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Sample records for reported comparable stress

  1. Journalists' Occupational Stress: A Comparative Study between Reporting Critical Events and Domestic News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Susana; Marques-Pinto, Alexandra

    2017-07-27

    Nowadays, journalism is considered a stressful occupation, not only due to the stress perceived in journalists' daily work but also due to the critical, potentially traumatic events they report. However, research on journalists' occupational stress in both these professional settings is still scarce. This study aims to characterize and compare occupational stress variables perceived by journalists in their daily work and in critical scenarios. Taking the Holistic Model of Occupational Stress by Nelson and Simmons (2003) as a framework, 25 Portuguese journalists, all with experience in reporting critical events, were interviewed on their perceptions of some core variables of the model: occupational stressors, distress and eustress emotional reactions, and the consequences of these experiences on their well-being. Differences among these core variables, according to the number of deployments to a critical event, were statistically analysed in order to ascertain whether repeated exposure to trauma influenced journalists' occupational stress perceptions. The data content analysis showed that occupational stressors and emotional reactions differed across settings, while the consequences associated with journalists' experiences were perceived as being mainly negative in both occupational contexts. Significant differences were identified in some of these variables according to the number of deployments to a critical event (p studies.

  2. Comparing Candidate Hospital Report Cards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, T.L.; Rivenburgh, R.D.; Scovel, J.C.; White, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    We present graphical and analytical methods that focus on multivariate outlier detection applied to the hospital report cards data. No two methods agree which hospitals are unusually good or bad, so we also present ways to compare the agreement between two methods. We identify factors that have a significant impact on the scoring.

  3. Responses to Fiscal Stress: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    of “a significant decline in market share by the middle of the 20th century as travelers and shippers turned increasingly to airlines, trucks, and...1995). Intercity passenger rail: Financial and operating conditions threaten Amtrak’s long-term viability (GAO-95-71). Washington, DC: U.S...I. (1980). Retrenchment and flexibility in public organizations. Fiscal Stress and Public Policy, 159–178. Scheinberg, P. F. (1998). Intercity

  4. Workplace Violence and Self-reported Psychological Health: Coping with Post-traumatic Stress, Mental Distress, and Burnout among Physicians Working in the Emergency Departments Compared to Other Specialties in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Waleed; Khan, Uzma R; Siddiqui, Shakeel A; Jamali, Seemin; Razzak, Junaid A

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the mental health impact of workplace violence (WPV) among emergency physicians (EPs) working in emergency departments (EDs) in Pakistan and whether this impact varies across specialties. Our aim was to measure the prevalence of WPV among EPs in 4 of the largest hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan; to measure the association between the experience of WPV and self-report of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and burnout; to compare the same factors across medical specialties; and to explore the coping strategies used by physicians in dealing with job-related stressors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 179 physicians from 5 specialties (response rate, 92.2%) using standard questionnaires for WPV, PTSD, burnout, current mental distress, and methods of coping. One in 6 physicians reported experiencing a physical attack and 3 in 5 verbal abuse on the job in the previous 12 months. Pathologists were less likely to report any form of WPV compared to all other specialties. There was, however, no difference in experience of WPV between EPs and internists, surgeons, or pediatricians. One in 6 physicians screened positive for PTSD, and 2 in 5 for current anxiety and depression. There was significant comorbidity of mental distress with PTSD. Those who reported experiencing physical attack were 6.7 times more likely to report PTSD symptoms. We also found high rates of burnout (42.4% emotional exhaustion; 72.9% depersonalization) among physicians. Experience of WPV was not uniform across specialties but was generally high among Pakistani physicians. Prevention of WPV should be a high priority for health care policy makers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  6. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croon Marcel A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.

  7. Comparative inter-institutional study of stress among dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozos-Radillo, Blanca E; Galván-Ramírez, Ma Luz; Pando, Manuel; Carrión, Ma De los Angeles; González, Guillermo J

    2010-01-01

    Dentistry is considered to be a stressful profession due to different factors caused by work, representing a threat to dentists'health. The objectives of this work were to identify and compare chronic stress in dentists among the different health institutions and the association of stress with risk factors. The study in question is observational, transversal and comparative; 256 dentists were included, distributed among five public health institutions in the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, namely: the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), the Ministry of Health (SS), the Integral Development of the Family (DIF), the Social Security Services Institute for the Workers (ISSSTE) and the University of Guadalajara (U. de G) Data were obtained by means of the census technique. Stress was identified using the Stress Symptoms Inventory and the statistical analysis was performed using the Odds Ratio (O.R.) and the chi-square statistic. From the total population studied, 219 subjects presented high levels of chronic stress and 37, low levels. In the results of comparative analysis, significant differences were found between IMSS and U. de G and likewise between IMSS and SS. However, in the analysis of association, only U. de G was found to be associated with the high level of chronic stress.

  8. Self-reported Stress Problems among Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan H. S.; Chen, K.; Chong, Elaine Y. L.

    2010-10-01

    The present study was developed to comprehensively investigate the occupational health problems among teachers of primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. A random sample of 1,710 respondents was generated from the database of Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union (HKPTU) members. A self-administrated questionnaire was designed and sent by mail to the teachers of primary and secondary schools in HK. The results indicated that comparing with one year and five years ago, 91.6% and 97.3% of the responding teachers reported an increase of perceived stress level, respectively. Heavy workload and time pressure, education reforms, external school review, pursuing further education, and managing students' behaviour and learning were the most frequently reported sources of work stress. The four most frequently reported stress management activities were sleeping, talking to neighbors and friends, self-relaxing, and watching television, while the least frequently reported activity was doing more exercises or sports.

  9. Life event stress in duodenal ulcer compared with functional dyspepsia: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Hafeiz Hassan; Al Quorain Abdulaziz; Karim Ahmed; Al-Mangoor Shuaa

    1997-01-01

    This is a prospective study of life event stress in 80 duodenal ulcer patients compared with 80 patients with functional dyspepsia and 80 healthy controls; matched for age, sex and marital status. A semi structured psychiatric interview was used in the psychiatric assessment of the dyspeptic patients and controls. A modified version of Life Events Scale by Tennant and Andrews was used in the assessment of life event stress. More dyspeptic patients reported life events than the controls, but, ...

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis in Miscanthus sinensis exposed to antimony stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Liang; Ren, Huadong; Li, Sheng; Gao, Ming; Shi, Shengqing; Chang, Ermei; Wei, Yuan; Yao, Xiaohua; Jiang, Zeping; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    To explore the molecular basis of Sb tolerance mechanism in plant, a comparative proteomic analysis of both roots and leaves in Miscanthus sinensis has been conducted in combination with physiological and biochemical analyses. M. sinensis seedlings were exposed to different doses of Sb, and both roots and leaves were collected after 3 days of treatment. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and image analyses found that 29 protein spots showed 1.5-fold change in abundance in leaves and 19 spots in roots, of which 31 were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Proteins involved in antioxidant defense and stress response generally increased their expression all over the Sb treatments. In addition, proteins relative to transcription, signal transduction, energy metabolism and cell division and cell structure showed a variable expression pattern over Sb concentrations. Overall these findings provide new insights into the probable survival mechanisms by which M. sinensis could be adapting to Sb phytotoxicity. - Highlights: • Proteomics in Miscanthus sinensis leaves and roots exposed to Sb stress were studied. • There were 31 spots that were identified by mass spectrometry. • Most of these proteins were involved in antioxidant defense and stress response. • Our findings provide new insights into the tolerant mechanisms to Sb stress. - Miscanthus sinensis proteomic analysis under Sb stress reveals probable molecular mechanisms on Sb detoxification

  11. Association between Independent Reports of Maternal Parenting Stress and Children's Internalizing Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    Although considerable research has investigated parenting stress and children's externalizing behavior problems, comparatively less has considered parenting stress in relation to children's internalizing difficulties. Even less research on parenting stress has incorporated children's report of their internalizing symptoms or the potential…

  12. Differential Reporting of Adolescent Stress as a Function of Maternal Depression History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Shapero, Benjamin G; Burke, Taylor A; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    The depression-distortion hypothesis posits that depressed mothers report child characteristics in a negatively-biased manner, motivating research on discrepant reporting between depressed mothers and their children. However, the literature has predominately focused on report discrepancies of youth psychopathological and behavioral outcomes, with limited focus on youth stress despite the marked increase of stressful events during adolescence. The current study investigated whether the presence versus absence of a maternal history of major depressive disorder differentially influenced reporting of adolescent stress when compared to her child's report, utilizing a community sample of diverse adolescents. As hypothesized, mothers with a history of depression were more likely to report more youth stress than their children reported. Specifically, mothers with a history of depression were more likely than nondepressed mothers to report more familial, social, and youth-dependent stressors relative to their children; nondepressed mothers were more likely to report less independent stressors than their children.

  13. Self-reported stress among adolescent siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Carolyn M; McGregor, Casey; Hough, Ashlea

    2017-11-01

    Despite the prevalence of studies showing increased stress among mothers of individuals with autism spectrum disorders, few studies have examined general stress among typically developing siblings. This study used an online survey to compare the levels of self-reported stress between adolescent siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and Down syndrome. Sibling of individuals with autism reported significantly more overall stress than did siblings of individuals with Down syndrome, as well as more stress specifically attributed to the brother/sister with autism. The two groups did not differ on perceived social support from family and friends. In linear regression models, the disability group (autism vs Down syndrome) was significantly related to sibling stress above and beyond target child behavior problems, perceived social support, and demographic factors. These results help shed light on the daily experiences of adolescent siblings of individuals with autism and call for more research into potential interventions to address increased stress levels.

  14. Comparing measured with simulated vertical soil stress under vehicle load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Lamandé, Mathieu; Arvidsson, Johan

    The load transfer within agricultural soil is typically modelled on the basis of the theory of stress transmission in elastic media, usually in the semi-empirical form that includes the “concentration factor” (v). Measurements of stress in soil are needed to evaluate model calculations, but may...

  15. Development of a novel mindfulness and cognitive behavioral intervention for stress-eating: a comparative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsica, Joyce; Hood, Megan M; Katterman, Shawn; Kleinman, Brighid; Ivan, Iulia

    2014-12-01

    Stress-related eating is increasingly cited as a difficulty in managing healthy eating behaviors and weight. However few interventions have been designed to specifically target stress-related eating. In addition, the optimal target of such an intervention is unclear, as the target might be conceptualized as overall stress reduction or changing emotional eating-related thoughts and behaviors. This pilot study compared the effects of three interventions targeting those components individually and in combination on stress-related eating, perceived stress, and weight loss to determine whether the two intervention components are effective alone or are more effective when combined. Fifty-three overweight participants (98% female) who reported elevated levels of stress and stress-eating and were at risk for obesity were randomly assigned to one of three six-week interventions: a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention, a cognitive behavioral stress-eating intervention (SEI), and a combined intervention that included all MBSR and SEI components. All three interventions significantly reduced perceived stress and stress-eating, but the combination intervention resulted in greater reductions and also produced a moderate effect on short term weight loss. Benefits persisted at six week follow-up.The pattern of results preliminarily suggests that the combination intervention (MBSR+SEI) may yield promise in the treatment of stress-related eating.

  16. Stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloys. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubicciotti, D.; Jones, R.L.; Syrett, B.C.

    1980-03-01

    The overall aim has been to develop an improved understanding of the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanism considered to be responsible for pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) failures of nuclear fuel rods. The objective of the present phase of the project was to investigate the potential for improving the resistance of Zircaloy to iodine-induced SCC by modifying the manufacturing techniques used in the commercial production of fuel cladding. Several aspects of iodine SCC behavior of potential relevance to cladding performance were experimentally investigated. It was found that the SCC susceptibility of Zircaloy tubing is sensitive to crystallographic texture, surface condition, and residual stress distribution and that current specifications for Zircaloy tubing provide no assurance of an optimum resistance to SCC. Additional evidence was found that iodine-induced cracks initiate at local chemical inhomogeneities in the Zircaloy surface, but laser melting to produce a homogenized surface layer did not improve the SCC resistance. Several results were obtained that should be considered in models of PCI failure. The ratio of axial to hoop stress and the temperature were both shown to affect the SCC resistance whereas the difference in composition between Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 had no detectable effect. Damage accumulation during iodine SCC was found to be nonlinear: generally, a given life fraction at low stress was more damaging than the same life fraction at higher stress. Studies of the thermochemistry of the zirconium-iodine system (performed under US Department of Energy sponsorship) revealed many errors in the literature and provided important new insights into the mechanism of iodine SCC of Zircaloys

  17. Parent distress in childhood cancer: a comparative evaluation of posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Annika Lindahl; Boman, Krister K

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to assess symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress (PTS; cognitive intrusions, avoidance, arousal) related to the child's illness, and generic distress (anxiety, depression) in parents of childhood cancer patients. Outcomes were compared to normative and relevant reference data, and analysed for their dependence on time passed since diagnosis. Swedish parents (266 mothers, 208 fathers) were recruited at two centres. Data from a clinical sample of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients and parents of healthy children were used for comparison. The Impact of Events Scale (IES-R) was used for assessing PTS symptoms, and self-report scales for anxiety and depression. Elevated stress and generic distress varied as a function of time from diagnosis. Up to 12% of parents for whom >5 years had passed since diagnosis still reported equally, or more intrusive thoughts, avoidance and arousal when contrasted to patients suffering from PTSD. Parents of recently diagnosed children had more cancer-related intrusive thoughts than those of long-term survivors. Heightened anxiety and depression was most prominent in mothers and fathers up to 2.5 years after diagnosis. In conclusion, severe generic distress characterises the first years after diagnosis, and initially common PTS symptoms are found in a considerable portion of parents years after diagnosis. Clinically, attention should be paid to continuous parent support needs. Individual variation vis-à-vis distress vulnerability should be acknowledged, and presupposed gender differences avoided. When treatment situation asks the most of parents' collaboration, many are under pressure of severe stress.

