits accounted for their being more vulnerable to health problems during the postpartum. They feared leaving the household. These findings show a need for home visits to provide valuable postpartum care.
Tan, Cin Cin; Ruhl, Holly; Chow, Chong Man; Ellis, Lillian
The current study examined the role of food preoccupation as a potential mediator of the associations between parental feeding behaviors during childhood (i.e., restriction for weight, restriction for health, emotion regulation) and emotional eating in adulthood. Participants (N = 97, Mage = 20.3 years) recalled their parents' feeding behaviors during early and middle childhood and reported on current experiences of food preoccupation and emotional eating. Findings revealed that recalled parental feeding behaviors (restriction for weight, restriction for health, emotion regulation) and food preoccupation were positively associated with later emotional eating (correlations ranged from 0.21 to 0.55). In addition, recalled restriction for weight and emotion regulation feeding were positively associated with food preoccupation, r = 0.23 and 0.38, respectively. Further, food preoccupation mediated the association between emotion regulation feeding and later emotional eating (CI95% = 0.10 to 0.44). These findings indicate that parental feeding practices in childhood are related to food preoccupation, and that food preoccupation mediates the association between emotion regulation feeding in childhood and emotional eating in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Groot, K. (Kristel); J.W. van Strien (Jan)
textabstractAlthough not used as a diagnostic criterion, impaired emotion regulation is frequently observed in autism. The present study examined self-reported use of emotion regulation strategies in individuals scoring low or high on autistic traits. In addition, the late positive potential, which
Joseph, Dana L.; Newman, Daniel A.
A major stumbling block for emotional intelligence (EI) research has been the lack of adequate evidence for discriminant validity. In a sample of 280 dyads, self- and peer-reports of EI and Big Five personality traits were used to confirm an a priori four-factor model for the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) and a five-factor…
Kaplan, Robin L; Levine, Linda J; Lench, Heather C; Safer, Martin A
Memory for feelings is subject to fading and bias over time. In 2 studies, the authors examined whether the magnitude and direction of bias depend on the type of feeling being recalled: emotion or mood. A few days after the U.S. Presidential elections in 2008 and 2012, participants reported how they felt about the election outcome (emotion) and how they felt in general (mood). A month after the elections, participants recalled their feelings. The intensity of past emotion was recalled more accurately than the intensity of past mood. Participants underestimated the intensity of emotion but overestimated the intensity of mood. Participants' appraisals of the importance of the election, which diminished over time, contributed to underestimating the intensity of emotion. In contrast, participants' strong emotional response to the election contributed to overestimating the intensity of mood. These opposing biases have important implications for decision making and clinical assessment. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Bodin, Madelen; Winberg, Mikael
Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task with many degrees of freedom. Feelings corresponding to control and concentration, i.e., emotions that are expected to trigger students’ intrinsic motivation, were also important in predicting performance. Unexpectedly, intrinsic motivation, as indicated by enjoyment and interest, together with students’ personal interest and utility value beliefs did not predict performance. This indicates that although a certain degree of enjoyment is probably necessary, motivated behavior is rather regulated by integration and identification of expertlike beliefs about learning and are more strongly associated with concentration and control during learning and, ultimately, with high performance. The results suggest that the development of students’ epistemological beliefs is important for students’ ability to learn from realistic problem-solving situations with many degrees of freedom in physics education.
Full Text Available Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task with many degrees of freedom. Feelings corresponding to control and concentration, i.e., emotions that are expected to trigger students’ intrinsic motivation, were also important in predicting performance. Unexpectedly, intrinsic motivation, as indicated by enjoyment and interest, together with students’ personal interest and utility value beliefs did not predict performance. This indicates that although a certain degree of enjoyment is probably necessary, motivated behavior is rather regulated by integration and identification of expertlike beliefs about learning and are more strongly associated with concentration and control during learning and, ultimately, with high performance. The results suggest that the development of students’ epistemological beliefs is important for students’ ability to learn from realistic problem-solving situations with many degrees of freedom in physics education.
Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Panourgia, Constantina
Previous studies have established the role of various measures of cognitive functioning in dampening the association between adverse life events ('life stress') and adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems. However, it is not yet clear if general cognitive ability ('intelligence') is a protective factor. In this study of 1,175 10- to 19-year-olds in five secondary schools in England, we explored this issue. We found that even after controlling for sex, age, family poverty, and special educational needs, the association of life stress with emotional, hyperactivity, and conduct problems was significant. General cognitive ability moderated the association between life stress and conduct problems; among adolescents with higher than average general cognitive ability, the association between life stress and conduct problems was non-significant. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Newland, Rebecca P.; Crnic, Keith A.
The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behaviour and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n=96) or without (n=126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behaviour problems. Maternal negative affective behaviour, child…
Swank, Jacqueline M.; Shin, Sang Min
This research study focused on the use of a garden group counseling intervention to address the self-esteem of children with emotional and behavioral problems. The researchers found higher self-esteem among participants (N = 31) following the gardening group. Additionally, participants discussed feeling calm and happy and learning to working…
Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Charman, Tony; Sarmadi, Zahra
We investigated the longitudinal relationship between socio-economic disadvantage (SED) and trajectories of emotional and conduct problems among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; ASD + ADHD) or not (ASD-DHD). The sample was 209 children with ASD who took part in the UK's…
Thuen, Elin; Bru, Edvin
Previous cross-sectional based research suggests that students' perceptions of the learning environment are associated with emotional and behavioural problems (EBP). However, it is not clear to what extent the associations identified are merely reflections of individual student characteristics. The present study explored this issue by utilizing a…
Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin
This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed…
Lee, Ji-yeon; Wesbecher, Kristen; Lee, Mihwa; Lee, Jeeyon
The purpose of this study was to examine the mediational effects of dysfunctional beliefs and difficulties in emotional regulation on children's perception of interparental conflict and subsequent internalizing and externalizing problems. The participants in this study were 335 fifth grade elementary school students in Korea. We hypothesized that…
Ford, Julian D.; Grasso, Damion J.; Levine, Joan; Tennen, Howard
This pilot randomized clinical trial tested an emotion regulation enhancement to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with 29 college student problem drinkers with histories of complex trauma and current clinically significant traumatic stress symptoms. Participants received eight face-to-face sessions of manualized Internet-supported CBT for problem…
Rodríguez Cadavid, Santiago
This work addresses the well-known classification problem in machine learning -- The goal of this study is to approach the reader to the methodological aspects of the feature extraction, feature selection and classifier performance through simple and understandable theoretical aspects and two study cases -- Finally, a very good classification performance was obtained for the emotion recognition from speech
Shek, Daniel T. L.
The relationships between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and emotional quality of life (existential well-being, life satisfaction, self-esteem, sense of mastery, psychological morbidity) as well as problem behavior (substance abuse and delinquency) were examined in 1519 Chinese adolescents with and…
Ketharanathan, N.; Lee, W.; Mol, A.C. de
BACKGROUND: There is a gap in the knowledge of longterm outcome of mild to moderate prematures compared to the extreme prematures or very low birth weight infants. AIM: Determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in (pre-)school age children
Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.
We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…
van der Worp -van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, Sip Jan; Bijstra, Jan O.; van den Bosch, Els J.
Academic learning has always been a serious issue for students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their teachers. However, teaching academic skills could be an important protective and curative factor for the problem behaviour of these students. The current review was conducted to
van der Worp-van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, S.J.; Bijstra, Jan; van den Bosch, Els
Academic learning has always been a serious issue for students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their teachers. However, teaching academic skills could be an important protective and curative factor for the problem behaviour of these students. The current review was conducted to
Kabir, P.K.; Fishbane, P.F.
Progress is reported in the areas of family symmetry and the fermion mass matrix, consequences of heavy isosinglet fermions, and dynamics of confinement. Theorems were discovered relating the polarization of the transmitted neutrons after passage through a polarized medium to the initial polarization
The enigma of the neutrino continues. More than sixty years after its hesitant prediction by Pauli and forty years after its discovery by Reines and Cowan, the neutrino still refuses to give up all its secrets. The longer we travel down the neutrino road and the more we find out about these particles, the more problems we uncover en route. The present state of the neutrino mystery was highlighted at the Neutrino 94 meeting in Eilat, Israel, from 29 May to 3 June. It was a distinguished meeting, with the first morning including one session chaired by neutrino co-discoverer Fred Reines, and an introductory talk by muon-neutrino co-discoverer Leon Lederman. One figurehead neutrino personality conspicuously absent this time was Bruno Pontecorvo, who died last year and had attended the previous conference in the series, in Grenada, Spain, in 1992
The enigma of the neutrino continues. More than sixty years after its hesitant prediction by Pauli and forty years after its discovery by Reines and Cowan, the neutrino still refuses to give up all its secrets. The longer we travel down the neutrino road and the more we find out about these particles, the more problems we uncover en route. The present state of the neutrino mystery was highlighted at the Neutrino 94 meeting in Eilat, Israel, from 29 May to 3 June. It was a distinguished meeting, with the first morning including one session chaired by neutrino co-discoverer Fred Reines, and an introductory talk by muon-neutrino co-discoverer Leon Lederman. One figurehead neutrino personality conspicuously absent this time was Bruno Pontecorvo, who died last year and had attended the previous conference in the series, in Grenada, Spain, in 1992.
Pace, Cecilia Serena; Di Folco, Simona; Guerriero, Viviana
A growing body of research suggests that, compared to normative adolescence, adoptive adolescence could be considered a specific risk condition characterized by more psychiatric problems, attachment insecurity, and emotional regulation difficulties as consequences of negative experiences in preadoption relationships. The current study explores (a) a moderation model of adoption status on the association between attachment representations (secure, dismissing, preoccupied, and disorganized) and behavioural problems and (b) a moderation model of adoption status on the association between emotion regulation processes (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and behavioural problems. Both the moderation models were controlled for verbal skills. Forty-six adopted adolescents and a control group of 34 nonadopted peers (12-16 years old) living with both their biological parents were assessed using the Friends and Family Interview, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents, the Child Behaviour Check List 6-18, and the verbal subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the latter as control measure. Results showed that adoption status (but not attachment) positively predicted externalizing and total behaviour problems, whereas attachment disorganization (but not adoption status) positively predicted internalizing problems in both group. Moreover, low cognitive reappraisal had a negative impact on externalizing problems only for adopted adolescents, but not for nonadopted youths. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed in order to enhance effective intervention with adopted adolescents and their parents. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Li, Longfeng; Lin, Xiuyun; Chi, Peilian; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fang, Xiaoyi; Du, Hongfei; Wang, Zhonghui
Maltreatment has negative effects on the parent-child relationship and the emotional and behavioral development of children. The current study aimed to examine the associations among maltreatment, parent-child relationship, and emotional and behavioral problems in Chinese children with or without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Participants in the study included 259 children with ODD and their 269 non-ODD counterparts from northern, eastern, and southwestern China. We also collected data from their teachers and fathers or mothers. The results showed that ODD children suffered more maltreatment and had more emotional and behavioral problems than their non-ODD peers. For all children (both ODD and non-ODD children), emotional abuse predicted emotional problems but not behavioral problems. Physical abuse predicted behavioral problems but not emotional problems. Parent-child relationship mediated the effects of emotional abuse and physical abuse on emotional problems among ODD children but not among non-ODD children. Implications for prevention of emotional and physical abuse and ODD in the Chinese cultural context are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Vrana, Scott R.; Rollock, David
Examines the emotional impact of inter- and intraethnic interactions with peers and authority figures among black undergraduates (n=66). Subjects reported more negative emotions in hypothetical interactions with whites and intensification of both positive and negative affect in interactions with authority figures. Range of reported effect was more…
Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; Fife, Kelly A
As levels of immigration and ethnic diversity continue to rise in most Western societies, the social demography of schools is changing rapidly. Although schools represent a prominent developmental context, relatively little is known about the extent to which the racial/ethnic composition of schools influences mental health outcomes in students. The objective of the present study is to examine the association between immigrant and racial/ethnic congruence in school-the numerical representation of a student's immigrant generational status and race/ethnicity in the student body-and levels of emotional and behavioral problems. This study also examines the extent to which the association between congruence and emotional-behavioral problems differs across racial/ethnic immigrant sub-groups and is accounted for by individual perceptions of school belonging. Data come from the in-school survey of the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) conducted in the United States. The sample is nationally representative, and includes 128 schools and 77,150 adolescents in grades 7-12 (50 % female, M age = 14.9 years, SD = 1.78). After controlling for school and family socio-demographic characteristics, immigrant and racial/ethnic congruence in school exhibited a negative association with emotional and behavioral problems for most sub-groups examined. School belonging was associated negatively with emotional and behavioral problems, and partially accounted for the effects linked to congruence in schools. The immigrant and racial/ethnic composition of schools and perceptions of belonging have strong links with emotional and behavioral problems and may represent important targets for intervention.
Mills, M.; Vogt, D.; Mann, B.
This report describes benchmark problems to test computer codes used in the radiological assessment of high-level waste repositories. The problems presented in this report will test two types of codes. The first type of code calculates the time-dependent heat generation and radionuclide inventory associated with a high-level waste package. Five problems have been specified for this code type. The second code type addressed in this report involves the calculation of radionuclide transport and dose-to-man. For these codes, a comprehensive problem and two subproblems have been designed to test the relevant capabilities of these codes for assessing a high-level waste repository setting
Patrick Richard PhD
Full Text Available It has been documented that about 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder in the United States. The high prevalence of children’s emotional and behavioral problems (EBP might have a negative effect on their mothers’ labor market outcomes because children with EBP require additional time for treatment. However, these children may require additional financial resources, which might promote mothers’ labor supply. Previous studies have only considered chronic conditions in analyzing the impact of children’s health on parental work activities. Moreover, most of these studies have not accounted for endogeneity in children’s health. This article estimates the effects of children’s EBP on their mothers’ labor supply by family structure while accounting for endogeneity in children’s health. We used the 1997 and 2002 Child Development Supplements (CDS to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID. We used probit and bivariate probit models to estimate mothers’ probability of employment, and tobit and instrumental variable tobit models to estimate the effects of children’s EBP on their mothers’ work hours. Findings show negative effects of children’s EBP on their married mothers’ employment and on their single mothers’ work hours.
Andersen, Anders H.; Rayens, William S.; Li, Ren-Cang; Blonder, Lee X.
In this paper we describe the enormous potential that multilinear models hold for the analysis of data from neuroimaging experiments that rely on functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or other imaging modalities. A case is made for why one might fully expect that the successful introduction of these models to the neuroscience community could define the next generation of structure-seeking paradigms in the area. In spite of the potential for immediate application, there is much to do from the perspective of statistical science. That is, although multilinear models have already been particularly successful in chemistry and psychology, relatively little is known about their statistical properties. To that end, our research group at the University of Kentucky has made significant progress. In particular, we are in the process of developing formal influence measures for multilinear methods as well as associated classification models and effective implementations. We believe that these problems will be among the most important and useful to the scientific community. Details are presented herein and an application is given in the context of facial emotion processing experiments.
Veltro, Franco; Mazza, Monica; Vendittelli, Nicola; Alberti, Mirella; Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita
Social cognition and Problem Solving (PS) impairments are common characteristics in patients with schizophrenia. Experimental neuropsychological findings support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is characterized by a broad range of heterogeneous cognitive impairments. Since that time Problem Solving Training has been employed as a core strategy in a wide variety of therapeutic settings. Renewed interest in cognitive functioning, including social Problem Solving skills and social cognition in schizophrenia, has led us to reconsider the potential value of metacognitive strategy as a rehabilitation strategy. The present study reports the results obtained by 24 persons with schizophrenia who were randomly assigned to one of two training session groups: Cognitive-Emotional Rehabilitation (REC) vs Problem Solving Training (PST). Both treatments were administered to small groups composed of subjects suffering from schizophrenic disorders over a 12 months period: primary measures of clinical, social outcomes and secondary measures of cognitive and Problem Solving functions were conducted at 0, and 12 months. Results showed that both training methods were found to be effective in psychopathological measures and in social functioning. On cognitive function improvements were specific to the rehabilitative approach. PST are mainly improved capacities for planning and memory, while the REC improved measures such as social cognition Theory of mind and emotion recognition. The results confirmed that it is no necessary to divide the rehabilitation training in treatments directed to specific domains. The conceptualization and applicability of PST and REC its implications for persons with schizophrenia, and future studies in this research area have also been discussed.
Izquierdo, Adriana; Sarkisian, Catherine; Ryan, Gery; Wells, Kenneth B; Miranda, Jeanne
To describe salient experiences with a primary care visit (eg, the context leading up to the visit, the experience and/or outcomes of that visit) for emotional, personal and/or mental health problems older Latinos with a history of depression and recent depressive symptoms and/or antidepressant medication use reported 10 years after enrollment into a randomized controlled trial of quality-improvement for depression in primary care. Secondary analysis of existing qualitative data from the second stage of the continuation study of Partners in Care (PIC). Latino ethnicity, aged > or =50 years, recent depressive symptoms and/or antidepressant medication use, and a recent primary care visit for mental health problems. Of 280 second-stage participants, 47 were eligible. Both stages of the continuation study included participants from the PIC parent study control and 2 intervention groups, and all had a history of depression. Data analyzed by a multidisciplinary team using grounded theory methodology. Five themes were identified: beliefs about the nature of depression; prior experiences with mental health disorders/treatments; sociocultural context (eg, social relationships, caregiving, the media); clinic-related features (eg, accessibility of providers, staff continuity, amount of visit time); and provider attributes (eg, interpersonal skills, holistic care approach). Findings emphasize the importance of key features for shaping the context leading up to primary care visits for help-seeking for mental health problems, and the experience and/or outcomes of those visits, among older depressed Latinos at long-term follow-up, and may help tailor chronic depression care for the clinical management of this vulnerable population.
Dwi Fachri Harahap
Conclusions The prevalence of emotional and behavior problems detected using CBCL and PSC-17 in obese children was 28% and 22%, respectively. The PSC-17 has moderate sensitivity to screen emotional and behavior problem in obese children.[Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:42-8].
There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical neuropsychological test performance in 147 manganese (Mn) exposed residents. These residents were from two Ohio towns exposed to ambient air-Mn from an industrial source with modeled average air-Mn concentrations of 0.54 µg/m3 (range: 0.01-4.58) and were part of a larger study of cognitive, motor, tremor abnormalities and their relationship to Mn exposure.The primarily white (94.6%) participants (aged 30-64) lived in the towns for at least 10 years (range: 10-64) and had 13.9 years of education, on average. In the last 7 days before testing, 94 (64.4%) participants self-reported concentration problems and 105 (71.8%) self-reported memory problems. After adjusting for age and education, participants who self-reported cognitive problems did not perform worse on the objective neuropsychological measures than those who reported not having problems, except on 1 of 17 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Color). Greater levels of depression and female sex predicted having more self-reported cognitive problems. Higher education was associated with fewer self-reported cognitive problems. Measures of Mn in air, blood, hair, and toenails were not associated with subjective cognitive self-reported p
Kokoszka, A; Pouwer, F; Jodko, A
patients with diagnosed depression with those with a subclinical form of depression and those without depression. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 101 DM2 patients (51 men and 50 women, mean age = 63,17; SD = 10,74) who completed a standardized, structured psychiatric diagnostic interview...... (MINI), the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale as well as the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale (a 20-item measure, with an overall scale measuring diabetes-related emotional distress and four subscales [negative emotions, treatment-related problems, food...... with a depressive disorder (significantly highest PAID score: 39) compared to patients with subclinical depression or no depression. In the group of non-depressed patients, only 14% agreed to have four or more (somewhat) serious diabetes-specific problems. In those with subclinical depression, this percentage...
Stene-Larsen, Kim; Lang, Astri M; Landolt, Markus A; Latal, Beatrice; Vollrath, Margarete E
Recent findings has shown that late preterm births (gestational weeks 34-36) and early term births (gestational weeks 37-38) is associated with an increased risk of several psychological and developmental morbidities. In this article we investigate whether late preterm and early term births is associated with an increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems at 36 months of age and whether there are gender differences in risk of these outcomes. Forty-three thousand, two hundred ninety-seven children and their mothers participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). One thousand, eight hundred fifty-three (4.3%) of the children in the sample were born late preterm and 7,835 (18.1%) were born early term. Information on gestational age and on prenatal and postnatal risk factors was retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Information on emotional and behavioral problems was assessed by standardized questionnaires (CBCL/ITSEA) filled out by the mothers. Gender-stratified logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between late preterm / early term and emotional and behavioral problems at 36 months of age. We found a gender-specific increased risk of emotional problems in girls born late preterm (OR 1.47 95%CI 1.11-1.95) and in girls born early term (OR 1.21 95%CI 1.04-1.42). We did not find an increased risk of emotional problems in boys born late preterm (OR 1.09 95%CI 0.82-1.45) or early term (OR 0.93 95%CI 0.79-1.10). Behavioral problems were not increased in children born late preterm or early term. Girls born late preterm and early term show an increased risk of emotional problems at 36 months of age. This finding suggests that gender should be taken into account when evaluating children born at these gestational ages.
