WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported comparable stress

  1. Comparing Cortisol, Stress and Sensory Sensitivity in Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Schupp, Clayton W; Levine, Seymour; Mendoza, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Previously we reported that children with autism show significant variability in cortisol. The current investigation was designed to extend these findings by exploring plausible relationships between cortisol and psychological measures of stress and sensory functioning. Salivary cortisol values for diurnal rhythms and response to stress in children with and without autism were compared to parent-report measures of child stress, the Stress Survey Schedule (SSS), sensory functioning, Short Sens...

  2. Comparing Candidate Hospital Report Cards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, T.L.; Rivenburgh, R.D.; Scovel, J.C.; White, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    We present graphical and analytical methods that focus on multivariate outlier detection applied to the hospital report cards data. No two methods agree which hospitals are unusually good or bad, so we also present ways to compare the agreement between two methods. We identify factors that have a significant impact on the scoring.

  3. Magnitude of stress reported by basketball referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, D; Winterich, D

    1995-12-01

    723 basketball referees responded to a survey that assessed stress related to officiating. Mean reported ratings were between "very little" and "moderate amount"; only 4% reported high stress. Results are consistent with other accounts, suggesting that most sport officials experience low occupational stress.

  4. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croon Marcel A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.

  5. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  6. Self-reported Stress Problems among Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan H. S.; Chen, K.; Chong, Elaine Y. L.

    2010-10-01

    The present study was developed to comprehensively investigate the occupational health problems among teachers of primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. A random sample of 1,710 respondents was generated from the database of Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union (HKPTU) members. A self-administrated questionnaire was designed and sent by mail to the teachers of primary and secondary schools in HK. The results indicated that comparing with one year and five years ago, 91.6% and 97.3% of the responding teachers reported an increase of perceived stress level, respectively. Heavy workload and time pressure, education reforms, external school review, pursuing further education, and managing students' behaviour and learning were the most frequently reported sources of work stress. The four most frequently reported stress management activities were sleeping, talking to neighbors and friends, self-relaxing, and watching television, while the least frequently reported activity was doing more exercises or sports.

  7. Self-reported versus diagnosed stress fractures in norwegian female elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyen, Jannike; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self- reported versus diagnosed stress fractures in female elite athletes and non-athletic controls. A random sample of Norwegian elite athletes from the national teams, aged 13-39 years (n = 186) and a random sample of non-athletic controls (n = 145) in the same age group participated in the study. The athletes represented a junior- or senior team, or a recruiting squad for one of these teams, in one of 46 different sports/events. A higher percentage of athletes self-reported stress fractures (14.0%) compared to those diagnosed with stress fractures (8.1%) (p stress fractures, but none of them were diagnosed with stress fractures. These results indicate that self-reporting of stress fractures has low validity. This finding has important implications for further research on stress fractures in athletes. Key pointsThis study is the first to compare self-reported and diagnosed stress fractures in the total population of elite athletes representing all kinds of sports.The results indicate that self-reporting of stress fractures has low validity in both athletes and non-athletic controls, and other measurement methods should be considered when evaluating possible stress fractures.Based on our results, stress fractures seem to be a sport-related injury.

  8. Risk management and capital adequacy in Turkish participation and conventional banks: A comparative stress testing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kabir Hassan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate changes in banks' capital adequacy ratio (CAR under different stress scenarios and examine the results by comparing conventional banks to participation banks in Turkey. Our results report that the capital adequacy ratio of the banks declines substantially given the stress scenarios. We find that participation banks in Turkey suffer more in declined capital adequacy ratio compared to conventional banks. Our findings reveal that participation banks in Turkey are more sensitive to sudden changes in exchange rates and increased non-performing loans. However, this sensitivity is in regards to capital adequacy, not profit. Overall, our study shows the effect of stress in the banking sector by contributing to the existing literature.

  9. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Isochronous Stress-Strain Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jill K. Wright; Richard N. Wright; Nancy J. Lybeck

    2014-03-01

    Isochronous stress-strain curves for Alloy 617 up to a temperature of 1000°C will be required to qualify the material for elevated temperature design in Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Several potential methods for developing these curves are reviewed in this report. It is shown that in general power-law creep is the rate controlling deformation mechanism for a wide range of alloy heats, test temperatures and stresses. Measurement of the strain rate sensitivity of Alloy 617 indicates that the material is highly strain rate sensitive in the tensile deformation range above about 750°C. This suggests that the concept of a hot tensile curve as a bounding case on the isochronous stress-strain diagrams is problematic. The impact of strain rate on the hot tensile curves is examined and it is concluded that incorporating such a curve is only meaningful if a single tensile strain rate (typically the ASTM standard rate of 0.5%/min) is arbitrarily defined. Current experimentally determined creep data are compared to isochronous stress-strain curves proposed previously by the German programs in the 1980s and by the 1990 draft ASME Code Case. Variability in how well the experimental data are represented by the proposed design curves that suggests further analysis is necessary prior to completing a new draft Code Case.

  10. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella: A Case Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    .... Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella...

  11. Development of a novel mindfulness and cognitive behavioral intervention for stress-eating: a comparative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsica, Joyce; Hood, Megan M; Katterman, Shawn; Kleinman, Brighid; Ivan, Iulia

    2014-12-01

    Stress-related eating is increasingly cited as a difficulty in managing healthy eating behaviors and weight. However few interventions have been designed to specifically target stress-related eating. In addition, the optimal target of such an intervention is unclear, as the target might be conceptualized as overall stress reduction or changing emotional eating-related thoughts and behaviors. This pilot study compared the effects of three interventions targeting those components individually and in combination on stress-related eating, perceived stress, and weight loss to determine whether the two intervention components are effective alone or are more effective when combined. Fifty-three overweight participants (98% female) who reported elevated levels of stress and stress-eating and were at risk for obesity were randomly assigned to one of three six-week interventions: a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention, a cognitive behavioral stress-eating intervention (SEI), and a combined intervention that included all MBSR and SEI components. All three interventions significantly reduced perceived stress and stress-eating, but the combination intervention resulted in greater reductions and also produced a moderate effect on short term weight loss. Benefits persisted at six week follow-up.The pattern of results preliminarily suggests that the combination intervention (MBSR+SEI) may yield promise in the treatment of stress-related eating.

  12. Comparing measured with simulated vertical soil stress under vehicle load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Lamandé, Mathieu; Arvidsson, Johan;

    in the soil profile at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 m depth was measured during wheeling at field capacity on five soils (13-66% clay). Stress propagation was then simulated with the semi-analytical model, using vertical stress at 0.1 m depth estimated from tyre characteristics as upper boundary condition, and v...

  13. Comparing measured with simulated vertical soil stress under vehicle load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Lamandé, Mathieu; Arvidsson, Johan

    in the soil profile at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 m depth was measured during wheeling at field capacity on five soils (13-66% clay). Stress propagation was then simulated with the semi-analytical model, using vertical stress at 0.1 m depth estimated from tyre characteristics as upper boundary condition, and v...

  14. How Children Report True and Fabricated Stressful and Non-Stressful Events1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Megan K.; Evans, Angela D.; Talwar, Victoria; Bala, Nicholas; Lindsay, Rod C. L.; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    As children can be victims or witnesses to crimes and may be required to testify about their experiences in court, the ability to differentiate between children’s true and fabricated accounts of victimization is an important issue. This study used automated linguistic analysis software to detect linguistic patterns in order to differentiate between children’s true and false stressful bullying reports and reports of non-stressful events. Results revealed that children displayed different linguistic patterns when reporting true and false stressful and non-stressful stories, with non-stressful stories being more accurately discriminated based on linguistic patterns. Results suggest that it is difficult to discriminate accurately and consistently between children’s true and false stories of victimization. PMID:24659903

  15. The effect of stress inoculation training on self-reported stress, observer's rating of stress, heart rate and gymnastics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, R D; Carroll, D

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen volunteer female subjects received preliminary instruction in a simple gymnastics bench sequence. They were then given a pre-intervention test on a bench at ground level. Self-reported distress, an independent observer's ratings of distress and heart rates were monitored immediately prior to performance of the sequence. Performances were also videotaped and formally scored by a qualified gymnastics judge. Subjects were then randomly assigned to a stress inoculation training group or a 'no stress management' training control group. Stress inoculation group subjects then received seven sessions of training in relaxation, imagery and making self-statements in order to develop a set of coping skills. Control group subjects also received seven training sessions during which they practised a series of coordination exercises, but no psychological stress management training was given to this group. All subjects were then re-tested on the bench sequence but this time at a height of 1.52 m. Self-reported stress, observer's ratings of distress and heart rate were recorded as before. Performance was again videotaped for scoring. The stress inoculation group reported significantly less stress prior to the test on the elevated beam than the control group. However, the groups did not differ in terms of heart rate. Further, the stress inoculation group performed reliably better than the control group on the elevated bench.

  16. Stress in crisis managers: evidence from self-report and psychophysiological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, A; Adler, C; Fischer, L; Perakakis, P; Guerra, P; Duschek, S

    2015-12-01

    Directing disaster operations represents a major professional challenge. Despite its importance to health and professional performance, research on stress in crisis management remains scarce. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported stress and psychophysiological stress responses in crisis managers. For this purpose, 30 crisis managers were compared with 30 managers from other disciplines, in terms of self-reported stress, health status and psychophysiological reactivity to crisis-related and non-specific visual and acoustic aversive stimuli and cognitive challenge. Crisis managers reported lower stress levels, a more positive strain-recuperation-balance, greater social resources, reduced physical symptoms, as well as more physical exercise and less alcohol consumption. They exhibited diminished electrodermal and heart rate responses to crisis-related and non-specific stressors. The results indicate reduced stress and physical complaints, diminished psychophysiological stress reactivity, and a healthier life-style in crisis managers. Improved stress resistance may limit vulnerability to stress-related performance decline and facilitate preparedness for major incidents.

  17. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on irregu

  18. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on irregu

  19. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on

  20. Do agreements between adolescent and parent reports on family socioeconomic status vary with household financial stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Christy; Huang, Nicole; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2011-04-19

    Many studies compared the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parents' reports on family socioeconomic status (SES). However, none of these studies analyzed whether the degree of concordance varies by different levels of household financial stress. This research examines whether the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parent reports for the three traditional SES measures (parental education, parental occupation and household income) varied with parent-reported household financial stress and relative standard of living. 2,593 adolescents with a mean age of 13 years, and one of their corresponding parents from the Taiwan Longitudinal Youth Project conducted in 2000 were analyzed. Consistency of adolescents' and parents' reports on parental educational attainment, parental occupation and household income were examined by parent-reported household financial stress and relative standard of living. Parent-reported SES variables are closely associated with family financial stress. For all levels of household financial stress, the degree of concordance between adolescent's and parent's reports are highest for parental education (κ ranging from 0.87 to 0.71) followed by parental occupation (κ ranging from 0.50 to 0.34) and household income (κ ranging from 0.43 to 0.31). Concordance for father's education and parental occupation decreases with higher parent-reported financial stress. This phenomenon was less significant for parent-reported relative standard of living. Though the agreement between adolescents' and parents' reports on the three SES measures is generally judged to be good in most cases, using adolescents reports for family SES may still be biased if analysis is not stratified by family financial stress.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two olive cultivars in response to NaCl-stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Bazakos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Olive (Olea europaea L. cultivation is rapidly expanding and low quality saline water is often used for irrigation. The molecular basis of salt tolerance in olive, though, has not yet been investigated at a system level. In this study a comparative transcriptomics approach was used as a tool to unravel gene regulatory networks underlying salinity response in olive trees by simulating as much as possible olive growing conditions in the field. Specifically, we investigated the genotype-dependent differences in the transcriptome response of two olive cultivars, a salt-tolerant and a salt-sensitive one. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 135-day long salinity experiment was conducted using one-year old trees exposed to NaCl stress for 90 days followed by 45 days of post-stress period during the summer. A cDNA library made of olive seedling mRNAs was sequenced and an olive microarray was constructed. Total RNA was extracted from root samples after 15, 45 and 90 days of NaCl-treatment as well as after 15 and 45 days of post-treatment period and used for microarray hybridizations. SAM analysis between the NaCl-stress and the post-stress time course resulted in the identification of 209 and 36 differentially expressed transcripts in the salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivar, respectively. Hierarchical clustering revealed two major, distinct clusters for each cultivar. Despite the limited number of probe sets, transcriptional regulatory networks were constructed for both cultivars while several hierarchically-clustered interacting transcription factor regulators such as JERF and bZIP homologues were identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A systems biology approach was used and differentially expressed transcripts as well as regulatory interactions were identified. The comparison of the interactions among transcription factors in olive with those reported for Arabidopsis might indicate similarities in the response of a tree species with

  2. Cortisol Variability and Self-reports in the Measurement of Work-related Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Björn; Eek, Frida; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether a high cortisol awakening response (CAR) and low cortisol decline over the day (CDD) are related to self-reported work stress and well-being, and whether there are gender differences in these relationships. Three hundred eighty-three working men and women responded to a survey...... was associated only with higher job demands, but the self-report scores showed a number of interactions between cortisol group and gender. Among women, those showing a low CDD, compared with those with a higher CDD, had more favourable scores on a number of job stress factors and symptom load. In contrast, among...... men, a similar comparison showed those with low CDD to have poorer scores on job stress factors and symptom load. We conclude that individuals displaying high CAR or low CDD differ from those not displaying these cortisol profi les in self-report of work stress and well-being, and that gender...

  3. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. Results: The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (p<0.001). Adjusted by age and gender, frequent bruxers were more than two times more likely to report severe stress (odds ratio 2.5; 95% confidence interval 1.5-4.2) and anxiety (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6) than non-or-mild bruxers. Conclusions: Present findings suggest that self-reported bruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects. Key words:Bruxism, self-report, anxiety, stress, adult. PMID:22926484

  4. Comparative Research of Oil-paper Aging Characteristics Under Thermal Stress and Combined Thermo-electrical Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shi-qiang; WU Feng-jiao; XU Hao; ZHANG Guan-jun

    2011-01-01

    During the operation of power transformer, its oil-paper insulation is continuously subjected to various stresses, e. g. , the thermal, electrical, mechanical, and chemical stresses, which cause insulation aging gradually. It has been considered that the combined thermal and electrical stresses are the most important and unavoidable factors that induce insulation materials aging. In this work, accelerated aging experiments of oil-impregnated pressboards un der combined thermal (130℃) and electrical stresses (4 kV/mm) are performed, while the aging experiments under single thermal stress are also carried out at the corresponding temperature (130 ℃). The electrical and physic-chemical properties of oil, including dielectric losses factor tanδ resistivity, acid value and pH value etc. , are measured during the aging process. Dissolved gasses in oil and polymerization degree of cellulose are also measured. The relationship between these properties of oil-paper insulation and aging time is investigated. The results show that dissolved gases in oil, resistivity, tanδ of oil under combined thermal and electrical stresses are obviously different from that under thermal stress during aging process while some other properties show similar changing :trend. For cellulose, compared with the single thermal aging results, it even shows a slower degradation rate in the presence of elec trical stress.

  5. A Comparative Study of Stressful Life Events and Stress Coping Strategies in Coronary Heart Disease Patients and Non-Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidari Pahlavian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Etiological researches suggest that biopsychosocial dimensions are responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD. The main goal of the present research was to compare stressful life events and stress coping strategies in coronary heart patients (Acute Myocardial Infarction and non-patients. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional research 102 patients (all males suffering from acute myocardial infarction and 162 non-patient individuals after matching were studied and compared with regard to psychosocial life events and stress coping strategies through coping response inventory (Moos, 1993 , scaling of life Events (paykel , 1971 and researcher made questionnaire. Results: The result established that myocardial infarction patients experienced more stress than the control group during one year before heart- attack and they used more inadequate stress coping strategies comparing with the control individuals. Conclusion: This study showed that stress and inadequate coping strategies are important variables for the development of coronary heart diseases. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3:33-38

  6. Stress in Mothers of Hearing Impaired Children Compared to Mothers of Normal and Other Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is associated with life satisfaction and also development of some physical diseases. Birth of a disabled child with mental or physical disability (especially deaf or blind children, impose an enormous load of stress on their parents especially the mothers. This study compared stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of normal children or with other disabilities.Methods: In this study, cluster random sampling was performed in Karaj city. 120 mothers in four groups of having a child with mental retardation, low vision, hearing impairment and with normal children were included. Family inventory of life events (FILE of Mc Cubbin et al. was used to determine stress level in four groups of mothers.Results: The results of this research indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 between stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of other disabled and normal children in subscales of intra-family stress, finance and business strains, stress of job transitions, stress of illness and family care and family members "in and out''. There was no difference between compared groups in other subscales.Conclusion: Since deafness is a hidden inability, the child with hearing impairment has a set of social and educational problems causing great stress for parents, especially to mother. In order to decrease mother’s stress, it is suggested to provide more family consultation, adequate social support and to run educational classes for parents to practice stress coping strategies.

  7. Comparative transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus flavus isolates under different oxidative stresses and culture media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in the field are known to be influenced by numerous stress factors, particularly drought and heat stress. However, the purpose of aflatoxin production is unknown. Here, we report transcriptome analyses comprised of 282.6 Gb of sequencing data describing...

  8. Stress views in the comparative assessment of spondylolytic spondylolithesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaelebo, P.; Kadziolka, R.; Swaerd, L.; Zachrisson, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    Patients with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis were examined in six different positions to detect segmental instability. The amount of displacement was determined on lateral spot radiographs, taken in recumbent, standing, flexion, extension, axial compression, and traction positions in each patient. An error analysis was also performed. Examination in axial compression - traction was found to be a significantly better method for detection of segmental instability compared with standing - recumbent, or flexion - extension radiographs. In addition, the compression - traction method exhibited a higher sensitivity for identification of instability (73 %) than standing - recumbent (33 %) or flexion - extension (20 %) views. The total error in the determination was small, +- 2.5 % (95 % CL), providing a careful and controlled technique was used.

  9. Comparing Stress Levels of Graduate and Undergraduate Pre-Service Teachers Following Their Teaching Practicums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Gretchen; Midford, Richard; Buckworth, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    In comparison to undergraduate pre-service teachers (PSTs), graduate PSTs have previously completed a three-year bachelor degree and are enrolled in initial teacher education (ITE) programs to become a teacher. Following a review of literature on teachers' sense of stress, reflection and identity development, this study compared the stress levels…

  10. Development of a Modified Korean East Asian Student Stress Inventory by Comparing Stress Levels in Medical Students with Those in Non-Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Hee Kon; Kang, Seok Hoon; Lim, Sun-Hye; Yang, Jeong Hee; Chae, Sunguk

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical students are usually under more stress than that experienced by non-medical students. Stress testing tools for Korean medical students have not been sufficiently studied. Thus, we adapted and modified the East Asian Student Stress Inventory (EASSI), a stress testing tool for Korean students studying abroad, and verified its usefulness as a stress test in Korean university students. We also compared and analyzed stress levels between medical and non-medical students. Methods...

  11. A case report of missed femoral neck stress fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onibere Oruaro Adebayo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Femoral neck stress fracture (FNSF is an uncommon but potentially serious orthopaedic problem. This is a case report on missed femoral neck stress fracture in a 62-year-old female who was initially treated as early-onset coxarthrosis. She later presented to us with a displaced intra-capsular neck of left femur fracture and underwent total hip replacement. This case illustrates that causes other than osteoarthritis should be taken into consideration in patients presenting with anterior hip pain where symptoms are disproportionate to clinical and radiological findings. More advanced investigations such as MRI scan or regular follow up with plain radiographs should be performed. A delay in diagnosis can lead to secondary displacement of the femoral neck stress fracture.

  12. Stress fracture in acetabular roof due to motocross: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Paiva Luciano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the first steps to be taken in order to reduce sports injuries such as stress fractures is to have in-depth knowledge of the nature and extent of these pathological conditions. We present a case report of a stress fracture of the acetabular roof caused through motocross. This type of case is considered rare in the literature. The description of the clinical case is as follows. The patient was a 27-year-old male who started to have medical follow-up because of uncharacteristic pain in his left hip, which was concentrated mainly in the inguinal region of the left hip during motocross practice. After clinical investigation and complementary tests, he was diagnosed with a stress fracture of the acetabular roof.

  13. Stress fracture in acetabular roof due to motocross: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva Luciano, Alexandre; Filho, Nelson Franco

    2016-01-01

    One of the first steps to be taken in order to reduce sports injuries such as stress fractures is to have in-depth knowledge of the nature and extent of these pathological conditions. We present a case report of a stress fracture of the acetabular roof caused through motocross. This type of case is considered rare in the literature. The description of the clinical case is as follows. The patient was a 27-year-old male who started to have medical follow-up because of uncharacteristic pain in his left hip, which was concentrated mainly in the inguinal region of the left hip during motocross practice. After clinical investigation and complementary tests, he was diagnosed with a stress fracture of the acetabular roof.

  14. Parent Stress and Perceptions of Language Development: Comparing Down Syndrome and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.; Adamson, Lauren B.; Barker, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study extended research on the Down syndrome advantage by examining differences in parent stress and parent perceptions of language development between 29 parents of young children with Down syndrome and 82 parents of children with other developmental disabilities. Parents of children with Down syndrome reported lower levels of total stress, child-related stress, and stress surrounding the parent-child interaction. Parents of children in both groups reported that they felt successful in their ability to impact their children’s communication development but did differ on perceptions of difficulty such that parents of children with Down syndrome perceived their children’s communication difficulties as less severe despite the children exhibiting similar language skills. Finally, after accounting for potential explanatory confounding variables, child diagnosis remained a significant predictor of parent stress and perceptions of language development. Results highlight the importance of considering etiology when assisting families raising a child with a disability. PMID:24753637

  15. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-02-01

    Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete.A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity.Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws.

  16. Comparative transcriptomics of rice plants under cold, iron, and salt stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Marcelo Nogueira; Arge, Luis Willian Pacheco; Benitez, Letícia Carvalho; Danielowski, Rodrigo; Silveira, Solange Ferreira da Silveira; Farias, Daniel da Rosa; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; da Maia, Luciano Carlos; Braga, Eugenia Jacira Bolacel

    2016-09-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity, iron toxicity, and low temperatures are the main limiting factors of rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield. The elucidation of the genes involved in responses to these stresses is extremely important to understand the mechanisms that confer tolerance, as well as for the development of cultivars adapted to these conditions. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to compare the transcriptional profile of rice leaves (cv. BRS Querência) in stage V3, exposed to cold, iron, and salt stresses for 24 h. A range of 41 to 51 million reads was aligned, in which a total range of 88.47 to 89.21 % was mapped in the reference genome. For cold stress, 7905 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed, 2092 for salt and 681 for iron stress; 370 of these were common to the three DEG stresses. Functional annotation by software MapMan demonstrated that cold stress usually promoted the greatest changes in the overall metabolism, and an enrichment analysis of overrepresented gene ontology (GO) terms showed that most of them are contained in plastids, ribosome, and chloroplasts. Saline stress induced a more complex interaction network of upregulated overrepresented GO terms with a relatively low number of genes compared with cold stress. Our study demonstrated a high number of differentially expressed genes under cold stress and a greater relationship between salt and iron stress levels. The physiological process most affected at the molecular level by the three stresses seems to be photosynthesis.

  17. The management of stress urinary incontinence: A case report

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    Preshani Reddy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conservative management is the first option for patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI. However, successful management of women diagnosed with SUI is dependent on a proper assessment and a tailored treatment plan. This case report aims to show the effectiveness of physiotherapy management in a 42-year-old patient diagnosed with SUI.Patient presentation: The patient’s main complaints were involuntary loss of urine on coughing, sneezing and lifting of heavy objects, which started following the birth of her third child.Management and outcome: The patient was taught the ‘Knack’ manoeuvre and provided with a tailored pelvic floor exercise programme. Improvement was noted at the third visit and the patient no longer had involuntary episodes.Conclusion: This case report shows the successful outcome of conservative management in a patient with stress urinary incontinence.

  18. Identification of Arabidopsis candidate genes in response to biotic and abiotic stresses using comparative microarrays.

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    Arjun Sham

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved with intricate mechanisms to cope with multiple environmental stresses. To adapt with biotic and abiotic stresses, plant responses involve changes at the cellular and molecular levels. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of combinations of different environmental stresses on the transcriptome level of Arabidopsis genome using public microarray databases. We investigated the role of cyclopentenones in mediating plant responses to environmental stress through TGA (TGACG motif-binding factor transcription factor, independently from jasmonic acid. Candidate genes were identified by comparing plants inoculated with Botrytis cinerea or treated with heat, salt or osmotic stress with non-inoculated or non-treated tissues. About 2.5% heat-, 19% salinity- and 41% osmotic stress-induced genes were commonly upregulated by B. cinerea-treatment; and 7.6%, 19% and 48% of genes were commonly downregulated by B. cinerea-treatment, respectively. Our results indicate that plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses are mediated by several common regulatory genes. Comparisons between transcriptome data from Arabidopsis stressed-plants support our hypothesis that some molecular and biological processes involved in biotic and abiotic stress response are conserved. Thirteen of the common regulated genes to abiotic and biotic stresses were studied in detail to determine their role in plant resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, a T-DNA insertion mutant of the Responsive to Dehydration gene (rd20, encoding for a member of the caleosin (lipid surface protein family, showed an enhanced sensitivity to B. cinerea infection and drought. Overall, the overlapping of plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, coupled with the sensitivity of the rd20 mutant, may provide new interesting programs for increased plant resistance to multiple environmental stresses, and ultimately increases its chances to survive. Future research

  19. Usability problem reports for comparative studies: consistency and inspectability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Attema, J.; Akar, E.; De Ridder, H.; Van Doorn, A.J.; Erburg, Ç.; Berkman, A.E.; Maguire, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores issues of consistency and inspectability in usability test data analysis processes and reports. Problem reports resulting from usability tests performed by three professional usability labs in three different countries are compared. Each of the labs conducted a usability test on

  20. Occupational Stress in UK Higher Education Institutions: A Comparative Study of All Staff Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytherleigh, M. Y.; Webb, C.; Cooper, C. L.; Ricketts, C.

    2005-01-01

    The higher education sector in the UK continues to experience significant change. This includes restructuring, use of short-term contracts, external scrutiny and accountability, and major reductions in funding. In line with this, reports of stress at work in higher education institutions have also increased. The study reported here was carried out…

  1. Stress Urinary lncontinence : Comparative Study of Perineal Sonography in Erect Position and Chain Cystourethrograpy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Gi Seok; Kim, Seung Hyup; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Paick, Jae Seung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    Authors investigated the diagnostic value of perineal sonography in erect position for patients with stress urinary incontinence. Perineal sonography and chain cystourethrography were performed in 18 female patients(mean age 51.2) with stress urinary incontinence. The posterior are throvesical angles in stress and rest states were measured in both studies and compared with each other. Mean posteriorurethrovesical angles({+-}2 standard error) in rest and stress states were 136.3({+-}7.2) .deg. , and 145.9({+-}7.0) .deg. for chain cystourethrography and 131.4({+-}5.6) .deg. and 143.4({+-}5.9) .deg. for perineal sonography, respectively. The data frorm both studies correlated well with cach other. Perineal sonography inerect position is easy,non-invasive technique and may substitute the chain cystourethrography in the evaluation of the patients with stress urinary in continece

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STRESS AND STRESS RELATED FACTORS IN MEDICAL AND ENGINEERING COLLEGES OF A SOUTH INDIAN CITY

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    Maseer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The process of professional education is often stressful. Various studies across the globe have emphasized that students undertaking professional courses, such as medical and engineering studies are subjected to higher stress. Excessive stress could lead to psychological problems like depression, anxiety and also it may cause suicides. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY  To assess the prevalence of stress among medical and engineering 1st year students.  To study the association of stress with various academic, social and health-related factors, in the professional courses like medical and engineering.  To compare the factors causing stress in both medical and engineering students. METHODOLOGY Place of Study: Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Guntur. SAMPLE SIZE 100 medical and 100 engineering students A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was used as the study instrument. It was developed with the help of published literature and finalized after a pilot study. The questionnaire was divided into three sections. First section includes the collection of Sociocultural and demographic data. Second section consists of effect of academic stressors on the life of the subject. Third section includes effect of health, life style and environmental stressors. In health, Zung Depression scale was utilized in scoring the depression levels in the study subjects. Study Period Month of April 2015. Software Used: MS Office, EPI Info 2002. RESULTS In the present study in medical course, 63% were found to be females and 37% were found to be males. In engineering, 54% were found to be males and 46% were found to be females. Respondents were belonging to the age group 18-22 years in both medical and engineering courses; 62% of medical students, 36% of engineering students were witnessing stress in their lives. DISCUSSION In the present study, stress was more in medical course than engineering owing to the overloaded syllabus. It is observed in the

  3. Comparative proteomic analysis provides insight into cadmium stress responses in brown algae Sargassum fusiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Aiqin; Xu, Tao [Alkali Soil Natural Environmental Science Center, Northeast Forestry University, Key Laboratory of Saline–alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration in Oil Field, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040 (China); Zou, Huixi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Subtropical Water Environment and Marine Biological Resources Protection, College of Life and Environmental Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Pang, Qiuying, E-mail: qiuying@nefu.edu.cn [Alkali Soil Natural Environmental Science Center, Northeast Forestry University, Key Laboratory of Saline–alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration in Oil Field, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Proteomic analysis of brown algae response different level Cd stress was performed. • Proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were reduced under 1 day Cd stress. • 5 days Cd stress induced glycolysis and citrate cycle related proteins. • Graphic depiction of different metabolic pathways response to Cd stress was framed. - Abstract: Sargassum fusiforme is one of the most widely consumed seaweeds in China, Korea and Japan. In this work, we performed growth analysis and comparative proteomics to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the response to 1 day and 5 days Cd stress in S. fusiforme. Our results showed a significant decrease in growth rate and an increase in Cd ion content in S. fusiforme in response to Cd treatment. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 25 and 51 differentially expressed protein spots in S. fusiforme under 1 day and 5 days Cd stress, respectively. A great number of these proteins was metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism. Many proteins involved in the processing of genetic information showed a decrease in abundance under 1 day Cd stress. In contrast, 9 of the identified protein spots primarily involved in genetic information processing and carbohydrate metabolism were greatly enriched under 5 days Cd stress. Overall, our investigation indicated that Cd stress negatively affects the metabolic activity of S. fusiforme through the down-regulation of key metabolic enzymes. In addition, S. fusiforme may adapt to 5 days Cd stress by promoting consumption of photoassimilates through the up-regulation of glycolysis and the citrate cycle to supply energy for survival.

  4. Comparative stress levels among residents in three Chinese provincial capitals, 2001 and 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingzhong Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare stress levels among residents in large Chinese cities between 2001 and 2008. METHODS: Survey data were collected in three mainland Chinese capital cities in two waves, in 2001 and 2008, respectively. Participants were recruited through a multi-stage stratified sampling process. Stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Chinese version (CPSS. Descriptive methods were used to estimate mean stress levels and associated 95% confidence intervals. Estimates were adjusted by post-stratification weights. RESULTS: Indicating stable stress levels, respective adjusted mean stress scores for the combined samples of study participants were 23.90 (95%CI: 23.68-24.12 in 2001 and 23.69 (95%CI: 23.38-24.01 in 2008. A lower stress level in 2008 than in 2001 manifested among residents who were under 25 years of age; female; with a college or higher level education; divorced, widowed, or separated; members of the managerial and clerical group; students or army personnel; or with an annual income of at least 30,000 RMB. CONCLUSION: The overall stress level did not change among the combined sample of residents in the three Chinese study cities between 2001 and 2008. However, levels remained high and varied across social strata, and may have reflected a national trend among urban residents. Findings indicate a need for a new health policy, and call for the design and implementation of evidence-based interventions that target the highest-risk groups.

  5. Comparative Morpho-Biochemical Responses of Wheat Cultivars Sensitive and Tolerant to Water Stress

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    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water stress is likely the most important factor that adversely affects plant growth and development. In this study two wheat cultivars Gemmieza-7 (sensitive and Sahel-1 (tolerant were subjected to water stress and compared in terms of growth parameters (growth vigor of root and shoot, water relations (relative water content and saturation water deficit and protein as well as nucleic acids (DNA and RNA content in flag leaves of both cultivars. In general, water stress caused noticeable reduction in almost all growth criteria of root, shoot and flag leaf which was consistent with the progressive alteration in water relations, protein and nucleic acids content of both cultivars during grain filling. Furthermore, degree of leaf succulence and degree of leaf sclerophylly were severely affected by water stress in both wheat cultivars. In relation to wheat cultivar, the sensitive was more affected by water stress than the tolerant one. Generally, the application of salicylic acid, trehalose or their interaction induced marked increase in growth vigor of root and shoot, water relations and protein as well as nucleic acids in flag leaves of both wheat cultivars in compare with control and water stressed plants. In conclusion, Sahel-1 has suitable mechanisms to enable it to respond more effectively to water stress than Gemmieza-7.

  6. COMPARING EXPERIENCES IN REPORTING INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL IN UNIVERSITIES

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    Silvestri Antonella

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the intellectual capital (IC report in universities, a relevant theme actually for the growing interest in applying an IC approach in managing universities. The paper compares the experiences in reporting IC of two different university institutions, the Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM and the Austrian Universities, to highlight pros and cons of the two different IC models employed. In order to compare these two experiences, firstly we analyzed, through a literature review, the state-of-the-art in measuring and reporting IC, then we focus on the IC measurement models used as framework by the two institution, finally we turned our attention to the IC reports issued by the two universities. Both experiences presented refer to advanced IC measurement models, but both suffer of some limits in applying the models in practice. Like all measurement and management systems that deal with knowledge-based processes, Austrian and UAM's IC reports face the methodological problems of measuring non-physical processes and outputs. In detail, Austrian IC reports lack of qualitative indicators, UAM's IC report lacks of efficiency-related and activities-related indicators.The main research limit is that the theoretical comparison has been carried out on two experiences, due to the lack of awareness of IC relevance in managing universities. The establishment of an ad hoc IC measurement model for universities could have both internal and external benefits. As regards the policy implications, Government, ranking universities by their IC, can get information about their strengths and weaknesses and using it to reallocate resources. This study contributes to broaden the research community'aas understanding about a relevant management (internal and communication (external universities tool, the IC report, through the examination of two real life European universities experiences in disclosing intangibles. To the best of our knowledge, this is

  7. Comparative metabolite profiling of two rice genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance at the seedling stage.

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    Xiuqin Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is sensitive to salt stress, especially at the seedling stage, with rice varieties differing remarkably in salt tolerance (ST. To understand the physiological mechanisms of ST, we investigated salt stress responses at the metabolite level. METHODS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to profile metabolite changes in the salt-tolerant line FL478 and the sensitive variety IR64 under a salt-stress time series. Additionally, several physiological traits related to ST were investigated. RESULTS: We characterized 92 primary metabolites in the leaves and roots of the two genotypes under stress and control conditions. The metabolites were temporally, tissue-specifically and genotype-dependently regulated under salt stress. Sugars and amino acids (AAs increased significantly in the leaves and roots of both genotypes, while organic acids (OAs increased in roots and decreased in leaves. Compared with IR64, FL478 experienced greater increases in sugars and AAs and more pronounced decreases in OAs in both tissues; additionally, the maximum change in sugars and AAs occurred later, while OAs changed earlier. Moreover, less Na+ and higher relative water content were observed in FL478. Eleven metabolites, including AAs and sugars, were specifically increased in FL478 over the course of the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic responses of rice to salt stress are dynamic and involve many metabolites. The greater ST of FL478 is due to different adaptive reactions at different stress times. At early salt-stress stages, FL478 adapts to stress by decreasing OA levels or by quickly depressing growth; during later stages, more metabolites are accumulated, thereby serving as compatible solutes against osmotic challenge induced by salt stress.

  8. Environment Reporters and U.S. Journalists: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachsman, David B.; Simon, James; Valenti, JoAnn Myer

    2008-01-01

    This study provides baseline data regarding environment reporters in the twenty-first century, and then compares this baseline information about a specialized journalism beat to existing studies of U.S. journalists in general. This comparison between 652 environmental journalists working at daily newspapers and television stations and more than…

  9. Management on tsunami causing posttraumatic stress disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarusuraisin, Ngamwong; Kesornsukon, Kanch

    2005-11-01

    On December 26, 2004, tsunamis hit Southeast Asia and caused serious damage and loss of lives. In Thailand, six provinces (Ranong, Phang-Nga, Phuket, Krabi, Trang, and Satun) were impacted. The present study reports the psychiatric assessments such as Thai GHQ-60 and IES. It also reports management techniques of both cognitive behavior therapy and medication. Those were provided to a Thai female patient who was 54 years old. The patient responded to treatment quickly because of early management. The tsunami victim with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is not an individual. A mass of people who faced or witnessed the tsunami are vulnerable to get PTSD any time during 6 months after trauma. These early management techniques are useful and practical for a mass of victims and survivors.

  10. Comparing the Level of Stress on War Veterans and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhasan Afkar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In today's world stress has been epidemic issue. This study has been done with the aim of study and comparison of job stress rate in the employed veterans Guilan In the 2010.Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional comparative and case-control study.statistical society are 100 people of employed veterans in Fuman, Shaft, Soume Sara, Rasht that has been chosen as random sampling.Results: Results showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups of veterans and non veterans of stress rate (p= 0.14(.Conclusion: Role conflict and high volume work, also excessive expectations is considered including stressful factors at work environment.

  11. Comparative Expression Analysis of Two-Component System Members in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa under Abiotic Stress

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    Anupama eSingh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two component system (TCS is one of the key signal sensing machinery which enables species to sense environmental stimuli. It essentially comprises of three major components, sensory histidine kinase proteins (HKs, histidine phosphotransfer proteins (Hpts and response regulator proteins (RRs. The members of the TCS family have already been identified in Arabidopsis and rice but the knowledge about their functional indulgence during various abiotic stress conditions remains meagre. Current study is an attempt to carry out comprehensive analysis of the expression of TCS members in response to various abiotic stress conditions and in various plant tissues in Arabidopsis and rice using MPSS and publicly available microarray data. The analysis suggests that despite having almost similar number of genes, rice expresses higher number of TCS members during various abiotic stress conditions than Arabidopsis. We found that the TCS machinery is regulated by not only various abiotic stresses, but also by the tissue specificity. Analysis of expression of some representative members of TCS gene family showed their regulation by the diurnal cycle in rice seedlings, thus bringing-in another level of their transcriptional control. Thus, we report a highly complex and tight regulatory network of TCS members, as influenced by the tissue, abiotic stress signal and diurnal rhythm. The insights on the comparative expression analysis presented in this study may provide crucial leads towards dissection of diverse role(s of the various TCS family members in Arabidopsis and rice.

  12. Comparing anger, anger expression, life stress and social support between Korean female nursing and general university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Gyungjoo

    2017-05-30

    To compare anger, anger expression, life stress and social support among female students at a nursing university and a general university and to examine factors affecting anger in each group. University students typically experience constant stress resulting from factors like academic requirements, personal relationships and career decisions; this tends to promote anger. Particularly, nursing students' anger can negatively affect the quality of care that they provide, and also their mental health. Therefore, anger management of nursing students is very important in the training and development of future nurses. Nursing education needs to confirm factors associated with anger of nursing students compared with general university students to develop specific intervention programs for decreasing their anger levels. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. Participants were 286 female students (146 from a nursing university and 140 from a general university); they completed self-report surveys examining anger, anger expression, life stress and social support. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was done to identify factors affecting anger. Data were collected from 15 May-10 June 2016. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, we entered three anger expression factors, eight life stress factors and social support as explanatory variables; factors affecting anger among nursing students were anger-out and same-sex peer relationship stress. In general university students, anger-out, anger-control and anger-in were identified as factors affecting anger. Becoming proficient in beneficial anger expression techniques and reducing stress from same-sex peer relationships will reduce anger among female nursing students. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A valid method for comparing rational and empirical heat stress indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Rick; Bates, Graham

    2002-03-01

    No single heat stress index has gained universal acceptance within the past 20 years, despite extensive research. It is currently difficult to directly and quantitatively compare the many rational and empirical indices that are available, which results in confusion and a reluctance to change to a different index. A method is developed using the concept of limiting metabolic rate, which allows virtually all heat stress indices to be compared with one another. Because all occupational heat stress indices are based, explicitly or implicitly, on the human heat balance equation, a unique value of metabolic rate can be found that just allows an unrestricted work/rest cycle in particular environmental conditions. A comparison using this methodology shows that there are very large differences between the recommended limits under the various indices, even for similar populations of acclimatized workers.

  14. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Mousavi

    Full Text Available Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill., one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Perceptions of Pharmacy Students' Stress and Stressors across Two Multicampus Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awé, Clara; Gaither, Caroline A; Crawford, Stephanie Y; Tieman, Jami

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To compare perceived levels of stress, stressors, and academic self-efficacy among students at two multicampus colleges of pharmacy. Methods. A survey instrument using previously validated items was developed and administered to first-year, second-year, and third-year pharmacy students at two universities with multiple campuses in spring 2013. Results. Eight hundred twenty students out of 1115 responded (73.5% response rate). Institutional differences were found in perceived student stress levels, self-efficacy, and stress-related causes. An interaction effect was demonstrated between institution and campus type (main or branch) for perceived stress and self-efficacy although campus type alone did not demonstrate a direct effect. Institutional and campus differences existed in awareness of campus counseling services, as did a few differences in coping methods. Conclusion. Stress measures were similar for pharmacy students at main or branch campuses. Institutional differences in student stress might be explained by instructional methods, campus support services, institutional climate, and nonuniversity factors.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Perceptions of Pharmacy Students’ Stress and Stressors across Two Multicampus Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Caroline A.; Crawford, Stephanie Y.; Tieman, Jami

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare perceived levels of stress, stressors, and academic self-efficacy among students at two multicampus colleges of pharmacy. Methods. A survey instrument using previously validated items was developed and administered to first-year, second-year, and third-year pharmacy students at two universities with multiple campuses in spring 2013. Results. Eight hundred twenty students out of 1115 responded (73.5% response rate). Institutional differences were found in perceived student stress levels, self-efficacy, and stress-related causes. An interaction effect was demonstrated between institution and campus type (main or branch) for perceived stress and self-efficacy although campus type alone did not demonstrate a direct effect. Institutional and campus differences existed in awareness of campus counseling services, as did a few differences in coping methods. Conclusion. Stress measures were similar for pharmacy students at main or branch campuses. Institutional differences in student stress might be explained by instructional methods, campus support services, institutional climate, and nonuniversity factors. PMID:27402985

  17. The Generation Challenge Programme comparative plant stress-responsive gene catalogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanchana, S.; Thongjuea, S.; Ulat, V.J.; Anacleto, M.; Mauleon, R.; Conte, M.; Rouard, M.; Ruiz, M.; Krishnamurthy, N.; Sjolander, K.; Hintum, van T.J.L.; Bruskiewich, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Generation Challenge Programme (GCP; www.generationcp.org) has developed an online resource documenting stress-responsive genes comparatively across plant species. This public resource is a compendium of protein families, phylogenetic trees, multiple sequence alignments (MSA) and associated expe

  18. Stress Levels of Agricultural Science Cooperating Teachers and Student Teachers: A Repeated Measures Comparative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Billy R.; Rayfield, John; Harlin, Julie; Adams, Andy

    2013-01-01

    This study compared job stress levels of Texas agricultural science cooperating teachers and Texas agricultural science student teachers across a semester. The research objectives included describing secondary agricultural science cooperating teachers and student teachers perceptions of stressors, by time of semester (beginning, middle, and end),…

  19. Comparative leaf proteomics of drought-tolerant and -susceptible peanut in response to water stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katam, Ramesh; Sakata, Katsumi; Suravajhala, Prashanth;

    2016-01-01

    drought tolerance characteristics were subjected to WS, and their leaf proteome was compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis complemented with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Ninety-six protein spots were differentially abundant to water stress in both cultivars that corresponded to 60 non...

  20. Fatty acid concentrations in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder compared to healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, G.J.; Mocking, R.; Lok, A.; Assies, J.; Schene, A.H.; Olff, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although fatty acid (FA)-supplementation studies are currently being implemented, in fact little is known about FA-profiles in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, the present study aimed at comparing FA-concentrations between PTSD-patients and healthy controls. METHODS: A cr

  1. Comparing biobehavioral profiles across two social stress paradigms in children with and without autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbett Blythe A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are defined by impairment in reciprocal social interaction and flexible adaptation to the environment. This study compared physiological stress in children with and without ASD exposed to two social stress protocols. We hypothesized that the ASD group would show heightened initial and enduring cortisol levels to the social stressors, which would be moderated by age and intelligence. Methods Twenty-seven children with ASD and 32 with typical development (TYP completed a standardized social-evaluative performance task and a validated paradigm of social play with peers. Physiological stress was measured by salivary cortisol at nine time points. Statistical approaches included repeated-measures linear mixed models and correlation analyses. Results The average cortisol level of both groups during initial exposure to social situations was significantly greater than baseline levels (ASD, P = 0.018; TYP, P = 0.006. Stress responsivity was significantly different between the groups; the TYP group showed a significant reduction in cortisol over time (P = 0.023, whereas the ASD group maintained an elevated cortisol level (P >0.05. The ASD group evidenced greater variability in between-group, within-group and intra-individual analyses. Age was a positive moderator of stress for the ASD group (P = 0.047, whereas IQ was a negative moderator for the TYP group (P = 0.061. Conclusions Initial stress to novel social scenarios is idiosyncratic and predictive of subsequent exposure. Amidst significant variability in cortisol, children with ASD show enhanced and sustained social stress that increases with age. Developmental and cognitive factors differentially moderate stress in children with ASD and TYP, respectively. A model of neuroendocrine reactivity is proposed.

  2. Enhanced stress response by a bilateral feet compared to a unilateral hand Cold Pressor Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larra, Mauro F; Schilling, Thomas M; Röhrig, Philipp; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    The Cold Pressor Test (CPT) is a frequently employed laboratory stress protocol. However, with many experimental designs the application in its classic form (immersion of the dominant hand into ice-water) is problematic as unilateral stimulation may need to be avoided and/or hands are required for further measurements. Here, we describe a simple modification of the classic CPT in which both feet are immersed into ice-water and compare the evoked neuroendocrine stress response to the classic CPT in a within-subjects design. Twenty-four healthy participants were exposed to each of both CPT versions on two subsequent days in randomized order. Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol were measured at baseline and during or after CPT exposition, respectively, along with subjective ratings of pain and stress. The bilateral feet CPT induced marked increases in all measured stress parameters. Moreover, with the exception of blood pressure, autonomic and endocrine responses were enhanced compared to the classic CPT. The bilateral feet CPT thus is a valid and simple modification and may be useful when the application of the classic CPT is unfeasible or a stronger neuroendocrine stress response is of interest.

  3. 78 FR 67218 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Company-Run Annual Stress Test Reporting Template and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Stress Test Reporting Template and Documentation for Covered Institutions With Total Consolidated Assets... requirement for national banks and Federal savings associations titled, ``Company-Run Annual Stress Test....gov/tools-forms/forms/bank-operations/stress-test-reporting.html ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  4. Self-Reported Work and Family Stress of Female Primary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Narelle; Clarke, Valerie; Lavery, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Results of a self-report questionnaire indicated that female primary teachers in Australia report moderate levels of global, work, and family stress. Time and workload pressure was the major work stressor, and responsibility for child rearing the major family stressor. Work stress and home stress both impacted on each other. (EV)

  5. Self-Reported Work and Family Stress of Female Primary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Narelle; Clarke, Valerie; Lavery, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Results of a self-report questionnaire indicated that female primary teachers in Australia report moderate levels of global, work, and family stress. Time and workload pressure was the major work stressor, and responsibility for child rearing the major family stressor. Work stress and home stress both impacted on each other. (EV)

  6. Emotions and eating. Self-reported and experimentally induced changes in food intake under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, D J; Hetherington, M M

    2009-04-01

    Two studies investigated the stress-eating relationship. The first examined self-reported changes in intake of snack foods, whilst the second investigated stress-induced overconsumption in a laboratory setting comparing high (HF) and low-fat (LF) snacks. Eighty-nine females completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) [Van Strien, T., Fritjers, J. E. R., Bergers, G. P. A., & Defares, P. B. (1986). Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating behaviour. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 295-315] and a self-report measure designed to evaluate changes in eating in response to stress. Increased intake of HF snacks was associated with high emotional eating but not with restraint. A laboratory-based experiment compared intake of HF and LF snacks after ego-threatening and neutral Stroop colour-naming tasks. Intake was suppressed by 31.8% in restrained compared to unrestrained eaters across tasks. Restrained eaters consumed significantly less after ego-threat than after the neutral manipulation, but this was associated only with intake of the LF snack. Restrained eaters' intake of dried fruit was suppressed by 33.2% after ego-threat relative to the neutral task, despite a significant increase in hunger for this group following ego-threat. These results suggest that the type and variety of foods offered influences the link between stress and eating in laboratory settings. Further research should aim to replicate and extend these findings, with a view to informing potential interventions for stress-related eating.

  7. Oxidative stress in follicular fluid of young women with low response compared with fertile oocyte donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez-Calonge, Rocío; Cortés, Susana; Gutierrez Gonzalez, Luis Miguel; Kireev, Roman; Vara, Elena; Ortega, Leonor; Caballero, Pedro; Rancan, Lisa; Tresguerres, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes and cytokines in the follicular fluid of young women with low response in ovarian stimulation cycles compared with high responders and fertile oocyte donors of the same age, to assess the impact of oxidative stress on ovarian reserve. The activity of follicular fluid antioxidant enzymes glutathione transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase was significantly lower in young women with reduced ovarian reserve compared with that in high responders and oocyte donors. Follicular fluid concentrations of oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde combined with 4-hydroxyalkenals and nitric oxide were higher in low responders than in high responders and oocyte donors. Significant differences between low responders and donors in concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor were observed, with higher concentrations in low responders. However, IL-10 concentration was lower in low responders than in high responders and donors. No significant differences were found in follicular fluid concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha between the three groups. These results demonstrate that different concentrations of oxidative stress markers, oxidant enzymes and cytokines in low responders compared with high responders and oocyte donors may negatively impact ovarian response. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. comparative transcriptomics between Synechococcus PCC 7942 and Synechocystis PCC 6803 provide insights into mechanisms of adaptation to stress.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinos, Billis [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); European Bioinformatics Inst., Hinxton, Cambridge (United Kingdom). European Molecular Biology Lab.; Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Genetics; Billini, Maria [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Max Planck Inst. for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg (Germany); Tripp, Harry J. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Kyrpides, Nikos C. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Mavrommatis, Konstantinos [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Celgene Corp, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-03-21

    Background: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 are model cyanobacteria from which the metabolism and adaptive responses of other cyanobacteria are inferred. Here we report the gene expression response of these two strains to a variety of nutrient and environmental stresses of varying duration, using transcriptomics. Our data comprise both stranded and 5? enriched libraries in order to elucidate many aspects of the transcriptome. Results: Both organisms were exposed to stress conditions due to nutrient deficiency (inorganic carbon) or change of environmental conditions (salinity, temperature, pH, light) sampled at 1 and 24 hours after the application of stress. The transcriptome profile of each strain revealed similarities and differences in gene expression for photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains and carbon fixation. Transcriptome profiles also helped us improve the structural annotation of the genome and identify possible missed genes (including anti-sense) and determine transcriptional units (operons). Finally, we predicted association of proteins of unknown function biochemical pathways by associating them to well-characterized ones based on their transcript levels correlation. Conclusions: Overall, this study results an informative annotation of those species and the comparative analysis of the response of the two organisms revealed similarities but also significant changes in the way they respond to external stress and the duration of the response

  9. Comparative Analysis of Gene Expression in Two Muskmelon Cultivars (Cucumis melo L.) Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Shi-wei; ZHANG Fu-rong; ZHANG Yi-dong; WANG Li-min; CHEN Jia-bei; HUANG Dan-feng

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses that adversely affects crop growth and productivity. A subtractive suppression hybridization (SSH) library were constructed from the roots of salt-sensitive Yulu cultivar melon seedlings under salt stress;557 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were randomly sequenced, with an average size of 428 bp, which assembled into 68 contigs and 315 singletons. Compared with our previous SSH library generated from the salt-tolerant Bingxuecui cultivar, the proportion of transcripts involved in metabolism, protein fate, cellular communication/signal transduction mechanisms, and cell rescue/defense were 4, 1.46, 0.94, and 0.4%higher, respectively, in the salt-tolerant cultivar than the in salt-sensitive cultivar. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of eleven transcripts revealed temporal variations in their expression in the two cultivars under salt stress. One NAC gene (JZ477011) was heterologously expressed in yeast for functional characterization, and enhanced the sensitivity of yeast cells to high-salinity to salt stress and inhibited their growth. Information regards to their functions would aid in the understanding of response mechanisms to saline stress and in the development of molecular markers for selecting salt-tolerant melon cultivars.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Chrysanthemum Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Huan Wu

    Full Text Available Salt stress has some remarkable influence on chrysanthemum growth and productivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with salt stress and identify genes of potential importance in cultivated chrysanthemum, we carried out transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum. Two cDNA libraries were generated from the control and salt-treated samples (Sample_0510_control and Sample_0510_treat of leaves. By using the Illumina Solexa RNA sequencing technology, 94 million high quality sequencing reads and 161,522 unigenes were generated and then we annotated unigenes through comparing these sequences to diverse protein databases. A total of 126,646 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs were identified in leaf. Plant hormones, amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis and secondary metabolism were all changed under salt stress after the complete list of GO term and KEGG enrichment analysis. The hormone biosynthesis changing and oxidative hurt decreasing appeared to be significantly related to salt tolerance of chrysanthemum. Important protein kinases and major transcription factor families involved in abiotic stress were differentially expressed, such as MAPKs, CDPKs, MYB, WRKY, AP2 and HD-zip. In general, these results can help us to confirm the molecular regulation mechanism and also provide us a comprehensive resource of chrysanthemum under salt stress.

  11. A comparative study between Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri on tolerance to heat and desiccation stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Rashid, Tahir; Feng, Guolei

    2014-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri are two very closely related invasive ant species; however, S. invicta is a much more successful invader. Physiological tolerance to abiotic stress has been hypothesized to be important to the success of an invasive species. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that S. invicta is more tolerant to heat and desiccation stress than S. richteri. The data strongly support our hypothesis. S. invicta was found to be significantly less vulnerable than S. richteri to both heat and desiccation stress. Despite S. richteri having significantly higher body water content, S. invicta was less sensitive to desiccation stress due to its significantly lower water loss rate (higher desiccation resistance). After the cuticular lipid was removed, S. invicta still had a significantly lower water loss rate than S. richteri, indicating that cuticular lipids were not the only factors accounting for difference in the desiccation resistance between these two species. Since multiple biological and/or ecological traits can contribute to the invasion success of a particular species, whether the observed difference in tolerance to heat and desiccation stresses is indeed associated with the variation in invasion success between these two species can only be confirmed by further extensive comparative study.

  12. A comparative study between Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri on tolerance to heat and desiccation stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    Full Text Available Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri are two very closely related invasive ant species; however, S. invicta is a much more successful invader. Physiological tolerance to abiotic stress has been hypothesized to be important to the success of an invasive species. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that S. invicta is more tolerant to heat and desiccation stress than S. richteri. The data strongly support our hypothesis. S. invicta was found to be significantly less vulnerable than S. richteri to both heat and desiccation stress. Despite S. richteri having significantly higher body water content, S. invicta was less sensitive to desiccation stress due to its significantly lower water loss rate (higher desiccation resistance. After the cuticular lipid was removed, S. invicta still had a significantly lower water loss rate than S. richteri, indicating that cuticular lipids were not the only factors accounting for difference in the desiccation resistance between these two species. Since multiple biological and/or ecological traits can contribute to the invasion success of a particular species, whether the observed difference in tolerance to heat and desiccation stresses is indeed associated with the variation in invasion success between these two species can only be confirmed by further extensive comparative study.

  13. Job stress and burnout: A comparative study of senior and head nurses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xiaorong; Wang, Ping; Hou, Wenxiu; Chen, Lili; Lou, Fenglan

    2017-06-01

    Senior nurses can suffer from high job stress and burnout, which can lead to negative patient outcomes and higher turnover rates; however, few studies have examined this topic. We recruited 224 head and senior nurses from September to December 2015 using convenience and cluster sampling, to compare job stress and burnout levels between the two groups. The Nurse Job Stressors Inventory and Maslach Burnout Inventory scales were used to evaluate job stress and burnout, respectively. Results indicated that job stress scores significantly differed between head and senior nurses. The highest scoring subscales in both groups were time allocation and workload problems. Scores for the three burnout dimensions also significantly differed between the groups. Positive correlations between job stress and burnout were stronger among senior nurses than head nurses. Burnout may be higher among senior nurses given head nurses' potential for greater perceived job control. Our findings suggest that measures need to be taken to reduce burnout and turnover rates among senior nurses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Barley Genotypes under Salinity Stress during the Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runhong Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop productivity. Identification of the potential novel genes responsible for salt tolerance in barley will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of barley responses to salt stress. We compared changes in transcriptome between Hua 11 (a salt-tolerant genotype and Hua 30 (a salt sensitive genotype in response to salt stress at the seedling stage using barley cDNA microarrays. In total, 557 and 247 salt-responsive genes were expressed exclusively in the shoot and root tissue of the salt-tolerant genotype, respectively. Among these genes, a number of signal-related genes, transcription factors and compatible solutes were identified and some of these genes were carefully discussed. Notably, a LysM RLK was firstly found involved in salt stress response. Moreover, key enzymes in the pathways of jasmonic acid biosynthesis, lipid metabolism and indole-3-acetic acid homeostasis were specifically affected by salt stress in salt tolerance genotype. These salt-responsive genes and biochemical pathways identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of salt tolerance in barley.

  15. Comparative proteomic analysis of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in response to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong; Jia, Fu-Xian; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Tian, Yi; Smagghe, Guy; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental variables affecting growth, reproduction and distribution of insects. The rise of comparative proteomics provides a powerful tool to explore the response in proteins to thermal stress. As an important worldwide pest, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis causes severe economic losses to crops. To understand the response of B. dorsalis to thermal stress, we performed a comparative proteome analysis of this insect after exposure to extreme low and high temperatures using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Among the separated proteins, 51 diverse protein spots were present differently in response to extreme temperatures. Using tandem mass spectrometry sequencing analysis 39 proteins were successfully identified, which included 13 oxidoreductases, 10 binding proteins, 5 transferases, and 2 each of lyases, isomerases, ligases, and developmental proteins. Subsequently, the expression of these protein transcripts was studied by RT-qPCR to validate the proteomic results. In conclusion, this study provides a first look into the thermal stress response of B. dorsalis at the protein level, and thus it paves the way for further functional studies in the physiological mechanism related to thermal stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative cephalopod shell strength and the role of septum morphology on stress distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lemanis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of complexly folded septa in ammonoids has long been a controversial topic. Explanations of the function of these folded septa can be divided into physiological and mechanical hypotheses with the mechanical functions tending to find widespread support. The complexity of the cephalopod shell has made it difficult to directly test the mechanical properties of these structures without oversimplification of the septal morphology or extraction of a small sub-domain. However, the power of modern finite element analysis now permits direct testing of mechanical hypothesis on complete, empirical models of the shells taken from computed tomographic data. Here we compare, for the first time using empirical models, the capability of the shells of extant Nautilus pompilius, Spirula spirula, and the extinct ammonite Cadoceras sp. to withstand hydrostatic pressure and point loads. Results show hydrostatic pressure imparts highest stress on the final septum with the rest of the shell showing minimal compression. S. spirula shows the lowest stress under hydrostatic pressure while N. pompilius shows the highest stress. Cadoceras sp. shows the development of high stress along the attachment of the septal saddles with the shell wall. Stress due to point loads decreases when the point force is directed along the suture as opposed to the unsupported chamber wall. Cadoceras sp. shows the greatest decrease in stress between the point loads compared to all other models. Greater amplitude of septal flutes corresponds with greater stress due to hydrostatic pressure; however, greater amplitude decreases the stress magnitude of point loads directed along the suture. In our models, sutural complexity does not predict greater resistance to hydrostatic pressure but it does seem to increase resistance to point loads, such as would be from predators. This result permits discussion of palaeoecological reconstructions on the basis of septal morphology. We further

  17. Comparative cephalopod shell strength and the role of septum morphology on stress distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemanis, Robert; Zachow, Stefan; Hoffmann, René

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of complexly folded septa in ammonoids has long been a controversial topic. Explanations of the function of these folded septa can be divided into physiological and mechanical hypotheses with the mechanical functions tending to find widespread support. The complexity of the cephalopod shell has made it difficult to directly test the mechanical properties of these structures without oversimplification of the septal morphology or extraction of a small sub-domain. However, the power of modern finite element analysis now permits direct testing of mechanical hypothesis on complete, empirical models of the shells taken from computed tomographic data. Here we compare, for the first time using empirical models, the capability of the shells of extant Nautilus pompilius, Spirula spirula, and the extinct ammonite Cadoceras sp. to withstand hydrostatic pressure and point loads. Results show hydrostatic pressure imparts highest stress on the final septum with the rest of the shell showing minimal compression. S. spirula shows the lowest stress under hydrostatic pressure while N. pompilius shows the highest stress. Cadoceras sp. shows the development of high stress along the attachment of the septal saddles with the shell wall. Stress due to point loads decreases when the point force is directed along the suture as opposed to the unsupported chamber wall. Cadoceras sp. shows the greatest decrease in stress between the point loads compared to all other models. Greater amplitude of septal flutes corresponds with greater stress due to hydrostatic pressure; however, greater amplitude decreases the stress magnitude of point loads directed along the suture. In our models, sutural complexity does not predict greater resistance to hydrostatic pressure but it does seem to increase resistance to point loads, such as would be from predators. This result permits discussion of palaeoecological reconstructions on the basis of septal morphology. We further suggest that the ratio

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Brassica napus Root and Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic factors affecting Brassica napus (B. napus productivity. In order to identify genes of potential importance to drought stress and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding the responses of B. napus to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of B. napus plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. In this work, a relatively drought tolerant B. napus line, Q2, identified in our previous study, was used. Four cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of control and dehydration-treated root and leaf were sequenced by Illumina technology. A total of 6018 and 5377 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in root and leaf. In addition, 1745 genes exhibited a coordinated expression profile between the two tissues under drought stress, 1289 (approximately 74% of which showed an inverse relationship, demonstrating different regulation patterns between the root and leaf. The gene ontology (GO enrichment test indicated that up-regulated genes in root were mostly involved in “stimulus” “stress” biological process, and activated genes in leaf mainly functioned in “cell” “cell part” components. Furthermore, a comparative network related to plant hormone signal transduction and AREB/ABF, AP2/EREBP, NAC, WRKY and MYC/MYB transcription factors (TFs provided a view of different stress tolerance mechanisms between root and leaf. Some of the DEGs identified may be candidates for future research aimed at detecting drought-responsive genes and will be useful for understanding the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in root and leaf of B. napus.