  18. The case for comparability in financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, W G

    1992-03-01

    Government-owned organizations are accountable to citizens and their elected representatives. These organizations must provide financial information that will help in determining whether they are effectively pursuing their primary goal, which is to promote the general welfare. Regardless of the kind of service provided by a government-owned organization, the information needs of citizens and their elected representatives must be considered when developing accounting rules. If these needs are ignored or compromised in favor of the needs of other users, such as investors or creditors (the primary users of business financial reports), then financial reporting by government-owned organizations will not meet its objectives.

  19. Stress in crisis managers: evidence from self-report and psychophysiological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, A; Adler, C; Fischer, L; Perakakis, P; Guerra, P; Duschek, S

    2015-12-01

    Directing disaster operations represents a major professional challenge. Despite its importance to health and professional performance, research on stress in crisis management remains scarce. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported stress and psychophysiological stress responses in crisis managers. For this purpose, 30 crisis managers were compared with 30 managers from other disciplines, in terms of self-reported stress, health status and psychophysiological reactivity to crisis-related and non-specific visual and acoustic aversive stimuli and cognitive challenge. Crisis managers reported lower stress levels, a more positive strain-recuperation-balance, greater social resources, reduced physical symptoms, as well as more physical exercise and less alcohol consumption. They exhibited diminished electrodermal and heart rate responses to crisis-related and non-specific stressors. The results indicate reduced stress and physical complaints, diminished psychophysiological stress reactivity, and a healthier life-style in crisis managers. Improved stress resistance may limit vulnerability to stress-related performance decline and facilitate preparedness for major incidents.

  20. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on

  1. Job Satisfaction and Stress among Teachers: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prick, L. G. M.; Hantelmann, B.

    In Holland over the past few years there have appeared several research reports paying attention to the difficult working conditions of teachers. A problem with these reports is that it is not clear to what extent the problems described are more serious than in other places; for example, among people working in different professions or among…

  2. Depressive disorder and social stress in Pakistan compared to people of Pakistani origin in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Nasim; Tomenson, Barbara; Jackson, Judy; Gater, Richard; Creed, Francis

    2011-11-01

    Depressive disorder is more common in low to middle than high-income countries, but the reasons for this have not been explicitly defined. We compared the results of two population-based studies of people of Pakistani origin: one living in rural Pakistan and one in UK. Both samples were screened with the self-reporting questionnaire followed by research interview to determine depressive disorders and social stress. Logistic regression was used to compare the prevalence of depressive disorder in the two countries after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and social stress. The estimated prevalence of depression for men was 35.8% (95% CI 16.1-55.5) in Pakistan and 9% (5.0-13.0) in Manchester (pstress (both sexes). 35% of women in Pakistan and 71% of those in UK had received 8 years or more of education. Extremely poor housing and marked poverty were experienced by 36.1% of women in Pakistan and 0.6% of those in Manchester. In Pakistan, housing and poverty predominated as correlates of depression, whereas in Manchester it was marked difficulties in physical health and close relationships. The results suggest that the higher rate of depressive disorder amongst women in Pakistan compared to UK can be attributed to less education and frequent severe social difficulties. These differences have implications for treatment.

  3. Contasure-Needleless compared with transobturator-TVT for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat I Tardiu, Lluís; Martínez Franco, Eva; Laïlla Vicens, Josep Maria

    2011-07-01

    Single-incision devices for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) have been introduced in the last few years. We report a comparison between Obturator Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT-O) and Contasure-Needleless (C-NDL). One hundred and fifty-eight women with primary SUI were scheduled to receive TVT-O or C-NDL and follow-up during the first year. Epidemiological information, complications, blood loss, and pain level were recorded. We also analyze stress test and quality of life. Sixty-three (87.5%) C-NDL presented a negative stress test, compared with 54 (90%) of TVT-O (p value 0.015 for non-inferiority test). Sandvik Severity Index was 0 in 75.4% in the C-NDL group and 87.3% in the TVT-O (p TVT-O group. C-NDL provides similar outcomes as TVT-O after 1-year follow-up. It is necessary that long-term data confirm our results.

  4. A Comparative Study of Stressful Life Events and Stress Coping Strategies in Coronary Heart Disease Patients and Non-Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidari Pahlavian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Etiological researches suggest that biopsychosocial dimensions are responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD. The main goal of the present research was to compare stressful life events and stress coping strategies in coronary heart patients (Acute Myocardial Infarction and non-patients. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional research 102 patients (all males suffering from acute myocardial infarction and 162 non-patient individuals after matching were studied and compared with regard to psychosocial life events and stress coping strategies through coping response inventory (Moos, 1993 , scaling of life Events (paykel , 1971 and researcher made questionnaire. Results: The result established that myocardial infarction patients experienced more stress than the control group during one year before heart- attack and they used more inadequate stress coping strategies comparing with the control individuals. Conclusion: This study showed that stress and inadequate coping strategies are important variables for the development of coronary heart diseases. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3:33-38

  5. Stress in Mothers of Hearing Impaired Children Compared to Mothers of Normal and Other Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is associated with life satisfaction and also development of some physical diseases. Birth of a disabled child with mental or physical disability (especially deaf or blind children, impose an enormous load of stress on their parents especially the mothers. This study compared stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of normal children or with other disabilities.Methods: In this study, cluster random sampling was performed in Karaj city. 120 mothers in four groups of having a child with mental retardation, low vision, hearing impairment and with normal children were included. Family inventory of life events (FILE of Mc Cubbin et al. was used to determine stress level in four groups of mothers.Results: The results of this research indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 between stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of other disabled and normal children in subscales of intra-family stress, finance and business strains, stress of job transitions, stress of illness and family care and family members "in and out''. There was no difference between compared groups in other subscales.Conclusion: Since deafness is a hidden inability, the child with hearing impairment has a set of social and educational problems causing great stress for parents, especially to mother. In order to decrease mother’s stress, it is suggested to provide more family consultation, adequate social support and to run educational classes for parents to practice stress coping strategies.

  6. A cross-country comparative study on stress and quality of life in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V; Edet, Olaide B; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Christos, Kleisiaris F; Fradelos, Evangelos C; Rosales, Rheajane A; Cruz, Jonas P; Leocadio, Michael; Lucas, Katherine Vera S

    2017-10-27

    This study was conducted to compare perceptions of stress and quality of life (QoL) among nursing students from three countries (the Philippines, Greece, and Nigeria) and to examine the impact of stress on their QoL. A comparative, cross-sectional research design was used in this study. Data were collected from 547 nursing students from three countries using the perceived stress scale (PSS) and the quality of life evaluation skill (QOLES). Students' perceptions of stress and QoL were different across the three countries. Furthermore, higher stress perceptions were identified from taking care of patients, the clinical environment, and faculty, peer, and staff encounters, which predicted a negative QoL. The findings emphasized the need for empirically tested and culturally tailored interventions to effectively reduce stress and enhance the QoL in nursing students. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Somatic diseases in child survivors of the Holocaust with posttraumatic stress disorder: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Wolfgang; Kreil, Sebastian; Biermann, Teresa

    2012-05-01

    The incidence of mental and somatic sequelae has been shown to be very high in people who survived the Holocaust. In the current study, 80 Holocaust survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder were examined based on evaluation of their complete record (medical reports, clinical history, medical statements, and handwritten declarations of patients under oath). These survivors were compared with subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder caused by traumata other than the Holocaust. The data were analyzed for the presence of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic diseases that developed in the time between the earliest medical report (expert opinion) and the latest expert opinion. Analysis revealed an increase in myocardial infarction, chronic degenerative diseases, and cancerous changes in the second expert opinion. No differences between the groups were seen with regard to sex, age at traumatization, or age at examination. Several implications of the data are discussed, including the implication that the survivors examined in this study may comprise a highly resilient group, inasmuch as they had reached an advanced age.

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus flavus isolates under different oxidative stresses and culture media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in the field are known to be influenced by numerous stress factors, particularly drought and heat stress. However, the purpose of aflatoxin production is unknown. Here, we report transcriptome analyses comprised of 282.6 Gb of sequencing data describing...

  9. An Exploratory Comparative Study of Staff Stress in English and German Comprehensive Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jack

    1980-01-01

    West German and English teachers completed questionnaires and interviews about stress situations and responses. English teachers identified more stress situations than German staff, who felt more certain of their roles and more involved in school decision-making. Both reported poor staff communications and disruptive pupil behavior as their major…

  10. Value of stress ultrasound for the diagnosis of chronic ankle instability compared to manual anterior drawer test, stress radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Ho; Lee, Doo Hyung; Song, Hyung Keun; Bang, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung Tai; Park, Young Uk

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians frequently diagnose chronic ankle instability using the manual anterior drawer test and stress radiography. However, both examinations can yield incorrect results and do not reveal the extent of ankle instability. Stress ultrasound has been reported to be a new diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of chronic ankle instability. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of stress ultrasound for chronic ankle instability compared to the manual anterior drawer test, stress radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and arthroscopy. Twenty-eight consecutive patients who underwent ankle arthroscopy and subsequent modified Broström repair for treatment of chronic ankle instability were included. The arthroscopic findings were used as the reference standard. A standardized physical examination (manual anterior drawer test), stress radiography, MRI, and stress ultrasound were performed to assess the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) prior to operation. Ultrasound images were taken in the resting position and the maximal anterior drawer position. Grade 3 lateral instability was verified arthroscopically in all 28 cases with a clinical diagnosis (100%). Twenty-two cases showed grade III instability on the manual anterior drawer test (78.6%). Twenty-four cases displayed anterior translation exceeding 5 mm on stress radiography (86%), and talar tilt angle exceeded 15° in three cases (11 %). Nineteen cases displayed a partial chronic tear (change in thickness or signal intensity), and nine cases displayed complete tear on MRI (100%). Lax and wavy ATFL was evident on stress ultrasound in all cases (100 %). The mean value of the ATFL length was 2.8 ± 0.3 cm for the stressed condition and 2.1 ± 0.2 cm for the resting condition (p radiography. III.

  11. Coping strategies for marital stress as reported by lecturers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated coping strategies for marital stress as reported by lecturers of a college of education. Lecturers were stratified into different strata of schools in the college i.e School of Education, Science, Arts and Social Sciences, Vocational Technology and Languages, after which a simple random sampling ...

  12. Stress views in the comparative assessment of spondylolytic spondylolithesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaelebo, P.; Goeteborg Univ.; Kadziolka, R.; Swaerd, L.; Zachrisson, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    Patients with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis were examined in six different positions to detect segmental instability. The amount of displacement was determined on lateral spot radiographs, taken in recumbent, standing, flexion, extension, axial compression, and traction positions in each patient. An error analysis was also performed. Examination in axial compression - traction was found to be a significantly better method for detection of segmental instability compared with standing - recumbent, or flexion - extension radiographs. In addition, the compression - traction method exhibited a higher sensitivity for identification of instability (73 %) than standing - recumbent (33 %) or flexion - extension (20 %) views. The total error in the determination was small, ± 2.5 % (95 % CL), providing a careful and controlled technique was used. (orig.)

  13. Parent Stress and Perceptions of Language Development: Comparing Down Syndrome and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.; Adamson, Lauren B.; Barker, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study extended research on the Down syndrome advantage by examining differences in parent stress and parent perceptions of language development between 29 parents of young children with Down syndrome and 82 parents of children with other developmental disabilities. Parents of children with Down syndrome reported lower levels of total stress, child-related stress, and stress surrounding the parent-child interaction. Parents of children in both groups reported that they felt successful in their ability to impact their children’s communication development but did differ on perceptions of difficulty such that parents of children with Down syndrome perceived their children’s communication difficulties as less severe despite the children exhibiting similar language skills. Finally, after accounting for potential explanatory confounding variables, child diagnosis remained a significant predictor of parent stress and perceptions of language development. Results highlight the importance of considering etiology when assisting families raising a child with a disability. PMID:24753637

  14. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Jari; Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (pbruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects.