Bell, Kathryn M.; Higgins, Lorrin
The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person’s ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk. PMID:25893570
Bell, Kathryn M; Higgins, Lorrin
The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person's ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk.
Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante
Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…
Reyes, Ana Calzada; Gutiérrez Manso, Ana Teresa; González, Mariloly Acosta
The main objective of the emotions is to ensure the homeostasis, the survival and the well-being of the organism. To demonstrate the usefulness of performing neurophysiological and neuropsychological assessments in patients, in order to demonstrate the significant role of the emotions in the execution of certain behaviours. A forensic psychiatric interview was conducted. EEG in vigil state was registered, the generators of current density to theta band were calculated, and the emotions recognition test was performed. The results of the psychiatric interview demonstrated that fear was an important element in acting impulsively, and lack of foresight of the accused. A substantial decrease was demonstrated in the ability to understand the scope of the acts and the direction of the behaviour during the time the crime occurred. The EEG showed alterations in frontal regions, and the generators of current density were located in frontal-temporal regions and occipital associative areas. It is recommended to associate these studies with the forensic psychiatric assessment, in order to increase the objectivity of the diagnoses formulated by medical experts. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Paschke, Lena M; Dörfel, Denise; Steimke, Rosa; Trempler, Ima; Magrabi, Amadeus; Ludwig, Vera U; Schubert, Torsten; Stelzel, Christine; Walter, Henrik
Both self-control and emotion regulation enable individuals to adapt to external circumstances and social contexts, and both are assumed to rely on the overlapping neural resources. Here, we tested whether high self-reported self-control is related to successful emotion regulation on the behavioral and neural level. One hundred eight participants completed three self-control questionnaires and regulated their negative emotions during functional magnetic resonance imaging using reappraisal (distancing). Trait self-control correlated positively with successful emotion regulation both subjectively and neurally, as indicated by online ratings of negative emotions and functional connectivity strength between the amygdala and prefrontal areas, respectively. This stronger overall connectivity of the left amygdala was related to more successful subjective emotion regulation. Comparing amygdala activity over time showed that high self-controllers successfully maintained down-regulation of the left amygdala over time, while low self-controllers failed to down-regulate towards the end of the experiment. This indicates that high self-controllers are better at maintaining a motivated state supporting emotion regulation over time. Our results support assumptions concerning a close relation of self-control and emotion regulation as two domains of behavioral control. They further indicate that individual differences in functional connectivity between task-related brain areas directly relate to differences in trait self-control. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc A; Lucht, Michael; John, Ulrich; Freyberger, Harald J
The purpose of this study was to test a hypothetical model of alcohol problems in German adolescents. Among 180 offspring, family history of alcoholism, parenting styles, behavioral and emotional problems, peer-group characteristics, feelings of self-esteem, behavioral problems and psychiatric comorbidity of the parents were examined. Data were generated from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), in which families were randomly selected if 12-18 year old biological offspring were members of the household; a smaller group of subjects was selected from local outpatient treatment centers. Members of 133 families, including 180 (50.6% male) offspring who were appropriate for the current analyses, received personal semistructured diagnostic interviews and several self-rating questionnaires. Analyses compared offspring with alcohol problems (AP; n = 40) and with no alcohol problems (NAP; n = 140), and used structural equation modeling to test a hypothetical model. The comparisons revealed that the AP group had significantly more behavioral problems (e.g., aggression/delinquency), more perceived parental rejection and less emotional warmth, a higher amount of alcohol consumption, were more likely to associate with substance-using peers and more often received a diagnosis of conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder. Whereas the family history of alcoholism did not differ significantly between groups, parents of offspring with an alcohol use disorder had significantly more additional diagnoses on DSM-IV Axis I. The evaluation of the model supported the importance of aggression/delinquency and association with substance-using peers for alcohol problems in people. An additional diagnosis in the parents was directly and indirectly (through aggression/delinquency) related to alcohol problems of the adolescents. The data indicate that alcohol problems in the offspring are associated with several domains of influence in their environment. Prospective studies
Supplee, Lauren H.; Skuban, Emily Moye; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Stoltz, Emilee
Little longitudinal research has been conducted on changes in children's emotional self-regulation strategy (SRS) use after infancy, particularly for children at risk. The current study examined changes in boys' emotional SRS from toddlerhood through preschool. Repeated observational assessments using delay of gratification tasks at ages 2, 3, and 4 were examined with both variable- and person-oriented analyses in a low-income sample of boys (N = 117) at-risk for early problem behavior. Results were consistent with theory on emotional SRS development in young children. Children initially used more emotion-focused SRS (e.g., comfort seeking) and transitioned to greater use of planful SRS (e.g., distraction) by age 4. Person-oriented analysis using trajectory analysis found similar patterns from 2–4, with small groups of boys showing delayed movement away from emotion-focused strategies or delay in the onset of regular use of distraction. The results provide a foundation for future research to examine the development of SRS in low-income young children. PMID:21675542
Gorsuch, Richard L.; And Others
The task group report presented in this publication is one of a series prepared by eminent psychologists who have served as consultants in the U.S. Office of Education-sponsored grant study to conduct a Critical Appraisal of the Personality-Emotions-Motivation Domain. In order to achieve the goal of identifying important problems and areas for new…
Given that there are nearly 5,000 individual classes of medical devices, tens of thousands of medical device suppliers, and millions of healthcare providers around the world, device-related problems are bound to happen. But effective problem reporting can help reduce or eliminate many of these problems--not only within an institution, but also potentially around the world. In this article, we trace the problem reporting process from its beginnings in the hospital to its global impact in making critical information available throughout the healthcare community.
Faroqi, H.; Mesgari, M.-S.
During emergencies, emotions greatly affect human behaviour. For more realistic multi-agent systems in simulations of emergency evacuations, it is important to incorporate emotions and their effects on the agents. In few words, emotional contagion is a process in which a person or group influences the emotions or behavior of another person or group through the conscious or unconscious induction of emotion states and behavioral attitudes. In this study, we simulate an emergency situation in an open square area with three exits considering Adults and Children agents with different behavior. Also, Security agents are considered in order to guide Adults and Children for finding the exits and be calm. Six levels of emotion levels are considered for each agent in different scenarios and situations. The agent-based simulated model initialize with the random scattering of agent populations and then when an alarm occurs, each agent react to the situation based on its and neighbors current circumstances. The main goal of each agent is firstly to find the exit, and then help other agents to find their ways. Numbers of exited agents along with their emotion levels and damaged agents are compared in different scenarios with different initialization in order to evaluate the achieved results of the simulated model. NetLogo 5.2 is used as the multi-agent simulation framework with R language as the developing language.
Full Text Available During emergencies, emotions greatly affect human behaviour. For more realistic multi-agent systems in simulations of emergency evacuations, it is important to incorporate emotions and their effects on the agents. In few words, emotional contagion is a process in which a person or group influences the emotions or behavior of another person or group through the conscious or unconscious induction of emotion states and behavioral attitudes. In this study, we simulate an emergency situation in an open square area with three exits considering Adults and Children agents with different behavior. Also, Security agents are considered in order to guide Adults and Children for finding the exits and be calm. Six levels of emotion levels are considered for each agent in different scenarios and situations. The agent-based simulated model initialize with the random scattering of agent populations and then when an alarm occurs, each agent react to the situation based on its and neighbors current circumstances. The main goal of each agent is firstly to find the exit, and then help other agents to find their ways. Numbers of exited agents along with their emotion levels and damaged agents are compared in different scenarios with different initialization in order to evaluate the achieved results of the simulated model. NetLogo 5.2 is used as the multi-agent simulation framework with R language as the developing language.
Full Text Available The present paper explores the relationship between psychological and somatic dissociation and different personality and emotional variables, including suggestibility, alexithymia, and emotional regulation and dysregulation. The results with a sample of 355 partipants of a normal population reveal that there is a positive relationship between both types of dissociation, suggestibility and emotional dysregulation. Likewise, there were different patterns of personality associated both to psychological and somatic dissociation. Correlations found in this study put forward the importance to take into account both types of dissociactive symptoms, psychological and somatic ones.
Głowińska, Aleksandra; Zielona-Jenek, Monika; Pawelczyk, Adam; Banaszewska, Beata E
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and severity of emotional problems among Polish women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and seek factors which increase the risk of their occurrence. The study group consisted of 82 women (aged 18-48), who were diagnosed with PCOS based on the Rotterdam criteria. During hospitalization, the patients completed a number of questionnaires, providing their sociodemographic data and information concerning the inconvenience of disease-associated symptoms. The question-naires included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory (MSEI). Data obtained during medical examinations (blood tests, transvaginal ultrasound, height and body mass measurements) were analyzed. Out of 82 women, the results detected risk for depression in 42 (51.22%), mild depressive disorders in 32, moderate disorders in 8, and severe disorder in 2 patients. No statistically significant correlation between BDI or state anxiety and the level of the analyzed hormones, insulin resistance, or infertility treatment, was found. General self-esteem, trait anxi-ety, and marital status were associated with the occurrence of depression symptoms. BMI was associated with the level of state anxiety during hospitalization. Women with PCOS are at risk for mood and anxiety disorders. Disease-related somatic factors are not directly associated with the risk for disorder occurrence. However, severity of depression symptoms has been shown to be influenced by permanent psychological characteristics of the studied women, i.e. self-esteem, trait anxiety, and life situation (marital status). Therefore, it is recommended to include interviews about patient life situation and screening questionnaires for assessing depression into the diagnostic procedures in PCOS patients. Patients should be referred for a psychological or psychiatric consultation, if needed.
Sjöberg, Lennart; Engelberg, Elisabeth
This is a study of emotional intelligence (EI). EI was measured by performance and self-report tasks. Data were also obtained on basic values, some standard personality dimensions such as those specified in the five-factor model, social adjustment and several scales of impression management. Criteria were loneliness, work-family life balance and Internet addiction, and also measures of emotional and value deviance. Participants were college students in a business education program who partici...
This study presents the first examination of the relation between the Big Five personality traits, irrational beliefs and emotional problems in Pakistan, which is an understudied country in the psychological distress literature. A total of 195 participants (aged 25-60 years), employees at COMSATS University, completed a demographic information sheet, the Big Five Personality Questionnaire, the Irrational Belief Inventory and two subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory including depression and anxiety. Direct effects of neuroticism, openness and conscientiousness were also observed for depression and anxiety. Structural Equation Modelling demonstrated that irrational beliefs played a significant mediating role in the relationship between neuroticism and anxiety and neuroticism and depression. The results highlight the importance of cognitive beliefs in functionally linking personality traits and emotional problems. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N.; Evans, Gary W.
Objective: Developmental models of temperament by environment interactions predict that children’s negative emotionality exacerbates the detrimental effects of risky environments, increasing the risk for pathology. However, negative emotions may have an adaptive function. Accordingly, the present...... study explores an alternative hypothesis that in the context of high adversity, negative emotionality may be a manifestation of an adaptive coping style and thus be protective against the harmful effects of a stressful environment. Method: Prospective combined effects of negative emotionality...... assessed at baseline. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured at 4- and 8-year follow-ups. Allostatic load was measured at baseline and both follow-ups using neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters. Linear mixed-effect models were used to analyze the prospective...
Maguire, Lisa K.; Niens, Ulrike; McCann, Mark; Connolly, Paul
There has been an increasing focus on social and emotional development in educational programmes in early childhood as both variables are believed to influence behavioural outcomes in the classroom. However, relationships between social and emotional development and behaviour in early childhood have rarely been explored. This article sets out to investigate the conceptualisation of these variables and their interrelationships. Structural equation models were used to assess whether differences...
Johnson, Sarah E; Lawrence, David; Hafekost, Jennifer; Saw, Suzy; Buckingham, William J; Sawyer, Michael; Ainley, John; Zubrick, Stephen R
To identify the proportion of children and adolescents in Australia and the proportion of those with mental disorders who used services for emotional and behavioural problems, the type of services used and what characteristics were associated with service use. During 2013-2014, a national face-to-face household survey of mental health and wellbeing (Young Minds Matter) was conducted, involving 6310 parents and carers of 4- to 17-year-olds (55% of eligible households) and self-report surveys from 2967 11- to 17-year-olds in these households (89% of eligible youth). The survey identified 12-month mental disorders based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Version IV and asked about service use for emotional or behavioural problems in the previous 12 months. Overall, 17.0% of all 4- to 17-year-olds used services for emotional or behavioural problems in the previous 12 months. Of those with mental disorders, 56.0% used services (48.9% of 4- to 11-year-olds; 65.1% of 12- to 17-year-olds). Service use was highest among 4- to 17-year-olds with major depressive disorder (79.6%) and lowest for those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (52.7%). Two-fifths (41.2%), 72.5% and 87.6% of those with mild, moderate and severe disorders used services. General practitioners, psychologists, paediatricians and counsellors/family therapists were the most commonly accessed health service providers. Two-fifths with mental disorders had attended school services. About 5% of adolescents reported use of online personal support or counselling for help with their problems. From multivariate models, service use was higher in sole carer families, but also among those living in the least socially and economically disadvantaged compared to the most disadvantaged areas. Rates of service use for mental disorders in Australia's children and adolescents appear to have increased substantially. Health services and schools are the major providers of services for emotional and
Prayitno, S. H.; Suwarsono, St.; Siswono, T. Y. E.
Conceptual comprehension in this research is the ability to use the procedures that are owned by pre-service teachers to solve problems by finding the relation of the concept to another, or can be done by identifying the type of problem and associating it with a troubleshooting procedures, or connect the mathematical symbols with mathematical ideas and incorporate them into a series of logical reasoning, or by using prior knowledge that occurred directly, through its conceptual knowledge. The goal of this research is to describe the profile of conceptual comprehensin of pre-service teachers with low emotional intelligence in mathematical problems solving. Through observation and in-depth interview with the research subject the conclusion was that: pre-service teachers with low emotional intelligence pertained to the level of formal understanding in understanding the issues, relatively to the level of intuitive understanding in planning problem solving, to the level of relational understanding in implementing the relational problem solving plan, and pertained to the level of formal understanding in looking back to solve the problem.
Khor, Angela Stewart
Behaviour and emotional problems are common in individuals with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s Disorder (High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders, HFASD), with onset frequently occurring during adolescence. Stressful experiences and coping are important predictors of mental health outcome in nonclinical populations, yet few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with HFASD. One methodology used to assess coping in typically developing individuals is Ecological ...
Buckner, Julia D; Walukevich, Katherine A; Zvolensky, Michael J; Gallagher, Matthew W
Little empirical work has evaluated why anxious cannabis users are especially vulnerable to poorer cannabis cessation outcomes. Presumably, these individuals rely on cannabis because they have difficulties with emotion regulation and they therefore use cannabis to manage their negative emotions. The current study examined the direct and indirect effects of anxiety severity on a range of cannabis cessation variables among 79 (63.3% non-Hispanic White; 43.0% female) adults with anxiety disorders seeking outpatient treatment for cannabis use disorder. The independent and serial indirect effects of difficulties with emotion regulation and coping motives were examined in relation to the anxiety-cannabis variables. Anxiety severity was directly and robustly related to greater cannabis withdrawal symptom severity, less self-efficacy to refrain from using cannabis in emotionally distressing situations, and more reasons for quitting. Anxiety was indirectly related to cannabis outcomes via the serial effects of emotion regulation and coping motives. These findings document the important role of emotion regulation and coping motives in the relations of anxiety with cannabis cessation variables among dually diagnosed outpatients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Niedtfeld, Inga; Defiebre, Nadine; Regenbogen, Christina; Mier, Daniela; Fenske, Sabrina; Kirsch, Peter; Lis, Stefanie; Schmahl, Christian
Previous research has revealed alterations and deficits in facial emotion recognition in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). During interpersonal communication in daily life, social signals such as speech content, variation in prosody, and facial expression need to be considered simultaneously. We hypothesized that deficits in higher level integration of social stimuli contribute to difficulties in emotion recognition in BPD, and heightened arousal might explain this effect. Thirty-one patients with BPD and thirty-one healthy controls were asked to identify emotions in short video clips, which were designed to represent different combinations of the three communication channels: facial expression, speech content, and prosody. Skin conductance was recorded as a measure of sympathetic arousal, while controlling for state dissociation. Patients with BPD showed lower mean accuracy scores than healthy control subjects in all conditions comprising emotional facial expressions. This was true for the condition with facial expression only, and for the combination of all three communication channels. Electrodermal responses were enhanced in BPD only in response to auditory stimuli. In line with the major body of facial emotion recognition studies, we conclude that deficits in the interpretation of facial expressions lead to the difficulties observed in multimodal emotion processing in BPD.
Lorains, Felicity K; Stout, Julie C; Bradshaw, John L; Dowling, Nicki A; Enticott, Peter G
Impulsivity is considered a core feature of problem gambling; however, self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control may reflect disparate constructs. We examined self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in 39 treatment-seeking problem gamblers and 41 matched controls using a range of self-report questionnaires and laboratory inhibitory control tasks. We also investigated differences between treatment-seeking problem gamblers who prefer strategic (e.g., sports betting) and nonstrategic (e.g., electronic gaming machines) gambling activities. Treatment-seeking problem gamblers demonstrated elevated self-reported impulsivity, more go errors on the Stop Signal Task, and a lower gap score on the Random Number Generation task than matched controls. However, overall we did not find strong evidence that treatment-seeking problem gamblers are more impulsive on laboratory inhibitory control measures. Furthermore, strategic and nonstrategic problem gamblers did not differ from their respective controls on either self-reported impulsivity questionnaires or laboratory inhibitory control measures. Contrary to expectations, our results suggest that inhibitory dyscontrol may not be a key component for some treatment-seeking problem gamblers.
Jeong, In Ju; Kim, Soo Jin
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a group counseling program based on goal attainment theory on self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, and school adjustment of middle school students with emotional and behavioral problems. Forty-four middle school students with emotional and behavioral problems (22 in the experimental group and 22 in the control group) from G city participated in this study. Data were collected from July 30 to September 24, 2015. The experimental group received the 8-session program, scheduled once a week, with each session lasting 45 minutes. Outcome variables included self-esteem, interpersonal relationship, and school adjustment. There were significant increases for self-esteem (t=3.69, p=.001), interpersonal relationship (t=8.88, pgroup compared to the control group. These results indicate that the group counseling program based on goal attainment theory is very effective in increasing self-esteem, interpersonal relationship, and school adjustment for middle school students with emotional and behavioral problems. Therefore, it is recommended that the group counseling program based on goal attainment theory be used as an effective psychiatric nursing intervention for mental health promotion and the prevention of mental illness in adolescents. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Wills, Thomas A.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Morehouse, Ellen; Fenster, Bonnie
In a structural model, we tested how relations of predictors to level of adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana), and to substance-related impaired-control and behavior problems, are moderated by good self-control and poor regulation in behavioral and emotional domains. The participants were a sample of 1,116 public high-school students. In a multiple-group analysis for good self-control, the paths from negative life events to substance use level and from level to behavior problems were lower among persons scoring higher on good behavioral self-control. In a multiple-group analysis for poor regulation, the paths from negative life events to level and from peer substance use to level were greater among persons scoring higher on poor behavioral (but not emotional) regulation; an inverse path from academic competence to level was greater among persons scoring higher on both aspects of poor regulation. Paths from level to impaired-control and behavior problems were greater among persons scoring higher on both poor behavioral and poor emotional regulation. Theoretical implications for the basis of moderation effects are discussed. PMID:21443302
Since the event of Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007 and the subsequent press reports on damage of nuclear power station after it, a stance of media is being questioned. In order to clear this problem, basic organizational structure of the press related to nuclear energy news was analyzed. Local news department, social news department, science news department and economical news department involve in nuclear energy news the accordance with their own situations and concerns. This structure makes problem of nuclear energy news reporting complicated. Changing this system is required but very difficult. It is concluded that the press problem around nuclear energy news is strange. (author)
Wiedemann, Ashley A; Saules, Karen K
Weight problem perception (WPP) refers to the belief that one is overweight. Previous research suggests that WPP, even in the absence of actual overweight status, is associated with disordered eating, binge eating, and body image dissatisfaction. However, the relationship between emotional eating, BMI, and WPP has not yet been explored. This investigation recruited a total of 409 college students who completed a web-based survey. An additional 76 participants were recruited to complete an identical survey with the addition of a depression measure to evaluate the contribution of this potentially important covariate. As hypothesized, WPP was associated with emotional eating, while actual BMI was not. In the second sample, WPP remained significantly associated with emotional eating, even after depression was included as a covariate. Results suggest that non-overweight young adults who express the belief that they are overweight may be at risk for emotional eating, which, over the long term, could indeed adversely impact BMI. Cognitive approaches to address disordered eating may benefit from addressing WPP. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin
This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed that caregivers of children with mild/moderate autistic behavior problems perceived lower parenting stress than did those of children with no or severe problems. In addition, prosocial behaviors and conduct problems respectively predicted stress in the parent-child relationship and child-related stress. The findings can provide guidance in evaluations and interventions with a focus on mitigating parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism.
Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Muezzinoglu, M. K.
Experimental investigations of neural system functioning and brain activity are standardly based on the assumption that perceptions, emotions, and cognitive functions can be understood by analyzing steady-state neural processes and static tomographic snapshots. The new approaches discussed in this review are based on the analysis of transient processes and metastable states. Transient dynamics is characterized by two basic properties, structural stability and information sensitivity. The ideas and methods that we discuss provide an explanation for the occurrence of and successive transitions between metastable states observed in experiments, and offer new approaches to behavior analysis. Models of the emotional and cognitive functions of the brain are suggested. The mathematical object that represents the observed transient brain processes in the phase space of the model is a structurally stable heteroclinic channel. The possibility of using the suggested models to construct a quantitative theory of some emotional and cognitive functions is illustrated.
Acierno, Ron; Steedley, Mara; Hernandez-Tejada, Melba A; Frook, Gabrielle; Watkins, Jordan; Muzzy, Wendy
The National Elder Mistreatment Study (NEMS) found that 5.2% of community older adults experienced financial abuse, and 4.6% experienced emotional mistreatment in the past year. Unfortunately, the majority of abuse was not reported to the authorities. This study investigated reasons for non-reporting. In all, 774 NEMS participants were surveyed 8 years later via telephone to assess past-year financial and emotional mistreatment, perpetrator status, and whether any of these episodes were reported to authorities. In total, 87.5% of financial abuse by family, friends, or acquaintances was not reported versus 33% of that perpetrated by strangers; for emotional mistreatment, 89.9% of that perpetrated by family, friends, and acquaintances was not reported, compared with 83.3% by strangers. Reasons for non-reporting of emotional abuse centered largely around with "not wanting publicity" and "not wanting to get the perpetrator in trouble," while no consistent reason emerged for failure to report stranger-perpetrated mistreatment.
Granic, Isabela; Meusel, Liesel-Ann; Lamm, Connie; Woltering, Steven; Lewis, Marc D
Past studies have shown that aggressive children exhibit rigid (rather than flexible) parent-child interactions; these rigid repertoires may provide the context through which children fail to acquire emotion-regulation skills. Difficulties in regulating emotion are associated with minimal activity in dorsal systems in the cerebral cortex, for example, the anterior cingulate cortex. The current study aimed to integrate parent-child and neurocognitive indices of emotion regulation and examine their associations for the first time. Sixty children (8-12 years old) referred for treatment for aggression underwent two assessments. Brain processes related to emotion regulation were assessed using dense-array EEG with a computerized go/no-go task. The N2 amplitudes thought to tap inhibitory control were recorded, and a source analysis was conducted. In the second assessment, parents and children were videotaped while trying to solve a conflict topic. State space grids were used to derive two dynamic flexibility parameters from the coded videotapes: (a) the number of transitions between emotional states and (b) the dispersion of emotional states, based on proportional durations in each state. The regression results showed that flexibility measures were not related to N2 amplitudes. However, flexibility measures were significantly associated with the ratio of dorsal to ventral source activation: for transitions, ΔR 2 = .27, F (1, 34) = 13.13, p = .001; for dispersion, ΔR 2 = .29, F (1, 35) = 14.76, p < .001. Thus, in support of our main hypothesis, greater dyadic flexibility was associated with a higher ratio of dorsomedial to ventral activation, suggesting that children with more flexible parent-child interactions are able to recruit relatively more dorsomedial activity in challenging situations.
You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom; Fu, Kei
The present study explored the reciprocal relations between nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), negative emotions and relationship problems in a community sample of 2,435 (57.6% females) Chinese adolescents. Participants completed measures assessing 12 NSSI behaviors, three negative emotions (depression, anxiety and tension), and relationship problems…
Smith, Stephen W.; Daunic, Ann P.; Aydin, Burak; Van Loan, Christopher L.; Barber, Brian R.; Taylor, Gregory G.
Social-emotional learning curricula to prevent student problematic behaviors should play a prominent role in public school instruction. While social-emotional curricula have been shown to be effective, there are few replication studies that substantiate their capacity to improve outcomes for students who exhibit problem behaviors. Thus, we…
Couto, Blas; Sedeño, Lucas; Sposato, Luciano A; Sigman, Mariano; Riccio, Patricia M; Salles, Alejo; Lopez, Vladimir; Schroeder, Johannes; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin
The processing of the emotion of disgust is attributed to the insular cortex (IC), which is also responsible for social emotions and higher-cognitive functions. We distinguish the role of the IC from its connections in regard to these functions through the assessment of emotions and social cognition in a double case report. These subjects were very rare cases that included a focal IC lesion and a subcortical focal stroke affecting the connections of the IC with frontotemporal areas. Both patients and a sample of 10 matched controls underwent neuropsychological and affective screening questionnaires, a battery of multimodal basic emotion recognition tests, an emotional inference disambiguation task using social contextual clues, an empathy task and a theory of mind task. The insular lesion (IL) patient showed no impairments in emotion recognition and social emotions and presented with a pattern of delayed reaction times (RTs) in a subset of both groups of tasks. The subcortical lesion (SL) patient was impaired in multimodal aversive emotion recognition, including disgust, and exhibited delayed RTs and a heterogeneous pattern of impairments in subtasks of empathy and in the contextual inference of emotions. Our results suggest that IC related networks, and not the IC itself, are related to negative emotional processing and social emotions. We discuss these results with respect to theoretical approaches of insular involvement in emotional and social processing and propose that IC connectivity with frontotemporal and subcortical regions might be relevant for contextual emotional processing and social cognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Porcerelli, John H; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Huprich, Steven K; Richardson, Laura
For at-risk (single parent, low income, low support) mothers, healthy adaptation and the ability to manage stress have clear implications for parenting and the social-emotional well-being of their young offspring. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine associations between defense mechanisms in pregnant women and their toddlers' attachment security, social-emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants were 84 pregnant women during their last trimester of pregnancy, recruited from community agencies primarily serving low-income families. Women were followed prospectively from pregnancy through 2 years after birth and completed several multimethod assessments during that period. Observations of mother-child interactions were also coded after the postnatal visits. Multiple regression analyses revealed that mothers' defense mechanisms were significantly associated with several toddler outcomes. Mature, healthy defenses were significantly associated with greater toddler attachment security and social-emotional competence and fewer behavior problems, and less mature defenses (disavowal in particular) were associated with lower levels of attachment security and social-emotional competence. Associations remained significant, or were only slightly attenuated, after controlling for demographic variables and partner abuse during pregnancy. The study findings suggest that defensive functioning in parents preparing for and parenting toddlers influences the parent-child attachment relationship and social-emotional adjustment in the earliest years of life. Possible mechanisms for these associations may include parental attunement and mentalization, as well as specific caregiving behavior toward the child. Defensive functioning during times of increased stress (such as the prenatal to postnatal period) may be especially important for understanding parental influences on the child.
Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Gonçalves, Oscar F
Film clips are an important tool for evoking emotional responses in the laboratory. When compared with other emotionally potent visual stimuli (e.g., pictures), film clips seem to be more effective in eliciting emotions for longer periods of time at both the subjective and physiological levels. The main objective of the present study was to develop a new database of affective film clips without auditory content, based on a dimensional approach to emotional stimuli (valence, arousal and dominance). The study had three different phases: (1) the pre-selection and editing of 52 film clips (2) the self-report rating of these film clips by a sample of 113 participants and (3) psychophysiological assessment [skin conductance level (SCL) and the heart rate (HR)] on 32 volunteers. Film clips from different categories were selected to elicit emotional states from different quadrants of affective space. The results also showed that sustained exposure to the affective film clips resulted in a pattern of a SCL increase and HR deceleration in high arousal conditions (i.e., horror and erotic conditions). The resulting emotional movie database can reliably be used in research requiring the presentation of non-auditory film clips with different ratings of valence, arousal and dominance.
van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-José; Dalgleish, Tim; van der Wee, Nic J A; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Elzinga, Bernet M
Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has adverse effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) morphology, a structure that is crucial for cognitive functioning and (emotional) memory and which modulates the limbic system. In addition, CEM has been linked to amygdala hyperactivity during emotional face processing. However, no study has yet investigated the functional neural correlates of neutral and emotional memory in adults reporting CEM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated CEM-related differential activations in mPFC during the encoding and recognition of positive, negative and neutral words. The sample (N = 194) consisted of patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders and healthy controls (HC) reporting CEM (n = 96) and patients and HC reporting no abuse (n = 98). We found a consistent pattern of mPFC hypoactivation during encoding and recognition of positive, negative and neutral words in individuals reporting CEM. These results were not explained by psychopathology or severity of depression or anxiety symptoms, or by gender, level of neuroticism, parental psychopathology, negative life events, antidepressant use or decreased mPFC volume in the CEM group. These findings indicate mPFC hypoactivity in individuals reporting CEM during emotional and neutral memory encoding and recognition. Our findings suggest that CEM may increase individuals' risk to the development of psychopathology on differential levels of processing in the brain; blunted mPFC activation during higher order processing and enhanced amygdala activation during automatic/lower order emotion processing. These findings are vital in understanding the long-term consequences of CEM. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.
Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…
Endendijk, Joyce; De Bruijn, Anouk T.c.e.; van Bakel, Hedwig J.A.; Wijnen, Hennie A.a.; Pop, Victor J.m.; van Baar, Anneloes
The role of mother–infant interaction quality is studied in the relation between prenatal maternal emotional symptoms and child behavioralproblems. Healthy pregnant, Dutch women (N = 96, M = 31.6, SD = 3.3) were allocated to the “exposed group” (n = 46), consisting of mothers withhigh levels of
Silberg, Judy L.; And Others
Applied structural equation modeling to twin data to assess impact of genetic and environmental factors on children's behavioral and emotional functioning. Applied models to maternal ratings of behavior of 515 monozygotic and 749 dizygotic twin pairs. Importance of genetic, shared, and specific environmental factors for explaining variation was…
RICCIUTI, HENRY N.
INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR IN HUMAN INFANCY HAVE RAISED MANY RESEARCH ISSUES AND HAVE INDICATED MANY ADDITIONAL AREAS OF INQUIRY. EARLY AND CONTEMPORARY STUDIES HAVE BOTH BEEN CONCERNED WITH PROVIDING MORE PRECISE ANALYSES OF STIMULUS AND SITUATIONAL DETERMINANTS OF SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL…
Harrison, Judith R.; State, Talida M.; Wills, Howard P.; Custer, Beth A.; Miller, Elaine
Transition planning is a mandated component of individualized education plans (IEPs) designed to ensure successful transition to adult life for students with disabilities. Students with social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) needs experience poor post-school outcomes, suggesting a need for more effective transition planning. This study evaluated…
van der Pol, Lotte D.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Endendijk, Joyce J.; van Berkel, Sheila R.; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mesman, Judi
In this study we tested whether the relation between fathers’ and mothers’ psychopathology symptoms and child social-emotional development was mediated by parents’ use of emotion talk about negative emotions in a sample of 241 two-parent families. Parents’ internalizing and externalizing problems were measured with the Adult Self Report and parental emotion talk was observed while they discussed a picture book with their children (child age: 3 years). Children’s parent-reported internalizing ...
Davis, Tchiki S; Mauss, Iris B; Lumian, Daniel; Troy, Allison S; Shallcross, Amanda J; Zarolia, Paree; Ford, Brett Q; McRae, Kateri
Intentionally hurting one's body (deliberate self-harm; DSH) is theorized to be associated with high negative emotional reactivity and poor emotion regulation ability. However, little research has assessed the relationship between these potential risk factors and DSH using laboratory measures. Therefore, we conducted 2 studies using laboratory measures of negative emotional reactivity and emotion regulation ability. Study 1 assessed self-reported negative emotions during a sad film clip (reactivity) and during a sad film clip for which participants were instructed to use reappraisal (regulation). Those with a history of DSH were compared with 2 control groups without a history of DSH matched on key demographics: 1 healthy group low in depression and anxiety symptoms and 1 group matched to the DSH group on depression and anxiety symptoms. Study 2 extended Study 1 by assessing neural responding to negative images (reactivity) and negative images for which participants were instructed to use reappraisal (regulation). Those with a history of DSH were compared with a control group matched to the DSH group on demographics, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Compared with control groups, participants with a history of DSH did not exhibit greater negative emotional reactivity but did exhibit lower ability to regulate emotion with reappraisal (greater self-reported negative emotions in Study 1 and greater amygdala activation in Study 2 during regulation). These results suggest that poor emotion regulation ability, but not necessarily greater negative emotional reactivity, is a correlate of and may be a risk factor for DSH, even when controlling for mood disorder symptoms. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Kasckow, J; Brown, C; Morse, J; Begley, A; Bensasi, S; Reynolds, C F
This study examined the rates of syndromal and subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD symptom scores in participants with symptoms of emotional distress, subsyndromal depression, and a history of traumatic exposure. Participants had been referred to a study of an indicated depression prevention intervention using problem-solving therapy in primary care. We hypothesized that higher severity of PTSD symptom scores would predict poorer problem-solving skills. In addition, some reports have suggested that there are higher rates of PTSD in minority populations relative to Caucasians; thus we hypothesized that race would also predict problem-solving skills in these individuals. We examined the rates of traumatic exposure, syndromal, and subthreshold PTSD. In those exposed to trauma, we performed a multiple linear regression to examine the effects of PTSD symptoms, depression symptoms, race, age, and gender on social problem-solving skills. Of the 244 participants, 64 (26.2%) reported a traumatic event; 6/234 (2.6%) had syndromal PTSD, and 14/234 (6.0%) had subthreshold PTSD. By way of regression analysis, higher PTSD symptom scores predicted poorer problem-solving skills. In addition, racial status (Caucasian vs. African American) predicted problem-solving skills; Caucasians exhibited lower levels of problem-solving skills. Individuals presenting with subsyndromal depressive symptoms may also have a history of traumatic exposure, subthreshold and syndromal PTSD. Thus, screening these individuals for PTSD symptoms is important and may inform clinical management decisions because problem-solving skills are lower in those with more severe PTSD symptoms (even after adjusting for race, age, gender, and depressive symptoms). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Glascoe, Frances Page
This study was undertaken to determine which parental concerns are most associated with significant behavioral/emotional problems and the extent to which parents' concerns can be depended on in the detection of mental health problems. An additional goal is to view how well a recently published screening test relying on parents' concerns, Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS), detects behavioral and emotional problems. Subjects were a national sample of 472 parents and their children (21 months to 8 years old) who were participants in 1 of 2 test standardization and validation studies. Sites included various pediatric settings, public schools, and Head Start programs in 5 diverse geographic locations. Subjects were representative of U.S. demographics in terms of ethnicity, parental level of education, gender, and socioeconomic status. At each site, psychological examiners, educational diagnosticians, or school psychologists recruited families, and obtained informed consent. Examiners disseminated a demographics questionnaire (in English or Spanish) and a developmental screening test that relies on parents' concerns (PEDS). Examiners were blinded to PEDS' scoring and interpretation administered either by interview or in writing, the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) or the Possible Problems Checklist (PPC), a subtest of the Child Development Inventory that includes items measuring emotional well-being and behavioral self-control. PEDS was used to sort children into risk for developmental disabilities according to various types of parental concern. Those identified as having high or moderate risk were nominated for diagnostic testing or screening followed by developmental and mental health services when indicated. Because their emotional and behavioral needs would have been identified and addressed, these groups were removed from the analysis (N = 177). Of the 295 children who would not have been nominated for further scrutiny on PEDS due to their
Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the problems of representation, desire and acquiring knowledge as the foundations of Gilles Deleuze’s thought. However, the analysis of these problems can significantly contribute also to the understanding of the issue of symbolic and affective poverty, as it was formulated by Bernard Stiegler, noticed and described much earlier by Deleuze, though taking visible shapes nowadays in connections with the workings of capitalist, consumptionist, economically driven societies. The analysis of each of the presented topics reveals hidden dependencies between the understanding of the problem of knowledge and the perception of sensibility of the Other. To be able to communicate the vast diversity of emotions in the confrontation with a difference, it is good to stay open for what Deleuze indicates: the multiplication of the possibilities of living, and in result, to learn to affirm them as a part of social enterprise, whenever they stay in agreement with presumed powers of critical mind.
Gray, Ben; Robinson, Catherine A; Seddon, Diane; Roberts, Angela
Caring for people with mental health problems can generate a whole range of positive and negative emotions, including fear, disbelief, guilt and chaos as well as a sense of purpose, pride and achievement. This paper explores the emotions of family carers from the perspectives of social, voluntary and healthcare professionals. Sixty-five participants were interviewed, the sample included directors, managers and senior staff from social, voluntary and healthcare organisations. Participants were encouraged to talk in detail about their understanding of the emotions of family carers. Findings highlight a rich understanding of the broad spectrum of carer emotions and the huge emotional adjustments that are often involved. Diagnosis was seen to be imbued with negative emotions, such as fear, anger and denial. However, feelings of hopelessness and desolation were often counterbalanced by feelings of hope, satisfaction and the emotional rewards of caring for a loved one. Participants noted a clear lack of emotional support for family carers, with accompanying feelings of marginalisation, particularly during transitions and especially involving young carers as well as ethnic minorities. By way of contrast, carer support groups were suggested by professionals to be a holistic, effective and economical way of meeting carers' emotional needs. This paper explores the challenge of family carer emotions from the perspective of managers and practitioners and draws out implications for research, policy and practice.
Long, Kristin A; Lobato, Debra; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Grullón, Edicta; Cheas, Lydia; Houck, Christopher; Seifer, Ronald
Examine general emotion expression and sibling-parent emotion communication among Latino and non-Latino white (NLW) siblings of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and matched comparisons. 200 siblings (ages 8-15 years) completed the newly developed Sibling-Parent Emotion Communication Scale and existing measures of general emotion expression and psychosocial functioning. Preliminary analyses evaluated scale psychometrics across ethnicity. Structure and internal consistency of the emotion expression and communication measures differed by respondent ethnicity. Latino siblings endorsed more general emotion expression problems and marginally lower sibling-parent emotion communication than NLW siblings. Siblings of children with ID reported marginally more general emotion expression problems than comparisons. Emotion expression problems and lower sibling-parent emotion communication predicted more internalizing and somatic symptoms and poorer personal adjustment, regardless of ID status. Siblings of children with ID endorsed poorer personal adjustment. Cultural differences in emotion expression and communication may increase Latino siblings' risk for emotional adjustment difficulties.
Dowdy, Erin; Harrell-Williams, Leigh; Dever, Bridget V.; Furlong, Michael J.; Moore, Stephanie; Raines, Tara; Kamphaus, Randy W.
Increasingly, schools are implementing school-based screening for risk of behavioral and emotional problems; hence, foundational evidence supporting the predictive validity of screening instruments is important to assess. This study examined the predictive validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening…
Gong, Xiaopeng; Paulson, Sharon E.