  19. Comparative expression profiling of distinct T cell subsets undergoing oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Lichtenfels

    Full Text Available The clinical outcome of adoptive T cell transfer-based immunotherapies is often limited due to different escape mechanisms established by tumors in order to evade the hosts' immune system. The establishment of an immunosuppressive micromilieu by tumor cells along with distinct subsets of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is often associated with oxidative stress that can affect antigen-specific memory/effector cytotoxic T cells thereby substantially reducing their frequency and functional activation. Therefore, protection of tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from oxidative stress may enhance the anti-tumor-directed immune response. In order to better define the key pathways/proteins involved in the response to oxidative stress a comparative 2-DE-based proteome analysis of naïve CD45RA(+ and their memory/effector CD45RO(+ T cell counterparts in the presence and absence of low dose hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 was performed in this pilot study. Based on the profiling data of these T cell subpopulations under the various conditions, a series of differentially expressed spots were defined, members thereof identified by mass spectrometry and subsequently classified according to their cellular function and localization. Representative targets responding to oxidative stress including proteins involved in signaling pathways, in regulating the cellular redox status as well as in shaping/maintaining the structural cell integrity were independently verified at the transcript and protein level under the same conditions in both T cell subsets. In conclusion the resulting profiling data describe complex, oxidative stress-induced, but not strictly concordant changes within the respective expression profiles of CD45RA(+ and CD45RO(+ T cells. Some of the differentially expressed genes/proteins might be further exploited as potential targets toward modulating the redox capacity of the distinct lymphocyte subsets thereby providing the basis for further studies

  20. Fasciatherapy and Reflexology compared to Hypnosis and Music Therapy in Daily Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payrau, Bernard; Quere, Nadine; Breton, Elisabeth; Payrau, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients suffering from stress symptoms due to every-day life who are looking for a non-pharmacological response to their relief expectation are many. Furthermore, early reckoning of the day-to-day stress which may lead to clinical diagnosis is the best way of preventing the stress-related diseases. Among the many alternative medicinal options, there is little evidence that fasciatherapy (Fs) and reflexology (Rf) are effective in this field. Purpose assess incidence of fasciatherapy Danis Bois Method (DBM) and of reflexology on patients’ stress level in everyday-life, and provide a more informed choice among the numerous mind and body techniques by comparing them with hypnosis (Hp) and music therapy (Mt). Settings Specialized Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) centres for outpatients. Participants 308 individuals (average age = 50.53 SD 14.37, 93 males, 215 females) going to the centres for health care, but free from serious diseases and not heavily medicated respecting the inclusion criteria and providing valid forms. Research Design Four armed, non-randomized observational pragmatic trial with pretest–posttest repeated measures, on separate samples of natural groups. Intervention According to the centre participants where they used to be treated, they were exposed to a single semi-standardized session of a technique of their choice: Fs, Rf, Hp, Mt. Volunteers had a controlled non-intervention resting (Rt) session. Main Outcome Measures Mean STAI-Y assessing anxiety as reflecting the stress level: MANCOVA and ANCOVA performed with Tukey’s HSD. Results MANCOVA indicates a significant reduction of anxiety (p hypnosis, and reflexology could be used as non-pharmacological and safe interventions in stress management. Though showing a lesser efficiency, music therapy could be useful in different circumstances. PMID:28912904

  1. A Comparative Study of the Academic Stress and Depression among High School Girl and Boy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanehkeshi, Ali; Basavarajappa

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the difference between boy and girl high school students of 1st grade to 3rd grade in academic stress and depression. Using a random stratified sampling 120 girl and boy students (60 girls and 60 boys) were selected from 1st grade (n = 40), 2nd grade (n = 40) and 3rd grade (n = 40) high school students. In this study gender and…

  2. Fasciatherapy and Reflexology compared to Hypnosis and Music Therapy in Daily Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payrau, Bernard; Quere, Nadine; Breton, Elisabeth; Payrau, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Patients suffering from stress symptoms due to every-day life who are looking for a non-pharmacological response to their relief expectation are many. Furthermore, early reckoning of the day-to-day stress which may lead to clinical diagnosis is the best way of preventing the stress-related diseases. Among the many alternative medicinal options, there is little evidence that fasciatherapy (Fs) and reflexology (Rf) are effective in this field. assess incidence of fasciatherapy Danis Bois Method (DBM) and of reflexology on patients' stress level in everyday-life, and provide a more informed choice among the numerous mind and body techniques by comparing them with hypnosis (Hp) and music therapy (Mt). Specialized Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) centres for outpatients. 308 individuals (average age = 50.53 SD 14.37, 93 males, 215 females) going to the centres for health care, but free from serious diseases and not heavily medicated respecting the inclusion criteria and providing valid forms. Four armed, non-randomized observational pragmatic trial with pretest-posttest repeated measures, on separate samples of natural groups. According to the centre participants where they used to be treated, they were exposed to a single semi-standardized session of a technique of their choice: Fs, Rf, Hp, Mt. Volunteers had a controlled non-intervention resting (Rt) session. Mean STAI-Y assessing anxiety as reflecting the stress level: MANCOVA and ANCOVA performed with Tukey's HSD. MANCOVA indicates a significant reduction of anxiety (p < .01) in each condition, resting included. ANCOVA performance adjusting on stress level in T0 (41.73) and on the mean sumscore of the trait (44.89), Fs (-13.92), Rf (-15.92), and Hp (-15.88) were equally effective on the stress level decrease. Mt (-10.0) and Rt (-6.38) showed the same level of effectiveness. The results suggest fasciatherapy DBM, hypnosis, and reflexology could be used as non-pharmacological and safe interventions in

  3. A comparative study on oxidative stress role in nasal breathing impairment and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passali, D; Corallo, G; Petti, A; Longini, M; Passali, F M; Buonocore, G; Bellussi, L M

    2016-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep disorder that leads to metabolic abnormalities and increased cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to define the expression and clinical significance of biomarkers involved in oxidative stress in patients with OSAS. A prospective study was designed to compare outcomes of oxidative stress laboratory tests in three groups of subjects. The study involved the recruitment of three groups of subjects, 10 patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome with AHI > 30; 10 patients suffering from snoring at night with AHI oxidative and antioxidant (plasma thiol groups) biomarkers in blood and urine samples. No statistical differences in age, sex distribution or body mass index were present between the three groups (p > 0.05). There were significant differences in AHI among the three groups of patients (p 0.05) between the levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress in the three populations studied. The results of our study show that the nose can play a role in the pathogenesis of OSAS through the production of biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  4. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Rice at Filling Stage under Chilling Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Wang; Weitong Cui; Shihua Shen

    2012-01-01

    Using comparative proteomic analysis,we carried out an investigation aiming at a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of chilling stress adaptation in rice (O.sativa L.ssp.indica cultivar 93-11) at early filling stage.The rice plants at early filling stage were exposed to 12℃ for 6 h,12 h,24 h,48 h.Analysis of the dynamic proteome profile of the uppermost internodes showed that 99 protein spots were differentially expressed during this process.Among them,45 protein spots were found to be up-regulated and 54 protein spots were down-regulated in responding to chilling stress.81 protein spots were successfully identified through MALDITOF MS and database searching.Those identified proteins were the products of 65 genes,and could be sorted into 8 functional categories.Among them,secondary metabolism related proteins such as S-adenosylmethionine synthetase were up-regulated.That lignification-related proteins were up-regulated by chilling stress indicated the uppermost internodes supporting ear would be enhanced to resist the chilling stress.

  5. Morning Cortisol Levels and Perceived Stress in Irregular Shift Workers Compared with Regular Daytime Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24/7 work environment and irregular shifts may markedly enhance the psychological pressure of media work. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reflect adaptation to stress. We analysed the correlation between subjective stress, sleep, salivary cortisol, and melatonin hormones among Finnish media workers with regular daytime work (RDW and with irregular shift work (ISW while controlling confounders. From 874 employees with regular daytime work or with irregular shift work, 70 employees from both groups were randomly selected. The final number of employees with a complete salivary cortisol profile was 66 in the RDW group and 65 in the ISW group. Five saliva samples were gathered from each subject before and during a working day. The salivary cortisol level of the sample taken 60 minutes after awakening (T1 was compared to the salivary cortisol level taken immediately after awakening (T0, T1/T0 ratio. The ratio was higher in the ISW group than in RDW group. Irregular shift work (P<0.001, severe stress (P<0.05, and less sleep (P<0.05 were independently associated with an augmented cortisol response after awakening. A stressful work environment and irregular shift work enhance cortisol excretion after waking. In the long run, this may become detrimental to health.

  6. Comparative proteomic analyses provide new insights into low phosphorus stress responses in maize leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewei Zhang

    Full Text Available Phosphorus deficiency limits plant growth and development. To better understand the mechanisms behind how maize responds to phosphate stress, we compared the proteome analysis results of two groups of maize leaves that were treated separately with 1,000 µM (control, +P and 5 µM of KH2PO4 (intervention group, -P for 25 days. In total, 1,342 protein spots were detected on 2-DE maps and 15.43% had changed (P<0.05; ≥1.5-fold significantly in quantity between the +P and -P groups. These proteins are involved in several major metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, secondary metabolism, signal transduction, protein synthesis, cell rescue and cell defense and virulence. The results showed that the reduction in photosynthesis under low phosphorus treatment was due to the down-regulation of the proteins involved in CO2 enrichment, the Calvin cycle and the electron transport system. Electron transport and photosynthesis restrictions resulted in a large accumulation of peroxides. Maize has developed many different reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging mechanisms to cope with low phosphorus stress, including up-regulating its antioxidant content and antioxidase activity. After being subjected to phosphorus stress over a long period, maize may increase its internal phosphorus utilization efficiency by altering photorespiration, starch synthesis and lipid composition. These results provide important information about how maize responds to low phosphorus stress.

  7. Consistency and validity of self-reporting scores in stress measurement surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Khalid; Ahmed, Beena; Choi, Jongyong; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Stress has been attributed to physiological and psychological demands that exceed the natural regulatory capacity of a person. Chronic stress is not only a catalyst for diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, insomnia but may also lead to social problems such as marriage breakups, suicide and violence. Objective assessment of stress is difficult so self-reports are commonly used to indicate the severity of stress. However, empirical information on the validity of self-reports is limited. The present study investigated the authenticity and validity of different self-report surveys. An analysis, based on a three-pronged strategy, was performed on these surveys. It was concluded that although subjects are prone to systematic error in reporting, self-reports can provide a useful substitute for data modeling specifically in stress evaluation where other objective assessments such as determination of stress using only physiological response are difficult.

  8. Primate phylogeny studied by comparative determinant analysis. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K

    1993-01-01

    In this preliminary report the divergence times for the major primate groups are given, calculated from a study by comparative determinant analysis of 69 proteins (equaling 0.1% of the whole genetic information). With an origin of the primate order set at 80 million years before present, the ages of the last common ancestors (LCAs) of man and the major primate groups obtained this way are as follows: Pan troglodytes 5.2; Gorilla gorilla 7.4; Pongo pygmaeus 19.2; Hylobates lar 20.3; Old World monkeys 31.4; Lagothrix lagotricha 46.0; Cebus albifrons 59.5; three lemur species 67.0, and Galago crassicaudatus 73.3 million years. The LCA results and the approach are shortly discussed. A full account of this extended investigation including results on nonprimate mammals and on the determinant structures and the immunologically derived evolutionary rates of the proteins analyzed will be published elsewhere.

  9. A comparative study of adoloscents’ perceived stress and health outcomes among adolescent mothers and their infants in Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Yako

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare perceived stress in general, stress due to pregnancy, and post partum complications between a group of unmarried adolescent first-time mothers and a group of married adolescent first-time mothers. Never-pregnant adolescents served as a comparison group on perceived stress. Health outcomes of infants of the two groups of adolescent mothers were also compared on birth weight, nutritional status (weight gain and immunization status.

  10. Detection and Quantification of Free Radicals in Peroxisomal Disorders: A Comparative Study with Oxidative Stress Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elmaksoud, Sohair Abd-El Mawgood; El-Bassyouni, Hala; Afifi, Hanan; Thomas, Manal Micheal; Shalaby, Aliaa; Hamid, Tamer Ahmed Abdel; Hamid, Nehal Abdel; El-Ghobary, Hany

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Free radicals have been thought to participate in pathogenesis of peroxisomal disorders. Objective The aim of the work is to detect free oxide radicals in blood of patients with peroxisomal disorders and to study their relation with various oxidative stress parameters. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with peroxisomal disorders and 14 age and sex matched healthy subjects were included in the study. Patients with peroxisomal disorders were subdivided according to diagnosis into peroxisomal biogenesis disorders and single enzyme deficiency. Oxidative stress was evaluated in both patients and control subjects by assessment of free radicals, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide metabolites and superoxide dismutase. Results There was increase in free radicals, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide metabolites in patients compared with control subjects. However, there was decrease in superoxide dismutase levels in patients compared with control subjects. Conclusion We concluded that there is excess free radicals production accompanied with decrease in antioxidant defenses in patients with peroxisomal disorders. These results strongly support a role of free radicals in the pathophysiology of peroxisomal disorders and strengthen the importance of oxidative stress phenomenon in peroxisomal disorders pathogenesis. PMID:26674249

  11. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Pinellia ternata Leaves Exposed to Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoyi Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pinellia ternata is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant. The growth of P. ternata is sensitive to high temperatures. To gain a better understanding of heat stress responses in P. ternata, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis. P. ternata seedlings were subjected to a temperature of 38 °C and samples were collected 24 h after treatment. Increased relative ion leakage and lipid peroxidation suggested that oxidative stress was frequently generated in rice leaves exposed to high temperature. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE was used to analyze heat-responsive proteins. More than 600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel; of these spots, 20 were up-regulated, and 7 were down-regulated. A total of 24 proteins and protein species were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins and protein species were found to be primarily small heat shock proteins (58% as well as proteins involved in RNA processing (17%, photosynthesis (13%, chlorophyll biosynthetic processes (4%, protein degradation (4% and defense (4%. Using 2-DE Western blot analysis, we confirmed the identities of the cytosolic class II small heat shock protein (sHSPs-CII identified by MS. The expression levels of four different proteins [cytosolic class I small heat shock protein (sHSPs-CI, sHSPs-CII, mitochondrial small heat shock protein (sHSPs-MIT, glycine-rich RNA-binding protein (GRP] were analyzed at the transcriptional level by quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of three sHSPs correlated with the corresponding protein levels. However, GRP was down-regulated at the beginning of heat stress but then increased substantially to reach a peak after 24 h of heat stress. Our study provides valuable new insight into the responses of P. ternata to heat stress.

  12. Comparative proteomic analysis provides new insights into cadmium accumulation in rice grain under cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Dawei, E-mail: dwxue@hznu.edu.cn [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Jiang, Hua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Deng, Xiangxiong; Zhang, Xiaoqin [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Wang, Hua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Xu, Xiangbin [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Hu, Jiang; Zeng, Dali [State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Guo, Longbiao, E-mail: guolongbiao@caas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Qian, Qian, E-mail: qianqian188@hotmail.com [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cd is the most toxic heavy metal and is a major pollutant in rice grains. • The mechanism of Cd accumulation in rice grains has not been well demonstrated. • Proteomics analysis is carried out and the verification is implemented by QPCR. • Proteins associated with ROS and photosynthesis showed large variation in expression. - Abstract: Rice is one of the most important staple crops. During the growth season, rice plants are inevitably subjected to numerous stresses, among which heavy metal stress represented by cadmium contamination not only hindering the yield of rice but also affecting the food safety by Cd accumulating in rice grains. The mechanism of Cd accumulation in rice grains has not been well elucidated. In this study, we compare the proteomic difference between two genotypes with different Cd accumulation ability in grains. Verification of differentially expressed protein-encoding genes was analyzing by quantitative PCR (QPCR) and reanalysis of microarray expression data. Forty-seven proteins in total were successfully identified through proteomic screening. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed Cd accumulation triggered stress-related pathways in the cells, and strongly affecting metabolic pathways. Many proteins associated with nutrient reservoir and starch-related enzyme were identified in this study suggesting that a considerably damage on grain quality was caused. The results also implied stress response was initiated by the abnormal cells and the transmission of signals may mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our research will provide new insights into Cd accumulation in rice grain under Cd stress.

  13. E-cigarette aerosols induce lower oxidative stress in vitro when compared to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark; Carr, Tony; Oke, Oluwatobiloba; Jaunky, Tomasz; Breheny, Damien; Lowe, Frazer; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for various diseases. The underlying cellular mechanisms are not fully characterized, but include oxidative stress, apoptosis, and necrosis. Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have emerged as an alternative to and a possible means to reduce harm from tobacco smoking. E-cigarette vapor contains significantly lower levels of toxicants than cigarette smoke, but standardized methods to assess cellular responses to exposure are not well established. We investigated whether an in vitro model of the airway epithelium (human bronchial epithelial cells) and commercially available assays could differentiate cellular stress responses to aqueous aerosol extracts (AqE) generated from cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols. After exposure to AqE concentrations of 0.063-0.500 puffs/mL, we measured the intracellular glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG), intracellular generation of oxidant species, and activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-controlled antioxidant response elements (ARE) to characterize oxidative stress. Apoptotic and necrotic responses were characterized by increases in caspase 3/7 activity and reductions in viable cell protease activities. Concentration-dependent responses indicative of oxidative stress were obtained for all endpoints following exposure to cigarette smoke AqE: intracellular generation of oxidant species increased by up to 83%, GSH:GSSG reduced by 98.6% and transcriptional activation of ARE increased by up to 335%. Caspase 3/7 activity was increased by up to 37% and the viable cell population declined by up to 76%. No cellular stress responses were detected following exposure to e-cigarette AqE. The methods used were suitably sensitive to be employed for comparative studies of tobacco and nicotine products.

  14. Operative stress response and energy metabolism after laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared to open surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Luo; Jie-Shou Li; Ling-Tang Li; Kei-Hui Wang; Jing-Mei Shun

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine the least invasive surgical procedure by comparing the levels of operative stress hormones, responsereactive protein (CRP) and rest energy expenditure (REE)after laparoscopic (LC) and open cholecystectomy (OC).METHODS: Twenty-six consecutive patients with noncomplicated gallstones were randomized for LC (14) and OC (12). Plasma concentrations of somatotropin, insulin, cortisol and CRP were measured. The levels of REE were determined.RESULTS: In the third postoperative day, the insulin levels were lower compared to that before operation (P<0.05).Tn the first postoperative day, the levels of somatotropin and cortisol were higher in OC than those in LC. After operation the parameters of somatotropin, CRP and cortisol increased, compared to those in the preoperative period in the all patients (P<0.05). In the all-postoperative days,the CRP level was higher in OC than that in LC (7.46±0.02;7.38±0.01, P<0.05). After operation the REE level all increased in OC and LC (P<0.05). In the all-postoperative days, the REE level was higher in OC than that in LC (1438.5±A18.5;1222.3±L80.8, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: LC results in less prominent stress response and smaller metabolic interference compared to open surgery. These advantages are beneficial to the restoration of stress hormones, the nitrogen balance, and the energy metabolism. However, LC can also induce acidemia and pulmonary hypoperfusion because of the penumoperitonium it uses during surgery.

  15. Structured reports of videofluoroscopic swallowing studies have the potential to improve overall report quality compared to free text reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppe, Franziska; Sommer, Wieland H; Haack, Mareike; Havel, Miriam; Rheinwald, Marika; Wechtenbruch, Juliane; Fischer, Martin R; Meinel, Felix G; Sabel, Bastian O; Sommer, Nora N

    2017-07-28

    To compare free text (FTR) and structured reports (SR) of videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) and evaluate satisfaction of referring otolaryngologists and speech therapists. Both standard FTR and SR of 26 patients with VFSS were acquired. A dedicated template focusing on oropharyngeal phases was created for SR using online software with clickable decision-trees and concomitant generation of semantically structured reports. All reports were evaluated regarding overall quality and content, information extraction and clinical decision support (10-point Likert scale (0 = I completely disagree, 10 = I completely agree)). Two otorhinolaryngologists and two speech therapists evaluated FTR and SR. SR received better ratings than FTR in all items. SR were perceived to contain more details on the swallowing phases (median rating: 10 vs. 5; P quality was rated significantly higher in SR than FTR (P quality of the report and, thus, are recommended for the evaluation of VFSS. • Structured reports on videofluoroscopic exams of deglutition lead to improved report quality. • Information extraction is facilitated when using structured reports based on decision trees. • Template-based reports add more value to clinical decision-making than free text reports. • Structured reports receive better ratings by speech therapists and otolaryngologists. • Structured reports on videofluoroscopic exams may improve the comparability between exams.

  16. Groundwater Development Stress: Global-Scale Indices Compared to Regional Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M; Clark, Brian R; Ely, David M; Faunt, Claudia C

    2017-08-15

    The increased availability of global datasets and technologies such as global hydrologic models and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have resulted in a growing number of global-scale assessments of water availability using simple indices of water stress. Developed initially for surface water, such indices are increasingly used to evaluate global groundwater resources. We compare indices of groundwater development stress for three major agricultural areas of the United States to information available from regional water budgets developed from detailed groundwater modeling. These comparisons illustrate the potential value of regional-scale analyses to supplement global hydrological models and GRACE analyses of groundwater depletion. Regional-scale analyses allow assessments of water stress that better account for scale effects, the dynamics of groundwater flow systems, the complexities of irrigated agricultural systems, and the laws, regulations, engineering, and socioeconomic factors that govern groundwater use. Strategic use of regional-scale models with global-scale analyses would greatly enhance knowledge of the global groundwater depletion problem. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  17. Two models of nursing practice: a comparative study of motivational characteristics, work satisfaction and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Anja; Pitkänen, Anneli; Paimensalo-Karell, Irmeli; Elovainio, Marko; Aalto, Pirjo

    2016-03-01

    To examine the differences in work-related motivational and stress factors between two nursing allocation models (the primary nursing model and the individual patient allocation model). A number of nursing allocation models are applied in hospital settings, but little is known about the potential associations between various models and work-related psychosocial profiles in nurses. A cross-sectional study using an electronic questionnaire. The data were collected from nurses (n = 643) working in 22 wards. In total, 317 questionnaires were returned (response rate 49.3%). There were no significant differences in motivational characteristics between the different models. The nurses working according to the individual patient allocation model were more satisfied with their supervisors. The work itself and turnover caused more stress to the nurses working in the primary nursing model, whereas patient-related stress was higher in the individual patient allocation model. No consistent evidence to support the use of either of these models over the other was found. Both these models have positive and negative features and more comparative research is required on various nursing practice models from different points of view. Nursing directors and ward managers should be aware of the positive and negative features of the various nursing models. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. UV-B stress induced metabolic rearrangements explored with comparative proteomics in three Anabaena species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Alok Kumar; Chatterjee, Antra; Yadav, Shivam; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Shilpi; Rai, L C

    2015-09-01

    Comparative proteomics together with physiological variables revealed different responses among three species of diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena exposed to UV-B stress at the same time points. Perceptible decline in PSII activity, ATP pool, nitrogenase activity and respiration rate was observed for all the three species; this being maximum in Anabaena doliolum, followed by Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and minimum in Anabaena L31. Statistical analysis of the protein abundance divided majority of them as early accumulated in A. L31, late accumulated in A. sp. PCC 7120 and downregulated in A. doliolum. Tolerance of A. L31 may be ascribed to post-translational modification reflected through the highest number of protein isoforms in its proteome followed by A. PCC 7120 and A. doliolum. Furthermore, increase in abundance of cyanophycinase, glutamine synthetase and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase in A. L31 suggests operation of an alternate pathway for assimilation of nitrogen and carbon under UV-B stress. An early accumulation of four proteins viz., glutamate ammonia ligase (Alr2328), transketolase (Alr3344), inorganic pyrophosphatase (All3570), and trigger protein (Alr3681) involved respectively in amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, biosynthesis of cofactor and trigger protein and chaperone like activity across three species, suggests them to be marker of UV-B stress in Anabaena spp. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India.

  19. Health effects of war stress on Norwegian World War II resistance groups: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Ellinor F

    2003-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which adverse long-term health effects of World War II stress exposure were present in 3 groups of resistance veterans. The groups had been exposed to different types of war stressors: concentration camp incarceration, resistance participation within the illegal press, and a secret military organization. With the differences in war stressors as a basis, we assumed that those incarcerated in a concentration camp would display more adverse health effect compared to the resistance veterans. The findings point to a relationship between the severity of war stressors and postwar health in all 3 groups.

  20. Development of a Modified Korean East Asian Student Stress Inventory by Comparing Stress Levels in Medical Students with Those in Non-Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Kon; Kang, Seok Hoon; Lim, Sun-Hye; Yang, Jeong Hee; Chae, Sunguk

    2016-01-01

    Medical students are usually under more stress than that experienced by non-medical students. Stress testing tools for Korean medical students have not been sufficiently studied. Thus, we adapted and modified the East Asian Student Stress Inventory (EASSI), a stress testing tool for Korean students studying abroad, and verified its usefulness as a stress test in Korean university students. We also compared and analyzed stress levels between medical and non-medical students. A questionnaire survey was conducted on medical and non-medical students of a national university, and the responses of 224 students were analyzed for this study. Factor analysis and reliability testing were performed based on data collected for 25 adapted EASSI questions and those on the Korean version of the Global Assessment of Recent Stress Scale (GARSS). A correlation analysis was performed between the 13 modified EASSI questions and the GARSS, and validity of the modified EASSI was verified by directly comparing stress levels between the two student groups. The 13 questions adapted for the EASSI were called the modified EASSI and classified into four factors through a factor analysis and reliability testing. The Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between the modified EASSI and the Korean version of the GARSS, suggesting a complementary strategy of using both tests. The validity and reliability of the EASSI were verified. The modified Korean EASSI could be a useful stress test for Korean medical students. Our results show that medical students were under more stress than that of non-medical students. Thus, these results could be helpful for managing stress in medical students.

  1. Daily Stress, Hearing-Specific Stress and Coping: Self-reports from Deaf or Hard of Hearing Children and Children With Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbeck, Heike; Gillé, Vera; Heim-Dreger, Uwe; Schock, Alexandra; Schott, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated stressors and coping strategies in 70 children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) or with auditory processing disorder (APD) attending Grades 5 and 6 of a school for deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Everyday general stressors and more hearing-specific stressors were examined in a hearing-specific modified stress and coping questionnaire. Reports were compared with normative data for hearing children. Regarding everyday general stressors, stress levels for children who are D/HH or with APD did not differ from those of hearing children. Within children with hearing problems, everyday stressors were experienced as more stressful than hearing-specific stressors. For coping strategies, differences between children with hearing problems (D/HH, APD) and hearing children were shown (i.e., problem solving, anger-related emotion regulation). Girls scored higher in seeking social support whereas boys reported higher amounts of media use as a way of coping. Differences regarding stress and coping between children who are D/HH and children with APD were minor; D/HH children reported more social support seeking. Implications for assessment and resource promotion are discussed.

  2. Validity of the OSU Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale and the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality with Child Tornado Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Linda Garner; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Tornadoes and other natural disasters can lead to anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. This study provides further validity for the Oklahoma State University Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale-Child Form (OSU PTSDS-CF) by comparing it to the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality (BASC-SRP).…

  3. A cross-sectional study of the self-report of stress among emergency department patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirenberg Ted

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of information about the prevalence of stress and types of stressors experienced by Emergency Department (ED patients. Objective: The present aim is to study the prevalence of stress, types of stressful situations and the relationship with other health issues within the ED population. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed in an ED at a level-1 urban trauma center for four months. An anonymous survey was offered to adult non critically ill patients who were admitted in the ED. They were divided on the basis of gender, age and level of stress and were asked about their demographics, reasons for their ED visit and health issues including stress, tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use, weight concern and health. Chi-square for the categorical variables and unpaired t-tests for continuous variables were conducted. Results: We interviewed 1797 patients, over 66% reported that they felt stressed on at least a weekly basis, and over 45% indicated that they felt stressed more than twice per week. While both young and old were equally stressed, females reported significantly more stress. Family, finances and work are the most frequently cited stressors. Different age groups reported different types of stressors. Overall, those patients reporting being stressed more frequently reported more high risk behaviors including cigarette and marijuana use and health problems including being overweight, being depressed, and having sleeping problems and chronic fatigue. Conclusions: Considering the high frequency of ED patients that report frequent stress and high risk behaviors, their ED visit may be an excellent opportunity to provide a referral or an intervention for stress reduction.

  4. An evolutionary comparative scan for longevity-related oxidative stress resistance mechanisms in homeotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Reinald; Barja, Gustavo

    2011-10-01

    Key mechanisms relating oxidative stress to longevity from an interespecies comparative approach are reviewed. Long-lived animal species show low rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative damage at their mitochondria. Comparative physiology also shows that the specific compositional pattern of tissue macromolecules (proteins, lipids and nucleic acids) in long-lived animal species gives them an intrinsically high resistance to modification that likely contributes to their superior longevity. This is obtained in the case of lipids by decreasing the degree of fatty acid unsaturation, and in the case of proteins by lowering their methionine content. These findings are also substantiated from a phylogenomic approach. Nutritional or/and pharmacological interventions focused to modify some of these molecular traits were translated with modifications in animal longevity. It is proposed that natural selection tends to decrease the mitochondrial ROS generation and to increase the molecular resistance to the oxidative damage in long-lived species.

  5. Final Report: Characterization of Canister Mockup Weld Residual Stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of interim storage containers has been indicated as a high priority data gap by the Department of Energy (DOE) (Hanson et al., 2012), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI, 2011), the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board (NWTRB, 2010a), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 2012a, 2012b). Uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that prevail on the surface of the storage containers, the stress state within the container walls associated both with weldments as well as within the base metal itself, and the electrochemical properties of the storage containers themselves. The goal of the work described in this document is to determine the stress states that exists at various locations within a typical storage canister by evaluating the properties of a full-diameter cylindrical mockup of an interim storage canister. This mockup has been produced using the same manufacturing procedures as the majority of the fielded spent nuclear fuel interim storage canisters. This document describes the design and procurement of the mockup and the characterization of the stress state associated with various portions of the container. It also describes the cutting of the mockup into sections for further analyses, and a discussion of the potential impact of the results from the stress characterization effort.

  6. Postpartum Sacral Stress Fracture: An Atypical Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Speziali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sacral stress fractures are common in elderly people. However, sacral stress fracture should be always screened in the differential diagnoses of low back pain during the postpartum period. We present a case of sacral fracture in a thirty-six-year-old woman with low back pain and severe right buttock pain two days after cesarean section delivery of a 3.9 Kg baby. The diagnosis was confirmed by MRI and CT scan, while X-ray was unable to detect the fracture. Contribution of mechanical factors during the cesarean section is not a reasonable cause of sacral fracture. Pregnancy and lactation could be risk factors for sacral stress fracture even in atraumatic delivery such as cesarean section. Our patient had no risk factors for osteoporosis except for pregnancy and lactation. Transient or focal osteoporosis is challenging to assess and it cannot be ruled out even if serum test and mineral density are within the normal range.

  7. Development of a telemetric heat stress monitor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-21

    Hazardous-materials workers and firefighters wear clothing that protects them from external hazards, but the sealed environment of a protective suit makes its wearer susceptible to heat stress. A prototype of the Telemetric Heat Stress Monitor (THSM) was developed at LANL to warn workers, and personnel monitoring the workers, of incipient heat stress by detecting the workers` elevated temperatures and heart rates. The purpose of this CRADA was to transfer the information and technology from LANL to the industrial partner, and to assist in the further development of a commercial THSM product. The THSM is the first extensive telemetric physiological monitor to be developed; previous monitors used wires between the sensors and the recording and display equipment. Developing a reliable, small, battery-powered, inexpensive telemetry system to share the RF spectrum with today`s proliferating wireless devices was a significant technical accomplishment.

  8. De-alloying and stress-corrosion cracking. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieradzki, K.

    1998-09-01

    This research program has had two major areas of focus that are related: (1) alloy corrosion and (2) the role of selective dissolution in the stress corrosion cracking of alloy systems. These interrelated issues were examined using model systems such as Ag-Au and Cu-Au by conventional electrochemical techniques, in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), in situ small angle neutron scattering (SANS), ultrahigh speed digital photography of fracture events, and computer simulations. The STM and SANS work were specifically aimed at addressing a roughening transition known to occur in alloy systems undergoing corrosion at electrochemical potentials greater than the so-called critical potential. Analytical models of de-alloying processes including the roughening transition were developed that specifically include curvature effects that are important in alloy corrosion processes. Stress-corrosion experiments were performed on the same model systems using rapid optical and electrochemical techniques on 50 {micro}m--250 {micro}m thick sheets and small diameter wires. The primary goal of this work was to develop a fundamental understanding of the corrosion and electrochemistry of alloys and the stress-corrosion cracking processes these alloys undergo. Computer simulations and analytical work identified surface stress and an important parameter in environmentally assisted fracture. The major results of the research on this program since the summer of 1993 are briefly summarized.

  9. Olmesartan Combined With Amlodipine on Oxidative Stress Parameters in Type 2 Diabetics, Compared With Single Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Mugellini, Amedeo; Pesce, Rosa Maria; D’Angelo, Angela; Maffioli, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the effects of a fixed combination of olmesartan/amlodipine compared with olmesartan or amlodipine alone on some parameters of endothelial damage in diabetic, hypertensive patients. We enrolled 221 patients; 74 were randomized to olmesartan 20 mg, 72 to amlodipine 10 mg, and 75 to olmesartan/amlodipine fixed combination 20/5 mg for 12 months. We assessed blood pressure monthly; in addition, we also assessed at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months, the following parameters: lipoprotein (a), myeloperoxidase (MPO), isoprostanes, and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1). Blood pressure values obtained with fixed olmesartan/amlodipine combination were significantly lower than those reached with single monotherapies. There was a reduction of lipoprotein (a), and isoprostanes levels with olmesartan/amlodipine fixed combination, both compared with baseline, and with single monotherapies. On the other hand, there was an increase of PON-1 with fixed olmesartan/amlodipine combination, both compared with baseline, and with single drugs. All treatments reduced MPO compared with baseline; however, in group-to-group comparison, MPO reduction was greater with olmesartan/amlodipine fixed combination. Fixed combination of olmesartan/amlodipine was more effective than single monotherapies in reducing oxidative stress, especially in increasing PON-1, and reducing isoprostanes levels in diabetic and hypertensive patients. PMID:27043671

  10. Comparing neural correlates of REM sleep in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression: a neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebdlahad, Sommer; Nofzinger, Eric A; James, Jeffrey A; Buysse, Daniel J; Price, Julie C; Germain, Anne

    2013-12-30

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbances predict poor clinical outcomes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). In MDD, REM sleep is characterized by activation of limbic and paralimbic brain regions compared to wakefulness. The neural correlates of PTSD during REM sleep remain scarcely explored, and comparisons of PTSD and MDD have not been conducted. The present study sought to compare brain activity patterns during wakefulness and REM sleep in 13 adults with PTSD and 12 adults with MDD using [¹⁸F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (PET). PTSD was associated with greater increase in relative regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc) in limbic and paralimbic structures in REM sleep compared to wakefulness. Post-hoc comparisons indicated that MDD was associated with greater limbic and paralimbic rCMRglc during wakefulness but not REM sleep compared to PTSD. Our findings suggest that PTSD is associated with increased REM sleep limbic and paralimbic metabolism, whereas MDD is associated with wake and REM hypermetabolism in these areas. These observations suggest that PTSD and MDD disrupt REM sleep through different neurobiological processes. Optimal sleep treatments between the two disorders may differ: REM-specific therapy may be more effective in PTSD.

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis of Yersinia pestis in response to hyperosmotic and high-salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanping; Zhou, Dongsheng; Pang, Xin; Zhang, Ling; Song, Yajun; Tong, Zongzhong; Bao, Jingyue; Dai, Erhei; Wang, Jin; Guo, Zhaobiao; Zhai, Junhui; Du, Zongmin; Wang, Xiaoyi; Wang, Jian; Huang, Peitang; Yang, Ruifu

    2005-04-01

    DNA microarray was used as a tool to investigate genome-wide transcriptional responses of Yersinia pestis to hyperosmotic and high-salinity stress. Hyperosmotic stress specifically upregulated genes responsible for ABC-type transport and the cytoplasmic accumulation of certain polysaccharides, while high-salinity stress induced the transcription of genes encoding partition proteins and several global transcriptional regulators. Genes whose transcription was enhanced by both kinds of stress comprised those encoding osmoprotectant transport systems and a set of virulence determinants. The number of genes downregulated by the two kinds of stress was much lower than that of upregulated genes, suggesting that neither kind of stress severely depresses cellular processes in general. Many differentially regulated genes still exist whose functions remain unknown. Y. pestis recognized high-salinity and hyperosmotic stress as different kinds of environmental stimuli, and different mechanisms enabled acclimation to these two kinds of stress, although Y. pestis still executed common mechanisms to accommodate both types of stress.

  12. A comparative analysis of strategy disclosure reporting trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chestt

    King III thus recognises that strategy, risk, performance and sustainability are ... aligned reports covering five industry sectors (Banking, Construction and Materials, Energy ...... above 70%, ranking them all as 'good' disclosure levels per sector.

  13. 78 FR 59165 - Orders: Information Reporting With Respect to Stress Testing of Regulated Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1238 Orders: Information Reporting With Respect to Stress Testing of Regulated... entity) that has total consolidated assets of more than $10 billion to conduct annual stress tests to..., efficient, competitive, and resilient national housing finance markets, and that they carry out their public...

  14. Final Report: Geothermal dual acoustic tool for measurement of rock stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy A. [Perma Works LLC, Pattonville, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  15. Final Report. Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy A [Perma Works LLC, Pattonville, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  16. Final Report: Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  17. Case report of critical incident stress debriefing through translators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, P K

    2000-01-01

    The United States Navy has SPRINT (Special Psychiatric Rapid Intervention Team) teams stationed in National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, Naval Regional Medical Center in Portsmouth, Virginia, Naval Regional Medical Center in San Diego, California, and US Naval Hospital, Bremerton, Washington. These teams are large units of psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, chaplains, and hospital corpsmen who are trained in the techniques of Critical Incident Stress using the model developed by Jeffrey T. Mitchell and George S. Everly, Jr. (Mitchell & Everly, 1996; Everly & Mitchell, 1999). In addition to these large SPRINT teams, smaller Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) teams exist at several Navy commands, including US Naval Hospital, Jacksonville, Florida. Since the formation of SPRINT teams, there have been several hundred interventions done at various military sites. This article discusses an intervention that was particularly unusual in that it was done by US military personnel for the members of the Argentine military, none of whom could speak English.

  18. Heat stress monitoring system. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program involves the need to decontaminate and decommission buildings expeditiously and cost-effectively. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. Often, D and D workers must perform duties in inclement weather, and because they also frequently work in contaminated areas, they must wear personal protective clothing and/or respirators. Monitoring the health status of workers under these conditions is an important component of ensuring their safety. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System`s heat stress monitoring system (HSMS) is designed to monitor the vital signs of individual workers as they perform work in conditions that might be conducive to heat exhaustion or heat stress. The HSMS provides real-time data on the physiological condition of workers which can be monitored to prevent heat stress or other adverse health situations. This system is particularly useful when workers are wearing personal protective clothing or respirators that make visual observation of their condition more difficult. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System can monitor up to four channels (e.g., heart rate, body activity, ear canal, and skin temperature) and ten workers from a single supervisory station. The monitors are interfaced with a portable computer that updates and records information on individual workers. This innovative technology, even though it costs more, is an attractive alternative to the traditional (baseline) technology, which measures environmental statistics and predicts the average worker`s reaction to those environmental conditions without taking the physical condition of the individual worker into consideration. Although use of the improved technology might be justified purely on the basis of improved safety, it has the potential to pay for itself by reducing worker time lost caused by heat

  19. Unusual exercise-related stress fractures. Two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink-Bennett, D.M.; Benson, M.T.

    1984-08-01

    We describe two unusual exercise-related stress fractures, one in the sacroiliac joint of a long distance runner, the other in the body of the scapulae of an above-knee amputee. Each were detected on a 2-hour delay bone scan. To our knowledge, neither have been described scintigraphically. The bilateral scapular fracture is an unreported entity, and the fractured SI joint is a very uncommon site for an overuse injury.

  20. Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress. Annual Report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Military Medicine, 174(1): iv–xiii, 2009. Howe EG: Using nonevidence-based ap- proaches to treat patients with Alzheim - er’s disease . Psychiatry...CSTS is on the cutting edge of integrating basic science and clinical science to better understand the effects of stress and trauma. A number of our...simulation exercises dealing with chemical and biological terrorism. This early work generated an unprecedented body of research, including a

  1. Comparative Analysis and Identification of miRNAs and Their Target Genes Responsive to Salt Stress in Diploid and Tetraploid Paulownia fortunei Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guoqiang; Li, Xiaoyu; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Yang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress is a global environmental problem that affects plant growth and development. Paulownia fortunei is an adaptable and fast-growing deciduous tree native to China that is environmentally and economically important. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles in growth, development, and stress responses in plants. MiRNAs that respond to biotic stresses have been identified; however, how miRNAs in P. fortunei respond to salt stress has not yet been reported. To identify salt-stress-responsive miRNAs and predict their target genes, four small RNA and four degradome libraries were constructed from NaCl-treated and NaCl-free leaves of P. fortunei seedlings. The results indicated that salt stress had different physiological effects on diploid and tetraploid P. fortunei. We detected 53 conserved miRNAs belonging to 17 miRNA families and 134 novel miRNAs in P. fortunei. Comparing their expression levels in diploid and tetraploid P. fortunei, we found 10 conserved and 10 novel miRNAs that were significantly differentially expressed under salt treatment, among them eight were identified as miRNAs probably associated with higher salt tolerance in tetraploid P. fortunei than in diploid P. fortunei. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses were performed to predict the functions of the target genes of the conserved and novel miRNAs. The expressions of 10 differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). This is the first report on P. fortunei miRNAs and their target genes under salt stress. The results provided information at the physiological and molecular levels for further research into the response mechanisms of P. fortunei to salt stress.

  2. Comparative Analysis and Identification of miRNAs and Their Target Genes Responsive to Salt Stress in Diploid and Tetraploid Paulownia fortunei Seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Fan

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a global environmental problem that affects plant growth and development. Paulownia fortunei is an adaptable and fast-growing deciduous tree native to China that is environmentally and economically important. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important regulatory roles in growth, development, and stress responses in plants. MiRNAs that respond to biotic stresses have been identified; however, how miRNAs in P. fortunei respond to salt stress has not yet been reported. To identify salt-stress-responsive miRNAs and predict their target genes, four small RNA and four degradome libraries were constructed from NaCl-treated and NaCl-free leaves of P. fortunei seedlings. The results indicated that salt stress had different physiological effects on diploid and tetraploid P. fortunei. We detected 53 conserved miRNAs belonging to 17 miRNA families and 134 novel miRNAs in P. fortunei. Comparing their expression levels in diploid and tetraploid P. fortunei, we found 10 conserved and 10 novel miRNAs that were significantly differentially expressed under salt treatment, among them eight were identified as miRNAs probably associated with higher salt tolerance in tetraploid P. fortunei than in diploid P. fortunei. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses were performed to predict the functions of the target genes of the conserved and novel miRNAs. The expressions of 10 differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. This is the first report on P. fortunei miRNAs and their target genes under salt stress. The results provided information at the physiological and molecular levels for further research into the response mechanisms of P. fortunei to salt stress.

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Response to Salt Stress in Inula crithmoides and Dittrichia viscosa

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Salt stress, as well as other abiotic stresses, induces the activation of antioxidant systems in plants, since they cause oxidative stress as a secondary effect. We have analysed the antioxidant response to salt treatments of two related species, Inula crithmoides and Dittrichia viscosa, in terms of accumulation of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The most salt-tolerant species, I. crithmoides, was less affected than D. viscosa by oxidative stress in the presence of high NaCl concentr...

  4. Comparative leaf proteomics of drought-tolerant and-susceptible peanut in response to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water stress (WS) predisposes peanut plants to fungal infection resulting in pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Major changes during water stress including oxidative stress, lead to destruction of photosynthetic apparatus and other macromolecules within cells. Two peanut cultivars with diverse dro...

  5. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Erin S; Craighead, W Edward

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members' health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N = 119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members' health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition.

  6. Mid-Anterior Tibial Stress Fracture in a Female Elite Athlete : A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzer, Patricia A M

    2007-02-01

    We report the case of an unusual tibial stress fracture and its successful surgical treatment in a female elite sprinter 2 years after complete consolidation of the same tibia following resection of an osteoid osteoma.

  7. Comparative study of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains to identify potential marker genes correlated to desiccation stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Angela; Votta, Sonia; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Zambuto, Marianna; Romaniello, Rossana; Romano, Patrizia

    2016-05-01

    The most diffused formulation of starter for winemaking is active dry yeast (ADY). ADYs production process is essentially characterized by air-drying stress, a combination of several stresses, including thermal, hyperosmotic and oxidative and cell capacity to counteract such multiple stresses will determine its survival. The molecular mechanisms underlying cell stress response to desiccation have been mostly studied in laboratory and commercial yeast strains, but a growing interest is currently developing for indigenous yeast strains which represent a valuable and alternative source of genetic and molecular biodiversity to be exploited. In this work, a comparative study of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae indigenous wine strains, previously selected for their technological traits, has been carried out to identify potentially relevant genes involved in desiccation stress tolerance. Cell viability was evaluated along desiccation treatment and gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR before and during the stress. Our data show that the observed differences in individual strain sensitivity to desiccation stress could be associated to specific gene expression over time. In particular, either the basal or the stress-induced mRNA levels of certain genes, such as HSP12, SSA3, TPS1, TPS2, CTT1 and SOD1, result tightly correlated to the strain survival advantage. This study provides a reliable and sensitive method to predict desiccation stress tolerance of indigenous wine yeast strains which could be preliminary to biotechnological applications. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Comparative study of pulmonary functions and oxidative stress in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Shah Mohammad Abbas; Mobarak, Mohd Hossain; Islam, Najmul; Ahmad, Zuber

    2012-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) is projected to rank third leading cause of deaths by 2030 as per WHO. COPD is a multi-etiological disease. The airflow dysfunction is usually progressive, associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gasses. As the lung is exposed to high levels of oxygen, it is more susceptible to oxidants mediated injury. Gender based differences are identifiable risk factors. Smoking is found to be a major risk factor in the causation of COPD resulting in oxidative stress . The aim of the present study is to evaluate the oxidant antioxidant imbalance in healthy non smoker controls and smokers with COPD. A total of 60 control (healthy non smokers) and 121 smokers having COPD were studied. The mean age is more in smoker group as compared to healthy controls, which identifies advancing age as a risk factor for COPD. The mean BMI and weight of smoker group is reduced as compared to control group. GOLD 2008 criteria was used to assess lung functions. Lung functions namely FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEV1% Predicted showed significant reduction in smoker group as compared to healthy non smoker controls. MDA in control and smoker group (1.09 +/- 0.09 and 1.41 +/- 0.23 nmol/ml respectively) showed significant changes (P < 0.001). Our results also demonstrate significant reduction in anti oxidant enzymes namely SOD (units/mg of serum protein), Catalase (units/mg of serum protein) and GPX (nmol of NADPH oxidized/ min/mg of serum protein) in smoker group as compared to healthy controls. On the basis of study it is concluded that smoking, gender and oxidant antioxidant imbalance are identifiable risk factors in COPD.

  9. Comparative genome-scale analysis of niche-based stress-responsive genes in Lactobacillus helveticus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senan, Suja; Prajapati, Jashbhai B; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2014-04-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies with advanced bioinformatic tools present a unique opportunity to compare genomes from diverse niches. The identification of niche-specific stress-responsive genes can help in characterizing robust strains for multiple applications. In this study, we attempted to compare the stress-responsive genes of a potential probiotic strain, Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463, and a cheese starter strain, Lactobacillus helveticus DPC 4571, from a gut and dairy niche, respectively. Sequencing of MTCC 5463 was done using 454 GS FLX, and contigs were assembled using GS Assembler software. Genome analysis was done using BLAST hits and the prokaryotic annotation server RAST. The MTCC 5463 genome carried multiple orthologs of genes governing stress responses, whereas the DPC 4571 genome lacked in the number of major stress-response proteins. The absence of the bile salt hydrolase gene in DPC 4571 and its presence in MTCC 5463 clearly indicated niche adaptation. Further, MTCC 5463 carried higher copy numbers of genes contributing towards heat, cold, osmotic, and oxidative stress resistance as compared with DPC 4571. Through comparative genomics, we could thus identify stress-responsive gene sets required to adapt to gut and dairy niches.

  10. Comparative physiological and transcriptomic analyses provide integrated insight into osmotic, cold, and salt stress tolerance mechanisms in banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Ding, Zehong; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Chunlai; Liu, Juhua; Wang, Jiashui; Peng, Ming; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    The growth, development, and production of banana plants are constrained by multiple abiotic stressors. However, it remains elusive for the tolerance mechanisms of banana responding to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, we found that Fen Jiao (FJ) was more tolerant to osmotic, cold, and salt stresses than BaXi Jiao (BX) by phenotypic and physiological analyses. Comparative transcriptomic analyses highlighted stress tolerance genes that either specifically regulated in FJ or changed more than twofold in FJ relative to BX after treatments. In total, 933, 1644, and 133 stress tolerance genes were identified after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments, respectively. Further integrated analyses found that 30 tolerance genes, including transcription factor, heat shock protein, and E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, could be commonly regulated by osmotic, cold, and salt stresses. Finally, ABA and ROS signaling networks were found to be more active in FJ than in BX under osmotic, cold, and salt treatments, which may contribute to the strong stress tolerances of FJ. Together, this study provides new insights into the tolerance mechanism of banana responding to multiple stresses, thus leading to potential applications in the genetic improvement of multiple abiotic stress tolerances in banana. PMID:28223714

  11. Vegans report less stress and anxiety than omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, Bonnie; Radnitz, Cynthia; Rinne, Amy; DiMatteo, Julie

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating mood in vegetarian diets have yielded conflicting results, either demonstrating risk for mental disorders or mood protection. Our objective was to investigate mood, as well as factors that potentially impact mood in vegans (VG), vegetarians (VEG), and omnivores (OMN). We surveyed mood, diet, and lifestyle factors in a broad geographic online sample of adult VG (n = 283), VEG (n = 109), and OMN (n = 228) who were recruited via diet-related social networks. Mood was measured with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The sample was mostly female (78.5%), and age was inversely correlated with all DASS scores (p benefits. The improved mood domains were not consistent with those found in other studies, which may be due to methodological differences.

  12. Comparative assessment of marine biomass materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Show, I.T. Jr.; Piper, L.E.; Lupton, S.E.; Stegen, G.R.

    1979-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess potential marine biomass sources and their preprocessing requirements. For the assessment of marine biomass sources, a priority list of marine plants was developed based on maximum potential organic yields, maximum potential calorific yields, and chemical composition. Yields were maximized and undesirable chemical properties minimized. The priority list was used to estimate maximum potential yields from US coastal water (from shore to the 200-mile limit of the Fisheries Conservation Zone). Preprocessing schemes were compared based on a comparative evaluation of energy consumption for each preprocessing step. The priority list of potential biomass sources produced 13 potential genera; five showed calorific yields far in excess of the other eight. These five (Laminaria, Chondrus, Fucus, Gracilaria, and Macrocystis) had calorific yields in excess of 50 x 10/sup 3/ kcal/m/sup 2/ - yr. No genus was found to be universally applicable to all US territorial waters. It was estimated that maximum potential national yield without mechanical nutrient upwelling could be as high as 30 x 10/sup 5/ Btu/yr (30 quad). Results of the preprocessing study indicated that harvesting and size reduction operations may consume a large proportion of the energy available from the harvested biomass. It was found that biochemical conversion preprocessing incurs the least energy loss. It was also found that thermochemical conversion is probably not appropriate for marine biomass due to preprocessing energy losses.

  13. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble.html Shopdiabetes.org Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! A year of delicious meals to help prevent ...

  14. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sudden negative change, such as losing a job, divorce, or illness Traumatic stress, which happens when you ... stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  15. A Comparative Study of Stress Among Students of Medicine, Engineering, and Nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Behere, Shashank P; YADAV, RICHA; Prakash B Behere

    2011-01-01

    Background: In today's ultra competitive environment, students face more stress than ever – be it related to studies, examination, peer, teachers or parent's pressure. Stress is the “wear and tear” our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changing environment. On one hand, stress compels us to action. However, it can result in feelings of rejection, anger, and depression, leading to health problems such as headaches, upset stomach rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high blood pressure, he...

  16. A comparative study of stress among students of medicine, engineering, and nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Behere, Shashank P; Richa Yadav; Prakash B Behere

    2011-01-01

    Background: In today′s ultra competitive environment, students face more stress than ever - be it related to studies, examination, peer, teachers or parent′s pressure. Stress is the "wear and tear" our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changing environment. On one hand, stress compels us to action. However, it can result in feelings of rejection, anger, and depression, leading to health problems such as headaches, upset stomach rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high blood pressure, he...

  17. Occupational stress in men and women: a comparative study of coping resources

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.A. The ramifications of stress-related illnesses and disorders impact on the individual, the organization that the individual works for and the nation’s economic status as a whole. Coping with occupational stress has thus become the focus of occupational health specialists, organizations and industrial psychologists. South African managers and executives work under constant stress and pressure (Strumpfer, 1983). With the emergence of women into previously male dominated occupations, a gr...

  18. Comparative performance of color-measuring instruments; second report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billmeyer, F W; Campbell, E D; Marcus, R T

    1974-06-01

    The comparative performance of twelve different late-model color-measuring instruments was studied for precision (short-term repeatability) and conformance of color measurement and color-difference measurement.The instruments tested included four true and two abridged spectrophotometers and six colorimeters, all being integrating-sphere instruments except three 45 degrees /0 degrees colorimeters. All the colorimeters were individually calibrated for close conformance to CIE coordinates. Forty-four samples taken from the group studied in the previous paper were measured three times on each instrument, by three different well-trained operators. Again, a GE spectrophotometer was considered the reference instrument for conformance studies. Overall, the GE spectrophotometer, the Hunterlab D25D colorimeter, and the Kollmorgen KCS-18 and KCS-40 abridged spectrophotometers demonstrated the best performance. Statistical treatment of the data has been improved vastly since the earlier paper, and some recalculated results are included.

  19. Comparative transcriptional profiling under drought stress between upland and lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) using cDNA-AFLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO FengHua; ZHANG HongLiang; WANG HaiGuang; GAO Hong; LI ZiChao

    2009-01-01

    The continuous growth of lowland rice (LR) in paddy fields supplied with enough water over the years, and of upland rice (UR) in naturally rain-fed soils, has resulted in greater resistance to drought stress in UR compared to LR. To elucidate their differential regulation mechanisms of drought-resistance, genome-wide transcript regulation under drought stress in UR and LR was investigated using cDNA-AFLP. The results indicated that over 90% of gene expression was not affected by drought stress in the two rice genotypes, more than 8% was regulated by drought stress in both, and less than 1% was specifically expressed in UR or LR. Fifty-seven genes were specifically expressed in UR and thirty-eight specifically in LR. Genes specifically expressed in UR included cell rescue and defence genes functioning in drought-resistance, signal transduction molecules, nucleotides and amino acid biosynthesis genes required for plant growth, and the regulatory genes for growth and development. In LR, genes specifically expressed were related to protein and nucleotide degradation. Some genes were upregulated earlier in UR, and downregulated genes were inclined to be downregulated earlier in UR compared to LR, implying that more rapid regulation mechanisms caused earlier responses of UR to drought stress. Expression levels of upregulated genes in UR were higher than those in LR. The differences in gene expression between UR and LR could account for stronger regulation ability, more drought-resistance and superior growth of UR under drought stress compared to LR.

  20. Patterns of Stuttering Comparing two Languages: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Hernández-Jaramillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In bilinguals, specific patterns of stuttering in each one of the languages may be different. This study reports on the case of a bilingual adult who speaks Spanish and English simultaneously and whose dominant language is Spanish. Speech and language testing was performed in both languages. The samples chosen for the analysis of speech corpus were: spontaneous speech, de­scription of the picture and reading. Some differences in the stuttering distribution were found. Of the disfluent instants, 61.39 % of the total was presented in English and the other remaining 38.61 % in Spanish. In both languages, stuttering by word type was more frequent in function words (i.e. prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, particles and infinitive forms than in content words (i.e. verbs, nouns, adjectives. As observed, dysfluency types were similar in Spanish and English, with the greatest percentage being word repetition, followed by phonemic prolongations. These were more frequent in English than in Spanish. Although it is possible to find similari­ties in the stuttering pattern suggesting general stuttering laws, differences associated not only with language-specific idiosyncrasies but also with the individual’s bilingualism characteristics were also found.

  1. Comparative Metabolome Profile between Tobacco and Soybean Grown under Water-Stressed Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabara, Roel C; Tripathi, Prateek; Rushton, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how plants respond to water deficit is important in order to develop crops tolerant to drought. In this study, we compare two large metabolomics datasets where we employed a nontargeted metabolomics approach to elucidate metabolic pathways perturbed by progressive dehydration in tobacco and soybean plants. The two datasets were created using the same strategy to create water deficit conditions and an identical metabolomics pipeline. Comparisons between the two datasets therefore reveal common responses between the two species, responses specific to one of the species, responses that occur in both root and leaf tissues, and responses that are specific to one tissue. Stomatal closure is the immediate response of the plant and this did not coincide with accumulation of abscisic acid. A total of 116 and 140 metabolites were observed in tobacco leaves and roots, respectively, while 241 and 207 were observed in soybean leaves and roots, respectively. Accumulation of metabolites is significantly correlated with the extent of dehydration in both species. Among the metabolites that show increases that are restricted to just one plant, 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutaric acid (KHG) in tobacco roots and coumestrol in soybean roots show the highest tissue-specific accumulation. The comparisons of these two large nontargeted metabolomics datasets provide novel information and suggest that KHG will be a useful marker for drought stress for some members of Solanaceae and coumestrol for some legume species.