  15. Identification of Arabidopsis candidate genes in response to biotic and abiotic stresses using comparative microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Sham

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved with intricate mechanisms to cope with multiple environmental stresses. To adapt with biotic and abiotic stresses, plant responses involve changes at the cellular and molecular levels. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of combinations of different environmental stresses on the transcriptome level of Arabidopsis genome using public microarray databases. We investigated the role of cyclopentenones in mediating plant responses to environmental stress through TGA (TGACG motif-binding factor transcription factor, independently from jasmonic acid. Candidate genes were identified by comparing plants inoculated with Botrytis cinerea or treated with heat, salt or osmotic stress with non-inoculated or non-treated tissues. About 2.5% heat-, 19% salinity- and 41% osmotic stress-induced genes were commonly upregulated by B. cinerea-treatment; and 7.6%, 19% and 48% of genes were commonly downregulated by B. cinerea-treatment, respectively. Our results indicate that plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses are mediated by several common regulatory genes. Comparisons between transcriptome data from Arabidopsis stressed-plants support our hypothesis that some molecular and biological processes involved in biotic and abiotic stress response are conserved. Thirteen of the common regulated genes to abiotic and biotic stresses were studied in detail to determine their role in plant resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, a T-DNA insertion mutant of the Responsive to Dehydration gene (rd20, encoding for a member of the caleosin (lipid surface protein family, showed an enhanced sensitivity to B. cinerea infection and drought. Overall, the overlapping of plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, coupled with the sensitivity of the rd20 mutant, may provide new interesting programs for increased plant resistance to multiple environmental stresses, and ultimately increases its chances to survive. Future research

  16. Perseverative Cognitions and Stress Exposure: Comparing Relationships With Psychological Health Across a Diverse Adult Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Matthew J; Sliwinski, Martin J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-03-29

    Both exposure to stress and perseverative cognitions (PCs)-repetitive cognitive representations of real or imagined stressors-are linked with poor psychological health. Yet, stress exposure and PCs are correlated, thus potentially obscuring any unique effects. The purpose of this paper is to concurrently test associations between stress exposure and PCs and psychological health to examine the independent relationship of each with psychological health. Moreover, we examined whether these relationships are similar across sex, age, and race. An adult community sample (n = 302) completed a measure of stress exposure, three PCs scales, and questionnaires assessing self-reported psychological health, including emotional well-being, vitality, social functioning, role limitations due to personal problems, subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and poor sleep quality. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which both stress exposure and PCs predict psychological health. PCs consistently predicted all the psychological health outcomes, but stress was largely unrelated to the outcomes despite bivariate correlations suggesting a relationship. A follow-up model identified indirect effects of stress exposure on psychological health via PCs. Results were fairly consistent regardless of one's sex, age, or race. PCs robustly predicted all of the psychological health outcomes, intimating PCs as a common pathway to poor psychological health. Results have implications for stress interventions, including the need to address PCs after experiencing stress.

  17. Perinatal stress and food allergy: a preliminary study on maternal reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polloni, L; Ferruzza, E; Ronconi, L; Lazzarotto, F; Toniolo, A; Bonaguro, R; Muraro, A

    2015-01-01

    Maternal stress in fetal and early life has been associated with the development of respiratory allergies, but no studies exist about food allergy. Stressful events and the quality of caregiving provided, as they affect the emotional and physiologic regulation of the infant, could alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and immune system, facilitating an increased allergic response. This study aimed to investigate the influence of perinatal stress, as perceived by mothers, on developing food allergy in childhood. A survey on pregnancy and the first three months after giving birth was submitted to 59 Italian mothers of at least one child suffering from severe food allergy and one completely healthy child, for a total of 118 children examined. The presence of stressful events and the quality of perinatal period for each child were assessed retrospectively. The food allergic children's data were compared to siblings' data through inferential statistics. The results showed a significantly higher number of stressful events occurred during patients' perinatal period, compared to siblings, in particular bereavements in pregnancy and parenting difficulties in postpartum. Mothers reported harder pregnancies and more stressful, harder, and, in general, worse postpartum when referring to their food-allergic children, in comparison with their siblings (p stress and perinatal psychosocial factors in the pathogenesis of food allergy; further studies are necessary to understand individual psychological impact and its relations with genetic and biological factors.

  18. Acute social stress increases biochemical and self report markers of stress without altering spatial learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, Christine; Garcia, Carlos; Schulman, Allan H; Ward, Christopher P; Tartar, Jaime L

    2012-01-01

    Spatial learning is shown to be influenced by acute stress in both human and other animals. However, the intricacies of this relationship are unclear. Based on prior findings we hypothesized that compared to a control condition, a social stress condition would not affect spatial learning performance despite elevated biochemical markers of stress. The present study tested the effects of social stress in human males and females on a subsequent spatial learning task. Social stress induction consisted of evaluative stress (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) compared to a placebo social stress. Compared to the placebo condition, the TSST resulted in significantly elevated cortisol and alpha amylase levels at multiple time points following stress induction. In accord, cognitive appraisal measures also showed that participants in the TSST group experienced greater perceived stress compared to the placebo group. However, there were no group differences in performance on a spatial learning task. Our findings suggest that unlike physiological stress, social stress does not result in alterations in spatial learning in humans. It is possible that moderate social evaluative stress in humans works to prevent acute stress-mediated alterations in hippocampal learning processes..

  19. Comparative transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) during dehydration stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Charu; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Prasad, Manoj

    2010-03-19

    Dehydration stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that adversely influence crop growth and productivity. With the aim to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying dehydration stress tolerance in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), a drought tolerant crop, we examined its transcriptome changes at two time points (early and late) of dehydration stress. Two suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) forward libraries were constructed from 21-day old seedlings of tolerant cv. Prasad at 0.5 and 6h PEG-induced dehydration stress. A total of 327 unique ESTs were identified from both libraries and were classified into 11 different categories according to their putative functions. The plant response against dehydration stress was complex, representing major transcripts involved in metabolism, stress, signaling, transcription regulation, translation and proteolysis. By Reverse Northern (RN) technique we identified the differential expression pattern of 327 transcripts, 86 (about 26%) of which showed > or = 1.7-fold induction. Further the obtained results were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to have a comparative expression profiling of randomly chosen 9 up-regulated transcripts (> or =2.5 fold induction) between cv. Prasad (tolerant) and cv. Lepakshi (sensitive) upon dehydration stress. These transcripts showed a differential expression pattern in both cultivars at different time points of stress treatment as analyzed by qRT-PCR. The possible relationship of the identified transcripts with dehydration tolerance mechanism is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and causes of self-reported work-related stress in head teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Samantha; Sen, Dil; McNamee, Roseanne

    2007-08-01

    Work-related stress (WRS) is the leading cause of occupational ill-health in the education sector in the UK. Headship is believed to be a stressful role although there is little current research into stress in head teachers. Changes in the education sector since the late 1980s have meant that the findings of many existing studies are outdated. To investigate prevalence and causes of self-reported, WRS in head teachers in West Sussex, UK. A cross-sectional study using postal questionnaire in a population of 290 head teachers and principals. The measuring instrument was a short stress evaluation tool (ASSET) plus additional questions derived from previous studies. Stress cases were defined as respondents who felt their work was 'very or extremely stressful'. Prevalence of self-reported, WRS was 43%. Using ASSET scoring, work overload and work-life imbalance were the key stressors. Females were significantly more stressed than males for a number of stressors including overload and control. Although there was some evidence that primary head teachers fared worse than their secondary counterparts, once the confounding effects of gender were included, there were few significant differences. The prevalence of self-reported stress in head teachers in West Sussex is significantly increased compared to recent studies of workers in the UK. The recurring theme in existing studies of workload as a main stressor is confirmed in the findings of this study. Gender and type of school does affect outcome and female head teachers have more reported stressors than their male colleagues.

  1. Understanding abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms in soybean: a comparative evaluation of soybean response to drought and flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutava, Raymond N; Prince, Silvas Jebakumar K; Syed, Naeem Hasan; Song, Li; Valliyodan, Babu; Chen, Wei; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    Many sources of drought and flooding tolerance have been identified in soybean, however underlying molecular and physiological mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, it is important to illuminate different plant responses to these abiotic stresses and understand the mechanisms that confer tolerance. Towards this goal we used four contrasting soybean (Glycine max) genotypes (PI 567690--drought tolerant, Pana--drought susceptible, PI 408105A--flooding tolerant, S99-2281--flooding susceptible) grown under greenhouse conditions and compared genotypic responses to drought and flooding at the physiological, biochemical, and cellular level. We also quantified these variations and tried to infer their role in drought and flooding tolerance in soybean. Our results revealed that different mechanisms contribute to reduction in net photosynthesis under drought and flooding stress. Under drought stress, ABA and stomatal conductance are responsible for reduced photosynthetic rate; while under flooding stress, accumulation of starch granules played a major role. Drought tolerant genotypes PI 567690 and PI 408105A had higher plastoglobule numbers than the susceptible Pana and S99-2281. Drought stress increased the number and size of plastoglobules in most of the genotypes pointing to a possible role in stress tolerance. Interestingly, there were seven fibrillin proteins localized within the plastoglobules that were up-regulated in the drought and flooding tolerant genotypes PI 567690 and PI 408105A, respectively, but down-regulated in the drought susceptible genotype Pana. These results suggest a potential role of Fibrillin proteins, FBN1a, 1b and 7a in soybean response to drought and flooding stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The management of stress urinary incontinence: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preshani Reddy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conservative management is the first option for patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI. However, successful management of women diagnosed with SUI is dependent on a proper assessment and a tailored treatment plan. This case report aims to show the effectiveness of physiotherapy management in a 42-year-old patient diagnosed with SUI. Patient presentation: The patient’s main complaints were involuntary loss of urine on coughing, sneezing and lifting of heavy objects, which started following the birth of her third child. Management and outcome: The patient was taught the ‘Knack’ manoeuvre and provided with a tailored pelvic floor exercise programme. Improvement was noted at the third visit and the patient no longer had involuntary episodes. Conclusion: This case report shows the successful outcome of conservative management in a patient with stress urinary incontinence.

  3. Occupational Stress in UK Higher Education Institutions: A Comparative Study of All Staff Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytherleigh, M. Y.; Webb, C.; Cooper, C. L.; Ricketts, C.

    2005-01-01

    The higher education sector in the UK continues to experience significant change. This includes restructuring, use of short-term contracts, external scrutiny and accountability, and major reductions in funding. In line with this, reports of stress at work in higher education institutions have also increased. The study reported here was carried out…

  4. The relationships among work stress, strain and self-reported errors in UK community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S J; O'Connor, E M; Jacobs, S; Hassell, K; Ashcroft, D M

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the UK community pharmacy profession including new contractual frameworks, expansion of services, and increasing levels of workload have prompted concerns about rising levels of workplace stress and overload. This has implications for pharmacist health and well-being and the occurrence of errors that pose a risk to patient safety. Despite these concerns being voiced in the profession, few studies have explored work stress in the community pharmacy context. To investigate work-related stress among UK community pharmacists and to explore its relationships with pharmacists' psychological and physical well-being, and the occurrence of self-reported dispensing errors and detection of prescribing errors. A cross-sectional postal survey of a random sample of practicing community pharmacists (n = 903) used ASSET (A Shortened Stress Evaluation Tool) and questions relating to self-reported involvement in errors. Stress data were compared to general working population norms, and regressed on well-being and self-reported errors. Analysis of the data revealed that pharmacists reported significantly higher levels of workplace stressors than the general working population, with concerns about work-life balance, the nature of the job, and work relationships being the most influential on health and well-being. Despite this, pharmacists were not found to report worse health than the general working population. Self-reported error involvement was linked to both high dispensing volume and being troubled by perceived overload (dispensing errors), and resources and communication (detection of prescribing errors). This study contributes to the literature by benchmarking community pharmacists' health and well-being, and investigating sources of stress using a quantitative approach. A further important contribution to the literature is the identification of a quantitative link between high workload and self-reported dispensing errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Stress Urinary lncontinence : Comparative Study of Perineal Sonography in Erect Position and Chain Cystourethrograpy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Gi Seok; Kim, Seung Hyup; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Paick, Jae Seung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    Authors investigated the diagnostic value of perineal sonography in erect position for patients with stress urinary incontinence. Perineal sonography and chain cystourethrography were performed in 18 female patients(mean age 51.2) with stress urinary incontinence. The posterior are throvesical angles in stress and rest states were measured in both studies and compared with each other. Mean posteriorurethrovesical angles({+-}2 standard error) in rest and stress states were 136.3({+-}7.2) .deg. , and 145.9({+-}7.0) .deg. for chain cystourethrography and 131.4({+-}5.6) .deg. and 143.4({+-}5.9) .deg. for perineal sonography, respectively. The data frorm both studies correlated well with cach other. Perineal sonography inerect position is easy,non-invasive technique and may substitute the chain cystourethrography in the evaluation of the patients with stress urinary in continece

  6. Stress Urinary lncontinence : Comparative Study of Perineal Sonography in Erect Position and Chain Cystourethrograpy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Gi Seok; Kim, Seung Hyup; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Paick, Jae Seung