The current study examined the factor structure of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale with an American college sample (n = 404, 322 females, 88.9% Whites). Data were collected through an online survey, and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test several proposed factor models from previous studies. The results…
Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe
This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…
Wood, Frank; And Others
The guide lists information on 56 resources (journal articles, books, reports, monographs) dealing with the education of children with behavioral disorders and published between 1950 and 1983. An introductory section reviews issues involved in the definition of the population, considers implications of the term "emotional disturbance," and cites…
Ogolsky, Brian G; Gray, Christine R
The literature on relationship maintenance has focused primarily on the beneficial outcomes of maintenance, and, as a result, little is known about relational processes that may interfere with reports of partners' maintenance. The authors examine how daily conflict influences individuals' reports of their partners' maintenance, and how a constructive communication style buffers this influence by reducing negative emotion on conflict days. In a daily diary study of 98 same-sex couples in romantic relationships, they found that the negative association between conflict and reports of a partner's relationship maintenance was mediated by negative emotion. That is, there was an indirect effect by which daily conflict was associated with higher levels of daily negative emotion, which was associated with reports of lower levels of partners' relationship maintenance. This indirect effect was moderated by couples' overall level of constructive communication such that higher levels diminished the degree to which couples experienced negative emotion on days with episodes of relational conflict. The authors discuss results in the context of interpersonal theory and provide implications for clinicians and practitioners. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Nuijens, Karen L.; Teglasi, Hedwig; Hancock, Gregory R.
Self and others' perceptions of victimization, bullying, and academic competence were examined in relation to self-reported anxiety, depression, anger, and global self-worth in a non-clinical sample of second- and third-grade children. Previous studies document links between negative emotions and self-perceptions that are less favorable than…
Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.
Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (maternal depression); the Five Minute Speech Sample (EE); the Child Behavior Checklist (toddler behavior prob...
Salles, Andréia Mansk Boone; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo
Play therapy offers children the opportunity to “play out” their intensive feelings, conflicts and issues in a constructive atmosphere, and with a sense of safety and acceptance given to them by the play therapist. Bering this in mind, the therapist employed Non-Directive Play Therapy approach during 31 sessions of 45 minutes each with a nine-years-old boy who was exhibiting emotional/behavioural problems at school. The client’s psychotherapeutic process is presented divided in three stages: ...
Greta D. Assessment of anger expression using art therapy with younger school-age children with emotional and behavioral problems, Master’s thesis / lecturer Dr. V. Grigaliūnienė, consultant Dr. A. Brazauskaitė; Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Faculty of Nursing, , Kaunas Faculty of Vilnius Academy of Arts, Kaunas, 2017:107psl. The aim of this Master‘s thesis was to evaluate the changes in anger expression and control by using art therapy with younger school-age children that ha...
Ellis, Jennifer D; Schroder, Hans S; Patrick, Christopher J; Moser, Jason S
Individuals with psychopathic traits often demonstrate blunted reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. However, it is not yet clear whether these individuals also have difficulty regulating their emotional responses to negative stimuli. To address this question, participants with varying levels of psychopathic traits (indexed by the Triarchic Measure of Psychopathy; Patrick, 2010) completed a task in which they passively viewed, increased, or decreased their emotions to negative picture stimuli while electrocortical activity was recorded. During passive viewing of negative images, higher boldness, but not higher disinhibition or meanness, was associated with reduced amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP), an ERP that indexes reactivity to emotionally relevant stimuli. However, all participants demonstrated expected enhancement of the LPP when asked to increase their emotional response. Participants did not show expected suppression of the LPP when asked to decrease their emotional response. Contrary to the electrophysiological data, individuals with higher boldness did not self-report experiencing blunted emotional response during passive viewing trials, and they reported experiencing greater emotional reactivity relative to other participants when regulating (e.g., both increasing and decreasing) their emotions. Results suggest inconsistency between physiological and self-report indices of emotion among high-bold individuals during both affective processing and regulation. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Guo, Qian; Zhou, Tiantong; Li, Wenjie; Dong, Li; Wang, Suhong; Zou, Ling
Executive function refers to conscious control in psychological process which relates to thinking and action. Emotional decision is a part of hot executive function and contains emotion and logic elements. As a kind of important social adaptation ability, more and more attention has been paid in recent years. Gambling task can be well performed in the study of emotional decision. As fMRI researches focused on gambling task show not completely consistent brain activation regions, this study adopted EEG-fMRI fusion technology to reveal brain neural activity related with feedback stimuli. In this study, an EEG-informed fMRI analysis was applied to process simultaneous EEG-fMRI data. First, relative power-spectrum analysis and K-means clustering method were performed separately to extract EEG-fMRI features. Then, Generalized linear models were structured using fMRI data and using different EEG features as regressors. The results showed that in the win versus loss stimuli, the activated regions almost covered the caudate, the ventral striatum (VS), the orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and the cingulate. Wide activation areas associated with reward and punishment were revealed by the EEG-fMRI integration analysis than the conventional fMRI results, such as the posterior cingulate and the OFC. The VS and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were found when EEG power features were performed as regressors of GLM compared with results entering the amplitudes of feedback-related negativity (FRN) as regressors. Furthermore, the brain region activation intensity was the strongest when theta-band power was used as a regressor compared with the other two fusion results. The EEG-based fMRI analysis can more accurately depict the whole-brain activation map and analyze emotional decision problems.
Nentjes, Lieke; Bernstein, David P; Meijer, Ewout; Arntz, Arnoud; Wiers, Reinout W
This study investigated the physiological, self-reported, and facial correlates of emotion regulation in psychopathy. Specifically, we compared psychopathic offenders (n = 42), nonpsychopathic offenders (n = 42), and nonoffender controls (n = 26) in their ability to inhibit and express emotion while watching affective films (fear, happy, and sad). Results showed that all participants were capable of drastically diminishing facial emotions under inhibition instructions. Contrary to expectation, psychopaths were not superior in adopting such a "poker face." Further, the inhibition of emotion was associated with cardiovascular changes, an effect that was also not dependent on psychopathy (or its factors), suggesting emotion inhibition to be an effortful process in psychopaths as well. Interestingly, psychopathic offenders did not differ from nonpsychopaths in the capacity to show content-appropriate facial emotions during the expression condition. Taken together, these data challenge the view that psychopathy is associated with either superior emotional inhibitory capacities or a generalized impairment in showing facial affect.
Five studies examined the effects of positive emotion priming on the willingness to drive recklessly. In all five, young drivers were exposed to one of the following primes of positive affect: a positive mood story; happy memories; an exciting film; a relaxing film; or thoughts on the meaning in life. Following the prime, the participants were asked to report on their willingness to drive recklessly. The responses were compared to those of groups exposed either to neutral affect, another kind of positive affect, or negative affect priming. In two of the studies, participants were also asked to report on their driving styles (risky, anxious, angry, or careful) as a second dependent variable. Positive affect, especially in the form of arousal, was found to be related to higher willingness to drive recklessly. Although men tended to report higher intentions to drive recklessly, men and women did not react differently to the emotional induction. Most interestingly, positive emotions of a relaxing nature, as well as thinking about the meaning in life, lowered the willingness to engage in risky driving. The discussion emphasizes the importance of looking for new ways to use positive emotions effectively in road safety interventions, and considers the practical implications of the studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Halitosis represents a common dental condition, although sufferers are often not conscious of it. The aim of this study was to examine behavior in a sample of Italian subjects with reference to self-reported halitosis and emotional state, and specifically the presence of dental anxiety. Methods The study was performed on Italian subjects (N = 1052; range 15-65 years. A self-report questionnaire was used to detect self-reported halitosis and other variables possibly linked to it (sociodemographic data, medical and dental history, oral hygiene, and others, and a dental anxiety scale (DAS divided into two subscales that explore a patient's dental anxiety and dental anxiety concerning dentist-patient relations. Associations between self-reported halitosis and the abovementioned variables were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Correlations between the two groups, with self-perceived halitosis and without, were also investigated with dental anxiety and with the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Results The rate of self-reported halitosis was 19.39%. The factors linked with halitosis were: anxiety regarding dentist patient relations (relational dental anxiety (OR = 1.04, CI = 1.01-1.07, alcohol consumption (OR = 0.47, CI = 0.34-0.66, gum diseases (OR = 0.39, CI = 0.27-0.55, age > 30 years (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.00-1.02, female gender (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.51-0.98, poor oral hygiene (OR = 0.65, CI = 0.43-0.98, general anxiety (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.49-0.90, and urinary system pathologies (OR = 0.46, CI = 0.30-0.70. Other findings emerged concerning average differences between subjects with or without self-perceived halitosis, dental anxiety and the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Conclusions Halitosis requires professional care not only by dentists, but also psychological support as it is a problem that leads to avoidance behaviors and thereby limits relationships. It
Rasmussen, Cathrine Skovmand; Nielsen, Louise Gramstrup; Petersen, Dorthe Janne
on emotional and behavioural problems was obtained from parents filling in the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) when the child was 8-9 and again when 15 years old. Data on risk factors was drawn from Danish registers. Analysis used was logistic regression for crude and adjusted change. Results: Parental divorce......Background and aim: The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for significant changes in emotional and behavioural problem load in a community-based cohort of Danish children aged 9-16 years, the risk factors being seven parental and two child-related adverse life events. Methods: Data...... significantly raised the odds ratio of an increase in emotional and behavioural problems; furthermore, the risk of deterioration in problem behaviour rose significantly with increasing number of adverse life events. By dividing the children into four groups based on the pathway in problem load (increasers...
Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Thompson, Kara; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena
Testing the theories that form the basis of prevention programs can enhance our understanding of behavioral change and inform the development, coordination, and adaptation of prevention programs. However, theories of change showing the linkages from intervention program components to risk or protective factors to desired outcomes across time are rarely specified or tested. In this 2-year longitudinal study, we test the theory that increases in two protective factors (i.e., children's prosocial leadership and their teachers' expectations of social responsibility) targeted by the WITS Programs (Walk Away, Ignore, Talk it Out, and Seek Help) would be associated with declines in peer victimization, aggression, and emotional problems. Participants included Canadian students, in grades 1-4 at baseline (n = 1329) and their parents and teachers. Consistent with our theory of change, variability in program implementation (adherence and integration) and in children's use of program skills (child responsiveness) are related to increases in both protective factors. Increases in these protective factors are associated with subsequent declines in children's aggression, victimization, and emotional problems. We discuss how enhancement of these protective factors may operate to improve child outcomes and the need for theory-based research to refine and improve the effectiveness of intervention strategies and to improve program scale-up. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Rose, Amanda J.; Smith, Rhiannon L.; Glick, Gary C.; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.
This research highlights the critical role of gender in the context of problem talk and social support in adolescents' friendships. Early- and middle-adolescents' (N = 314 friend dyads; Ms = 13.01 and 16.03 years) conversations about problems were studied using observation and a short-term longitudinal design. Mean-level gender differences emerged…
Tenneij, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Koot, Hans M.
Background: Little is known about client characteristics that are related to outcome during inpatient treatment of adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) and severe behavioural problems. Method: We explored variables that were related to a change in behavioural problems in 87 individuals with mild ID during inpatient treatment in facilities…
Conn, Kelly M; Fisher, Susan G; Rhee, Hyekyun
Little is known about the emotional intelligence (EI) of parents and their children with asthma. Objectives of this study were to assess: 1) parent's and children's report of emotions in response to an asthma vignette (proxy for EI) and 2) the relationship between emotions, self-management behaviors, and symptoms. We conducted a descriptive, mixed methods study of children 7-12 years old with asthma. Parent-Child dyads (n=104) responded to an asthma vignette to gain insight into emotions, symptoms, and self-management behaviors. Additional questions assessed confidence and worry using a 5-point Likert scale. Thematic analyses and descriptive statistics were used to assess qualitative and quantitative outcomes. Children were predominantly male (58%), 7-9 (58%), and White (46%). The most common negative emotions reported by children were scared and sad. Children who sought help from an adult were less likely to report using medications compared to children who did not seek help (39.5% vs. 62.3%, p=.029). Children with low worry and high confidence had fewer symptoms compared to children reporting high worry and low confidence (symptoms: days 3.24 vs. 6.77, p=.012, nights 2.71 vs. 5.36, p=.004). Children provided appropriate emotional responses to the asthma vignette; emotions were related to self-management behaviors and symptoms. More studies are needed to specifically assess EI in this population. Parents and children with greater EI may be better able to understand their needs, engage in self-management behaviors, and communicate with their nurses, to improve their support network and ability to access services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Parkes, Alison; Waylen, Andrea; Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Macleod, John
Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16-18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-childhood problems and early sexual behavior, using a subsample (N = 4,739, 53 % female, 98 % white, mean age 15 years 6 months) from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Adolescents provided information at age 15 on early sexual behavior (oral sex and/or intercourse) and sexual risk-taking, and at age 13 on prior risk involvement (sexual behavior, antisocial behavior and substance use). Information on hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, peer relationship problems, school dislike and school performance was collected in middle-childhood at Time 1 (6-8 years) and Time 2 (10-11 years). In agreement with previous research, conduct problems predicted early sexual behavior, although this was found only for persistent early problems. In addition, Time 2 school dislike predicted early sexual behavior, while peer relationship problems were protective. Persistent early school dislike further characterized higher-risk groups (early sexual behavior preceded by age 13 risk, or accompanied by higher sexual risk-taking). The study establishes middle-childhood school dislike as a novel risk factor for early sexual behavior and higher-risk groups, and the importance of persistent conduct problems. Implications for the identification of children at risk and targeted intervention are discussed, as well as suggestions for further research.
Didden, H.C.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Toorn, M. van der; Laarhoven, N.
Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between
Van der Giessen, D.; Hollenstein, T.; Hale, W.W.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, S.J.T.
Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of
Desmet, P.M.A.; Guiza Caicedo, D.; Van Hout, M.
Emotions experienced in response to hotel services were examined with an online questionnaire. The study resulted in 348 cases of hotel service emotions. The frequency of reported pleasant emotions was similar to the frequency of reported unpleasant emotions. Often reported pleasant emotions were
Beil, Robert J.; Malin, Jane T.
Mr. Robert Beil, Systems Engineer at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) develop a prototype tool suite that combines complementary software technology used at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and KSC for problem report preprocessing and semantic tag extraction, to improve input to data mining and trend analysis. This document contains the outcome of the assessment and the Findings, Observations and NESC Recommendations.
Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.
Many types of hazard and risk analyses are used during the life cycle of complex systems, including Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis, Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis, Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Reliability Analysis and analysis of Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) databases. The success of these methods depends on the availability of input data and the analysts knowledge. Standard nomenclature can increase the reusability of hazard, risk and problem data. When nomenclature in the source texts is not standard, taxonomies with mapping words (sets of rough synonyms) can be combined with semantic search to identify items and tag them with metadata based on a rich standard nomenclature. Semantic search uses word meanings in the context of parsed phrases to find matches. The NASA taxonomies provide the word meanings. Spacecraft taxonomies and ontologies (generalization hierarchies with attributes and relationships, based on terms meanings) are being developed for types of subsystems, functions, entities, hazards and failures. The ontologies are broad and general, covering hardware, software and human systems. Semantic search of Space Station texts was used to validate and extend the taxonomies. The taxonomies have also been used to extract system connectivity (interaction) models and functions from requirements text. Now the Reconciler semantic search tool and the taxonomies are being applied to improve search in the Space Shuttle PRACA database, to discover recurring patterns of failure. Usual methods of string search and keyword search fall short because the entries are terse and have numerous shortcuts (irregular abbreviations, nonstandard acronyms, cryptic codes) and modifier words cannot be used in sentence context to refine the search. The limited and fixed FMEA categories associated with the entries do not make the fine distinctions needed in the search. The approach assigns PRACA report titles to problem classes in
This report highlights significant operating events involving observed or potential common-mode failures of solenoid-operated valves (SOVs) in US plants. These events resulted in degradation or malfunction of multiple trains of safety systems as well as of multiple safety systems. On the basis of the evaluation of these events, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concludes that the problems with solenoid-operated valves are an important issue that needs additional NRC and industry attention. This report also provides AEOD's recommendations for actions to reduce the occurrence of SOV common-mode failures. 115 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs
Chan, Alan H. S.; Chen, K.; Chong, Elaine Y. L.
The present study was developed to comprehensively investigate the occupational health problems among teachers of primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. A random sample of 1,710 respondents was generated from the database of Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union (HKPTU) members. A self-administrated questionnaire was designed and sent by mail to the teachers of primary and secondary schools in HK. The results indicated that comparing with one year and five years ago, 91.6% and 97.3% of the responding teachers reported an increase of perceived stress level, respectively. Heavy workload and time pressure, education reforms, external school review, pursuing further education, and managing students' behaviour and learning were the most frequently reported sources of work stress. The four most frequently reported stress management activities were sleeping, talking to neighbors and friends, self-relaxing, and watching television, while the least frequently reported activity was doing more exercises or sports.
Buchanan, Ann; Flouri, Eirini; Ten Brinke, JoAnn
To assess the relationship between risk and protective factors and the continuity of psychological problems from age 7 to age 33. Data on 5,591 cohort members of the National Child Development Study were used to track continuity and discontinuity between internalizing and externalizing problems at age 7, as assessed by the Rutter 'A' Health and Behaviour Checklist, and psychological distress at age 33, as assessed by the Malaise Inventory, controlling for risk and protective groupings present at age 7. There was no association between malaise in adulthood and internalizing problems in childhood. However, people who had externalizing problems in childhood were nearly twice as likely as those without such problems to have high Malaise scores in adulthood. A grouping of risk factors (police/probation experience by family, agency referral for difficulties in school, social services involvement, domestic tension) did not predict malaise in adulthood. Also a grouping of protective factors (outings with mother, father reads to child, good creative skills, good numeric skills) predicted that women were less likely to have high Malaise scores in adult life. Protective factors in childhood were strongly associated with lower Malaise scores in adulthood. Research on factors associated with discontinuity of psychological problems may prove fruitful.
Donohue, Meghan Rose; Goodman, Sherryl H; Tully, Erin C
Risk for internalizing problems and social skills deficits likely emerges in early childhood when emotion processing and social competencies are developing. Positively biased processing of social information is typical during early childhood and may be protective against poorer psychosocial outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that young children with relatively less positively biased attention to, interpretations of, and attributions for their mother's emotions would exhibit poorer prosocial skills and more internalizing problems. A sample of 4- to 6-year-old children ( N =82) observed their mothers express happiness, sadness and anger during a simulated emotional phone conversation. Children's attention to their mother when she expressed each emotion was rated from video. Immediately following the phone conversation, children were asked questions about the conversation to assess their interpretations of the intensity of mother's emotions and misattributions of personal responsibility for her emotions. Children's prosocial skills and internalizing problems were assessed using mother-report rating scales. Interpretations of mother's positive emotions as relatively less intense than her negative emotions, misattributions of personal responsibility for her negative emotions, and lack of misattributions of personal responsibility for her positive emotions were associated with poorer prosocial skills. Children who attended relatively less to mother's positive than her negative emotions had higher levels of internalizing problems. These findings suggest that children's attention to, interpretations of, and attributions for their mother's emotions may be important targets of early interventions for preventing prosocial skills deficits and internalizing problems.
Steenkamp, Maria M; Suvak, Michael K; Dickstein, Benjamin D; Shea, M Tracie; Litz, Brett T
Few studies have investigated emotional functioning in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). To explore the nature and extent of emotion difficulties in OCPD, the authors examined four domains of self-reported emotional functioning--negative affectivity, anger, emotion regulation, and emotion expressivity--in women with OCPD and compared them to a borderline personality disorder (BPD) group and a healthy control group. Data were collected as part of a larger psychophysiological experimental study on emotion regulation and personality. Compared to healthy controls, participants with OCPD reported significantly higher levels of negative affectivity, trait anger, emotional intensity, and emotion regulation difficulties. Emotion regulation difficulties included lack of emotional clarity, nonacceptance of emotional responses, and limited access to effective emotion regulation strategies. Participants with OCPD scored similarly to participants with BPD on only one variable, namely, problems engaging in goal-directed behavior when upset. Results suggest that OCPD may be characterized by notable difficulties in several emotional domains.
Nentjes, L.; Bernstein, D.P.; Meijer, E.; Arntz, A.; Wiers, R.W.