  2. Comparative Metabolome Profile between Tobacco and Soybean Grown under Water-Stressed Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel C. Rabara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how plants respond to water deficit is important in order to develop crops tolerant to drought. In this study, we compare two large metabolomics datasets where we employed a nontargeted metabolomics approach to elucidate metabolic pathways perturbed by progressive dehydration in tobacco and soybean plants. The two datasets were created using the same strategy to create water deficit conditions and an identical metabolomics pipeline. Comparisons between the two datasets therefore reveal common responses between the two species, responses specific to one of the species, responses that occur in both root and leaf tissues, and responses that are specific to one tissue. Stomatal closure is the immediate response of the plant and this did not coincide with accumulation of abscisic acid. A total of 116 and 140 metabolites were observed in tobacco leaves and roots, respectively, while 241 and 207 were observed in soybean leaves and roots, respectively. Accumulation of metabolites is significantly correlated with the extent of dehydration in both species. Among the metabolites that show increases that are restricted to just one plant, 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutaric acid (KHG in tobacco roots and coumestrol in soybean roots show the highest tissue-specific accumulation. The comparisons of these two large nontargeted metabolomics datasets provide novel information and suggest that KHG will be a useful marker for drought stress for some members of Solanaceae and coumestrol for some legume species.

  3. A comparative study of stress among students of medicine, engineering, and nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank P Behere

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In today′s ultra competitive environment, students face more stress than ever - be it related to studies, examination, peer, teachers or parent′s pressure. Stress is the "wear and tear" our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changing environment. On one hand, stress compels us to action. However, it can result in feelings of rejection, anger, and depression, leading to health problems such as headaches, upset stomach rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of 100 randomly selected students each from Medical College Engineering College and 50 Nursing College was done. For reliability, anonymity and confidentiality were maintained. Stress was measured by using stress measurement scale having 24 Yes/No questions. The questionnaire was in English and Hindi so that language would not be problem. Results: Stress as an entity is universally present among students of all three streams, irrespective of age, sex, and other variables. Students in all three streams have shown denial to existence of problems, with maximum among nursing students. Medical and Engineering students had stress level of such a degree that requires clinical attention, while none of the nursing students belonged to this category. Conclusions: There is attitude among students of turning a blind eye toward existing stress which is a serious problem and may be harbinger of serious mental and psychosocial problems.

  4. Measuring short-term stress in birds: Comparing different endpoints of the endocrine-immune interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Nikolaus; Fusani, Leonida; Ferretti, Andrea; Mahr, Katharina; Canoine, Virginie

    2017-09-25

    Stress is a collective term for certain conditions and sequences of physiological events enabling living organisms to overcome unpredictable and uncontrollable situations. The context-dependent nature, multidimensional course and large individual variability make stress responses difficult to measure. In avian species, a plethora of studies on short-term stress responses have been conducted by measuring the corticosteroid response to a standardized stress protocol. Here we aimed to test the viability of the Leukocyte Coping Capacity (LCC), measuring oxygen radical production by leukocytes, to assess short-term stress in birds. We collected blood samples from captive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in the two seasons of winter and spring, right after capture and 30min thereafter. In order to assess the overall physiological stress response to a standardized stressor, i.e. handling and temporary constraint, we measured LCC and additionally combined it with measures of total circulating glucocorticoids (GCs) and oxidative stress. All three methodologies detected significant changes due to the stressor albeit they were not correlated with each other and revealed different information. There was no significant change in oxidative stress levels between the two time points although the amount of relative oxidative damage as well as the anti-oxidative capacity changed significantly. We observed a significant seasonal difference in GC stress response with no difference between sexes. On the contrary, LCC measures revealed with a high individual consistency, that individuals experienced a similar magnitude of stress in both seasons with a significant difference between sexes. Total GC-levels have to be interpreted with caution regarding the assessment of short-term stress reactions. We therefore suggest to supplementary combine classical approaches for measuring stress with the immunological tool of LCC. Our results reveal LCC as a strong and reliable tool to assess short

  5. The sources and manifestations of stress amongst school-aged dyslexics, compared with sibling controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Passe, Neil

    2008-11-01

    All school children experience stress at some point in their school careers. This study investigates whether dyslexic children, by way of their educational and social difficulties, experience higher levels of stress at school. The School Situation Survey was used to investigate both the sources and manifestations of stress amongst dyslexic children and non-dyslexic sibling controls. Samples were broken down by gender, age and the size of families. Results suggest significant differences between the groups, with dyslexics in academic years 3-5 experiencing the highest stress levels, specifically in interactions with teachers, worries over academic examinations (SATs) and performance testing, causing emotional (fear, shyness and loneliness) and physiological (nausea, tremors or rapid heart beat) manifestations. Results also suggest that dyslexics in larger families (3-4 sibling families) experience greater stress in interactions with their peers, than those in smaller families (two sibling families)--possibly from unfair sibling comparison. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Comparative analysis on the key enzymes of the glycerol cycle metabolic pathway in Dunaliella salina under osmotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    The glycerol metabolic pathway is a special cycle way; glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh), glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase (G3pp), dihydroxyacetone reductase (Dhar), and dihydroxyacetone kinase (Dhak) are the key enzymes around the pathway. Glycerol is an important osmolyte for Dunaliella salina to resist osmotic stress. In this study, comparative activities of the four enzymes in D. salina and their activity changes under various salt stresses were investigated, from which glycerol metabolic flow direction in the glycerol metabolic pathway was estimated. Results showed that the salinity changes had different effects on the enzymes activities. NaCl could stimulate the activities of all the four enzymes in various degrees when D. salina was grown under continuous salt stress. When treated by hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic shock, only the activity of G3pdh in D. salina was significantly stimulated. It was speculated that, under osmotic stresses, the emergency response of the cycle pathway in D. salina was driven by G3pdh via its response to the osmotic stress. Subsequently, with the changes of salinity, other three enzymes started to respond to osmotic stress. Dhar played a role of balancing the cycle metabolic pathway by its forward and backward reactions. Through synergy, the four enzymes worked together for the effective flow of the cycle metabolic pathways to maintain the glycerol requirements of cells in order to adapt to osmotic stress environments.

  7. Stress-induced hemorrhagic gastric ulcer after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto Mitsuaki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of gastric ulcers, and Helicobacter pylori eradication drastically reduces ulcer recurrence. It has been reported, however, that severe physical stress is closely associated with gastric ulceration even in Helicobacter pylori -negative patients. Case presentation We report the cases of a 47-year-old Japanese man and a 69-year-old Japanese man who developed psychological stress-induced hemorrhagic gastric ulcers, in both of whom Helicobacter pylori had been successfully eradicated. Conclusion Our cases strongly suggest that not only physical but also psychological stress is still an important pathogenic factor for peptic ulceration and accordingly that physicians should pay attention to the possible presence of psychological stress in the management of patients with peptic ulcers.

  8. Comparative proteomic and physiological analyses reveal the protective effect of exogenous calcium on the germinating soybean response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongqi; Yang, Runqiang; Han, Yongbin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2015-01-15

    Calcium enhances salt stress tolerance of soybeans. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of calcium's involvement in resistance to salt stress is unclear. A comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate protein profiles in germinating soybeans under NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-LaCl3 treatments. A total of 80 proteins affected by calcium in 4-day-old germinating soybean cotyledons and 71 in embryos were confidently identified. The clustering analysis showed proteins were subdivided into 5 and 6 clusters in cotyledon and embryo, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in signal transduction and energy pathways, in transportation, and in protein biosynthesis were largely enriched while those involved in proteolysis were decreased. Abundance of nucleoside diphosphate kinase and three antioxidant enzymes were visibly increased by calcium. Accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid and polyamines was also detected after application of exogenous calcium. This was consistent with proteomic results, which showed that proteins involved in the glutamate and methionine metabolism were mediated by calcium. Calcium could increase the salt stress tolerance of germinating soybeans via enriching signal transduction, energy pathway and transportation, promoting protein biosynthesis, inhibiting proteolysis, redistributing storage proteins, regulating protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, enriching antioxidant enzymes and activating their activities, accumulating secondary metabolites and osmolytes, and other adaptive responses. Biological significance Soybean (Glycine max L.), as a traditional edible legume, is being targeted for designing functional foods. During soybean germination under stressful conditions especially salt stress, newly discovered functional components such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are rapidly accumulated. However, soybean plants are relatively salt-sensitive and the growth, development and biomass of germinating soybeans are significantly

  9. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the maize primary, crown and seminal root in response to salinity stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maolin Zhang

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major constraint to crop growth and yield. The primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana are known to respond differentially to a number of environmental stresses, including salinity. Although the maize root system as a whole is known to be sensitive to salinity, whether or not different structural root systems show differential growth responses to salinity stress has not yet been investigated. The maize primary root (PR was more tolerant of salinity stress than either the crown root (CR or the seminal root (SR. To understand the molecular mechanism of these differential growth responses, RNA-Seq analysis was conducted on cDNA prepared from the PR, CR and SR of plants either non-stressed or exposed to 100 mM NaCl for 24 h. A set of 444 genes were shown to be regulated by salinity stress, and the transcription pattern of a number of genes associated with the plant salinity stress response differed markedly between the various types of root. The pattern of transcription of the salinity-regulated genes was shown to be very diverse in the various root types. The differential transcription of these genes such as transcription factors, and the accumulation of compatible solutes such as soluble sugars probably underlie the differential growth responses to salinity stress of the three types of roots in maize.

  10. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the maize primary, crown and seminal root in response to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maolin; Kong, Xiangpei; Xu, Xiangbo; Li, Cuiling; Tian, Huiyu; Ding, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to crop growth and yield. The primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana are known to respond differentially to a number of environmental stresses, including salinity. Although the maize root system as a whole is known to be sensitive to salinity, whether or not different structural root systems show differential growth responses to salinity stress has not yet been investigated. The maize primary root (PR) was more tolerant of salinity stress than either the crown root (CR) or the seminal root (SR). To understand the molecular mechanism of these differential growth responses, RNA-Seq analysis was conducted on cDNA prepared from the PR, CR and SR of plants either non-stressed or exposed to 100 mM NaCl for 24 h. A set of 444 genes were shown to be regulated by salinity stress, and the transcription pattern of a number of genes associated with the plant salinity stress response differed markedly between the various types of root. The pattern of transcription of the salinity-regulated genes was shown to be very diverse in the various root types. The differential transcription of these genes such as transcription factors, and the accumulation of compatible solutes such as soluble sugars probably underlie the differential growth responses to salinity stress of the three types of roots in maize.

  11. Comparing and the Relationship between Stress and Craving Usage in Addicted to Opium and Industrial Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Fatemeh Poor-seyed M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: According to the importance of stressful and impellent factors in severity of craving and after that treating successes, this study had done with purpose of examining the relationship between these factors with craving experience in addicted men in six groups (smoking of opium, inhalation of Heroin, smoking of Heroin, injection of Heroin, smoking of methamphetamine, smoking of crack. Method: In this descriptive-sectional study, 195 addicted men had referred to cold turkey centers in Rasht, during 10 months of 1389-1390 selected by available sampling method in six groups. Stress evaluation questionnaire of Markham and the questionnaire of instant craving drug of Franken and also profited by imaginary indexes of computer tests for severity of craving administered among selected samples. Results: The results showed that there is a significant and positive relationship between the stress and cue induction craving, and the stress and instant craving. Also, it proved that there is a significant difference between different users in degree of stress, and inductive craving, and instant craving. The average of stress scores, cue induction craving and instant craving in testing groups of methamphetamine users were more than other groups. Conclusion: According to findings of this survey, stress can be an important predicting factor for craving degree in addicted men so, attention of these aspects resulted in selecting an appropriate treatment of psychology for controlling of craving which is the most important factor leading to relapse in substance abuse.

  12. Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 decreases stress-associated diarrhoea-related symptoms and self-reported stress: a secondary analysis of a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, T; Christman, M C; Nieves, C; Specht, G J; Rowe, C C; Spaiser, S J; Ford, A L; Dahl, W J; Girard, S A; Langkamp-Henken, B

    2016-06-01

    Psychological stress is associated with gastrointestinal (GI) distress. This secondary analysis from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined whether three different probiotics could normalise self-reported stress-associated GI discomfort and reduce overall self-reported stress. Undergraduate students (n=581) received Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis R0033, Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071, or placebo. Participants self-reported 2 outcomes for a 6-week period, which included final academic exams: daily level of stress (0=no stress to 10=extremely stressed) and weekly three diarrhoea-related symptoms (DS, 1=no discomfort to 7=severe discomfort) using the GI Symptom Rating Scale. Self-reported stress was positively related to DS (P=0.0068). Mean DS scores were lower with B. bifidum versus placebo at week 2 at the average level of stress and the average body mass index (BMI). DS scores were lower with B. bifidum at week 5 versus week 0 and 1 and with B. infantis R0033 at week 6 versus week 0. DS scores were higher when antibiotics were used in the prior week with placebo (P=0.0092). DS were not different with or without antibiotic use with the probiotics. Only B. bifidum had an effect on self-reported stress scores (P=0.0086). The self-reported stress score was also dependent on hours of sleep per day where it decreased by 0.13 for each additional hour of sleep. During a stressful period, B. bifidum R0071 decreases DS and self-reported stress scores. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01709825.

  13. Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities: a case report of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Thomas J; te Wildt, Bert T

    2005-01-01

    In posttraumatic stress disorder, a traumatic event is persistently re-experienced in the form of intrusive recollections, dreams or dissociative flashback episodes; cues to the event lead to distress and are avoided, and there are persistent symptoms of increased arousal. While this diagnostic concept has been widely discussed and its existence questioned, a novel written by Charles Dickens long before it was included in any diagnostic system can be viewed as an early case report of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  14. Qigong program on insomnia and stress in cancer patients: A case series report

    OpenAIRE

    Seungmo Kim; Sangnam Lee; Osung Kwon; Seonghoon Park; Jungchul Seo; Kyungsoon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the interest in Qigong as an alternative therapy has grown following reports of its ability to regulate psychological factors in cancer patients. This is a case series to evaluate the outcome measures of Qigong when used as an adjunct to standard medical care to treat insomnia and stress in cancer patients. Patients and methods: The Qigong program was applied to four cancer patients with insomnia, stress, and anxiety. The program consisted of 30-min sessions invol...

  15. Job stress and coping strategies among nurses: results of a self report survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAbee, R

    1994-10-01

    1. Many employers do not have the resources for sophisticated investigation, development, and implementation of stress reduction programs for employee health. This does not eliminate the need for such programs. 2. Occupational health nurses can develop stress reduction programs building on individual coping strategies used by workers. A simple survey of workers could provide baseline information for the development of these programs. 3. Exercise, open atmosphere for discussion, relaxation, and taking a break were the top four coping strategies reported by nurses and non-nurse female employees. Employers could easily support stress reduction programs built on these strategies.

  16. Sacral Stress Fracture Mimicking Lumbar Radiculopathy in a Mounted Police Officer: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, Drew A; Almansoori, Khaled

    2015-10-01

    Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Objective To present a unique case of L5 radiculopathy caused by a sacral stress fracture without neurologic compression. Methods We present our case and its clinical evolution and review the available literature on similar pathologies. Results Relief of the unusual mechanical loading causing sacral stress fracture led to rapid resolution of radiculopathy. Conclusion L5 radiculopathy can be caused by a sacral stress fracture and can be relieved by simple mechanical treatment of the fracture.

  17. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved cold stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) by exogenous calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haitao Shi; Tiantian Ye; Bao Zhong; Xun Liu; Zhulong Chan

    2014-01-01

    As an important second messenger, calcium is involved in plant cold stress response, including chil ing (<20 °C) and freezing (<0 °C). In this study, exogenous application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) improved both chil ing and freezing stress tolerances, while ethylene glycol‐bis‐(b‐aminoethyl) ether‐N,N,N,N‐tetraacetic acid (EGTA) reversed CaCl2 effects in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.). Pysiological analyses showed that CaCl2 treatment al eviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cel damage triggered by chil ing stress, via activating antioxidant enzymes, non‐enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool, while EGTA treatment had the opposite effects. Additional y, comparative proteomic analysis identified 51 differential y expressed proteins that were enriched in redox, tricarboxylicacid cycle, glycolysis, photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and amino acid metabolisms. Consistently, 42 metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were regulated by CaCl2 treatment under control and cold stress conditions, further confirming the common modulation of CaCl2 treatment in carbon metabolites and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study reported first evidence of the essential and protective roles of endogenous and exogenous calcium in bermudagrass response to cold stress, partial y via activation of the antioxidants and modulation of several differential y expressed proteins and metabolic homeostasis in the process of cold acclimation.

  18. Increased risk of coronary heart disease among individuals reporting adverse impact of stress on their health: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Hermann; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G. David; Shipley, Martin J.; Britton, Annie; Brunner, Eric J.; Vahtera, Jussi; Lemogne, Cédric; Elbaz, Alexis; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2013-01-01

    Aim Response to stress can vary greatly between individuals. However, it remains unknown whether perceived impact of stress on health is associated with adverse health outcomes. We examined whether individuals who report that stress adversely affects their health are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared with those who report that stress has no adverse health impact. Methods and results Analyses are based on 7268 men and women (mean age: 49.5 years, interquartile range: 11 years) from the British Whitehall II cohort study. Over 18 years of follow-up, there were 352 coronary deaths or first non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) events. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, participants who reported at baseline that stress has affected their health ‘a lot or extremely’ had a 2.12 times higher (95% CI 1.52–2.98) risk of coronary death or incident non-fatal MI when compared with those who reported no effect of stress on their health. This association was attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjustment for biological, behavioural, and other psychological risk factors including perceived stress levels, and measures of social support; fully adjusted hazard ratio: 1.49 (95% CI 1.01–2.22). Conclusions In this prospective cohort study, the perception that stress affects health, different from perceived stress levels, was associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether disease risk can be reduced by increasing clinical attention to those who complain that stress greatly affects their health. PMID:23804585

  19. Depression and work related stress problems, with notes of comparative law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, Marilisa; Pettinelli, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    This paper supplies both a medical and legal analysis of work related stress problems, by going throught the role of prevention in the European legal system. The Authors, after reviewing the negative role that stress has in the management of the employment relationship, describe the main steps that have brought Europe to recognize the importance of the role of prevention, and to recognize the role of well-being in the workplace.

  20. Comparative transcriptional analysis of clinically relevant heat stress response in Clostridium difficile strain 630.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel G Ternan

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is considered to be one of the most important causes of health care-associated infections worldwide. In order to understand more fully the adaptive response of the organism to stressful conditions, we examined transcriptional changes resulting from a clinically relevant heat stress (41 °C versus 37 °C in C. difficile strain 630 and identified 341 differentially expressed genes encompassing multiple cellular functional categories. While the transcriptome was relatively resilient to the applied heat stress, we noted upregulation of classical heat shock genes including the groEL and dnaK operons in addition to other stress-responsive genes. Interestingly, the flagellin gene (fliC was downregulated, yet genes encoding the cell-wall associated flagellar components were upregulated suggesting that while motility may be reduced, adherence--to mucus or epithelial cells--could be enhanced during infection. We also observed that a number of phage associated genes were downregulated, as were genes associated with the conjugative transposon Tn5397 including a group II intron, thus highlighting a potential decrease in retromobility during heat stress. These data suggest that maintenance of lysogeny and genome wide stabilisation of mobile elements could be a global response to heat stress in this pathogen.

  1. Newspaper reporters' role effectiveness: A comparative study of two levels of hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Hardly any behavioural scientist ever thought of empirically studying newspaper reporters from a psychological perspective. Realising the dearth of study from psychological viewpoints this investigation was designed to examine the relationships as well as relative impact of the antecedent variables of Background information, organisational climate, organisational role stress, and journalistic writing attitude on to the role effectiveness of the lower level reporters and the higher level repor...

  2. Prevalence of stress among medical students: a comparative study between public and private medical schools in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Eliza Omar; Islam, Md Zakirul; Mosaddek, Abu Syed Md; Rahman, Md Faizur; Rozario, Rini Juliet; Iftekhar, A F Md Hassan; Ahmed, Tarafder Shahniam; Jahan, Iffat; Abubakar, Abdullahi Rabiu; Dali, Wan Putri Elena Wan; Razzaque, Mohammed S; Habib, Rahat Bin; Haque, Mainul

    2015-07-30

    Throughout the world all health professionals face stress because of time-pressures, workload, multiple roles and emotional issues. Stress does not only exist among the health professionals but also in medical students. Bangladesh has currently 77 medical colleges 54 of which are private. This study was designed to collect baseline data of stress-level among Bangladeshi students, which we believe will form the basis for further in depth studies. A cross-sectional study was conducted on medical students from 2 public and 6 private medical-schools in Bangladesh. All medical schools have common curriculum formulated by the Government of Bangladesh. The study population was 1,363 medical students of Year-III and IV of academic session 2013/2014. Universal sampling technique was used. The period of study was February to June 2014. Data was collected using a validated instrument, compiled and analysed using SPSS version-20. A total of 990 (73%) out 1,363 medical students participated in the study, of which 36% were male and 64% were female. The overall prevalence of stress of the study population was 54%. 53% of male and 55% of female were reported suffering from stress. 54% of Year-III students and 55% of Year-IV were noted suffering from stress. There was statistically significant (p = 0.005) differences in the level of stress between public (2.84 ± 0.59) and private (2.73 ± 0.57) medical schools student. More than half of Bangladeshi medical students are suffering from measureable academic stress. It would be pertinent if the relevant authorities could address the issue so as to provide a conducive medical learning environment.

  3. Stress and stressors in the clinical environment: a comparative study of fourth-year student nurses and newly qualified general nurses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Suresh, Patricia

    2013-03-01

    To measure and compare the perceived levels of job-related stress and stressors of newly qualified nurses and fourth-year student nurses in the clinical environment and to explore the participants\\' views on stress and stressors.

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals molecular mechanism of seedling roots of different salt tolerant soybean genotypes in responses to salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Ma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit agricultural yield. To understand salt-responsive protein networks in soybean seedling, the extracted proteins from seedling roots of two different genotypes (Lee 68 and Jackson were analyzed under salt stress by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sixty-eight differentially expressed proteins were detected and identified. The identified proteins were involved in 13 metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Proteins correlated to brassinosteroid and gilbberellin signalings were significantly increased only in the genotype Lee 68 under salt stress; abscisic acid content was positively correlated with this genotype; proteins that can be correlated to Ca2+ signaling were more strongly enhanced by salt stress in the seedling roots of genotype Lee 68 than in those of genotype Jackson; moreover, genotype Lee 68 had stronger capability of reactive oxygen species scavenging and cell K+/Na+ homeostasis maintaining in seedling roots than genotype Jackson under salt stress. Since the genotype Lee 68 has been described in literature as being tolerant and Jackson as sensitive, we hypothesize that these major differences in the genotype Lee 68 might contribute to salt tolerance. Combined with our previous comparative proteomics analysis on seedling leaves, the similarities and differences between the salt-responsive protein networks found in the seedling leaves and roots of both the genotypes were discussed. Such a result will be helpful in breeding of salt-tolerant soybean cultivars.

  5. Older Thinopyrum intermedium (Poaceae) plants exhibit superior photosynthetic tolerance to cold stress and greater increases in two photosynthetic enzymes under freezing stress compared with young plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikumar, Nikhil S; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2016-08-01

    Effects of plant age on resource acquisition and stress tolerance processes is a largely unstudied subject in herbaceous perennials. In a field experiment, we compared rates of photosynthesis (A), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation capacity (V Cmax), maximum electron transport rate (J max), and triose phosphate utilization (TPU), as well as concentrations of Rubisco and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in 5-year-old and 2-year-old intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) under both optimal growing conditions and cold stress in early spring and autumn. This species is a relative of wheat undergoing domestication. An additional experiment compared photosynthetic rates in different cohorts at mid-season and under colder conditions. We hypothesized that photosynthetic capacity in older plants would be lower under favorable conditions but higher under cold stress. Our hypothesis was generally supported. Under cold stress, 5-year-old plants exhibited higher A, TPU, and temperature-adjusted V Cmax than younger plants, as well as 50% more SPS and 37% more Rubisco. In contrast, at mid-season, photosynthetic capacities in older plants were lower than in younger plants in one experiment, and similar in the other, independent of differences in water status. Both cohorts increased A, temperature-adjusted TPU and J max, [Rubisco], and [SPS] under cold stress, but changes were greater in older plants. Photosynthetic differences were largest at 1.2 ºC in very early spring, where older plants had 200% higher A and maintained up to 17% of their peak photosynthetic capacity. We find evidence of increased cold tolerance in older cohorts of wheatgrass, consistent with a growing body of research in woody perennials.

  6. Comparative proteomic study and functional analysis of translationally controlled tumor protein in rice roots under Hg2+ stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feijuan Wang; Yongshen Shang; Ling Yang; Cheng Zhu

    2012-01-01

    So far,very little is known about mercury stress-induced intercellular metabolic changes in rice roots at the proteome level.To investigate the response of rice roots to mercury stress,changes in protein expression in rice roots were analyzed using a comparative proteomics approach.Six-leaf stage rice seedlings were treated with 50 μmol/L HgCl2 for 3 hr; 29 protein spots showed a significant changes in abundance under stress when compared with the Hg2+-tolerant rice mutant and wild type (Zhonghua 11).Furthermore,all these protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry to match 27 diverse protein species.The identified proteins were involved in several processes,including stress response,redox homeostasis,signal transduction,regulation and metabolism; some were found to be cellular structure proteins and a few were unknown.Among the up-regulated proteins,OsTCTP (translationally controlled tumor protein) was chosen to perform hetereologous expression in yeast which was presumed to participate in the Hg2+ tolerance of rice,providing evidence for its role in alleviating Hg2+ damage.Among the many tests,we found that OsTCTP-overexpressed yeast strains were more resistant to Hg2+ than wild-type yeast.Thus,we propose that OsTCTP contributes to Hg2+ resistance.Here we present,for the first time,the functional characterization of OsTCTP in connection with Hg2+ stress in plants.

  7. Comparative study of QTLs for agronomic traits of rice (Oriza sativa L.) between salt stress and nonstress environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Genotype-by-environment interactions (G′E) are commonly observedfor quantitative traits. In the present study, a doubled haploid (DH) population and its genetic linkage map were used to comparatively study QTLs in salt stress and nonstress environments. A total of 24 QTLs were detected for five agronomic traits, which were distributed on all the chromosomes except 9 and 11. Under the salt stress, nine (37.5%) QTLs were detected, including one for 1 000-grain weight (GW), two for heading date (HD), one for plant height (PH), two for grains per panicle (GPP), and three for effective tillers (ET), while in the nonstress environment, 17 QTLs (70.8%) were detected, including five for GW, six for HD, three for PH, two for GPP, and one for ET. Two QTLs (8.3%) were consistently detected in both environments. One was identified on chromosome 4 for HD and the other on Chr.6 for GPP. Furthermore, three regions carrying multiple QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1, 4 and 8 respectively. For example, on chromosome 8, three QTLs for HD, GW and PH, respectively were identified between RG885-GA408 in nonstress environment, but not in the stress environment. The comparative study of QTLs detected in extremely different (salt stress and nonstress) environments revealed that there existed several QTLs for important agronomic traits on chromosome 8 which were affected significantly by salt stress.

  8. Posttraumatic stress symptoms after exposure to two fire disasters: comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E Van Loey

    Full Text Available This study investigated traumatic stress symptoms in severely burned survivors of two fire disasters and two comparison groups of patients with "non-disaster" burn injuries, as well as risk factors associated with acute and chronic stress symptoms. Patients were admitted to one out of eight burn centers in The Netherlands or Belgium. The Impact of Event Scale (IES was administered to 61 and 33 survivors respectively of two fire disasters and 54 and 57 patients with "non-disaster" burn etiologies at 2 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after the event. We used latent growth modeling (LGM analyses to investigate the stress trajectories and predictors in the two disaster and two comparison groups. The results showed that initial traumatic stress reactions in disaster survivors with severe burns are more intense and prolonged during several months relative to survivors of "non-disaster" burn injuries. Excluding the industrial fire group, all participants' symptoms on average decreased over the two year period. Burn severity, peritraumatic anxiety and dissociation predicted the long-term negative outcomes only in the industrial fire group. In conclusion, fire disaster survivors appear to experience higher levels of traumatic stress symptoms on the short term, but the long-term outcome appears dependent on factors different from the first response. Likely, the younger age, and several beneficial post-disaster factors such as psychosocial aftercare and social support, along with swift judicial procedures, contributed to the positive outcome in one disaster cohort.

  9. Posttraumatic stress symptoms after exposure to two fire disasters: comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loey, Nancy E; van de Schoot, Rens; Faber, Albertus W

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated traumatic stress symptoms in severely burned survivors of two fire disasters and two comparison groups of patients with "non-disaster" burn injuries, as well as risk factors associated with acute and chronic stress symptoms. Patients were admitted to one out of eight burn centers in The Netherlands or Belgium. The Impact of Event Scale (IES) was administered to 61 and 33 survivors respectively of two fire disasters and 54 and 57 patients with "non-disaster" burn etiologies at 2 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after the event. We used latent growth modeling (LGM) analyses to investigate the stress trajectories and predictors in the two disaster and two comparison groups. The results showed that initial traumatic stress reactions in disaster survivors with severe burns are more intense and prolonged during several months relative to survivors of "non-disaster" burn injuries. Excluding the industrial fire group, all participants' symptoms on average decreased over the two year period. Burn severity, peritraumatic anxiety and dissociation predicted the long-term negative outcomes only in the industrial fire group. In conclusion, fire disaster survivors appear to experience higher levels of traumatic stress symptoms on the short term, but the long-term outcome appears dependent on factors different from the first response. Likely, the younger age, and several beneficial post-disaster factors such as psychosocial aftercare and social support, along with swift judicial procedures, contributed to the positive outcome in one disaster cohort.

  10. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkiran Birdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA, medically diagnosed food allergy (MA, and a control group with no allergy (NA. Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population completed validated measures of QoL, anxiety, depression, and stress. Results. Parents of children with food allergy (PA or MA reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression than the control group (all p<0.05. Parents of children with MA reported poorer food allergy related QoL compared to parents of children with PA (p<0.05; parents of children with PA reported poorer general QoL compared to parents of children with MA (p<0.05. Conclusion. Parents of children with food allergy have significantly poorer mental health compared to healthy controls, irrespective of whether food allergy is medically diagnosed or not. It is important to encourage parents to have their child medically tested for food allergy and to recognise and refer for psychological support where needed.

  11. Stress distribution among periodontally compromised abutments: A comparative study using three-dimensional finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkiran Chitumalla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the stress distribution patterns in teeth and supporting structures of fixed prosthesis and design modifications in a fixed prosthesis with either normal or reduced bone support of an additional abutment. Study was also undertaken to disprove Ante′s law. Materials and Methods: Main models and variations of main models (modification 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 were subjected to 200 N at angulations of 90° and 15° on functional cusps. Results for each loading were obtained as stress distribution color images and numerical values were recorded. A three-dimensional finite element analysis study of variations of normal models was performed using two finite element softwares, namely PRO-Engineer wildfire version 1.0 manufacturer: Parametric technology corporation, Needham, MA 02494 U.S.A. Results: When periodontal compromised abutment teeth was splinted with an additional abutment an increase of stress was observed in periodontally compromised abutments so an additional abutment is not required. Eventhough the pericemental area of compromised abutments with an additional abutment (canine was more than the combined pericemental area of pontics to be replaced, stress generated was more on abutments. This disproves Ante′s law. Hence, it may be a reference, but should not be the ultimate criterion in determining the number of multiple abutments. Conclusions: When periodontal compromised abutment teeth was splinted with an additional abutment an increase of stress was observed in periodontally compromised abutments so an additional abutment is not required. Even though the pericemental area of compromised abutments with an additional abutment (canine was more than combined pericemental area of pontics to be replaced, stress generated was more on abutments. This disproves Ante′s law. Hence, it may be a reference, but should not be the ultimate criterion in determining the number of multiple abutments.

  12. RNA-seq for comparative transcript profiling of kenaf under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Defang; Chen, Anguo; Tang, Huijuan; Li, Jianjun; Huang, Siqi

    2017-03-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is an economically important global natural fiber crop. As a consequence of the increased demand for food crops and the reduction of available arable land, kenaf cultivation has increasingly shifted to saline and alkaline land. To investigate the molecular mechanism of salinity tolerance in kenaf, we performed Illumina high-throughput RNA sequencing on shoot tips of kenaf and identified 71,318 unigenes, which were annotated using four different protein databases. In total, 2,384 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the salt-stressed and the control plants, 1,702 of these transcripts were up-regulated and 683 transcripts were down-regulated. Thirty-seven transcripts belonging to 15 transcription-factor families that respond to salt stress were identified. Gene ontology function enrichment analysis revealed that the genes encoding antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. The amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism pathways were highly enriched among these DEGs under salt stress conditions. In order to confirm the RNA-seq data, we randomly selected 20 unigenes for analysis using a quntitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our study not only provided the large-scale assessment of transcriptome resources of kenaf but also guidelines for understanding the mechanism underlying salt stress responses in kenaf.

  13. School Performance, School Segregation, and Stress-Related Symptoms: Comparing Helsinki and Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Bitte; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Östberg, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates cross-cultural differences in the interrelation between school performance, school segregation, and stress-related health among 9th-grade students in the greater Stockholm and Helsinki areas. Contrary to the Swedish case, it has been proposed that school performance in Finland is largely independent of the specific school…

  14. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  15. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  16. Comparative proteomics of oxidative stress response of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM reveals effects on DNA repair and cysteine de novo synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderini, Elia; Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Villarroel, Julia

    2017-01-01

    acidophilus NCFM to H2O2, simulating an oxidative environment. Bacterial growth was monitored by BioScreen and batch cultures were harvested at exponential phase for protein profiling of stress responses by 2D gel-based comparative proteomics. Proteins identified in 19 of 21 spots changing in abundance due...... to H2O2 were typically related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, cysteine biosynthesis, and stress. In particular, increased cysteine synthase activity may accumulate a cysteine pool relevant for protein stability, enzyme catalysis and the disulfide-reducing pathway. The stress response further...... by refolding. The proteome analysis provides novel insight into resistance mechanisms in lactic acid bacteria against reactive oxygen species and constitutes a valuable starting point for improving industrial processes, food design or strain engineering preserving microorganism viability....

  17. A comparative study of fatty acid profile and formation of biofilm in Geobacillus gargensis exposed to variable abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Beloshei, Noor Essa; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Al-Khalaf, Rania A; Afzal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Understanding bacterial fatty acid (FA) profile has a great taxonomic significance as well as clinical importance for diagnosis issues. Both the composition and nature of membrane FAs change under different nutritional, biotic and (or) abiotic stresses, and environmental stress. Bacteria produce both odd-carbon as well as branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs). This study was designed to examine the effect of abiotic pressure, including salinity, temperature, pH, and oxinic stress on the growth, development, and FA profile in thermophilic Geobacillus gargensis. Under these stresses, 3 parametric ratios, 2-methyl fatty acids/3-methyl fatty acids (iso-/anteiso-FAs), BCFAs/straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SCSFA), and SCSFAs/straight-chain unsaturated fatty acids (SCUFA), in addition to total lipids affected by variable stresses were measured. Our results indicate that the ratio of total iso-/anteiso-FAs increased at the acidic pH range of 4.1-5.2 and decreased with increasing pH. The reverse was true for salt stress when iso-/anteiso-FAs ratio increased with salt concentration. The BCFAs/SCSFAs and SCSFAs/SCUFAs ratios increased at neutral and alkaline pH and high salt concentration, reduced incubation time, and comparatively high temperature (55-65 °C) of the growth medium. The bacterial total lipid percentage deceased with increasing salt concentration, incubation period, but it increased with temperature. The formation of extracellular polymeric substances was observed under all stress conditions and with the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (2 and 5 mmol/L) to the growth medium. The membrane phospholipid composition of the bacterium was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography.

  18. Racial/ethnic differences in self-reported and biologic measures of chronic stress in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, A E B; Wolfe, K; Qadir, S; Kim, K-Y; Holl, J; Grobman, W

    2015-08-01

    Racial differences in chronic maternal stress may contribute to disparities in pregnancy outcomes. The objective is to identify racial and ethnic differences in self-reported and biologic measures of stress between non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) pregnant women. NHB and NHW pregnant women were enrolled before 23 weeks of gestation in this prospective cohort study. Equal numbers of women were recruited with public vs private insurance in each racial group. Self-reported stress was measured and blood samples collected in the second and third trimesters were analyzed for serum Epstein-Barr virus antibody, C-reactive protein (CRP), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). One hundred and twelve women were enrolled. NHW women reported more buffers against stress (P=0.04) and neighborhood satisfaction (P=0.02). NHB women reported more discrimination (Pstress were identified between NHB and NHW pregnant women with similar economic characteristics. Future studies should investigate mechanisms underlying these differences and their relationship to pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Self-reported stress and risk of stroke: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Naja; Boysen, Gudrun;

    2003-01-01

    the association between self-reported stress frequency and intensity and risk of stroke. METHODS: Data from the second examination, 1981 to 1983, of participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were analyzed with Cox regression after a mean of 13 years of follow-up. A total of 5604 men and 6970 women were...

  20. 78 FR 78694 - Orders: Supplemental Orders on Reporting by Regulated Entities of Stress Testing Results as of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... annual stress tests to determine whether the companies have the capital necessary to absorb losses as a... amended Summary Instructions and Guidance relating to the performance of stress tests as of September 30... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1238 Orders: Supplemental Orders on Reporting by Regulated Entities of Stress...

  1. How Magnetotactic Bacteria Respond to Radiation Induced Stress and Damage: Comparative Genomics Evidences for Evolutionary Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Solar radiation and galactic cosmic radiation is believed to be major restriction factors influencing survival and evolution of life. On planet earth, geomagnetic field along with atmosphere protect living beings from the harmful radiation. During a geomagnetic reversal or excursion, however, the efflux of charged particles on earth surface would increase as the shielding effect of magnetic field decrease. The stratospheric ozone can also be partially stripped away by solar wind when the strength of the field is weak, leading to an increasing ultraviolet radiation penetration to the earth surface. However, studies on the mechanism of radiation induced stress and damage are focused only on bacteria that have no response to magnetic field. This study was motivated by the need to fill the gap upon knowledge of that on magnetic field sensitive microorganism. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a group of microbes that are able to synthesis intracellular nano-sized magnetic particles (named magnetosomes). These chain-arranged magnetosomes help MTB sense and swim along the magnetic field to find their optimal living environment efficiently. In this paper, in silico prediction of stress and damage repair genes in response to different radiation were carried out on the complete genome of four nonmagnetotactic and four magnetotactic spirilla. In silico analyses of the genomes of magnetic field sensitive and non-sensitive spirilla revealed: 1) all strains contain genes for regulate responses superoxide and peroxide stress, DNA pyrimidine dimer and string breaks; 2) non-magnetotactic spirilla have more genes dealing with oxidative stress, while magnetotactic spirilla may benefit from magnetotaxis by swimming into oxic-anoxic zone away from oxidative stress and direct radiation damage; yet, the lipid hydroperoxide peroxidase gene in MTB may be responsible for possible ROS generated by the membrane enveloped magnetite magnetosome; 3) magnetotactic spirilla possess SOS rec

  2. Qigong program on insomnia and stress in cancer patients: A case series report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmo Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the interest in Qigong as an alternative therapy has grown following reports of its ability to regulate psychological factors in cancer patients. This is a case series to evaluate the outcome measures of Qigong when used as an adjunct to standard medical care to treat insomnia and stress in cancer patients. Patients and methods: The Qigong program was applied to four cancer patients with insomnia, stress, and anxiety. The program consisted of 30-min sessions involving exercise, patting of the 12 meridians, and spontaneous breathing exercises three times a week for a period of 4 weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was measured as the primary outcome, while the Stress Scale, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy–General determined the secondary outcomes. Insomnia, stress, and anxiety levels were examined weekly, while quality of life was examined on the first visit and the last visit. Results: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Stress Scale scores were reduced after conduct of the Qigong program. Conclusion: This study could provide a better understanding of Qigong’s influence on insomnia and stress in cancer patients. However, a larger controlled trial should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  3. Acute Stress Fracture of the Pelvis after Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbo, Oluwaseun; Tyagi, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Acute hip pain following total hip arthroplasty (THA) could have numerous causes to include stress fracture of the pelvis. Stress fractures of the pelvis are rare and have been reported to involve the medial wall and the pubic ramus. A unique case is presented demonstrating the clinical presentation and management of an acute stress fracture of ilium and anterior column following a THA. A 72-year-old man underwent an uncomplicated right THA. He was noted to have femoral head resorption and thin osteoporotic bone intraoperatively. He initially did well postoperatively and ambulating without pain or assistive devices. Within 1 month of surgery, he returned with acute right hip pain without any traumatic event. Radiographs showed migration of the acetabular component and computed tomography scan confirmed a fracture through the ilium. The patient underwent revision surgery, where the fracture was reduced and internal fixation was achieved with a reconstruction plate and acetabular cage construct. At 9 months postoperatively, the patient remained pain-free with full weight bearing and with stable radiographs. Elderly patients who undergo THA may have low bone mineral density. These patients can develop stress fractures in their pelvis after surgery. These fractures may involve the medial wall, posterior column, or posterior wall. In patients who develop atraumatic pain postoperatively, it is important to consider for potential stress fractures of the ilium and evaluate appropriately with imaging. In these cases, revision surgery can be necessary to provide fixation of the stress fracture.

  4. Manubrial stress fractures diagnosed on MRI: report of two cases and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Jonathan C.; Demertzis, Jennifer L. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In contrast to widely-reported sternal insufficiency fractures, stress fractures of the sternum from overuse are extremely rare. Of the 5 cases of sternal stress fracture published in the English-language medical literature, 3 were in the sternal body and only 2 were in the manubrium. We describe two cases of manubrial stress fracture related to golf and weightlifting, and present the first report of the MR findings of this injury. In each of these cases, the onset of pain was atraumatic, insidious, and associated with increased frequency of athletic activity. Imaging was obtained because of clinical diagnostic uncertainty. On MRI, each patient had a sagittally oriented stress fracture of the lateral manubrium adjacent to the first rib synchondrosis. Both patients had resolution of pain after a period of rest, with subsequent successful return to their respective activities. One patient had a follow-up MRI, which showed resolution of the manubrial marrow edema and fracture line. Based on the sternal anatomy and MR findings, we hypothesize that this rare injury might be caused by repetitive torque of the muscle forces on the first costal cartilage and manubrium, and propose that MRI might be an effective means of diagnosing manubrial stress fracture. (orig.)

  5. Comparing genomic expression patterns across plant species reveals highly diverged transcriptional dynamics in response to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Close Timothy J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice and barley are both members of Poaceae (grass family but have a marked difference in salt tolerance. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference was previously unexplored. This study employs a comparative genomics approach to identify analogous and contrasting gene expression patterns between rice and barley. Results A hierarchical clustering approach identified several interesting expression trajectories among rice and barley genotypes. There were no major conserved expression patterns between the two species in response to salt stress. A wheat salt-stress dataset was queried for comparison with rice and barley. Roughly one-third of the salt-stress responses of barley were conserved with wheat while overlap between wheat and rice was minimal. These results demonstrate that, at transcriptome level, rice is strikingly different compared to the more closely related barley and wheat. This apparent lack of analogous transcriptional programs in response to salt stress is further highlighted through close examination of genes associated with root growth and development. Conclusion The analysis provides support for the hypothesis that conservation of transcriptional signatures in response to environmental cues depends on the genetic similarity among the genotypes within a species, and on the phylogenetic distance between the species.

  6. Perceived fitness protects against stress-based mental health impairments among police officers who report good sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Kellmann, Micheal; Elliot, Catherine; Hartmann, Tim; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a cognitive stress-moderation model that posits that the harmful effects of chronic stress are decreased in police officers who perceive high levels of physical fitness. It also determined whether the stress-buffering effect of perceived fitness is influenced by officers' self-reported sleep. A total of 460 police officers (n=116 females, n=344 males, mean age: M=40.7; SD=9.7) rated their physical fitness and completed a battery of self-report stress, mental health, and sleep questionnaires. Three-way analyses of covariance were performed to examine whether officers' self-reported mental health status depends on the interaction between stress, perceived fitness and sleep. Highly stressed officers perceived lower mental health and fitness and were overrepresented in the group of poor sleepers. Officers with high fitness self-reports revealed increased mental health and reported good sleep. In contrast, poor sleepers scored lower on the mental health index. High stress was more closely related to low mental health among poor sleepers. Most importantly, perceived fitness revealed a stress-buffering effect, but only among officers who reported good sleep. High perceived fitness and good sleep operate as stress resilience resources among police officers. The findings suggest that multimodal programs including stress management, sleep hygiene and fitness training are essential components of workplace health promotion in the police force.

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of early salt stress responsive proteins in roots and leaves of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Wei; Chang, Tao-Shan; Hsu, Yu-Kai; Wang, Arthur Z; Yen, Hung-Chen; Wu, Yung-Pei; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Lai, Chien-Chen

    2014-08-01

    Growth and productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) are severely affected by salinity. Understanding the mechanisms that protect rice and other important cereal crops from salt stress will help in the development of salt-stress-tolerant strains. In this study, rice seedlings of the same genetic species with various salt tolerances were studied. We first used 2DE to resolve the expressed proteome in rice roots and leaves and then used nanospray liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to identify the differentially expressed proteins in rice seedlings after salt treatment. The 2DE assays revealed that there were 104 differentially expressed protein spots in rice roots and 59 in leaves. Then, we identified 83 proteins in rice roots and 61 proteins in rice leaves by MS analysis. Functional classification analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins from roots could be classified into 18 functional categories while those from leaves could be classified into 11 functional categories. The proteins from rice seedlings that most significantly contributed to a protective effect against increased salinity were cysteine synthase, adenosine triphosphate synthase, quercetin 3-O-methyltransferase 1, and lipoxygenase 2. Further analysis demonstrated that the primary mechanisms underlying the ability of rice seedlings to tolerate salt stress were glycolysis, purine metabolism, and photosynthesis. Thus, we suggest that differentially expressed proteins may serve as marker group for the salt tolerance of rice.

  8. Wind stress over the Arabian Sea from ship reports and Seasat scatterometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perigaud, C.; Minster, J. F.; Delecluse, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seasat scatterometer data over the Arabian Sea are used to build wind-stress fields during July and August 1978. They are first compared with 3-day wind analyses from ship data along the Somali coast. Seasat scatterometer specifications of 2-m/s and 20-deg accuracy are fulfilled in almost all cases. The exceptions are for winds stronger than 14 m/s, which are underestimated by the scatterometer by 15 percent. Wind stress is derived from these wind data using a bulk formula with a drag coefficient depending on the wind intensity. A successive-correction objective analysis is used to build the wind-stress field over the Arabian Sea with 2 x 2-deg and 6-day resolution. The final wind-stress fields are not significantly dependent on the objective analysis because of the dense coverage of the scatterometer. The combination of scatterometer and coastal ship data gives the best coverage to resolve monsoon wind structures even close to the coast. The final wind stress fields show wind features consistent with other monthly mean wind stress field. However, a high variability is observed on the 6-day time scale.

  9. Signal Traits and Oxidative Stress: A Comparative Study Across Populations with Divergent Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren N Vitousek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverging populations often shift patterns of signal use – a process that can contribute to reproductive isolation and speciation. Yet it is not clear why most traits gain or lose signal value during divergence. One reason this could occur is because changes in the relationship between signals and relevant physiological parameters degrade the reliability of a signal, or even change its underlying information content. Here we test the hypothesis that the relationship between signal trait elaboration and a central component of organismal health – oxidative stress – differs across closely related populations that have diverged in signal use and preferences. In the recently diverged barn swallow subspecies complex (Hirundo rustica, Family: Hirundinidae, different populations use different traits as sexual signals. Two of these traits, ventral breast plumage color and tail streamer length, differ markedly between North American H. r. erythrogaster and European H. r. rustica. Despite this divergence, variation in ventral plumage color was similarly associated with measures of oxidative damage across both populations. However, the directionality of these relationships differed between the sexes: darker male barn swallows had higher levels of plasma oxidative damage than their lighter counterparts, while the opposite relationship was seen in females. In contrast, relationships between tail streamer length and measures of oxidative stress were not consistent across populations. Some analyses indicated that in European H. r. rustica, where males bearing elongated streamers are preferred as mates, longer-streamered males were more oxidatively stressed; however, the opposite pattern was suggested in North American H. r. erythrogaster. Tail streamer length was not associated with measures of oxidative stress in females of either population. Differences in the physiological state of stronger signalers across populations and between the sexes may be

  10. A comparative study of patients and therapists' reports of schema modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.R.; Lobbes, A.; Cima, M.

    2009-01-01

    The current study assesses whether patients and therapists report similar levels of schema modes, one of the central features in Schema-Focused Therapy. Patient's self-report and therapists' report on an abbreviated Schema Mode Inventory were compared in a sample of 92 patients with antisocial, bord

  11. Self-reported racial discrimination and endothelial reactivity to acute stress in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie A; Tennen, Howard; Finan, Patrick H; Ghuman, Nimrta; Burg, Matthew M

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of self-reported racial discrimination on endothelial responses to acute laboratory mental stress among post-menopausal women. One-hundred thirteen women (n = 94 self-identified as White and n = 19 self-identified as racial/ethnic minority), 43% with type 2 diabetes, reported lifetime experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination. Repeated assessments of flow-mediated dilation were performed at baseline, immediately after 5 min of mental arithmetic and at 20-min recovery. Both White and racial/ethnic minority women reported lifetime discrimination, with rates significantly higher among minorities. Self-reported lifetime discrimination was associated with attenuated flow-mediated dilation at recovery. Confounding variables, including clinical characteristics, mood, personality traits, other life stressors and general distress, did not better account for the effect of racial discrimination. Neither race/ethnicity nor diabetes status moderated the effect. The perceived stressfulness of the mental arithmetic was not associated with the endothelial response. In conclusion, self-reported lifetime discrimination is associated with attenuated endothelial recovery from acute mental stress. Elucidating the effects of discrimination and the biological mechanisms through which it affects the vasculature may suggest interventions to improve health. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Line Skov; Lova, Lotte; Hansen, Zandra Kulikovsky; Schønemann, Emilie; Larsen, Line Lyngby; Colberg Olsen, Maria Sophia; Juhl, Nadja; Magnussen, Bogi Roin

    2012-01-01

    Stress er en tilstand som er meget omdiskuteret i samfundet, og dette besværliggør i en vis grad konkretiseringen af mulige løsningsforslag i bestræbelsen på at forebygge den såkaldte folkesygdom. Hovedkonklusionen er, at selv om der bliver gjort meget for at forebygge, er der ikke meget der aktivt kan sættes i værk for at reducere antallet af stressramte, før en fælles forståelse af stressårsager og effektiv stresshåndtering er fremlagt. Problemformuleringen er besvaret gennem en undersø...

  13. De novo transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Gossypium aridum under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Liu, Zhangwei; Fan, Xinqi; Gao, Jin; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Xianggui; Shen, Xinlian

    2013-08-01

    Salinity stress is one of the most serious factors that impede the growth and development of various crops. Wild Gossypium species, which are remarkably tolerant to salt water immersion, are valuable resources for understanding salt tolerance mechanisms of Gossypium and improving salinity resistance in upland cotton. To generate a broad survey of genes with altered expression during various stages of salt stress, a mixed RNA sample was prepared from the roots and leaves of Gossypium aridum plants subjected to salt stress. The transcripts were sequenced using the Illumina sequencing platform. After cleaning and quality checks, approximately 41.5 million clean reads were obtained. Finally, these reads were eventually assembled into 98,989 unigenes with a mean size of 452 bp. All unigenes were compared to known cluster of orthologous groups (COG) sequences to predict and classify the possible functions of these genes, which were classified into at least 25 molecular families. Variations in gene expression were then examined after exposing the plants to 200 mM NaCl for 3, 12, 72 or 144 h. Sequencing depths of approximately six million raw tags were achieved for each of the five stages of salt stress. There were 2634 (1513 up-regulated/1121 down-regulated), 2449 (1586 up-regulated/863 down-regulated), 2271 (946 up-regulated/1325 down-regulated) and 3352 (933 up-regulated/2419 down-regulated) genes that were differentially expressed after exposure to NaCl for 3, 12, 72 and 144 h, respectively. Digital gene expression analysis indicated that pathways involved in "transport", "response to hormone stimulus" and "signaling" play important roles during salt stress, while genes involved in "protein kinase activity" and "transporter activity" undergo major changes in expression during early and later stages of salt stress, respectively.

  14. Objective effect manifestation of pectus excavatum on load-stressed pulmonary function testing: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Jason

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall that, under certain conditions, may pose functional problems due to cardiopulmonary compromise and exercise intolerance. Case presentation We present the case of an otherwise physically-adept 21-year-old Chinese sportsman with idiopathic pectus excavatum, whose symptoms manifested only on bearing a loaded body vest and backpack during physical exercise. Corroborative objective evidence was obtained via load-stressed pulmonary function testing, which demonstrated restrictive lung function. Conclusion This report highlights the possible detrimental synergism of thoracic load stress and pectus excavatum on cardiopulmonary function. Thoracic load-stressed pulmonary function testing provides objective evidence in support of such a synergistic relationship.

  15. [Depression and stress management in medical students. A comparative study between freshman and advanced medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkat, H B; Richter, L; Cramer, M; Vetter, A; Bedau, S; Leweke, F; Milch, W

    2011-05-01

    International studies have indicated a high prevalence of depression and a lack of coping with stress in medical students. Freshman and advanced medical students were investigated using a specific questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) with a response rate of 100%. Of the subjects studied 81.1% did not have any depression, 13.1% slight and 5.8% clinically relevant symptoms of depression. The severity of symptoms was highly associated with subjective appraisal of stressors. Coping skills of first year students significantly influenced the depression symptoms calling for preventative measures even in freshman medical students.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the necrotrophic fungus Ascochyta rabiei during oxidative stress: insight for fungal survival in the host plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Singh

    Full Text Available Localized cell death, known as the hypersensitive response (HR, is an important defense mechanism for neutralizing phytopathogens. The hallmark of the HR is an oxidative burst produced by the host plant. We aimed to identify genes of the necrotrophic chickpea blight fungus Ascochyta rabiei that are involved in counteracting oxidative stress. A subtractive cDNA library was constructed after menadione treatment, which resulted in the isolation of 128 unigenes. A reverse northern blot was used to compare transcript profiles after H(2O(2, menadione and sodium nitroprusside treatments. A total of 70 unigenes were found to be upregulated by more than two-fold following menadione treatment at different time intervals. A large number of genes not previously associated with oxidative stress were identified, along with many stress-responsive genes. Differential expression patterns of several genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and northern blotting. In planta qRT-PCR of several selected genes also showed differential expression patterns during infection and disease progression. These data shed light on the molecular responses of the phytopathogen A. rabiei to overcome oxidative and nitrosative stresses and advance the understanding of necrotrophic fungal pathogen survival mechanisms.

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the necrotrophic fungus Ascochyta rabiei during oxidative stress: insight for fungal survival in the host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunal; Nizam, Shadab; Sinha, Manisha; Verma, Praveen K

    2012-01-01

    Localized cell death, known as the hypersensitive response (HR), is an important defense mechanism for neutralizing phytopathogens. The hallmark of the HR is an oxidative burst produced by the host plant. We aimed to identify genes of the necrotrophic chickpea blight fungus Ascochyta rabiei that are involved in counteracting oxidative stress. A subtractive cDNA library was constructed after menadione treatment, which resulted in the isolation of 128 unigenes. A reverse northern blot was used to compare transcript profiles after H(2)O(2), menadione and sodium nitroprusside treatments. A total of 70 unigenes were found to be upregulated by more than two-fold following menadione treatment at different time intervals. A large number of genes not previously associated with oxidative stress were identified, along with many stress-responsive genes. Differential expression patterns of several genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and northern blotting. In planta qRT-PCR of several selected genes also showed differential expression patterns during infection and disease progression. These data shed light on the molecular responses of the phytopathogen A. rabiei to overcome oxidative and nitrosative stresses and advance the understanding of necrotrophic fungal pathogen survival mechanisms.

  18. Investigation of oxidative stress and dietary habits in Mongolian people, compared to Japanese people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimedregzen Ulziiburen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The average life span of Mongolians is 62 years for males and 69 years for females. This life span is about 16 years shorter than that of Japanese. Mongolian people generally eat meat, fat and diary products but less vegetables or fruit. Thus, we investigated the state of oxidative stress and dietary habits of Mongolians. Methods The investigation was performed in Murun city in the northwest area of Mongolia. A total of 164 healthy subjects (24–66 y were enrolled. As a marker of reactive oxygen species, the levels of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM were measured using the d-ROM test. Interviews about dietary habits were performed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire established by the Kagawa Nutrition University. Results ROM levels were 429.7 ± 95.2 Carr U for Murun subjects, whereas Japanese people (n = 220, 21–98 y showed 335.3 ± 59.8 (p Conclusion Murun subjects may be in high oxidative stress, which may have a relationship with early ageing and several diseases, ultimately resulting in their short life span. In order to increase antioxidant capacity and suppress overproduction of ROM, antioxidant food intake is recommended.

  19. FIRST RIB STRESS FRACTURE IN A SIDEARM BASEBALL PITCHER: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sakata

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress fractures of the first rib in athletes are rare. A 14-year-old male, a baseball pitcher who changed from an overhand to a sidearm style, with a stress fracture of the first rib, was reported. Most Stress fractures in the first rib occur at the subclavian groove, between the attachments of the scalenus anterior and scalenus medius muscles, which is the thinnest and weakest portion of the rib. However, in this case the stress fracture occurred at the uncommon region, posterior to the insertion of the scalenus medius muscle, in the first rib. The motion analysis of the pitching in this case demonstrated that the sidearm style induced much more horizontal abduction in the shoulder at the top position than did the overhand style. The findings of electromyography in the serratus anterior muscle, one of the muscles which insert on the first rib, through the pitching motion did not demonstrate any significant differences between the two styles. In this case, the repetition of horizontal over-abduction of the shoulder when sidearm pitching appears to have been the cause of the unusual stress fracture of the first rib at this site

  20. Reiki brief report: using Reiki to reduce stress levels in a nine-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L; Berardi, Diana

    2014-01-01

    A nine-year-old female with a history of perinatal stroke, seizures, and type-I diabetes was seen for six weeks of Reiki to determine the effects of Reiki on relaxation, and in turn, the prevention of future seizures. The secondary and tertiary aims were to determine the effects of Reiki on sleep patterns and the stress levels of the mother. There was a decrease in stress in both the child and the mother, as measured by a modified Perceived Stress Scale and a Perceived Stress Scale, respectively. There was no change in the child's overall sense of well-being, as measured by a global questionnaire. There was a positive change in sleep patterns on 33.3% of the nights during which the study occurred, as reported on a sleep log kept by the mother. The child and the Reiki Master (a Reiki practitioner who has completed all three levels of Reiki certification training and trains and certifies individuals in the practice of Reiki as well as provides Reiki to individuals) experienced warmth and tingling sensations on the same area of the child during the Reiki sessions. The child relaxed within the first five to seven minutes of each session as reported by the Reiki Master. There were no reports of seizures during this study. Reiki may be a useful adjunct for children with increased stress levels and sleep disturbances secondary to their medical condition. Further research is warranted to evaluate the use of Reiki in children, particularly with a large sample size, and to evaluate the long-term use of Reiki and its effects on adequate sleep.