    1995-01-01

    Authors investigated the diagnostic value of perineal sonography in erect position for patients with stress urinary incontinence. Perineal sonography and chain cystourethrography were performed in 18 female patients(mean age 51.2) with stress urinary incontinence. The posterior are throvesical angles in stress and rest states were measured in both studies and compared with each other. Mean posteriorurethrovesical angles(±2 standard error) in rest and stress states were 136.3(±7.2) .deg. , and 145.9(±7.0) .deg. for chain cystourethrography and 131.4(±5.6) .deg. and 143.4(±5.9) .deg. for perineal sonography, respectively. The data frorm both studies correlated well with cach other. Perineal sonography inerect position is easy,non-invasive technique and may substitute the chain cystourethrography in the evaluation of the patients with stress urinary in continece

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis provides insight into cadmium stress responses in brown algae Sargassum fusiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Aiqin; Xu, Tao [Alkali Soil Natural Environmental Science Center, Northeast Forestry University, Key Laboratory of Saline–alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration in Oil Field, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040 (China); Zou, Huixi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Subtropical Water Environment and Marine Biological Resources Protection, College of Life and Environmental Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Pang, Qiuying, E-mail: qiuying@nefu.edu.cn [Alkali Soil Natural Environmental Science Center, Northeast Forestry University, Key Laboratory of Saline–alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration in Oil Field, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Proteomic analysis of brown algae response different level Cd stress was performed. • Proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were reduced under 1 day Cd stress. • 5 days Cd stress induced glycolysis and citrate cycle related proteins. • Graphic depiction of different metabolic pathways response to Cd stress was framed. - Abstract: Sargassum fusiforme is one of the most widely consumed seaweeds in China, Korea and Japan. In this work, we performed growth analysis and comparative proteomics to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the response to 1 day and 5 days Cd stress in S. fusiforme. Our results showed a significant decrease in growth rate and an increase in Cd ion content in S. fusiforme in response to Cd treatment. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 25 and 51 differentially expressed protein spots in S. fusiforme under 1 day and 5 days Cd stress, respectively. A great number of these proteins was metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism. Many proteins involved in the processing of genetic information showed a decrease in abundance under 1 day Cd stress. In contrast, 9 of the identified protein spots primarily involved in genetic information processing and carbohydrate metabolism were greatly enriched under 5 days Cd stress. Overall, our investigation indicated that Cd stress negatively affects the metabolic activity of S. fusiforme through the down-regulation of key metabolic enzymes. In addition, S. fusiforme may adapt to 5 days Cd stress by promoting consumption of photoassimilates through the up-regulation of glycolysis and the citrate cycle to supply energy for survival.

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis provides insight into cadmium stress responses in brown algae Sargassum fusiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Aiqin; Xu, Tao; Zou, Huixi; Pang, Qiuying

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Proteomic analysis of brown algae response different level Cd stress was performed. • Proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism were reduced under 1 day Cd stress. • 5 days Cd stress induced glycolysis and citrate cycle related proteins. • Graphic depiction of different metabolic pathways response to Cd stress was framed. - Abstract: Sargassum fusiforme is one of the most widely consumed seaweeds in China, Korea and Japan. In this work, we performed growth analysis and comparative proteomics to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the response to 1 day and 5 days Cd stress in S. fusiforme. Our results showed a significant decrease in growth rate and an increase in Cd ion content in S. fusiforme in response to Cd treatment. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 25 and 51 differentially expressed protein spots in S. fusiforme under 1 day and 5 days Cd stress, respectively. A great number of these proteins was metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism. Many proteins involved in the processing of genetic information showed a decrease in abundance under 1 day Cd stress. In contrast, 9 of the identified protein spots primarily involved in genetic information processing and carbohydrate metabolism were greatly enriched under 5 days Cd stress. Overall, our investigation indicated that Cd stress negatively affects the metabolic activity of S. fusiforme through the down-regulation of key metabolic enzymes. In addition, S. fusiforme may adapt to 5 days Cd stress by promoting consumption of photoassimilates through the up-regulation of glycolysis and the citrate cycle to supply energy for survival

  9. Comparative Stress Levels among Residents in Three Chinese Provincial Capitals, 2001 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Weifang; Cottrell, Randall R.; Rockett, Ian R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare stress levels among residents in large Chinese cities between 2001 and 2008. Methods Survey data were collected in three mainland Chinese capital cities in two waves, in 2001 and 2008, respectively. Participants were recruited through a multi-stage stratified sampling process. Stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Chinese version (CPSS). Descriptive methods were used to estimate mean stress levels and associated 95% confidence intervals. Estimates were adjusted by post-stratification weights. Results Indicating stable stress levels, respective adjusted mean stress scores for the combined samples of study participants were 23.90 (95%CI: 23.68–24.12) in 2001 and 23.69 (95%CI: 23.38–24.01) in 2008. A lower stress level in 2008 than in 2001 manifested among residents who were under 25 years of age; female; with a college or higher level education; divorced, widowed, or separated; members of the managerial and clerical group; students or army personnel; or with an annual income of at least 30,000 RMB. Conclusion The overall stress level did not change among the combined sample of residents in the three Chinese study cities between 2001 and 2008. However, levels remained high and varied across social strata, and may have reflected a national trend among urban residents. Findings indicate a need for a new health policy, and call for the design and implementation of evidence-based interventions that target the highest-risk groups. PMID:23152832

  10. Stress, coping and adherence to immunosuppressive medications in kidney transplantation: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Sampaio de Brito

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE : Adherence to medication is a key issue relating to outcomes from transplantation and it is influenced by several factors, such as stress and coping strategies. However, these factors have been poorly explored. We aimed to compare stress and coping strategies between adherent and nonadherent renal transplant recipients who were receiving immunosuppression. DESIGN AND SETTING : We conducted a comparative, cross-sectional and observational study at a university-based transplantation clinic in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. METHODS :Fifty patients were recruited and classified as adherent or nonadherent following administration of the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale. Stress was evaluated using the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory for Adults and coping strategies were assessed using the Ways of Coping Scale. RESULTS : The study included 25 nonadherent patients and 25 controls with a mean age of 44.1 ± 12.8 years and median post-transplantation time of 71.8 months. Stress was present in 50% of the patients. Through simple logistic regression, nonadherence was correlated with palliative coping (OR 3.4; CI: 1.02-11.47; P < 0.05 and had a marginal trend toward significance with more advanced phases of stress (OR 4.7; CI: 0.99-22.51; P = 0.053. CONCLUSION :Stress and coping strategies may have implications for understanding and managing nonadherent behavior among transplantation patients and should be considered among the strategies for reducing nonadherence.

  11. Fatigue Equivalent Stress State Approach Validation in Non-conservative Criteria: a Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin Martial Tsapi Tchoupou

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is concerned with the fatigue prediction models for estimating the multiaxial fatigue limit. An equivalent loading approach with zero out-of-phase angles intended for fatigue limit evaluation under multiaxial loading is used. Based on experimental data found in literatures, the equivalent stress is validated in Crossland and Sines criteria and predictions compared to the predictions of existing multiaxial fatigue; results over 87 experimental items show that the equivalent stress approach is very efficient.

  12. Inpatient aggression and work stress: comparing civil and forensic psychiatric nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joyce Yan

    2017-01-01

    In their daily work, psychiatric nurses are subjected to patient-perpetrated verbal and physical aggression. They manage a high level of work stress. As compared to their colleagues working in civil settings, forensic psychiatric nurses may experience different rates of patient aggression and work stress. Such experiences have implications for the mental health and productivity of nursing staff. In inpatient settings, homicide by a patient is a rare event. Representing the most severe f...

  13. Comparative assessment of wheat landraces against polyethylene glycol simulated drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatoi, S.A.; Latif, M.M.; Arif, M.; Ahson, M.; Siddiqui, S.U.

    2014-01-01

    Current investigation reports a comparative assessment and relative performance of 10 wheat accessions including check variety Inqilab-91 against polyethylene glycol (PEG) simulated drought stress at seedling. Wheat genotypes were tested against 0, 19, 21, 23 and 25% solutions of PEG 6000. The young seedlings were observed for germination (%) and root length (cm). In general, a decrease in germination percentage was observed with the increase in PEG concentration. All the investigated wheat genotypes performed better than the check variety Inqilab-91. The wheat accession 18699 that had more than 30% surviving seedlings at the highest concentration of used PEG was rated as the tolerant genotype. On the other hand, 18671 and 18698 appeared to be less tolerant having less than 5% germination at 25% PEG. Similarly, the root length decreased with the increase in PEG concentrations. The mean root length of all the wheat accessions, which were studied, was comparatively less affected than the control (Inqilab-91). The wheat genotypes 18670 and 18671 were the better performers than the rest of genotypes investigated and belonged to rainfed area of the Pothowar region. A detailed investigation of these genotypes in the field conditions is suggested. (author)

  14. Increased risk of coronary heart disease among individuals reporting adverse impact of stress on their health: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Nabi, Hermann; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G. David; Shipley, Martin J.; Britton, Annie; Brunner, Eric J.; Vahtera, Jussi; Lemogne, Cédric; Elbaz, Alexis; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Response to stress can vary greatly between individuals. However, it remains unknown whether perceived impact of stress on health is associated with adverse health outcomes. We examined whether individuals who report that stress adversely affects their health are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared with those who report that stress has no adverse health impact. Analyses are based on 7268 men and women (mean age: 49.5 years, interquartile range: 1...

  15. Runners with Patellofemoral Pain Exhibit Greater Peak Patella Cartilage Stress Compared to Pain-Free Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tzu-Chieh; Keyak, Joyce H; Powers, Christopher M

    2018-02-27

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether recreational runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP) exhibit greater peak patella cartilage stress compared to pain-free runners. A secondary purpose was to determine the kinematic and/or kinetic predictors of peak patella cartilage stress during running. Twenty-two female recreational runners participated (12 with PFP and 10 pain-free controls). Patella cartilage stress profiles were quantified using subject-specific finite element models simulating the maximum knee flexion angle during stance phase of running. Input parameters to the finite element model included subject-specific patellofemoral joint geometry, quadriceps muscle forces, and lower extremity kinematics in the frontal and transverse planes. Tibiofemoral joint kinematics and kinetics were quantified to determine the best predictor of stress using stepwise regression analysis. Compared to the pain-free runners, those with PFP exhibited greater peak hydrostatic pressure (PFP vs. control, 21.2 ± 5.6 MPa vs. 16.5 ± 4.6 MPa) and maximum shear stress (11.3 ± 4.6 MPa vs. 8.7 ± 2.3 MPa). Knee external rotation was the best predictor of peak hydrostatic pressure and peak maximum shear stress (38% and 25% of variances, respectively) followed by the knee extensor moment (21% and 25% of variances, respectively). Runners with PFP exhibit greater peak patella cartilage stress during running compared to pain-free individuals. The combination of knee external rotation and a high knee extensor moment best predicted elevated peak stress during running.

  16. Comparative proteomic responses of two bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.) varieties contrasting in drought stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-09-01

    Drought (water-deficit) stress is a serious environmental problem in plant growth and cultivation. As one of widely cultivated warm-season turfgrass, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.) exhibits drastic natural variation in the drought stress resistance in leaves and stems of different varieties. In this study, proteomic analysis was performed to identify drought-responsive proteins in both leaves and stems of two bermudagrass varieties contrasting in drought stress resistance, including drought sensitive variety (Yukon) and drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen). Through comparative proteomic analysis, 39 proteins with significantly changed abundance were identified, including 3 commonly increased and 2 decreased proteins by drought stress in leaves and stems of Yukon and Tifgreen varieties, 2 differentially regulated proteins in leaves and stems of two varieties after drought treatment, 23 proteins increased by drought stress in Yukon variety and constitutively expressed in Tifgreen variety, and other 3 differentially expressed proteins under control and drought stress conditions. Among them, proteins involved in photosynthesis (PS), glycolysis, N-metabolism, tricarboxylicacid (TCA) and redox pathways were largely enriched, which might be contributed to the natural variation of drought resistance between Yukon and Tifgreen varieties. These studies provide new insights to understand the molecular mechanism underlying bermudagrass response to drought stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. COMPARING EXPERIENCES IN REPORTING INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL IN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestri Antonella

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the intellectual capital (IC report in universities, a relevant theme actually for the growing interest in applying an IC approach in managing universities. The paper compares the experiences in reporting IC of two different university institutions, the Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM and the Austrian Universities, to highlight pros and cons of the two different IC models employed. In order to compare these two experiences, firstly we analyzed, through a literature review, the state-of-the-art in measuring and reporting IC, then we focus on the IC measurement models used as framework by the two institution, finally we turned our attention to the IC reports issued by the two universities. Both experiences presented refer to advanced IC measurement models, but both suffer of some limits in applying the models in practice. Like all measurement and management systems that deal with knowledge-based processes, Austrian and UAM's IC reports face the methodological problems of measuring non-physical processes and outputs. In detail, Austrian IC reports lack of qualitative indicators, UAM's IC report lacks of efficiency-related and activities-related indicators.The main research limit is that the theoretical comparison has been carried out on two experiences, due to the lack of awareness of IC relevance in managing universities. The establishment of an ad hoc IC measurement model for universities could have both internal and external benefits. As regards the policy implications, Government, ranking universities by their IC, can get information about their strengths and weaknesses and using it to reallocate resources. This study contributes to broaden the research community'aas understanding about a relevant management (internal and communication (external universities tool, the IC report, through the examination of two real life European universities experiences in disclosing intangibles. To the best of our knowledge, this is

  18. Comparative analysis of stress in a new proposal of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Mariana Lima da Costa; de Castro, Denise Tornavoi; Macedo, Ana Paula; Shimano, Antonio Carlos; Dos Reis, Andréa Cândido

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare, through photoelastic analysis, the stress distribution around conventional and modified external hexagon (EH) and morse taper (MT) dental implant connections. Four photoelastic models were prepared (n=1): Model 1 - conventional EH cylindrical implant (Ø 4.0mm×11mm - Neodent®), Model 2 - modified EH cylindrical implant, Model 3 - conventional MT Conical implant (Ø 4.3mm×10mm - Neodent®) and Model 4 - modified MT conical implant. 100 and 150N axial and oblique loads (30° tilt) were applied in the devices coupled to the implants. A plane transmission polariscope was used in the analysis of fringes and each position of interest was recorded by a digital camera. The Tardy method was used to quantify the fringe order (n), that calculates the maximum shear stress (τ) value in each selected point. The results showed lower stress concentration in the modified cylindrical implant (EH) compared to the conventional model, with application of 150N axial and 100N oblique loads. Lower stress was observed for the modified conical (MT) implant with the application of 100 and 150N oblique loads, which was not observed for the conventional implant model. The comparative analysis of the models showed that the new design proposal generates good stress distribution, especially in the cervical third, suggesting the preservation of bone tissue in the bone crest region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparative study on stress and compliance based structural topology optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu Shimels, G.; Dereje Engida, W.; Fakhruldin Mohd, H.