This study investigated the physiological, self-reported, and facial correlates of emotion regulation in psychopathy. Specifically, we compared psychopathic offenders (n = 42), nonpsychopathic offenders (n = 42), and nonoffender controls (n = 26) in their ability to inhibit and express emotion while
Jee, Sandra H; Halterman, Jill S; Szilagyi, Moira; Conn, Anne-Marie; Alpert-Gillis, Linda; Szilagyi, Peter G
To determine whether systematic use of a validated social-emotional screening instrument in a primary care setting is feasible and improves detection of social-emotional problems among youth in foster care. Before-and-after study design, following a practice intervention to screen all youth in foster care for psychosocial problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a validated instrument with 5 subdomains. After implementation of systematic screening, youth aged 11 to 17 years and their foster parents completed the SDQ at routine health maintenance visits. We assessed feasibility of screening by measuring the completion rates of SDQ by youth and foster parents. We compared the detection of psychosocial problems during a 2-year period before systematic screening to the detection after implementation of systematic screening with the SDQ. We used chart reviews to assess detection at baseline and after implementing systematic screening. Altogether, 92% of 212 youth with routine visits that occurred after initiation of screening had a completed SDQ in the medical record, demonstrating high feasibility of systematic screening. Detection of a potential mental health problem was higher in the screening period than baseline period for the entire population (54% vs 27%, P youth had 2 or more significant social-emotional problem domains on the SDQ. Systematic screening for potential social-emotional problems among youth in foster care was feasible within a primary care setting and doubled the detection rate of potential psychosocial problems. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baurain, Celine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie
This study has examined the link between social information processing (SIP) and socio-emotional regulation (SER) in 45 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 45 typically developing (TD) children, matched on their developmental age. A Coding Grid of SER, focusing on Emotional Expression, Social Behaviour and Behaviours towards Social…
Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home environment, the provision of learning materials in the home, maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and harsh disciplining practices were all analyzed as potential mediators of the association between economic disadvantage and children's internalizing and externalizing problem scores. Findings from structural equation modeling showed that for both internalizing and externalizing problems, the mechanisms underlying the effect of economic disadvantage included maternal depressive symptoms, along with parenting stress and harsh disciplining. For internalizing but not for externalizing problem scores, the lack of provision of learning materials in the home was an additional mechanism explaining the effect of economic disadvantage. The current results suggest that interventions that focus solely on raising income levels may not adequately address problems in the family processes that emerge as a result of economic disadvantage. Policies to improve the mental health of mothers with young children but also their home environments are needed to change the economic gradient in child behavior.
Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Scollon, Christie Napa; Choi, Dong-Won
In 3 studies, the authors found support for the value-congruence model that accounts for cultural variations in memory for emotional experiences. In Study 1, the authors found that in the made-in-the-U.S. scenario condition, European Americans were more accurate than were Asian Americans in their retrospective frequency judgments of emotions. However, in the made-in-Japan scenario condition, European Americans were less accurate than were Asian Americans. In Study 2, the authors demonstrated that value orientation mediates the CulturexType of Event congruence effect. In Study 3 (a daily event sampling study), the authors showed that the congruence effect was explained by the importance of parental approval. In sum, emotional events congruent with personal values remain in memory longer and influence retrospective frequency judgments of emotion more than do incongruent events. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
This study investigated the relationship between stress and attitudes toward negative emotions in adolescents. Adolescent students (N=1500) completed a questionnaire that measured attitudes toward negative emotions, emotional-stress reactions, and stress coping. Analysis of date yielded, two factors of the attitudes toward negative emotions: "Negative feelings about negative emotions" and "Capabilities of switching of negative emotions". In order to examine the theoretical relationships among attitudes toward negative emotions, emotional-stress reactions, and stress coping, a hypothetical model was tested by covariance structure analysis. This model predicted that students who have a high level of attitudes toward negative emotions would report enhanced problem solving which promoted stress coping. The results indicated that "Negative feelings about negative emotions" enhanced avoidable coping, and avoidable coping enhanced stress reactions. "Capabilities of switching of negative emotions" was related to a decrease of avoidable coping. Based on the results from covariance structure analysis and a multiple population analysis, the clinical significance and developmental characteristics were discussed.
Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Tzavidis, Nikos
To examine if cognitive ability moderates the effect of area (neighborhood) deprivation on young children's problem behavior. Data from the first two sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) in the UK were used. Children were clustered in small areas in nine strata in the UK and were aged 9 months at Sweep 1 and 3 years at Sweep 2. Neighborhood deprivation was measured with the Index of Multiple Deprivation at Sweep 1. Overall and specific problem behavior was measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at Sweep 2. To explore moderator specificity we used three indices of ability (verbal cognitive ability, non-verbal cognitive ability, and attainment of developmental milestones). Adjustment was made for child's age and sex, and for Sweep 1 family adversity (number of adverse life events), family structure, mother's social class and psychological distress, and family socio-economic disadvantage. We found both support for our main hypothesis, and evidence for specificity. Neighborhood deprivation was, even after adjustment for covariates, significantly associated with children's peer problems. However, verbal and non-verbal cognitive ability moderated this association. Neighborhood deprivation was related to peer problems even at preschool age. Although the effect of neighborhood deprivation on externalizing problems was mediated by family poverty and parental socio-economic position and although its effect on internalizing problems was mediated by parental mental health, its effect on difficulties with peers was independent of both parental and child characteristics. Cognitive ability moderated the effect of neighborhood deprivation on preschoolers' peer relationships difficulties.
Blanchard, Laura T; Gurka, Matthew J; Blackman, James A
Recent children's health surveys have documented a high prevalence of emotional, developmental, and behavioral problems among children. Data from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health provide new insights into these problems and their association with family function and community participation. These issues have become a current focus of the World Health Organization. Answers to questions of interest from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health were reported using estimates and SEs of rates. Statistical comparisons of rates with chi2 tests at the 0.05 level were made when relevant. The most commonly diagnosed problems among children 6-17 years of age were learning disabilities (11.5%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (8.8%), and behavioral problems (6.3%); among preschoolers, speech problems (5.8%) and developmental delay (3.2%) were most common. One in 200 children was diagnosed with autism. In contrast, rates of parental concerns about emotional, developmental, or behavioral problems were much higher; for example, 41% of parents had concerns about learning difficulties and 36% about depression or anxiety. Children with developmental problems had lower self-esteem, more depression and anxiety, more problems with learning, missed more school, and were less involved in sports and other community activities. Their families experienced more difficulty in the areas of childcare, employment, parent-child relationships, and caregiver burden. The most recent National Survey of Children's Health mirrored results of previous surveys regarding rates of diagnosed emotional, developmental, and behavioral problems, including an escalating diagnosis of autism among children. Reported rates of parental concerns about these problems were much higher, suggesting possible underdiagnosis of children's problems. Children with chronic problems had diminished family functioning, more school absences, and less participation in community activities compared with
Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Witte, P.
This study investigated the amounts of problem-solving process information ("action," "why," "how," and "metacognitive") elicited by means of concurrent, retrospective, and cued retrospective reporting. In a within-participants design, 26 participants completed electrical circuit troubleshooting
Adler, S.L.; Wilczek, F.
This report is a progress report on the work of two principal investigators in the broad area of particle physics theory, covering their personal work, that of their coworkers, and their proposed work for the future. One author has worked in the past on various topics in field theory and particle physics, among them current algebras, the physics of neutrino induced reactions, quantum electrodynamics (including strong magnetic field processes), the theory of the axial-vector current anomaly, topics in quantum gravity, and nonlinear models for quark confinement. While much of his work has been analytical, all of the projects listed above (except for the work on gravity) had phases which required considerable computer work as well. Over the next several years, he proposes to continue or initiate research on the following problems: (1) Acceleration algorithms for the Monte Carlo analysis of lattice field and gauge theories, and more generally, new research in computational neuroscience and pattern recognition. (2) Construction of quaternionic generalizations of complex quantum mechanics and field theory, and their application to composite models of quarks and leptons, and to the problem of unifying quantum theories of matter with general relativity. One author has worked on problems in exotic quantum statistics and its applications to condensed matter systems. His work has also continued on the quantum theory of black holes. This has evolved toward understanding properties of quantum field theory and string theory in incomplete regions of flat space
Mahnaz Eimani oshnari
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare emotional and behavioral difficulties of students with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD from the perspectives ofparents and teachers. Methods: In the present study, 55 children, who were 7-12 years of age, were diagnosed asADHD by qualified psychiatrists, and were receiving medication, were selected using convenient sampling method. Their fathers, mothers, and teachers filled out Conner’s TeacherRating Scale (39 items and Conner’s Parent Rating Scale (48 items. To analyze data,Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and analysis of variance with repeated measures were used. Results: The results indicated that conduct disorder symptoms are underestimated by parentsand symptoms of anxiety disorder are overestimated by teachers (α ≤ 0.05.Conclusion: Based on the findings, it is concluded that using different sources for recognizingADHD and co-occurring disorders is necessary and prevents the labeling of children, overlooking the disorder, and enhances the accuracy of diagnosis.
Sigal, John J; Perry, J Christopher; Robbins, James M; Gagné, Marie-Anik; Nassif, Edgard
To test the hypothesis that differences between sicker and not-so-sick women in their preoccupation with their illness and parenting behavior can explain why some investigators find that children of breast cancer patients fare better than controls and other investigators find the reverse. Forty-two women with metastasized breast cancer (sicker mothers) and 45 women with a first occurrence of nonmetastasized breast cancer (not-so-sick mothers) rated the degree of their preoccupation with the disease, their parenting behavior, mood, and social supports and the emotional and behavioral symptoms in one of their children. Their 12- to 18-year-old children rated their mothers' parenting behavior, their own emotional and behavioral symptoms, and their self-esteem. Sicker mothers reported relatively less preoccupation. They, and their children, reported less poor parenting and fewer externalizing symptoms in the children. Regression analyses revealed further differences between the groups. Less preoccupation with their illness and less poor parenting behavior by sicker mothers may explain why their children seem to fare better then those of not-so-sick mothers. Formulations concerning families of breast cancer patients should include consideration of the effect of the mothers' perception of the severity of their illness.
Full Text Available Traditional Discounted Utility Model assumes an exponential delay discount function, with a constant discount rate: this implies dynamic consistency and stationary intertemporal preferences. Contrary to the normative setting, decision neuroscience stresses a lack of rationality, i.e., inconsistency, in some intertemporal choice behaviors. We deal with both models are dealt with in the framework of some relevant decision problems.
Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning
This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home…
Graziano, Paulo A.; Hart, Katie
The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; M[subscript age] = 5.16 years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically…
F.P. Velders (Fleur)
textabstractChildhood psychiatric disorders are common, show a high comorbidity and are associated with a long-term vulnerability for mental health problems, which underscores the importance of a better understanding of their etiology. Psychiatric symptoms of the parents place children at risk for
J. Rijlaarsdam (Jolien); G. Stevens (Gonneke); J. van der Ende (Jan); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)
textabstractThis study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in
Background: Children with multiple impairments have more complex developmental problems than children with a single impairment. Method: We compared children, aged 4 to 11 years, with intellectual disability (ID) and visual impairment to children with single ID, single visual impairment and typical development on "Child Behavior Check…
Chalmers, Charlotte; Leathem, Janet; Bennett, Simon; McNaughton, Harry; Mahawish, Karim
To investigate the efficacy of problem solving therapy for reducing the emotional distress experienced by younger stroke survivors. A non-randomized waitlist controlled design was used to compare outcome measures for the treatment group and a waitlist control group at baseline and post-waitlist/post-therapy. After the waitlist group received problem solving therapy an analysis was completed on the pooled outcome measures at baseline, post-treatment, and three-month follow-up. Changes on outcome measures between baseline and post-treatment (n = 13) were not significantly different between the two groups, treatment (n = 13), and the waitlist control group (n = 16) (between-subject design). The pooled data (n = 28) indicated that receiving problem solving therapy significantly reduced participants levels of depression and anxiety and increased quality of life levels from baseline to follow up (within-subject design), however, methodological limitations, such as the lack of a control group reduce the validity of this finding. The between-subject results suggest that there was no significant difference between those that received problem solving therapy and a waitlist control group between baseline and post-waitlist/post-therapy. The within-subject design suggests that problem solving therapy may be beneficial for younger stroke survivors when they are given some time to learn and implement the skills into their day to day life. However, additional research with a control group is required to investigate this further. This study provides limited evidence for the provision of support groups for younger stroke survivors post stroke, however, it remains unclear about what type of support this should be. Implications for Rehabilitation Problem solving therapy is no more effective for reducing post stroke distress than a wait-list control group. Problem solving therapy may be perceived as helpful and enjoyable by younger stroke survivors. Younger stroke
Hall, Nathan C.; Goetz, Thomas; Chiarella, Andrew; Rahimi, Sonia
As technology becomes increasingly integrated with education, research on the relationships between students’ computing-related emotions and motivation following technological difficulties is critical to improving learning experiences. Following from Weiner’s (2010) attribution theory of achievement motivation, the present research examined relationships between causal attributions and emotions concerning academic computing difficulties in two studies. Study samples consisted of North American university students enrolled in both traditional and online universities (total N = 559) who responded to either hypothetical scenarios or experimental manipulations involving technological challenges experienced in academic settings. Findings from Study 1 showed stable and external attributions to be emotionally maladaptive (more helplessness, boredom, guilt), particularly in response to unexpected computing problems. Additionally, Study 2 found stable attributions for unexpected problems to predict more anxiety for traditional students, with both external and personally controllable attributions for minor problems proving emotionally beneficial for students in online degree programs (more hope, less anxiety). Overall, hypothesized negative effects of stable attributions were observed across both studies, with mixed results for personally controllable attributions and unanticipated emotional benefits of external attributions for academic computing problems warranting further study. PMID:29529039
方紫薇 Tzu-Wei Fang
Full Text Available 本研究旨在探討正向情緒及幽默對學生在科學問題解決時的成績表現、認知評估與事後情緒之影響。本研究針對國中生進行調查研究，共施測318位八年級學生，男生166 位、女生152 位。經進行t檢定及多變量變異數之統計分析後，研究結果顯示，在油醋分離之問題解決題目上，高正向情緒者在科學問題解決之成績表現、有趣程度之認知評估及事後之正向情緒，皆顯著高於低正向情緒者；在事後負向情緒上則顯著低於低正向情緒者。在鐵棒戳紙題目方面，高正向情緒者認知評估之挑戰、有趣、容易之分數，以及事後正向情緒皆顯著高於低正向情緒者。幽默版本激起之正向情緒是有比原始版本高。但幽默版本與原始版本在科學問題解決上之成績表現、認知評估與事後情緒上皆未達顯著差異。本研究可提供教師教學之參考，即如何營造正向情緒的學習氛圍及環境，來促進科學問題解決能力之學習。 This study investigates whether emotions and humor can influence science problem-solving performance, cognitive appraisal, and emotion after the event. This study conducts a survey of 318 junior high school students (166 Male and 152 Female. The statistical methods used to analyze the data are t test and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. The results of this study are as follows: (1 When solving the scientific problem of Oil and Vinegar Separation, students with high positive emotions had superior science problem-solving performance, interest appraisal, and positive emotions after the event compared to students with low positive emotions; however, they experienced lower negative emotion after the event than low positive emotion students did; and (2 when solving the scientific problem of Can the Iron Bar Pierce the Paper, students with high positive emotions reported higher scores of cognitive
with cancer and their families. Cancer, 74, 2071-2078. Lazarus , R. S., & Folkman , S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer...being able to access post-treatment rehabilitative care (Eversley et al., 2005). Social Problem Solving Lazarus and Folkman’s stress appraisal...International Neuropsychological Sociology, 9(7), 967-982. Archibald, Y . M., Lunn, D., Ruttan, L. A., MacDonald, D. R., Del Maestro, R. F., Barr, H
Epstein, Michael H.; Cullinan, Douglas; Ryser, Gail; Pearson, Nils
This study reports on the standardization of the Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance. Data collected on 2,266 typical students (ages 5- 18) and 1,371 students with emotional disturbances led to the identification of six behavioral problem factors that correspond to the federal definition of emotional disturbance and were highly internally…
van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; Witte, Puk
This study investigated the amounts of problem-solving process information ("action," "why," "how," and "metacognitive") elicited by means of concurrent, retrospective, and cued retrospective reporting. In a within-participants design, 26 participants completed electrical circuit troubleshooting tasks under different reporting conditions. The method of cued retrospective reporting used the original computer-based task and a superimposed record of the participant's eye fixations and mouse-keyboard operations as a cue for retrospection. Cued retrospective reporting (with the exception of why information) and concurrent reporting (with the exception of metacognitive information) resulted in a higher number of codes on the different types of information than did retrospective reporting.
Seichepine, Daniel R.; Stamm, Julie M.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Riley, David O.; Baugh, Christine M.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.
Abstract Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE. PMID:23421745
Seichepine, Daniel R; Stamm, Julie M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Riley, David O; Baugh, Christine M; Gavett, Brandon E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE.
Porter, Sam; McConnell, Tracey; McLaughlin, Katrina; Lynn, Fiona; Cardwell, Christopher; Braiden, Hannah-Jane; Boylan, Jackie; Holmes, Valerie
Although music therapy (MT) is considered an effective intervention for young people with mental health needs, its efficacy in clinical settings is unclear. We therefore examined the efficacy of MT in clinical practice. Two hundred and fifty-one child (8-16 years, with social, emotional, behavioural and developmental difficulties) and parent dyads from six Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service community care facilities in Northern Ireland were randomised to 12 weekly sessions of MT plus usual care [n = 123; 76 in final analyses] or usual care alone [n = 128; 105 in final analyses]. Follow-up occurred at 13 weeks and 26 weeks postrandomisation. Primary outcome was improvement in communication (Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales) (SSIS) at 13 weeks. Secondary outcomes included social functioning, self-esteem, depression and family functioning. There was no significant difference for the child SSIS at week 13 (adjusted difference in mean 2.4; 95% CI -1.2 to 6.1; p = .19) or for the guardian SSIS (0.5; 95% CI -2.9 to 3.8; p = .78). However, for participants aged 13 and over in the intervention group, the child SSIS communication was significantly improved (6.1, 95% CI 1.6 to 10.5; p = .007) but not the guardian SSIS (1.1; 95% CI -2.9 to 5.2; p = .59). Overall, self-esteem was significantly improved and depression scores were significantly lower at week 13. There was no significant difference in family or social functioning at week 13. While the findings provide some evidence for the integration of music therapy into clinical practice, differences relating to subgroups and secondary outcomes indicate the need for further study. ISRCTN Register; ISRCTN96352204. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Mano, Quintino R.; Jastrowski Mano, Kristen E.; Denton, Carolyn A.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Tamm, Leanne
Evidence suggests that higher order linguistic functioning such as text comprehension is particularly vulnerable to emotional modulation. Gender has been identified as an important moderating variable in emotional expression such that girls tend toward internalizing emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety) whereas boys tend toward externalizing emotions…
Goldbeck, Lutz; Schmid, Katharina
To investigate the effectiveness of autogenic relaxation training in a mildly disturbed outpatient population of children and adolescents with mostly internalizing symptoms, and/or some aggressive, impulsive, or attention deficit symptoms. Fifty children and adolescents from southern Germany (mean age 10.2 years; range 6-15 years; mostly intact middle class family background) participated in a group intervention program. Fifteen patients were randomly assigned to a waiting-list control group. Behavior symptoms (Child Behavior Checklist), psychosomatic complaints (Giessen Complaint List), and level of stress were assessed before and after the intervention or after the waiting phase. Individual goal attainment was evaluated at the end of the intervention and in a 3-month follow-up. The parent report on CBCL reflected reduced symptoms compared with control. The child report indicated reduced stress and psychosomatic complaints both in the intervention and control group, and no significant group x time interaction effects occurred on these scales. Effect sizes of 0.49 in the CBCL and 0.36 in the complaint list indicated clinically relevant effects of the intervention compared with the control group. At the end of the intervention, 56% of the children and 55% of the parents reported partial goal attainment, 38% of the children and 30% of the parents reported complete goal attainment; 71% of the parents confirmed partial goal attainment 3 months postintervention. Autogenic relaxation training is an effective broadband method for children and adolescents.
Moed, Anat; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Eisenberg, Nancy; Hofer, Claire; Losoya, Sandra; Spinrad, Tracy L; Liew, Jeffrey
Although conflict is a normative part of parent-adolescent relationships, conflicts that are long or highly negative are likely to be detrimental to these relationships and to youths' development. In the present article, sequential analyses of data from 138 parent-adolescent dyads (adolescents' mean age was 13.44, SD = 1.16; 52 % girls, 79 % non-Hispanic White) were used to define conflicts as reciprocal exchanges of negative emotion observed while parents and adolescents were discussing "hot," conflictual issues. Dynamic components of these exchanges, including who started the conflicts, who ended them, and how long they lasted, were identified. Mediation analyses revealed that a high proportion of conflicts ended by adolescents was associated with longer conflicts, which in turn predicted perceptions of the "hot" issue as unresolved and adolescent behavior problems. The findings illustrate advantages of using sequential analysis to identify patterns of interactions and, with some certainty, obtain an estimate of the contingent relationship between a pattern of behavior and child and parental outcomes. These interaction patterns are discussed in terms of the roles that parents and children play when in conflict with each other, and the processes through which these roles affect conflict resolution and adolescents' behavior problems.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the comparison of the efficiency of two algorithms, by estimation of their complexity. For solving the problem, the Neural Network Crossbar Adaptive Array (NN-CAA is used as the agent architecture, implementing a model of an emotion. The problem discussed is how to find the shortest path in an environment with n states. The domains concerned are environments with n states, one of which is the starting state, one is the goal state, and some states are undesirable and they should be avoided. It is obtained that finding one path (one solution is efficient, i.e. in polynomial time by both algorithms. One of the algorithms is faster than the other only in the multiplicative constant, and it shows a step forward toward the optimality of the learning process. However, finding the optimal solution (the shortest path by both algorithms is in exponential time which is asserted by two theorems. It might be concluded that the concept of subgoal is one step forward toward the optimality of the process of the agent learning. Yet, it should be explored further on, in order to obtain an efficient, polynomial algorithm.
Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Witte, P.
This study investigated the amounts of problem-solving process information ("action," "why," "how," and "metacognitive") elicited by means of concurrent, retrospective, and cued retrospective reporting. In a within-participants design, 26 participants completed electrical circuit troubleshooting tasks under different reporting conditions. The method of cued retrospective reporting used the original computer-based task and a superimposed record of the participant's eye fixations and mouse-keyb...
Full Text Available The increased use of technology within the educational field gives rise to the need for developing valid instruments to measure key constructs associated with performance. We present some self-report instruments developed and/or validated in the Italian context that could be used to assess achievement emotions and correlates, within the theoretical framework of Pekrun’s control-value model. First, we propose some data related to the construction of two instruments developed to assess ten achievement emotions: the Brief Achievement Emotions Questionnaire, BR-AEQ, used with college students, and the Graduated Achievement Emotions Set, GR-AES, used with primary school students. Second, we describe some data concerning the validation within the Italian context of two instruments assessing achievement goals as antecedents of achievement emotions: the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised, AGQ-R, and its more recent version based on the 3 X 2 achievement goal model.
Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika
dysregulation. Allostatic load also increased with age, but the association between negative emotional response and allostatic load remained stable over time. These results provide evidence for a more nuanced understanding of the role of negative emotions in long-term physical health....... response to major life events and allostatic load, a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Study sample was 6764 British civil service workers from the Whitehall II cohort. Negative emotional response was assessed by self-report at baseline. Allostatic load was calculated using...... cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological...
Ruffolo, Mary C; Kuhn, Mary T; Evans, Mary E
Building on the respective strengths of parent-led and professional-led groups, a parent-professional team leadership model for group interventions was developed and evaluated for families of youths with emotional and behavioral problems. The model was developed based on feedback from 26 parents in focus group sessions and recommendations from mental health professionals in staff meetings. Evaluations of an implementation of the model in a support, empowerment, and education group intervention (S.E.E. group) have demonstrated the usefulness of this approach in work with families of children with behavioral and emotional problems. This article discusses the challenges of instituting the model in an S.E.E. group. It explores how parents and professionals build the team leadership model and the strengths of this approach in working with parents of youths with serious emotional disturbances.
Devine, A; Hill, F; Carey, E; Szucs, Denes
© 2017 APA, all rights reserved). A negative correlation between math anxiety and mathematics performance is frequently reported. Thus, some may assume that high levels of mathematics anxiety are associated with poor mathematical understanding. However, no previous research has clearly measured the association between mathematics anxiety and mathematical learning disability. To fill this gap, here we investigated the comorbidity of developmental dyscalculia (a selective, serious deficit in ma...
Rasmussen, Cathrine Skovmand; Nielsen, Louise Gramstrup; Petersen, Dorthe Janne; Christiansen, Erik; Bilenberg, Niels
The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for significant changes in emotional and behavioural problem load in a community-based cohort of Danish children aged 9-16 years, the risk factors being seven parental and two child-related adverse life events. Data on emotional and behavioural problems was obtained from parents filling in the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) when the child was 8-9 and again when 15 years old. Data on risk factors was drawn from Danish registers. Analysis used was logistic regression for crude and adjusted change. Parental divorce significantly raised the odds ratio of an increase in emotional and behavioural problems; furthermore, the risk of deterioration in problem behaviour rose significantly with increasing number of adverse life events. By dividing the children into four groups based on the pathway in problem load (increasers, decreasers, high persisters and low persisters), we found that children with a consistently high level of behavioural problems also had the highest number of adverse life events compared with any other group. Family break-up was found to be a significant risk factor. This supports findings in previous studies. The fact that no other risk factor proved to be of significance might be due to lack of power in the study. Children experiencing high levels of adverse life events are at high risk of chronic problem behaviour. Thus these risk factors should be assessed in daily clinical practice.
Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina
The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…
Baek, Suyon; Yoo, Haewon
In this study, we examined emotional/behavioral problems and self-concept in adolescents from low-income families in Korea; additionally, we identified ecological factors associated with these traits. This descriptive study employed an ecological model to analyze data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling methodology was used. Overall, 2534 first-year middle school students were included in the survey, and the survey was conducted from 2010 to 2016. Hierarchical multiple regression models were generated. The mean score of emotional/behavioral problem has been changed from 2.20 (2011), 2.15 (2013), to 2.11 (2015) out of 4, and the mean score of self-concept has been changed from 2.73 (2012), 2.73 (2014), to 2.77 (2015) out of 4. Factors that influenced emotional/behavioral problems and self-concept among adolescents were health perception and academic achievement (only associated with self-concept) at the intrapersonal level and parenting style, peer attachment (only associated with self-concept), and relationships with teachers at the interpersonal level. These results may be used to inform the development of interventions designed to decrease emotional/behavioral problems and improve positive self-concept in adolescents from low-income families.
van Daalen, G.; van Daalen, Geertje; Sanders, Karin; Willemsen, Tineke M.; Veldhoven, Marc J.P.M.
Objective: This study investigates the relationship between four job characteristics and family-to-work conflict on emotional exhaustion and mental health problems. Methods: Multiple regression analyses were performed using data from 1,008 mental health care employees. Separate regression analyses
Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne
Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…
Vermunt, L. C. A. C.; Buysse, C. M. P.; Joosten, K. F. M.; Hazelzet, J. A.; Verhulst, F. C.; Utens, E. M. W. J.
To assess the occurrence of a wide range of behavioural, emotional, and post-traumatic stress problems in children and adolescents, long term after septic shock caused by Neisseria meningitidis (MSS). This study included 6- to 17-year-old patients who survived MSS and were admitted to the PICU of
Mahesar, S.M.; Bajaj, D.R.
The people suffering from psoriasis were recruited for the study. The interaction of the people with affected persons in routine life and the effects of, environment and diet in take developed stress and psychological depression in psoriatic patients. The nature of work and the atmosphere of working place, play an important role in metabolic and emotional variations. It has been observed that the inter action between the mind and skin is obvious in psoriasis sufferers for which they report their complains like anxiety, depression, avoiding nature, and non cooperative in taking drugs. (author)
Barabasz, A F; Barabasz, M
Developed audio taped lectures, taped therapy session models, and homework assignments designed to reduce irrational beliefs associated with test anxiety within Ellis' rational-emotive therapy (RET) approach. The initial sample consisted of 148 university students. Comparisons with an attention placebo counseling program, which was established to be equally credible by a post-experiment inquiry and a no-treatment group found the RET Ss to show significantly lower skin conductance responses to a test anxiety visualization and lower reported anxiety on a questionnaire. However, skin conductance responses to an alternative test anxiety visualization did not show treatment effects.
The investigation into the solution of the problems of warm water drainage and its related matters was conducted, and the result was summarized by the warm water drainage sectional committee of the central public nuisance-prevention council entrusted by the Environment Agency. The first section of this report deals with the background of the warm water drainage problems. In December 1970, the environmental pollution prevention act was revised so as to include warm water drainage in the law. The second section deals with the progress of deliberation by the sectional committee. The third section deals with the actual conditions of warm water drainage. The temperature difference at the inlet and outlet of water was 5 to 11 0 C in power plants, 5 to 16 0 C in iron and steel works, 4 to 11 0 C in petroleum refineries, and 7 to 25 0 C in petrochemical plants. The amount of heat energy discharged from power plants was greater than that from the others. Other sections deal with its effects on the living things in water, the forecast of diffusion of warm drainage, the concept of the regulation of warm drainage, and the present countermeasure. Twelve points which require future investigation are listed. They are the change in the phases of living things affected by the change in temperature and flow of warm drainage, the effects on fishery resources, the estimation system for the environmental calorific capacity in the sea, the mechanism of diffusion and the forecasting method for the diffusion range. (Iwakiri, K.)
Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F
Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kucuker, Sevgi; Kapci, Emine Gul; Uslu, Runa Idil
The applicability of the Age and Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE; J. Squires, D. Bricker & E. Twombly, 2003) for Turkish children was examined. A total of 608 mothers completed the ASQ-SE's. Overall sensitivity and overall specificity were 83.7% and 89.9%, respectively. Test-retest reliability, assessed by classifying children…
Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria Elide; Finocchiaro, Roberta
Background The paper explored emotion comprehension in children with regard to facial expression of emotion. The effect of valence and arousal evaluation, of context and of psychophysiological measures was monitored. Indeed subjective evaluation of valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (high vs. low), and contextual (facial expression vs. facial expression and script) variables were supposed to modulate the psychophysiological responses. Methods Self-report measures (in terms of correct...
Zhou, Cailiang; Baïz, Nour; Banerjee, Soutrik; Charpin, Denis André; Caillaud, Denis; de Blay, Fréderic; Raherison, Chantal; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella
This study examined the hypothesis that emotion and conduct problems (ECPs) may modify the relationships between ambient air pollutants and childhood asthma and eczema. In the cross-sectional study, 4209 French schoolchildren (aged 10e12 years) were investigated between March 1999 and October 2000. Ambient air pollutants exposures were estimated with dispersion modeling. Health outcomes and ECPs were evaluated by validated questionnaires, completed by the parents. Marginal models were used to analyze the relationships of exposures to ambient air pollutants and/or ECPs to asthma phenotypes and current eczema, adjusting for potential confounders. In our population, interactions were found between ECPs and exposures to ambient air pollutants (benzene, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 10 mm, volatile organic compounds) (P eczema (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.61e3.02). Children with ECPs had 1.17e1.51 times higher aORs for the associations between ambient air pollutants and asthma phenotypes and current eczema than those without ECPs. ECPs may modify the relationships between ambient air pollutants and childhood asthma and eczema. 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Joshi, Heather
Socio-economic disadvantage is strongly associated with children's emotional (internalising) and behavioural (externalising) problems. Self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability have been related to children's emotional and behavioural resilience to socio-economic disadvantage. Despite being inter-related, self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability have not been examined jointly as promoting resilience in young children. This study investigated the roles of self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability in children's emotional and behavioural resilience to family socio-economic disadvantage from early to middle childhood (ages 3, 5, and 7 years; N = 16,916; 49 % girls). Using multivariate response growth curve modelling, we found that the relationship between socio-economic disadvantage and internalising problems was stronger for children with lower verbal cognitive ability. Also, poor children with high and low levels of self-regulation showed a widening gap in both emotional and behavioural problems over time. Poor and non-poor children alike benefited from self-regulation, but poor children appeared to be more vulnerable to low self-regulation. Self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability seem to be important protective factors for young children growing up in poor families.
Cooper, Ruth E; Tye, Charlotte; Kuntsi, Jonna; Vassos, Evangelos; Asherson, Philip
A number of randomised controlled trials report a beneficial effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation on emotional lability (EL) and related domains (e.g. oppositional behaviour, conduct problems). Given that n-3 PUFA supplementation shows a significant effect on reducing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and that EL and related behaviours commonly co-occurs with ADHD, it is important that there is a more conclusive picture as to the effect of n-3 PUFA on these co-occurring clinical domains. Databases (Ovid Medline, Embase, Psychinfo) were searched for trials assessing the effects of n-3 PUFA on EL, oppositional behaviour, aggression and conduct problems. We included trials in children who had ADHD or a related neurodevelopmental disorder. Of the 1775 identified studies, 10 were included in the meta-analysis. In the primary analyses n-3 PUFA supplementation did not show improvements in measures of EL, oppositional behaviour, conduct problems or aggression. However subgroup analyses of higher quality studies and those meeting strict inclusion criteria found a significant reduction in EL and oppositional behaviour. A number of treatment effects may have failed to reach statistical significance due to small sample sizes and within and between study heterogeneity in terms of design and study participants. These results exclude the possibility of moderate to large effects. They provide suggestive evidence of small effects of n-3 PUFA on reducing EL and oppositional behaviour in subgroups of children with ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pouwer, Francois; Skinner, Timothy Chas; Pibernik-Okanovic, Mirjana
for Epidemiological Studies Depression and the Problem Areas in Diabetes scales. Percentages of patients with high depression scores were: 39 and 34% (Croatian men and women), 19 and 21% (Dutch men and women), 19 and 39% (English men and women). Moreover, 79% (Croatian), 47% (Dutch) and 41% (English) of the patients......It has been hypothesized that coverage of diabetes-specific issues (e.g. coping with complications, incapacity, pain) during psychotherapy may optimize the likelihood of treatment success for depression in patients with diabetes. However, it is still unclear how often depression is confounded...... by diabetes-specific emotional problems. We aim to determine the levels of diabetes-specific emotional problems in diabetic individuals with high versus low levels of depression in a sample of 539 outpatients with diabetes (202 Dutch, 185 Croatian and 152 English). Subjects completed the Center...
Krattenmacher, Thomas; Kühne, Franziska; Halverscheid, Susanne; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Bergelt, Corinna; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit
To compare the emotional and behavioral problems of children of patients suffering from cancer or a mental disorder and their association with parental quality of life. A total of 223 children from 136 families and their 160 parents were investigated from multiple perspectives in a cross-sectional study. The consistency of different adjustment reports between family members was examined. Through mixed models, the differences between parental HRQoL and the children's symptomatology were studied with regard to the type of parental illness. The prediction of children's adjustment through parental HRQoL was further examined. Additionally, gender and age of the children were considered. Half of the children exhibited psychosocial problems. Gender and age differences were independent of the type of parental disease. In families with parental cancer, the reports of children's adjustment were more consistent between family members than in families where a parental mental disorder was present. We found differences in HRQoL between families with mentally ill parents and those with parental cancer patients. Specifically, the healthy partners of mentally ill parents showed worse HRQoL compared with healthy partners of cancer patients. Healthy parents' reduced HRQoL was associated with worse adjustment in their children, regardless of the type of parental illness, but this result was not found for ill parents. Family members confronted with parental cancer or mental disorders are more burdened compared with those from the "normal" population, independently of the type of disease. Our results indicate that the type of a parental disease has no direct effect on children's adjustment. However, there are disease-specific effects on parental HRQoL, which are associated with children's adjustment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yamaguchi, Keiko; Ito, Masaya; Takebayashi, Yoshitake
Emotion regulation utilizing positive emotion during negative emotional states might be one of the effective ways to alleviate depression and anxiety problems among people with emotional disorders. This study examined the psychometric properties and incremental validity of the Positive Emotion In Distress Scale (PEIDS), a newly developed self-report scale, in a sample of university students in Japan. To examine the psychometric properties of the PEIDS, the scale was completed by Japanese university students (396 men and 363 women; mean age of 19.92). Participants additionally answered the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Rumination and Reflection Questionnaire - Shorter Version, Affective Style Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Affective Schedule, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The survey was conducted at two time points separated by 1 month to assess test-retest reliability and validity of the PEIDS. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed a one-factor structure. Reliability was confirmed by high internal consistency and test-retest stability; the convergent and discriminant validity was confirmed by correlations with related and unrelated variables. The results of hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that positive emotion in distress might predict depression above and beyond the effect of baseline depression and other common emotion regulation strategies. The PEIDS showed acceptable reliability and validity within young adults and a non-clinical population in Japan. Further research will be needed to examine the effect of positive emotion among clinical populations. Previous research suggests that positive emotions play a key role in recovery from depression and anxiety problems through some forms of psychotherapy. The Positive Emotion In Distress Scale (PEIDS) measures individual differences regarding the extent to which people can experience positive emotions in negative emotional states. Results suggested that the
Lieberman, Lynne; Liu, Huiting; Huggins, Ashley A; Katz, Andrea C; Zvolensky, Michael J; Shankman, Stewart A
Personality traits relate to risk for psychopathology and can inform predictions about treatment outcome. In an effort to obtain a comprehensive index of personality, informant reports of personality are sometimes obtained in addition to self-reports of personality. However, there is limited research comparing the validity of self- and informant reports of personality, particularly among those with internalizing psychopathology. This is important given that informants may provide an additional (and perhaps different) perspective on individuals' personality. The present study therefore compared how both reports of positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) relate to psychophysiological and subjective measures of emotional responding to positive and negative stimuli. Given that our sample (n = 117) included individuals with no history of psychopathology, as well as individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and/or panic disorder (PD), we were also able to explore whether these internalizing diagnoses moderated the association between personality reports and measures of emotional responding. Informant-reported PA predicted physiological responses to positive stimuli (but not negative). Informant-reported NA predicted physiological responses to negative stimuli (but not positive). Self-reported personality did not predict physiological responding, but did predict subjectively measured emotional responding (NA for negative responding, PA for positive responding). Diagnoses of internalizing psychopathology (PD or MDD) did not moderate these associations. Results suggest self- and informant reports of personality may each provide valid indices of an individual's emotional response tendencies, but predict different aspects of those tendencies. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Lieberman, Lynne; Liu, Huiting; Huggins, Ashley A.; Katz, Andrea C.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Shankman, Stewart A.
Personality traits relate to risk for psychopathology and can inform predictions about treatment outcome. In an effort to obtain a comprehensive index of personality, informant-reports of personality are sometimes obtained in addition to self-reports of personality. However, there is limited research comparing the validity of self- and informant-reports of personality, particularly among those with internalizing psychopathology. This is important given that informants may provide an additional (and perhaps different) perspective on individuals’ personality. The present study therefore compared how both reports of positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) relate to psychophysiological and subjective measures of emotional responding to positive and negative stimuli. Given that our sample (n = 117) included individuals with no history of psychopathology, as well as individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and/or panic disorder (PD), we were also able to explore whether these internalizing diagnoses moderated the association between personality reports and measures of emotional responding. Informant-reported PA predicted physiological responses to positive stimuli (but not negative). Informant reported NA predicted physiological responses to negative stimuli (but not positive). Self-reported personality did not predict physiological responding, but did predict subjectively measured emotional responding (NA for negative responding; PA for positive responding). Diagnoses of internalizing psychopathology (PD or MDD) did not moderate these associations. Results suggest self- and informant-reports of personality may each provide valid indices of an individual’s emotional response tendencies, but predict different aspects of those tendencies. PMID:27273802
Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rincón, Carlos Javier; Urrego-Mendoza, Zulma
Indigenous people represent 5% of the world population and one-third of the poor ones. Alcoholism rates, substance abuse problems, and mental disorders are shown to be higher than the general population. An analysis was made of the data from the National Mental Health Survey 2015. In this survey, it was asked if self-recognition as a native was according to the culture, the people, or physical features. A total of 902 indigenous people were surveyed, corresponding to 8.3% of the surveyed adult population. The majority (39.5%) lived in the Pacific region, with 23.7% Atlantic region, and 20% in the Eastern region. More than one-quarter (26.6%) reported a status of poverty, 31.7% spoke the language of their people, and 17.8% reported displacement due to violence. Mental health was defined as, "having good physical health, to eat, sleep and rest, by 42.9%. As regards problems and mental disorders, 8% reported excessive consumption and 7.9% a risk consumption of alcohol. As regards general psychopathology, measured by the (Self-reporting questionnaire) SRQ, 8.1% of the population had symptoms. The life prevalences of anxiety and depressive mental disorders were reported by 6.7% women and 8.4% men, and the associated risk factors that show higher risk were: aged between 18 to 44 years, not speaking the language of their people, living in Bogota, living in urban areas, and consuming psychoactive substances and tobacco. People who recognised themselves as indigenous have higher rates of displacement by violence, report problems and common mental disorders that are associated with factors consistent with loss of cultural characteristics. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.
Tong, Lian; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Onda, Yoko; Kawashima, Yuri; Yato, Yuko; Yamakawa, Noriko; Koeda, Tatsuya; Ishida, Hiraku; Terakawa, Shinako; Seki, Ayumi; Anme, Tokie
Background The present study examines gender differences in the correlations between intelligence and developmental problems as well as social competence in first graders. Methods Ninety parent-child dyads participated in this study. The children comprised 7-year-olds recruited from the first grade of an elementary school. All the children were administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Third Edition (WISC-III), Parent-child Interaction Rating Scale (IRS), and the parent report...