  1. Comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of Type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems and related mobile stress response systems in prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarova Kira S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS, also referred to as TA loci are widespread, mobile two-gene modules that can be viewed as selfish genetic elements because they evolved mechanisms to become addictive for replicons and cells in which they reside, but also possess "normal" cellular functions in various forms of stress response and management of prokaryotic population. Several distinct TAS of type 1, where the toxin is a protein and the antitoxin is an antisense RNA, and numerous, unrelated TAS of type 2, in which both the toxin and the antitoxin are proteins, have been experimentally characterized, and it is suspected that many more remain to be identified. Results We report a comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of Type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems in prokaryotes. Using sensitive methods for distant sequence similarity search, genome context analysis and a new approach for the identification of mobile two-component systems, we identified numerous, previously unnoticed protein families that are homologous to toxins and antitoxins of known type 2 TAS. In addition, we predict 12 new families of toxins and 13 families of antitoxins, and also, predict a TAS or TAS-like activity for several gene modules that were not previously suspected to function in that capacity. In particular, we present indications that the two-gene module that encodes a minimal nucleotidyl transferase and the accompanying HEPN protein, and is extremely abundant in many archaea and bacteria, especially, thermophiles might comprise a novel TAS. We present a survey of previously known and newly predicted TAS in 750 complete genomes of archaea and bacteria, quantitatively demonstrate the exceptional mobility of the TAS, and explore the network of toxin-antitoxin pairings that combines plasticity with selectivity. Conclusion The defining properties of the TAS, namely, the typically small size of the toxin and antitoxin genes, fast evolution, and

  2. Comparative study of the in vitro protective effects of several antioxidants on elongation factor 2 under oxidative stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguelles, Sandro; Cano, Mercedes; Machado, Alberto; Ayala, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    One of the biochemical pathways affected by aging in all organisms is protein synthesis. Previous reports from our laboratory have indicated that the elongation step is specially affected by aging as a consequence of alterations in elongation factor-2 (eEF-2). In the present work, we studied in vitro the effectiveness of several individual nutritional antioxidants in protecting the levels of hepatic eEF-2 subjected to oxidative stress induced by cumene hydroperoxide. The in vitro system employed consisted of rat liver homogenates treated with cumene hydroperoxide. The antioxidants used in this study were lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, tethrahydrofolic acid, and N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone. The results indicate that the antioxidants have different capacities to prevent eEF-2 loss, folic acid being the most effective. A comparison between the antioxidants used and their potential pro-oxidant activity is also discussed, on the basis of the oxidative stress parameters measured.

  3. Culture and health reporting: a comparative content analysis of newspapers in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Peng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Health reporting has the potential to educate the public and promote health behaviors. Culture influences the style of such communication. Following the theorization of national cultures by Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) and Wilber (2000), this study compares health reporting in the United States and China through a content analysis of leading newspapers. The authors discover significant differences in health reporting in terms of controllability attribution, temporal orientation, citation of authority sources, and use of statistics. As one of the first comparative content analysis studies of health reporting in Eastern and Western cultures, this study provides a unique cultural lens for health communication scholars to better understand health information in the news media.

  4. Comparative Study of Teachers in Regular Schools and Teachers in Specialized Schools in France, Working with Students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Stress, Social Support, Coping Strategies and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujut, Emilie; Dean, Annika; Grouselle, Amélie; Cappe, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in schools is a source of stress for teachers. Specialized teachers have, in theory, received special training. To compare the experiences of teachers dealing with students with ASD in different classroom environments. A total of 245 teachers filled out four self-report questionnaires…

  5. Randomized clinical trial comparing TVT Secur system and trans vaginal obturator tape for the surgical management of stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Ken; Gupta, Chander; Klippenstein, Peter; Girouard, Lise

    2014-07-01

    This prospective randomized study aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of the TVT-Secur (TVT-S) with the trans vaginal obturator tape (TVT-O) for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. We set out to enroll 136 patients in our study. 106 patients with stress urinary incontinence were randomized to either the TVT-S (n = 56) or TVT-O (n = 50) procedure. Patients were evaluated postoperatively at 2 months and 1 year. Our primary outcome was objective cure measured by the cough test. Secondary outcomes of subjective symptoms, questionnaires, pain scores, complications, and urodynamic studies were also included. Statistical analysis was by Chi-squared, Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon, and Fisher's exact tests as appropriate. P values of <0.05 were considered significant. Objective cure rates were better for TVT-O compared with TVT-S at 1 year (86 % and 63 % respectively, p = 0.01). Subjective cure rates were 88 % for TVT-O and 63 % for TVT-S. Quality of life scores through questionnaires improved in both groups and were not statistically different. Initial post-operative groin pain was more prevalent in the TVT-O group; however, this resolved quickly with time. TVT-O was superior to TVT-S in the objective cure of stress urinary incontinence at 1-year follow-up.

  6. Stress fracture of the distal fibula in flatfoot patients: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, HuiLin; Ni, Li; Song, Dawei; Zhang, Hongtao

    2015-01-01

    The increase in proportional loading of the fibula with progression of hindfoot deformity would lead to high fibular loads during rapid walking, resulting in insufficiency fractures. We report an unusual mechanism of such fracture in a textile worker resulting from valgus alignment from a stage III flatfoot deformity. The stress fracture was missed initially and only confirmed by CT examination. The patient responded well to nonoperative treatment and had an excellent recovery with no residua...

  7. Ustekinumab Treatment of Erythrodermic Psoriasis Occurring after Physical Stress: A Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Rosita Saraceno; Marina Talamonti; Marco Galluzzo; Andrea Chiricozzi; Antonio Costanzo; Sergio Chimenti

    2013-01-01

    Erythrodermic psoriasis (EP) is a severe form of psoriasis precipitated by numerous factors, including physical stress, infections, and drugs. The disease represents a therapeutic challenge, and little is known about its response to ustekinumab. Though the efficacy of ustekinumab has been extensively studied in chronic plaque psoriasis, no trials have been carried out in EP. We report the case of 2 patients, 1 male and 1 female, who showed EP despite being treated with etanercept and methotre...

  8. Recruitment of aged donor heart with pharmacological stress echo. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heart transplant is a treatment of the heart failure, which is not responding to medications, and its efficiency is already proved: unfortunately, organ donation is a limiting step of this life-saving procedure. To counteract heart donor shortage, we should screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease. Donors with a history of cardiac disease are generally excluded. Coronary angiography is recommended for most male donors older than 45 years and female donors older than 50 years to evaluate coronary artery stenoses. A simpler way to screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease should be stress echocardiography. Case report A marginal donor (A 57 year old woman meeting legal requirements for brain death underwent a transesophageal (TE Dipyridamole stress echo (6 minutes accelerated protocol to rule out moderate or severe heart and coronary artery disease. Wall motion was normal at baseline and at peak stress (WMSI = 1 at baseline and peak stress, without signs of stress inducible ischemia. The pressure/volume ratio was 9.6 mmHg/ml/m2 at baseline, increasing to 14 mmHg/ml/m2 at peak stress, demonstrating absence of latent myocardial dysfunction. The marginal donor heart was transplanted to a recipient "marginal" for co-morbidity ( a 63 year old man with multiple myeloma and cardiac amyloidosis , chronic severe heart failure, NYHA class IV. Postoperative treatment and early immunosuppressant regimen were performed according to standard protocols. The transplanted heart was assessed normal for dimensions and ventricular function at transthoracic (TT echocardiography on post-transplant day 7. Coronary artery disease was ruled out at coronary angiography one month after transplant; left ventriculography showed normal global and segmental LV function of the transplanted heart. Conclusion For

  9. Comparative Effects of Drought and Salt Stress on Germination and Seedling Growth of Pennisetum divisum (Gmel. Henr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa A. Al-Taisan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Water stress due to drought and salinity is probably the most significant abiotic factor limiting plant and also crop growth and development. Salinity and drought stresses are physiologically related, because both induce osmotic stress and most of the metabolic responses of the affected plants are similar to some extent. Water deficit affects the germination of seed and the growth of seedlings negatively. Temperature is an exceedingly important factor in seed germination. It directly affects whether a plant can sprout and, if so, how long it will take to emerge from the ground. Approach: The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of four alternating temperature regime, drought and salt stress on germination characteristics of Pennisetum divisum. Seeds were germinated at four alternating temperatures (10/20, 15/25, 20/35 and 25/40°C at 12 h light. Seeds were also germinated with the iso-osmotic concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl or in polyethylene glycol PEG8000 (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa for 14 days. Concentrations were applied to determine their effects on seed germination and seedling growth under laboratory conditions. The effects of different osmotic concentrations of NaCl and PEG were compared to distilled water (control. Results: Optimum germination was attained at 15/25°C which corresponds to temperatures prevailing during spring time. The highest values of germination parameters were obtained with no osmotic potential (0 MPa under 15/25°C. The final germination percentage and rate of germination in the Pennisetum divisum treated seeds were decreased with the increase of the osmotic potential. At treatment by PEG, the germination was severely decreased at -0.6 MPa. While, no germination occurred at- 0.8 MPa by NaCl. The results of the effects of the different osmotic potential of NaCl and PEG on the Radicle Length (RL and the Hypocotyl Length (HL mm of the tested P. divisum

  10. Quality of Reporting of Bioequivalence Trials Comparing Generic to Brand Name Drugs: A Methodological Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Amélie van der Meersch; Agnès Dechartres; Philippe Ravaud

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generic drugs are used by millions of patients for economic reasons, so their evaluation must be highly transparent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of reporting of bioequivalence trials comparing generic to brand-name drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PubMed was searched for reports of bioequivalence trials comparing generic to brand-name drugs between January 2005 and December 2008. Articles were included if the aim of the study was to assess the bioequivalency of generic ...

  11. Stability of cracked pipe under inertial stresses. Subtask 1.1 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Wilson, M.; Olson, R.; Marschall, C.; Schmidt, R.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the results of the pipe fracture experiments, analyses, and material characterization efforts performed within Subtask 1.1 of the IPIRG Program. The objective of Subtask 1.1 was to experimentally verify the analysis methodologies for circumferentially cracked pipe subjected primarily to inertial stresses. Eight cracked-pipe experiments were conducted on 6-inch nominal diameter TP304 and A106B pipe. The experimental procedure was developed using nonlinear time-history finite element analyses which included the nonlinear behavior due to the crack. The model did an excellent job of predicting the displacements, forces, and times to maximum moment. The comparison of the experimental loads to the predicted loads by the Net-Section-Collapse (NSC), Dimensionless Plastic-Zone Parameter, J-estimation schemes, R6, and ASME Section XI in-service flaw assessment criteria tended to underpredict the measured bending moments except for the NSC analysis of the A106B pipe. The effects of flaw geometry and loading history on toughness were evaluated by calculating the toughness from the pipe tests and comparing these results to C(l) values. These effects were found to be variable. The surface-crack geometry tended to increase the toughness (relative to CM results), whereas a negative load-ratio significantly decreased the TP304 stainless steel surface-cracked pipe apparent toughness. The inertial experiments tended to achieve complete failure within a few cycles after reaching maximum load in these relatively small diameter pipe experiments. Hence, a load-controlled fracture mechanics analysis may be more appropriate than a displacement-controlled analysis for these tests.

  12. Adaptation of yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brettanomyces bruxellensis to winemaking conditions: a comparative study of stress genes expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Tiziana; Remize, Fabienne; Alexandre, Hervé

    2010-10-01

    Brettanomyces is the major microbial cause for wine spoilage worldwide and causes significant economic losses. Like Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is well adapted to winemaking, but molecular pathways involved in this acclimatization are still unknown. In this work, we report a time-scale comparison between the two yeasts coping with alcoholic fermentation. Orthologs of some well-characterized stress genes of S. cerevisiae were searched by sequence alignment in the Dekkera/Brettanomyces partial genome; nine genes were finally selected on the basis on their similarity and involvement in adaptation to wine. Transcript analysis during a model grape juice fermentation indicates that a subset of genes (i.e., ATP1, ERG6, VPS34) shows peculiar expression patterns in Brettanomyces bruxellensis but also that some common regulations of stress response exist between the two yeasts, although with different timing (i.e., for MSN4, SNF1, HSP82, NTH1). This suggests that B. bruxellensis efficient survival in such challenging conditions is due to mechanisms unique to it, together with a conserved yeast stress response. This study, although limited by the poor genetic data available on B. bruxellensis, provides first insights into its gene expression remodeling in winemaking and opens new frames for further investigations.

  13. Comparative evaluation of oxidative stress status and manganese availability in plants growing on manganese mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boojar, Massod Mashhadi Akbar; Goodarzi, Faranak

    2008-11-01

    This study pioneered an approach that determined the effects of excess manganese (Mn) on three species; Datura stramonium, Alhagi camelthorn and Chenopodium ambrosioides. We investigated their levels of Mn, antioxidative enzymes and oxidative damage biomarkers in plants (zone 1) in and outside (zone 2) the Mn mine. The results showed that total and available Mn were at toxic levels for plants growing on zone 1. The Mn levels in each plant species were higher in leaves, stems and roots. Mn was only accumulated significantly in leaf vacuoles of A. camelthorn. Antioxidative enzyme activities of C. ambrosioides and/or D. stramonium in zone 1 were higher in leaves, stems and then in their roots. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and dityrosine levels were insignificantly higher in tissues of the studied plants in zone 1 with respect to zone 2. The roots of studied plants showed significantly higher levels of these biomarkers in comparison with their leaves in zone 1. Accordingly, antioxidative enzymatic response to Mn-stress in D. stramonium and C. ambrosioides and possibly accumulation of Mn in leaf vacuoles of A. camelthorn, protected them from oxidative damages and involved in their tolerance in Mn mine.

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of Typha angustifolia leaf under chromium, cadmium and lead stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Alieu Mohamed; Sun, Hongyan; Chen, Fei; Zhou, Jing; Dai, Huaxin; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2010-12-15

    The present study investigated Typha angustifolia leaf proteome in response to Cr, Cd and Pb stress. T. angustifolia of 90 (D90) and 130d (D130) old plants were subjected to 1mM Cr, Cd and Pb and samples were collected 30d after treatment. 2-DE coupled with MS (mass spectrometry) was used to analyze and identify Cr, Cd and Pb-responsive proteins. More than 1600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel, wherein 44, 46, 66 and 33, 26, 62 spots in D90 and D130 samples were differentially expressed by Cr, Cd, Pb over the control, respectively. Of these differentially expressed proteins, 3, 1, 8 overlapped in D90 and D130; while 5, 8, 5 with regulation factors above 3 in one of D90 or D130 samples. Total of 22 and 4 up- and down-regulated proteins were identified using MS and data bank analysis. Cr-induced expression of ATP synthase, RuBisCO small subunit and coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; Cd-induced RuBisCO large subunit; Pb up-regulated carbohydrate metabolic pathway enzymes of fructokinase, and improved RuBisCO activase and large subunit, Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase. Contrarily, elF4F was inhibited by Cr/Pb, chloroplast FtsZ-like protein and GF14 omega impeded by Cd and Pb, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative proteomic analysis of Typha angustifolia leaf under chromium, cadmium and lead stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Alieu Mohamed; Sun Hongyan; Chen Fei; Zhou Jing; Dai Huaxin; Zhang Guoping [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Wu Feibo, E-mail: wufeibo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2010-12-15

    The present study investigated Typha angustifolia leaf proteome in response to Cr, Cd and Pb stress. T. angustifolia of 90 (D90) and 130 d (D130) old plants were subjected to 1 mM Cr, Cd and Pb and samples were collected 30 d after treatment. 2-DE coupled with MS (mass spectrometry) was used to analyze and identify Cr, Cd and Pb-responsive proteins. More than 1600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel, wherein 44, 46, 66 and 33, 26, 62 spots in D90 and D130 samples were differentially expressed by Cr, Cd, Pb over the control, respectively. Of these differentially expressed proteins, 3, 1, 8 overlapped in D90 and D130; while 5, 8, 5 with regulation factors above 3 in one of D90 or D130 samples. Total of 22 and 4 up- and down-regulated proteins were identified using MS and data bank analysis. Cr-induced expression of ATP synthase, RuBisCO small subunit and coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; Cd-induced RuBisCO large subunit; Pb up-regulated carbohydrate metabolic pathway enzymes of fructokinase, and improved RuBisCO activase and large subunit, Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase. Contrarily, elF4F was inhibited by Cr/Pb, chloroplast FtsZ-like protein and GF14omega impeded by Cd and Pb, respectively.

  16. Low back pain during pregnancy caused by a sacral stress fracture: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishnamaz Miguel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sacral stress fractures are a rare but well known cause of low back pain. This type of fracture has also been observed as a postpartum complication. To date, no cases of intrapartum sacral stress fractures have been described in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 26-year-old Caucasian European primigravid patient (30 weeks and two days of gestation who presented to our outpatient clinic with severe low back pain that had started after a downhill walk 14 days previously. She had no history of trauma. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a non-displaced stress fracture of the right lateral mass of her sacrum. Following her decision to opt for non-operative treatment, our patient received an epidural catheter for pain control. The remaining course of her pregnancy was uneventful and our patient gave birth to a healthy child by normal vaginal delivery. Conclusions We conclude that a sacral stress fracture must be considered as a possible cause of low back pain during pregnancy.

  17. Suicide Risk, Stress Sensitivity, and Self-Esteem among Young Adults Reporting Auditory Hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with subthreshold psychotic experiences are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior, similar to those with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. This may be explained by shared risk factors such as heightened stress sensitivity or low self-esteem. Understanding the nature of this relationship could inform suicide prevention in social work practice. In this study, authors examined the relationship between self-reported auditory hallucinations and suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, in a nonclinical sample of young adults, controlling for scores on the Psychological Stress Index and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Auditory hallucinations were associated with approximately double the odds of suicidal ideation and plans and four times the odds for suicide attempts. This relationship was not explained by stress sensitivity or self-esteem, which were independently related to hallucinations and suicidality, respectively. Subthreshold auditory hallucinations may be a useful indicator of suicide risk. This association may represent a clinically significant relationship that may be addressed through social work interventions intended to alleviate stress sensitivity or improve self-esteem.

  18. Do Exercisers With Musculoskeletal Injuries Report Symptoms of Depression and Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Gudex, Claire; Andersen, Kjeld; Bojesen, Anders Bo; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-09-05

    Sports injuries in athletes can lead to negative emotional responses in terms of anger, anxiety, confusion, and sadness. Severe injuries can be understood as a stressful life event with increased levels of psychological distress, but injury assessment and rehabilitation typically focuses on somatic symptoms. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression and emotional stress, and measure self-rated health in regular exercisers presenting to a sports medicine clinic with musculoskeletal injury. The secondary aim was to identify psychosocial factors associated with depression in injured exercisers and the potential need for psychological counselling. A cross-sectional survey study. A sports medicine clinic for injuries of the foot, knee, or shoulder. Regular exercisers with present injuries (n=694) and exercisers without injuries (n=494). Regular exercisers were defined as those undertaking moderate exercise at least once a week. A questionnaire survey completed on paper by patients in a sports medicine clinic and a web-based version completed by online sports communities. Participants completed the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L), and questions on sociodemographics, exercise habits, and injury history. Symptoms of depression were reported by 12% of injured exercisers and 5% of non-injured controls (psports medicine clinic for musculoskeletal injury, and supplemental clinical psychological interview for suspected depression or stress-related psychopathology.

  19. Investigation of reliability attributes and accelerated stress factors of terrestrial solar cells. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, J.L.; Lathrop, J.W.

    1979-05-01

    The results of accelerated stress testing of four different types of silicon terrestrial solar cells are discussed. The accelerated stress tests used included bias-temperature tests, bias-temperature-humidity tests, thermal cycle and thermal shock tests, and power cycle tests. Characterization of the cells was performed before stress testing and at periodic down-times, using electrical measurement, visual inspection, and metal adherence pull tests. Electrical parameters measured included short-circuit current, I/sub sc/, open circuit voltage, V/sub oc/, and output power, voltage, and current at the maximum power point, P/sub m/, V/sub m/, and I/sub m/ respectively. Incorporated in the report are the distributions of the prestress electrical data for all cell types. Data was also obtained on cell series and shunt resistance. Significant differences in the response to the various stress tests was observed between cell types. On the basis of the experience gained in this research work, a suggested Reliability Qualification Test Schedule was developed.

  20. Library sequencing strategies for comparative analysis of stress resistance mechanisms in Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennen, Rebecca; Bonde, Ida; Koza, Anna

    2014-01-01

    and subjected to growth selections. Following selection, the locations of all insertions in the population are counted and can be compared between a control and a target condition, enabling the identification of genes that are both conditionally essential and conditionally detrimental. We have exploited Tn...

  1. Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Makhloufi, Emna; Marande, William; Ghorbel, Abdel W.; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bergès, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within oceans of TEs. Each BAC clone harbored a TdWRKY gene. The study showed a very extensive conservation of genomic structure between TdWRKYs and their orthologs from Brachypodium, barley, and T. aestivum. The structural features of TdWRKY proteins suggested that they are novel members of the WRKY family in durum wheat. TdWRKY1/2/4, TdWRKY3, and TdWRKY5 belong to the group Ia, IIa, and IIc, respectively. Enrichment of cis-regulatory elements related to stress responses in the promoters of some TdWRKY genes indicated their potential roles in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental stresses. TdWRKY genes displayed different expression patterns in response to salt stress that distinguishes two durum wheat genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance phenotypes. TdWRKY genes tended to react earlier with a down-regulation in sensitive genotype leaves and with an up-regulation in tolerant genotype leaves. The TdWRKY transcripts levels in roots increased

  2. Stress among Parents of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Comparison Involving Physiological Indicators and Parent Self-Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, Ciara; James, Jack E

    2017-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been reported as experiencing higher levels of stress and poorer physical health than parents of typically developing children. However, most of the relevant literature has been based on parental self-reports of stress and health. While research on physiological outcomes has grown in recent years, gaps still exist in our understanding of the physiological effects, if any, of stress related to parenting a child with ASD. The present study compared parent-reported stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as selected physiological measures of stress (i.e., cortisol, alpha-amylase, and ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate) between matched groups of parents of children with (N = 38) and without (N = 38) ASD. Participants completed questionnaires, collected saliva samples for the purpose of measuring cortisol and alpha-amylase, and wore an ambulatory blood pressure monitor for 24 h. Parents of children with ASD reported significantly higher levels of parental distress, anxiety, and depression than parents of typically developing children. Parent-reported distress, anxiety, depression, and health were not correlated with physiological measures. With the exception that parents of children with ASD had significantly lower cortisol levels 30 min after waking, no other significant group differences were found for physiological measures. Parents of children with ASD reported significantly higher use of a number of adaptive coping strategies (e.g., emotional support) in comparison to parents of typically developing children. Results are discussed in the context of implications for future research directions, stress research, and practical implications for parental support.

  3. Increasing the Efficiency on Producing Radiology Reports for Breast Cancer Diagnosis by Means of Structured Reports. A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrelles, J Damian; Medina, Rosana; Blanquer, Ignacio; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis

    2017-05-18

    Radiology reports are commonly written on free-text using voice recognition devices. Structured reports (SR) have a high potential but they are usually considered more difficult to fill-in so their adoption in clinical practice leads to a lower efficiency. However, some studies have demonstrated that in some cases, producing SRs may require shorter time than plain-text ones. This work focuses on the definition and demonstration of a methodology to evaluate the productivity of software tools for producing radiology reports. A set of SRs for breast cancer diagnosis based on BI-RADS have been developed using this method. An analysis of their efficiency with respect to free-text reports has been performed. The methodology proposed compares the Elapsed Time (ET) on a set of radiological reports. Free-text reports are produced with the speech recognition devices used in the clinical practice. Structured reports are generated using a web application generated with TRENCADIS framework. A team of six radiologists with three different levels of experience in the breast cancer diagnosis was recruited. These radiologists performed the evaluation, each one introducing 50 reports for mammography, 50 for ultrasound scan and 50 for MRI using both approaches. Also, the Relative Efficiency (REF) was computed for each report, dividing the ET of both methods. We applied the T-Student (T-S) test to compare the ETs and the ANOVA test to compare the REFs. Both tests were computed using the SPSS software. The study produced three DICOM-SR templates for Breast Cancer Diagnosis on mammography, ultrasound and MRI, using RADLEX terms based on BIRADs 5th edition. The T-S test on radiologists with high or intermediate profile, showed that the difference between the ET was only statistically significant for mammography and ultrasound. The ANOVA test performed grouping the REF by modalities, indicated that there were no significant differences between mammograms and ultrasound scans, but both

  4. Comparative analyses of universal extraction buffers for assay of stress related biochemical and physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunyu; Chan, Zhulong; Yang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Comparative efficiency of three extraction solutions, including the universal sodium phosphate buffer (USPB), the Tris-HCl buffer (UTHB), and the specific buffers, were compared for assays of soluble protein, free proline, superoxide radical (O2∙-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR) in Populus deltoide. Significant differences for protein extraction were detected via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Between the two universal extraction buffers, the USPB showed higher efficiency for extraction of soluble protein, CAT, GR, O2∙-, GPX, SOD, and free proline, while the UTHB had higher efficiency for extraction of APX, POD, and H2O2. When compared with the specific buffers, the USPB showed higher extraction efficiency for measurement of soluble protein, CAT, GR, and O2∙-, parallel extraction efficiency for GPX, SOD, free proline, and H2O2, and lower extraction efficiency for APX and POD, whereas the UTHB had higher extraction efficiency for measurement of POD and H2O2. Further comparisons proved that 100 mM USPB buffer showed the highest extraction efficiencies. These results indicated that USPB would be suitable and efficient for extraction of soluble protein, CAT, GR, GPX, SOD, H2O2, O2∙-, and free proline.

  5. Medicare's Hospital Compare quality reports appear to have slowed price increases for two major procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dor, Avi; Encinosa, William E; Carey, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that Hospital Compare, Medicare's public reporting initiative, has had little impact on patient outcomes. However, little is known about the initiative's impact on hospital prices, which may be significant because private insurers are generally well positioned to respond to quality information when negotiating prices with hospitals. We estimated difference-in-differences models of the effects of Hospital Compare quality reporting on transaction prices for two major cardiac procedures, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). States that had mandated their own public reporting systems before the implementation of Hospital Compare formed the control group. We found that prices for these procedures continued to increase overall after the initiation of Hospital Compare quality scores, but the rate of increase was significantly lower in states with no quality reporting metrics of their own before Hospital Compare, when compared to the control states (annual rates of increase of 4.4 percent versus 8.7 percent for PCI, and 3.9 percent versus 10.6 percent for CABG, adjusted for overall inflation). This finding implies that Hospital Compare provided leverage to purchasers in moderating price increases, while adding competitive pressures on hospitals. Providing accurate quality information on both hospitals and health plans could benefit consumers.

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Pain, Stress, Neuropeptide Y, ACTH, and Cortisol Levels Between a Conventional Postoperative Care Protocol and a Fast-Track Recovery Program in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapritsou, Maria; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D; Bozas, Evangelos; Korkolis, Dimitrios P; Konstantinou, Evangelos A; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Giannakopoulou, Margarita

    2017-03-01

    Fast-track (FT) postoperative protocol in oncological patients after major abdominal surgery reduces complications and length of postoperative stay compared to the conventional (CON) protocol. However, stress and pain responses have not been compared between the two protocols. To compare stress, pain, and related neuropeptidic responses (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], cortisol, and neuropeptide Y [NPY]) between FT and CON protocols. A clinical trial with repeated measurements was conducted (May 2012 to May 2014) with a sample of 63 hepatectomized or pancreatectomized patients randomized into two groups: FT ( n = 29) or CON ( n = 34). Demographic and clinical data were collected, and pain (Visual Analog Scale [VAS] and Behavioral Pain Scale [BPS]) and stress responses (3 self-report questions) assessed. NPY, ACTH, and cortisol plasma levels were measured at T1 = day of admission, T2 = day of surgery, and T3 = prior to discharge. ACTHT1 and ACTHT2 levels were positively correlated with self-reported stress levels (ρ = .43 and ρ = .45, respectively, p levels in the FT group were higher than those in the CON group at all time points ( p ≤ .004); this difference remained significant after adjusting for T1 levels through analysis of covariance for age, gender, and body mass index ( F = .003, F = .149, F = .015, respectively, p > .05). Neuropeptidic levels were higher in the FT group. Future research should evaluate this association further, as these biomarkers might serve as objective indicators of postoperative pain and stress.

  7. Carbon fiber based composites stress analysis. Experimental and computer comparative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Buchacz, A.; Grabowski, Ł.; Majzner, M.

    2015-11-01

    Composite materials used nowadays for the production of composites are the result of advanced research. This allows assuming that they are among the most elaborate tech products of our century. That fact is evidenced by the widespread use of them in the most demanding industries like aerospace and space industry. But the heterogeneous materials and their advantages have been known to mankind in ancient times and they have been used by nature for millions of years. Among the fibers used in the industry most commonly used are nylon, polyester, polypropylene, boron, metal, glass, carbon and aramid. Thanks to their physical properties last three fiber types deserve special attention. High strength to weight ratio allow the use of many industrial solutions. Composites based on carbon and glass fibers are widely used in the automotive. Aramid fibers ideal for the fashion industry where the fabric made from the fibers used to produce the protective clothing. In the paper presented issues of stress analysis of composite materials have been presented. The components of composite materials and principles of composition have been discussed. Particular attention was paid to the epoxy resins and the fabrics made from carbon fibers. The article also includes basic information about strain measurements performed on with a resistance strain gauge method. For the purpose of the laboratory tests a series of carbon - epoxy composite samples were made. For this purpose plain carbon textile was used with a weight of 200 g/mm2 and epoxy resin LG730. During laboratory strain tests described in the paper Tenmex's delta type strain gauge rosettes were used. They were arranged in specific locations on the surface of the samples. Data acquisition preceded using HBM measurement equipment, which included measuring amplifier and measuring head. Data acquisition was performed using the Easy Catman. In order to verify the results of laboratory tests numerical studies were carried out in a

  8. Numerical modeling of rock stresses within a basaltic nuclear waste repository. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, M.P.; Hocking, G.

    1978-10-01

    The modeling undertaken during this project incorporated a wide range of problems that impact the design of the waste repository. Interaction of groundwater, heat and stress were considered on a regional scale, whereas on the room and canister scale thermo-mechanical analyses were undertaken. In the Phase II report, preliminary guidelines for waste densities were established based primarily on short-term stress criteria required to maintain stability during the retrievability period. Additional analyses are required to evaluate the effect of joints, borehole linings, room support and ventilation on these preliminary waste loading densities. The regional analyses did not indicate any adverse effect that could control the allowable waste loading densities. However, further refinements of geologic structure, hydrologic models, seismicity and possible induced seismicity are required before firm estimates of the loading densities can be made.

  9. Olmesartan Combined With Amlodipine on Oxidative Stress Parameters in Type 2 Diabetics, Compared With Single Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Mugellini, Amedeo; Pesce, Rosa Maria; D’Angelo, Angela; Maffioli, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the effects of a fixed combination of olmesartan/amlodipine compared with olmesartan or amlodipine alone on some parameters of endothelial damage in diabetic, hypertensive patients. We enrolled 221 patients; 74 were randomized to olmesartan 20 mg, 72 to amlodipine 10 mg, and 75 to olmesartan/amlodipine fixed combination 20/5 mg for 12 months. We assessed blood pressure monthly; in addition, we also assessed at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months, the following parameters:...

  10. Relationship of dietary habits and obesity to oxidative stress in Palauan people: compared with Japanese and Mongolian people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Fumio; Kagawa, Yasuo; Kawabata, Terue; Kaneko, Yoshinori; Ishiguro, Kiyomi

    2009-12-01

    The Republic of Palau belongs to Micronesia, and obese people and lifestyle-related diseases are prevalent there. We investigated the relationship of dietary habits and obesity to oxidative stress in Palauan people, as compared with those of Japanese and Mongolian people. A total of 126 healthy Palauan subjects were enrolled. Oxidative stress was evaluated by serum level of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM). Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by serum level of biological antioxidant potential (BAP). In Palauan subjects, BMI> or =30 was observed in 45.0% of males and 59.1% of females (Japanese: males 1.3%, females 0.8%, Mongolian: males 6.3%, females 14.7%). Palauan subjects consumed 2553 kcal per day (Japanese 2121 kcal, Mongolians 2534 kcal). The ratios of carbohydrate energy to total energy were 59.8 % (Japanese 54.7 %, Mongolians 50.2%). The ratios of fat energy to total energy were 22.9% (Japanese 26.7%, Mongolians 34.5%). ROM levels in Palauan subjects showed higher than those in Japanese subjects, while BAP levels of Palauan subjects did not decrease compared to those of Japanese. ROM levels correlated with body fat ratio, and showed a reverse correlation with handgrip strength. Handgrip strength decreased in the subjects of more than forty years of age. These findings suggest that the obesity in Palauan people may have a connection with high intake of calories through carbohydrate eating rather than through fat eating. Their high oxidative stress may be induced by obesity, and contribute to an early decline of handgrip strength, ultimately in early aging.

  11. 78 FR 78165 - Orders: Reporting by Regulated Entities of Stress Testing Results as of September 30, 2013...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1238 Orders: Reporting by Regulated Entities of Stress Testing Results as of September... controls, that their operations and activities foster liquid, efficient, competitive, and resilient... prescribe for the regulated entities the scenarios to be used for stress testing. The Summary Instructions...

  12. Influence of adjuvant detached mindfulness and stress management training compared to pharmacologic treatment in primiparae with postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Nazaribadie, Marzieh; Aghaei, Elham; Ghaleiha, Ali; Bakhtiari, Azade; Haghighi, Mohammad; Bahmani, Dena Sadeghi; Akhondi, Amineh; Bajoghli, Hafez; Jahangard, Leila; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-07-18

    Ten to 15% of mothers experience postpartum depression (PPD). If untreated, PPD may negatively affect mothers' and infants' mental health in the long term. Accordingly, effective treatments are required. In the present study, we investigated the effect of detached mindfulness (DM) and stress management training (SMT) as adjuvants, compared to pharmacologic treatment only, on symptoms of depression in women with PPD. Forty-five primiparae (mean age: M = 24.5 years) with diagnosed PPD and treated with an SSRI (citalopram; CIT) took part in the study. At baseline, they completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic data and symptoms of depression. Experts rated also symptoms of depression. Next, participants were randomly assigned to one of the following study conditions: adjuvant detached mindfulness (CIT+DM); adjuvant stress management training (CIT+SMT); control condition (CIT). Self- and experts' ratings were completed at the end of the study 8 weeks later, and again at 8 weeks follow-up. Symptoms of depression decreased significantly over time, but more so in the CIT+DM and CIT+SMT group, compared to the control condition. The pattern of results remained stable at follow-up. In primiparae with PPD and treated with a standard SSRI, adjuvant psychotherapeutic interventions led to significant and longer-lasting improvements.

  13. Improvement of heavy metal stress and toxicity assays by coupling a transgenic reporter in a mutant nematode strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.-W. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Shirley K.W. [Atmospheric, Marine and Coastal Environment Program, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chow, King L. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China) and Atmospheric, Marine and Coastal Environment Program, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bokchow@ust.hk

    2005-09-30

    Previous studies have demonstrated that wild type Caenorhabditis elegans displays high sensitivity to heavy metals in a lethality test at a level comparable to that of other bioindicator organisms. Taking advantage of the genetics of this model organism, we have tested a number of mutant strains for enhanced sensitivity in heavy metal induced lethality and stress response. These mutants are defective in genes controlling dauer formation, longevity or response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the tested mutants, a double mutant daf-16 unc-75 strain was identified to have superior sensitivity. It has a 6-, 3- and 2-fold increase in sensitivity to cadmium, copper and zinc, respectively, as compared with that of wild type animals. When a fluorescent reporter transgene was coupled with this double mutant for stress detection, a 10-fold enhancement of sensitivity to cadmium over the wild type strain was observed. These transgenic animals, superior to most of the model organisms currently used in bioassays for environmental pollutants, offer a fast and economic approach to reveal the bioavailability of toxic substance in field samples. This study also demonstrates that combination of genetic mutations and transgenesis is a viable approach to identify sensitive indicator animals for environmental monitoring.

  14. Comparative stress responses to short transport and related events in Hereford and Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L

    2013-02-01

    Three summer experiments compared responses to transportation-related events in 2- to 4-yr-old Brahman (Bos indicus) and Hereford (B. taurus) steers. In Exp. 1, steers were hauled round-trip (4 h) or fasted in holding pens. Transport transiently increased (P Brahman across treatments. Steers in Exp. 2 were hauled to a new farm for a 1-wk relocation period or hauled round-trip an equal time (0.67 h) and returned to the home station. Both treatments similarly experienced transport-day BW shrink and increased (P Brahman. Relocation did not elicit (P Brahman steers were not more sensitive than Herefords. Hereford steers were susceptible to greater transport BW shrink than Brahman under the summer conditions.

  15. Comparative study of the growth parameters of legumes grown in fipronil-stressed soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munees Ahemad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern agronomy, insecticides of the diverse chemical families are repeatedly used to control various plant growth limiting insect pests and to improve plant productivity. However, the intensive application of these plant protecting agrochemicals results in their accumulation in soils in substantial concentration and deteriorates the soil fertility. Previous studies concerning the effect of insecticides are commonly confined to a specific legume and reports about the concurrent impact of any specific insecticide on more than one legume in parallel are rare. The present study was therefore, designed to assess the effect of insecticide fipronil simultaneously on common food legumes (chickpea, pea, lentil and green gram. In this study, fipronil displayed a varying degree of toxicity to the tested legumes. The highest toxicity of fipronil was observed in the shoot dry biomass, leghaemoglobin and chlorophyll content, and the seed protein in chickpea, nodule numbers and nodule biomass in pea, root dry biomass and shoot N in green gram, and nodule biomass, root N, root P, shoot P, and seed yield in lentil. Generally, the most toxic effect of fipronil was observed on the growth parameters of lentil plants.

  16. Core based stress measurements: A guide to their application. Topical report, July 1991--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R.; Teufel, L.W.; Lorenz, J.C.; Holcomb, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    This report is a summary and a guide to core-based stress measurements. It covers anelastic strain recovery, circumferential velocity anistropy, differential strain curve analysis, differential wave velocity analysis, petrographic examination of microcracks, overcoring of archieved core, measurements of the Kaiser effect, strength anisotropy tests, and analysis of coring-induced fractures. The report begins with a discussion of the stored energy within rocks, its release during coring, and the subsequent formation of relaxation microcracks. The interogation or monitoring of these microcracks form the basis for most of the core-based techniques (except for the coring induced fractures). Problems that can arise due to coring or fabric are also presented, Coring induced fractures are discussed in some detail, with the emphasis placed on petal (and petal-centerline) fractures and scribe-knife fractures. For each technique, a short description of the physics and the analysis procedures is given. In addition, several example applications have also been selected (where available) to illustrate pertinent effects. This report is intended to be a guide to the proper application and diagnosis of core-based stress measurement procedures.

  17. Tardigrade workbench: comparing stress-related proteins, sequence-similar and functional protein clusters as well as RNA elements in tardigrades

    OpenAIRE

    Frohme Marcus; Schnölzer Martina; Engelmann Julia C; Beisser Daniela; Shkumatov Alexander; Liang Chuanguang; Förster Frank; Müller Tobias; Schill Ralph O; Dandekar Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Tardigrades represent an animal phylum with extraordinary resistance to environmental stress. Results To gain insights into their stress-specific adaptation potential, major clusters of related and similar proteins are identified, as well as specific functional clusters delineated comparing all tardigrades and individual species (Milnesium tardigradum, Hypsibius dujardini, Echiniscus testudo, Tulinus stephaniae, Richtersius coronifer) and functional elements in tardigrade ...

  18. Tardigrade workbench: comparing stress-related proteins, sequence-similar and functional protein clusters as well as RNA elements in tardigrades

    OpenAIRE

    Frohme Marcus; Schnölzer Martina; Engelmann Julia C; Beisser Daniela; Shkumatov Alexander; Liang Chuanguang; Förster Frank; Müller Tobias; Schill Ralph O; Dandekar Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Tardigrades represent an animal phylum with extraordinary resistance to environmental stress. Results To gain insights into their stress-specific adaptation potential, major clusters of related and similar proteins are identified, as well as specific functional clusters delineated comparing all tardigrades and individual species (Milnesium tardigradum, Hypsibius dujardini, Echiniscus testudo, Tulinus stephaniae, Richtersius coronifer) and functional elements in tardigrade ...

  19. A comparative study of patients and therapists' reports of schema modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Löbbes, Annette; Cima, Maaike

    2009-12-01

    The current study assesses whether patients and therapists report similar levels of schema modes, one of the central features in Schema-Focused Therapy. Patient's self-report and therapists' report on an abbreviated Schema Mode Inventory were compared in a sample of 92 patients with antisocial, borderline or cluster C personality disorder. Results indicate a markedly stronger self-therapist discrepancy in mode rating in antisocial patients than in borderline and cluster C patients. Compared to their therapists, ASPD-patients report less presence of most maladaptive modes, whereas there was no difference in adaptive modes. These findings underscore the importance for the use of alternative assessment methods of cognitive concepts in antisocial patients.

  20. Social Support and Self-Reported Stress Levels in a Predominantly African American Sample of Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Marie Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus patients should avoid stress because physical or emotional stress can affect overall physical health. It has been suggested that social support has a positive influence on health status, but there is a lack of information in the literature on the association between the two among lupus patients. The current study investigated the association between social support and self-reported stress and coping status among African American women with lupus using data collected from two linked cross-sectional surveys. No social support differences in groups of high and low stress/coping were revealed; a duplicate study with a larger sample size is required.

  1. Hand 'stress' arthritis in young subjects: effects of Flexiqule (pharma-standard Boswellia extract). A preliminary case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Feragalli, B; Cornelli, U; Dugall, M

    2015-10-22

    This case report (supplement registry study) evaluated subjects with painful 'stress' arthritis of the hand mainly localized at the joints. The patients received a suggestion to follow a rehabilitation plan (standard management; SM). A second group also used the same SM in association with the oral, pharma-standard supplement FlexiQule (Alchem) a new standardized, phytosomal preparation manufactured from the Boswellia plant, which can be used for self-management in inflammatory conditions (150 mg / 3 times daily). The two resulting registry groups included 12 subjects using SM+Flexiqule and and 11 controls (SM only). The groups were comparable. Serology showed no significant alterations: only ESR was slightly elevated (minimal elevation). After 2 weeks, the ESR was normal in the supplement group and mildly elevated in controls (p<0.05%). The decrease in hypertermic areas was greater/faster (p<0.05) in the supplement group. The identification of a working stress and the localization to the dominant hand was comparable in both groups. At 2 weeks, the decrease in pain was significantly faster and more important with the supplement (p<0.05). The hand became more usable in time and the score was better with the supplement (p<0.05). No supplemented patient had to use other drugs, while in the control group 3 subjects eventually used NSAIDs to control pain and stiffness and one used corticosteroids. In conclusion, the natural extract Flexiqule was effective in controlling work-related stress arthritis (without inflammaìtory signs) over a 2 weeks period, better than only Standard Management. More prolonged and larger studies are needed.

  2. Canine parvovirus in Australia: A comparative study of reported rural and urban cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourkas, Elaine; Ward, Michael P; Kelman, Mark

    2015-12-31

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious and often fatal disease reported worldwide. Outbreaks occur throughout Australia, and it has been suggested that disproportionally more CPV cases occur in rural locations. However, evidence to support this suggestion-and possible reasons for such a predisposition-has not existed until now. In this study a total of 4870 CPV cases reported from an Australian disease surveillance system between September 2009 and July 2014 were analysed. Australian postcodes were classified as rural or urban (based on human population density) and reported CPV cases were then categorised as rural or urban based on their reported home postcode. Parvovirus cases were predominately young (<12 months), entire, unvaccinated, mixed-breed dogs. More than twice as many of the reported cases were from a rural area (3321 cases) compared to an urban area (1549 cases). The overall case fatality rate was 47.2%; it was higher for those CPV cases reported from urban areas (50.6%) than rural areas (45.5%). A greater proportion of rural cases were younger, entire dogs compared to urban cases. The final multivariable model of CPV cases being reported from a rural area included age (<12 months) and vaccination status (never vaccinated) as significant predictors. Poor socioeconomic status might be a reason for the decision of rural owners not to vaccinate their dogs as readily as urban owners. The excess reporting of rural CPV cases compared to urban cases and the predictive risk factors identified in this study can be used by veterinarians to reduce the incidence of CPV by educating owners about the disease and promoting better vaccination programs in rural areas. This study also supports that the increased risk of CPV in rural areas may necessitate a need for increased vigilance around preventing CPV disease spread, additional care with puppies which are the most susceptible to this disease and tighter vaccination protocols, compared to urban areas.

  3. Quality of reporting of bioequivalence trials comparing generic to brand name drugs: a methodological systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meersch, Amélie; Dechartres, Agnès; Ravaud, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Generic drugs are used by millions of patients for economic reasons, so their evaluation must be highly transparent. To assess the quality of reporting of bioequivalence trials comparing generic to brand-name drugs. PubMed was searched for reports of bioequivalence trials comparing generic to brand-name drugs between January 2005 and December 2008. Articles were included if the aim of the study was to assess the bioequivalency of generic and brand-name drugs. We excluded case studies, pharmaco-economic evaluations, and validation dosage assays of drugs. We evaluated whether important information about funding, methodology, location of trials, and participants were reported. We also assessed whether the criteria required by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency (EMA) to conclude bioequivalence were reported and that the conclusions were in agreement with the results. We identified 134 potentially relevant articles but eliminated 55 because the brand-name or generic drug status of the reference drug was unknown. Thus, we evaluated 79 articles. The funding source and location of the trial were reported in 41% and 56% of articles, respectively. The type of statistical analysis was reported in 94% of articles, but the methods to generate the randomization sequence and to conceal allocation were reported in only 15% and 5%, respectively. In total, 65 articles of single-dose trials (89%) concluded bioequivalence. Of these, 20 (31%) did not report the 3 criteria within the limits required by the FDA and 11 (17%) did not report the 2 criteria within the limits required by the EMA. Important information to judge the validity and relevance of results are frequently missing in published reports of trials assessing generic drugs. The quality of reporting of such trials is in need of improvement.

  4. Stress fractures of the ribs in elite competitive rowers: a report of nine cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragoni, S. [Institute of Sport Medicine and Science of the Italian Olympic Committee, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Giombini, A.; Ripani, M. [University of Motor Sciences, Department of Health, Rome (Italy); Di Cesare, A. [University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rome (Italy); Magliani, G. [Medical Department of the Italian State Police, Rome (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    The objective was to report the clinical and imaging patterns of nine cases of stress fractures of the rib diagnosed in Italian Olympic rowers. Nine patients with stress fractures of the rib detected from 103 (8.7%) Italian team rowers competing between May 2000 and May 2006 were identified based on the database of a sports medicine institute. All athletes were male. They were aged between 17 and 31 years (mean: 24.4). Patient weight, fracture location, rowing side and imaging methods employed were noted. The diagnosis was made based on history, clinical examination and Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy. Eight of the 9 fractures were located anterolaterally between the fourth and ninth rib. In 1 of the 5 athletes with standard radiographs, a fracture line was visible and in 4 there was callus formation. In 2 athletes sonography was performed, which detected discontinuity of the rib surface and callus formation (1 case each). Stress fractures of the ribs are relatively common in competitive rowers. They are characterized by increasing lateral chest pain and typical scintigraphic, radiographic and sonographic findings. (orig.)

  5. Attention-Affect Check List: A self-report measure of acute mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, YUKIHIRO; Tanaka, GOHICHI

    2004-05-01

    Given a hint from Lang, Bradley, and Cutbert's (1997) defense cascade, two cognitive processes, instead of passive versus active behavioral coping, which seem to have differential effects on the provocation of vascular- versus cardiac-dominant reaction pattern during mental stress were advocated: attention (Attent) versus unpleasant affect (UnplAff). Based on this notion the Attention-Affect Check List (AACL) was developed as a self-report measure. In addition, items on uncontrollability (Uncontr) were prepared for the purpose of checking whether heightened Attent and UnplAff are accompanied by alterations in Uncontr. Two hundred and eighty-four students underwent two kinds of mental stress, which seemed to specifically heighten Attent and UnplAff. Four factors with four items each were extracted from the AACL item pool: concentrated and allocated Attent, UnplAff, and pleasant affect. Also, one factor with four items was extracted from the Uncontr item pool. For both the mental stresses, each scale, although very brief, had quite reasonable alpha reliability. Accountability of each scale for the total variance was reasonably high. Some problems are discussed in relation to the validity of AACL.

  6. Comparative study of responses in the brown algae Sargassum thunbergii to zinc and cadmium stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fang; Dind, Gang; Liu, Wei; Zhan, Dongmei; Wu, Haiyi; Guo, Wen

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metal pollution in aquatic system is becoming a serious problem worldwide. In this study, responses of Sargassum thunbergii to different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L) of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) exposure separately were studied for 15 days in laboratory-controlled conditions. The results show that the specific growth rates increased slightly under the lower Zn concentration treatment (0.1 mg/L) at the first 5 d and then decreased gradually, which were significantly reduced with the exposure time in higher Zn concentrations and all Cd treatments compared to respective control, especially for 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L Cd. Chlorophyll a contents showed significant increase in 0.1 mg/L Zn treatment, whereas the gradually reduction were observed in the other three Zn treatments and all Cd treatments. The oxygen evolution rate and respiration rate presented distinct behavior in the Zn-treated samples, but both declined steadily with the exposure time in Cd treatments. The P/R value analyses showed similar variation patterns as chlorophyll a contents. Real-time PCR showed that lower Zn concentration (0.1 mg/L) increased mRNA expression of rbcL gene, whereas higher Zn concentrations and Cd reduced the rbcL expression. Taken together, these findings strongly indicate that Zn and Cd had different effects on S. thunbergii both at the physiological and gene transcription levels, the transcript level of photosynthesis-related gene rbcL can be used as an useful molecular marker of algal growth and environment impacts.

  7. A comparative study on the elastic modulus of polyvinyl alcohol sponge using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Alizadeh, Mansour; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-10-01

    There have been different stress-strain definitions to measure the elastic modulus of spongy materials, especially polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented. This study was aimed to show how different results are given by the various definitions of stress-strain used, and to recommend a specific definition when testing spongy materials. A fabricated PVA sponge was subjected to a series of tensile tests in order to measure its mechanical properties. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) were used to determine the elastic modulus. The results revealed that the Almansi-Hamel strain definition exhibited the highest non-linear stress-strain relation and, as a result, may overestimate the elastic modulus at different stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress). The Green-St. Venant strain definition failed to address the non-linear stress-strain relation using different definitions of stress and invoked an underestimation of the elastic modulus values. Engineering stress and strain definitions were only valid for small strains and displacements, which make them impractical when analyzing spongy materials. The results showed that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements was significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus. It is important to consider which stress-strain definition is employed when characterizing the mechanical properties of spongy materials. Although the true stress-true strain definition exhibits a non-linear relation, we favor it in spongy materials mechanics as it gives more accurate measurements of the material's response using the instantaneous values.

  8. Investigation of Comparative Regulation on Antioxidant Enzyme System under Copper Treatment and Drought Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice CETİNKYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to present the responses of drought-sensitive ‘Shemal’ and drought-tolerant ‘71MAY69’ maize cultivars under drought condition (20% Polyethylene glycol, -0.40 MPa and three different copper concentrations (0.5 mM, 1 mM, 1.5 mM uSO4.5H2O for 5 days to determine the enzymatic responses of copper treatment in maize leaves. Copper treatments alone did not change stomatal conductance, relative water content, malondialdehyde, proline, hydrogen peroxide content and abscisic acid level according to control groups.  Combined treatment (drought and copper alleviated the damage of PEG- induced drought stress in maize leaves. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutatione reductase (GR activity increased and glutathione -S transferase (GST activity decreased, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity did not change under drought stress in the tolerant cultivar. SOD, CAT and APX were decreased and GST activities were increased while GR did not change in ‘Shemal’. Also SOD, APX and CAT activity increased by copper treatment alone in both cultivars. Otherwise combined treatment increased SOD, APX and CAT activity at all concentrations, but GR and GST activity increased only by (PEG+1.5 mM treatment when compared with PEG treatment alone in sensitive ones. As a result, exogenous copper alleviated drought stress, while it induced an oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities differently from drought tolerance. Copper tolerance in maize is not a common response of its defense mechanism because of different response to copper and drought in the same cultivar. 

  9. Comparative Evaluation of the Implant Made of Yttrium-partially Stabilized Zirconia and Pure Titanium on Stress Distribution by Anisotropic Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze and compare stress distribution patterns around dental implant made of pure titanium and yttrium-partial stabilized zirconia (YPSZ) in anisotropic versus isotropic finite element method under vertical and oblique loads. Although the properties of implant and crown were changed,similar stress distribution and close stress level were observed in two different implant finite element models. The stress values were a little lower in the YPSZ model. In the bone, anisotropy increased the stress values by 30%-70% in the isotropic cases. The YPSZ implant could be more valuable choice for implant because of esthetic requirement. Anisotropy had subtle, yet significant effects on the stress level.

  10. Effects of N-acetylcysteine, oral glutathione (GSH) and a novel sublingual form of GSH on oxidative stress markers: A comparative crossover study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmitt, Bernard; Vicenzi, Morgane; Garrel, Catherine; Denis, Frédéric M

    2015-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavailability, the effect on oxidative stress markers and the safety of a new sublingual form of GSH with two commonly used dietary supplements, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and oral GSH...

  11. Heterografting with nonself rootstocks induces genes involved in stress responses at the graft interface when compared with autografted controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, S J; Clemente Moreno, M J; Hevin, C; Nyamba Mendome, L Z; Delrot, S; Magnin, N; Trossat-Magnin, C; Ollat, N

    2014-06-01

    Although grafting is widely used in the agriculture of fruit-bearing crops, little is known about graft union formation in particular when two different species are grafted together. It is fascinating that two different plant species brought together can develop harmoniously as one organism for many decades. The objective of this study was to determine whether grafting two different grapevine genotypes alters gene expression at the graft interface in comparison to the presumably wound-like gene expression changes induced in autografts. Gene expression at the graft interface was studied 3, 7, 14, and 28 d after grafting in hetero- and autografts of grapevine (Vitis spp.). Genes differentially expressed between the hetero- and autografts during graft union formation were identified. These genes were clustered according to their expression profile over the time course. MapMan and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed the coordinated upregulation of genes from numerous functional categories related to stress responses in the hetero- compared to the autografts. This indicates that heterografting with nonself rootstocks upregulates stress responses at the graft interface, potentially suggesting that the cells of the graft interface can detect the presence of a nonself grafting partner. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Stress fracture of the distal fibula in flatfoot patients: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Huilin; Ni, Li; Song, Dawei; Zhang, Hongtao

    2015-01-01

    The increase in proportional loading of the fibula with progression of hindfoot deformity would lead to high fibular loads during rapid walking, resulting in insufficiency fractures. We report an unusual mechanism of such fracture in a textile worker resulting from valgus alignment from a stage III flatfoot deformity. The stress fracture was missed initially and only confirmed by CT examination. The patient responded well to nonoperative treatment and had an excellent recovery with no residual symptoms finally. Fracture of the distal fibula caused by rigid hindfoot valgus in stage III flatfoot deformity is a previously undescribed injury. We report a patient who presented with this injury, the possible mechanisms of such injury, its management and outcome. PMID:26131245

  13. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for comorbid anxiety and depression: case report and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett-Stevens, Holly

    2012-11-01

    Growing research literature has documented the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for anxiety and depressive disorders. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) teaches a series of mindfulness meditation and yoga practices, delivered in a group format during eight weekly sessions plus one full-day session. This case report demonstrates how MBSR was associated with dramatic clinical improvement of an individual with symptoms of panic, generalized anxiety, and depression. Scores on clinical assessment measures suggested clinically severe levels of anxious arousal, generalized anxiety, worry, fear of negative evaluation, and depression at the beginning of the intervention. The scores on all these measures fell well within normal limits 7 weeks later at the end of the intervention, and no remaining symptoms were reported afterward. Increased life satisfaction and quality of life were documented as well. This case illustrates the potential benefit of MBSR as an alternative or adjunctive treatment for comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms.

  14. Climate change induced occupational stress and reported morbidity among cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Climate change is one of the major development hurdles in many developing countries. The health outcome of farm households are related to climate change, which is related to several external and internal health-related issues, such as management of occupational stressors. This study seeks, inter alia, to determine the climate related occupational stress and factors influencing reported sick times among cocoa farmers. Material and Method. Data were collected from selected cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and Negative Binomial regression were used for data analyses. Results. The results showed that cocoa farmers were ageing, and that the majority had cultivating cocoa for most of their years of farming. Cocoa was the primary crop for the majority of the farmers, while 92.00% of the farmers in Osun state owned the cultivated cocoa farms. The forms of reported climate change induced occupational stresses were increase in pest infestation (74.5% in Ekiti state, difficulties in weed control (82.1% in Ekiti state, missing regular times scheduled for spraying cocoa pods (45.7% in Ondo state, inability to spray cocoa effectively (58.5% in Ondo state, and reduction in cocoa yield (71.7% in Ekiti state. The Negative Binomial regression results showed that the age of farmers (0.0103, their education (-0.0226, years of cocoa farming (-0.0112, malaria infection (0.4901, missed spraying (0.5061, re-spraying of cocoa (0.2630, reduction in cocoa yield (0.20154, contact with extension (0.2411 and residence in Ondo state (-0.2311 were statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion. Climate change influences the farm operations of cocoa farmers with resultant occupational stresses. Efforts to assist cocoa farmers should include, among others, provision of weather forecasts and some form of insurance.

  15. Self-reported and measured stress related responses associated with exposure to wind turbine noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Keith, Stephen E; Voicescu, Sonia A; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; Bower, Tara; Villeneuve, Paul J; Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    The current study was the first to assess stress reactions associated with wind turbine noise (WTN) exposure using self-reported and objective measures. Randomly selected participants, aged 18-79 yr (606 males; 632 females), living between 0.25 and 11.22 km from wind turbines, were exposed to outdoor calculated WTN levels up to 46 dBA (response rate 78.9%). Multiple regression modeling left the great majority (77%-89%) of the variance in perceived stress scale (PSS) scores, hair cortisol concentrations, resting blood pressure, and heart rate unaccounted for, and WTN exposure had no apparent influence on any of these endpoints. PSS scores were positively, but weakly, related to cortisol concentrations and resting heart rate (Pearson r = 0.13 and r = 0.08, respectively). Across WTN categories, modeled mean PSS scores ranged from 13.15 to 13.84 (p = 0.8614). Modeled geometric means for hair cortisol concentrations, resting mean systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were 150.54-191.12 ng/g (p = 0.5416), 113.38-116.82 mmHg (p = 0.4990), 67.98-70.34 mmHg (p = 0.5006), and 68.24-70.71 bpm (p = 0.5223), respectively. Irrespective of WTN levels, diastolic blood pressure appeared to be slightly (2.90 mmHg 95% CI: 0.75,5.05) higher among participants highly annoyed by blinking lights on turbines (p = 0.0081). Collectively, the findings do not support an association between exposure to WTN up to 46 dBA and elevated self-reported and objectively defined measures of stress.

  16. Report from the Third Mediterranean Society of Comparative Education (MESCE) Conference in Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Peter; Borg, Carmel

    2008-01-01

    This is a report of the third meeting of the Mediterranean Comparative Education Society (MESCE) that took place in Malta in May 2008. The full programme can be accessed at: http://www.educ.um.edu.mt/mesce/cprogramme.html. The conference was attended by around 130 people from different countries in the Mediterranean and beyond but concentrated,…

  17. Newspaper reporters' role effectiveness: A comparative study of two levels of hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K. Singh

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Hardly any behavioural scientist ever thought of empirically studying newspaper reporters from a psychological perspective. Realising the dearth of study from psychological viewpoints this investigation was designed to examine the relationships as well as relative impact of the antecedent variables of Background information, organisational climate, organisational role stress, and journalistic writing attitude on to the role effectiveness of the lower level reporters and the higher level reporters. The results obtained were discussed in the light of the past researches in the area of effectiveness in-a-role in-an-organisation. Opsomming Bykans geen gedragswetenskaplike het al aan die idee gedink om koerant-verslaggewers vanuit ’n sielkundige perspektief te bestudeer nie. Gegewe die skaarste aan navorsing vanuit ’n sielkundige gesigshoek, is hierdie ondersoek ontwerp om die verhouding sowel as die relatiewe impak van oorsaaklike veranderlikes van agtergrondinligting, organisasieklimaat, organisatoriese rolstres en die joernalistieke skryfhouding op die roldoeltreffendheid van die laevlak verslaggewers en die hoëvlak verslaggewers te ondersoek. Die verkreë resultate word bespreek in die lig van die vorige navorsing ten opsigte van roldoeltreffenheid in ’n organisasie.