    2017-10-01

    Most of structural topology optimization problems have been formulated and solved to either minimize compliance or weight of a structure under volume or stress constraints, respectively. Even if, a lot of researches are conducted on these two formulation techniques separately, there is no clear comparative study between the two approaches. This paper intends to compare these formulation techniques, so that an end user or designer can choose the best one based on the problems they have. Benchmark problems under the same boundary and loading conditions are defined, solved and results are compared based on these formulations. Simulation results shows that the two formulation techniques are dependent on the type of loading and boundary conditions defined. Maximum stress induced in the design domain is higher when the design domains are formulated using compliance based formulations. Optimal layouts from compliance minimization formulation has complex layout than stress based ones which may lead the manufacturing of the optimal layouts to be challenging. Optimal layouts from compliance based formulations are dependent on the material to be distributed. On the other hand, optimal layouts from stress based formulation are dependent on the type of material used to define the design domain. High computational time for stress based topology optimization is still a challenge because of the definition of stress constraints at element level. Results also shows that adjustment of convergence criterions can be an alternative solution to minimize the maximum stress developed in optimal layouts. Therefore, a designer or end user should choose a method of formulation based on the design domain defined and boundary conditions considered.

  20. Normative and counter-normative stress messages and symptom reporting: implications for health promotion and a methodological artefact for stress research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Lawrence, Claire

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing use of counter-normative health messages (i.e., evidence-based health information about cause-effect relationships that run counter to shared normative beliefs, e.g., stress can lead to personal growth). The current studies examine the effect of normative and counter-normative messages about stress on levels of symptom reporting. Predictions are derived from reactance, social comparison, and self-enhancement theories. Two studies focus on the development of the messages, and two experimental studies examine the effect of manipulating normative and counter-normative messages on symptom reports. The final study controls for mere-measurement effects and explores the role of stress process variables (appraisals and coping). Exposure to a normative message (stress causes ill health) results in reduced symptom reporting compared to a counter-normative message (stress provides challenge, growth, and development) and control groups. The results suggest that people may use symptom reporting strategically to indicate coping. Based on the argument that beliefs about stress and health are stored as mental models, the theoretical associations derived from stress theory are only observed when a normative message is presented. Counter-normative stress messages may carry no tangible benefits compared to normative messages. Some stress research may suffer from inherent methodological bias when normative information is provided in information and consent sheets. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? At present, nothing is known about counter-normative health messages, despite the fact that they are becoming widely used as a public intervention. What does this study add? A clear operational definition of counter-normative messages. A test of three competing theories for counter-normative messages that focus of the stress-symptom link. Demonstrating for the first time, that in the domain of stress and health, counter-normative messages

  1. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Mousavi

    Full Text Available Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill., one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  2. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Sadegh; Alisoltani, Arghavan; Shiran, Behrouz; Fallahi, Hossein; Ebrahimie, Esameil; Imani, Ali; Houshmand, Saadollah

    2014-01-01

    Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary) to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE) genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Perceptions of Pharmacy Students’ Stress and Stressors across Two Multicampus Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Caroline A.; Crawford, Stephanie Y.; Tieman, Jami

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare perceived levels of stress, stressors, and academic self-efficacy among students at two multicampus colleges of pharmacy. Methods. A survey instrument using previously validated items was developed and administered to first-year, second-year, and third-year pharmacy students at two universities with multiple campuses in spring 2013. Results. Eight hundred twenty students out of 1115 responded (73.5% response rate). Institutional differences were found in perceived student stress levels, self-efficacy, and stress-related causes. An interaction effect was demonstrated between institution and campus type (main or branch) for perceived stress and self-efficacy although campus type alone did not demonstrate a direct effect. Institutional and campus differences existed in awareness of campus counseling services, as did a few differences in coping methods. Conclusion. Stress measures were similar for pharmacy students at main or branch campuses. Institutional differences in student stress might be explained by instructional methods, campus support services, institutional climate, and nonuniversity factors. PMID:27402985

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Perceptions of Pharmacy Students' Stress and Stressors across Two Multicampus Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awé, Clara; Gaither, Caroline A; Crawford, Stephanie Y; Tieman, Jami

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To compare perceived levels of stress, stressors, and academic self-efficacy among students at two multicampus colleges of pharmacy. Methods. A survey instrument using previously validated items was developed and administered to first-year, second-year, and third-year pharmacy students at two universities with multiple campuses in spring 2013. Results. Eight hundred twenty students out of 1115 responded (73.5% response rate). Institutional differences were found in perceived student stress levels, self-efficacy, and stress-related causes. An interaction effect was demonstrated between institution and campus type (main or branch) for perceived stress and self-efficacy although campus type alone did not demonstrate a direct effect. Institutional and campus differences existed in awareness of campus counseling services, as did a few differences in coping methods. Conclusion. Stress measures were similar for pharmacy students at main or branch campuses. Institutional differences in student stress might be explained by instructional methods, campus support services, institutional climate, and nonuniversity factors.

  5. Comparative study for salt stress among seed, root stock and direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiments were carried out to evaluate the comparative study for salt stress among seed, root stock and direct regenerated violet (Viola odorata L.) seedlings. Violet seedlings propagated through tissue culture (direct regeneration) had significantly higher salicylic acid (SA) concentrations from seed and rootstock ...

  6. Application of item response theory to achieve cross-cultural comparability of occupational stress measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsutsumi, A.; Iwata, N.; Watanabe, N.; Jonge, de J.; Pikhart, H.; Férnandez-López, J.A.; Xu, Liying; Peter, R.; Knutsson, A.; Niedhammer, I.; Kawakami, N.; Siegrist, J.

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to examine cross-cultural comparability of standard scales of the Effort-Reward Imbalance occupational stress scales by item response theory (IRT) analyses. Data were from 20,256 Japanese employees, 1464 Dutch nurses and nurses' aides, 2128 representative employees from

  7. Comparative study of oxidative stress caused by anthracene and alkyl-anthracenes in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Roh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress was evaluated for anthracene (Ant and alkyl-Ants (9-methylanthracene [9-MA] and 9,10-dimethylanthracene [9,10-DMA] in Caenorhabditis elegans to compare changes in toxicity due to the degree of alkylation. Worms were exposed at 1 the same external exposure concentration and 2 the maximum water-soluble concentration. Formation of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, total glutathione concentration, and lipid peroxidation were determined under constant exposure conditions using passive dosing. The expression of oxidative stress-related genes (daf-2, sir-2.1, daf-16, sod-1, sod-2, sod-3 and cytochrome 35A/C family genes was also investigated to identify and compare changes in the genetic responses of C. elegans exposed to Ant and alkyl-Ant. At the same external concentration, 9,10-DMA induced the greatest oxidative stress, as evidenced by all indicators, except for lipid peroxidation, followed by 9-MA and Ant. Interestingly, 9,10-DMA led to greater oxidative stress than 9-MA and Ant when worms were exposed to the maximum water-soluble concentration, although the maximum water-soluble concentration of 9,10-DMA is the lowest. Increased oxidative stress by alkyl-Ants would be attributed to higher lipid-water partition coefficient and the π electron density in aromatic rings by alkyl substitution, although this supposition requires further confirmation.

  8. Stress, coping and adherence to immunosuppressive medications in kidney transplantation: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Daniela Cristina Sampaio de; Marsicano, Elisa Oliveira; Grincenkov, Fabiane Rossi Dos Santos; Colugnati, Fernando Antônio Basile; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2016-01-01

    : Adherence to medication is a key issue relating to outcomes from transplantation and it is influenced by several factors, such as stress and coping strategies. However, these factors have been poorly explored. We aimed to compare stress and coping strategies between adherent and nonadherent renal transplant recipients who were receiving immunosuppression. : We conducted a comparative, cross-sectional and observational study at a university-based transplantation clinic in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. :Fifty patients were recruited and classified as adherent or nonadherent following administration of the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale. Stress was evaluated using the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory for Adults and coping strategies were assessed using the Ways of Coping Scale. : The study included 25 nonadherent patients and 25 controls with a mean age of 44.1 ± 12.8 years and median post-transplantation time of 71.8 months. Stress was present in 50% of the patients. Through simple logistic regression, nonadherence was correlated with palliative coping (OR 3.4; CI: 1.02-11.47; P transplantation patients and should be considered among the strategies for reducing nonadherence.

  9. Case report: bilateral ischial stress fractures in an elite tennis player

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A.W.; Connell, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    A case report of bilateral ischial stress fractures in an elite tennis player initially mimicking hamstring pathology is described. This is an unusual site of stress fracture. Typical sites of stress fracture are well documented; however, awareness of less common sites of stress-related bone injury can aid early diagnosis and treatment before overt fracture occurs. (orig.)

  10. Case report: bilateral ischial stress fractures in an elite tennis player

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, A.W.; Connell, D.A. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    A case report of bilateral ischial stress fractures in an elite tennis player initially mimicking hamstring pathology is described. This is an unusual site of stress fracture. Typical sites of stress fracture are well documented; however, awareness of less common sites of stress-related bone injury can aid early diagnosis and treatment before overt fracture occurs. (orig.)

  11. Comparative physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in two poplar species originating from different altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Miao, Ling-Feng

    2010-08-01

    Cuttings of Populus kangdingensis C. Wang et Tung and Populus cathayana Rehder were examined during a single growing season in a greenhouse for comparative analysis of their physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress. The said species originate from high and low altitudes, respectively, of the eastern Himalaya. Results revealed that the adaptive responses to drought stress vary between the two poplar species. As a consequence of drought stress, the stem height increment and leaf number increment are more significantly inhibited in P. cathayana compared with P. kangdingensis. On the other hand, in response to drought stress, more significant cellular damages such as reduction in leaf relative water content and CO(2) assimilation rate, increments in the contents of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide and downregulation or degradation of proteins related to photosynthesis occur in P. cathayana compared with P. kangdingensis. On the other hand, P. kangdingensis can cope better with the negative impact on the entire regulatory network. This includes more efficient increases in content of solute sugar, soluble protein and free proline and activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as specific expressions of certain proteins related to protein processing, redox homeostasis and sugar metabolism. Morphological consequences as well as physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress between species revealed that P. kangdingensis originating from a high altitude manifest stronger drought adaptation than did P. cathayana originating from a low altitude. Functions of various proteins identified by proteomic experiment are related with physiological phenomena. Physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in poplar may work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis, allowing poplar to develop a certain level of drought tolerance.