The Laws of Emotion is an accessible new book that reviews much of the insightful new research on emotions conducted over the last ten years. It expands on the theory of emotions introduced in Nico Frijda's earlier work, and addresses a number of unanswered, basic problems on emotion theory. The
Begeer, S.M.; Banerjee, R.; Rieffe, C.; Meerum Terwogt, M.; Potharst, E.; Stegge, G.T.M.; Koot, H.M.
Two studies examined the understanding and self-reported use of rules for the expressive display of emotions in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) and in typically developing children. In Study 1, children from the two groups reported display rules equally often when
Wie kann der adäquate ärztliche Umgang mit Emotionen im Medizinstudium vermittelt werden? Ein Erfahrungsbericht aus dem Strang "Ärztliche Interaktion" im Modellstudiengang Medizin der Ruhr-Universität Bochum [How to teach the adequate handling of emotions during medical studies? A field report on "Medical Interaction" as part of a problem-based curriculum at the Ruhr University in Bochum, Germany
Full Text Available [english] Handling strong emotions like sorrow, anger, shame, and fear in patients with somatic disease in an adequate way is a key issue for the future physician. Up to now, this aspect of the doctor?patient relationship has played a minor role in medical studies. To address this shortcoming, the handling of emotions is the focus of the third semester in the “Medical Interaction” course of the Modellstudiengang Medizin, the problem-based track of the medical faculty in Bochum, Germany. The course presented is given by the Department of General Medicine.The main objective is the recognition and correct interpretation of patients’ emotional expressions. The course is composed of six modules (one introductory and one for each leading affect. The main teaching methods are realistic role plays in a small group setting with video feedback, whereby one main requirement is that each student plays the role of both the patient and the doctor. Each session is introduced and analyzed by a general practitioner experienced in psychosomatic medicine. Evaluation of the course has shown a high acceptance among students. This motivates us to conduct a public discussion on the possibilities of applying this concept in other medical studies as well. [german] Der adäquate Umgang mit Emotionen wie Trauer, Wut, Scham und Angst bei Patienten mit körperlichen Erkrankungen spielt für den werdenden Arzt eine Schlüsselrolle. Dieser Aspekt der Arzt-Patient-Beziehung wird allerdings im Medizinstudium bislang wenig berücksichtigt. Aus diesem Grunde wird der Umgang mit Emotionen im dritten Semester des Stranges „ärztliche Interaktion“ im Modellstudiengang Medizin der Ruhr-Universität Bochum thematisiert. Der vorgestellte Kurs wird von der Abteilung für Allgemeinmedizin durchgeführt.Zielsetzung ist die Verbesserung der emotionalen und kommunikativen Kompetenz des Studierenden. Um dies zu erreichen soll dem eigenen emotionalen Erleben in der Arzt
van Harmelen, A.L.; van Tol, M.J.; Dalgleish, T.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Aleman, A.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Elzinga, B.M.
Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has adverse effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) morphology, a structure that is crucial for cognitive functioning and (emotional) memory and which modulates the limbic system. In addition, CEM has been linked to amygdala hyperactivity during emotional
I. Kruizinga (Ingrid)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Psychosocial problems are already prevalent in very young children. Early detection of such problems is important because it improves the prognosis. One instrument that is developed for the early detection of psychosocial problems and delay in competencies is the
Boothroyd, Roger A; Evans, Mary E; Chen, Huey-Jen; Boustead, Robyn; Blanch, Andrea K
Since 1993, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration has invested more than $1 billion establishing systems of care (SOC) in over 173 local communities to provide services to children with mental, emotional, and behavioral problems and their families. The SOC model requires that effective partnerships be developed between parents and professionals and also among different service sectors and agencies. To date, there has been no systematic examination of these interagency partnerships associated with the presence of conflict and its management. This paper reports the findings from a survey of the members of the governing boards of currently funded and graduated SOC sites related to interorganizational conflict. The results indicated that conflict was common in SOC regardless of the stage of the system's development. The most common types of conflict included incompatible goals, interpersonal relationships, and overlapping authority. When conflict occurred, a number of management efforts were used including analyzing the conflict and developing a strategy to deal with it and dealing with the conflict behind the scenes. Suggestions are provided for identifying and managing conflict.
Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria Elide; Finocchiaro, Roberta
The paper explored emotion comprehension in children with regard to facial expression of emotion. The effect of valence and arousal evaluation, of context and of psychophysiological measures was monitored. Indeed subjective evaluation of valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (high vs. low), and contextual (facial expression vs. facial expression and script) variables were supposed to modulate the psychophysiological responses. Self-report measures (in terms of correct recognition, arousal and valence attribution) and psychophysiological correlates (facial electromyography, EMG, skin conductance response, SCR, and heart rate, HR) were observed when children (N = 26; mean age = 8.75 y; range 6-11 y) looked at six facial expressions of emotions (happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, and disgust) and six emotional scripts (contextualized facial expressions). The competencies about the recognition, the evaluation on valence and arousal was tested in concomitance with psychophysiological variations. Specifically, we tested for the congruence of these multiple measures. Log-linear analysis and repeated measure ANOVAs showed different representations across the subjects, as a function of emotion. Specifically, children' recognition and attribution were well developed for some emotions (such as anger, fear, surprise and happiness), whereas some other emotions (mainly disgust and sadness) were less clearly represented. SCR, HR and EMG measures were modulated by the evaluation based on valence and arousal, with increased psychophysiological values mainly in response to anger, fear and happiness. As shown by multiple regression analysis, a significant consonance was found between self-report measures and psychophysiological behavior, mainly for emotions rated as more arousing and negative in valence. The multilevel measures were discussed at light of dimensional attribution model.
Full Text Available Background: Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the prefrontal cortex and amygdala play an important role in sexual arousal (SA. However, little is known about the interactions between the prefrontal and cortex amygdala, which mediate the cognitive regulation of emotion and SA.Objective: We seek to determine whether nocturnal erection of psychogenic erectile dysfunction (pED patients are normal and whether there are changes of topological organization in the prefrontal-amygdala pathway of brain network in pED. In addition, whether there are correlations between network property changes and self-reported emotion and erection.Design, setting, and participants: We used the RigiScan device to evaluate erectile function of patients and employed diffusion MRI and graph theory to construct brain networks of 21 pED patients and 24 healthy controls.Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We considered four nodal metrics and their asymmetry scores, and nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT parameters, to evaluate the topological properties of brain networks of pED and their relationships with the impaired self-reported emotion and erection.Results and limitations: All the pED patients showed normal nocturnal penile erection, however impaired self-reported erection and negative emotion. In addition, patients showed lower connectivity degree and strength in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway. We also found that pED exhibited lower leftward asymmetry in the inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, patients showed more hub regions and fewer pivotal connections. Moreover, the degree of the left amygdala of pED showed significantly negative correlation with the self-reported erection and positive correlation with the self-reported negative emotion.Conclusions: Together, these results suggest normal nocturnal erection in pED. However, abnormalities of brain network organization in pED, particularly in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway, are associated
Chen, Jianhuai; Chen, Yun; Gao, Qingqiang; Chen, Guotao; Dai, Yutian; Yao, Zhijian; Lu, Qing
Background: Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the prefrontal cortex and amygdala play an important role in sexual arousal (SA). However, little is known about the interactions between the prefrontal and cortex amygdala, which mediate the cognitive regulation of emotion and SA. Objective: We seek to determine whether nocturnal erection of psychogenic erectile dysfunction (pED) patients are normal and whether there are changes of topological organization in the prefrontal-amygdala pathway of brain network in pED. In addition, whether there are correlations between network property changes and self-reported emotion and erection. Design, setting, and participants: We used the RigiScan device to evaluate erectile function of patients and employed diffusion MRI and graph theory to construct brain networks of 21 pED patients and 24 healthy controls. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We considered four nodal metrics and their asymmetry scores, and nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) parameters, to evaluate the topological properties of brain networks of pED and their relationships with the impaired self-reported emotion and erection. Results and limitations: All the pED patients showed normal nocturnal penile erection, however impaired self-reported erection and negative emotion. In addition, patients showed lower connectivity degree and strength in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway. We also found that pED exhibited lower leftward asymmetry in the inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, patients showed more hub regions and fewer pivotal connections. Moreover, the degree of the left amygdala of pED showed significantly negative correlation with the self-reported erection and positive correlation with the self-reported negative emotion. Conclusions: Together, these results suggest normal nocturnal erection in pED. However, abnormalities of brain network organization in pED, particularly in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway, are associated with the
Hendrie, Hugh C; Albert, Marilyn S; Butters, Meryl A; Gao, Sujuan; Knopman, David S; Launer, Lenore J; Yaffe, Kristine; Cuthbert, Bruce N; Edwards, Emmeline; Wagster, Molly V
The Cognitive and Emotional Health Project (CEHP) seeks to identify the demographic, social, and biological determinants of cognitive and emotional health in the older adult. As part of the CEHP, a critical evaluation study committee was formed to assess the state of epidemiological research on demographic, social, and biological determinants of cognitive and emotional health. Criteria for inclusion in the survey were large cohort studies, longitudinal in design, participants predominantly 65 years or older, with measurements of both cognition and emotion, and information on a wide variety of demographic, psychosocial, and biological factors. North American and European studies, which met these criteria, were selected for the review. Outcome measures included cognition, cognitive decline, and cognitive function. For emotion, symptoms included depression and anxiety, positive and negative affect, subjective well being, mastery, and resilience. Ninety-six papers were identified that addressed cognitive and emotional outcomes. A large variety of risk factors were consistently identified with cognitive outcomes, particularly those previously associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There was considerable overlap between risk factors for cognitive and emotional outcomes. This review identifies a large number of lifestyle and health behaviors that alter the risk for maintenance of cognitive and emotional health. Large longitudinal cohort studies are a unique source to explore factors associated with cognitive and emotional health. Secondary analyses of these studies should be encouraged as should the development of standardized questionnaires to measure cognitive and emotional health. Future research in this field should study cognitive and emotional health simultaneously.
Dellacherie, Delphine; Roy, Mathieu; Hugueville, Laurent; Peretz, Isabelle; Samson, Séverine
To study the influence of musical education on emotional reactions to dissonance, we examined self-reports and physiological responses to dissonant and consonant musical excerpts in listeners with low (LE: n=15) and high (HE: n=13) musical experience. The results show that dissonance induces more unpleasant feelings and stronger physiological responses in HE than in LE participants, suggesting that musical education reinforces aversion to dissonance. Skin conductance (SCR) and electromyographic (EMG) signals were analyzed according to a defense cascade model, which takes into account two successive time windows corresponding to orienting and defense responses. These analyses suggest that musical experience can influence the defense response to dissonance and demonstrate a powerful role of musical experience not only in autonomic but also in expressive responses to music. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Walter, Daniel; Dachs, Lydia; Faber, Martin; Goletz, Hildegard; Goertz-Dorten, Anja; Hautmann, Christopher; Kinnen, Claudia; Rademacher, Christiane; Schuermann, Stephanie; Metternich-Kaizman, Tanja Wolff; Doepfner, Manfred
Few studies have examined the effectiveness of outpatient cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) delivered in routine care settings for children and adolescents with mental disorders. This observational study examined changes in behavioral and emotional problems of adolescents with mental disorders during routine outpatient CBT delivered at a university outpatient clinic and compared them with a historical control group of youths who received academic tutoring of comparable length and intensity. Assessments were made at the start and end of treatment (pre- and post-assessment) using parent ratings of the German versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and self-ratings of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) scale. For the main analysis, 677 adolescents aged 11‒21 years had complete data. Changes from pre- to post-assessment showed significant reductions in mental health problems on both parent- and self-ratings. Pre- to post-effect sizes (Cohen's d) were small-to-medium for the total sample (d = 0.23 to d = 0.62) and medium-to-large for those adolescents rated in the clinical range on each (sub)scale at the start of treatment (d = 0.65 to d = 1.48). We obtained medium net effect sizes (d = 0.69) for the CBCL and YSR total scores when patients in the clinical range were compared to historical controls. However, a substantial part of the sample remained in the clinical range at treatment end. The results suggest that CBT is effective for adolescents with mental disorders when administered under routine care conditions but must be interpreted conservatively due to the lack of a direct control condition.
Fatima, Yaqoot; Doi, Suhail A R; O'Callaghan, Michael; Williams, Gail; Najman, Jake M; Mamun, Abdullah Al
To compare parent and adolescent reports in exploring adolescent sleep problems and to identify the factors associated with adolescent sleep problem disclosures. Parent (n = 5185) and adolescent reports (n = 5171, age=13.9 ± 0.3 years), from a birth cohort were used to explore adolescent sleep problems. Kappa coefficients were used to assess the agreement, whereas, conditional agreement and disagreement ratios were used to identify the optimal informant. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors affecting adolescent sleep problem disclosure. Parental reports identified only about one-third of the sleep problems reported by adolescents. Whereas adolescent reports identified up to two-thirds of the sleep problems reported by parents. Combined reports of parents and adolescent did not show any considerable difference from the adolescent report. Adolescent and parent health, maternal depression, and family communication were significantly associated with adolescents sleep problem disclosures. Adolescent reports could be used as the preferred source to explore adolescent sleep problems. Parental reports should be used when parents as observers are more reliable reporters, or where adolescents are cognitively unable to report sleep problems. Additionally, the impact of poor health, maternal depression and family communication on sleep problems disclosure should be considered for adolescent sleep problem diagnosis. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Midouhas, Emily; Kuang, Ye; Flouri, Eirini
This study examined how low neighbourhood human capital (measured by percentage of residents with no qualifications) may be related to trajectories of children׳s emotional and behavioural problems from early-to-middle childhood. It also assessed whether effects of neighbourhood human capital or its pathways were moderated by child nonverbal cognitive ability. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that, after adjusting for key child and family background characteristics, the adverse effects of low neighbourhood human capital on hyperactivity and peer problems remained, and were fully attenuated by the achievement level of children׳s schools. The effect of low neighbourhood human capital on the change in conduct problems over time was robust. Moreover, higher nonverbal ability did not dampen the adverse impact of low neighbourhood human capital on the trajectory of conduct problems or that of low performing schools on hyperactivity and peer problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kleemans, Mariska; Schlindwein, Luise F; Dohmen, Roos
Watching news is important for preadolescents, but it may also harm their well-being. This study examined whether applying insights from positive psychology to news production can reduce this potential harm, by reducing negative emotional responses and enhancing positive emotional responses to negative news, and by encouraging prosocial intentions. Moreover, we explored whether peer discussion strengthened these effects. Preadolescents (n = 336; 9-13 years old; 48.5% female) were exposed to either constructive (solution-based news including positive emotions) or nonconstructive news. Subsequently, half of the children assigned to the constructive and the nonconstructive condition participated in a peer discussion. The findings showed that exposure to constructive news resulted in more positive emotional responses and less negative emotional responses as compared to nonconstructive news. Moreover, discussing the news with peers led to more positive and less negative emotional responses among preadolescents who watched the nonconstructive newscast, and to more prosocial intentions among preadolescents who watched constructive news. In all, constructive news reporting and peer discussion could function as tools to make negative news less harmful for preadolescents.
Pezzati, Rita; Molteni, Valentina; Bani, Marco; Settanta, Carmen; Di Maggio, Maria Grazia; Villa, Ivan; Poletti, Barbara; Ardito, Rita B.
Doll therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention aimed at reducing behavioral and psychological disorders in institutionalized patients with dementia. This therapy as a care tool has been integrated into the context of long-term care institutions, in which the need to find solutions to cognitive, behavioral and emotional problems showed by people with dementia meets the primary objective of developing good care practices focusing on patients and their needs. In the present work we adopt the...
Rita ePezzati; Rita ePezzati; Valentina eMolteni; Valentina eMolteni; Marco eBani; Carmen eSettanta; Maria Grazia eDi Maggio; Ivan eVilla; Barbara ePoletti; Barbara ePoletti; Rita B. Ardito
Doll therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention aimed at reducing behavioral and psychological disorders in institutionalized patients with dementia. This therapy as a care tool has been integrated into the context of long-term care institutions, in which the need to find solutions to cognitive, behavioral and emotional problems showed by people with dementia meets the primary objective of developing good care practices focusing on patients and their needs. In the present work we adopt the...
Reijneveld Sijmen A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social-emotional and behavioral problems are common in childhood. Early identification of these is important as it can lead to interventions which may improve the child's prognosis. In Dutch Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH, a new family-centered method has been implemented to identify these problems in early childhood. Its main features are consideration of the child's developmental context and empowerment of parents to enhance the developmental context. Methods/design In a quasi-experimental study, embedded in routine PCH in the Netherlands, regions in which the family-centered method has been implemented (intervention condition will be compared to "care as usual" regions (control condition. These regions are comparable in regard to socio-demographic characteristics. From more than 3,500 newborn babies, 18-month follow-up data on social-emotional and behavioral development will be obtained. PCH professionals will assess development during each routine well-child visit; participating parents will fill in standardized questionnaires. Primary outcomes in the study are the proportion of social-emotional and behavioral problems identified by PCH professionals in children aged 2-14 and 18 months in both conditions, and the proportion of agreement between the assessment of PCH professionals and parents. In addition, the added value of the family-centered approach will be assessed by comparing PCH findings with standardized questionnaires. The secondary outcomes are the degree to which the needs of parents are met and the degree to which they are willing to disclose concerns. Discussion The family-centered method seems promising for early identification of social-emotional and behavioral problems. The results of this study will contribute to evidence-based public health. Trial registration NTR2681
Dadds, Mark R; Gale, Nyree; Godbee, Megan; Moul, Caroline; Pasalich, Dave S; Fink, Elian; Hawes, David J
Callous-unemotional traits (CU) are defined by low responsiveness to, and unfeeling disregard for the emotions of others. There is controversial evidence, however, that children with high CU traits can demonstrate affective responsiveness under certain conditions, namely those associated with attachment threat. We tested this using 'fear + amusing' and 'attachment rich' stimuli from the Lion King film. Of N = 76, 4-14 years old children, 56 were clinic-referred children divided into high and low CU traits groups, and 20 children were drawn from the community. Participants watched film sequences of fearful, attachment-related and neutral stimuli and their affective responses and emotion-regulation strategies were coded by independent observers. Children in the high CU traits group were able to disengage from the fear stimuli by showing more 'happiness' to a brief slapstick interlude. In the attachment scenario, high CU children expressed similar or trends toward higher emotional responses and emotion regulation strategies, compared to low-CU children and control children. The results support the idea that high CU children may have the potential for emotional responsiveness to complex emotional stimuli in attachment contexts. Implications of these results for the development of interventions are discussed.
Colman, Elien; Symoens, Sara; Bracke, Piet
The high mental health care consumption rates of divorced singles may constitute a heavy burden on the public health care system. This raises the question of whether their higher health care use stems from a greater need, or whether there are other factors contributing to these high consumption rates. We examine both health care use and subjective unmet need (perceiving a need for care without seeking it) because of social or emotional problems of the divorced singles, the repartnered divorcees, and the married. Moreover, we investigate how health care use and subjective unmet need relate to each other. We conduct several gender specific logistic regressions employing data from the Divorce in Flanders Survey (N men = 2884; N women = 3317). Results show that the divorced singles have more contact with professional health care providers (general practitioners, psychiatrists, and psychologists) because of social or emotional problems, and more often perceive unmet needs. The higher health care use rates and greater subjective unmet needs can largely be attributed to higher levels of depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, we find that non-frequent health care users more often perceive a subjective unmet need than frequent health care users and those who have not contacted any health care provider. The single divorced consult health care providers more often because of social or emotional problems and they also perceive unmet needs more often.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The high mental health care consumption rates of divorced singles may constitute a heavy burden on the public health care system. This raises the question of whether their higher health care use stems from a greater need, or whether there are other factors contributing to these high consumption rates. We examine both health care use and subjective unmet need (perceiving a need for care without seeking it because of social or emotional problems of the divorced singles, the repartnered divorcees, and the married. Moreover, we investigate how health care use and subjective unmet need relate to each other. Methods We conduct several gender specific logistic regressions employing data from the Divorce in Flanders Survey (N men = 2884; N women = 3317. Results Results show that the divorced singles have more contact with professional health care providers (general practitioners, psychiatrists, and psychologists because of social or emotional problems, and more often perceive unmet needs. The higher health care use rates and greater subjective unmet needs can largely be attributed to higher levels of depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, we find that non-frequent health care users more often perceive a subjective unmet need than frequent health care users and those who have not contacted any health care provider. Conclusion The single divorced consult health care providers more often because of social or emotional problems and they also perceive unmet needs more often.