  18. Beyond Self-Report: Tools to Compare Estimated and Real-World Smartphone Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sally; Ellis, David A.; Shaw, Heather; Piwek, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists typically rely on self-report data when quantifying mobile phone usage, despite little evidence of its validity. In this paper we explore the accuracy of using self-reported estimates when compared with actual smartphone use. We also include source code to process and visualise these data. We compared 23 participants’ actual smartphone use over a two-week period with self-reported estimates and the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale. Our results indicate that estimated time spent using a smartphone may be an adequate measure of use, unless a greater resolution of data are required. Estimates concerning the number of times an individual used their phone across a typical day did not correlate with actual smartphone use. Neither estimated duration nor number of uses correlated with the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale. We conclude that estimated smartphone use should be interpreted with caution in psychological research. PMID:26509895

  19. Variation in community structure across vertical intertidal stress gradients: how does it compare with horizontal variation at different scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Valdivia

    Full Text Available In rocky intertidal habitats, the pronounced increase in environmental stress from low to high elevations greatly affects community structure, that is, the combined measure of species identity and their relative abundance. Recent studies have shown that ecological variation also occurs along the coastline at a variety of spatial scales. Little is known, however, on how vertical variation compares with horizontal variation measured at increasing spatial scales (in terms of sampling interval. Because broad-scale processes can generate geographical patterns in community structure, we tested the hypothesis that vertical ecological variation is higher than fine-scale horizontal variation but lower than broad-scale horizontal variation. To test this prediction, we compared the variation in community structure across intertidal elevations on rocky shores of Helgoland Island with independent estimates of horizontal variation measured at the scale of patches (quadrats separated by 10s of cm, sites (quadrats separated by a few m, and shores (quadrats separated by 100s to 1000s of m. The multivariate analyses done on community structure supported our prediction. Specifically, vertical variation was significantly higher than patch- and site-scale horizontal variation but lower than shore-scale horizontal variation. Similar patterns were found for the variation in abundance of foundation taxa such as Fucus spp. and Mastocarpus stellatus, suggesting that the effects of these canopy-forming algae, known to function as ecosystem engineers, may explain part of the observed variability in community structure. Our findings suggest that broad-scale processes affecting species performance increase ecological variability relative to the pervasive fine-scale patchiness already described for marine coasts and the well known variation caused by vertical stress gradients. Our results also indicate that experimental research aiming to understand community structure on

  20. Comparative analyses of lipidomes and transcriptomes reveal a concerted action of multiple defensive systems against photooxidative stress in Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Yunho; Hwang, Yong-sic; Wang, Baobei; Kim, Minju; Jeong, Jooyeon; Lee, Choul-Gyun; Hu, Qiang; Han, Danxiang; Jin, EonSeon

    2014-08-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis cells predominantly remain in the macrozooid stage under favourable environmental conditions but are rapidly differentiated into haematocysts upon exposure to various environmental stresses. Haematocysts are characterized by massive accumulations of astaxanthin sequestered in cytosolic oil globules. Lipidomic analyses revealed that synthesis of the storage lipid triacylglycerol (TAG) was substantially stimulated under high irradiance. Simultaneously, remodelling of membrane glycerolipids occurred as a result of dramatic reductions in chloroplast membrane glycolipids but remained unchanged or declined slightly in extraplastidic membrane glycerolipids. De novo assembly of transcriptomes revealed the genomic and metabolic features of this unsequenced microalga. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed that so-called resting cells (haematocysts) may be more active than fast-growing vegetative cells (macrozooids) regarding metabolic pathways and functions. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of astaxanthin biosynthesis suggested that the non-mevalonate pathway mediated the synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, as the majority of genes involved in subsequent astaxanthin biosynthesis were substantially up-regulated under high irradiance, with the genes encoding phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and β-carotene hydroxylase identified as the most prominent regulatory components. Accumulation of TAG under high irradiance was attributed to moderate up-regulation of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis at the gene level as well as to moderate elevation of the TAG assembly pathways. Additionally, inferred from transcriptomic differentiation, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, a decrease in ROS production, and the relaxation of over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain will work together to protect against photooxidative stress in H. pluvialis under high irradiance. © The Author 2014. Published by

  1. Comparative study of QTLs for agronomic traits of rice (Oriza sativa L.) between salt stress and nonstress environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG; Jiming; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Yoshiyo Mano, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Mapping quantitative trait loci for salt tolerance at germination and the seed-ling stage in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Euphytica, 1997, 94: 263.[2]Breto, M. P., Asins, M. J., Carbonell, E. A., Salt tolerance in Lycopersicon Species III-- Detection of quanti-tative trait loci by means of molecular markers, Theor. Appl. Genet., 1994, 88: 395.[3]Foolad, M. R., Chen, F. Q., Lin, G. Y., RFLP mapping of QTLs conferring salt tolerance during germination in an interspecific cross of tomato, Theor. Appl. Genet., 1998, 97: 1133.[4]Foolad, M. R., Jones, R. A., Mapping salt-tolerance genes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculeutum) using trait-based marker analysis, Theor. Appl. Genet., 1993, 87: 184.[5]Li, Z. K., Pinson, S. R. M., Stansel, J. W. et al., Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for heading date and plant height in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), Theor. Appl. Genet., 1995, 91: 374.[6]Lin, H. X., Qian, H. R., Zhang, J. Y. et al., RFLP mapping of QTLs for yield and related characters in rice (Oryza sativa L.), Theor. Appl. Genet., 1996, 92: 920.[7]Lu, C., Shen, L., Tan, Z. et al., Comparative mapping of QTLs for agronomic traits of rice across environments by using a doubled-haploid population, Theor. Appl. Genet., 1997, 94: 145.[8]Wu, P., Zhang, G., Huang, N., Identification of QTLs controlling quantitative characters in rice using RFLP markers, Euphytica, 1996, 89: 349.[9]Champoux, M. C., Wang, G., Sarkarung, S. et al., Locating genes associated with root morphology and drought avoidance in rice via linkage to molecular markers, Theor. Appl. Genet., 1995, 90: 969.[10] Gong, J., He, P., Qian, Q. et al., Identification of salt tolerance QTLs in rice (Oryza sativa L.), Chinese Science Bulletin, 1999, 44(1): 68.[11] Lin, H., Yanagihara, S., Zhuang, J. et al., Identification of QTL for salt tolerance in rice via molecular markers, Chinese Journal of Rice Science, 1998, 12 (2): 72

  2. Interventions for children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder: A meta-analysis of comparative outcome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Koerssen, Rachel; Pollet, Thomas V

    2016-07-01

    This meta-analysis aimed at determining the efficacy of psychological and psychopharmacological interventions for children and adolescents suffering from symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A search using the Medline, PsycINFO, and PILOTS databases was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for pediatric PTSD. The search resulted in 41 RCTs, of which 39 were psychological interventions and two psychopharmacological interventions. Results showed that psychological interventions are effective in treating PTSD, with aggregated effect sizes of Hedge's g=0.83 when compared to waitlist and g=0.41 when compared to active control conditions at posttreatment. Trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy was the most researched form of intervention and resulted in medium to large effect sizes when compared to waitlist (g=1.44) and active control conditions (g=0.66). Experimental conditions were also more effective than control conditions at follow-up. Interventions were further effective in reducing comorbid depression symptoms, yet the obtained effect sizes were small to medium only. The findings indicate that psychological interventions can effectively reduce PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents. There is very little evidence to support use of psychopharmacological interventions for pediatric PTSD.

  3. Maternal Stress and Family Constitution: Comparative Study on Chilean, Single-Mother and Nuclear, Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Olhaberry, Marcia; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile; Farkas,Chamarrita

    2012-01-01

    Studies on maternal stress during child raising have taken into consideration contextual variables to explain it. The socioeconomic level, as well as the family constitution have been relevant variables, associating singleparenting in low-income families with greater levels of maternal stress. Maternal stress levels in Chilean, nuclear and single-mother low income families are studied, considering stress in various dimensions, associated to the maternal role, to the mother-child interactio...

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THREE DOSES OF ESMOLOL TO ATTENUATE THE HAEMODYNAMIC STRESS RESPONSE DURING LARYNGOSCOPY AND ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The advantage of IV Esmolol due to its ultra-short action seem to be ideal to control intense but brief sympathetic stimulation following endotracheal intubation, inspired us to conduct a study in which we compared the three doses of Esmolol to attenuate the haemodynamic stress response during Laryngoscopy and Endotracheal intubation. AIM This study was done to compare the varying doses of IV Esmolol in attenuating the haemodynamic stress response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. METHODS AND MATERIALS Sixty ASA I and II patients undergoing elective surgical procedure under general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation were included in this study. Patients belonging to age group 20-50 years of both the sexes were included. It is prospective double blind randomized study. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee and was randomly grouped into three groups. Group A (Esmolol 5 mg/kg 20 patients were given Esmolol 0.5 mg/kg IV 2 minutes before intubation. Group B (Esmolol 1.0 mg/kg–20 Patients were given Esmolol 1 mg/kg IV 2 minutes before intubation. Group C (Esmolol 1.5 mg/kg 20 patients were given Esmolol 1.5 mg/kg IV 2 minutes before intubation. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Heart rate, systolic Blood pressure, Diastolic pressure and mean arterial pressure were recorded using MS Excel software and analysed using STATA software for determining the statistical significance. ANOVA test was used to determine the significance among three groups. Student’s ‘t’ test was used to compare the three groups in mean values of various parameters. The P value taken for signification is <0.05. RESULTS The dose of Esmolol 1.5 mg/kg (Group C to be effective in attenuating the haemodynamic responses during laryngoscopy and ET intubation with no major adverse effects when compared to 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg. CONCLUSION We found that the dose of Esmolol 1.5 mg/kg (Group C to be effective in attenuating the haemodynamic responses during

  5. Comparative analysis of conditional reporter alleles in the developing embryo and embryonic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellisor, Debra; Koveal, Dorothy; Hagan, Nellwyn; Brown, Ashly; Zervas, Mark

    2009-10-01

    A long-standing problem in development is understanding how progenitor cells transiently expressing genes contribute to complex anatomical and functional structures. In the developing nervous system an additional level of complexity arises when considering how cells of distinct lineages relate to newly established neural circuits. To address these problems, we used both cumulative marking with Cre/loxP and Genetic Inducible Fate Mapping (GIFM), which permanently and heritably marks small populations of progenitors and their descendants with fine temporal control using CreER/loxP. A key component used in both approaches is a conditional phenotyping allele that has the potential to be expressed in all cell types, but is quiescent because of a loxP flanked Stop sequence, which precedes a reporter allele. Upon recombination, the resulting phenotyping allele is 'turned on' and then constitutively expressed. Thus, the reporter functions as a high fidelity genetic lineage tracer in vivo. Currently there is an array of reporter alleles that can be used in marking strategies, but their recombination efficiency and applicability to a wide array of tissues has not been thoroughly described. To assess the recombination/marking potential of the reporters, we utilized CreER(T) under the control of a Wnt1 transgene (Wnt1-CreER(T)) as well as a cumulative, non-inducible En1(Cre) knock-in line in combination with three different reporters: R26R (LacZ reporter), Z/EG (EGFP reporter), and Tau-Lox-STOP-Lox-mGFP-IRES-NLS-LacZ (membrane-targeted GFP/nuclear LacZ reporter). We marked the Wnt1 lineage using each of the three reporters at embryonic day (E) 8.5 followed by analysis at E10.0, E12.5, and in the adult. We also compared cumulative marking of cells with a history of En1 expression at the same stages. We evaluated the reporters by whole-mount and section analysis and ascertained the strengths and weaknesses of each of the reporters. Comparative analysis with the reporters

  6. Status report: Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of BWR core shrouds and other internal components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    On July 25, 1994, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 94-03 to obtain information needed to assess compliance with regulatory requirements regarding the structural integrity of core shrouds in domestic boiling water reactors (BWRs). This report begins with a brief description of the safety significance of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) as it relates to the design and function of BWR core shrouds and other internal components. It then presents a brief history of shroud cracking events both in the US and abroad, followed by an indepth summary of the industry actions to address the issue of IGSCC in BWR core shrouds and other internal components. This report summarizes the staff`s basis for issuing GL 94-03, as well as the staff`s assessment of plant-specific responses to GL 94-03. The staff is continually evaluating the licensee inspection programs and the results from examinations of BWR core shrouds and other internal components. This report is representative of submittals to and evaluations by the staff as of September 30, 1995. An update of this report will be issued at a later date.

  7. Managerial span of control: a pilot study comparing departmental complexity and number of direct reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Katreena Collette; Pepper, Ginette; Blegen, Mary

    2013-09-01

    Nurse managers play pivotal roles in hospitals. However, restructuring has resulted in nurse managers having wider span of control and reduced visibility. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare two methods of measuring span of control: departmental complexity and number of direct reports. Forty-one nurse managers across nine hospitals completed The Ottawa Hospital Clinical Manager Span of Control Tool (TOH-SOC) and a demographic survey. A moderate positive relationship between number of direct reports and departmental complexity score was identified (r=.49, p=managers' responsibility. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  8. Travel Time to Hospital for Childbirth: Comparing Calculated Versus Reported Travel Times in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Hugo; Prunet, Caroline; Blondel, Béatrice; Charreire, Hélène; Combier, Evelyne; Le Vaillant, Marc; Amat-Roze, Jeanne-Marie; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2017-08-05

    Objectives Timely access to health care is critical in obstetrics. Yet obtaining reliable estimates of travel times to hospital for childbirth poses methodological challenges. We compared two measures of travel time, self-reported and calculated, to assess concordance and to identify determinants of long travel time to hospital for childbirth. Methods Data came from the 2010 French National Perinatal Survey, a national representative sample of births (N = 14 681). We compared both travel time measures by maternal, maternity unit and geographic characteristics in rural, peri-urban and urban areas. Logistic regression models were used to study factors associated with reported and calculated times ≥30 min. Cohen's kappa coefficients were also calculated to estimate the agreement between reported and calculated times according to women's characteristics. Results In urban areas, the proportion of women with travel times ≥30 min was higher when reported rather than calculated times were used (11.0 vs. 3.6%). Longer reported times were associated with non-French nationality [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.7)] and inadequate prenatal care [aOR 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-2.0)], but not for calculated times. Concordance between the two measures was higher in peri-urban and rural areas (52.4 vs. 52.3% for rural areas). Delivery in a specialised level 2 or 3 maternity unit was a principal determinant of long reported and measured times in peri-urban and rural areas. Conclusions for Practice The level of agreement between reported and calculated times varies according to geographic context. Poor measurement of travel time in urban areas may mask problems in accessibility.

  9. Pulsatile Stress in Middle-Aged Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Compared With Nondiabetic Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Jean-Christophe; Marchand, Monique; Scheen, André J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Arterial pulse pressure is considered to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared pulse pressure during an active orthostatic test in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes and corresponding nondiabetic control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 50 years, diabetes duration 23 years, and BMI 23.0 kg/m2) were compared with 40 nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (respectively, 50 years, 8 years, and 29.7 kg/m2). Patients taking antihypertensive agents or with renal insufficiency were excluded. All patients were evaluated with a continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure monitoring (Finapres) in standing (1 min), squatting (1 min), and again standing position (1 min). Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were compared with two groups of 40 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy subjects. RESULTS Patients with type 1 diabetes and patients with type 2 diabetes showed significantly higher pulse pressure, heart rate, and double product of pulse pressure and heart rate (PP×HR) (type 1: 5,263 vs. 4,121 mmHg/min, P = 0.0004; type 2: 5,359 vs. 4,321 mmHg, P = 0.0023) levels than corresponding control subjects. There were no significant differences between patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes regarding pulse pressure (59 vs. 58 mmHg), heart rate (89 vs. 88/min), and PP×HR (5,263 vs. 5,359 mmHg/min). CONCLUSIONS Patients with type 1 diabetes have increased levels of peripheral PP, an indirect marker of arterial stiffness, and PP×HR, an index of pulsatile stress, comparable to those of nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes at similar mean age of 50 years. PMID:20693351

  10. ATTENUATION OF HEMODYNAMIC STRESS RESPONSE DURING EMERGENCE FROM GENERAL ANAESTHESIA: A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY COMPARING FENTANYL AND DEXMEDETOMIDINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyakhath

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Tracheal extubation and emergence is associated with significant haemodynamic alterations and is poorly tolerated by patients with co-morbid conditions. We compared the efficacy of fentanyl and dexmedetomidine in mitigating haemodynamic stress response and assessed extubation quality in study groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One fifty patients of either sex, ASA grade I & II normotensive patients, aged 18-55 years undergoing elective surgeries under general anaesthesia were randomized into 3 equal groups. Anaesthetic technique was standardized. 10 minutes prior to extubation, patients in Group N, F and D received intravenous bolus infusion of 0.9% normal Saline, Fentanyl 1μg /kg and Dexmedetomidine 1μg /kg respectively over 10 minutes period. Heart Rate (HR, Systolic BP (SBP, Diastolic BP (DBP and Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP were noted at extubation, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 min and at regular interval thereafter for a period of two hours. Extubation quality was evaluated on 5-point extubation quality scale [ scale 1 = no coughing, 2 = smooth extubation, minimal coughing (1 or 2 times, 3 = moderate coughing (3 or 4 times, 4 = severe coughing (5-10 times and straining, 5 = poor extubation, very uncomfortable (laryngospasm and coughing >10 times]. Ramsay sedation score and Aldrete’s recovery score were recorded. Any adverse events, use of rescue drugs and postoperative analgesics were noted. RESULTS: All the measured haemodynamic parameters were significantly elevated at extubation and at various points of observation in normal saline group than fentanyl and dexmedetomidine group (p=0.000. Tachycardia response was seen in 84% patients in group N, compared to 36% and 8% in group F & D respectively (p=0.000. Statistically significant hypertensive response was noticed in 43(86% patients of group N, 9(18% of group F and 3(6% of group D (p=0.000. Duration of tachycardia and hypertensive response was significantly longer in control group. Three

  11. Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs between drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes of chickpea under terminal drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju N L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important grain-legume crop that is mainly grown in rainfed areas, where terminal drought is a major constraint to its productivity. We generated expressed sequence tags (ESTs by suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH to identify differentially expressed genes in drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes in chickpea. Results EST libraries were generated by SSH from root and shoot tissues of IC4958 (drought tolerant and ICC 1882 (drought resistant exposed to terminal drought conditions by the dry down method. SSH libraries were also constructed by using 2 sets of bulks prepared from the RNA of root tissues from selected recombinant inbred lines (RILs (10 each for the extreme high and low root biomass phenotype. A total of 3062 unigenes (638 contigs and 2424 singletons, 51.4% of which were novel in chickpea, were derived by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 5949 ESTs. Only 2185 (71% unigenes showed significant BLASTX similarity ( Conclusion Our study compares not only genes that are up- and down-regulated in a drought-tolerant genotype under terminal drought stress and a drought susceptible genotype but also between the bulks of the selected RILs exhibiting extreme phenotypes. More than 50% of the genes identified have been shown to be associated with drought stress in chickpea for the first time. This study not only serves as resource for marker discovery, but can provide a better insight into the selection of candidate genes (both up- and downregulated associated with drought tolerance. These results can be used to identify suitable targets for manipulating the drought-tolerance trait in chickpea.

  12. Comparative analyses reveal potential uses of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for cold stress responses in temperate grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chuan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the potential of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for low temperature stress responses in Pooideae. The ice recrystallization inhibition protein (IRIP genes, fructosyltransferase (FST genes, and many C-repeat binding factor (CBF genes are Pooideae specific and important in low temperature responses. Here we used comparative analyses to study conservation and evolution of these gene families in B. distachyon to better understand its potential as a model species for agriculturally important temperate grasses. Results Brachypodium distachyon contains cold responsive IRIP genes which have evolved through Brachypodium specific gene family expansions. A large cold responsive CBF3 subfamily was identified in B. distachyon, while CBF4 homologs are absent from the genome. No B. distachyon FST gene homologs encode typical core Pooideae FST-motifs and low temperature induced fructan accumulation was dramatically different in B. distachyon compared to core Pooideae species. Conclusions We conclude that B. distachyon can serve as an interesting model for specific molecular mechanisms involved in low temperature responses in core Pooideae species. However, the evolutionary history of key genes involved in low temperature responses has been different in Brachypodium and core Pooideae species. These differences limit the use of B. distachyon as a model for holistic studies relevant for agricultural core Pooideae species.

  13. Comparative analysis of stress responses of H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts following treatment with doxorubicin and tBOOH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Döhrmann, Mareike; Schorr, Anne; Hülsenbeck, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity is the major dose-limiting adverse effect of anthracyclines and is hypothesized to result from damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) or inhibition of topoisomerase II. Here, we comparatively analyzed the effect of doxorubicin and the organic peroxide tertiary-butylhydrope......Cardiotoxicity is the major dose-limiting adverse effect of anthracyclines and is hypothesized to result from damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) or inhibition of topoisomerase II. Here, we comparatively analyzed the effect of doxorubicin and the organic peroxide tertiary......-butylhydroperoxide (tBOOH) on stress responses of rat cardiomyblast cells (H9c2). Moreover, we investigated the impact of serum factors and the novel prototypical protein kinase CK2 inhibitor resorufin on the sensentivity of H9c2 cells exposed to doxorubicin or tBOOH. Measuring cell viability by use of the WST assay...... as well as cell cycle progression and apoptotic death by FACS-based methods, we found that the sensitivity of H9c2 cells to doxorubicin and tBOOH was differently affected by both serum factors and resorufin. Formation of reactive oxygen species was observed after exposure of H9c2 cells to high doses (i...

  14. Comparative ionomics and metabolomics in extremophile and glycophytic Lotus species under salt stress challenge the metabolic pre-adaptation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diego H; Pieckenstain, Fernando L; Escaray, Francisco; Erban, Alexander; Kraemer, Ute; Udvardi, Michael K; Kopka, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    The legume genus Lotus includes glycophytic forage crops and other species adapted to extreme environments, such as saline soils. Understanding salt tolerance mechanisms will contribute to the discovery of new traits which may enhance the breeding efforts towards improved performance of legumes in marginal agricultural environments. Here, we used a combination of ionomic and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolite profilings of complete shoots (pooling leaves, petioles and stems) to compare the extremophile Lotus creticus, adapted to highly saline coastal regions, and two cultivated glycophytic grassland forage species, Lotus corniculatus and Lotus tenuis. L. creticus exhibited better survival after exposure to long-term lethal salinity and was more efficient at excluding Cl⁻ from the shoots than the glycophytes. In contrast, Na+ levels were higher in the extremophile under both control and salt stress, a trait often observed in halophytes. Ionomics demonstrated a differential rearrangement of shoot nutrient levels in the extremophile upon salt exposure. Metabolite profiling showed that responses to NaCl in L. creticus shoots were globally similar to those of the glycophytes, providing little evidence for metabolic pre-adaptation to salinity. This study is the first comparing salt acclimation responses between extremophile and non-extremophile legumes, and challenges the generalization of the metabolic salt pre-adaptation hypothesis.

  15. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in children after paediatric intensive care treatment compared to children who survived a major fire disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Last Bob F

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goals were to determine the presence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in children after paediatric intensive care treatment, to identify risk factors for PTSD, and to compare this data with data from a major fire disaster in the Netherlands. Methods Children completed the Dutch Children's Responses to Trauma Inventory at three and nine months after discharge from the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU. Comparison data were available from 355 children survivors who completed the same questionnaire 10 months after a major fire disaster. Results Thirty-six children aged eight to 17 years completed questionnaires at three month follow-up, nine month follow-up, or both. More than one third (34.5% of the children had subclinical PTSD, while 13.8% were likely to meet criteria for PTSD. Maternal PTSD was the strongest predictor for child PTSD. There were no significant differences in (subclinical PTSD symptoms either over time or compared to symptoms of survivors from the fire disaster. Conclusion This study shows that a considerable number of children have persistent PTSD after PICU treatment. Prevention of PTSD is important to minimize the profound adverse effects that PTSD can have on children's well-being and future development.

  16. Psychogenic voice disorders and traumatic stress experience: a discussion paper with two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Janet

    2003-09-01

    Psychogenic dysphonia refers to loss of voice where there is insufficient structural or neurological pathology to account for the nature and severity of the dysphonia, and where loss of volitional control over phonation seems to be related to psychological processes such as anxiety, depression, conversion reaction, or personality disorder. Such dysphonias may often develop post-viral infection with laryngitis, and generally in close proximity to emotionally or psychologically taxing experiences, where "conflict over speaking out" is an issue. In more rare instances, severe and persistent psychogenic dysphonia may develop under innocuous or unrelated circumstances, but over time, it may be traced back to traumatic stress experiences that occurred many months or years prior to the onset of the voice disorder. In such cases, the qualitative nature of the traumatic experience may be reflected in the way the psychogenic voice disorder presents. The possible relationship between psychogenic dysphonia and earlier traumatic stress experience is discussed, and the reportedly low prevalence of conversion reaction (4% to 5%) as the basis for psychogenic dysphonia is challenged. Two cases are presented to illustrate the issues raised: the first, a young woman who was sexually assaulted and chose to "keep her secret," and the second, a 52-year-old woman who developed a psychogenic dysphonia following a second, modified thyroplasty for a unilateral vocal fold paresis.

  17. Comparative Effects of Salt Stress and Extreme pH Stress Combined on Glycinebetaine Accumulation, Photosynthetic Abilities and Growth Characters of Two Rice Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriyan CHA-UM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycinebetaine (Glybet accumulation, photosynthetic efficiency and growth performance in indica rice cultivated under salt stress and extreme pH stress were investigated. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH activity and Glybet accumulation in the seedlings of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive rice varieties grown under saline and acidic conditions peaked after treatment for 72 h and 96 h, respectively, and were higher than those grown under neutral pH and alkaline salt stress. A positive correlation was found between BADH activity and Glybet content in both salt-tolerant (r2 = 0.71 and salt-sensitive (r2 = 0.86 genotypes. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids contents in the stressed seedlings significantly decreased under both acidic and alkaline stresses, especially in the salt-sensitive genotype. Similarly, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm, photon yield of PSII (ΦPSII, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ and net photosynthetic rate (Pn in the stressed seedlings were inhibited, leading to overall growth reduction. The positive correlations between chlorophyll a content and Fv/Fm, total chlorophyll content and ΦPSII, ΦPSII and Pn as well as Pn and leaf area in both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive genotypes were found. Saline acidic and saline alkaline soils may play a key role affecting vegetative growth prior to the reproductive stage in rice plants.

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Stylistic Features in the English of Advertising and News Reporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹硕

    2016-01-01

    With the development of society and widespread cooperation among countries, various media devote themselves to take the responsibility of information transference. Many of us have been accustomed to reading a lot of advertisements or news reports in daily life. Advertisements and news reports are with us all the time. They are such things that we are all exposed to. They are also such things that are likely to affect most of us in a number of different spheres of our lives. It is reasonable to say that we live in a world of advertising and news reporting. This passage makes a comparative analysis of these two intensely popular media mainly at three levels, including graphological, grammatical and syntactical, and semantic.

  19. A diagnostic dilemma between psychosis and post-traumatic stress disorder: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coentre Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder is defined as a mental disorder that arises from the experience of traumatic life events. Research has shown a high incidence of co-morbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. Case presentation We report the case of a 32-year-old black African woman with a history of both post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. Two years ago she presented to mental health services with auditory and visual hallucinations, persecutory delusions, suicidal ideation, recurring nightmares, hyper-arousal, and initial and middle insomnia. She was prescribed trifluoperazine (5 mg/day and began cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis. Her psychotic symptoms gradually resolved over a period of three weeks; however, she continues to experience ongoing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. In our case report, we review both the diagnostic and treatment issues regarding post-traumatic stress disorder with psychotic symptoms. Conclusions There are many factors responsible for the symptoms that occur in response to a traumatic event, including cognitive, affective and environmental factors. These factors may predispose both to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or psychotic disorders. The independent diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder with psychotic features remains an open issue. A psychological formulation is essential regarding the appropriate treatment in a clinical setting.

  20. Negative magnetic resonance imaging in femoral neck stress fracture with joint effusion: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Nobutoshi; Okuyama, Koichiro; Kamo, Keiji; Chiba, Mitsuho [Akita Rosai Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Odate, Akita (Japan); Shimada, Yoichi [Akita University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Akita (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Femoral neck stress fracture (FNSF) is well documented in the orthopedic literature and is generally associated with strenuous activities such as long-distance running and military training. The diagnostic yield of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for FNSF was reported to be 100 %, and early MRI is recommended when this fracture is suspected. We encountered a 16-year-old male long-distance runner with FNSF in whom the left femoral neck showed no signal changes on MRI although an effusion was detected in the left hip joint. One month later, roentgenograms revealed periosteal callus and oblique consolidation of the left femoral neck, confirming the diagnosis of compression FNSF. Because FNSF with a normal bone marrow signal on MRI is very rare, this patient is presented here. (orig.)

  1. Environmental stress-mediated changes in transcriptional and translational regulation of protein synthesis in crop plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The research described in this final report focused on the influence of stress agents on protein synthesis in crop plants (primarily soybean). Investigations into the `heat shock` (HS) stress mediated changes in transcriptional and translocational regulation of protein synthesis coupled with studies on anaerobic water deficit and other stress mediated alterations in protein synthesis in plants provided the basis of the research. Understanding of the HS gene expression and function(s) of the HSPs may clarify regulatory mechanisms operative in development. Since the reproductive systems of plants if often very temperature sensitive, it may be that the system could be manipulated to provide greater thermotolerance.

  2. A comparative proteomic analysis of Bacillus coagulans in response to lactate stress during the production of L-lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuwen; Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Landong; Xu, Ping

    2014-12-01

    The growth rate and maximum biomass of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 were inhibited by lactate; inhibition by sodium lactate was stronger than by calcium lactate. The differences of protein expressions by B. coagulans 2-6 under the lactate stress were determined using two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometric identification. Under the non-stress condition, calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, the number of detected protein spots was 1,571 ± 117, 1,281 ± 231 and 904 ± 127, respectively. Four proteins with high expression under lactate stress were identified: lactate dehydrogenase, cysteine synthase A, aldo/keto reductase and ribosomal protein L7/L12. These proteins are thus potential targets for the reconstruction of B. coagulans to promote its resistance to lactate stress.

  3. Peer-led Stress Prevention Seminars in the First Year of Medical School – A Project Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaj, Till Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From the beginning of the first year of medical studies, increased psychological stress and elevated burnout prevalence rates can be registered compared to sample populations. Characterized by learning “on an equal footing”, the principle of peer-assisted learning (PAL is widely used in medical education. This report aims to showcase the development and evaluation of peer-led stress prevention seminars for first year medical students after one year of implementation.Project description: With each of the three sessions lasting 90 min., the stress prevention seminars took place in small groups (6-10 students in the period from November 2013 to January 2014 and from November 2014 to December 2014 at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg. Led by trained peers, the seminar content ranged from psycho-educational elements, i.e. time management strategy development and test anxiety assistance, to relaxation techniques. All seminar sessions were evaluated via questionnaire. All questions were answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7 (1=strongly agree; 7=strongly disagree.Results: 75 students consented to participate in seminars (65% female; aged 20.5±3.3 years. The series of seminars was averagely given the school grade of 1.2±0.4 (1=very good to 6=unsatisfactory in WS 2013/14 and 1.5±0.5 in the following year and the peer tutors’ competence was evaluated as very high (1.4 to 1.5 approval rate on the Likert scale.Discussion: The seminar sessions’ importance to the students is underlined by their very positive evaluations. This offer seems to have benefited students especially during the demanding transitional phase at the start of their studies. Both the implementation of the preventive measure at an early stage as well as the use of PAL seem to have proven effective.Conclusion: PAL seems to be effective in the field of stress prevention. However, specific efficacy studies are still lacking.

  4. Comparative transcriptome assembly and genome-guided profiling for Brettanomyces bruxellensis LAMAP2480 during p-coumaric acid stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Liliana; Vera-Wolf, Patricia; Martinez, Claudio; Ugalde, Juan A.; Ganga, María Angélica

    2016-01-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis has been described as the main contaminant yeast in wine production, due to its ability to convert the hydroxycinnamic acids naturally present in the grape phenolic derivatives, into volatile phenols. Currently, there are no studies in B. bruxellensis which explains the resistance mechanisms to hydroxycinnamic acids, and in particular to p-coumaric acid which is directly involved in alterations to wine. In this work, we performed a transcriptome analysis of B. bruxellensis LAMAP248rown in the presence and absence of p-coumaric acid during lag phase. Because of reported genetic variability among B. bruxellensis strains, to complement de novo assembly of the transcripts, we used the high-quality genome of B. bruxellensis AWRI1499, as well as the draft genomes of strains CBS2499 and0 g LAMAP2480. The results from the transcriptome analysis allowed us to propose a model in which the entrance of p-coumaric acid to the cell generates a generalized stress condition, in which the expression of proton pump and efflux of toxic compounds are induced. In addition, these mechanisms could be involved in the outflux of nitrogen compounds, such as amino acids, decreasing the overall concentration and triggering the expression of nitrogen metabolism genes. PMID:27678167

  5. Changes in clinical and hotel expenditures following publication of the nursing home compare report card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamel, Dana B; Spector, William D; Zinn, Jacqueline; Weimer, David L; Ahn, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Nursing Home Compare first published clinical quality measures at the end of 2002. It is a quality report card that for the first time offers consumers easily accessible information about the clinical quality of nursing homes. It led to changes in consumers' demand, increasing the relative importance of clinical versus hotel aspects of quality in their search and choice of a nursing home. To examine the hypothesis that nursing homes responding to these changes in demand shifted the balance of resources from hotel to clinical activities. The study included 10,022 free-standing nursing homes nationwide during 2001 to 2006. RESEARCH DESIGN AND DATA: A retrospective multivariate statistical analysis of trends in the ratio of clinical to hotel expenditures, using Medicare cost reports, Minimum Data Set and Online Survey, Certification and Reporting data, controlling for changes in residents' acuity and facility fixed effects. Inference is based on robust standard errors. The ratio of clinical to hotel expenditures averaged 1.78. It increased significantly (P hotel expenditures following publication of the report card suggests that nursing homes responded as expected to the changes in the elasticity of demand with respect to clinical quality brought about by the public reporting of clinical quality measures. The response was stronger among nursing homes facing stronger incentives.

  6. Signal detection of methylphenidate by comparing a spontaneous reporting database with a claims database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JaYoung; Kim, Munsin; Ha, Ji-Hye; Jang, Junghoon; Hwang, Myungsil; Lee, Byung Koo; Chung, Myeon Woo; Yoo, Tae Moo; Kim, Myung Jung

    2011-11-01

    Data mining is critical for signal detection in pharmacovigilance systems. In this study, we compared signals between spontaneous reporting data and health insurance claims data for a socially issued drug, methylphenidate. We implemented data-mining tools for signal detection in both databases: Reporting Odds Ratios (ROR), Proportional Reporting Ratios (PRR), Chi-squared test, and Information Component (IC), in addition to a Relative Risk (RR) tool in the claims database. The claims database generated 15, 15, 36, 1, and 1 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by ROR, PRR, chi-square, IC, and RR, respectively. The World Health Organization (WHO) spontaneous database generated 91, 91, 137, and 96 ADRs by ROR, PRR, chi-square, and IC, respectively. We found seven potential matching associations from the claims and WHO databases, but only one of them was present in the Korean spontaneous reporting database. In Korea, spontaneous reporting is still underreported and there is a small amount of data for Koreans. Signal comparison between the claims and WHO databases can provide additional regulatory insight.

  7. Outdoor dynamic subject-specific evaluation of internal stresses in the residual limb: hydraulic energy-stored prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy-stored prosthetic feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Sigal; Kristal, Anat; Gefen, Amit; Siev-Ner, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    The prosthetic foot plays an important role in propelling, breaking, balancing and supporting body loads while the amputee ambulates on different grounds. It is therefore important to quantify the effect of the prosthetic foot mechanism on biomechanical parameters, in order to prevent pressure ulcers and deep tissue injury. Our aim was to monitor the internal stresses in the residuum of transtibial amputation (TTA) prosthetic-users ambulating on different terrains, which the amputees encounter during their daily activities, i.e. paved floor, grass, ascending and descending stairs and slope. We specifically aimed to compare between the internal stresses in the TTA residuum of amputees ambulating with a novel hydraulic prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy storage and return (ESR) prosthetic feet. Monitoring of internal stresses was accomplished using a portable subject-specific real-time internal stress monitor. We found significant decrease (phydraulic foot, compared to walking with ESR feet. The loading rate calculated while ambulating with the hydraulic foot was at least three times lower than the loading rate calculated while ambulating with the ESR foot. Although the average decrease in internal stresses was ≈ 2-fold larger when replacing single-toe ESR feet with the hydraulic foot than when replacing split-toed ESR feet with the hydraulic foot, the differences were statistically insignificant. Our findings suggest that using a hydraulic prosthetic foot may protect the distal tibial end of the TTA residuum from high stresses, therefore preventing pressure-related injury and pain.

  8. Lifetime report of perceived stress at work and cancer among men: A case-control study in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc-Lapierre, Audrey; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Weiss, Deborah; El-Zein, Mariam; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Élise

    2017-03-01

    The association between perceived workplace psychological stress, over the entire work career, and cancer among men has never been assessed. This was explored in the context of a population-based case-control study conducted in Montreal, Canada. 3103 incident cancer cases (11 types) diagnosed in 1979-1985 and 512 population controls were interviewed. Subjects described in detail each job held during their lifetime, including the occurrence of stress, and its reason. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between perceived workplace stress and its duration, and each cancer site, adjusting for lifestyle and occupational factors. Employment in at least one stressful job was associated with increased odds of cancers of the lung (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.01-1.75), colon (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.15-1.98), bladder (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.03-1.81), rectal (OR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.10-2.10), and stomach (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.08-2.15). A duration-response trend was found for cancers of the lung, colon, rectum, stomach, and for NHL. Subjects reported changes in stress level over their career. Perceived stress was ascribed to several sources, including high demand and time pressure, financial issues, job insecurity, and hazardous conditions. Prolonged exposure to perceived stress at work was associated with greater odds of cancer at 5 out of 11 sites. While over reporting of stress by cases cannot be fully ruled out, these associations, if substantiated, would bear important public health significance. Prospective studies building on detailed stress assessment protocols considering all sources and changes over the career are necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Finite element stress analysis of a compression mold. Final report. [Using SASL and WILSON codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watterson, C.E.

    1980-03-01

    Thermally induced stresses occurring in a compression mold during production molding were evaluated using finite element analysis. A complementary experimental stress analysis, including strain gages and thermocouple arrays, verified the finite element model under typical loading conditions.

  10. Is it Trauma- or Fantasy-based? Comparing dissociative identity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, simulators, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissia, E M; Giesen, M E; Chalavi, S; Nijenhuis, E R S; Draijer, N; Brand, B L; Reinders, A A T S

    2016-08-01

    The Trauma Model of dissociative identity disorder (DID) posits that DID is etiologically related to chronic neglect and physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. In contrast, the Fantasy Model posits that DID can be simulated and is mediated by high suggestibility, fantasy proneness, and sociocultural influences. To date, these two models have not been jointly tested in individuals with DID in an empirical manner. This study included matched groups [patients (n = 33) and controls (n = 32)] that were compared on psychological Trauma and Fantasy measures: diagnosed genuine DID (DID-G, n = 17), DID-simulating healthy controls (DID-S, n = 16), individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, n = 16), and healthy controls (HC, n = 16). Additionally, personality-state-dependent measures were obtained for DID-G and DID-S; both neutral personality states (NPS) and trauma-related personality states (TPS) were tested. For Trauma measures, the DID-G group had the highest scores, with TPS higher than NPS, followed by the PTSD, DID-S, and HC groups. The DID-G group was not more fantasy-prone or suggestible and did not generate more false memories. Malingering measures were inconclusive. Evidence consistently supported the Trauma Model of DID and challenges the core hypothesis of the Fantasy Model. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A comparative study of the reported performance of ab initio protein structure prediction algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helles, Glennie

    2008-04-01

    Protein structure prediction is one of the major challenges in bioinformatics today. Throughout the past five decades, many different algorithmic approaches have been attempted, and although progress has been made the problem remains unsolvable even for many small proteins. While the general objective is to predict the three-dimensional structure from primary sequence, our current knowledge and computational power are simply insufficient to solve a problem of such high complexity. Some prediction algorithms do, however, appear to perform better than others, although it is not always obvious which ones they are and it is perhaps even less obvious why that is. In this review, the reported performance results from 18 different recently published prediction algorithms are compared. Furthermore, the general algorithmic settings most likely responsible for the difference in the reported performance are identified, and the specific settings of each of the 18 prediction algorithms are also compared. The average normalized r.m.s.d. scores reported range from 11.17 to 3.48. With a performance measure including both r.m.s.d. scores and CPU time, the currently best-performing prediction algorithm is identified to be the I-TASSER algorithm. Two of the algorithmic settings--protein representation and fragment assembly--were found to have definite positive influence on the running time and the predicted structures, respectively. There thus appears to be a clear benefit from incorporating this knowledge in the design of new prediction algorithms.

  12. Self reported stress and risk of breast cancer: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Kristensen, Tage S

    2005-01-01

    cancer, and impairment of oestrogen synthesis induced by chronic stress may explain a lower incidence of breast cancer in women with high stress. Impairment of normal body function should not, however, be considered a healthy response, and the cumulative health consequences of stress may...

  13. No sustained attention differences in a longitudinal randomized trial comparing mindfulness based stress reduction versus active control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoon, Donal G; MacLean, Katherine A; Davidson, Richard J; Saron, Clifford D; Lutz, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a secular form of meditation training. The vast majority of the extant literature investigating the health effects of mindfulness interventions relies on wait-list control comparisons. Previous studies have found that meditation training over several months is associated with improvements in cognitive control and attention. We used a visual continuous performance task (CPT) to test the effects of eight weeks of mindfulness training on sustained attention by comparing MBSR to the Health Enhancement Program (HEP), a structurally equivalent, active control condition in a randomized, longitudinal design (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01301105) focusing on a non-clinical population typical of MBSR participants. Researchers were blind to group assignment. 63 community participants were randomized to either MBSR (n = 31) or HEP (n = 32). CPT analyses were conducted on 29 MBSR participants and 25 HEP participants. We predicted that MBSR would improve visual discrimination ability and sustained attention over time on the CPT compared to HEP, with more home practice associated with greater improvements. Our hypotheses were not confirmed but we did find some evidence for improved visual discrimination similar to effects in partial replication of other research. Our study had sufficient power to demonstrate that intervention groups do not differ in their improvement over time in sustained attention performance. One of our primary predictions concerning the effects of intervention on attentional fatigue was significant but not interpretable. Attentional sensitivity is not affected by mindfulness practice as taught in MBSR, but it is unclear whether mindfulness might positively affect another aspect of attention, vigilance. These results also highlight the relevant procedural modifications required by future research to correctly investigate the role of sustained attention in similar samples. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01301105.

  14. Comparative analysis of integrative self-knowledge, mindfulness, and private self-consciousness in predicting responses to stress in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Nima; Cunningham, Christopher J L; Watson, P J

    2010-04-01

    Previous research has established that awareness of self-experience is a stress resistance resource. The present study conducted an analysis of measures that record different aspects of self-awareness (private self-consciousness, mindfulness, and integrative self-knowledge) to explain this stress-resistance effect in a sample of Iranian university students (N = 186). These students responded to Mindfulness Attention Awareness, Private Self-Consciousness, Integrative Self-Knowledge, and Perceived Stress Scales just before the stress of a 20-day final examination period, and they then responded to Symptom Checklist and Vitality measures at four-day intervals during the final examinations. Prior to final examinations, the three self-awareness variables correlated positively with each other and negatively with perceived stress. Regression analyses of the data obtained during final examinations identified mindfulness to be a better operationalization of this stress-resistance resource than private self-consciousness. Specifically, mindfulness but not private self-consciousness was a positive predictor of vitality and a negative predictor of symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses also demonstrated that mindfulness and integrative self-knowledge both explained resistance to physical symptoms, while integrative self-knowledge functioned as a protective factor toward one's vitality. These data confirm the positive impact that self-awareness has during stress and highlight the importance of considering both mindfulness and integrative self-knowledge in understanding stress-resistance processes.

  15. Comparative analysis of metabolic proteome variation in ascorbate-primed and unprimed wheat seeds during germination under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fercha, Azzedine; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Laganà, Aldo

    2014-08-28

    Seed priming with ascorbic acid improves salt tolerance in durum wheat. For understanding the potential mechanisms underlying this priming effect a gel-free shotgun proteomic analysis was performed comparing unprimed to ascorbate-primed wheat seed during germination under saline and non-saline conditions. Since seed germination is the result of interplay or cross-talk between embryo and embryo-surrounding tissues, we studied the variation of metabolic proteome in both tissues separately. 167 of 697 identified and 69 of 471 identified proteins increase or decrease in abundance significantly in response to priming and/or salinity compared to untreated, unstressed control in embryo and embryo-surrounding tissues, respectively. In untreated wheat embryo salt stress was accompanied by change in 129 proteins, most of which are belonging to metabolism, energy, disease/defense, protein destination and storage categories. Ascorbate pretreatment prevents and counteracts the effects of salinity upon most of these proteins and changes specifically the abundance of 35 others proteins, most of which are involved in metabolism, protein destination and storage categories. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed three and two major clusters of protein expression in embryo and embryo-surrounding tissues, respectively. This study opens promising new avenues to understand priming-induced salt tolerance in plants. To clearly understand how ascorbate-priming enhance the salt tolerance of durum wheat during germination, we performed for the first time a comparative shotgun proteomic analysis between unprimed and ascorbate-primed wheat seeds during germination under saline and non-saline conditions. Furthermore, since seed germination is the result of interplay or cross-talk between embryo and embryo-surrounding tissues we analyzed the variation of metabolic proteome in both tissues separately. 1168 proteins exhibiting greater molecular weight diversity (ranging from 5 to 258kDa) were

  16. Self-reported posttraumatic growth predicts greater subsequent posttraumatic stress amidst war and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalta, Alyson K; Gerhart, James; Hall, Brian J; Rajan, Kumar B; Vechiu, Catalina; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2017-03-01

    This study tested three alternative explanations for research indicating a positive, but heterogeneous relationship between self-reported posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS): (a) the third-variable hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is a spurious one driven by positive relationships with resource loss, (b) the growth over time hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is initially a positive one, but becomes negative over time, and (c) the moderator hypothesis that resource loss moderates the relationship between PTG and PSS such that PTG is associated with lower levels of PSS as loss increases. A nationally representative sample (N = 1622) of Israelis was assessed at three time points during a period of ongoing violence. PTG, resource loss, and the interaction between PTG and loss were examined as lagged predictors of PSS to test the proposed hypotheses. Results were inconsistent with all three hypotheses, showing that PTG positively predicted subsequent PSS when accounting for main and interactive effects of loss. Our results suggest that self-reported PTG is a meaningful but counterintuitive predictor of poorer mental health following trauma.

  17. Exploring Self-Reported Benefits of Auricular Acupuncture Among Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cdr Heather C; Moore, Lcdr Chad; Spence, Cdr Dennis L

    2016-09-01

    Auricular acupuncture treatments are becoming increasingly available within military treatment facilities, resulting in an expansion of nonpharmacologic treatment options available to veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to explore the self-reported benefits of auricular acupuncture treatments for veterans living with PTSD. A qualitative research methodology, thematic content analysis, was used to analyze data. Seventeen active duty veterans with PTSD provided written comments to describe their experiences and perceptions after receiving a standardized auricular acupuncture regimen for a 3-week period as part of a pilot feasibility study. A variety of symptoms experienced by veterans with PTSD were improved after receiving auricular acupuncture treatments. Additionally, veterans with PTSD were extremely receptive to auricular acupuncture treatments. Four themes emerged from the data: (1) improved sleep quality, (2) increased relaxation, (3) decreased pain, and (4) veterans liked/loved the auricular acupuncture treatments. Veterans with PTSD reported numerous benefits following auricular acupuncture treatments. These treatments may facilitate healing and recovery for veterans with combat-related PTSD, although further investigations are warranted into the mechanisms of action for auricular acupuncture in this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Comparative proteome analysis of metabolic proteins from seeds of durum wheat (cv. Svevo) subjected to heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laino, Paolo; Shelton, Dale; Finnie, Christine

    2010-01-01

    include proteins with metabolic activity or structural function. In order to investigate the consequences of heat stress on the accumulation of nonprolamin proteins in mature durum wheat kernels, the Italian cultivar Svevo was subjected to two thermal regimes (heat stress versus control). The 2-D patterns...... of nonprolamin proteins were monitored to identify polypeptides affected by heat stress during grain fill. This study shows that heat stress alters significantly the durum wheat seed proteome, although the changes range is only between 1.2- and 2.2-fold. This analysis revealed 132 differentially expressed...... polypeptides, 47 of which were identified by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS and included HSPs, proteins involved in the glycolysis and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as stress-related proteins. Many of the heat-induced polypeptides are considered to be allergenic for sensitive individuals....

  19. Comparative evaluation of adverse drug reaction reporting forms for introduction of a spontaneous generic ADR form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshi Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite comprehensive and stringent phases of clinical trials and surveillance efforts, unexpected and serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs repeatedly occur after the drug is marketed. ADR reporting is an important aspect of an efficient and effective pharmacovigilance program. Although Medwatch, Yellow Card, CDSCO form, etc. are the protocol forms of ADR collection and reports, a number of countries design and use their respective ADR forms. This review compares similarities and dissimilarities of 13 ADR forms of countries representing their geographical location. This study extracted 73 data elements mentioned in 13 different ADR forms. Only 13 elements were common. An ADR form of Malaysia and Canada covers the highest number of data 43, while Brazil falls to the opposite end with a number of 17 data elements in lieu with the Generic ADR Form. The result of this review highlights 58 data elements of the proposed generic ADR form which ensures that requisite reporting information essential for correct causality assessment of ADRs are included. The proposed "Generic ADR form" could be adopted worldwide mandatorily for reporting any/all ADRs associated with marketed drugs.

  20. Assessing Community Participation: Comparing Self-Reported Participation Data with Organizational Attendance Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christens, Brian D; Speer, Paul W; Peterson, N Andrew

    2016-06-01

    How well do self-reported levels of community and organizational participation align with recorded acts of community and organizational participation? This study explores this question among participants in social action community organizing initiatives by comparing responses on a community participation scale designed to retrospectively assess community participation (T1, n = 482; T2, n = 220) with individual participants' attendance records in various social action organizing activities over two 1-year periods. By testing the self-reported measure's overall and item-by-item association with documented participation in various types of organizing activities, we find that the self-report measure is positively, but weakly correlated with actual participation levels in community organizing activities. Moreover, associations between self-report and recorded acts of participation differ by types of activity. Examining this unique source of data raises important questions about how community participation is conceptualized and measured in our field. Implications are explored for theory and measurement of participation in community and organizational contexts.

  1. Internet-based stress management for women with preterm labour--a case-based experience report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Sandra; Urech, Corinne; Hösli, Irene; Tschudin, Sibil; Gaab, Jens; Berger, Thomas; Alder, Judith

    2014-12-01

    Pregnant women with preterm labour (PTL) in pregnancy often experience increased distress and anxieties regarding both the pregnancy and the child's health. The pathogenesis of PTL is, among other causes, related to the stress-associated activation of the maternal-foetal stress system. In spite of these psychobiological associations, only a few research studies have investigated the potential of psychological stress-reducing interventions. The following paper will present an online anxiety and stress management self-help program for pregnant women with PTL. Structure and content of the program will be illustrated by a case-based experience report. L.B., 32 years (G3, P1), was recruited at gestational week 27 while hospitalized for PTL for 3 weeks. She worked independently through the program for 6 weeks and had regular written contact with a therapist. Processing the program had a positive impact on L.B.'s anxiety and stress levels, as well as on her experienced depressive symptoms and bonding to the foetus. As PTL and the risk of PTB are associated with distress, psychological stress-reducing interventions might be beneficial. This study examines the applicability of an online intervention for pregnant women with PTL. The case report illustrates how adequate low-threshold psychological support could be provided to these women.

  2. Adrenergic Inhibition with Dexmedetomidine to Treat Stress Cardiomyopathy during Alcohol Withdrawal: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary M. Harris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress (Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a form of reversible left ventricular dysfunction with a heightened risk of ventricular arrhythmia thought to be caused by high circulating catecholamines. We report a case of stress cardiomyopathy that developed during severe alcohol withdrawal successfully treated with dexmedetomidine. The case involves a 53-year-old man with a significant history of alcohol abuse who presented to a teaching hospital with new-onset seizures. His symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal were initially treated with benzodiazepines, but the patient later developed hypotension, and stress cardiomyopathy was suspected based on ECG and echocardiographic findings. Adjunctive treatment with the alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine, was initiated to curtail excessive sympathetic outflow of the withdrawal syndrome, thereby targeting the presumed pathophysiology of the cardiomyopathy. Significant clinical improvement was observed within one day of initiation of dexmedetomidine. These findings are consistent with other reports suggesting that sympathetic dysregulation during alcohol withdrawal produces ideal pathobiology for stress cardiomyopathy and leads to ventricular arrhythmogenicity. Stress cardiomyopathy should be recognized as a complication of alcohol withdrawal that significantly increases cardiac-related mortality. By helping to correct autonomic dysregulation of the withdrawal syndrome, dexmedetomidine may be useful in the treatment of stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

  3. Adrenergic Inhibition with Dexmedetomidine to Treat Stress Cardiomyopathy during Alcohol Withdrawal: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Zachary M; Alonso, Alvaro; Kennedy, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Stress (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy is a form of reversible left ventricular dysfunction with a heightened risk of ventricular arrhythmia thought to be caused by high circulating catecholamines. We report a case of stress cardiomyopathy that developed during severe alcohol withdrawal successfully treated with dexmedetomidine. The case involves a 53-year-old man with a significant history of alcohol abuse who presented to a teaching hospital with new-onset seizures. His symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal were initially treated with benzodiazepines, but the patient later developed hypotension, and stress cardiomyopathy was suspected based on ECG and echocardiographic findings. Adjunctive treatment with the alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine, was initiated to curtail excessive sympathetic outflow of the withdrawal syndrome, thereby targeting the presumed pathophysiology of the cardiomyopathy. Significant clinical improvement was observed within one day of initiation of dexmedetomidine. These findings are consistent with other reports suggesting that sympathetic dysregulation during alcohol withdrawal produces ideal pathobiology for stress cardiomyopathy and leads to ventricular arrhythmogenicity. Stress cardiomyopathy should be recognized as a complication of alcohol withdrawal that significantly increases cardiac-related mortality. By helping to correct autonomic dysregulation of the withdrawal syndrome, dexmedetomidine may be useful in the treatment of stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

  4. RISK DISCLOSURE ANALYSIS IN THE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ANNUAL REPORT USING FUZZY-SET QUALITATIVE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carmona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the necessary and sufficient conditions of good Corporate Governance practices for high risk disclosure by firms in their Corporate Governance Annual Report. Additionally, we explore whether those recipes have changed during the financial crisis. With a sample of 271 Spanish listed companies, we applied fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to a database of financial and non-financial data. We report that Board of Directors independence, size, level of activity and gender diversity, CEO duality, Audit Committee independence, being audited by the Big Four auditing firms and the presence of institutional investors are associated with high risk disclosure. The conditions included in almost every combination are the presence of institutional investors and being audited by the Big Four. We found similar combinations for 2006 and 2012, while the analysis for 2009 showed the lowest number of causal configurations.

  5. Staff Draft Report. Comparative Cost of California Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, Magdy; Benjamin, Richard

    2003-02-11

    This Energy Commission staff draft report presents preliminary levelized cost estimates for several generic central-station electricity generation technologies. California has traditionally adopted energy policies that balance the goals of supporting economic development, improving environmental quality and promoting resource diversity. In order to be effective, such policies must be based on comprehensive and timely gathering of information. With this goal in mind, the purpose of the report is to provide comparative levelized cost estimates for a set of renewable (e.g., solar) and nonrenewable (e.g., natural gas-fired) central-station electricity generation resources, based on each technology's operation and capital cost. Decision-makers and others can use this information to compare the generic cost to build specific technology. These costs are not site specific. If a developer builds a specific power plant at a specific location, the cost of siting that plant at that specific location must be considered. The Energy Commission staff also identifies the type of fuel used by each technology and a description of the manner in which the technology operates in the generation system. The target audiences of this report are both policy-makers and anyone wishing to understand some of the fundamental attributes that are generally considered when evaluating the cost of building and operating different electricity generation technology resources. These costs do not reflect the total cost to consumers of adding these technologies to a resources portfolio. These technology characterizations do not capture all of the system, environmental or other relevant attributes that would typically be needed by a portfolio manager to conduct a comprehensive ''comparative value analysis''. A portfolio analysis will vary depending on the particular criteria and measurement goals of each study. For example, some form of firm capacity is typically needed with wind

  6. Sequential Proximal Tibial Stress Fractures associated with Prolonged usage of Methotrexate and Corticosteroids: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan TJL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress fractures of the proximal tibia metaphysis are rare in the elderly. We present a case of a 65-year old male who developed sequential proximal tibia stress fractures associated with prolonged usage of methotrexate and prednisolone within a span of 18 months. Magnetic Resonance Imaging revealed an incomplete stress fracture involving the medial proximal tibial region. The patient was treated with stemmed total knee arthroplasty (TKA bilaterally. Stress fractures should be considered in patients with atypical knee pain who have a history of methotrexate and prednisolone usage. TKA is an effective treatment in stress fractures of the proximal tibia.

  7. Comparative analysis of the Spirulina platensis subcellular proteome in response to low- and high-temperature stresses: uncovering cross-talk of signaling components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The present study focused on comparative proteome analyses of low- and high-temperature stresses and potential protein-protein interaction networks, constructed by using a bioinformatics approach, in response to both stress conditions. The data revealed two important points: first, the results indicate that low-temperature stress is tightly linked with oxidative stress as well as photosynthesis; however, no specific mechanism is revealed in the case of the high-temperature stress response. Second, temperature stress was revealed to be linked with nitrogen and ammonia assimilation. Moreover, the data also highlighted the cross-talk of signaling pathways. Some of the detected signaling proteins, e.g., Hik14, Hik26 and Hik28, have potential interactions with differentially expressed proteins identified in both temperature stress conditions. Some differentially expressed proteins found in the Spirulina protein-protein interaction network were also examined for their physical interactions by a yeast two hybrid system (Y2H). The Y2H results obtained in this study suggests that the potential PPI network gives quite reliable potential interactions for Spirulina. Therefore, the bioinformatics approach employed in this study helps in the analysis of phenomena where proteome analyses of knockout mutants have not been carried out to directly examine for specificity or cross-talk of signaling components. PMID:21756373

  8. Comparative analysis of the Spirulina platensis subcellular proteome in response to low- and high-temperature stresses: uncovering cross-talk of signaling components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roytrakul Sittiruk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study focused on comparative proteome analyses of low- and high-temperature stresses and potential protein-protein interaction networks, constructed by using a bioinformatics approach, in response to both stress conditions. The data revealed two important points: first, the results indicate that low-temperature stress is tightly linked with oxidative stress as well as photosynthesis; however, no specific mechanism is revealed in the case of the high-temperature stress response. Second, temperature stress was revealed to be linked with nitrogen and ammonia assimilation. Moreover, the data also highlighted the cross-talk of signaling pathways. Some of the detected signaling proteins, e.g., Hik14, Hik26 and Hik28, have potential interactions with differentially expressed proteins identified in both temperature stress conditions. Some differentially expressed proteins found in the Spirulina protein-protein interaction network were also examined for their physical interactions by a yeast two hybrid system (Y2H. The Y2H results obtained in this study suggests that the potential PPI network gives quite reliable potential interactions for Spirulina. Therefore, the bioinformatics approach employed in this study helps in the analysis of phenomena where proteome analyses of knockout mutants have not been carried out to directly examine for specificity or cross-talk of signaling components.

  9. A comparative study on fluorescent cholesterol analogs as versatile cellular reporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sezgin, Erdinc; Betul Can, Fatma; Schneider, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is a crucial component of cellular membranes, but knowledge of its intracellular dynamics is scarce. Thus, it is of utmost interest to develop tools for visualization of cholesterol organization and dynamics in cells and tissues. For this purpose, many studies make use of fluorescently......-labeled cholesterol analogs. Unfortunately, the introduction of the label may influence the characteristics of the analog, such as its localization, interaction and trafficking in cells, hence it is important to get knowledge of such bias. In this report, we compared different fluorescent lipid analogs...