  12. Standards, criteria, comparative study. Final report 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this report is to compare standards and criteria used for the design of seismic resistant Nuclear Power plants in former USSR and Eastern Europe to the actual practice in Western Europe and USA. A review of USSR and Czech-Slovak standards for design of WWER-1000 NPPs is included. Comparative study deals involves a general comparison of standards and the comparison of seismic loads according to Eastern standards with the to-day practices. According to these comparisons it can be theoretically concluded that despite some differences the structural seismic forces calculated according to Soviet-Russian standards are in good agreement with the ones resulting from Western Standards

  13. Responses to stress in patients with psychotic disorders compared to persons with varying levels of vulnerability to psychosis, persons with depression and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Köther, Ulf; Hartmann, Maike; Kempkensteffen, Jürgen; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-06-01

    An experimental design was used to test whether self-reported, psychophysiological and symptomatic stress-responses increase as a function of the underlying vulnerability to psychosis as proposed by vulnerability-stress-models. Stress-responses of participants with psychotic disorders (PSY, n = 35) were compared to those of participants with attenuated positive symptoms (AS, n = 29), first-degree relatives of persons with psychotic disorders (REL, n = 26), healthy controls (HC, n = 28) and controls with depression (DEP, n = 30). Using a repeated measures design, participants were assigned to a noise stressor, a social stressor and a no stress condition in random order. Stress-responses were assessed via self-report, salivary cortisol levels, heart rate and skin conductance levels. State-paranoia and depression were assessed with clinical scales. PSY reported to be significantly more stressed than HC, AS and REL across all conditions which went along with increased heart rate and decreased overall cortisol release. In contrast, AS showed elevated levels of cortisol. PSY showed a stronger response of self-reported stress to the noise condition compared to the no stress condition than HC, but no stronger response than the other samples. Furthermore, the stressors did not trigger stronger psychophysiological responses or symptom-increases in PSY. The social stressor was brief and not individualized and did not have an effect on cortisol. The findings support the notion that subjective stress-responsiveness increases with vulnerability, but not the assumption that symptoms arise directly as a function of stress and vulnerability. Also, the generally high levels of arousal seem to be more relevant to psychosis than the responsiveness to specific stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparing usage of a web and app stress management intervention: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne G. Morrison

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Choices in the design and delivery of digital health behaviour interventions may have a direct influence on subsequent usage and engagement. Few studies have been able to make direct, detailed comparisons of differences in usage between interventions that are delivered via web or app. This study compared the usage of two versions of a digital stress management intervention, one delivered via a website (Healthy Paths and the other delivered via an app (Healthy Mind. Design modifications were introduced within Healthy Mind to take account of reported differences in how individuals engage with websites compared to apps and mobile phones. Data were collected as part of an observational study nested within a broader exploratory trial of Healthy Mind. Objective usage of Healthy Paths and Healthy Mind were automatically recorded, including frequency and duration of logins, access to specific components within the intervention and order of page/screen visits. Usage was compared for a two week period following initial registration. In total, 381 participants completed the registration process for Healthy Paths (web and 162 participants completed the registration process for Healthy Mind (app. App users logged in twice as often (Mdn = 2.00 as web users (Mdn = 1.00, U = 13,059.50, p ≤ 0.001, but spent half as much time (Mdn = 5.23 min on the intervention compared to web users (Mdn = 10.52 min, U = 19,740.00, p ≤ 0.001. Visual exploration of usage patterns over time revealed that a significantly higher proportion of app users (n = 126, 82.35% accessed both types of support available within the intervention (i.e. awareness and change-focused tools compared to web users (n = 92, 40.17%, χ2(1, n = 382 = 66.60, p < 0.001. This study suggests that the digital platform used to deliver an intervention (i.e. web versus app and specific design choices (e.g. navigation, length and volume of content may be

  15. Self-Reported Work and Family Stress of Female Primary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Narelle; Clarke, Valerie; Lavery, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Results of a self-report questionnaire indicated that female primary teachers in Australia report moderate levels of global, work, and family stress. Time and workload pressure was the major work stressor, and responsibility for child rearing the major family stressor. Work stress and home stress both impacted on each other. (EV)

  16. Comparative study of drought and salt stress effects on germination and seedling growth of pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination is first critical and the most sensitive stage in the life cycle of plants compromise the seedlings establishment. Salt and drought tolerance testing in initial stages of plant development is of vital importance, because the seed with more rapid germination under salt or water deficit conditions may be expected to achieve a rapid seedling establishment, resulting in higher yields. The aim of this study was to determine whether the pea seed germination and seedling growth were inhibited by the salt toxicity and osmotic effect during the seedling development, and also identification of the sensitive seedling growth parameters in response to those stresses. Based on the obtained results, pea has been presented to be more tolerant to salt than water stress during germination and early embryo growth. Investigated cultivars showed greater susceptibility to both abiotic stresses when it comes growth parameters compared to seed germination. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31024 i br. TR-31022

  17. Comparing of Normal Stress Distribution in Static and Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholdebarin, Alireza; Massumi, Ali; Davoodi, Mohammad; Tabatabaiefar, Hamid Reza

    2008-01-01

    It is important to consider the vertical component of earthquake loading and inertia force in soil-structure interaction analyses. In most circumstances, design engineers are primarily concerned about the analysis of behavior of foundations subjected to earthquake-induced forces transmitted from the bedrock. In this research, a single rigid foundation with designated geometrical parameters located on sandy-clay soil has been modeled in FLAC software with Finite Different Method and subjected to three different vertical components of earthquake records. In these cases, it is important to evaluate effect of footing on underlying soil and to consider normal stress in soil with and without footing. The distribution of normal stress under the footing in static and dynamic states has been studied and compared. This Comparison indicated that, increasing in normal stress under the footing caused by vertical component of ground excitations, has decreased dynamic vertical settlement in comparison with static state

  18. [Acute Stress and Broken Heart Syndrome. A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergel, Juliana; Tamayo-Orozco, Sebastián; Vallejo-Gómez, Andrés Felipe; Posada, María Teresa; Restrepo, Diana

    Stress has been associated with an acute heart failure syndrome of important morbidity and mortality. Case report and non-systematic review of the relevant literature. A 65-year-old woman with a history of an untreated generalized anxiety disorder, whom after the violent death of her son presented with oppressive chest pain irradiated to neck and left superior extremity, lasting for more than 30minutes, initial clinical suspect suggests acute coronary syndrome. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by a reversible left ventricular dysfunction and wall movement abnormalities, without any compromise of the coronary arteries, associated to high plasma levels of catecholamines which in most cases correlates with an acute stress of emotional or physical type. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy has to be considered by physicians among the differential diagnosis when facing a patient with suspected acute coronary syndrome, especially in post-menopausal women with a history of psychiatric comorbidities such as a generalized anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. [Compare the occupational stress and work ability among the police-officers, doctors and teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-wei; Wang, Zhi-ming; Lan, Ya-jia; Wang, Mian-zhen

    2004-03-01

    To compare the occupational stress and work ability in doctors, police-officers and teachers. Changes in occupational stress work ability were measured with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) and work ability index (WAI) for 288 doctors, 191 police-officers and 343 teachers, and then comparative and correlation analyses were made. 1. The difference in occupational stress and strain between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.01), and the score of the police-officers was higher than that of the doctors and teachers (P < 0.05), but the personal resources of police-officers were lower than those of the doctors and teachers (P < 0.05). 2. Analysis of the 6 items of occupational role questionnaire revealed that the scores of role ambiguity, role boundary and responsibility were obviously higher in police-officers than in doctors and teachers, while the scores of role overload and physical environment were higher in teachers (P < 0.05). 3. Analysis of all items of personal strain revealed that the scores of vocational strain, psychological strain, physical strain, but not of interpersonal starin, were significantly higher in police-officers than in doctors and teachers (P < 0.05). 4. As to the personal resource, the results indicated that recreation and self-care of doctors and teachers were superior to those of police-officers. The score of social support was highest in doctors. The score of rational conduct was highest in teachers (P < 0.05). 5. Occupational role and personal strain were positively correlated, and both were correlated negatively to the personal resources (P < 0.01). The correlations of work ability, occupational stress and strain, and personal resources were significant in teachers (P < 0.01). For polices-officers, doctors and teachers, different yet relevant measures should be taken to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve their work ability.

  20. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Barley Genotypes under Salinity Stress during the Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runhong Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop productivity. Identification of the potential novel genes responsible for salt tolerance in barley will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of barley responses to salt stress. We compared changes in transcriptome between Hua 11 (a salt-tolerant genotype and Hua 30 (a salt sensitive genotype in response to salt stress at the seedling stage using barley cDNA microarrays. In total, 557 and 247 salt-responsive genes were expressed exclusively in the shoot and root tissue of the salt-tolerant genotype, respectively. Among these genes, a number of signal-related genes, transcription factors and compatible solutes were identified and some of these genes were carefully discussed. Notably, a LysM RLK was firstly found involved in salt stress response. Moreover, key enzymes in the pathways of jasmonic acid biosynthesis, lipid metabolism and indole-3-acetic acid homeostasis were specifically affected by salt stress in salt tolerance genotype. These salt-responsive genes and biochemical pathways identified in this study could provide further information for understanding the mechanisms of salt tolerance in barley.

  1. Job stress and burnout: A comparative study of senior and head nurses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xiaorong; Wang, Ping; Hou, Wenxiu; Chen, Lili; Lou, Fenglan

    2017-06-01

    Senior nurses can suffer from high job stress and burnout, which can lead to negative patient outcomes and higher turnover rates; however, few studies have examined this topic. We recruited 224 head and senior nurses from September to December 2015 using convenience and cluster sampling, to compare job stress and burnout levels between the two groups. The Nurse Job Stressors Inventory and Maslach Burnout Inventory scales were used to evaluate job stress and burnout, respectively. Results indicated that job stress scores significantly differed between head and senior nurses. The highest scoring subscales in both groups were time allocation and workload problems. Scores for the three burnout dimensions also significantly differed between the groups. Positive correlations between job stress and burnout were stronger among senior nurses than head nurses. Burnout may be higher among senior nurses given head nurses' potential for greater perceived job control. Our findings suggest that measures need to be taken to reduce burnout and turnover rates among senior nurses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Comparative Metabolomics Approach Detects Stress-Specific Responses during Coral Bleaching in Soft Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Meyer, Achim; Ali, Sara E; Salem, Mohamed A; Giavalisco, Patrick; Westphal, Hildegard; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2018-06-01

    Chronic exposure to ocean acidification and elevated sea-surface temperatures pose significant stress to marine ecosystems. This in turn necessitates costly acclimation responses in corals in both the symbiont and host, with a reorganization of cell metabolism and structure. A large-scale untargeted metabolomics approach comprising gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was applied to profile the metabolite composition of the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi and its dinoflagellate symbiont. Metabolite profiling compared ambient conditions with response to simulated climate change stressors and with the sister species, S. glaucum. Among ∼300 monitored metabolites, 13 metabolites were modulated. Incubation experiments providing four selected upregulated metabolites (alanine, GABA, nicotinic acid, and proline) in the culturing water failed to subside the bleaching response at temperature-induced stress, despite their known ability to mitigate heat stress in plants or animals. Thus, the results hint to metabolite accumulation (marker) during heat stress. This study provides the first detailed map of metabolic pathways transition in corals in response to different environmental stresses, accounting for the superior thermal tolerance of S. ehrenbergi versus S. glaucum, which can ultimately help maintain a viable symbiosis and mitigate against coral bleaching.

  3. A comparative study between Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri on tolerance to heat and desiccation stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    Full Text Available Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri are two very closely related invasive ant species; however, S. invicta is a much more successful invader. Physiological tolerance to abiotic stress has been hypothesized to be important to the success of an invasive species. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that S. invicta is more tolerant to heat and desiccation stress than S. richteri. The data strongly support our hypothesis. S. invicta was found to be significantly less vulnerable than S. richteri to both heat and desiccation stress. Despite S. richteri having significantly higher body water content, S. invicta was less sensitive to desiccation stress due to its significantly lower water loss rate (higher desiccation resistance. After the cuticular lipid was removed, S. invicta still had a significantly lower water loss rate than S. richteri, indicating that cuticular lipids were not the only factors accounting for difference in the desiccation resistance between these two species. Since multiple biological and/or ecological traits can contribute to the invasion success of a particular species, whether the observed difference in tolerance to heat and desiccation stresses is indeed associated with the variation in invasion success between these two species can only be confirmed by further extensive comparative study.