Wang, Yanping; Nomura, Yoko; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Doppelt, Osnat; Abramovitz, Robert; Brom, Daniel; Chemtob, Claude
This study examined the differential impact of various types of trauma exposure on emotional and behavioral problems in preschool children. Participants were 95 mothers of 1- to 4-year-old children in Israel. Results suggested a differential pattern of associations between the types of trauma exposure (i.e., direct exposure to terrorism, media exposure to terrorism, and other trauma) and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. This line of research is important for the identification of risk factors and the development of effective prevention and intervention strategies to promote resilience in preschool children exposed to specific type(s) of trauma.
Erhart, Michael; Wetzel, Ralf M; Krügel, André; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
Telephone interviews have become established as an alternative to traditional mail surveys for collecting epidemiological data in public health research. However, the use of telephone and mail surveys raises the question of to what extent the results of different data collection methods deviate from one another. We therefore set out to study possible differences in using telephone and mail survey methods to measure health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. A total of 1700 German children aged 8-18 years and their parents were interviewed randomly either by telephone or by mail. Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and mental health problems (MHP) were assessed using the KINDL-R Quality of Life instrument and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) children's self-report and parent proxy report versions. Mean Differences ("d" effect size) and differences in Cronbach alpha were examined across modes of administration. Pearson correlation between children's and parents' scores was calculated within a multi-trait-multi-method (MTMM) analysis and compared across survey modes using Fisher-Z transformation. Telephone and mail survey methods resulted in similar completion rates and similar socio-demographic and socio-economic makeups of the samples. Telephone methods resulted in more positive self- and parent proxy reports of children's HRQoL (SMD survey self/proxy Total: 0.84/0.87). KINDL MTMM results were weaker for the phone surveys: mono-trait-multi-method mean r = 0.31 (mail: r = 0.45); multi-trait-mono-method mean (self/parents) r = 0.29/0.36 (mail: r = 0.34/0.40); multi-trait-multi-method mean r = 0.14 (mail: r = 0.21). Weaker MTMM results were also observed for the phone administered SDQ: mono-trait-multi-method mean r = 0.32 (mail: r = 0.40); multi-trait-mono-method mean (self/parents) r = 0.24/0.30 (mail: r = 0.20/0.32); multi-trait-multi-method mean r = 0.14 (mail = 0.14). The SDQ
Pang, Karen C.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.
Conduct disorder (CD) and depression co-occur at far greater levels than chance, despite largely separate diagnostic criteria. One potential shared mechanism of this comorbidity is emotion dysregulation, which characterizes both internalizing and externalizing disorders. Previous research demonstrates that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)—a peripheral biomarker of emotion regulation—is attenuated among children with CD, and among children with depression. However, few studies have examined biomarkers of emotion regulation as a function of heterotypic comorbidity. We evaluated longitudinal patterns of RSA and RSA reactivity to emotion evocation across three annual assessments among 207 children diagnosed at ages 8–12 years with CD (n=30), depression (n=28), comorbid CD and depression (n=80), or no psychiatric condition (n=69). Using continuous symptom counts as predictors, Depression × CD interactions were observed for both Time 1 resting RSA and Time 1 RSA reactivity. Conduct disorder, depression, and their interaction were all associated with low resting RSA at Time 1. In addition, concurrently elevated CD and depression scores predicted the greatest RSA reactivity to emotion evocation. Psychopathology scores were unrelated to developmental changes in RSA and RSA reactivity over time. PMID:22826111
Guedeney, Antoine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Thorr, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice
The objective of the study was to examine how social withdrawal in infants aged 12 months predicted emotional and behavioural problems at ages 3 and 5 years. The sample included 1,586 infants from the French Eden Mother-Child Cohort Study who had a measure of social withdrawal with the Alarm Distress BaBy scale at age 1 year; among these children, emotional and behavioural difficulties were rated by mothers using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) at 3 years for 1,257 (79 %) children and at 5 years for 1,123 (72 %) children. Social withdrawal behaviour at age 1 year was significantly associated with the SDQ behavioural disorder scale at 3 years, independently of a host of familial and child temperament confounders. The association with the relational disorder, prosocial and total difficulty scales was close to significance at 3 years after taking into account familial and temperament confounders. Social withdrawal significantly predicted the three aforementioned scales when measured at 5 years. No significant predictivity of the emotional scale and hyperactivity scale was detected at any age. This study made with a large longitudinal sample confirms the negative effects on development of social withdrawal behaviour, shedding light on the unfolding of behavioural disorders and relational difficulties in children; this calls for early detection of sustained social withdrawal behaviour, as it seems to hamper emotional development.
Gross, Rachel S; Briggs, Rahil D; Hershberg, Rebecca S; Silver, Ellen J; Velazco, Nerissa K; Hauser, Nicole R; Racine, Andrew D
To determine whether early social-emotional problems are associated with child feeding practices, maternal-child feeding styles, and child obesity at age 5 years, in the context of a primary care-based brief general parenting intervention led by an integrated behavioral health specialist to offer developmental monitoring, on-site intervention, and/or referrals. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of mothers with 5-year-old children previously screened using the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE) during the first 3 years of life. ASQ:SE scores were dichotomized "not at risk" versus "at risk." "At risk" subjects were further classified as participating or not participating in the intervention. Regression analyses were performed to determine relationships between social-emotional problems and feeding practices, feeding styles, and weight status at age 5 years based on participation, controlling for potential confounders and using "not at risk" as a reference group. Compared with children "not at risk," children "at risk-no participation" were more likely to be obese at age 5 years (adjusted odds ratio, 3.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 9.45). Their mothers were less likely to exhibit restriction and limit setting and more likely to pressure to eat than mothers in the "not at risk" group. Children "at risk-participation" did not demonstrate differences in weight status compared with children "not at risk." Early social-emotional problems, unmitigated by intervention, were related to several feeding styles and to obesity at age 5 years. Further study is needed to understand how a general parenting intervention may be protective against obesity.
Emotional intelligence is the cornerstone of every decision a principal makes; solving problems and making judgments are part of a leader's system of values and beliefs. Mayer and Salovney (1997) described emotionally intelligent leaders as those who are able to perceive and understand emotions and to regulate emotions to foster emotional and…
This conference was the second in a series devoted to a particular area of inverse problems. The theme of this series is to discuss problems of major scientific importance in a specific area from a mathematical perspective. The theme of this symposium was geophysical applications. In putting together the program we tried to include a wide range of mathematical scientists and to interpret geophysics in as broad a sense as possible. Our speaker came from industry, government laboratories, and diverse departments in academia. We managed to attract a geographically diverse audience with participation from five continents. There were talks devoted to seismology, hydrology, determination of the earth`s interior on a global scale as well as oceanographic and atmospheric inverse problems.
Internet use and electronic gaming by children and adolescents with emotional and behavioural problems in Australia - results from the second Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.
Rikkers, Wavne; Lawrence, David; Hafekost, Jennifer; Zubrick, Stephen R
Concerns have been raised of a potential connection between excessive online activity outside the academic realm and increased levels of psychological distress in young people. Young Minds Matter: the second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing provides estimates of the prevalence of online activity and allows an exploration of associations between this activity, a range of mental disorders, socio-demographic characteristics and risk taking behaviour. Based on a randomized nationally representative sample, a household survey of mental health and wellbeing (Young Minds Matter) was conducted in 2013-14. Interviews were conducted with 6,310 parents and carers of 4-17 year-olds (55 % response rate), together with self-report questionnaires completed by 2,967 11-17 year-olds in these households (89 % response rate). The survey identified a range of mental disorders and emotional problems using a variety of diagnostic tools, with the self-report including questions about use of the Internet and electronic games. Five behaviours were measured related to this activity, with 'problem behaviour' being defined as exhibiting at least four out of five behaviours. Levels of Internet use (98.9 %, CI 98.5-99.3 %) and electronic gaming (85.3 %, CI 83.9-86.6 %) were high, and 3.9 % (CI 3.2-4.6 %) of young people reported problem behaviour. The proportion of girls with very high levels of psychological distress and problem behaviour (41.8 %,CI 28.8-54.9 %) was twice that for boys (19.4 %, CI 7.7-31.1 %). Those engaging with a range of risk factors reported higher prevalence of problem behaviour than others. Youth who suffered from emotional problems or high levels of psychological distress spent the most time online or playing games. Multivariate analysis showed associations with problem behaviour and having attempted suicide, experiencing high to very high levels of psychological distress, using alcohol, and living in a poorly functioning
Internet use and electronic gaming by children and adolescents with emotional and behavioural problems in Australia – results from the second Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing
Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised of a potential connection between excessive online activity outside the academic realm and increased levels of psychological distress in young people. Young Minds Matter: the second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing provides estimates of the prevalence of online activity and allows an exploration of associations between this activity, a range of mental disorders, socio-demographic characteristics and risk taking behaviour. Methods Based on a randomized nationally representative sample, a household survey of mental health and wellbeing (Young Minds Matter was conducted in 2013-14. Interviews were conducted with 6,310 parents and carers of 4–17 year-olds (55 % response rate, together with self-report questionnaires completed by 2,967 11–17 year-olds in these households (89 % response rate. The survey identified a range of mental disorders and emotional problems using a variety of diagnostic tools, with the self-report including questions about use of the Internet and electronic games. Five behaviours were measured related to this activity, with ‘problem behaviour’ being defined as exhibiting at least four out of five behaviours. Results Levels of Internet use (98.9 %, CI 98.5–99.3 % and electronic gaming (85.3 %, CI 83.9–86.6 % were high, and 3.9 % (CI 3.2–4.6 % of young people reported problem behaviour. The proportion of girls with very high levels of psychological distress and problem behaviour (41.8 %,CI 28.8–54.9 % was twice that for boys (19.4 %, CI 7.7–31.1 %. Those engaging with a range of risk factors reported higher prevalence of problem behaviour than others. Youth who suffered from emotional problems or high levels of psychological distress spent the most time online or playing games. Multivariate analysis showed associations with problem behaviour and having attempted suicide, experiencing high to very high levels of
Nartker, T.A.; Kanal, J.; Rice, S.V.
In this paper, the authors present the results of a study to identify the predominant problems which contemporary OCR devices have in converting LSS document images into computer readable text. The results indicate that the majority of residual OCR errors are caused by either broken or touching characters. The relationship between the cost of constructing the LSS system and the number of OCR errors made during LSS data capture is analyzed. if 100% of the conversion problems caused by broken characters alone could be eliminated, the potential LSS cost savings is approximately $31,000,000
Non-Verbal Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement as Moderators of the Relation between Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Early Adolescence: The Importance of Moderator and Outcome Specificity
Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos
This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural…
Donohue, Meghan Rose; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Tully, Erin C.
Risk for internalizing problems and social skills deficits likely emerges in early childhood when emotion processing and social competencies are developing. Positively biased processing of social information is typical during early childhood and may be protective against poorer psychosocial outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that young children with relatively less positively biased attention to, interpretations of, and attributions for their mother’s emotions would exhibit poorer prosocial skills and more internalizing problems. A sample of 4- to 6-year-old children (N=82) observed their mothers express happiness, sadness and anger during a simulated emotional phone conversation. Children’s attention to their mother when she expressed each emotion was rated from video. Immediately following the phone conversation, children were asked questions about the conversation to assess their interpretations of the intensity of mother’s emotions and misattributions of personal responsibility for her emotions. Children’s prosocial skills and internalizing problems were assessed using mother-report rating scales. Interpretations of mother’s positive emotions as relatively less intense than her negative emotions, misattributions of personal responsibility for her negative emotions, and lack of misattributions of personal responsibility for her positive emotions were associated with poorer prosocial skills. Children who attended relatively less to mother’s positive than her negative emotions had higher levels of internalizing problems. These findings suggest that children’s attention to, interpretations of, and attributions for their mother’s emotions may be important targets of early interventions for preventing prosocial skills deficits and internalizing problems. PMID:28348456
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Deaf children have special emotional reactions, Understanding these characteristics and problems can help medical and paramedical professionals, parents and teachers to reach the purpose of behavioral adaptability.The present study was performed in order to recognize disorders, emotional problems and functions of deaf children compared with normal children in emotional components of anxiety, depression, aggression, impulsiv-ity and lack of compromise. Materials & Methods: In order to recognize emotional disorders and problems of deaf children, sample groups of 120 male and female patients (60 deaf children and 60 children with nor-mal hearing with equal number of male and female enrolled in primary schools of Hamadan province were selected by multi stage randomly sampling in this casual_comparative study. House-Tree-Person (HTP and Draw-A-Person tests (DAP were used to determine their emotional problems. Results:Our results indicate that in terms of parameters related to the two tests (distance of three components of each other ,anxiety, aggression, depression and impulsivity and lack of compromise, participants' overall scores in two tests by major scales such as anxiety (?=0.01, P< 0.05; 3.48, 3.13 aggression (?= 0.05 , 0.01, P< 0.05; 6.12 ,3.97 depression (?=0.05 P<0.05 ; 3.75,3.81 , impulsivity (?=0.05, 0.01, P<0.05 ; 3.47, 3.01 and lack of compromise (?=0.05, 0.01, P<0.05; 4.89, 4.95 are significantly different from each other. Conclusion:The deaf children in terms of denotative parameters related to the two tests are sig-nificantly different from normal children; and the overall scores obtained on each of the scales generally show a significant difference with normal children,In the deaf group with regard to gender variable (male and female significant differences in some of the scales such as distance of three components of each other ,anxiety, aggression, depression and lack of compromise iare observed between
Texas Research League, Austin.
The U.S. District Court ruling in Rodriguez vs San Antonio Independent School District, which struck down Texas' school finance system as inequitable and unconstitutional, provided the impetus for publishing this interim report. The report documents the growing cost of State-supported public school programs--the primary concern prior to the…
Vasilyev, Igor A.
Full Text Available In the laboratory of O.K. Tikhomirov, the phenomenon of the acute emotional regulation of productive thinking was justified. This regulation is realized by means of the elaboration of the axiological profile of cognition. The following definition of intellectual emotions can be given: intellectual emotions are the appraisals of specific cognitive objects — contradictions, assumptions, probabilities, and the intermediate and final results of operations. The main aspect of the method used in the research consisted of the synchronous registration of an external (tactile elaboration of problems, skin galvanic response and verbal utterances regarding tasks to be completed in a game of chess. The principle position in Tikhomirov`s group is the following: intellectual emotions represent not only the energetic resource or catalysts for the thinking process, but also the determinants of its structure.
Gutjar, Swetlana; Dalenberg, Jelle R.; de Graaf, Cees; de Wijk, Rene A.; Palascha, Aikaterini; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry
Food-evoked emotions provide information that goes beyond the information from traditional hedonic ratings. The objectives of our study were: (i) to investigate how intrinsic (sensory) and extrinsic (packaging) cues affect consumers' emotional responses to foods, and (ii) to explore whether
Gutjar, S.; Dalenberg, J.R.; Graaf, de C.; Wijk, de R.A.; Palascha, A.; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, G.
Food-evoked emotions provide information that goes beyond the information from traditional hedonic ratings. The objectives of our study were: (i) to investigate how intrinsic (sensory) and extrinsic (packaging) cues affect consumers’ emotional responses to foods, and (ii) to explore whether
van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, Andre; Spinhoven, Philip; van Buchem, Mark A.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Elzinga, Bernet M.
Background: Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has been associated with a profound and enduring negative impact on behavioral and emotional functioning. Animal models have shown that adverse rearing conditions, such as maternal separation, can induce a cascade of long-term structural alterations
Sulpizio, Valentina; Committeri, Giorgia; Metta, Emilia; Lambrey, Simon; Berthoz, Alain; Galati, Gaspare
In the visuospatial domain, perspective taking is the ability to imagine how a visual scene appears from an external observer's viewpoint, and can be studied by asking subjects to encode object locations in a visual scene where another individual is present and then detecting their displacement when seeing the scene from the other's viewpoint. In the current study, we explored the relationship between visuospatial perspective taking and self-report measures of the cognitive and emotional components of empathy in young adults. To this aim, we employed a priming paradigm, in which the presence of an avatar allowed to anticipate the next perceived perspective on the visual scene. We found that the emotional dimension of empathy was positively correlated with the behavioral advantage provided by the presence of the avatar, relative to unprimed perspective changes. These data suggest a link between the tendency to vicariously experience the others' emotions and the ability to perform self-other spatial transformations.
Hasking, Penelope A; Coric, Sarah J; Swannell, Sarah; Martin, Graham; Thompson, Holly Knox; Frost, Aaron D J
Self-injury without conscious suicidal intent is an increasingly prevalent phenomenon particularly among adolescent populations. This pilot study examined the extent and correlates of self-injurious behaviour in a school population sample of 393 adolescents (aged 13-18 years) using a self-report questionnaire. Specifically, we aimed to determine whether personality was related to self-injury and whether this relationship was moderated by emotion regulation or coping strategies. Few personality and coping variables were directly related to self-injury after controlling for age and psychopathology. However the relationship between personality and self-injury was moderated by coping skills and emotion regulation. We suggest future research explore these relationships in order to determine the role of coping skills and emotional regulation training in prevention of self-injury.
Chauvel, P.; Iborra-Brassart, N.; Courdi, A.; Herault, J.; Teissier, E.; Pignol, J.P.; Bondiau, P.Y.
The proton therapy facility of the Centre Antoine-Lacassagne in Nice began of ocular tumors in June 1991. Up to October 1995, a total number of 600 patients were treated. An overview of the cases treated during the first 4 years of activity is given and the main problems encountered in the field, possibly interacting with the accuracy and reliability of the dose distribution, are listed. (author)
Duchesne, Stephane; Ratelle, Catherine
Recent literature on the determinants of academic motivation has shown that parenting and emotions are central elements in understanding students' achievement goals. The authors of this study set out to examine the predictive relationship between parental behaviors during the last year of elementary school and adolescents' achievement goals at the…
Friedman-Krauss, Allison Hope; Raver, C. Cybele; Morris, Pamela A.; Jones, Stephanie M.
Research Findings: Despite the abundance of research suggesting that preschool classroom quality influences children's social-emotional development, the equally important and related question of how characteristics of children enrolled in a classroom influence classroom quality has rarely been addressed. The current article focuses on this…
Mattison, Richard E.; Blader, Joseph C.
Concern is growing over the limited academic progress in special education students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD). We know little about how academic and behavioral factors interact in these students to affect their academic functioning. Therefore, potential associations were investigated over the course of one school year for…
Prenoveau, Jason M.; Craske, Michelle G.; West, Valerie; Giannakakis, Andreas; Zioga, Maria; Lehtonen, Annukka; Davies, Beverley; Netsi, Elena; Cardy, Jessica; Cooper, Peter; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan
Postnatal maternal depression is associated with poorer child emotional and behavioral functioning, but it is unclear whether this occurs following brief episodes or only with persistent depression. Little research has examined the relation between postnatal anxiety and child outcomes. The present study examined the role of postnatal major…
Winsler, Adam; Kim, Yoon Kyong; Richard, Erin R.
This article analyzes the role that individual differences in children's cognitive, Spanish competence, and socio-emotional and behavioral skills play in predicting the concurrent and longitudinal acquisition of English among a large sample of ethnically diverse, low-income, Hispanic preschool children. Participants assessed at age 4 for language,…
Midgley, Erin Kathleen; Lo, Celia C.
The impact of a parent's incarceration and adolescents' emotional health on their substance abuse and delinquency is described for a group of at-risk 10- to 14-year-old adolescents. Data were drawn from a two-wave longitudinal study from the federally funded Children at Risk program, ongoing in five states from 1993 to 1997. Results point to a…
Mazefsky, Carla A.; Schreiber, Dana R.; Olino, Thomas M.; Minshew, Nancy J.
This study investigated the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and a broad set of emotional and behavioral concerns in 95 children with high-functioning autism and IQ scores = 80. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed via the Autism Treatment Network's Gastrointestinal Symptom Inventory, and data were gathered on autism symptom…
Goodman, Anna; Ford, Tamsin
Emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) are common in children, and forecasting their prevalence in schools is of interest to both academic researchers and local authorities. Percentage of pupils eligible for free school meals is one measure often used for this purpose. The article presents the first independent validation of a simple…