  10. A comparative study on fluorescent cholesterol analogs as versatile cellular reporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sezgin, Erdinc; Betul Can, Fatma; Schneider, Falk

    2016-01-01

    cholesterol analogs. Unfortunately, the introduction of the label may influence the characteristics of the analog, such as its localization, interaction and trafficking in cells, hence it is important to get knowledge of such bias. In this report, we compared different fluorescent lipid analogs......Cholesterol is a crucial component of cellular membranes, but knowledge of its intracellular dynamics is scarce. Thus, it is of utmost interest to develop tools for visualization of cholesterol organization and dynamics in cells and tissues. For this purpose, many studies make use of fluorescently-labeled...

  11. Importance of the comparative anatomy in Forensic Anthropology – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonan Ferreira da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In forensic sciences, reconstructive victim profile is a commonly used procedure to provide individual data in cases of complex human identifications. In forensic anthropology, valuable data are obtained from skeletal and dental analysis such as gender, age, ancestry, stature, and differentiation between human and non-human remains. Objective: To highlight the relevance of comparative anatomy analysis to differentiate human and non-human remains. Case report: Four bone fragments and one tooth were found on a potential crime scene, and were submitted to forensic examinations. The examinations revealed non-human anthropological remains. Additionally, the analyzed bones and tooth were classified as animal remains, specifically from a domestic dog (Canis lupus familiares. Conclusion: In this context, it is relevant to be trained and aware of the usefulness of comparative anatomy into the forensic anthropology routine in order to perform complete and accurate examinations.

  12. Comparative Effectiveness of Etanercept and Adalimumab in Patient Reported Outcomes and Injection-Related Tolerability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Navarro-Millán

    Full Text Available To describe patient preferences in selecting specific biologics and compare clinical response using patient reported outcomes (PROs among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA started on different anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF therapies.Participants were enrollees in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Patients with RA who had at least two provider visits and started a new anti-TNF therapy from 10/2010-8/2011, were eligible for participation in this longitudinal study. Using a telephone survey, patient preferences in biologic selection and RAPID3, MDHAQ, and SF-12 scores were collected at baseline and at 6 months. Patient scores rating injection/infusion-site burning and stinging (ISBS were collected at 6 months.In all, 267 patients with RA responded to the baseline survey, of whom 57% preferred an injectable biologic, 22% preferred an infused biologic, and 21% had no preference. Motivation for injectable biologics was convenience (92% and for infusion therapy was dislike or lack of self-efficacy for self-injection (16%. After 6 months of treatment with anti-TNF, 70% of the 177 patients who answered the ISBS question reported ISBS with the last dose; on a scale of 1 (none to 10 (worst, 41% of these reported a score of 2-5; and 29% reported a score of 6-10. Adalimumab users experienced 3.2 times (95% confidence interval 1.2-8.6 the level of ISBS that etanercept users experienced. There were no significant differences in RAPID3, MDHAQ, or SF-12 scores between etanercept or adalimumab initiators.Convenience and fear of self-injection were important considerations to patients selecting a biologic drug. Although more convenient, adalimumab associated with more ISBS than did etanercept, and this rate was higher than reported in clinical trials. At 6 months, PROs did not differ between etanercept and adalimumab users.

  13. Reliability and comparability of psychosis patients' retrospective reports of childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L; Craig, Thomas K; Fearon, Paul; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Lappin, Julia; Hutchinson, Gerard; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; McGuffin, Peter; Murray, Robin M; Leff, Julian; Morgan, Craig

    2011-05-01

    An increasing number of studies are demonstrating an association between childhood abuse and psychosis. However, the majority of these rely on retrospective self-reports in adulthood that may be unduly influenced by current psychopathology. We therefore set out to explore the reliability and comparability of first-presentation psychosis patients' reports of childhood abuse. Psychosis case subjects were drawn from the Aetiology and Ethnicity of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (ÆSOP) epidemiological study and completed the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire to elicit abusive experiences that occurred prior to 16 years of age. High levels of concurrent validity were demonstrated with the Parental Bonding Instrument (antipathy: r(s)=0.350-0.737, P<.001; neglect: r(s)=0.688-0.715, P<.001), and good convergent validity was shown with clinical case notes (sexual abuse: κ=0.526, P<.001; physical abuse: κ=0.394, P<.001). Psychosis patients' reports were also reasonably stable over a 7-year period (sexual abuse: κ=0.590, P<.01; physical abuse: κ=0.634, P<.001; antipathy: κ=0.492, P<.01; neglect: κ=0.432, P<.05). Additionally, their reports of childhood abuse were not associated with current severity of psychotic symptoms (sexual abuse: U=1768.5, P=.998; physical abuse: U=2167.5, P=.815; antipathy: U=2216.5, P=.988; neglect: U=1906.0, P=.835) or depressed mood (sexual abuse: χ(2)=0.634, P=.277; physical abuse: χ(2)=0.159, P=.419; antipathy: χ(2)=0.868, P=.229; neglect: χ(2)=0.639, P=.274). These findings provide justification for the use in future studies of retrospective reports of childhood abuse obtained from individuals with psychotic disorders.

  14. Adverse Event Recording and Reporting in Clinical Trials Comparing Lumbar Disk Replacement with Lumbar Fusion: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    HIRATZKA, JAYME; Rastegar, Farbod; Contag, Alec G.; Norvell, Daniel C.; Anderson, Paul A.; Hart, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Objectives (1) To compare the quality of adverse event (AE) methodology and reporting among randomized trials comparing lumbar fusion with lumbar total disk replacement (TDR) using established AE reporting systems; (2) to compare the AEs and reoperations of lumbar spinal fusion with those from lumbar TDR; (3) to make recommendations on how to report AEs in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) so that surgeons and patients have more-detailed and comprehensive inf...

  15. Osteoid Osteoma of the Femoral Neck in Athletes: Two Case Reports Differentiating From Femoral Neck Stress Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Christopher B; Dembowski, Scott C; Johnson, Michael R; Combs, John J; Svoboda, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of an intra-articular osteoid osteoma can be a challenging and lengthy process, with reports of delayed diagnosis of greater than 2 years. In the young, athletic patient with an atraumatic onset of groin pain, an overuse injury or muscle strain is the most likely etiology. However, an overuse injury of femoral neck stress fracture must be identified because of the potentially disastrous outcome of fracture completion. The similar clinical presentation of a femoral neck stress fracture and intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the femoral neck can further delay the diagnosis of the osteoid osteoma. In a patient with these differential diagnoses that do not improve with a period of nonweightbearing activity, a more intensive workup must ensue. The purpose of this case report is to describe the initial presentations, subsequent follow-up, and imaging findings leading to the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma as well as to differentiate an osteoid osteoma from femoral neck stress injuries.

  16. Comparative study on glutathione transferases of rat brain and testis under the stress of phenobarbitol and β-methylcholanthrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THYAGARAJU K.; HEMAVATHI B.; VASUNDHARA K.; RAO A.D.; DEVI K.N.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study was made on the tissue specific expression of glutathione transferases (GST) in brain and testis after exposure of rat to phenobarbitol (PB) and 3-methylcholanthrene (MC). Glutathione transferases, a family of multifunctional proteins are involved in intracellular transport processes and in detoxication of electrophilic xenobiotics by catalyzing reactions such as conjugation, isomerization, reduction and thiolysis. On purification, the yield of GST proteins by affinity chromatography was 39% in testis and 32% in brain. The affinity purified testis GSTs were resolved by chromatofocusing into six anionic and four cationic isozymes, and in brain glutathione transferases were resolved into four anionic and three cationic isozymes, suggesting the presence of multiple isozymes with Yc, Yb, Y3 and Yδ in both of them. In testis and brain, these isozymes at identical pI values showed variable functions with a battery of substrates and the cationic isozymes of brain and testis showed identical properties in CHP (cumene hydroperoxide) at pH values of above 7.0. Substrate specificity studies and immunoblot analysis of testis and brain proteins revealed that they play a predominant role in the detoxication of phenobarbitol or 3-methylcholanthrene. Expression of the isozymes in testis and brain on exposure to PB and MC indicated elevated subunit variation. In both testis and brain, Yδ ofπclass was expressed on PB treatment and Yc of α class and Y3 of μ class was expressed in MC treated testis and only Yc was predominantly expressed in MC treated brain. Thus these subunits expression is considered as markers for carcinogenesis and specific to chemical toxicity under phenobarbitol and 13-methylcholanthrene stress.

  17. Comparative study on glutathione transferases of rat brain and testis under the stress of phenobarbitol and beta-methylcholanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagaraju, K; Hemavathi, B; Vasundhara, K; Rao, A D; Devi, K N

    2005-08-01

    A comparative study was made on the tissue specific expression of glutathione transferases (GST) in brain and testis after exposure of rat to phenobarbitol (PB) and b-methylcholanthrene (MC). Glutathione transferases, a family of multifunctional proteins are involved in intracellular transport processes and in detoxication of electrophilic xenobiotics by catalyzing reactions such as conjugation, isomerization, reduction and thiolysis. On purification, the yield of GST proteins by affinity chromatography was 39% in testis and 32% in brain. The affinity purified testis GSTs were resolved by chromatofocusing into six anionic and four cationic isozymes, and in brain glutathione transferases were resolved into four anionic and three cationic isozymes, suggesting the presence of multiple isozymes with Yc, Yb, Ybeta and Ydelta in both of them. In testis and brain, these isozymes at identical pI values showed variable functions with a battery of substrates and the cationic isozymes of brain and testis showed identical properties in CHP (cumene hydroperoxide) at pH values of above 7.0. Substrate specificity studies and immunoblot analysis of testis and brain proteins revealed that they play a predominant role in the detoxication of phenobarbitol or beta-methylcholanthrene. Expression of the isozymes in testis and brain on exposure to PB and MC indicated elevated subunit variation. In both testis and brain, Ydelta of pi class was expressed on PB treatment and Yc of alpha class and Ybeta of mu class was expressed in MC treated testis and only Yc was predominantly expressed in MC treated brain. Thus these subunits expression is considered as markers for carcinogenesis and specific to chemical toxicity under phenobarbitol and beta-methylcholanthrene stress.

  18. Comparative study on glutathione transferases of rat brain and testis under the stress of phenobarbitol and β-methylcholanthrene*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagaraju, K.; Hemavathi, B.; Vasundhara, K.; Rao, A.D.; Devi, K.N.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study was made on the tissue specific expression of glutathione transferases (GST) in brain and testis after exposure of rat to phenobarbitol (PB) and β-methylcholanthrene (MC). Glutathione transferases, a family of multifunctional proteins are involved in intracellular transport processes and in detoxication of electrophilic xenobiotics by catalyzing reactions such as conjugation, isomerization, reduction and thiolysis. On purification, the yield of GST proteins by affinity chromatography was 39% in testis and 32% in brain. The affinity purified testis GSTs were resolved by chromatofocusing into six anionic and four cationic isozymes, and in brain glutathione transferases were resolved into four anionic and three cationic isozymes, suggesting the presence of multiple isozymes with Yc, Yb, Yβ and Yδ in both of them. In testis and brain, these isozymes at identical pI values showed variable functions with a battery of substrates and the cationic isozymes of brain and testis showed identical properties in CHP (cumene hydroperoxide) at pH values of above 7.0. Substrate specificity studies and immunoblot analysis of testis and brain proteins revealed that they play a predominant role in the detoxication of phenobarbitol or β-methylcholanthrene. Expression of the isozymes in testis and brain on exposure to PB and MC indicated elevated subunit variation. In both testis and brain, Yδ of π class was expressed on PB treatment and Yc of α class and Yβ of μ class was expressed in MC treated testis and only Yc was predominantly expressed in MC treated brain. Thus these subunits expression is considered as markers for carcinogenesis and specific to chemical toxicity under phenobarbitol and β-methylcholanthrene stress. PMID:16052709

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Compared to Invasive Coronary Angiography With Fractional Flow Reserve Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takx, Richard A. P.; Blomberg, Bjorn A.; El Aidi, Hamza; Habets, Jesse; de Jong, Pim A.; Nagel, Eike; Hoffmann, Udo; Leiner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background-Hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease is an important indication for revascularization. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging is a noninvasive alternative to invasive fractional flow reserve for evaluating hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. The aim was to det

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PREOPERATIVE ULTRASONOGRAPHY REPORTS WITH INTRAOPERATIVE SURGICAL FINDINGS IN CHOLELITHIASIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Flávio; Cunha, Daniel José Dias; Ferreira, Carolina Cavalcanti Gonçalves; Rodrigues, Thais Menezes; Fulco, Lucas Gomes de Morais; Godoy, Eduardo Sávio Nascimento

    2016-03-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is widely used for cholelithiasis. Abdominal ultrasonography often precedes this operation and can prove diagnosis, as well as helps in showing possible complications during the perioperative period. Evaluate the description of variables of gallbladder and bile ducts present in reports of preoperative abdominal ultrasonography in cholelithiasis comparing with surgical findings. Were studied 91 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy with previous abdominal ultrasonography. Variables such as identification and amount of gallstones involved were evaluated, both in preoperative ultrasonography and during surgery to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, concordance and positive and negative predictive values. The reports did not mention diameter of vesicular light (98.9%), organ distension (62.6%), gallstone sizes (58.2%), wall thickness (41.8%) and evaluation of the common bile duct (39.6%). Ultrasound had high values for sensitivity, consistency and positive predictive value for identifying the presence/absence of gallstones: 98.8%, 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. As for the amount of stones, ultrasonography showed agreement in 82.7%, negative predictive value in 89.1% and specificity in 87.7%, with lower values for sensitivity (68.2%) and positive predictive value (65.2%). The ultrasound reports were flawed in standardization. Significant percentage of them did not have variables that could predict perioperative complications and surgical conversion.

  1. A comparative analysis of Patient-Reported Expanded Disability Status Scale tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christian DE; Ivry, Ben; Bowen, James D; Cheng, Eric M; Dobson, Ruth; Goodin, Douglas S; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Kappos, Ludwig; Galea, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Patient-Reported Expanded Disability Status Scale (PREDSS) tools are an attractive alternative to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) during long term or geographically challenging studies, or in pressured clinical service environments. Because the studies reporting these tools have used different metrics to compare the PREDSS and EDSS, we undertook an individual patient data level analysis of all available tools. Spearman's rho and the Bland-Altman method were used to assess correlation and agreement respectively. A systematic search for validated PREDSS tools covering the full EDSS range identified eight such tools. Individual patient data were available for five PREDSS tools. Excellent correlation was observed between EDSS and PREDSS with all tools. A higher level of agreement was observed with increasing levels of disability. In all tools, the 95% limits of agreement were greater than the minimum EDSS difference considered to be clinically significant. However, the intra-class coefficient was greater than that reported for EDSS raters of mixed seniority. The visual functional system was identified as the most significant predictor of the PREDSS-EDSS difference. This analysis will (1) enable researchers and service providers to make an informed choice of PREDSS tool, depending on their individual requirements, and (2) facilitate improvement of current PREDSS tools. © The Author(s), 2015.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Physiological and Biochemical Parameters and Survival of Chickens for the Effects of Microclimatic Stress Factors During Incubation

    OpenAIRE

    Indyuhova E.N.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of two experiments, the findings reflect the influence of temperature and moisture stress on physiological and biochemical parameters of chickens and their viability during embryonic and early postembryonic development. It was found that under the influence of stress factors recorded increase in lipid peroxidation in chickens from day-old experimental groups; showed a reduction in the intensity of the major metabolism of young chickens day old.

  3. Comparing the temporal stability of self-report and interview assessed personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Hopwood, Christopher J; Ansell, Emily B; Morey, Leslie C; Sanislow, Charles A; Markowitz, John C; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E; Grilo, Carlos M

    2011-08-01

    Findings from several large-scale, longitudinal studies over the last decade have challenged the long-held assumption that personality disorders (PDs) are stable and enduring. However, the findings, including those from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS; Gunderson et al., 2000), rely primarily on results from semistructured interviews. As a result, less is known about the stability of PD scores from self-report questionnaires, which differ from interviews in important ways (e.g., source of the ratings, item development, and instrument length) that might increase temporal stability. The current study directly compared the stability of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) PD constructs assessed via the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP-2; Clark, Simms, Wu, & Casillas, in press) with those from the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (Zanarini, Frankenburg, Sickel, & Yong, 1996) over 2 years in a sample of 529 CLPS participants. Specifically, we compared dimensional and categorical representations from both measures in terms of rank-order and mean-level stability. Results indicated that the dimensional scores from the self-report questionnaire had significantly greater rank-order (mean r=.69 vs. .59) and mean-level (mean d=0.21 vs. 0.30) stability. In contrast, categorical diagnoses from the two measures evinced comparable rank-order (mean κ=.38 vs. .37) and mean-level stability (median prevalence rate decrease of 3.5% vs. 5.6%). These findings suggest the stability of PD constructs depends at least partially on the method of assessment and are discussed in the context of previous research and future conceptualizations of personality pathology.

  4. TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF CAP CONCRETE STRESS AND STRAIN DUE TO SHRINKAGE, CREEP, AND EXPANSION FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, H.; Restivo, M.

    2011-08-01

    In-situ decommissioning of Reactors P- and R- at the Savannah River Site will require filling the reactor vessels with a special concrete based on materials such as magnesium phosphate, calcium aluminate or silica fume. Then the reactor vessels will be overlain with an 8 ft. thick layer of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) steel reinforced concrete, called the 'Cap Concrete'. The integrity of this protective layer must be assured to last for a sufficiently long period of time to avoid ingress of water into the reactor vessel and possible movement of radioactive contamination into the environment. During drying of this Cap Concrete however, shrinkage strains are set up in the concrete as a result of diffusion and evaporation of water from the top surface. This shrinkage varies with depth in the poured slab due to a non-uniform moisture distribution. This differential shrinkage results in restraint of the upper layers with larger shrinkage by lower layers with lesser displacements. Tensile stresses can develop at the surface from the strain gradients in the bulk slab, which can lead to surface cracking. Further, a mechanism called creep occurs during the curing period or early age produces strains under the action of restraining forces. To investigate the potential for surface cracking, an experimental and analytical program was started under TTQAP SRNL-RP-2009-01184. Slab sections made of Cap Concrete mixture were instrumented with embedded strain gages and relative humidity sensors and tested under controlled environmental conditions of 23 C and relative humidities (RH) of 40% and 80% over a period of 50 days. Calculation methods were also developed for predictions of stress development in the full-scale concrete placement over the reactor vessels. These methods were evaluated by simulating conditions for the test specimens and the calculation results compared to the experimental data. A closely similar test with strain gages was performed by Kim and Lee for

  5. The Effect of Meditation on Self-Reported Measures of Stress, Anxiety, Depression, and Perfectionism in a College Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jaimie L.; Lee, Randolph M.; Brown, Lauren J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of meditation, specifically Transcendental Meditation (TM), on college students' experience of stress, anxiety, depression, and perfectionistic thoughts was investigated using 43 undergraduate students. Self-report measures of the variables were completed prior to the start of the study. Student groups were trained in TM and practiced…

  6. BIOLOGICAL SEX, SEX-ROLE ORIENTATION, MASCULINE SEX-ROLE STRESS, DISSIMULATION AND SELF-REPORTED FEARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARRINDELL, WA; KOLK, AM; PICKERSGILL, MJ; HAGEMAN, WJJM

    1993-01-01

    Given meta-analytic findings showing females to be generally more fearful than males on multi-dimensional self-report measures of fear, an empirical attempt was made to examine whether this outcome could be explained by psychological factors such as sex role orientation and masculine sex role stress

  7. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  8. The Effect of Meditation on Self-Reported Measures of Stress, Anxiety, Depression, and Perfectionism in a College Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jaimie L.; Lee, Randolph M.; Brown, Lauren J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of meditation, specifically Transcendental Meditation (TM), on college students' experience of stress, anxiety, depression, and perfectionistic thoughts was investigated using 43 undergraduate students. Self-report measures of the variables were completed prior to the start of the study. Student groups were trained in TM and practiced…

  9. Status report. Characterization of Weld Residual Stresses on a Full-Diameter SNF Interim Storage Canister Mockup.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report documents the mockup specifications and manufacturing processes; the initial cutting of the mockup into three cylindrical pieces for testing and the measured strain changes that occurred during the cutting process; and the planned weld residual stress characterization activities and the status of those activities.

  10. Novel whole-cell Reporter Assay for Stress-Based Classification of Antibacterial Compounds Produced by Locally Isolated Bacillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Nithya, Vadakedath; Halami, Prakash M.

    2012-01-01

    Reporter bacteria are beneficial for the rapid and sensitive screening of cultures producing peptide antibiotics, which can be an addition or alternative to the established antibiotics. This study was carried out to validate the usability of specific reporter strains for the target mediated identification of antibiotics produced by native Bacillus spp. isolated from different food sources. During preliminary classification, cell wall stress causing Bacillus isolates were screened by using rep...

  11. Comparing a tablet computer and paper forms for assessing patient-reported outcomes in edentulous patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Thais Angelina; Ribeiro, Adriana Barbosa; Della Vecchia, Maria Paula; Cunha, Tatiana Ramirez; Chaves, Carolina de Andrade Lima

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine whether two methods of documentation, print and electronic forms, for the assessment of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in complete denture wearers provide comparable results. The study also quantified the time needed for filling the forms by each method. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty participants enrolled in a university clinic answered two forms (a questionnaire for denture satisfaction and OHIP-EDENT). They provided answers with two application methods in a random order, with a one-month interval between them: (1) electronic forms on a tablet computer; and (2) print forms. The methods were compared in terms of mean results, correlation/agreement, internal consistency, and spent time. RESULTS Mean results for both methods were similar for each denture satisfaction item (100-mm VAS) and OHIP-EDENT summary score. Both questionnaires presented good internal consistency regardless of the application method (Cronbach's α=0.86 or higher). Correlation and agreement between the methods regarding specific items was at least moderate for the majority of cases. Mean time for the electronic and print forms were 9.2 and 8.5 minutes, respectively (paired t test, P=.06, non-significant). CONCLUSION The electronic method is comparable to print forms for the assessment of important PRO of prosthetic treatment for edentulism, considering the results and time needed. Findings suggest the viability of replacing print forms with a tablet for applying the tested inventories in clinical trials. PMID:28018563

  12. Investigation of reliability attributes and accelerated stress factors on terrestrial solar cells. Third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lathrop, J.W.; Hartman, R.A.; Saylor, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    The third year of the accelerated reliability testing program concentrated on electrical measurement instrumentation and in modeling cell behavior in the second quadrant. In addition, some preliminary work was done on correlating cell color changes with electrical degradation. Not reported are results of continuing accelerated stress tests on state of the art cells. A number of new cells were added to the program, but not in time for sufficient data to be obtained, while the older cells are undergoing extended test periods and new data are not yet available on them. The all-digital, microprocessor controlled, short interval tester, which was designed and fabricated, has replaced the manual measurement procedure formerly used. This has improved measurement accuracy and repeatability, reduced measurement time, and through coordinated data management procedures, eliminated data errors. A complete description of the tester including schematics and software is given and its operating procedures described. A computer model, based on the thermal and electrical properties of the cells and encapsulating materials, was developed to relate cell temperature to electrical characteristics in the second quadrant. This model adequately predicted the behavior of both encapsulated and unencapsulated cells, although accurate temperature measurements on encapsulated cells were difficult to obtain. In addition, only cells of one type were used for comparison and other cell types may require different parameter values for fitting. Use of the model should permit the prediction of a cell's sensitivity to degradation in the second quadrant. The computer program is listed together with a description of its operation.

  13. An Emotional Stress as a Trigger for Reverse Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaryan, Aram; Bailuc, Stefania L.; Patel, Krishan; Raqeem, Muhammad Wajih; Thakur, Atul; Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 61 Final Diagnosis: Reverse Takotsubo Symptoms: Dyspnea • chest pain Medication: Lisinopril • Metoprolol • Aspirin • Atorvastatin • Ticagrelor Clinical Procedure: Cardiac catheterization Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: Reverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is one of the rarest types of stress-induced cardiomyopathy, which despite sharing similar pathogenic mechanisms with its more common counterpart, has different clinical manifestations, demographics, and laboratory values. Case Report: We present the case of a 61-year-old woman who came to the hospital with a chief complaint of chest pain and dyspnea. She was found to have elevated troponin and severely depressed left ventricular function. Echocardiography showed normal contracting apex, with the rest of the left ventricle being hypokinetic. Cardiac catheterization revealed mild coronary artery disease and confirmed echocardiographic findings showing hyperkinetic apex and dilated base. She was discharged home on ACE inhibitor and B-blocker. A repeat echocardiogram 2 weeks after the initial presentation showed complete resolution of cardiac dysfunction. Conclusions: Reverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a rare disease mimicking acute coronary syndrome. It is essential to rule out organic coronary disease prior to attributing the presentation to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. With supportive care, the long-term prognosis is good in the vast majority of patients. PMID:26946334

  14. Ustekinumab Treatment of Erythrodermic Psoriasis Occurring after Physical Stress: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita Saraceno

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Erythrodermic psoriasis (EP is a severe form of psoriasis precipitated by numerous factors, including physical stress, infections, and drugs. The disease represents a therapeutic challenge, and little is known about its response to ustekinumab. Though the efficacy of ustekinumab has been extensively studied in chronic plaque psoriasis, no trials have been carried out in EP. We report the case of 2 patients, 1 male and 1 female, who showed EP despite being treated with etanercept and methotrexate for chronic plaque psoriasis, respectively. The patients were treated with ustekinumab at a dosage of 45 mg s.c. They showed a significant improvement in their Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score after only 4 weeks of ustekinumab therapy, and further improvements were observed throughout the treatment. In our experience, ustekinumab has been proven safe and effective, without increasing the dosage, in controlling and preventing the occurrence of erythrodermic flares. Ustekinumab therapy may therefore be considered a valid therapeutic option for the treatment of EP, even in cases where other biological agents have failed.

  15. Medication errors: an analysis comparing PHICO's closed claims data and PHICO's Event Reporting Trending System (PERTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, David M; Pendrak, Robert F

    2003-07-01

    Clinical pharmacologists are all dedicated to improving the use of medications and decreasing medication errors and adverse drug reactions. However, quality improvement requires that some significant parameters of quality be categorized, measured, and tracked to provide benchmarks to which future data (performance) can be compared. One of the best ways to accumulate data on medication errors and adverse drug reactions is to look at medical malpractice data compiled by the insurance industry. Using data from PHICO insurance company, PHICO's Closed Claims Data, and PHICO's Event Reporting Trending System (PERTS), this article examines the significance and trends of the claims and events reported between 1996 and 1998. Those who misread history are doomed to repeat the mistakes of the past. From a quality improvement perspective, the categorization of the claims and events is useful for reengineering integrated medication delivery, particularly in a hospital setting, and for redesigning drug administration protocols on low therapeutic index medications and "high-risk" drugs. Demonstrable evidence of quality improvement is being required by state laws and by accreditation agencies. The state of Florida requires that quality improvement data be posted quarterly on the Web sites of the health care facilities. Other states have followed suit. The insurance industry is concerned with costs, and medication errors cost money. Even excluding costs of litigation, an adverse drug reaction may cost up to $2500 in hospital resources, and a preventable medication error may cost almost $4700. To monitor costs and assess risk, insurance companies want to know what errors are made and where the system has broken down, permitting the error to occur. Recording and evaluating reliable data on adverse drug events is the first step in improving the quality of pharmacotherapy and increasing patient safety. Cost savings and quality improvement evolve on parallel paths. The PHICO data

  16. The comparative study of anatomical structure of stem and ovule development of four cultivars of Glycine max L. merr in water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissa Jonoubi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the most important limiting factors that affect different aspects of plants vegetative and reproductive growth. It is one of the most important limiting factors of crop productivity. Regarding to the importance of soybean as an oilseed plant, and in order to identify the drought tolerant cultivars as well as evaluating of the effects of drought stress on anatomical structureof four soybean cultivars (Clin, Clark, M9 and L17, two series of experiments were carried out as randomized complete design. In the first experiment, at optimum conditions, plants were irrigated after 50 mm evaporation from germination to the end of growing period, whereas the second experiment was irrigated after 150 mm (sever stress evaporation from evaporation pan. The results showed that the effect of water deficit stress on cortex thickness and number of layers, Phloem and xylem thickness, diameter of vessel elements, number of vessel element rows, number of vessel elements in stem, pith and stele thickness, stem diameter and number of trichomes were significant. Relative acceleration of embryo sac development was observed in all plants under water deficit stress except for Clark cultivar. Evaluation of anatomical factors on these cultivars showed that Clin cultivar was more tolerant to water deficit stress compared to other cultivars.

  17. Return to work outcomes of the Redesigning Daily Occupations (ReDO) program for women with stress-related disorders--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Mona; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2011-11-01

    Stress-related disorders are a frequent cause for sick leave, with consequences such as great distress and adverse economic effects for the affected person and substantial costs for society. Identifying effective interventions that facilitate return to work is thus important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the 16-week Redesigning Daily Occupations program as a work rehabilitation method for Swedish women with stress-related disorders. The authors of this study hypothesized that, compared to women who got Care as Usual, 12 months after completed rehabilitation a larger proportion of the Redesigning Daily Occupations women would have returned to work, and they would have less sick leave, perceive less stress, and have greater self-esteem. Forty-two women entered the Redesigning Daily Occupations intervention and a matched comparison group received Care as Usual. The data, collected between 2007 and 2010, consisted of registry information and questionnaires targeting socio-demographics, perceived stress, and self-esteem. The findings partly verified the hypotheses. A larger proportion of the Redesigning Daily Occupations women returned to work and they decreased their sick leave and increased their self-esteem more than the Care as Usual group, but the groups did not differ in stress reduction. Thus, the Redesigning Daily Occupations seems to be a promising work rehabilitation method for women with stress-related disorders.

  18. Comparing Service Delivery Models for Children with Developmental Delays in Canada: Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviours, Parental Perceptions of Stress and of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Fontil, Laura; Miodrag, Nancy; Karagiannakis, Anastasia; Amar, Daniel; Amos, Janet

    2017-01-01

    This study compares two service delivery models (community-based and centre-based), examining them in light of children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours, and parental perceptions of stress and of care. More specifically, parents of 96 children with developmental delays assessed their children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours and rated…

  19. The self-reported health of U.S. flight attendants compared to the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Eileen; Gale, Sara; Tager, Ira; Kincl, Laurel; Bradley, Julie; Coull, Brent; Hecker, Steve

    2014-03-10

    Few studies have examined the broad health effects of occupational exposures in flight attendants apart from disease-specific morbidity and mortality studies. We describe the health status of flight attendants and compare it to the U.S. population. In addition, we explore whether the prevalence of major health conditions in flight attendants is associated with length of exposure to the aircraft environment using job tenure as a proxy. We surveyed flight attendants from two domestic U.S. airlines in 2007 and compared the prevalence of their health conditions to contemporaneous cohorts in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES), 2005-2006 and 2007-2008. We weighted the prevalence of flight attendant conditions to match the age distribution in the NHANES and compared the two populations stratified by gender using the Standardized Prevalence Ratio (SPR). For leading health conditions in flight attendants, we analyzed the association between job tenure and health outcomes in logistic regression models. Compared to the NHANES population (n =5,713), flight attendants (n = 4,011) had about a 3-fold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence of chronic bronchitis despite considerably lower levels of smoking. In addition, the prevalence of cardiac disease in female flight attendants was 3.5 times greater than the general population while their prevalence of hypertension and being overweight was significantly lower. Flight attendants reported 2 to 5.7 times more sleep disorders, depression, and fatigue, than the general population. Female flight attendants reported 34% more reproductive cancers. Health conditions that increased with longer job tenure as a flight attendant were chronic bronchitis, heart disease in females, skin cancer, hearing loss, depression and anxiety, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), education, and smoking. This study found higher rates of specific diseases in flight attendants than the general population. Longer

  20. Effect of root canal treatment procedures with a novel rotary nickel titanium instrument (TRUShape) on stress in mandibular molars: a comparative finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonessio, Noemi; Arias, Ana; Lomiento, Guiseppe; Peters, Ove A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare, via finite element analysis (FEA), the effects of endodontic access and canal preparation on stress distribution under functional loading of a mandibular molar treated with novel (TRUShape) and conventional (Vortex) rotary root canal preparation instruments. Identical plastic mandibular molars with natural anatomy had all 4 canals shaped with either TRUShape or a conventional rotary, Vortex (#20 and #30, both by Dentsply Tulsa Dental). Finite element analysis was used to evaluate stress distribution in untreated and treated models. Micro-computed tomography (MCT) of the extracted teeth shaped in vitro was used to inform the FEA model regarding the geometry of root canals and external surfaces. Modeling the intact periodontal support and cancellous/cortical bone was based on anatomical data. Profiles of average and maximum von Mises stresses in dentin of the four treated conditions under functional loading were compared to the untreated model. This comparison was performed for each tooth model with and without root canal obturation and composite restoration. On average, the dentin sections with the most changes after preparation were located in the access cavity, with average stress increase up to +5.7, +8.5, +8.9, and +10.2 % for the TRUShape #20, Vortex #20, TRUShape #30 and Vortex #30, respectively, relative to the untreated model. Within the root canal system, the average stress differences were smaller than finite element analysis, preparation of the access cavity resulted in increased von Mises stresses under functional occlusal load. The limited (up to 0.7 %) retained radicular dentin in the TRUShape versus the Vortex cavity proved effective in reducing masticatory stresses. The bonded restoration modeled in this study only partially counterbalance the combined effects of access cavity and root canal preparation.

  1. Comparative expression profile of NOD1/2 and certain acute inflammatory cytokines in thermal-stressed cell culture model of native and crossbred cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V.; Singh, Umesh; Sengar, Gyanendra Singh; Raja, T. V.; Sajjanar, Basavraj; Alex, Rani; Kumar, Sushil; Alyethodi, R. R.; Kumar, Ashish; Sharma, Ankur; Kumar, Suresh; Bhusan, Bharat; Deb, Rajib

    2017-05-01

    Thermotolerance depends mainly on the health and immune status of the animals. The variation in the immune status of the animals may alter the level of tolerance of animals exposed to heat or cold stress. The present study was conducted to investigate the expression profile of two important nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain receptors (NLRs) (NOD1 and NOD2) and their central signalling molecule RIP2 gene during in vitro thermal-stressed bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of native (Sahiwal) and crossbred (Sahiwal X HF) cattle. We also examined the differential expression profile of certain acute inflammatory cytokines in in vitro thermal-stressed PBMC culture among native and its crossbred counterparts. Results revealed that the expression profile of NOD1/2 positively correlates with the thermal stress, signalling molecule and cytokines. Present findings also highlighted that the expression patterns during thermal stress were comparatively superior among indigenous compared to crossbred cattle which may add references regarding the better immune adaptability of Zebu cattle.

  2. Comparative expression profile of NOD1/2 and certain acute inflammatory cytokines in thermal-stressed cell culture model of native and crossbred cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V.; Singh, Umesh; Sengar, Gyanendra Singh; Raja, T. V.; Sajjanar, Basavraj; Alex, Rani; Kumar, Sushil; Alyethodi, R. R.; Kumar, Ashish; Sharma, Ankur; Kumar, Suresh; Bhusan, Bharat; Deb, Rajib

    2016-11-01

    Thermotolerance depends mainly on the health and immune status of the animals. The variation in the immune status of the animals may alter the level of tolerance of animals exposed to heat or cold stress. The present study was conducted to investigate the expression profile of two important nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain receptors (NLRs) (NOD1 and NOD2) and their central signalling molecule RIP2 gene during in vitro thermal-stressed bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of native (Sahiwal) and crossbred (Sahiwal X HF) cattle. We also examined the differential expression profile of certain acute inflammatory cytokines in in vitro thermal-stressed PBMC culture among native and its crossbred counterparts. Results revealed that the expression profile of NOD1/2 positively correlates with the thermal stress, signalling molecule and cytokines. Present findings also highlighted that the expression patterns during thermal stress were comparatively superior among indigenous compared to crossbred cattle which may add references regarding the better immune adaptability of Zebu cattle.

  3. Comparative effect of biofertilizers with chemical fertilizers on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. growth, yield and oil percentage in different drought stress levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pirasteh Anosheh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, environment protection and safe crop production are very important. The management of soil elements by bio-fertilizers is considered as important point for sustainable agriculture. Mode of action of fertilizers is very different in drought stress conditions. To evaluate biological fertilizers (agrohumic, nitroxin, superabsorbent and vermicompost and compare them with current chemical fertilizers (N, P and K in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. at different drought stress levels (100% as control, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity, a greenhouse experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with 20 treatments and 3 replications at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University in 2010. Results showed that drought stress effect was significant on plant height, head diameter, biological yield (BY, grain yield (GY, and harvest index (HI; however, it did not affect oil percentage. Highest HI was obtained at 50% F.C, Also the highest grain yield and plant height were observed in bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizer, respectively. The most grain yield achieved under control and severe drought stress conditions were found in nitroxin and superabsorbent, respectively. Fertilizers had significant effect on plant height and grain yield. Generally, bio-fertilizers particularly superabsorbent and vermicompost had better responses to drought stress, compared to chemical fertilizers, which was due to higher ability of them in water maintenance. According to results of this investigation, bio-fertilizers seem to be useful under limited moisture conditions to alleviate water deficit effects.

  4. Ethnicity, work-related stress and subjective reports of health by migrant workers: a multi-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Roberto; Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-11-16

    This study integrates different aspects of ethnicity and work-related stress dimensions (based on the Demands-Resources-Individual-Effects model, DRIVE [Mark, G. M., and A. P. Smith. 2008. "Stress Models: A Review and Suggested New Direction." In Occupational Health Psychology, edited by J. Houdmont and S. Leka, 111-144. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press]) and aims to test a multi-dimensional model that combines individual differences, ethnicity dimensions, work characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction/stress as independent variables in the prediction of subjectives reports of health by workers differing in ethnicity. A questionnaire consisting of the following sections was submitted to 900 workers in Southern Italy: for individual and cultural characteristics, coping strategies, personality behaviours, and acculturation strategies; for work characteristics, perceived job demands and job resources/rewards; for appraisals, perceived job stress/satisfaction and racial discrimination; for subjective reports of health, psychological disorders and general health. To test the reliability and construct validity of the extracted factors referred to all dimensions involved in the proposed model and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the main effects of the independent variables on the health outcomes were conducted. Principal component analysis (PCA) yielded seven factors for individual and cultural characteristics (emotional/relational coping, objective coping, Type A behaviour, negative affectivity, social inhibition, affirmation/maintenance culture, and search identity/adoption of the host culture); three factors for work characteristics (work demands, intrinsic/extrinsic rewards, and work resources); three factors for appraisals (perceived job satisfaction, perceived job stress, perceived racial discrimination) and three factors for subjective reports of health (interpersonal disorders, anxious-depressive disorders, and general health). Logistic

  5. Placement of endosseous implant in infected alveolar socket with large fenestration defect: A comparative case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Anitha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Placement of endosseous implants into infected bone is often deferred or avoided due to fear of failure. However, with the development of guided bone regeneration [GBR], some implantologists have reported successful implant placement in infected sockets, even those with fenestration defects. We had the opportunity to compare the osseointegration of an immediate implant placed in an infected site associated with a large buccal fenestration created by the removal of a root stump with that of a delayed implant placed 5 years after extraction. Both implants were placed in the same patient, in the same dental quadrant by the same implantologist. GBR was used with the fenestration defect being filled with demineralized bone graftFNx01 and covered with collagen membraneFNx08. Both implants were osseointegrated and functional when followed up after 12 months.

  6. Suicide Rates in Greece: Comparing Mortality Data with Police Reporting Statistics and Investigating Recent Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tragaki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes recent suicide trends in Greece. It relies on two separate databases, vital statistics and police records, the latter never having been explored before. Those datasets present a different picture about the suicide rates and trends, confirming the crucial importance of data reliability and consistency in time trend analysis. Frequencies and ratios were calculated and compared using paired sample t-tests. Overtime trend changes were detected applying segment regression analysis on both data collections. Our findings suggest that there are important differences between vital and police statistics on suicides. At national level, over the period 1990–2013, vital statistics reported an average of 7 percent more suicides, annually. Differences were more pronounced among women and younger ages. Both datasets confirm a change in total suicide trends during recent recession, but police data analysis supports that increases are less impressive than vital statistics claim.

  7. Occupational Stress and the Mental and Physical Health of Factory Workers. Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James S.

    A study assessed the relation of potentially stressful objective job characteristics and perceived psychosocial job stress and the relation of both of these to a variety of indicators of physical and mental health. The study also determined whether any of these relationships were conditioned by a variety of individual characteristics (age,…

  8. Reducing Stress within the Rehabilitative Work Setting - A Report on the ROSE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John S. G.; Denny, Margaret

    Reducing Occupational Stress in Employment (ROSE) is an EU funded project which aims to develop a combined person and work directed stress management programme in order to improve the long-term retention of staff in the vocational rehabilitation sector for mental health and intellectual disabilities.

  9. Reported awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion in China compared to Thailand, Australia and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Yong, H-H; Borland, R; Fong, G T; Thompson, M E; Jiang, Y; Yang, Y; Sirirassamee, B; Hastings, G; Harris, F

    2009-01-01

    Background: China currently does not have comprehensive laws or regulations on tobacco advertising and promotion, although it ratified the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in October 2005 and promised to ban all tobacco advertising by January 2011. Much effort is needed to monitor the current situation of tobacco advertising and promotion in China. Objective: This study aims to examine levels of awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion among smokers in China as compared to other countries with different levels of restrictions. Methods: One developing country (Thailand) and two developed countries (Australia and the USA) were selected for comparison. All four countries are part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey project. Between 2005 and 2006, parallel ITC surveys were conducted among adult smokers (at least smoked weekly) in China (n = 4763), Thailand (n = 2000), Australia (n = 1767) and the USA (n = 1780). Unprompted and prompted recall of noticing tobacco advertising and promotion were measured. Results: Chinese respondents reported noticing tobacco advertisements in a range of channels and venues, with highest exposure levels on television (34.5%), billboards (33.4%) and in stores (29.2%). A quarter of respondents noticed tobacco sponsorships, and a high level of awareness of promotion was reported. Cross-country comparison reveals that overall reported awareness was significantly higher in China than in Thailand (particularly) and Australia, but lower than in the USA. Conclusions: There is a big gap between China and the better-performing countries such as Thailand and Australia regarding tobacco promotion restrictions. China needs to do more, including enhanced policy and more robust enforcement. PMID:19332425

  10. Reported awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion in China compared to Thailand, Australia and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Yong, H-H; Borland, R; Fong, G T; Thompson, M E; Jiang, Y; Yang, Y; Sirirassamee, B; Hastings, G; Harris, F

    2009-06-01

    China currently does not have comprehensive laws or regulations on tobacco advertising and promotion, although it ratified the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in October 2005 and promised to ban all tobacco advertising by January 2011. Much effort is needed to monitor the current situation of tobacco advertising and promotion in China. This study aims to examine levels of awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion among smokers in China as compared to other countries with different levels of restrictions. One developing country (Thailand) and two developed countries (Australia and the USA) were selected for comparison. All four countries are part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey project. Between 2005 and 2006, parallel ITC surveys were conducted among adult smokers (at least smoked weekly) in China (n = 4763), Thailand (n = 2000), Australia (n = 1767) and the USA (n = 1780). Unprompted and prompted recall of noticing tobacco advertising and promotion were measured. Chinese respondents reported noticing tobacco advertisements in a range of channels and venues, with highest exposure levels on television (34.5%), billboards (33.4%) and in stores (29.2%). A quarter of respondents noticed tobacco sponsorships, and a high level of awareness of promotion was reported. Cross-country comparison reveals that overall reported awareness was significantly higher in China than in Thailand (particularly) and Australia, but lower than in the USA. There is a big gap between China and the better-performing countries such as Thailand and Australia regarding tobacco promotion restrictions. China needs to do more, including enhanced policy and more robust enforcement.

  11. Considering benefits and harms of duloxetine for treatment of stress urinary incontinence: a meta-analysis of clinical study reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maund, Emma; Guski, Louise Schow; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    score (mean difference 3.24, 95% CI 2.00 to 4.48). However, the effect sizes were small, and a sensitivity analysis (with removal of one trial) showed that the number needed to treat for a Patient Global Impression of Improvement rating of "much better or very much better" was 8 (95% CI 6 to 13......Abstract Background: The European Medicines Agency makes clinical study reports publicly available and publishes reasons for not approving applications for marketing authorization. Duloxetine has been approved in Europe for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. The reported adverse...... effects of duloxetine include mental health problems and suicidality. We obtained clinical study reports from the European Medicines Agency concerning use of this drug for stress urinary incontinence. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of 4 randomized placebo-controlled trials of duloxetine (involving...

  12. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Therapy Improves Patient and Caregiver-Reported Outcomes in Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Ellwood, Michael; Ainger, Timothy; Burroughs, Thomas; Fagan, Andrew; Gavis, Edith A; Heuman, Douglas M; Fuchs, Michael; John, Binu; Wade, James B

    2017-07-27

    Patient-reported outcomes such as health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are impaired in cirrhosis due to under-treated mood and sleep disorders, which can adversely impact their caregivers. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) can improve patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in non-cirrhotic patients but their impact in cirrhosis is unclear. To evaluate the effect of MBSR and supportive group therapy on mood, sleep and HRQOL in cirrhotic patients and their caregivers. Cirrhotic outpatients with mild depression (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)>14) on screening with an adult caregiver were enrolled. At baseline, BDI, sleep (Pittsburgh sleep quality index PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, ESS), anxiety (Beck Anxiety inventory) and HRQOL (Sickness Impact Profile, SIP) for both patients/caregivers and caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview Short-form, ZBI-SF and perceived caregiver burden, PCB) and patient covert HE(CHE) status were measured. Patients who had BDI>14 at baseline, along with their caregivers then underwent a structured MBSR program with four weekly hour-long group sessions interspersed with home practice using CDs. After the last group, all questionnaires were repeated. 20 patient/caregiver dyads were included. All patients were men (60±8 years MELD 12.9±5.7, 14 prior hepatic encephalopathy (HE)) while most caregivers (n=15) were women (55±12 years, 23±14 years of relationship, 65% spouses). There was no change in patient BDI between screening and baseline (20.1±11.2 vs. 19.0±10.6, P=0.81). All dyads were able to complete the four MBSR+supportive group therapy sessions. There was a significant improvement in BDI (19.0±10.6 vs.15.6±8.2 P=0.01), PSQI (7.2±3.7 vs. 5.5±3.7, P<0.001) and overall HRQOL (25.0±13.2 vs. 17.7±14.0,P=0.01) but not in anxiety or CHE rates in patients. Similarly caregiver burden (ZBI-SF13.0±9.0 vs. 9.8±6.9,P=0.04, Perceived burden 72.1±29.9 vs. 63.0±14.5,P=0.05) and depression reduced (BDI 9.1±7.8 vs. 5.9±6.0,P=0

  13. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of the heat stress response in the filamentous fungus Metarhizium anisopliae using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhang-Xun; Zhou, Xia-Zhi; Meng, Hui-Min; Liu, Yu-Jun; Zhou, Quan; Huang, Bo

    2014-06-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is widely used for biological control of a variety of insect pests. The effectiveness of the microbial pest control agent, however, is limited by poor thermotolerance. The molecular mechanism underlying the response to heat stress in the conidia of entomopathogenic fungi remains unclear. Here, we conducted high-throughput RNA-Seq to analyze the differential gene expression between control and heat treated conidia of M. anisopliae at the transcriptome level. RNA-Seq analysis generated 6,284,262 and 5,826,934 clean reads in the control and heat treated groups, respectively. A total of 2,722 up-regulated and 788 down-regulated genes, with a cutoff of twofold change, were identified by expression analysis. Among these differentially expressed genes, many were related to metabolic processes, biological regulation, cellular processes and response to stimuli. The majority of genes involved in endocytic pathways, proteosome pathways and regulation of autophagy were up-regulated, while most genes involved in the ribosome pathway were down-regulated. These results suggest that these differentially expressed genes may be involved in the heat stress response in conidia. As expected, significant changes in expression levels of genes encoding heat shock proteins and proteins involved in trehalose accumulation were observed in conditions of heat stress. These results expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the heat stress response of conidia and provide a foundation for future investigations.

  14. Measuring Levels of Stress and Depression in Mothers of Children Using Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Santhi S; Prakash, S. G. R.; Ravichandran, Aparna; Susan, K. Y.; Alex, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    Hearing impairment is an exceptional circumstance that restricts the child's ability to communicate verbally. Depression is a common stress-related response for hearing parents of children with hearing loss. Evidence suggests that mothers are more inclined than fathers to experience depression in response to their child's hearing loss (Mavrolas,…

  15. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Bai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS rice Y58S and P64S (Pei’ai64S were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress.

  16. The Comparative Effectiveness of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Male Veterans Treated in a VHA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Residential Rehabilitation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jennifer; McLean, Caitlin; Harris, Alex H. S.; Rosen, Craig S.; Ruzek, Josef I.; Kimerling, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effectiveness of group cognitive processing therapy (CPT) relative to trauma-focused group treatment as usual (TAU) in the context of a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) residential rehabilitation program. Method: Participants were 2 cohorts of male patients in the same program…

  17. The Comparative Effectiveness of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Male Veterans Treated in a VHA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Residential Rehabilitation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jennifer; McLean, Caitlin; Harris, Alex H. S.; Rosen, Craig S.; Ruzek, Josef I.; Kimerling, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effectiveness of group cognitive processing therapy (CPT) relative to trauma-focused group treatment as usual (TAU) in the context of a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) residential rehabilitation program. Method: Participants were 2 cohorts of male patients in the same program…

  18. The presence of a dog attenuates cortisol and heart rate in the Trier Social Stress Test compared to human friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polheber, John P; Matchock, Robert L

    2014-10-01

    Limited research has addressed how social support in the form of a pet can affect both sympathetic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity in response to a psychological challenge. The present study examined the effects of social support on salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR). Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to three different conditions (human friend, novel dog, or control). All participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test and provided cortisol, HR, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measures. For participants paired with a dog, overall cortisol levels were attenuated throughout the experimental procedure, and HR was attenuated during the Trier Social Stress Test. For all groups, state anxiety increased after the Trier Social Stress Test, and HR during the Trier Social Stress Test was a predictor of cortisol. These results suggest that short-term exposure to a novel dog in an unfamiliar setting can be beneficial. They also suggest a possible mechanism for the beneficial effect associated with affiliation with pets.

  19. A comparative evaluation of acute stress and corticosterone on the process of learning and emotional memory in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaei AA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Previous studies suggested that stressful events that release Glucocorticoid from adrenal cortex and also injection of agonists of glucocorticoids receptors probably affect emotional learning and memory process and modulate them. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute stress and systemic injection of Corticosterone (as agonist of glucocorticoid receptors on acquisition (ACQ, consolidation (CONS and retrieval (RET of emotional memory in rat. "nMethods: In this experimental study we used 180 male Wistar rats (220-250. At the first rats was training in one trial inhibitory avoidance task. On the retention test given 48 h after training, the latency to re-enter the dark compartment of the apparatus (Step-through latency, STL and the time spent in light chamber (TLC were recorded during 10 min test. Intraperitoneal corticosterone in doses of 0.5, 1 and 3mg/kg injected 30min before, immediately after instruction and 30min before retrieval test. Also some groups received 10min stressful stimulation by restrainer at the same time. At the end locomotor's activity was measured for all animals. "nResults: The data indicated that administration of corticosterone 30min before ACQ (1mg/kg, and immediately after CONS (1, 3mg/kg enhance and 30min before RET (1, 3mg/kg impair emotional memory (p<0.05. Acute stress impaired emotional memory in all phases (p<0.05. Also acute stress and injection of Corticosterone have not significantly affect motor activity.  "nConclusions: These findings show that Glucocorticoid receptors in activation dependently plays an important role in modulation of emotional spatial memory processes (ACQ, CONS and RET in new information for emotional events and these effects varies in different phases.

  20. Effect of Short Term NaCl Stress on Cultivars of S. lycopersicum: A Comparative Biochemical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Roy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a crop plant with high fruit nutritive value and other useful properties. The cultivation of this species is dependent on many environmental factors, e.g. temperature, salinity, nutrients etc, affecting the yield and reproductive potential of the plant. Salinity in soil or water is of increasing importance to agriculture because it causes stress to crop plants. Plants exposed to an excess amount of salts such as NaCl undergo osmotic stress, water deficit and ionic imbalances and can increase production of reactive oxygen species(ROS. Higher plants possess very efficient enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative defense mechanisms that allow the scavenging of ROS and protection of cellular components from oxidative damage. Studies were conducted to investigate the effect of short term salinity stress on some physiological alterations in three tomato cultivars Pusa Ruby(PR, Punjab Keshari (PK and Ailsa Craig(AC. Some biochemical parameters (anthocyanin and carotenoeid content, polyamines, proline, cysteine, peroxidase and malondialdehyde were set and applied at two month old stage of tomato plants. Three tomato cultivars were grown in 0.5xMS for 2 months and at this stage, they were treated with 0 and 200mM NaCl for a short period of six hours in hydroponic conditions. The genotypes exhibited different responses in terms of different osmoprotectant, antioxidant, and pigment level. The relationships among the salinity and accumulation of these compounds in leaf were then determined. It was concluded that, tomato cultivars under study responded differently showing their sensitivity or tolerance to salinity stress. Among three cultivars PK appeared to be more tolerant genotype than the other two cultivars PR and AC. PK could rapidly evolve physiological and antioxidant mechanisms to adapt to salt and manage the oxidative stress. The research was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications.

  1. Comparative Study of Teachers in Regular Schools and Teachers in Specialized Schools in France, Working with Students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Stress, Social Support, Coping Strategies and Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujut, Emilie; Dean, Annika; Grouselle, Amélie; Cappe, Emilie

    2016-09-01

    The inclusion of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in schools is a source of stress for teachers. Specialized teachers have, in theory, received special training. To compare the experiences of teachers dealing with students with ASD in different classroom environments. A total of 245 teachers filled out four self-report questionnaires measuring perceived stress, social support, coping strategies, and burnout. Specialized teachers perceive their teaching as a challenge, can count on receiving help from colleagues, use more problem-focused coping strategies and social support seeking behavior, and are less emotionally exhausted than teachers in regular classes. This study highlights that teachers in specialized schools and classes have better adjustment, probably due to their training, experience, and tailored classroom conditions.

  2. The association of the reporting of somatic symptoms with job stress and active coping among Japanese white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kyoko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Sato, Mikiya; Ishikawa, Hirono; Yano, Eiji

    2007-09-01

    To assess the associations between job stress and somatic symptoms and to investigate the effect of individual coping on these associations. In July 2006, a cross-sectional study was conducted during a periodic health check-up of 185 Japanese male office workers (21-66 yr old) at a Japanese company. Job stress was measured by job demand, control, and strain (=job demand/control) based on the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Major somatic symptoms studied were headache, dizziness, shoulder stiffness, back pain, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, general fatigue, sleep disturbance, and skin itching. Five kinds of coping were measured using the Job Stress Scale: active coping, escape, support seeking, reconciliation, and emotional suppression. Comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, depression, and anxiety were also evaluated. The most frequently cited somatic symptom was general fatigue (66%), followed by shoulder stiffness (63%) and sleep disturbance (53%). Of the five kinds of coping, only "active coping" was significantly and negatively associated with the number of somatic symptoms. The generalized linear models showed that the number of somatic symptoms increased as job strain index (p=0.001) and job demand (p=0.001) became higher, and decreased as active coping (p=0.018) increased, after adjusting for age and comorbidities. There was no statistical interaction among active coping, the number of somatic symptoms, and the three JCQ scales. Reporting somatic symptoms may be a simple indicator of job stress, and active coping could be used to alleviate somatization induced by job stress.

  3. Application of new experimental methods to pipeline stress corrosion cracking. Annual report, March 1992-February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.G.; Kobayashi, T.; Becker, C.H.; Pound, B.G.; Simons, J.W.

    1993-04-01

    The objective of the investigation is to develop a physically based understanding of the mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in pipeline steels by applying advanced fracture surface and electrochemical characterization techniques to samples taken from fielded pipeline. The investigations found that the effect of pressure fluctuations on the propagation of stress corrosion cracks was readily evident from an analysis of the topographies of conjugate fracture surfaces. Substantial crack blunting was produced under normal pipeline operating conditions. Corrosion deposits were removed from the fracture surfaces of a stress corrosion crack in a pipeline specimen recovered from service. The topography of the underlying metal surface appears to be preserved with little corrosion damage after crack formation. This allowed the cracking process to be reconstructed from the surface topography. In some cases, deposits on the fracture surfaces of stress corrosion cracks contain significant concentrations of metallic elements that are not found in pipeline steels but are likely to be commonplace in the surrounding environment.

  4. [Hyperlipidemia with disseminated eruptive xanthomas and hyperglycemia caused by mental stress--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbevsek, Davor

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the case of a 36-year-old man who developed disseminated eruptive xanthomas, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. The patient was exposed to strong mental stress. He was previously healthy and close family members did not show metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. After a short period of time, when the intensity of stress weakened, generalised eruptive xanthomas and metabolic disturbances completely resolved. Numerous studies have shown that psychosocial stresses lead to the disturbance of the metabolism of lipids, insulin resistance and eventually to cardiovascular diseases. The clinical signs of hyperlipidemia and especially eruptive xanthomas are rare but characteristic features of primary hyperlipidemias. Among secondary causes of hyperlipidemia, eruptive xanthomas are most often described in diabetics, usually localised on extensor surfaces, but generalised eruptive xanthomatosis is rarely the presenting feature of diabetes. The presenting case is most probably a very rare phenomenon of disseminated eruptive xanthomas and serious metabolic disturbances provoked by mental stress.

  5. Salivary cortisol and self-reported stress among persons with environmental annoyance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Frida; Persson, Roger; Karlson, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Increased vulnerability to stress has been suggested as a possible mechanism behind medically unexplained conditions such as sensitivity to electricity and common smells. This study examined whether subjective environmental annoyance among the general population is associated with increased physi...

  6. Maternal Parenting Stress and Mothers’ Reports of their Infants’ Mastery Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Tierney A.; Hunter, Sharon K.; Backman, Toni L.; Morgan, George A.; Ross, Randal G.

    2011-01-01

    Mastery motivation is a psychological force that stimulates an individual to attempt to master a task that is challenging to him or her. This prospective longitudinal study examined the relationship between maternal stress, using the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, and infant mastery motivation, using the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire, for 150 mother-infant pairs assessed at both 6- and 18-months of age. Infants of mothers with elevated stress levels at 6 months tended to show lower mastery motivation at 18 months (standardized beta = −.46, p=.001). Conversely, infants with lower general competence (standardized beta = −.24, p=.021) and lower persistence during social interactions with other children (standardized beta = −.18, p=.037) at 6 months of age had mothers with elevated total stress at 18 months of age. Implications for programs which simultaneously intervene with child and mother are discussed. PMID:21890208

  7. Self-reported stress and risk of endometrial cancer: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess a possible relationship between perceived stress and first-time incidence of primary endometrial cancer. Psychological stress may affect the synthesis and metabolism of estrogens and thereby be related to risk of endometrial cancer. METHODS: The 6760 women participating...... received hormone therapy (HR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.96) and in normal-weight women (HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Stress may affect gonadal synthesis of estrogens and alter the sensitivity of the uterus toward estrogen stimulation. These mechanisms may explain the lower risk of endometrial...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked about their stress level at baseline from 1981 to 1983. These women were prospectively followed up in the Danish nationwide cancer registry until 2000 and

  8. Stress wave propagation in linear viscoelasticity; 2nd report, theory, computer calculation and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, Kazuo (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Fukuoka, Hidekazu

    1992-11-01

    Decreasing characteristics of both stress and stress gradient with propagation distance at a 2-dimensional linear viscoelasticity wavefront are derived by using our 3-dimensional theoretical equation for particle velocity discontinuities. By finite-element method code DYNA3D, stress at a noncurvature dilatation wavefront of linear viscoelasticity is shown to decrease exponentially. This result is in good accordance with our theory. By dynamic photoelasticity experiment, stress gradients of urethane rubber plates at 3 types of wavefronts are shown to decrease exponentially at a noncurvature wavefront and are shown to be a decreasing function of (1/[radical]R) exp ([alpha][sub 1][sup 2]/(2[alpha][sub 0][sup 3][xi])) at a curvature wavefront. These experiment results are in good accordance with our theory. (author).