  4. comparative transcriptomics between Synechococcus PCC 7942 and Synechocystis PCC 6803 provide insights into mechanisms of adaptation to stress.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinos, Billis [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); European Bioinformatics Inst., Hinxton, Cambridge (United Kingdom). European Molecular Biology Lab.; Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Genetics; Billini, Maria [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Max Planck Inst. for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg (Germany); Tripp, Harry J. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Kyrpides, Nikos C. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Mavrommatis, Konstantinos [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Celgene Corp, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-03-21

    Background: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 are model cyanobacteria from which the metabolism and adaptive responses of other cyanobacteria are inferred. Here we report the gene expression response of these two strains to a variety of nutrient and environmental stresses of varying duration, using transcriptomics. Our data comprise both stranded and 5? enriched libraries in order to elucidate many aspects of the transcriptome. Results: Both organisms were exposed to stress conditions due to nutrient deficiency (inorganic carbon) or change of environmental conditions (salinity, temperature, pH, light) sampled at 1 and 24 hours after the application of stress. The transcriptome profile of each strain revealed similarities and differences in gene expression for photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains and carbon fixation. Transcriptome profiles also helped us improve the structural annotation of the genome and identify possible missed genes (including anti-sense) and determine transcriptional units (operons). Finally, we predicted association of proteins of unknown function biochemical pathways by associating them to well-characterized ones based on their transcript levels correlation. Conclusions: Overall, this study results an informative annotation of those species and the comparative analysis of the response of the two organisms revealed similarities but also significant changes in the way they respond to external stress and the duration of the response

  5. Comparing older and younger Japanese primiparae: fatigue, depression and biomarkers of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Emi; Maehara, Kunie; Iwata, Hiroko; Sakajo, Akiko; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Ozawa, Harumi; Morita, Akiko; Maekawa, Tomoko; Saeki, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    This cohort study of primiparae was conducted to answer the following questions: Do older (≧ 35 years) and younger (20-29 years) Japanese primiparous mothers differ when comparing biomarkers of stress and measures of fatigue and depression? Are there changes in fatigue, depression and stress biomarkers when comparing older and younger mothers during the postpartum period? The Postnatal Accumulated Fatigue Scale and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were administered in a time-series method four times: shortly after birth and monthly afterwards. Assays to measure biomarkers of stress, urinary 17-ketosteroids, urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and salivary chromogranin-A, were collected shortly after delivery and at 1 month postpartum in both groups and a third time in older mothers at the 4th month. Statistical testing showed very little difference in fatigue, depression or stress biomarkers between older and younger mothers shortly after birth or 1 month later. Accumulated fatigue and depression scores of older mothers were highest 1 month after delivery. Additional cohort studies are required to characterize physical/psychological well-being of older Japanese primiparae. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Brassica napus Root and Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic factors affecting Brassica napus (B. napus productivity. In order to identify genes of potential importance to drought stress and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding the responses of B. napus to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of B. napus plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. In this work, a relatively drought tolerant B. napus line, Q2, identified in our previous study, was used. Four cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of control and dehydration-treated root and leaf were sequenced by Illumina technology. A total of 6018 and 5377 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in root and leaf. In addition, 1745 genes exhibited a coordinated expression profile between the two tissues under drought stress, 1289 (approximately 74% of which showed an inverse relationship, demonstrating different regulation patterns between the root and leaf. The gene ontology (GO enrichment test indicated that up-regulated genes in root were mostly involved in “stimulus” “stress” biological process, and activated genes in leaf mainly functioned in “cell” “cell part” components. Furthermore, a comparative network related to plant hormone signal transduction and AREB/ABF, AP2/EREBP, NAC, WRKY and MYC/MYB transcription factors (TFs provided a view of different stress tolerance mechanisms between root and leaf. Some of the DEGs identified may be candidates for future research aimed at detecting drought-responsive genes and will be useful for understanding the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in root and leaf of B. napus.

  7. Comparing the Heat Stress Index of HSI and WBGT in BakeryWorkplaces in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahdavi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Thermal stress is one of the important issues of physical stress in workplaces. Bakery workers that are one of widely population that under occupation heat stress. In this study, heat stress indexes consist of HSI and WBGT in worker positions in total of 88  bakeries in Hamadan city was assessed.   Methods   In this study 88 bakery workplace was considered. Measuring of air variables to obtain  of HSI and WBGTheat stress indices was performed by axial fan anemometer, WBGTmeter and  hygrometer made in CASELLA CompanyIn this study 88 bakery workplace was considered.   Measuring of air variables to obtain of HSI and WBGTheat stress indices was performed by axial fan anemometer, WBGTmeter and hygrometer made in CASELLACompany.   Results   Results showed that the average HSI index (214.2 ± 43.7 % and the average work experience were (28.57±1.97 C. Analyzing of results showed that Pearson's correlation of coefficient between HSI and WBGT was equal to 0.509. Depending of HSI to air velocity was considerable (r = -0.811 that was not expected.   Conclusion   Values of HSI index had a wide scatter in variances in study fields comparing of  WBGTindex that had a minimal scatter, whereas those are measuring of variables and computing of indexes were same workplaces. Finally, although both heat indexes showed exceeded values form criteria, but calibration between HSI and WBGT in this study, showed that, the HSI index  had any weakness.    

  8. Tank waste remediation system heat stress control program report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carls, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Protecting employees from heat stress within tank farms during the summer months is challenging. Work constraints typically experienced in tank farms complicate the measures taken to protect employees from heat stress. TWRS-Industrial Hygiene (IH) has endeavored to control heat stress injuries by anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and controlling the factors which lead or contribute to heat stress in Tank Farms. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program covers such areas as: employee and PIC training, communication of daily heat stress alerts to tank farm personnel, setting work/rest regimens, and the use of engineering and personal protective controls when applicable. The program has increased worker awareness of heat stress and prevention, established provisions for worker rest periods, increased drinking water availability to help ensure worker hydration, and allowed for the increased use of other protective controls to combat heat stress. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program is the cornerstone for controlling heat stress among tank farm employees. The program has made great strides since it's inception during the summer of 1994. Some improvements can still be made to enhance the program for the summer of 1996, such as: (1) procurement and use of personal heat stress monitoring equipment to ensure appropriate application of administrative controls, (2) decrease the need for use of containment tents and anti-contamination clothing, and (3) providing a wider variety of engineering and personal protective controls for heat stress prevention

  9. Impact of management protocols of intrauterine fetal death on perceived stress: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Mandal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy loss is a distressing problem and retention of dead fetus in utero has its own ill effects on physical, psychological, and social aspects, and hence, it is better to recommend medical induction, provided this can be safely undertaken. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, tolerability, induction-delivery interval, and perceived stress scores between induction methods in late intrauterine fetal death (IUFD with misoprostol alone and mifepristone with misoprostol combination in a rural population of Eastern India. Materials and Methods: This pilot study was conducted on 125 patients after taking institutional ethical clearance and informed consent of the patients in a time span of 1 year. Group 2 patients received 200 mg of mifepristone per orally and observed for 48 h, followed by 50 μg misoprostol administered in the posterior vaginal fornix, and repeated 6th hourly up to a maximum of four doses. Group 1 received 50 μg misoprostol per vaginally 6 hourly for four doses. Induction-delivery interval was calculated. Perceived stress level was calculated on admission and before discharge. Results: Significantly lower induction-delivery interval was observed in Group 2 as compared to Group 1 with P < 0.001. There was no significant difference of Cohen's perceived stress scores on admission, but the difference was significantly lower in Group 2 on discharge with the value of P = 0.03. Group 1 had significantly lower hospital stay in days as compared to Group 2 of patients with P < 0.001. Conclusions: Patients with IUFD administered misoprostol per vaginally only may require shorter hospital stay as compared to patients administered with oral mifepristone followed by misoprostol vaginally but the delivery induction time increases significantly and may increase perceived stress levels which may have short- and long-term negative psychological impact.

  10. A Comparative Study of the Academic Stress and Depression among High School Girl and Boy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanehkeshi, Ali; Basavarajappa

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the difference between boy and girl high school students of 1st grade to 3rd grade in academic stress and depression. Using a random stratified sampling 120 girl and boy students (60 girls and 60 boys) were selected from 1st grade (n = 40), 2nd grade (n = 40) and 3rd grade (n = 40) high school students. In this study gender and…

  11. Characteristics of people with self-reported stress-precipitated seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Michael; Walters, Michael; Lee, Ikjae; Polak, Emily; Fleck, Adrienne; Schwieterman, Donna; Haut, Sheryl R

    2014-12-01

    Stress is the most common patient-reported seizure precipitant. We aimed to determine mood and epilepsy characteristics of people who report stress-precipitated seizures. Sequential patients at a tertiary epilepsy center were surveyed about stress as a seizure precipitant. We asked whether acute (lasting minutes-hours) or chronic (lasting days-months) stress was a seizure precipitant, whether stress reduction had been tried, and what effect stress reduction had on seizure frequency. We collected information on antiepileptic drugs, history of depression and anxiety disorder, prior or current treatment for depression or anxiety, and scores on the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory (NDDI-E) and Generalized Anxiety Disorders-7 (GAD-7) instruments, which are administered at every visit in our Epilepsy Center. We also asked whether respondents thought that they could predict their seizures to determine if stress as a seizure precipitant was correlated with seizure self-prediction. Two hundred sixty-six subjects were included: 219 endorsed stress as a seizure precipitant [STRESS (+)] and 47 did not [STRESS (-)]. Among STRESS (+) subjects, 85% endorsed chronic stress as a seizure precipitant, and 68% endorsed acute stress as a seizure precipitant. In STRESS (+) subjects, 57% had used some type of relaxation or stress reduction method (most commonly yoga, exercise and meditation), and, of those who tried, 88% thought that these methods improved seizures. Among STRESS (-) subjects, 25% had tried relaxation or stress reduction, and 71% thought that seizures improved. Although univariate analysis showed multiple associations with stress as a seizure precipitant, in the multivariable logistic regression, only the GAD-7 score was associated with STRESS (+) (OR = 1.18 [1.03-1.35], p = 0.017). Subjects who reported stress as a seizure precipitant were more likely to report an ability to self-predict seizures (p < 0.001). Stress-precipitated seizures are commonly reported

  12. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the Asteraceae halophyte Karelinia caspica under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Liao, Maoseng; Chang, Dan; Zhang, Fuchun

    2014-12-17

    Much attention has been given to the potential of halophytes as sources of tolerance traits for introduction into cereals. However, a great deal remains unknown about the diverse mechanisms employed by halophytes to cope with salinity. To characterize salt tolerance mechanisms underlying Karelinia caspica, an Asteraceae halophyte, we performed Large-scale transcriptomic analysis using a high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform. Comparative gene expression analysis was performed to correlate the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation at the molecular level. Total sequence reads generated by pyrosequencing were assembled into 287,185 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 652 bp. Using the BLAST function in the Swiss-Prot, NCBI nr, GO, KEGG, and KOG databases, a total of 216,416 coding sequences associated with known proteins were annotated. Among these, 35,533 unigenes were classified into 69 gene ontology categories, and 18,378 unigenes were classified into 202 known pathways. Based on the fold changes observed when comparing the salt stress and control samples, 60,127 unigenes were differentially expressed, with 38,122 and 22,005 up- and down-regulated, respectively. Several of the differentially expressed genes are known to be involved in the signaling pathway of the plant hormone ABA, including ABA metabolism, transport, and sensing as well as the ABA signaling cascade. Transcriptome profiling of K. caspica contribute to a comprehensive understanding of K. caspica at the molecular level. Moreover, the global survey of differentially expressed genes in this species under salt stress and analyses of the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation will contribute to the identification and characterization of genes and molecular mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in Asteraceae plants.

  13. A comparative study of the effect of oxidative stress on the cytoskeleton in human cortical neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allani, Pramod K.; Sum, Tak; Bhansali, Suraj G.; Mukherjee, Suman K.; Sonee, Manisha

    2004-01-01

    Cytoskeleton disruption is a process by which oxidative stress disrupts cellular function. This study compares and contrasts the effect of oxidative stress on the three major cytoskeleton filaments, microfilaments (MFs), microtubule (MT), and vimentin in human cortical neuronal cell line (HCN2). HCN2 cells were treated with 100 μM tertiary butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), a free radical generating neurotoxin for 1, 3, or 6 h. Cell viability studies demonstrated significant cell death although the morphology studies showed that there was a substantial loss in neurites of neurons treated with t-BuOOH for 6 h. Because the cytoskeleton plays a role in neurite outgrowth, the effect of oxidative stress on the cytoskeletal was studied. In neurons subjected to oxidative stress for 30 min or 1 h, there were no major changes in microfilament distribution though there was altered distribution of microtubule and vimentin filaments as compared to controls. However, loss and disruption of all the three cytoskeletal filaments was observed at later times (3 and 6 h), which was confirmed by Western Blot analysis. Further studies were done to measure the gene expression levels of actin, tubulin, and vimentin. Results indicated that the overall loss of the cytoskeletal proteins in neurons treated with free radical generating toxin might not be a direct result of the downregulation of the cytoskeletal genes. This study shows that free radical generation in human neurons leads to the disruption of the cytoskeleton, though there may be a difference in the susceptibility to oxidative stress among the individual components of the cytoskeletal filaments

  14. Comparative evaluation of radioactive waste management options. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, D.; Kreusch, J.; Neumann, W.

    2001-05-01

    A comprehensive presentation of the various radioactive waste options under debate has not been made so far, let alone a comparative evaluation of the options with respect to their substantiated or assumed advantages or drawbacks. However, any appropriate discussion about the pros and cons of the specific options for final decision making has to be based on a comprehensive knowledge base drawn from profound comparative evaluation of essential options. Therefore, the study reported in this publication was to serve three major purposes: Presentation of the conditions and waste management policies and approaches in selected countries, in order to compile information about the various policy goals and the full scope of argumentation, as well as the range of individual arguments used for or against specific options. - Derivation of a methodology for evaluation, including development of criteria for a comparative and qualitative evaluation of options. - Identification of possible implications for a waste management strategy for Germany, derived from the results of the comparative evaluation and the examination of the reasonings and argumentation used in the various countries. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Data Integration for Health and Stress Monitoring: Biological Metabolites, Wearables Data, and Self-Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jocelyn T.