  9. Calcaneal stress fracture: an adverse event following total hip and total knee arthroplasty: a report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Takaaki; Miki, Takahito; Nishiyama, Akihiro

    2014-01-15

    Stress fractures have been reported to occur in the pubis, femoral neck, proximal part of the tibia, and fabella during the postoperative period following total knee or total hip arthroplasty. However, to our knowledge, calcaneal stress fractures after total hip or total knee arthroplasty have not been reported in the English-language literature. Most orthopaedic surgeons are not familiar with calcaneal stress fractures that may occur in elderly patients after a total knee or total hip arthroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features, imaging findings, and bone mineral content of the proximal part of the femur and the distal end of the radius in five patients who had a calcaneal stress fracture after a total knee or total hip arthroplasty. All patients were women with a mean age of 76.8 years. All fractures occurred in the calcaneus on the same side as the arthroplasty. The fracture appeared at a mean of 10.2 weeks postoperatively. All patients reported heel pain on walking. Swelling and local heat were found in four and three patients, respectively. Pain was elicited by squeezing the calcaneus in all patients. Early radiographs had normal findings in two patients, and an irregular sclerotic line appeared later in the radiographs of all patients. All fractures were treated conservatively. Four fractures healed uneventfully, but one fracture displaced. All patients had osteoporosis. Calcaneal stress fractures during the postoperative period following total knee or total hip arthroplasty may not be as rare as previously thought. Because clinical symptoms of the fracture appear insidiously and radiographic findings are absent or subtle in the early stage, a high index of suspicion is needed for orthopaedic surgeons to make the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging or repeated radiographs may be necessary to make the correct diagnosis when no abnormality is apparent on the initial radiograph.

  10. Developing fiber specific promoter-reporter transgenic lines to study the effect of abiotic stresses on fiber development in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Chen

    Full Text Available Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environmental stresses on fiber development is poorly understood due to technical difficulties associated with the study of developing fiber tissues and lack of genetic materials to study fiber development. To address this important question and provide the need for scientific community, we have generated transgenic cotton lines harboring cotton fiber specific promoter (CFSP-reporter constructs from six cotton fiber specific genes (Expansin, E6, Rac13, CelA1, LTP, and Fb late, representing genes that are expressed at different stages of fiber development. Individual CFSP::GUS or CFSP::GFP construct was introduced into Coker 312 via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Transgenic cotton lines were evaluated phenotypically and screened for the presence of selectable marker, reporter gene expression, and insertion numbers. Quantitative analysis showed that the patterns of GUS reporter gene activity during fiber development in transgenic cotton lines were similar to those of the native genes. Greenhouse drought and heat stress study showed a correlation between the decrease in promoter activities and decrease in fiber length, increase in micronaire and changes in other fiber quality traits in transgenic lines grown under stressed condition. These newly developed materials provide new molecular tools for studying the effects of abiotic stresses on fiber development and may be used in study of cotton fiber development genes and eventually in the genetic manipulation of fiber quality.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Stress Induced Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans following Exposure to Environmental and Lab Reconstituted Complex Metal Mixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Kumar

    Full Text Available Metals are essential for many physiological processes and are ubiquitously present in the environment. However, high metal concentrations can be harmful to organisms and lead to physiological stress and diseases. The accumulation of transition metals in the environment due to either natural processes or anthropogenic activities such as mining results in the contamination of water and soil environments. The present study used Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate gene expression as an indicator of physiological response, following exposure to water collected from three different locations downstream of a Swedish mining site and a lab reconstituted metal mixture. Our results indicated that the reconstituted metal mixture exerted a direct stress response in C. elegans whereas the environmental waters elicited either a diminished or abrogated response. This suggests that it is not sufficient to use the biological effects observed from laboratory mixtures to extrapolate the effects observed in complex aquatic environments and apply this to risk assessment and intervention.

  12. Examination of (suspected) neonaticides in Germany: a critical report on a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Babette; Rothschild, Markus A; Vennemann, Mechtild; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2013-05-01

    In cooperation with the Crime Investigation Agency (Landeskriminalamt) of North Rhine-Westphalia, we carried out a study of 150 cases of (suspected) neonaticide dating from 1993 to 2007 from all over Germany. The autopsy reports and additional expert opinions (if performed) were evaluated for a minimum of 78 variables. Emphasis was placed on the application of special preparation techniques and other special questions arising during the examination of a deceased newborn child. Forty-five percent of the cases remained unsolved, which means that the mother could not be identified. Twenty-seven percent of the corpses were in a state of such severe putrefaction that forensic examination was limited. The main causes of death were all forms of suffocation. The signs of maturity (such as length, weight, and fingernails) were recorded in more than 95 % of the cases. Hydrostatic test of the lung was performed in 96 %, and that of the gastrointestinal tract in 84 %. Given the results of the study, standard protocols and checklists are recommended to facilitate comparability and to ensure the completeness of findings. Full-body X-rays or CT scans should be used to complete viability examinations.

  13. Comparative Study of Local and National Media Reporting: Conflict around the TV Oak in Stockholm, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Östberg

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The TV oak (Television Oak conflict concerned felling an old tree in a wealthy area of Stockholm. The case received great public attention in different media formats with different scopes (e.g., newspapers, television, internet. The TV Oak issue involved actors with different, partly conflicting perceptions. Assuming that the relevance of urban tree management issues in particular leads to increased interest among the local audience, this paper compared differences in reporting on the TV Oak case in local and national newspapers. The comparison comprised the actors “speaking” in the newspapers, the interest roles attributed to different actors and the frames used. The empirical materials used were articles concerning the TV Oak published between October 2011 and June 2012 in one local and two national Swedish newspapers. Quantitative analysis of statements in these articles showed that the geographical scope of the newspaper was not the major driving force framing the TV Oak conflict and that variety of framings, ranging from a humanised perception of the oak to a more analytical hazard perception, were used. Differences between the interest roles allocated to different actors (e.g., in terms of victim, causer, and helper in the oak conflict showed that the framing of conflicts very much depended on single actors, in particular a high profile journalist in the national newspapers and private individuals writing letters to the editor in the local newspaper.

  14. Comparing immigrant children with native Greek in self-reported-Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotsika, V; Vlassopoulos, M; Kokkevi, A; Fragkaki, I; Anagnostopoulos, D C; Lazaratou, H; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2016-01-01

    Research on an international and national context regarding immigrant children and adolescents' quality of life (QoL) is rather scarce. Few international studies have been conducted investigating the presence of psychopathology and providing evidence of behavioural and psychological problems in immigrant adolescents. Regarding immigrant quality of life, thus far investigation was directed mainly to adult immigrant individuals and not to their children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the quality of life (QoL) of immigrant children and young adolescents who live in the greater Athens area, and to compare them with their native Greek peers living in the same communities and attending the same schools. Sixty three immigrant children, from Albanian and Eastern European origin (mean age 11.9 years) and 489 native children (mean age 11.33 years) were administered a QoL instrument specifically developed for children and adolescents: the Kid-KINDL® Questionnaire for 8-12 years old and the Kiddo-KINDL® Questionnaire for 13-16 years old. The dimensions examined in the KINDL® questionnaire refer to: physical wellbeing, emotional well-being, self- esteem, friends, family life and everyday life (school life). The Greek version is reported to show satisfactory values of validity and reliability. Administration of questionnaires was conducted at school after parent consent. Analysis included student's t-test, chi-square test, and multivariate linear regression analysis, as to investigate the relationship between KINDL® QoL dimensions' scores and nationality status, after controlling for gender and age. The results indicated that self-reported QoL scores of immigrant children were significantly poorer in comparison to native children in the domains of self-esteem and family life, as well as in the total QoL scores. In the rest of the QoL domains, similar scores were reported in both immigrant and their native classmates, that is in the dimensions of physical

  15. Comparative Physiological and Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Response to Cadmium-Induced Stress in Poplar (Populus yunnanensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Yang

    Full Text Available Excess amounts of heavy metals are important environmental pollutants with significant ecological and nutritional effects. Cdmium (Cd is of particular concern because of its widespread occurrence and high toxicity. We conducted physiological and proteomic analyses to improve our understanding of the responses of Populus yunnanensis to Cd stress. The plantlets experienced two apparent stages in their response to Cd stress. During the first stage, transiently induced defense-response molecules, photosynthesis- and energy-associated proteins, antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs accumulated to enhance protein stability and establish a new cellular homeostasis. This activity explains why plant photosynthetic capability during this period barely changed. During the second stage, a decline of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO and HSP levels led to imbalance of the plant photosynthetic system. Additionally, the expression of Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3, Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6 and a homeobox-leucine zipper protein was higher in the second stage. Higher expression of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT may regulate plant cell wall synthesis for greater Cd storage. These genes may be candidates for further research and use in genetic manipulation of poplar tolerance to Cd stress.

  16. Nondestructive and Localized Measurements of Stress-Strain Curves and Fracture Toughness of Ferritic Steels at Various Temperatures Using Innovative Stress-Strain Microprobe Technology. Final Report for Period 8/13/1996--06/16/1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy M. Haggag

    1999-10-29

    The results presented in this report demonstrate the capabilities of Advanced Technology Corporation's patented Portable/In Situ Stress-Strain Microprobe (TM) (SSM) System and its Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) test techniques to nondestructively measure the yield strength, the stress-strain curve, and the fracture toughness of ferritic steel samples and components in a reliable and accurate manner.

  17. Evaluation of stress, anxiety and depression in parents of children with leukemia: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farhangi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer diagnosis is the biggest stress for the child and his family. Diagnosis and treatment of cancer in children can cause stress, which often has a negative effect on the health of parents. Psychological reactions such as anxiety, depression, denial and loss of confidence in parents observed that because of the fear of recurrence and future of children. This study aimed to determine the level of stress and anxiety and depression in parents of children with leukemia who were in the maintenance phase of treatment. Methods: This cross-sectional study has been conducted on 48 parents have referred to the clinic of Dr. Sheikh Hospital of Mashhad City, Iran, whom selected using easy sampling method. DASS-21 questionnaire was used for data collection. Another questionnaire containing demographic information such as age, sex, income, educational level and duration of illness was filled under supervision of the psychologist and pediatric physician. Data with SPSS software, ver. 20 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA, descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis was performed. Results: The results showed that in this study, 37% had abnormal stress levels (33% and 2% of mild stress, moderate stress and severe stress 2% and 79% had abnormal anxiety level (mild 19%, moderate 31% and severe 29% and 67% had abnormal depression level (mild 33%, moderate depression 33% tests, respectively. In our study, there was no relationship between age, sex and duration of illness with these variables. Conclusion: According to this study, in addition to the classic treatment of patients, parent’s mental performance should be paid attention.

  18. Comparing Internet Financial Reporting Index Between Bank and Non Bank in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    ANA DWI PERTIWI; BUDI HERMANA

    2013-01-01

    This studywas conducted to evaluatingfinancialdisclosureonwebsitesof bank and non bank go public in Indonesiausing theInternetFinancialReportingIndex(IFRI). Internet Financial Reporting Index consist four elements namely content, timeless, technology and user support. This studywasan illustrated ofthe generalfinancialdisclosureby examiningdifferencesinternet financial reporting index.Samplingtechniqueused inthis study waspurposivesampling. There are 34 samples consisting25 banks and 9 non ban...

  19. Finite element modelling versus classic beam theory: comparing methods for stress estimation in a morphologically diverse sample of vertebrate long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassey, Charlotte A; Margetts, Lee; Kitchener, Andrew C; Withers, Philip J; Manning, Phillip L; Sellers, William I

    2013-02-01

    Classic beam theory is frequently used in biomechanics to model the stress behaviour of vertebrate long bones, particularly when creating intraspecific scaling models. Although methodologically straightforward, classic beam theory requires complex irregular bones to be approximated as slender beams, and the errors associated with simplifying complex organic structures to such an extent are unknown. Alternative approaches, such as finite element analysis (FEA), while much more time-consuming to perform, require no such assumptions. This study compares the results obtained using classic beam theory with those from FEA to quantify the beam theory errors and to provide recommendations about when a full FEA is essential for reasonable biomechanical predictions. High-resolution computed tomographic scans of eight vertebrate long bones were used to calculate diaphyseal stress owing to various loading regimes. Under compression, FEA values of minimum principal stress (σ(min)) were on average 142 per cent (±28% s.e.) larger than those predicted by beam theory, with deviation between the two models correlated to shaft curvature (two-tailed p = 0.03, r(2) = 0.56). Under bending, FEA values of maximum principal stress (σ(max)) and beam theory values differed on average by 12 per cent (±4% s.e.), with deviation between the models significantly correlated to cross-sectional asymmetry at midshaft (two-tailed p = 0.02, r(2) = 0.62). In torsion, assuming maximum stress values occurred at the location of minimum cortical thickness brought beam theory and FEA values closest in line, and in this case FEA values of τ(torsion) were on average 14 per cent (±5% s.e.) higher than beam theory. Therefore, FEA is the preferred modelling solution when estimates of absolute diaphyseal stress are required, although values calculated by beam theory for bending may be acceptable in some situations.

  20. An audit comparing the reporting of staging MRI scans for rectal cancer with the London Cancer Alliance (LCA) guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M R S; Shanmuganandan, A P; Rasheed, S; Tekkis, P; Brown, G; Abulafi, A M

    2017-09-13

    This article focuses on the audit and assessment of clinical practice before and after introduction of MRI reporting guidelines. Standardised proforma based reporting may improve quality of MRI reports. Uptake of the use may be facilitated by endorsement from regional and national cancer organisations. This audit was divided into 2 phases. MRI reports issued between April 2014 and June 2014 were included in the first part of our audit. Phase II included MRI reports issued between April 2015 and June 2015. 14 out of 15 hospitals that report MRI scans in the LCA responded to our audit proposal. The completion rate of key MRI metrics/metrics was better in proforma compared to prose reports both before (98% vs 73%; p < 0.05) and after introduction of the guidelines (98% vs 71%; p < 0.05). There was an approximate doubling of proforma reporting after the introduction of guidelines and workshop interventions (39% vs 65%; p < 0.05). Evaluation of locally advanced cancers (tumours extending to or beyond the circumferential resection margin) for beyond TME surgery was reported in 3% of prose reports vs. 42% in proformas. Incorporation of standardised reporting in official guidelines improved the uptake of proforma based reporting. Proforma based reporting captured more MRI reportable items compared to prose summaries, before and after the implementation of guidelines. MRI reporting of advanced cancers for beyond TME surgery falls short of acceptable standards but is more detailed in proforma based reports. Further work to improve completion especially in beyond TME reporting is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  1. A study to compare chest X-ray reports on overseas nursing recruits.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, S

    2010-05-01

    This study was carried out to assess if there was a difference in the Chest X- ray (CXR) report on recruited nurses carried out overseas and later repeated in Ireland. This study was carried out in two Irish teaching hospitals. The subjects of this study comprised all overseas nurses recruited in each of the two hospitals within the defined period. The total number of subjects recruited from the 2 two centres was 84. Only nurses that had a repeat CXR were included in this study. 6\\/84 (7%) of the CXR that were initially reported as normal were subsequently reported as abnormal and were later diagnosed as Latent TB. 2\\/84(2%) of the CXR that were reported as abnormal were subsequently reported as normal. The data collected in this study has demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the CXR report from overseas and the CXR report in Ireland.

  2. Atypical femoral neck stress fracture in a marathon runner: a case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Femoral neck stress fractures are relatively rare and may present as sports-related injuries. The presentation is variable, and prompt diagnosis facilitates the earliest return to pre-morbid functional activity levels. Delayed detection may precipitate femoral non-union or avascular necrosis, resulting in long-term functional deficit. AIMS: We present the case of a basicervical femoral neck stress fracture occurring in a 23-year-old marathon runner. The pathophysiology and practical management issues related to this unusual injury pattern are discussed. CONCLUSION: The growing interest in amateur athletic activities should raise the index of suspicion for stress fractures of the femoral neck in healthy adults with atypical hip pain. Increased levels of patient education and physician awareness can reduce the incidence of long-term morbidity in cases of this unusual sports-related injury.

  3. Short-term effects of air quality and thermal stress on non-accidental morbidity-a multivariate meta-analysis comparing indices to single measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokys, Hanna Leona; Junk, Jürgen; Krein, Andreas

    2017-02-28

    Air quality and thermal stress lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Studies on morbidity and the combined impact of air pollution and thermal stress are still rare. To analyse the correlations between air quality, thermal stress and morbidity, we used a two-stage meta-analysis approach, consisting of a Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) and a meta-analysis investigating whether latitude or the number of inhabitants significantly influence the correlations. We used air pollution, meteorological and hospital admission data from 28 administrative districts along a north-south gradient in western Germany from 2001 to 2011. We compared the performance of the single measure particulate matter (PM10) and air temperature to air quality indices (MPI and CAQI) and the biometeorological index UTCI. Based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC), it can be shown that using air quality indices instead of single measures increases the model strength. However, using the UTCI in the model does not give additional information compared to mean air temperature. Interaction between the 3-day average of air quality (max PM10, max CAQI and max MPI) and meteorology (mean air temperature and mean UTCI) did not improve the models. Using the mean air temperature, we found immediate effects of heat stress (RR 1.0013, 95% CI: 0.9983-1.0043) and by 3 days delayed effects of cold stress (RR: 1.0184, 95% CI: 1.0117-1.0252). The results for air quality differ between both air quality indices and PM10. CAQI and MPI show a delayed impact on morbidity with a maximum RR after 2 days (MPI 1.0058, 95% CI: 1.0013-1.0102; CAQI 1.0068, 95% CI: 1.0030-1.0107). Latitude was identified as a significant meta-variable, whereas the number of inhabitants was not significant in the model.

  4. Short-term effects of air quality and thermal stress on non-accidental morbidity—a multivariate meta-analysis comparing indices to single measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokys, Hanna Leona; Junk, Jürgen; Krein, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Air quality and thermal stress lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Studies on morbidity and the combined impact of air pollution and thermal stress are still rare. To analyse the correlations between air quality, thermal stress and morbidity, we used a two-stage meta-analysis approach, consisting of a Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) and a meta-analysis investigating whether latitude or the number of inhabitants significantly influence the correlations. We used air pollution, meteorological and hospital admission data from 28 administrative districts along a north-south gradient in western Germany from 2001 to 2011. We compared the performance of the single measure particulate matter (PM10) and air temperature to air quality indices (MPI and CAQI) and the biometeorological index UTCI. Based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC), it can be shown that using air quality indices instead of single measures increases the model strength. However, using the UTCI in the model does not give additional information compared to mean air temperature. Interaction between the 3-day average of air quality (max PM10, max CAQI and max MPI) and meteorology (mean air temperature and mean UTCI) did not improve the models. Using the mean air temperature, we found immediate effects of heat stress (RR 1.0013, 95% CI: 0.9983-1.0043) and by 3 days delayed effects of cold stress (RR: 1.0184, 95% CI: 1.0117-1.0252). The results for air quality differ between both air quality indices and PM10. CAQI and MPI show a delayed impact on morbidity with a maximum RR after 2 days (MPI 1.0058, 95% CI: 1.0013-1.0102; CAQI 1.0068, 95% CI: 1.0030-1.0107). Latitude was identified as a significant meta-variable, whereas the number of inhabitants was not significant in the model.

  5. Physiological and proteomics analyses reveal the mechanism of Eichhornia crassipes tolerance to high-concentration cadmium stress compared with Pistia stratiotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd pollution is an environmental problem worldwide. Phytoremediation is a convenient method of removing Cd from both soil and water, but its efficiency is still low, especially in aquatic environments. Scientists have been trying to improve the ability of plants to absorb and accumulate Cd based on interactions between plants and Cd, especially the mechanism by which plants resist Cd. Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes are aquatic plants commonly used in the phytoremediation of heavy metals. In the present study, we conducted physiological and biochemical analyses to compare the resistance of these two species to Cd stress at 100 mg/L. E. crassipes showed stronger resistance and was therefore used for subsequent comparative proteomics to explore the potential mechanism of E. crassipes tolerance to Cd stress at the protein level. The expression patterns of proteins in different functional categories revealed that the physiological activities and metabolic processes of E. crassipes were affected by exposure to Cd stress. However, when some proteins related to these processes were negatively inhibited, some analogous proteins were induced to compensate for the corresponding functions. As a result, E. crassipes could maintain more stable physiological parameters than P. stratiotes. Many stress-resistance substances and proteins, such as proline and heat shock proteins (HSPs and post translational modifications, were found to be involved in the protection and repair of functional proteins. In addition, antioxidant enzymes played important roles in ROS detoxification. These findings will facilitate further understanding of the potential mechanism of plant response to Cd stress at the protein level.

  6. The comparative study of effects of mental stress and physiological stress on the anxiety behavior in Sprague-Dawley rats%精神应激与生理应激对大鼠焦虑行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李功迎; 李凌江; 马洪霞

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of mental stress and physical stress on the anxiety behavior in SD rats.Methods 24 male SD rats were allocated into mental stress group,physiological stress group and control group randomly,and the Communication Box was applied to establish animal model of mental stress,then assessed their anxiety behavior through the Open field test and elevated plus nlaze test.Results In the Open field test.the numbers of squares crossed peripherally and centrally,and the grooming frequency significantly lowered in physiological stress group and in mental stress group compared with that in control group,and were significantly higher in mental stress group than in physiological stress group.The elevated plus maze test demonstrated similar results in the numbers of open arm entries and the time spent in open arms among these three groups.Conclusion In Communication Box model,the anxiety behavior level of physiological stress mats were higher than that in mental stress rats.%目的 比较精神应激与生理应激对SD大鼠焦虑行为的不同影响.方法 采用旁观电击大鼠应激模型作为精神应激模型,以旷场实验、高架十字迷宫实验评估精神应激大鼠与生理应激大鼠的焦虑行为.结果 在旷场实验中,外周格数、中央格数、以及修饰数均是生理应激组[分别是(21.60±22.99)个、(4.20±3.26)个、(5.80±2.35)次]低于精神应激组[分别是(47.60±20.87)个、(6.00±3.43)个、(7.00±2.69)次],精神应激组低于正常对照组[分别是(55.80±14.54)个、(7.00±3.47)个、(13.40±5.01)次],差异具有显著性;在高架十字迷宫实验中,开放臂次数以及开放臂时间也是生理应激组最低,精神应激组居中,正常对照组最高,差异具有显著性.结论 在旁观电击大鼠应激模型中,生理应激大鼠的焦虑水平较精神应激大鼠明显.

  7. Chronic psychosocial stress in mice leads to changes in brain functional connectivity and metabolite levels comparable to human depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Joanes; Azzinnari, Damiano; Seuwen, Aline; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Pryce, Christopher R; Rudin, Markus

    2016-11-15

    Human depression, for which chronic psychosocial stress is a major risk factor, is characterized by consistent alterations in neurocircuitry. For example, there is increased functional connectivity (FC) within and between regions comprising the default mode network (DMN) including prefrontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Alterations in network FC are associated with specific aspects of psychopathology. In mice, chronic psychosocial stress (CPS) leads to depression-relevant behavior, including increased fear learning, learned helplessness, fatigue and decreased motivation for reward. Using multimodal in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), we investigated CPS effects on function and structure in the mouse brain under light anesthesia. Mice underwent a baseline MRI/MRS session, followed by 15-day CPS (n=26) or control handling (n=27), and a post-treatment MRI/MRS session. In BOLD fMRI, relative to controls, CPS mice exhibited robust, reproducible increases in FC within 8 of 9 identified cortical networks, including the prefrontal and cingulate cortices that contribute to the "mouse DMN". CPS mice exhibited increases in between-network FC, including amygdala - prefrontal cortex and amygdala - cingulate cortex. MRS identified metabolic alterations in CPS mice as increased inositol levels in amygdala and increased glycerophosphorylcholine levels in prefrontal cortex. Diffusion-weighted MRI detected increased fractional anisotropic values in the cingulum. This study demonstrates that chronic psychosocial stress induces FC states in the mouse brain analogous to those observed in depression, as well as cerebral metabolism and white matter pathway alterations that contribute to understanding of pathological processes. It also demonstrates the importance of brain imaging to the establishment of valid animal models in translational psychiatry.

  8. A comparative analysis of serologic parameters and oxidative stress in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: reply to Mishra and colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardelli, M; Bianco, A M; Marcuzzi, A; Crovella, S

    2013-09-01

    In chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, the progression of the disease is characterized by stress oxidative, inflammation, and elevated levels of cholesterol. In mevalonate kinase deficiency, an auto-inflammatory disease, the correlation between inflammation and cholesterol levels is opposite. The metabolic pathway that underlies the production of cholesterol is the mevalonate pathway; it is also essential for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids involved in the control of several cell functions. This divergence of cholesterol levels, associated with these two inflammatory disorders, is probably due to a different etiology, pathogenesis, and progression.

  9. Summary report - development of laboratory tests and the stress- strain behaviour of Olkiluoto mica gneiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Rock Engineering

    1997-05-01

    This work summarizes the project aimed at developing and qualifying a suitable combination of laboratory tests to establish a statistically reliable stress-strain behaviour of the main rock types at Posiva Oy`s detailed investigation sites for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The work includes literature study of stress-strain behaviour of brittle rock, development and qualification of laboratory tests, suggested test procedures and interpretation methods and finally testing of Olkiluoto mica gneiss. The Olkiluoto study includes over 130 loading tests. Besides the commonly used laboratory tests, direct tensile tests, damage controlled tests and acoustic emission measurements were also carried out. (orig.) (54 refs.).

  10. An Annotated Bibliography of DoD-Funded Reports Concerning Psychological Stress: 1950-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    difficult course successfully in limited time. Since not too much is known regarding the specific effects of psychological stress on various types of human...individual and team performance. Performance was studied longitudinally, over a ten-day period, to explore the onset and course of impact of isolation and...Metabolic hvperac tiv it ’ suggest inig nlon spoc iCic stress,5 On I ’v during (2) was there ain incWrea se in 1-OP ICS ex~cret ion, andi of fcc ts duinig

  11. Is There Evidence of Cream Skimming among Nursing Homes following the Publication of the Nursing Home Compare Report Card?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamel, Dana B.; Ladd, Heather; Weimer, David L.; Spector, William D.; Zinn, Jacqueline S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A national quality report card for nursing homes, Nursing Home Compare, has been published since 2002. It has been shown to have some, albeit limited, positive impact on quality of care. The objective of this study was to test empirically the hypothesis that nursing homes have responded to the publication of the report by adopting cream…

  12. Changes in self-reported sleep and cognitive failures: a randomized controlled trial of a stress management intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, Ligaya; Eskildsen, Anita; Carstensen, Ole; Willert, Morten Vejs; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Glasscock, David J

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a stress management intervention combining individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with a brief workplace intervention on self-reported measures of sleep and cognitive functioning among patients on sick leave due to work-related stress complaints. Participants were patients referred to the regional Department of Occupational Medicine. Inclusion criteria were (i) sick leave due to work-related stress complaints and (ii) a diagnosis of adjustment disorder/reactions to stress or mild depression. Participants (N=137) were randomized to either an intervention (N=57) or control (N=80) group. The intervention comprised six sessions with a psychologist and the offer of a small workplace intervention. Questionnaires were answered at baseline and after 4, and 10 months. Symptoms were significantly reduced over time in both groups but there was no significant treatment effect on sleep or cognitive outcomes at any time point. From 0-4 months, there was a tendency for larger improvements in the intervention group with regards to sleep and cognitive failures in distraction. Although neither was significant, the results came close to significance depicting a small effect size (Cohen's d) on sleep complaints and distractions (but not memory). The specific intervention was not superior to the control condition in reducing symptoms of sleep problems and cognitive difficulties at any time point during the 10-month follow-up period. Substantial improvements in symptoms over time were seen in both groups.

  13. Cilnidipine lowered psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure in a hypertensive man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji Sadatoshi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some hypertensive patients, psychological stress makes blood pressure difficult to control and causes physical symptoms such as headache or dizziness. We report the case of a hypertensive man whose psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure was attenuated by cilnidipine. Case Presentation The patient (a 72-year-old man had hypertension and was on antihypertensive therapy. When mentally concentrating, he experienced occipital headaches and dizziness, and despite thorough testing, no abnormality was found. He was subsequently referred to our department. The mirror drawing test (MDT, a psychological stress test, increased blood pressure by about 40 mmHg, and the patient described occipital headache. Plasma noradrenaline level also increased from 212 to 548 pg/ml. We therefore switched the patient from nifedipine, an L-type calcium (Ca channel blocker, to cilnidipine, an L-type/N-type Ca channel blocker with suppressive effects on sympathetic activity. Cilnipidine attenuated MDT-induced an increase in blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline level and prevented the development of headache during testing. Conclusion These findings suggest that cilnidipine is a useful antihypertensive agent for hypertensive patients in whom psychological stress causes marked fluctuations in blood pressure.

  14. Local zone wise elastic and plastic properties of electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy using digital image correlation technique: A comparative study between uniform stress and virtual fields method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranath, K. M.; Ramji, M.

    2015-05-01

    Joining of materials using welding results in the formation of material zones with varying microstructure across the weld. Extraction of the mechanical properties of those individual heterogeneous zones are important in designing components and structures comprised of welds. In this study, the zone wise local extraction of the elastic and plastic properties of an electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy has been carried out using both the uniform stress method (USM) and the virtual fields method (VFM) involving digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The surface strain field obtained using DIC technique from a transverse weld specimen tensile testing is used for extracting the zone wise strain evolution. Initially, using uniform stress assumption, zone wise full range stress-strain curves are extracted. In USM methodology, the elastic and plastic material models are fitted to the zone wise stress-strain curves and required parameters are extracted from it. But inherent disadvantage is lot of images need to be processed for the parameter extraction. Recently, VFM is gaining lot of popularity in characterization domain as it is robust, accurate and faster. VFM is based on the principle of virtual work where, the weak form of local equilibrium equations and kinematically admissible virtual displacement fields are utilized for parameter extraction. Hollomon's power law is used here as the hardening rule. Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield stress, strength coefficient and strain hardening exponent are the parameters extracted zone wise using both USM and VFM. A Vicker's microhardness measurement is also conducted across the weld zone towards mapping the strength behavior. Fusion zone has reported higher yield strength, strength coefficient and Poisson's ratio. Young's modulus value is found decreasing from base metal towards the fusion zone. The trend observed in parameter variation across the weld zone obtained by both USM and VFM compares very well. Due

  15. Tardigrade workbench: comparing stress-related proteins, sequence-similar and functional protein clusters as well as RNA elements in tardigrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frohme Marcus

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tardigrades represent an animal phylum with extraordinary resistance to environmental stress. Results To gain insights into their stress-specific adaptation potential, major clusters of related and similar proteins are identified, as well as specific functional clusters delineated comparing all tardigrades and individual species (Milnesium tardigradum, Hypsibius dujardini, Echiniscus testudo, Tulinus stephaniae, Richtersius coronifer and functional elements in tardigrade mRNAs are analysed. We find that 39.3% of the total sequences clustered in 58 clusters of more than 20 proteins. Among these are ten tardigrade specific as well as a number of stress-specific protein clusters. Tardigrade-specific functional adaptations include strong protein, DNA- and redox protection, maintenance and protein recycling. Specific regulatory elements regulate tardigrade mRNA stability such as lox P DICE elements whereas 14 other RNA elements of higher eukaryotes are not found. Further features of tardigrade specific adaption are rapidly identified by sequence and/or pattern search on the web-tool tardigrade analyzer http://waterbear.bioapps.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de. The work-bench offers nucleotide pattern analysis for promotor and regulatory element detection (tardigrade specific; nrdb as well as rapid COG search for function assignments including species-specific repositories of all analysed data. Conclusion Different protein clusters and regulatory elements implicated in tardigrade stress adaptations are analysed including unpublished tardigrade sequences.

  16. Tardigrade workbench: comparing stress-related proteins, sequence-similar and functional protein clusters as well as RNA elements in tardigrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Frank; Liang, Chunguang; Shkumatov, Alexander; Beisser, Daniela; Engelmann, Julia C; Schnölzer, Martina; Frohme, Marcus; Müller, Tobias; Schill, Ralph O; Dandekar, Thomas

    2009-10-12

    Tardigrades represent an animal phylum with extraordinary resistance to environmental stress. To gain insights into their stress-specific adaptation potential, major clusters of related and similar proteins are identified, as well as specific functional clusters delineated comparing all tardigrades and individual species (Milnesium tardigradum, Hypsibius dujardini, Echiniscus testudo, Tulinus stephaniae, Richtersius coronifer) and functional elements in tardigrade mRNAs are analysed. We find that 39.3% of the total sequences clustered in 58 clusters of more than 20 proteins. Among these are ten tardigrade specific as well as a number of stress-specific protein clusters. Tardigrade-specific functional adaptations include strong protein, DNA- and redox protection, maintenance and protein recycling. Specific regulatory elements regulate tardigrade mRNA stability such as lox P DICE elements whereas 14 other RNA elements of higher eukaryotes are not found. Further features of tardigrade specific adaption are rapidly identified by sequence and/or pattern search on the web-tool tardigrade analyzer http://waterbear.bioapps.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de. The work-bench offers nucleotide pattern analysis for promotor and regulatory element detection (tardigrade specific; nrdb) as well as rapid COG search for function assignments including species-specific repositories of all analysed data. Different protein clusters and regulatory elements implicated in tardigrade stress adaptations are analysed including unpublished tardigrade sequences.

  17. An in vitro comparative study of intracanal fluid motion and wall shear stress induced by ultrasonic and polymer rotary finishing files in a simulated root canal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jon; Borg, John; Mattson, Abby; Olsen, Kris; Bahcall, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This in vitro study compared the flow pattern and shear stress of an irrigant induced by ultrasonic and polymer rotary finishing file activation in an acrylic root canal model. Flow visualization analysis was performed using an acrylic canal filled with a mixture of distilled water and rheoscopic fluid. The ultrasonic and polymer rotary finishing file were separately tested in the canal and activated in a static position and in a cyclical axial motion (up and down). Particle movement in the fluid was captured using a high-speed digital camera and DaVis 7.1 software. The fluid shear stress analysis was performed using hot film anemometry. A hot-wire was placed in an acrylic root canal and the canal was filled with distilled water. The ultrasonic and polymer rotary finishing files were separately tested in a static position and in a cyclical axial motion. Positive needle irrigation was also tested separately for fluid shear stress. The induced wall shear stress was measured using LabVIEW 8.0 software.

  18. Comparative Salt Stress Study on Intracellular Ion Concentration in Marine and Salt-adapted Freshwater Strains of Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhad TALEBI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salinity imposes significant stresses in various living organisms including microalgae. High extracellular concentration of Na+ directly influences ionic balance inside the cell and subsequently the cellular activities. In the present study, the effect of such stress on growth and intracellular ions concentration (IIC of Dunaliella salina and Chlorella Spp. was investigated. IIC was analyzed using Ion chromatography technique. D. salina showed the highest degree of resistance to increase in salinity as little changes occurred both in IIC and in growth parameters. D. salina could maintain the balance of K+ inside the cell and eject the excess Na+ even at NaCl concentrations above 1M. Moreover, D. salina accumulated β-carotene in order to protect its photosynthetic apparatus. Among Chlorella species, C. vulgaris showed signs of adaptation to high content of salinity, though it is a fresh water species by nature. Moreover, the response shown by C. vulgaris to rise in salinity was even stronger than that of C. salina, which is presumably a salt-water resistant species. In fact, C. vulgaris could maintain intracellular K+ better than C. salina in response to increasing salinity, and as a result, it could survive at NaCl concentrations as high as 0.75 M. Marine strains such as D. salina well cope with the fluctuations in salinity through the existing adaptation mechanisms i.e. maintaining the K+/N+ balance inside the cell, K+ accumulation and Na+ ejection, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments like β-carotene.

  19. Comparative transcriptomics between Synechococcus PCC 7942 and Synechocystis PCC 6803 provide insights into mechanisms of stress acclimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Billis

    Full Text Available Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 are model cyanobacteria from which the metabolism and adaptive responses of other cyanobacteria are inferred. Using stranded and 5' enriched libraries, we measured the gene expression response of cells transferred from reference conditions to stress conditions of decreased inorganic carbon, increased salinity, increased pH, and decreased illumination at 1-h and 24-h after transfer. We found that the specific responses of the two strains were by no means identical. Transcriptome profiles allowed us to improve the structural annotation of the genome i.e. identify possible missed genes (including anti-sense, alter gene coordinates and determine transcriptional units (operons. Finally, we predicted associations between proteins of unknown function and biochemical pathways by revealing proteins of known functions that are co-regulated with the unknowns. Future studies of these model organisms will benefit from the cataloging of their responses to environmentally relevant stresses, and improvements in their genome annotations found here.

  20. Stress-induced Salter-Harris I growth plate injury of the proximal tibia: first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, M; Butt, S; Mansour, R; Muthukumar, T; Cassar-Pullicino, V N; Roberts, A

    2005-07-01

    We describe a case of chronic Salter-Harris I injury of the proximal tibial epiphysis. To our knowledge such an injury has not been described in the English language literature. The radiological appearance can mimic chronic infection. The possibility of chronic athletic stress-related change should be considered in such scenarios to avoid a misdiagnosis.

  1. Stress-induced Salter-Harris I growth plate injury of the proximal tibia: first report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, M.; Butt, S.; Mansour, R.; Muthukumar, T.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Roberts, A. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    We describe a case of chronic Salter-Harris I injury of the proximal tibial epiphysis. To our knowledge such an injury has not been described in the English language literature. The radiological appearance can mimic chronic infection. The possibility of chronic athletic stress-related change should be considered in such scenarios to avoid a misdiagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  3. Role of HSP100 proteins in plant stress tolerance. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierling, E.

    1998-08-01

    This research focused on the following areas: characterization of HSP100 genes and their expression during stress and development; requirement of HSP101 for thermotolerance; thermotolerance of plants over-expressing HSP100; and identifying interacting proteins that functionally interact with HSP104.

  4. Comparability of State and Local Expenditures among Schools within Districts: A Report from the Study of School-Level Expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Ruth; Stullich, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This report from the Study of School-Level Expenditures presents findings on how state and local education expenditures at the school level vary within school districts. This study is not examining compliance with the current Title I comparability requirement, nor does it examine the comparability of resources between districts. Rather, it focuses…

  5. Comparing Graphical and Verbal Representations of Measurement Error in Test Score Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Hegarty, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that many educators do not understand the terminology or displays used in test score reports and that measurement error is a particularly challenging concept. We investigated graphical and verbal methods of representing measurement error associated with individual student scores. We created four alternative score reports, each…

  6. Clinical Assessment of Affective Instability: Comparing EMA Indices, Questionnaire Reports, and Retrospective Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solhan, Marika B.; Trull, Timothy J.; Jahng, Seungmin; Wood, Phillip K.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional self-report measures of psychopathology may be influenced by a variety of recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reduces these biases by assessing individuals' experiences as they occur in their natural environments. This study examines the discrepancy between trait questionnaire, retrospective report, and EMA measures of…

  7. Comparing Graphical and Verbal Representations of Measurement Error in Test Score Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Hegarty, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that many educators do not understand the terminology or displays used in test score reports and that measurement error is a particularly challenging concept. We investigated graphical and verbal methods of representing measurement error associated with individual student scores. We created four alternative score reports, each…

  8. 2010-2014: A Comparative Evolution of Sustainability Reporting and Its Assurance in Europe and the U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tînjală Diana-Maria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainability has evolved to encompass environmental, social and governance issues regarding corporate behaviour. For the last few years, stakeholders have begun putting pressure on companies to report on sustainability issues. Several national and international regulations and standards have been adopted to guide companies in their reporting. To ensure the accuracy and comparability of non-financial data needed for the stakeholders' decision making process, there is an increasing preference for the external assurance of sustainability reporting. The internationally recognized CSR report assurance standards are the International Standard on Assurance Engagements, ISAE 3000, and AccountAbility's AA1000 Assurance Standard (AA1000AS. This study focuses on the evolution of corporate sustainability reporting, using two non-financial indicators: ESG reporting, and Assurance of ESG reporting. The data for the study is based on content analysis of both CSR reports and corporate websites, courtesy of Sustainalytics. We assessed the evolution of the two indicators from June 2010 to February 2014, for 50 listed European companies and 50 American ones. The comparative approach illustrates the different evolutions of sustainability in Europe and the USA, emphasising the need for stronger regulations and guidelines in the USA, similar to those already implemented in European Countries. For the selected time period, US companies are shown to be worse reporters than European ones, having a negligible number of reports externally verified.

  9. Comparing the Heat Stress (DI, WBGT, SW Indices and the Men Physiological Parameters in Hot and Humid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Golbabaie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Heat stress is considered as a serious threat to the health and safety of workers in many industries, including petrochemical and steel. Assessment of the heat stress is important from the disease prevention point of view and also for the safety and performance of workers at workplace. Although there are many indices to evaluate the heat stress, it is hard to select an applicable index for a wide range of weather conditions. The purpose of the study was to develop an optimal index based on physiological parameters in a petrochemical industry.  Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a petrochemical industry located in Assaluyeh (south of Iran. Twenty one healthy young men at different levels of fitness and heat acclimation volunteered to participate in the study. Physiological parameters including heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, skin temperature and oral temperature were measured during the working day over two consecutive weeks. Simultaneously, we measured the climatic parameters required to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT, required sweat rate (SWreq, and the discomfort index (DI indices. Results: All the measurements took place on 2 sites: Kar (working place and Paziresh (resting room. Our results showed  that the mean values of indices and physiological parameters   in Kar    for both acclimated and unacclimated groups were significantly higher than Paziresh (P<0.05. There was the strongest linear correlation between WBGT and heart rate (0.731, systolic blood pressure (0.695 and diastolic blood pressure (0.375 and skin temperature (0.451 respectively. The amounts of DI were 0.725, 0.446, 0.352, and 0.689 respectively. But the strongest linear relationship existed between SWreq and deep body temperature (0.766. Conclusion:  There were significant differences in the present indices and

  10. Elucidation of complex nature of PEG induced drought-stress response in rice root using comparative proteomics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Agrawal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with many adaptive strategies, dynamic changes in protein abundance seem to be the common strategy to cope up with abiotic stresses which can be best explored through proteomics. Understanding of drought response is the key to decipher regulatory mechanism of better adaptation. Rice (Oryza sativa L. proteome represents a phenomenal source of proteins that govern traits of agronomic importance, such as drought tolerance. In this study, a comparison of root cytoplasmic proteome was done for a drought tolerant rice (Heena cultivar in PEG induced drought conditions. A total of 510 protein spots were observed by PDQuest analysis and 125 differentially regulated spots were subjected for MALDI-TOF MS-MS analysis out of which 102 protein spots identified which further led to identification of 78 proteins with a significant score. These 78 differentially expressed proteins appeared to be involved in different biological pathways. The largest percentage of identified proteins was involved in bioenergy and metabolism (29% and mainly consists of malate dehydrogenase, succinyl-CoA, putative acetyl-CoA synthetase and pyruvate dehydrogenase etc. This was followed by proteins related to cell defense and rescue (22% such as monodehydroascorbate reductase and stress-induced protein sti1, then by protein biogenesis and storage class (21% e.g. putative thiamine biosynthesis protein, putative beta-alanine synthase and cysteine synthase. Further, cell signaling (9% proteins like actin and prolyl endopeptidase and proteins with miscellaneous function (19% like Sgt1 and some hypothetical protein were also represented a large contribution towards drought regulatory mechanism in rice. We propose that protein biogenesis, cell defense and superior homeostasis may render better drought-adaptation. These findings might expedite the functional determination of the drought-responsive proteins and their prioritisation as potential molecular targets for perfect adaptation.

  11. Elucidation of Complex Nature of PEG Induced Drought-Stress Response in Rice Root Using Comparative Proteomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Lalit; Gupta, Swati; Mishra, Shashank K.; Pandey, Garima; Kumar, Susheel; Chauhan, Puneet S.; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Nautiyal, Chandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Along with many adaptive strategies, dynamic changes in protein abundance seem to be the common strategy to cope up with abiotic stresses which can be best explored through proteomics. Understanding of drought response is the key to decipher regulatory mechanism of better adaptation. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) proteome represents a phenomenal source of proteins that govern traits of agronomic importance, such as drought tolerance. In this study, a comparison of root cytoplasmic proteome was done for a drought tolerant rice (Heena) cultivar in PEG induced drought conditions. A total of 510 protein spots were observed by PDQuest analysis and 125 differentially regulated spots were subjected for MALDI-TOF MS-MS analysis out of which 102 protein spots identified which further led to identification of 78 proteins with a significant score. These 78 differentially expressed proteins appeared to be involved in different biological pathways. The largest percentage of identified proteins was involved in bioenergy and metabolism (29%) and mainly consists of malate dehydrogenase, succinyl-CoA, putative acetyl-CoA synthetase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase etc. This was followed by proteins related to cell defense and rescue (22%) such as monodehydroascorbate reductase and stress-induced protein sti1, then by protein biogenesis and storage class (21%) e.g. putative thiamine biosynthesis protein, putative beta-alanine synthase, and cysteine synthase. Further, cell signaling (9%) proteins like actin and prolyl endopeptidase, and proteins with miscellaneous function (19%) like Sgt1 and some hypothetical proteins were also represented a large contribution toward drought regulatory mechanism in rice. We propose that protein biogenesis, cell defense, and superior homeostasis may render better drought-adaptation. These findings might expedite the functional determination of the drought-responsive proteins and their prioritization as potential molecular targets for perfect adaptation.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Common Savannah Grass on a Range of Soils Subjected to Different Stresses II: Root Zone Physical Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Springer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The root zone physical condition influences root development and function, which affects turfgrass growth, quality and performance. The temporal variability of root zone properties was investigated in a factorial experiment combining sand layering compaction and moisture stress on the performance of Savannahgrass (SG (Axonopus compressus, Bermudagrass (BG (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. (cv. Tifway 419 and Zoysiagrass (ZG (Zoysia spp. grown in four contrasting soils. Four stresses—drought (D, waterlogging (WL, high compaction (HC and low compaction (LC—were applied either with or without a surface sand layer. Root zone properties, including root weight (RW, bulk density (BD, surface hardness (SH, redox potential (Eh and non-capillary pore space (NCPS, were monitored over a four-month growth period. Surface hardness values were greater for the high compaction effort in treatments without sand, but were highest under drought. Sand addition resulted in lower SH for all grass × soil combinations. The soil texture influenced root zone BD for all turfgrasses, with the clay soils recording significantly lower bulk densities (<1.00 g/cm3 than those with coarser fractions. Compaction had a minimal influence on BD, the effect being further modified by grass type. Low BD was associated with high RW. RW was also significantly higher in the sand-amended treatments. Waterlogging reduced Eh for all soils, with higher values recorded in the sand treatments. The redox potential was lowest in River Estate soil and in pots planted with ZG. Across turfgrasses, Princes Town and Talparo soils had significantly lower NCPS for the sand treatment. NCPS was highest for ZG across stress treatments, but values were similar to SG under compaction treatments. Sand layering improved the root zone aeration status, particularly with SG, resulting in a better physical condition.

  13. Stress-induced cardiomyopathy following infection of the upper respiratory tract in an elderly female patient: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huaiyu; Huang, Rongchong; Shi, Xiaoli; Wu, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC), also known as takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), is a relatively newly-described condition, which has been increasingly reported in the literature. It is characterized by acute onset of symptoms and electrocardiogram changes mimicking myocardial infarction, with transient but completely reversible left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. SIC commonly occurs following physical or emotional stress. The present study discusses the case of a 68-year-old female patient who had suffered from infection of the upper respiratory tract for 10 days before admission to the hospital with symptoms of chest stuffiness and dyspnea that persisted for 2 days. Coronary angiography showed normal coronary artery function, while LV angiography demonstrated systolic apical ballooning. Based on these observed characteristics, the patient was diagnosed with SIC and was successfully treated. PMID:27882121

  14. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ-Based Comparative Proteome Analysis of the Response of Ramie under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia An

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we conducted the first isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis of ramie plantlets after 0 (minor drought stress, 24 (moderate drought stress, and 72 h (severe drought stress of treatment with 15% (w/v poly (ethylene glycol6000 (PEG6000 to simulate drought stress. In our study, the association analysis of proteins and transcript expression revealed 1244 and 968 associated proteins identified in leaves and roots, respectively. L1, L2, and L3 are leaf samples which were harvested at 0, 24, and 72 h after being treated with 15% PEG6000, respectively. Among those treatment groups, a total of 118, 216, and 433 unique proteins were identified as differentially expressed during L1 vs. L2, L2 vs. L3, and L1 vs. L3, respectively. R1, R2, and R3 are root samples which were harvested at 0, 24, and 72 h after being treated with 15% PEG6000, respectively. Among those treatment groups,a total of 124, 27, and 240 unique proteins were identified as differentially expressed during R1 vs. R2, R2 vs. R3, and R1 vs. R3, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that glycolysis/gluconeogenesis was significantly upregulated in roots in response to drought stress. This enhancement may result in more glycolytically generated adenosine triphosphate (ATP in roots to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. To obtain complementary information related to iTRAQ data, the mRNA levels of 12 proteins related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis in leaves and 7 in roots were further analyzed by qPCR. Most of their expression levels were higher in R3 than R1 and R2, suggesting that these compounds may promote drought tolerance by modulating the production of available energy.

  15. Work-related stress and quality of life among Iranian blue-collar workers with self-reported low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir-Mokamelkhah, Elaheh; Bahrami-Ahmadi, Amir; Aghili, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Impairment in quality of life and mental health had been reported in the previous studies as the results of musculoskeletal disorders among workers. Mental health has a wide concept and contains different disorders including anxiety, depression or even decreased quality of life, all of which having challengeable impacts on work- related characters such as work productivity and absensism. The present study aimed at evaluating work- related stress and quality of life among Iranian blue-collar workers of Fars ABFA Company with selfreported low back pain. Methods: In the present study, we focused on the low back pain among 451 blue-collar workers and assessed their work- related stress and quality of life status using DASS-21 and short form questionnaire (SF-36), respectively. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the qualitative variables, and chi-square test was utilized for statistical analysis of the qualitative variables. Results: Mean of the total score of quality of life among workers with low back pain was significantly lower than in those workers without low back pain. The mean of work- related stress score was significantly higher in workers with low back pain than in workers without low back pain. The mean quality of life subdomains in patients with low back pain was significantly lower than in workers without low back pain. Conclusion: Findings of the present study revealed that workers with low back pain had lower quality of life score and higher work- related stress score. These findings should be considered in designing preventive programs rather than controlling the pain.

  16. Composite scores in comparative effectiveness research: counterbalancing parsimony and dimensionality in patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Patrick, Donald L

    2014-07-01

    When planning a comparative effectiveness study comparing disease-modifying treatments, competing demands influence choice of outcomes. Current practice emphasizes parsimony, although understanding multidimensional treatment impact can help to personalize medical decision-making. We discuss both sides of this 'tug of war'. We discuss the assumptions, advantages and drawbacks of composite scores and multidimensional outcomes. We describe possible solutions to the multiple comparison problem, including conceptual hierarchy distinctions, statistical approaches, 'real-world' benchmarks of effectiveness and subgroup analysis. We conclude that comparative effectiveness research should consider multiple outcome dimensions and compare different approaches that fit the individual context of study objectives.

  17. A comparative study on the hot flow stress of Mg–Al–Zn magnesium alloys using a simple physically-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mirzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was carried out on the hot flow stress of AZ31, AZ61, and AZ91 magnesium alloys. Their hot working behaviors were studied through constitutive analysis based on a simple physically-based approach which accounts for the dependence of the Young's modulus and the self-diffusion coefficient of magnesium on temperature. Since the main difference between these alloys is the difference in their amount of aluminum, the differences in constitutive behavior were quantitatively characterized by relating the hot flow stress to amount of Al, which was not possible without the consideration of physically-based parameters. It was concluded that the used approach in the current work can be considered as a versatile tool in future hot working and alloy development studies.

  18. Water quality assessment using the AREc32 reporter gene assay indicative of the oxidative stress response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Dutt, Mriga; Maylin, Erin; Tang, Janet Y M; Toze, Simon; Wolf, C Roland; Lang, Matti

    2012-11-01

    The reporter gene assay AREc32 is based on the induction of the Nrf2 mediated oxidative stress response pathway in the human breast cancer cell line MCF7, where eight copies of the antioxidant response element (ARE) are linked to a reporter gene encoding for luciferase. The Nrf2-ARE pathway is responsive to many chemicals that cause oxidative stress, among them a large number of pesticides and skin irritants. We adopted and validated the AREc32 bioassay for water quality testing. tert-Butylhydroquinone served as the positive control, phenol as the negative control and other reactive chemicals were assessed for their specificity. An environmentally relevant reference chemical, benzo(a)pyrene was the most potent inducer of all tested chemicals. The concentration causing an induction ratio (IR) of 1.5 (EC(IR1.5)) was chosen as the effect benchmark value. The assay was applied to 21 water samples ranging from sewage to drinking water, including secondary treatment and various tertiary treatment options (ozonation, biologically activated carbon filtration, membrane filtration, reverse osmosis, advanced oxidation, chlorination, chloramination). The samples were enriched by solid phase extraction. In most samples the oxidative stress response was far more sensitive than cytotoxicity. The primary and secondary treated effluent exceeded the effect threshold IR 1.5 at a relative enrichment factor (REF) of 1, i.e., the native samples were active. All tertiary treated samples were less potent and their EC(IR1.5) lay between REF 1 and 10. The Nrf2 pathway was induced at a REF of approximately 10 for surface waters and drinking water, and above this enrichment cytotoxicity took over in most samples and quenched the induction. The blank (ultrapure water run through the sample enrichment process) was cytotoxic at an REF of 100, which is the limit of concentrations range that can be evaluated. Treatment typically decreased both the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response apart

  19. Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

  20. Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

  1. SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING QUALITY OF INDIAN AND AMERICAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diganta Munshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The content analysis method has been adopted to study the pattern of reporting on sustainability indicators by 10 American and 10 Indian manufacturing firms in their sustainability reports prepared as per the GRI framework and published during 2011-2013. Scores of 2, 1 and 0 have been respectively assigned for full, partial and non disclosure of sub clauses of economic, environmentand social indicators to compute a SDI (sustainability disclosure index. Independent t test found a significant difference in the quality of sustainability disclosure of the sampled American and Indian manufacturing firms during 2011-13. The improvement/ deterioration in the quality of disclosure over the period were correlated with changes in performance parameters like EPS and ROA to examine if betterment in quality of sustainability reporting translates into financial performance of the firms. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the variables which explain the variation in the sustainability reporting quality of firms.

  2. A Comparative Study on Chinese and American Sports News Reports on Print Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixin Yao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we give the research data which shows that the refining of the content of the important American news is worth learning, which often express the important content of the article with just a few short words. The function of the American sports version locates explicitly and the daily publication are reported with the classification of sports. As for worldwide major tournaments, the United States all attaches great importance, not only designate the special monograph to report, but also develop detailed reporting plan to make preparation for the special issue. Chinese attaches great importance to the competition report, which is consistent with its status of the world’s large newspapers. China attaches great importance to the competition report because the manager knows that competition is the important selling points of the newspapers, which should make efforts to conduct. Generally speaking, the American people are not too concerned about the events of the outside and the range of their loved sports are very narrow, only several sports, basketball, baseball, rugby, tennis and ice hockey. Another feature of the long articles in the United States is that the reporters don’t spend too much energy to describe the tidbits outside, but simply focus on the sports itself and the sports stadium itself.

  3. Bilateral stress fractures of femoral neck in non-athletes: a report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Monappa A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Femoral neck stress fractures (FNSFs are rare, constituting only 5% of all stress fractures in young adults. These fractures are usually seen in athletes, military recruits and patients with underlying metabolic diseases. The treatment of FNSFs is still controversial because of the inherent complications associated with the treatment procedure. We came across 4 cases of bilateral FNSFs in non-athletic individuals who were manual labourers with-out underlying bony disorders. Two patients with FNSFs and coxa vara deformity on both sides were managed by subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy and dynamic hip screw fixation. One of the remaining two patients was treated by cannulated cancellous screw fixation on one side and sub-trochanteric valgus osteotomy on the other side. The fourth patient received subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy on one side and bipolar hemiarthroplasty on the other side after failed cannulated screw fixation. All the fractures healed without any complications. No evidence of avascular ne-crosis or arthritis was noted in our series. Subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy restores normal neck-shaft angle in pa-tients suffering from FNSFs combined with coxa vara deformity. Moreover, it helps to bring the forces acting around the hip to normal biomechanical levels, leading to fracture union and better results. Replacement arthroplasty is recommended to patients who fail to achieve bony union after fixation. Key words: Fractures, stress; Femoral neck fractures; Coxa vara; Osteotomy

  4. Barnidipine compared to lercanidipine in addition to losartan on endothelial damage and oxidative stress parameters in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Mugellini, Amedeo; Pesce, Rosa Maria; D’Angelo, Angela; Maffioli, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Background Essential hypertension has been extensively reported to cause endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of barnidipine or lercanidipine, in addition to losartan, on some parameters indicative of endothelial damage and oxidative stress in hypertensive, type 2 diabetic patients. Methods One hundred and fifty one patients were randomised to barnidipine, 20 mg/day, or lercanidipine, 20 mg/day, both in addition to losartan, 100 mg/day, for 6 months. We a...

  5. Manager's Discretionary Power and Comparability of Financial Reports: An Analysis of the Regulatory Transition Process in Brazilian Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mussoi Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to directly evaluate the impact of the accounting regulatory flexibility movement on the comparability of financial reports. The country chosen for the analysis was Brazil, because it was one of the few countries in the world where a process of regulatory change from a completely rule-based standard with a strong link to tax accounting (Lopes, 2011 to a principle-based standard with greater need for decision by managers who prepare the financial reports took place. To measure comparability, the accounting function similarity model developed by DeFranco, Kothari and Verdi (2011 was used. The companies analyzed were all listed ones with full data for the period concerned having, at least, a pair company within the same economic activity sector. To obtain the research results, we adopted a panel data model where the years 2005 to 2012 were compared to the year 2004. The results obtained prove that, on average, there was no significant decrease in the comparability level within country during the regulatory transition period in Brazil. On the contrary, there was an increase in genuine comparability in the year 2012 when compared to 2004. In the model adjusted by stepwise, the years 2011 and 2012 had a significantly higher average comparability when compared to 2004. The results found corroborate other researches addressing the quality of accounting information (Collins, Pasewark, & Riley, 2012; Psaros & Trotman, 2004; Agoglia, Doupnik, & Tsakumis, 2011 and prove the superiority of the principle-based standard also over the comparability of financial reports. The main conclusion of this research is that increasing manager's discretionary power through flexibility of accounting standards does not decrease the comparability of financial reports.

  6. Coccidioidomycosis in Biopsies with Presumptive Diagnosis of Malignancy in Dogs: Report of Three Cases and Comparative Discussion of Published Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Romero, Rafael; Silva-Pérez, Rolando Antonio; Lara-Arias, Jorge; Ramírez-Hernández, Cecilia; Marino-Martínez, Iván Alberto; Barbosa-Quintana, Álvaro; López-Mayagoitia, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a respiratory fungal infection with occasional systemic dissemination. The disseminated coccidioidomycosis is considered a multifaceted disease. In medicine, disseminated coccidioidomycosis is included within a group of infectious diseases that have been referred as the great imitators. In many cases, malignancies are included in the presumptive diagnosis. In veterinary medicine, disseminated coccidioidomycosis is common in dogs. Nonetheless, despite of being a diagnostic dilemma, disseminated coccidioidomycosis is underestimated and frequently not included into differentials, even in endemic zones. Herein, we describe three cases of granulomatous inflammation caused by Coccidioides spp. which were masquerading malignancies in dogs (0.39 %). The presumptive diagnoses in these cases were osteosarcoma, lymphoma and neurofibroma, respectively. A PCR assay employing tissues in paraffin blocks resulted positive for C. posadasii in one of these cases. A comparative discussion on the ambiguous clinic-pathological presentation of disseminated coccidioidomycosis in dogs and humans is included.

  7. Comparative metabolomics in Glycine max and Glycine soja under salt stress to reveal the phenotypes of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonghai; Lam, Honming; Pi, Erxu; Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming

    2013-09-11

    Metabolomics is developing as an important functional genomics tool for understanding plant systems' response to genetic and environmental changes. Here, we characterized the metabolic changes of cultivated soybean C08 (Glycine max L. Merr) and wild soybean W05 (Glycine soja Sieb.et Zucc.) under salt stress using MS-based metabolomics, in order to reveal the phenotypes of their eight hybrid offspring (9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590). Total small molecule extracts of soybean seedling leaves were profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC-FT/MS). We found that wild soybean contained higher amounts of disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and acetylated amino acids than cultivated soybean, but with lower amounts of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids, and unsaturated fatty acids. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of soybean to tolerate salt was mainly based on synthesis of compatible solutes, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, cell membrane modifications, and induction of plant hormones. On the basis of metabolic phenotype, the salt-tolerance abilities of 9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590 were discriminated. Our results demonstrated that MS-based metabolomics provides a fast and powerful approach to discriminate the salt-tolerance characteristics of soybeans.

  8. Comparative study of the two-fluid momentum equations for multi-dimensional bubbly flows: Modification of Reynolds stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Ik Kyu; Yoon, Han Young [Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Byoung [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Two-fluid equations are widely used to obtain averaged behaviors of two-phase flows. This study addresses a problem that may arise when the two-fluid equations are used for multi-dimensional bubbly flows. If steady drag is the only accounted force for the interfacial momentum transfer, the disperse-phase velocity would be the same as the continuous-phase velocity when the flow is fully developed without gravity. However, existing momentum equations may show unphysical results in estimating the relative velocity of the disperse phase against the continuous-phase. First, we examine two types of existing momentum equations. One is the standard two-fluid momentum equation in which the disperse-phase is treated as a continuum. The other is the averaged momentum equation derived from a solid/ fluid particle motion. We show that the existing equations are not proper for multi-dimensional bubbly flows. To resolve the problem mentioned above, we modify the form of the Reynolds stress terms in the averaged momentum equation based on the solid/fluid particle motion. The proposed equation shows physically correct results for both multi-dimensional laminar and turbulent flows.

  9. Structures and processes in spontaneous ADR reporting systems: a comparative study of Australia and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Lise; Stenver, Doris Irene; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2008-10-01

    To explore the organisational structure and processes of the Danish and Australian spontaneous ADR reporting systems with a view to how information is generated about new ADRs. The Danish and Australian spontaneous ADR reporting systems. Qualitative analyses of documentary material, descriptive interviews with key informants, and observations were made. We analysed the organisational structure of the Danish and Australian ADR reporting systems with respect to structures and processes, including information flow and exchange of ADR data. The analysis was made based on Scott's adapted version of Leavitt's diamond model, with the components: goals/tasks, social structure, technology and participants, within a surrounding environment. The main differences between the systems were: (1) PARTICIPANTS: Outsourcing of ADR assessments to the pharmaceutical companies complicates maintenance of scientific skills within the Danish Medicines Agency (DKMA), as it leaves the handling of spontaneous ADR reports purely administrative within the DKMA, and the knowledge creation process remains with the pharmaceutical companies, while in Australia senior scientific staff work with evaluation of the ADR report; (2) Goals/tasks: In Denmark, resources are targeted at evaluating Periodic Safety Update Reports (PSUR) submitted by the companies, while the resources in Australia are focused on single case assessment resulting in faster and more proactive medicine surveillance; (3) Social structure: Discussions between scientific staff about ADRs take place in Australia, while the Danish system primarily focuses on entering and forwarding ADR data to the relevant pharmaceutical companies; (4) Technology: The Danish system exchanges ADR data electronically with pharmaceutical companies and the other EU countries, while Australia does not have a system for electronic exchange of ADR data; and (5) ENVIRONMENT: The Danish ADR system is embedded in the routines of cooperation within European

  10. A Comparative Review on Company Specific Determinants for Sustainability Reporting in United Kingdom (UK and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Xue Fa

    2017-01-01

    The Spearman’s correlation has identified a negative association on leverage with TQCSR for UK companies. In contrast, the TQCSR in the Malaysian sample was positively associated with directors’ CSR-related experiences and profitability but negatively associated with company size. Results from MLR analyses presented company size as a significant determinant on sustainability reporting in the UK model, while directors’ experiences were indicated as the crucial determinant in the Malaysian model. This first, direct cross-market sustainability reporting study highlights the importance of board of directors’ CSR-relevant experience in influencing the level of CSR disclosures in publicly-traded companies.

  11. Considering benefits and harms of duloxetine for treatment of stress urinary incontinence: a meta-analysis of clinical study reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maund, Emma; Guski, Louise Schow; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Medicines Agency makes clinical study reports publicly available and publishes reasons for not approving applications for marketing authorization. Duloxetine has been approved in Europe for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. The reported adverse effects of duloxetine include mental health problems and suicidality. We obtained clinical study reports from the European Medicines Agency concerning use of this drug for stress urinary incontinence. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of 4 randomized placebo-controlled trials of duloxetine (involving a total of 1913 patients) submitted to the European Medicines Agency for marketing approval for the indication of stress urinary incontinence in women. We used data from the clinical study reports (totalling 6870 pages and including individual patient data) to assess benefits (including frequency of incontinence and changes in quality-of-life scores, such as Patient Global Impression of Improvement rating) and harms (both general harms, including discontinuation because of adverse events, and harms related to suicidality, violent behaviour and their potential precursors, such as akathisia and activation [stimulating effects such as insomnia, anxiety and agitation]). RESULTS: Duloxetine was significantly better than placebo in terms of percentage change in weekly incontinence episodes (mean difference −13.56%, 95% confidence interval [CI] −21.59% to −5.53%) and change in Incontinence Quality of Life total score (mean difference 3.24, 95% CI 2.00 to 4.48). However, the effect sizes were small, and a sensitivity analysis (with removal of one trial) showed that the number needed to treat for a Patient Global Impression of Improvement rating of “much better or very much better” was 8 (95% CI 6 to 13). The numbers needed to harm were 7 (95% CI 6 to 8) for discontinuing because of an adverse event and 7 (95% CI 6 to 9) for experiencing an activation event. No suicidality

  12. Effect of virgin coconut oil enriched diet on the antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2013-09-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) extracted by wet processing is popular among the scientific field and society nowadays. The present study was carried out to examine the comparative effect of VCO with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO) and sunflower oil (SFO) on endogenous antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with the synthetic diet. Results revealed that dietary VCO improved the antioxidant status compared to other three oil fed groups (P oil fed groups (P oil fed rats (P oil) and tocopherols (33.12 μg per 100 g oil) etc. compared to other oils (P < 0.05). From these observations, it is concluded that VCO has a beneficial role in improving antioxidant status and hence preventing lipid and protein oxidation.

  13. Rib stress fracture in a male adaptive rower from the arms and shoulders sport class: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoljanovic, Tomislav; Bojanic, Ivan; Pollock, Courtney L; Radonic, Radovan

    2011-10-15

    Adaptive rowing is rowing or sculling for rowers with a physical disability. It debuted at the Paralympic Games in 2008. In order to ensure an equitable playing field, rowers with similar levels of physical function and disability are classified into different sport classes for competition. Rowers with an inability to use a sliding seat and impaired trunk function resulting in an inability to perform trunk forward and backward lean via hip flexion/extension are assigned to the Arms and Shoulders (AS) class. AS rowers have to use a chest strap set immediately below the chest in order to localize any trunk movement in AS class. Conditions created by adaptations of rowing equipment and technique within the AS class create unique stresses on the upper thoracic region. The following case report demonstrates how etiology and management of a rib stress fracture in an AS rower differs in comparison to able-body rowers. Of significant importance were the limitations imposed on the rower's ability to maintain rowing-specific fitness, due to the nature of the rib stress fracture and requirement to decrease force transmission through the ribs for several weeks. The rower's gradual return to full training was further impacted by obligatory use of the chest strap, which directly applied pressure over the injured area. Protective orthosis for the chest was designed and applied in order to dissipate pressure of the chest strap over the thorax during rowing (most importantly at the catch position) both on the ergometer and in the boat.

  14. Near isohydric grapevine cultivar displays higher photosynthetic efficiency and photorespiration rates under drought stress as compared with near anisohydric grapevine cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Degu, Asfaw; Fait, Aaron; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-04-01

    Drought stress is known to limit photosynthesis rates and to inflict photo-oxidative damage in grapevines. Grapevines, which are considered drought-tolerant plants, are characterized by diverse hydraulic and photosynthetic behaviors, depending on the cultivar. This research compared the photosynthesis and the photorespiration of Cabernet Sauvignon (Cs) (isohydric) and Shiraz (anisohydric) in an attempt to acquire a wider perspective on the iso/anisohydric phenomenon and its implications. Shiraz and Cs were subjected to terminal drought in the greenhouse. Soil water content (θ), leaf water potential (Ψl ) and stomata conductance (gs ) were measured to determine the cultivars' hydraulic behavior. Gas exchange and fluorometry measurements were taken at 21 and 2% O2 to acquire photosynthesis and photorespiration characteristics. Cs was found to behave in a near isohydric manner whereas Shiraz behaved in a near anisohydric manner. Compared to Shiraz, the reduced stomata conductance values of Cs were accompanied by higher water use efficiency and photorespiration rates, as well as photosystem II photochemical potential (Fv /Fm ). As compared with Shiraz, Cs compensated for lower stomata conductance by higher photosynthesis and photorespiration. These two processes contributed to higher electron flow rates that might have a role in photoinhibition avoidance, which was observed in the stability of Fv /Fm under drought stress.

  15. Comparative study of radiation, chemical, and aging effects on viral transformation. Annual progress report, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1976-03-31

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: evaluation of isotopic antiglobulin test (IAT) to detect tumor associated antigens using antisera induced by x-irradiated tumor cells; development of cytotoxic antibody for embryonic antigens (EA); acrylamide gel cell culture assay for transformation; and evaluation of 3-MCA induced sarcomas for TSTA and cross-reacting antigens. (HLW)

  16. Self-Report Measures of Juvenile Psychopathic Personality Traits: A Comparative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2005-01-01

    The authors evaluated self-report instruments currently being used to assess children and adolescents with psychopathic personality traits with respect to their reliability, validity, and research utility. Comprehensive searches across multiple computerized bibliographic databases were conducted and supplemented with manual searches. A total of 30…

  17. Comparative Effect of Silymarin and D-Penicillamine on Lead Induced Hemotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Missagh Jalali*

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was performed to investigate the adverse effects of acute lead intoxication on hemogram, erythrocyte osmotic fragility and oxidant/antioxidant status and the probable ameliorating effect of silymarin in comparison to d-penicillamine. Methods: Forty-eight albino rats were divided in 8 groups and received the following treatments in a 10 day experiment in Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, southwest Iran in 2015. Group 1: Normal saline as control; Group 2: 25 mg/kg lead acetate, intraperitoneally (IP for the last 5 days; Group 3: 100 mg/kg D-penicillamine, IP for the last 5 days; Group 4: 200 mg/kg silymarin, orally for 10 days; Group 5, 6, 7 and 8: In addition to lead, they received D-penicillamine, for the last 5 days, silymarin for 10 days, a combination of silymarin for 10 days and D-penicillamine for the last 5 days, and silymarin for the last 5 days, respectively. Results: Lead exposure induced a significant microcytic anemia accompanied by a significant elevation in total leukocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathion peroxidase (Gpx activities were significantly increased along with a significant elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in lead treated rats. Activities of SOD and Gpx were significantly alleviated by silymarin administration for 10 days while both D-penicillamine and silymarin could significantly reduce MDA concentration. Conclusion: Acute lead exposure induced significant leukocytosis and anemia that was associated with increased activity of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation. Silymarin in contrast to D-penicillamine treatment was more effective in preventing lead-induced oxidative stress in erythrocytes.

  18. Surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence with the Gynecare TVT Secur™ System – preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Baranowski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sling procedures were first introduced over 100 years ago in the treatment of stress urinaryincontinence. Since then they have evolved to become less invasive and safer. The sling procedure using theGynecare TVT Secur™ system is a new therapeutic option for women with stress urinary incontinence.Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Gynecare TVT Secur™ in the surgical treatment of stressurinary incontinence in women. Material and methods: The study comprised consecutive female patients admitted to the Department ofGynaecology and Gynaecological Oncology of the Military Institute of Health Services in Warsaw, Poland, whohad been qualified for surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence on the basis of physical signs and symptomsand the findings of a urodynamic study. The procedure was performed using the Gynecare TVT Secur™system with tapes introduced in an H- or U-shape mode. Results: Between October 2006 and September 2009, 77 sling procedures using the Gynecare TVT Secur™system were performed in women with stress urinary incontinence. Their mean age was 55.1 (30-76 years, meanBMI 28.5 (20.2-43.8 kg/m2. Sixty-nine implants were positioned in H-shape mode, 8 in U-shape mode. Fortyninewomen (63.6% were menopausal, 14 (18.2% previously had three or more natural deliveries, 13 (16.8%had a history of gynaecological surgeries. Thirty-one procedures were performed under general anaesthesia and46 under local anaesthesia. The mean duration of the surgery was 9 (4-42 minutes. It was possible to dischargefifty-seven (74% women on the day of the surgery. Urine retention was observed only in 1 (1.7% woman. Noother complications were recorded. Conclusions: The surgical treatment of urinary incontinence with sling procedures using the Gynecare TVTSecur™ system shows good immediate efficacy and safety. Considering this as well as the short duration ofthe procedure and its good tolerability under local anaesthesia, use

  19. Scaphoid Stress Fracture in High-Level Gymnast: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Nakamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an 18-year-old high-level gymnast who sustained a stress fracture of the scaphoid associated with a distal radial epiphysiolysis. Clinical evaluation demonstrated decreased range of motion of the affected wrist and insidious pain on the snuffbox and tenderness on the distal radial physis. He was submitted to surgical treatment with scaphoid percutaneous fixation and radial styloid process in situ fixation. Clinical features improved, and he got back to competition 6 months after surgery without symptoms and with complete range of motion.

  20. Microstructuring of thermo-mechanically highly stressed surfaces final report of the DFG research group 576

    CERN Document Server

    Rienäcker, Adrian; Knoll, Gunter; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Maier, Hans; Reithmeier, Eduard; Dinkelacker, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume presents the final research results of the DFG Research Group 576, which is a joint initiative of five different institutes of the Leibniz Universität Hannover and the Universität Kassel, Germany. The research of the DFG Research Group 576 focuses on improving the tribological behavior of thermomechanically highly stressed surfaces, particularly on cylinder liner for combustion engines. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students who want to specialize in the field.

  1. Comparative Study of the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder%创伤后应激障碍与急性应激障碍对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘光花

    2012-01-01

    By comparing the post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD)with the stress disorder (ASD)symptoms, this study found that the psychological and social factors in the prevention and treatment of both disorders were very similar :the individual spirit and personality affected the occurrence and development of ASD and PTSD and the main factors affecting the development of them were social culture, family and social support; the intervention of them were both the combination of psychotherapy and medication. Attention should be paid to social support and prevention. In the aspect of the time of onset and duration, the two were quite different: ASD occurred fast and had a short duration while the PTSD had a longer duration and a slower onset.%通过对创伤后应激障碍(post-traumatic stress disorder,PTSD)与急性应激障碍(acute stress disorder,ASD)进行比较,研究发现,两者在心理社会因素以及治疗预防等方面十分相似:个体的精神和人格方面影响着ASD与PTSD的发生和发展,对其影响较大的社会因素主要有文化、家庭以及社会支持等;对两者的干预皆为心理治疗和药物治疗相结合,同时要重视社会支持和预防.在发病时间以及病程上两者存在较大差异:ASD发病快、病程短,而PTSD发病慢、病程长.

  2. Do stress fractures induce hypertrophy of the grafted fibula? A report of three cases received free vascularized fibular graft treatment for tibial defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Qi; Hong-Tao Sun; Yue-Guang Fan; Fei-Meng Li; Zhou-Sheng Lin

    2016-01-01

    The presence of large segmental defects of the diaphyseal bone is challenging for orthopedic surgeons.Free vascularized fibular grafting (FVFG) is considered to be a reliable reconstructive procedure.Stress fractures are a common complication following this surgery,and hypertrophy is the main physiological change of the grafted fibula.The exact mechanism of hypertrophy is not completely known.To the best of our knowledge,no studies have examined the possible relationship between stress fractures and hypertrophy.We herein report three cases of patients underwent FVFG.Two of them developed stress fractures and significant hypertrophy,while the remaining patient developed neither stress fractures nor significant hypertrophy.This phenomenon indicates that a relationship may exist between stress fractures and hypertrophy of the grafted fibula,specifically,that the presence of a stress fracture may initiate the process of hypertrophy.

  3. Do stress fractures induce hypertrophy of the grafted fibula? A report of three cases received free vascularized fibular graft treatment for tibial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yong; Sun, Hong-Tao; Fan, Yue-Guang; Li, Fei-Meng; Lin, Zhou-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    The presence of large segmental defects of the diaphyseal bone is challenging for orthopedic surgeons. Free vascularized fibular grafting (FVFG) is considered to be a reliable reconstructive procedure. Stress fractures are a common complication following this surgery, and hypertrophy is the main physiological change of the grafted fibula. The exact mechanism of hypertrophy is not completely known. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined the possible relationship between stress fractures and hypertrophy. We herein report three cases of patients underwent FVFG. Two of them developed stress fractures and significant hypertrophy, while the remaining patient developed neither stress fractures nor significant hypertrophy. This phenomenon indicates that a relationship may exist between stress fractures and hypertrophy of the grafted fibula, specifically, that the presence of a stress fracture may initiate the process of hypertrophy.

  4. Comparative evaluation of oral gabapentin versus clonidine as premedication on preoperative sedation and laryngoscopic stress response attenuation for the patients undergoing general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Majumdar

    2015-01-01

    Results and Analysis: Preoperative sedation between two groups were similar but group C attenuated HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and mean blood pressure (MBP more significantly before induction, during L and I, 1, 3, and 5 min, following L and I, while comparing with group G. Again gabapentin-reduced HR, BP, (SBP, DBP, MBP significantly more at 7 and 10 min after L and I on comparison clonidine. Conclusion: Oral clonidine is equally effective in producing preoperative sedation in comparison to oral gabapentin, while on the contrary oral clonidine is more efficacious in reducing laryngoscopic stress response than oral gabapentin.

  5. Bodily symptoms in patients with post traumatic stress disorder: A comparative study of traumatized refugees, Danish war veterans, and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth; Nyboe, Lene; Gyllensten, Amanda Lundvik

    2017-01-01

    Background: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased general health symptoms and patients suffer from numerous bodily complaints such as increased pain, increased muscular tension, and restricted breathing. Methods and material: This study applied the Body Awareness...... Movement Quality and Experience scale (BAS MQ-E) in assessing and comparing bodily symptoms, including movement function, in traumatized refugees (N Z 14) and Danish war veterans with PTSD (N Z 19) and healthy controls (N Z 20). Results: Patients with PTSD had significantly poorer stability, balance...

  6. Transcriptome comparative profiling of barley eibi1 mutant reveals pleiotropic effects of HvABCG31 gene on cuticle biogenesis and stress responsive pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zujun; Zhang, Tao; Lang, Tao; Li, Guangrong; Chen, Guoxiong; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-10-14

    Wild barley eibi1 mutant with HvABCG31 gene mutation has low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. To better understand how such a mutant plant survives, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis. The leaf transcriptomes between the near-isogenic lines eibi1 and the wild type were compared using the 22-k Barley1 Affymetrix microarray. We found that the pleiotropic effect of the single gene HvABCG31 mutation was linked to the co-regulation of metabolic processes and stress-related system. The cuticle development involved cytochrome P450 family members and fatty acid metabolism pathways were significantly up-regulated by the HvABCG31 mutation, which might be anticipated to reduce the levels of cutin monomers or wax and display conspicuous cuticle defects. The candidate genes for responses to stress were induced by eibi1 mutant through activating the jasmonate pathway. The down-regulation of co-expressed enzyme genes responsible for DNA methylation and histone deacetylation also suggested that HvABCG31 mutation may affect the epigenetic regulation for barley development. Comparison of transcriptomic profiling of barley under biotic and abiotic stresses revealed that the functions of HvABCG31 gene to high-water loss rate might be different from other osmotic stresses of gene mutations in barley. The transcriptional profiling of the HvABCG31 mutation provided candidate genes for further investigation of the physiological and developmental changes caused by the mutant.

  7. Transcriptome Comparative Profiling of Barley eibi1 Mutant Reveals Pleiotropic Effects of HvABCG31 Gene on Cuticle Biogenesis and Stress Responsive Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eviatar Nevo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild barley eibi1 mutant with HvABCG31 gene mutation has low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. To better understand how such a mutant plant survives, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis. The leaf transcriptomes between the near-isogenic lines eibi1 and the wild type were compared using the 22-k Barley1 Affymetrix microarray. We found that the pleiotropic effect of the single gene HvABCG31 mutation was linked to the co-regulation of metabolic processes and stress-related system. The cuticle development involved cytochrome P450 family members and fatty acid metabolism pathways were significantly up-regulated by the HvABCG31 mutation, which might be anticipated to reduce the levels of cutin monomers or wax and display conspicuous cuticle defects. The candidate genes for responses to stress were induced by eibi1 mutant through activating the jasmonate pathway. The down-regulation of co-expressed enzyme genes responsible for DNA methylation and histone deacetylation also suggested that HvABCG31 mutation may affect the epigenetic regulation for barley development. Comparison of transcriptomic profiling of barley under biotic and abiotic stresses revealed that the functions of HvABCG31 gene to high-water loss rate might be different from other osmotic stresses of gene mutations in barley. The transcriptional profiling of the HvABCG31 mutation provided candidate genes for further investigation of the physiological and developmental changes caused by the mutant.

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of the hepatic response to heat stress in Muscovy and Pekin ducks: insight into thermal tolerance related to energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zeng

    Full Text Available The Pekin duck, bred from the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos in china, is one of the most famous meat duck species in the world. However, it is more sensitive to heat stress than Muscovy duck, which is believed to have originated in South America. With temperature raising, mortality, laying performance, and meat quality of the Pekin duck are severely affected. This study aims to uncover the temperature-dependent proteins of two duck species using comparative proteomic approach. Duck was cultured under 39°C ± 0.5°C for 1 h, and then immediately returned to 20°C for a 3 h recovery period, the liver proteins were extracted and electrophoresed in two-dimensional mode. After analysis of gel images, 61 differentially expressed proteins were detected, 54 were clearly identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Of the 54 differentially expressed protein spots identified, 7 were found in both species, whereas 47 were species specific (25 in Muscovy duck and 22 in Pekin duck. As is well known, chaperone proteins, such as heat shock protein (HSP 70 and HSP10, were abundantly up-regulated in both species in response to heat stress. However, we also found that several proteins, such as α-enolase, and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, showed different expression patterns in the 2 duck species. The enriched biological processes were grouped into 3 main categories according to gene ontology analysis: cell death and apoptosis (20.93%, amino acid metabolism (13.95% and oxidation reduction (20.93%. The mRNA levels of several differentially expressed protein were investigated by real-time RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide insights into the differential expression of proteins following heat stress in ducks and enables better understanding of possible heat stress response mechanisms in animals.

  9. Bilateral stress fractures of femoral neck in non-athletes:a report of four cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monappa A Naik; Premjit Sujir; Sujit Kumar Tripathy; Sandeep Vijayan; Shamsi Hameed; Sharath K Rao

    2013-01-01

    Femoral neck stress fractures (FNSFs) are rare,constituting only 5% of all stress fractures in young adults.These fractures are usually seen in athletes,military recruits and patients with underlying metabolic diseases.The treatment of FNSFs is still controversial because of the inherent complications associated with the treatment procedure.We came across 4 cases of bilateral FNSFs in non-athletic individuals who were manual labourers without underlying bony disorders.Two patients with FNSFs and coxa vara deformity on both sides were managed by subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy and dynamic hip screw fixation.One of the remaining two patients was treated by cannulated cancellous screw fixation on one side and subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy on the other side.The fourth patient received subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy on one side and bipolar hemiarthroplasty on the other side after failed cannulated screw fixation.All the fractures healed without any complications.No evidence of avascular necrosis or arthritis was noted in our series.Subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy restores normal neck-shaft angle in patients suffering from FNSFs combined with coxa vara deformity.Moreover,it helps to bring the forces acting around the hip to normal biomechanical levels,leading to fracture union and better results.Replacement arthroplasty is recommended to patients who fail to achieve bony union after fixation.

  10. Stress, chemical defense agents, and cholinergic receptors. Midterm report, 1 November 1987-31 July 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, J.D.

    1989-11-30

    This project is assessing the affects of exposure to a chemical defense agent on anxiety and stress, by using rat models of anxiety (conditioned emotional response (CER); conditioned suppression) and unconditioned non-specific stres (exposure to footshock). The specific experiments determined the plasticity of muscarinic cholinergic binding sites in the central nervous system. The neuroanatomical locus and neuropharmacological profile of changes in binding sites were assessed in brain areas enriched in cholinergic markers. Acetylcholine turnover was measured to determine if the receptor response is compensatory or independent. The effects of acute exposure to doses of a chemical defense agent (soman--XGD) on lethality and behaviors were examined. The experiments involved training and conditioning adult rats to CER using standard operant/respondent techniques. The binding of radiolabelled ligand was studied in vitro using brain membranes and tissue sections (autoradiography). The major findings are that CER produces increases in acetylcholine turnover in brain areas involved in anxiety, and that primarily post-synaptic M1 receptors compensatorly decrease in response. These neurochemical phenomena are directly correlated with several behaviors, including onset and extinction of CER and non-specific stress. Followup experiments have been designed to test the interaction of CER, XGD and neurochemistry.

  11. Whose pain is it anyway? Comparability of pain reports from children and their parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, S. J.; Dissing, K. B.; Hestbaek, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that prevalence of pain, and especially chronic pain in children and adolescents, is not only responsible for considerable personal suffering but also for a substantial economic burden. In addition to its contemporaneous burden, pain in adolescents is an important...... independently asked whether the child had experienced musculoskeletal pain in the previous week. The children were between the ages of 10 and 14 years old. Parents provided answers via text message and children were questioned in person at their school. Crosstabulations were presented to assess the concordance...... of a report of any pain and of pain specific to one of the defined regions; spine, upper limb, or lower limb. Concordance between parent and child report was expressed as percentage agreement and kappa values. All cases were coded as concordant or discordant for the analyses investigating the influence...

  12. EXPLAINING THE AUDIT RISK AND ITS COMPONENTS: A COMPARATIVE CASE-STUDY BASED ON AUDIT REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA VOICULESCU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The players activating in the post-recession business environment have to and begin to be more and more prudent and attentive to any sign of human errors, uncertainty, lack of objectivity, attempt of fraud which may occur when financial statements are prepared, in their own case or in the case of their trade clients/suppliers, debtors, business partners, in general. Auditors thus became the mediators between the producers and the users of accountant information, using their high theoretical training, authority, competence and independence as pledge for the fairness of the financial statements and for the compliance with the Law. But even their reports are subject to uncertainty, therefore the author considered useful to approach in the current paper the issue of risk in financial audit, by use of a study-case of several audit reports, in order to explain and exemplify it and to highlight the difference between its components’ evaluation.

  13. Chinese and Japanese Reporting of the Yasukuni Shrine Controversy: A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Media Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAN, Joseph

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies looking at the dynamics of the state-media relationship usually focus on structural reasons, such as geopolitical or economic, to explain how the media frames the news. However, this paper argues that media organizations also have their own agendas independent of existing socio-political restraints, and that they are therefore important social actors in their own right. A news discourse analysis methodology was used to analyze Chinese and Japanese newspapers' reporting on former Japanese Prime Minister Jun'ichiro Koizumi's visits to Yasukuni Shrine to demonstrate empirically the existence of institutional media bias within these newsmaking organizations that is not necessarily consistent with the reconciliatory tone of both countries' state actions. A comparison of the results suggest that while institutional ideology may predict how Japanese newspapers shape their reporting, rhetoric is an important factor in the case of the Chinese press where state control is more stringent.

  14. Stress fracture of hamate's hook: case report with emphasis to the imaging findings; Fratura de stress do gancho do hamato: relato de caso com enfase aos achados de imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonardo Fontenelle de [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vianna, Evandro Miguelote; Domingues, Romulo; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Clinicas Multimagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Metsavaht, Leonardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: leofcbh@hotmail.com

    2007-07-01

    Stress fractures of the hook of the hamate are related to sports that use devices such as golf clubs, rackets and baseball bats. Because usually there is no history of obvious trauma, the diagnosis necessitates better knowledge of the lesion and high index of suspicion. The authors report a case of stress fracture of the hook of the hamate in a golf player with diagnosis and follow-up done with magnetic resonance and multislice computer tomography. (author)

  15. Comparing the Verbal Self-Reports of Spelling Strategies Used by Children with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Jennifer L.; Marshall, Chlo? R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the ability of children with and without dyslexia to provide meaningful verbal self-reports of the strategies they used in a spelling recognition task. Sixty-six children aged 6 years 3 months-9 years 9 months were tested on a range of standardised measures and on an experimental spelling recognition task based on the work of…

  16. Pediatric Plastic Bronchitis: Case Report and Retrospective Comparative Analysis of Epidemiology and Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Kunder; Christian Kunder; Sun, Heather Y; Gerald Berry; Anna Messner; Jennifer Frankovich; Stephen Roth; John Mark

    2013-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a pathologic condition in which airway casts develop in the tracheobronchial tree causing airway obstruction. There is no standard treatment strategy for this uncommon condition. We report an index patient treated using an emerging multimodal strategy of directly instilled and inhaled tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) as well as 13 other cases of PB at our institution between 2000 and 2012. The majority of cases (n=8) occurred in patients with congenital heart di...

  17. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  18. "We've Got a Gun?": Comparing Reports of Adolescents and Their Parents about Household Firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Cook, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Firearms are a leading cause of mortality among adolescents, and the guns that adolescents use to harm themselves or others often come from their own homes. In this statewide, multilanguage, community-based survey of 5,704 coresiding pairs of adolescents and their parents, we asked about guns in the home and compared their responses. The…

  19. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  20. The Sociolinguistics of Literacy: An Historical and Comparative Study of Five Cases. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolsky, Bernard; And Others

    The development of literacy in selected bilingual societies was investigated. Historical and comparative studies were conducted of medieval Jewish communities, the Navajo community, a northern New Mexico village, and the countries of Paraguay and Tonga. The goal of the case studies was to develop a model for the development of literacy in the…

  1. "We've Got a Gun?": Comparing Reports of Adolescents and Their Parents about Household Firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Cook, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Firearms are a leading cause of mortality among adolescents, and the guns that adolescents use to harm themselves or others often come from their own homes. In this statewide, multilanguage, community-based survey of 5,704 coresiding pairs of adolescents and their parents, we asked about guns in the home and compared their responses. The…

  2. Alleviating stress response to tracheal extubation in neurosurgical patients: A comparative study of two infusion doses of dexmedetomidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Luthra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tracheal extubation is almost always associated with increase in sympathoadrenal activity may result in hypertension, tachycardia, and arrhythmias. Attempts have been made to oppose the pressor response by the use of various drugs. Dexmedetomidine decreases norepinephrine which reduces the blood pressure and the heart rate (HR. We hypothesize that the infusion of dexmedetomidine may produce more stable hemodynamics during extubation as compared to boluses. Materials and Methods: Ninety adult patients aged 18–65 years, the American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I–II undergoing intracranial surgeries for various neurologic problem at All India Institute of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial. Primary Objectives: (1 To observe the hemodynamic changes (HR and mean arterial pressure [MAP] and airway responses during tracheal extubation following two infusion doses of dexmedetomidine. Secondary Objectives: (1 Time to emergence and time to tracheal extubation, (2 Early postoperative complications such as laryngospasm and bronchospasm, and (3 adverse effects of the study drug. Patients were assigned into three groups – (1 Group D0.2 – 0.2 μg/kg/h diluted to 50 ml, (2 Group D0.4 – 0.4 μg/kg/h diluted to 50 ml and Group P (Placebo – 0.9% NS 50 ml. The hemodynamics including the HR and MAP were recorded just before the loading dose of the study drug and then were recorded every 5 min till the infusion was stopped at tracheal extubation and every 1 min till 10 min postextubation. In addition, the airway, respiratory and cardiovascular complications along with postoperative nausea and vomiting, shivering, cough grading, Aldrete score, Ramsay sedation scale, and intraoperative awareness were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables such as HR and MAP were analyzed using analysis of variance and categorical variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: Patient demographics

  3. The Evolution of Self-Reported Urinary and Sexual Dysfunction over the Last Two Decades: Implications for Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Matthew J; Barocas, Daniel A; Morgans, Alicia K; Phillips, Sharon E; Koyama, Tatsuki; Albertsen, Peter C; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Goodman, Michael; Greenfield, Sheldon; Hamilton, Ann S; Hoffman, Karen E; Hoffman, Richard M; Kaplan, Sherrie H; McCollum, Dan; Paddock, Lisa E; Stanford, Janet L; Stroup, Antoinette M; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Penson, David F

    2015-06-01

    Despite the paramount importance of patient-reported outcomes, little is known about the evolution of patient-reported urinary and sexual function over time. To evaluate differences in pretreatment urinary and sexual function in two population-based cohorts of men with prostate cancer enrolled nearly 20 yr apart. Patients were enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study (PCOS) or the Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation (CEASAR) study, two population-based cohorts that enrolled patients with incident prostate cancer from 1994 to 1995 and from 2011 to 2012, respectively. Participants completed surveys at baseline and various time points thereafter. We performed multivariable logistic and linear regression analysis to investigate differences in pretreatment function between studies. The study comprised 5469 men of whom 2334 (43%) were enrolled in PCOS and 3135 (57%) were enrolled in CEASAR. Self-reported urinary incontinence was higher in CEASAR compared with PCOS (7.7% vs 4.7%; adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-2.43). Similarly, self-reported erectile dysfunction was more common among CEASAR participants (44.7% vs 24.0%) with an adjusted OR of 3.12 (95% CI, 2.68-3.64). Multivariable linear regression models revealed less favorable self-reported baseline function among CEASAR participants in the urinary incontinence and sexual function domains. The study is limited by its observational design and possibility of unmeasured confounding. Reporting of pretreatment urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction has increased over the past two decades. These findings may reflect sociological changes including heightened media attention and direct-to-consumer marketing, among other potential explanations. Patient reporting of urinary and sexual function has evolved and is likely contingent on continually changing societal norms. Recognizing the evolving nature of patient reporting is essential in efforts to conduct

  4. Concussion reporting behaviours of community college student-athletes and limits of transferring concussion knowledge during the stress of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Nancy Resendes; Porter, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Concussion education for student-athletes is mandated by several states and is becoming an integral component of concussion management programmes; however, little is known about student-athlete concussion knowledge and self-reporting of suspected concussion. This study explored to what extent collegiate student-athletes are knowledgeable on the topic of concussion, the relationship between having concussion knowledge and reporting behaviours, and factors contributing to not reporting when education has been provided. Mixed method explanatory design. The Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey was administered to 986 community college student-athletes from 6 sports. Follow-up qualitative interviews were conducted using purposive sampling. Concussion knowledge scores positively correlated with number of times concussion education was received, but were not associated with reporting of concussion. Of respondents with a history of concussion, 64% stated that they reported all of their concussions. The highest ranked reason given for not reporting concussion was, "I was into the game/practice and didn't realize I had a concussion at the time." Qualitative analysis revealed physiologically related and attitudinal factors particular to competition that precluded participants' identification and reporting of concussion. Despite receiving concussion education, student-athletes may not be cognizant of a possible concussion particularly during the stress of competition. Results indicate that alternate methods of providing concussion education that can affect knowledge transfer should be explored: providing education in the settings where student-athletes practice and compete, incorporating a kinaesthetic or procedural learning approach to concussion education, and addressing the social and attitudinal aspects of concussion reporting.

  5. Practice based evidence: incorporating clinical heterogeneity and patient-reported outcomes for comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Susan D; Gassaway, Julie

    2010-06-01

    Comparative effectiveness research analyzes groups of patients and looks for associations between medical treatments and patient outcomes. To make meaningful comparisons of medical interventions, one must consider clinical heterogeneity of patient populations, intervention combinations, and outcomes. To explain how practice-based evidence (PBE) study methodology measures and controls for heterogeneity of patients, treatments, and outcomes seen in real-world clinical settings. Overview of PBE methodology. PBE study designs address comparative effectiveness by creating a comprehensive set of patient, treatment, and outcome variables, and analyzing them to identify treatments associated with better outcomes for specific types of patients. PBE studies are an alternative to randomized controlled trials, well suited to determine what works best for specific patient types, and provide clinicians with a rational basis for treatment recommendations for individual patients. They provide a holistic picture of patients, treatments, and outcomes, with no preset limits to the number of variables that can be included. Such an approach is needed for high quality comparative effectiveness research.

  6. Stress, seismicity and structure of shallow oil reservoirs of Clinton County, Kentucky. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton-Smith, T. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-12

    Between 1993 and 1995 geophysicists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in a project funded by the US Department of Energy, conducted extensive microseismic monitoring of oil production in the recently discovered High Bridge pools of Clinton County and were able to acquire abundant, high-quality data in the northern of the two pools. This investigation provided both three-dimensional spatial and kinetic data relating to the High Bridge fracture system that previously had not been available. Funded in part by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kentucky Geological Survey committed to develop a geological interpretation of these geophysical results, that would be of practical benefit to future oils exploration. This publication is a summary of the results of that project. Contents include the following: introduction; discovery and development; regional geology; fractured reservoir geology; oil migration and entrapment; subsurface stress; induced seismicity; structural geology; references; and appendices.

  7. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in the treatment of stress fracture of tibia. Report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Gómez García

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain in the lower limbs induced by exercise is common in military cadets due to long periods of jogging as part of his training and is related to overtraining. Stress fractures of tíbia are common among the disorders affecting them but most often are not diagnosed. The period of convalescence is prolonged sometimes leading to abandon their atividades. A case of an affected cadet to which treated by extracorporeal shockwave therapy showing reduced pain at rest and increased time trotting achieved without painful. Because of the importance that medical staff primarily Orthopaedic Surgeons and Sports Physicians and other health professionals involved in the care know about the existence of pathology as this new therapeutic alternative is that the case is presented.

  8. Thin films under chemical stress. [Final Report], September 1, 1988--April 1, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The goal of work on this project has been develop a set of experimental tools to allow investigators interested in transport, binding, and segregation phenomena in composite thin film structures to study these phenomena in situ. Work to-date has focuses on combining novel spatially-directed optical excitation phenomena, e.g. waveguide eigenmodes in thin dielectric slabs, surface plasmon excitations at metal-dielectric interfaces, with standard spectroscopies to understand dynamic processes in thin films and at interfaces. There have been two main scientific thrusts in the work and an additional technical project. In one thrust we have sought to develop experimental tools which will allow us to understand the chemical and physical changes which take place when thin polymer films are placed under chemical stress. In principle this stress may occur because the film is being swelled by a penetrant entrained in solvent, because interfacial reactions are occurring at one or more boundaries within the film structure, or because some component of the film is responding to an external stimulus (e.g. pH, temperature, electric field, or radiation). However all work to-date has focused on obtaining a clearer understanding penetrant transport phenomena. The other thrust has addressed the kinetics of adsorption of model n-alkanoic acids from organic solvents. Both of these thrusts are important within the context of our long-term goal of understanding the behavior of composite structures, composed of thin organic polymer films interspersed with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayers. In addition there has been a good deal of work to develop the local technical capability to fabricate grating couplers for optical waveguide excitation. This work, which is subsidiary to the main scientific goals of the project, has been successfully completed and will be detailed as well. 41 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Early Psychological Preventive Intervention For Workplace Violence: A Randomized Controlled Explorative and Comparative Study Between EMDR-Recent Event and Critical Incident Stress Debriefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquinio, Cyril; Rotonda, Christine; Houllé, William A; Montel, Sébastien; Rydberg, Jenny Ann; Minary, Laetitia; Dellucci, Hélène; Tarquinio, Pascale; Fayard, Any; Alla, François

    2016-11-01

    This randomized controlled trial study aims to investigate the efficacy of an early psychological intervention called EMDR-RE compared to Critical Incident Stress Debriefing on 60 victims of workplace violence, which were divided into three groups: 'EMDR-RE' (n = 19), 'CISD' (n = 23), and 'delayed EMDR-RE' (n = 18). EMDR-RE and CISD took place 48 hours after the event, whilst third intervention was delayed by an additional 48 hours. Results showed that after 3 months PCLS and SUDS scores were significantly lower with EMDR-RE and delayed EMDR-RE compared to CISD. After 48 hours and 3 months, none of the EMDR-RE-treated victims showed PTSD symptoms.

  10. Status of stack gas control technology. Final report. Part I. [Comparative evaluation of 19 facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, H.S.; Ball, D.A.; Engdahl, R.B.; Bloom, S.G.; Anastas, M.Y.; Genco, J.M.; Slack, A.V.; Oxley, J.H.

    1975-08-01

    During 1974, Battelle's Columbus Laboratories (BCL) established a Stack Gas Pollution Control Coordination Center under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the American Petroleum Institute (API), and a number of individual companies. One of the specific tasks funded by EPRI was a survey of full-scale operating SO/sub 2/ scrubbing installations in the United States. BCL's experienced chemical and mechanical engineers visited as many of these installations as possible within the constraints of budgetary limitations and of gaining the required permission to inspect the facilities. In fact, all but one or two of the currently operating full-scale SO/sub 2/ scrubbing facilities were visited during 1974, as well as several pilot plants. BCL engineers also visited several power plants which are practicing new methods of particulate control including wet scrubbers, baghouses, and hot electrostatic precipitators. A comprehensive trip report in a standardized format was prepared for each visit. This volume is a compendium of the trip reports.

  11. Family meal traditions. Comparing reported childhood food habits to current food habits among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results.

  12. Crack stability in a representative piping system under combined inertial and seismic/dynamic displacement-controlled stresses. Subtask 1.3 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Wilkowski, O.G.; Marschall, C.; Schmidt, R.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results from Subtask 1.3 of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The objective of Subtask 1.3 is to develop data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system under combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The piping system evaluated is an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility is equipped with special hardware to ensure system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe-system experiments. The uncracked experiment was conducted to evaluate piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments evaluated the fracture behavior, pipe system response, and stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Results from all pipe-system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Results of fracture mechanics analyses, dynamic finite element stress analyses, and stability analyses are presented and compared with experimental results.

  13. Comparative toxicity of halogenated hydrocarbons: Molecular aspects. Final report, 1 January-31 December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, G.G.

    1993-07-13

    The comparative hepatotoxicities of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and the tri-and tetra-oligomers of chloro-trifluoro ethylene (CTFE) have been investigated in the rat and guinea pig. All compounds have been identified as causing hepatomegaly, peroxisome proliferation and cytochrome P4504A1 induction in the rat. The guinea pig is non-responsive to these compounds and the observed liver changes appear to be specific to lower rodent species. The implications of this study are that the above compounds do not represent a health hazard to man.

  14. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    .54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...... acids in pregnant women may be employed as a qualitative method to rank subjects according to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids; (2) with respect to the power to explain FA-ratio variability, three simple marine food frequency questions were comparable with intake of marine n-3 fatty acids assessed...

  15. Pediatric Plastic Bronchitis: Case Report and Retrospective Comparative Analysis of Epidemiology and Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kunder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis (PB is a pathologic condition in which airway casts develop in the tracheobronchial tree causing airway obstruction. There is no standard treatment strategy for this uncommon condition. We report an index patient treated using an emerging multimodal strategy of directly instilled and inhaled tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA as well as 13 other cases of PB at our institution between 2000 and 2012. The majority of cases (n=8 occurred in patients with congenital heart disease. Clinical presentations, treatments used, histopathology of the casts, and patient outcomes are reviewed. Further discussion is focused on the epidemiology of plastic bronchitis and a systematic approach to the histologic classification of casts. Comorbid conditions identified in this study included congenital heart disease (8, pneumonia (3, and asthma (2. Our institutional prevalence rate was 6.8 per 100,000 patients, and our case fatality rate was 7%.

  16. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder analyzed with array comparative genome hybridization method. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duga, Balázs; Czakó, Márta; Komlósi, Katalin; Hadzsiev, Kinga; Sümegi, Katalin; Kisfali, Péter; Melegh, Márton; Melegh, Béla

    2014-10-05

    One of the most common psychiatric disorders during childhood is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which affects 5-6% of children worldwide. Symptoms include attention deficit, hyperactivity, forgetfulness and weak impulse control. The exact mechanism behind the development of the disease is unknown. However, current data suggest that a strong genetic background is responsible, which explains the frequent occurrence within a family. Literature data show that copy number variations are very common in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The authors present a patient with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who proved to have two approximately 400 kb heterozygous microduplications at 6p25.2 and 15q13.3 chromosomal regions detected by comparative genomic hybridization methods. Both duplications affect genes (6p25.2: SLC22A23; 15q13.3: CHRNA7) which may play a role in the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This case serves as an example of the wide spectrum of indication of the array comparative genome hybridization method.

  17. Academic stress differentially influences perceived stress, salivary cortisol, and immunoglobulin-A in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lara; Denis, Randy; Ward, Christopher P; Tartar, Jaime L

    2010-07-01

    Academic examination stress is reported to increase physiological and self-report measures of stress and to decrease immune functioning. Here, we investigate biochemical and self-report measures of stress, immune functioning, and academic pressures before and during a midterm examination period. Undergraduate students were asked to complete a measure of global stress, the perceived stress scale (PSS-10), and to indicate their current level of perceived stress. They also answered questions regarding specific academic pressures and provided a saliva sample for cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin-A (S-IgA) quantification. Students showed increased salivary cortisol concentrations and also reported greater acute perceived stress during the examination period compared to the non-examination period. Although cortisol concentrations and perceived stress were significantly higher during the examination period, participants reported similar levels of global stress (PSS-10) during both testing sessions. Additional analyses showed a non-significant increase in the level of S-IgA from the non-examination period to the examination period. Specific pressure variables that appeared to contribute to stress regulation during the examination week included the amount of time spent studying and concern about the impact of examinations in the future. By demonstrating measures of chronic examination stress, these findings provide new insight into the complex relationship between examination stress, cortisol, and immune functioning.

  18. A randomized controlled study comparing omeprazole and cimetidine for the prophylaxis of stress-related upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo-lin; Li, Bing; Zhang, Xiang; Fei, Zhou; Hu, Shi-jie; Lin, Wei; Gao, Da-kuan; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are at high risk for severe stress-related upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding, which is predictive of higher mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of omeprazole and cimetidine compared with a placebo in the prevention and management of stress-related UGI bleeding in patients with ICH. In a single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 184 surgically treated patients with CT-proven ICH within 72 hours of ictus and negative results for gastric occult blood testing were included. Of these patients, 165 who were qualified upon further evaluation were randomized into 3 groups: 58 patients received 40 mg intravenous omeprazole every 12 hours, 54 patients received 300 mg intravenous cimetidine every 6 hours, and 53 patients received a placebo. Patients whose gastric occult blood tests were positive at admission (n = 70) and during/after the prophylaxis procedure (n = 48) were treated with high-dose omeprazole at 80 mg bolus plus 8 mg/hr infusion for 3 days, followed by 40 mg intravenous omeprazole every 12 hours for 7 days. Of the 165 assessable patients, stress-related UGI bleeding occurred in 9 (15.5%) in the omeprazole group compared with 15 patients (27.8%) in the cimetidine group and 24 patients (45.3%) in the placebo group (p = 0.003). The occurrence of UGI bleeding was significantly related to death (p = 0.022). Nosocomial pneumonia occurred in 14 patients (24.1%) receiving omeprazole, 12 (22.2%) receiving cimetidine, and 8 (15.1%) receiving placebo (p > 0.05). In patients with UGI bleeding in which high-dose omeprazole was initiated, UGI bleeding arrested within the first 3 days in 103 patients (87.3%). Omeprazole significantly reduced the morbidity of stress-related UGI bleeding in patients with ICH due to its effective prophylactic effect without increasing the risk of nosocomial pneumonia, but it did not reduce the 1-month mortality or ICU stay. Further evaluation of high

  19. Application of Microarray-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization in Prenatal and Postnatal Settings: Three Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH is a newly emerged molecular cytogenetic technique for rapid evaluation of the entire genome with sub-megabase resolution. It allows for the comprehensive investigation of thousands and millions of genomic loci at once and therefore enables the efficient detection of DNA copy number variations (a.k.a, cryptic genomic imbalances. The development and the clinical application of array CGH have revolutionized the diagnostic process in patients and has provided a clue to many unidentified or unexplained diseases which are suspected to have a genetic cause. In this paper, we present three clinical cases in both prenatal and postnatal settings. Among all, array CGH played a major discovery role to reveal the cryptic and/or complex nature of chromosome arrangements. By identifying the genetic causes responsible for the clinical observation in patients, array CGH has provided accurate diagnosis and appropriate clinical management in a timely and efficient manner.

  20. THE NEW EU ACCOUNTING DIRECTIVE – A COMPARATION OF REPORTING REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS DEAC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of Directive 2013/34/EU constitutes the materialization of a modernization process of the Directive 78/660/EEC and Directive 83/349/EEC that has started in 2009. The new accounting directive replaces the two accounting directives and sets the requirements for both individual and consolidated financial statements. It also introduces a new category of entities “micro-undertakings” in order to implement the requirements of Directive 2012/6/EU. The paper tries to summarize and compare the typologies of enterprises and groups defined in the old and new accounting directives as well as in the Romanian accounting system (RAS. It also compares the requirements of both the new and the old accounting directives as well as RAS regarding the structure and presentation of the annual financial statements. European Union (EU wide, about 99% of the enterprises fall into micro and small categories and might benefit from the simplifications of preparation and publication requirements of the annual financial statements. They will also be exempted from the requirements of auditing their financial statements. Only 1.21% of the enterprises in Europe will be classified as medium and large and will be required to prepare and publish a full set of annual financial statements and to audit their financial statements. If Romania will opt for reducing the administrative burdens for micro entities and implement simplifications for micro-entities as they were defined in the EU directive 2013/34/EU, the thresholds would have to be dramatically increased and many more enterprises will be reclassified as micro instead of small or medium enterprises.

  1. Comparative photochemical and phenomorphological responses to winter stress of an evergreen ( Quercus ilex L.) and a semi-deciduous ( Cistus albidus L.) Mediterranean woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Graça; Peñuelas, Josep

    2000-03-01

    The impact of winter stress on plants from a Mediterranean area was evaluated through comparison of photosystem II (PS II) efficiencies and phenomorphological characteristics of two Mediterranean woody species - Quercus ilex (evergreen) and Cistus albidus (semi-deciduous). The studies were carried out in NE Spain, at two sites with different mean winter temperatures. The results showed that reductions of the efficiency of PS II may occur in Mediterranean plant communities during winter, and are especially remarkable on colder days. The extent and duration of the decrease in PS II efficiency (photoinhibition) depended not only on the climatic conditions, but also on the site, on the species considered and on the position of leaves in the plant canopy. Increased photoinhibition at the colder site was only clear for C. albidus. Nevertheless, the efficiencies of PS II were always higher in C. albidus than in Q. ilex. Phenological patterns, morphology and leaf inclination may protect C. albidus leaves from potentially photoinhibitory conditions in winter. Morphological and structural photoprotection is apparently not so well developed in Q. ilex, which probably relies more on increased protection at the photochemical level of its long-lived leaves. As has been reported in relation to summer-drought stress, Q. ilex has possibly developed a strategy of tolerance to photoinhibition, whereas C. albidus relies preferentially on avoidance features.

  2. Stress fractures of the ankle malleoli diagnosed by ultrasound: a report of 6 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Stefano [CIM SA, Cabinet Imagerie Medicale, Geneve (Switzerland); Luong, Dien Hung [CIM SA, Cabinet Imagerie Medicale, Geneve (Switzerland); University of Montreal, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Montreal (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    To present the ultrasound appearance of stress fractures (SF) of the ankle malleoli. We present a retrospective review of 6 patients (4 women and 2 men, with an age range of 24-52 years, mean age of 39 years) in which ultrasound diagnosed, together with the clinical findings, an SF of the ankle malleoli. For all of these patients ultrasound was the first imaging technique applied because of a clinical suspicion of soft tissue injuries following excessive exertion. Patients were subsequently examined using standard radiographs and/or MRI. At ultrasound patients showed thickening of the periosteum in all patients, calcified bone callus was evident in 3 out of 6 patients. Cortical irregularities and subcutaneous oedema were found in all but one patient. Colour Doppler showed local hypervascular changes in all patients. Local compression with the transducers during real-time scanning increased pain in all cases. Ultrasound, together with the clinical findings, can diagnose an SF of the ankle malleoli. We suggest that sonologists should include malleolar SF in their differential diagnosis, particularly in the case of perimalleolar pain from over-solicitation. They must also include, as part of every ultrasound examination of the ankle, the evaluation of both malleoli and should be aware of the ultrasound appearance of malleolar SF. If the diagnosis remains uncertain, an MRI should be prescribed. (orig.)

  3. Self-reported psychopathic traits in sexually offending juveniles compared with generally offending juveniles and general population youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonmann, Cyril; Jansen, Lucres M C; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Vahl, Pauline; Hillege, Sanne L; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to gain a better insight into the relationship between sexually aggressive behaviour and psychopathy in youths; juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) were compared with generally offending youths and a general population group. Seventy-one JSOs, 416 detained general offenders, and 331 males from the general population were assessed by means of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI), a self-report instrument. Sexually and generally offending juveniles had significantly lower levels of self-reported psychopathic traits than youths from the general population. Juvenile sexual offenders and generally offending juveniles did not differ in self-reported psychopathic traits. Furthermore, no differences in self-reported psychopathic traits were found between subgroups of JSOs (i.e., child molesters, solo offenders, and group offenders). The finding that self-reported psychopathic traits are less prevalent in offending juveniles than in general population youths raises questions about the usefulness of the YPI when comparing psychopathic traits between clinical samples and general-population samples.

  4. Osteopathic manipulative treatment for self-reported fatigue, stress, and depression in first-year osteopathic medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Sarah; Bianchi, William; Quinn, Thomas A; Best, Mark; Fotopoulos, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    During medical education, many students experience psychological distress, including symptoms such as fatigue, stress, and depression. To evaluate the effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on self-perceived fatigue, stress, and depression in first-year osteopathic medical students. This randomized controlled pilot study with repeated measures was conducted at the Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine-Bradenton in Florida during the fall 2012 semester. First-year osteopathic medical students voluntarily enrolled in the study and were randomly assigned to directed OMT (D-OMT), nondirected OMT (ND-OMT), or control groups. The D-OMT and ND-OMT groups received treatment by osteopathic physicians weekly for 4 weeks. The control group received no treatment. All groups completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Self-Perceived Stress Scale (SPSS), and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) depression scale before treatment (pretest), after 2 treatments (midtest), and after 4 treatments (posttest). All participants self-reported as white and single, with both sexes equally represented, and had an mean age of 24 years. Analysis of ESS scores revealed a statistically significant decrease in the D-OMT group from pretest and posttest scores and a statistically significant increase in the ND-OMT group from pretest to midtest but not from pretest to posttest scores. No statistically significant differences were noted in the control group scores on this measure. No statistically significant differences were seen in the SPSS or PHQ-9 scores from pretest to midtest or pretest to posttest in any of the 3 groups. The D-OMT regimen used in the current study produced a statistically significant decrease in self-perceived fatigue in first-year osteopathic medical students. Osteopathic manipulative treatment represents a potential modality to reduce self-perceived distress in medical students. Further research is

  5. Comparative evaluation of oral clonidine and midazolam as premedication on preoperative sedation and laryngoscopic stress response attenuation for the patients undergoing general anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Das

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation is associated detrimental hemodynamic changes like rise in blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR leading to adverse cardiological outcome specially in susceptible individuals. Aims: To compare the blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR changes during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation as well as to evaluate the preoperative sedation status between oral clonidine and oral midazolam as premedication for the patients undergoing general anesthesia (GA. Settings and Design: Fifty patients between 18 and 60 years of age of either sex of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA Grade I and II undergoing GA were randomly divided into two equal groups of 25 patients each. Group-C patients received clonidine 4 mcg/kg orally and Group-M patients received 0.5 mg/kg midazolam orally as premedication. Material s and Methods: After measuring baseline hemodynamic parameters patients of both groups received premedication. Preoperative sedation was assessed 2 hr after premedication administration. Standard anesthetic technique was followed. Hemodynamic (HR, BP parameters were noted baseline, immediately after laryngoscopy and intubation and 5 min after intubation to observe the stress response. Results and Statistical Analysis: A significant difference in pre-operative sedation between two groups (P < 0.05 and midazolam (group M produced significantly better sedation than clonidine (group C. Laryngoscopic stress response in group C was still at a lower level than baseline values and significantly (P < 0.005 less than group M. Conclusions: Oral midazolam is more effective in producing preoperative sedation than oral clonidine while on the contrary oral clonidine is more efficacious in reducing laryngoscopic stress response than oral midazolam. Laryngoscopy and intubation was better controlled by oral clonidine than midazolam.

  6. As compared to allopurinol, urate-lowering therapy with febuxostat has superior effects on oxidative stress and pulse wave velocity in patients with severe chronic tophaceous gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausche, A-K; Christoph, M; Forkmann, M; Richter, U; Kopprasch, S; Bielitz, C; Aringer, M; Wunderlich, C

    2014-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated whether an effective 12-month uric acid-lowering therapy (ULT) with the available xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors allopurinol and febuxostat in patients with chronic tophaceous gout has an impact on oxidative stress and/or vascular function. Patients with chronic tophaceous gout who did not receive active ULT were included. After clinical evaluation, serum uric acid levels (SUA) and markers of oxidative stress were measured, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was assessed. Patients were then treated with allopurinol (n = 9) or with febuxostat (n = 8) to target a SUA level ≤ 360 μmol/L. After 1 year treatment, the SUA levels, markers of oxidative stress and the cfPWV were measured again. Baseline characteristics of both groups showed no significant differences except a higher prevalence of moderate impairment of renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate treatment groups did not differ in their baseline cfPWV (allopurinol group: 14.1 ± 3.4 m/s, febuxostat group: 13.7 ± 2.7 m/s, p = 0.80). However, after 1 year of therapy, we observed a significant cfPWV increase in the allopurinol group (16.8 ± 4.3 m/s, p = 0.001 as compared to baseline), but not in the febuxostat patients (13.3 ± 2.3 m/s, p = 0.55). Both febuxostat and allopurinol effectively lower SUA levels in patients with severe gout. However, we observed that febuxostat also appeared to be beneficial in preventing further arterial stiffening. Since cardiovascular events are an important issue in treating patients with gout, this unexpected finding may have important implications and should be further investigated in randomized controlled trials.

  7. Improved performance of linear coal cutting compared with rotary cutting. Report of investigations/1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepke, W.W.; Hanson, B.D.; Olson, R.C.; Wingquist, C.F.; Myren, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The linear cutting system, developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, uses geometric principles developed by Cardan to produce a nearly constant cut depth. The new system has been extensively tested in a synthetic material under laboratory conditions to verify mechanical capability and to identify operational characteristics. Comparisons between 15-rpm linear cutting and 50-rpm rotary cutting systems show significant improvement in respirable dust entrainment, product size distribution, and energy usage. Respirable dust is reduced by as much as 90 pct. Recovered product showed a 67-pct reduction in -0.32-cm (-1/8-in) material and a 200-pct increase in +5.08 cm (+2 in) material. Average power was reduced by 66 pct for the linear cutting. Because the bit cutting paths differ between linear and rotary cutting, it was necessary to compare the two at the same cut depths and bit types. These comparisons show that low revolution per minute rotary cutting entrains about the same amount of respirable dust as the linear cutting system, but the average shaft torque may be 55 to 130 pct greater for the rotary system.

  8. Stumpage value: comparative analysis among different approaches reported by the Italian forest literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbone F

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most relevant professional task for a forestry consultant is to determine the stumpage value of a forest standing. It is an important information for the forest owner interested to know the market value of the actual timber production. Nevertheless, assessment approaches commonly used by scientists and forestry consultants go back to the beginning of XIX century, thus not considering the evolution of institutions, law and the socio-economic contests occurred in the meanwhile. Based on a case study located in Latium (central Italy, a comparative analysis of the main estimation approaches from the Italian forest literature have been carried out. A wide range of stumpage values has been obtained, with a coefficient of variation of 682%. Three underlying causes have been identified for such variation: revision of some components of the elementary costs, different calculation of cost procedures, new additional costs. Reiterate use of the above approaches affects transparency, traceability and documentation of the evaluation process, weakening the theoretical basis of the appraisal doctrine. Four issues to overtake this situation are proposed and discussed.

  9. Opinions of legal professionals: Comparing child and adult witnesses' memory report capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Knutsson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The opinions of legal professionals about child and adult witnesses might influence the likelihood that a case is allowed to proceed through the different stages of the legal process. With the aim of knowing the opinions of legal practitioners about child and adult