    Integrative and unobtrusive approaches to monitoring health and stress can assist in preventative medicine and disease management, and provide capabilities for complex work environments, such as military deployments and long-duration human space exploration missions. With many data streams that could potentially provide critical information about the health, behavior, and psychosocial states of individuals or small groups, the central question of this research is how to reliably measure health and stress states over time. This integrative approach to health and stress monitoring has implemented biological metabolite profiling, wearables data analysis, and survey assessment for comparing biological, behavioral, and psychological perspectives. Health monitoring technologies aim to provide objective data about health status. Providing objective information can help mitigate biases or blind spots in an individual's perception. Consider an individual who is unwilling to openly admit to psychosocial distress and unhealthy habits, or an individual who has habituated to long-term stressors and is unable to recognize a chronic state of high stress. Both honesty and self-awareness are required for accurate self-reporting. Digital health technologies, such as wearable devices, provide objective data for health monitoring. Compared to surveys, wearables are less influenced by participant openness, and compared to biological samples, wearables require less equipment and less labor for analysis. However, inherent to every data stream are limitations due to uncertainty and sensitivity. This research has been conducted in collaboration with Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS), which is a Mars analog research site on the slopes on Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii. During 8-month and 12-month HI-SEAS missions in the 2014-2016 timeframe, twelve individuals provided hair and urine samples for metabolite profiling, utilized consumer-grade wearables to monitor sleep and

  16. Fasciatherapy and Reflexology compared to Hypnosis and Music Therapy in Daily Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payrau, Bernard; Quere, Nadine; Breton, Elisabeth; Payrau, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Patients suffering from stress symptoms due to every-day life who are looking for a non-pharmacological response to their relief expectation are many. Furthermore, early reckoning of the day-to-day stress which may lead to clinical diagnosis is the best way of preventing the stress-related diseases. Among the many alternative medicinal options, there is little evidence that fasciatherapy (Fs) and reflexology (Rf) are effective in this field. assess incidence of fasciatherapy Danis Bois Method (DBM) and of reflexology on patients' stress level in everyday-life, and provide a more informed choice among the numerous mind and body techniques by comparing them with hypnosis (Hp) and music therapy (Mt). Specialized Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) centres for outpatients. 308 individuals (average age = 50.53 SD 14.37, 93 males, 215 females) going to the centres for health care, but free from serious diseases and not heavily medicated respecting the inclusion criteria and providing valid forms. Four armed, non-randomized observational pragmatic trial with pretest-posttest repeated measures, on separate samples of natural groups. According to the centre participants where they used to be treated, they were exposed to a single semi-standardized session of a technique of their choice: Fs, Rf, Hp, Mt. Volunteers had a controlled non-intervention resting (Rt) session. Mean STAI-Y assessing anxiety as reflecting the stress level: MANCOVA and ANCOVA performed with Tukey's HSD. MANCOVA indicates a significant reduction of anxiety ( p stress level in T0 (41.73) and on the mean sumscore of the trait (44.89), Fs (-13.92), Rf (-15.92), and Hp (-15.88) were equally effective on the stress level decrease. Mt (-10.0) and Rt (-6.38) showed the same level of effectiveness. The results suggest fasciatherapy DBM, hypnosis, and reflexology could be used as non-pharmacological and safe interventions in stress management. Though showing a lesser efficiency, music therapy could be

  17. 2004/2008 labour market information comparative analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The electricity sector has entered into a phase of both challenges and opportunities. Challenges include workforce retirement, labour shortages, and increased competition from other employers to attract and retain the skilled people required to deliver on the increasing demand for electricity in Canada. The electricity sector in Canada is also moving into a new phase, whereby much of the existing infrastructure is either due for significant upgrades, or complete replacement. The increasing demand for electricity means that increased investment and capital expenditure will need to be put toward building new infrastructure altogether. The opportunities for the electricity industry will lie in its ability to effectively and efficiently react to these challenges. The purpose of this report was to provide employers and stakeholders in the sector with relevant and current trend data to help them make appropriate policy and human resource decisions. The report presented a comparative analysis of a 2004 Canadian Electricity Association employer survey with a 2008 Electricity Sector Council employer survey. The comparative analysis highlighted trends and changes that emerged between the 2004 and 2008 studies. Specific topics that were addressed included overall employment trends; employment diversity in the sector; age of non-support staff; recruitment; and retirements and pension eligibility. Recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that the electricity sector could benefit greatly from implementing on-going recruitment campaigns. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Land in China: Re-considering comparability in financial reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper re-considers the notion of ‘comparability’ as it has been applied to the accounting standardharmonisation project and its implications for accounting practices that are emerging in China.Comparability is a concept that has been widely referred to within the accounting literature, but has remainedlargely unexplored. In order to encourage what Zeff (2007 described as “genuine comparability” we arguethat the underlying economic substance of an event should be the focus of our accounting choices in order toenable appropriate comparisons. If we focus too heavily on regulatory standardisation that prescribescomparable techniques without considering the broader economic context in which these are applied, theaccounting representations could mislead users. The techniques may distort representations of theunderlying economic substance of business activities, which would hinder the level of a genuinecomparability in global financial reporting. In order to explore this, given the unique legal status of land inChina, we consider how it is classified and represented in Chinese financial reports. This example shows thatthere are still significant challenges that need to be overcome in order to implement IFRS in China and thereare still substantial comparability problems for cross-border users.

  19. Morning Cortisol Levels and Perceived Stress in Irregular Shift Workers Compared with Regular Daytime Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24/7 work environment and irregular shifts may markedly enhance the psychological pressure of media work. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reflect adaptation to stress. We analysed the correlation between subjective stress, sleep, salivary cortisol, and melatonin hormones among Finnish media workers with regular daytime work (RDW and with irregular shift work (ISW while controlling confounders. From 874 employees with regular daytime work or with irregular shift work, 70 employees from both groups were randomly selected. The final number of employees with a complete salivary cortisol profile was 66 in the RDW group and 65 in the ISW group. Five saliva samples were gathered from each subject before and during a working day. The salivary cortisol level of the sample taken 60 minutes after awakening (T1 was compared to the salivary cortisol level taken immediately after awakening (T0, T1/T0 ratio. The ratio was higher in the ISW group than in RDW group. Irregular shift work (P<0.001, severe stress (P<0.05, and less sleep (P<0.05 were independently associated with an augmented cortisol response after awakening. A stressful work environment and irregular shift work enhance cortisol excretion after waking. In the long run, this may become detrimental to health.

  20. Wall stress on ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms with bicuspid compared with tricuspid aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yue; Wang, Zhongjie; Liu, Raymond; Haraldsson, Henrik; Hope, Michael D; Saloner, David A; Guccione, Julius M; Ge, Liang; Tseng, Elaine

    2018-03-08

    Guidelines for repair of bicuspid aortic valve-associated ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms have been changing, most recently to the same criteria as tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms. Rupture/dissection occurs when wall stress exceeds wall strength. Recent studies suggest similar strength of bicuspid aortic valve versus tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms; thus, comparative wall stress may better predict dissection in bicuspid aortic valve versus tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms. Our aim was to determine whether bicuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms had higher wall stresses than their tricuspid aortic valve counterparts. Patients with bicuspid aortic valve- and tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (bicuspid aortic valve = 17, tricuspid aortic valve = 19) greater than 4.5 cm underwent electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography angiography. Patient-specific 3-dimensional geometry was reconstructed and loaded to systemic pressure after accounting for prestress geometry. Finite element analyses were performed using the LS-DYNA solver (LSTC Inc, Livermore, Calif) with user-defined fiber-embedded material model to determine ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm wall stress. Bicuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms 99th-percentile longitudinal stresses were 280 kPa versus 242 kPa (P = .028) for tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms in systole. These stresses did not correlate to diameter for bicuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (r = -0.004) but had better correlation to tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms diameter (r = 0.677). Longitudinal stresses on sinotubular junction were significantly higher in bicuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms than in tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (405 vs 329 kPa, P = .023). Bicuspid

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis provides new insights into cadmium accumulation in rice grain under cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Dawei, E-mail: dwxue@hznu.edu.cn [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Jiang, Hua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Deng, Xiangxiong; Zhang, Xiaoqin [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Wang, Hua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Xu, Xiangbin [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Hu, Jiang; Zeng, Dali [State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Guo, Longbiao, E-mail: guolongbiao@caas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Qian, Qian, E-mail: qianqian188@hotmail.com [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cd is the most toxic heavy metal and is a major pollutant in rice grains. • The mechanism of Cd accumulation in rice grains has not been well demonstrated. • Proteomics analysis is carried out and the verification is implemented by QPCR. • Proteins associated with ROS and photosynthesis showed large variation in expression. - Abstract: Rice is one of the most important staple crops. During the growth season, rice plants are inevitably subjected to numerous stresses, among which heavy metal stress represented by cadmium contamination not only hindering the yield of rice but also affecting the food safety by Cd accumulating in rice grains. The mechanism of Cd accumulation in rice grains has not been well elucidated. In this study, we compare the proteomic difference between two genotypes with different Cd accumulation ability in grains. Verification of differentially expressed protein-encoding genes was analyzing by quantitative PCR (QPCR) and reanalysis of microarray expression data. Forty-seven proteins in total were successfully identified through proteomic screening. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed Cd accumulation triggered stress-related pathways in the cells, and strongly affecting metabolic pathways. Many proteins associated with nutrient reservoir and starch-related enzyme were identified in this study suggesting that a considerably damage on grain quality was caused. The results also implied stress response was initiated by the abnormal cells and the transmission of signals may mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our research will provide new insights into Cd accumulation in rice grain under Cd stress.

  2. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Pinellia ternata Leaves Exposed to Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoyi Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pinellia ternata is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant. The growth of P. ternata is sensitive to high temperatures. To gain a better understanding of heat stress responses in P. ternata, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis. P. ternata seedlings were subjected to a temperature of 38 °C and samples were collected 24 h after treatment. Increased relative ion leakage and lipid peroxidation suggested that oxidative stress was frequently generated in rice leaves exposed to high temperature. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE was used to analyze heat-responsive proteins. More than 600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel; of these spots, 20 were up-regulated, and 7 were down-regulated. A total of 24 proteins and protein species were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins and protein species were found to be primarily small heat shock proteins (58% as well as proteins involved in RNA processing (17%, photosynthesis (13%, chlorophyll biosynthetic processes (4%, protein degradation (4% and defense (4%. Using 2-DE Western blot analysis, we confirmed the identities of the cytosolic class II small heat shock protein (sHSPs-CII identified by MS. The expression levels of four different proteins [cytosolic class I small heat shock protein (sHSPs-CI, sHSPs-CII, mitochondrial small heat shock protein (sHSPs-MIT, glycine-rich RNA-binding protein (GRP] were analyzed at the transcriptional level by quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of three sHSPs correlated with the corresponding protein levels. However, GRP was down-regulated at the beginning of heat stress but then increased substantially to reach a peak after 24 h of heat stress. Our study provides valuable new insight into the responses of P. ternata to heat stress.

  3. E-cigarette aerosols induce lower oxidative stress in vitro when compared to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark; Carr, Tony; Oke, Oluwatobiloba; Jaunky, Tomasz; Breheny, Damien; Lowe, Frazer; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for various diseases. The underlying cellular mechanisms are not fully characterized, but include oxidative stress, apoptosis, and necrosis. Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have emerged as an alternative to and a possible means to reduce harm from tobacco smoking. E-cigarette vapor contains significantly lower levels of toxicants than cigarette smoke, but standardized methods to assess cellular responses to exposure are not well established. We investigated whether an in vitro model of the airway epithelium (human bronchial epithelial cells) and commercially available assays could differentiate cellular stress responses to aqueous aerosol extracts (AqE) generated from cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols. After exposure to AqE concentrations of 0.063-0.500 puffs/mL, we measured the intracellular glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG), intracellular generation of oxidant species, and activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-controlled antioxidant response elements (ARE) to characterize oxidative stress. Apoptotic and necrotic responses were characterized by increases in caspase 3/7 activity and reductions in viable cell protease activities. Concentration-dependent responses indicative of oxidative stress were obtained for all endpoints following exposure to cigarette smoke AqE: intracellular generation of oxidant species increased by up to 83%, GSH:GSSG reduced by 98.6% and transcriptional activation of ARE increased by up to 335%. Caspase 3/7 activity was increased by up to 37% and the viable cell population declined by up to 76%. No cellular stress responses were detected following exposure to e-cigarette AqE. The methods used were suitably sensitive to be employed for comparative studies of tobacco and nicotine products.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Common Savannahgrass on a Range of Soils Subjected to Different Stresses I: Productivity and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Springer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrass growth, performance and quality are affected by abiotic stress factors and are of primary concern for persons managing turfgrass areas under seasonal tropical climates. Under these conditions, common Savannahgrass (SG may have a performance advantage over imported hybrid turfgrasses. A greenhouse study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the performance of tropical turfgrasses exposed to water and compaction related stresses across a range of soils, with or without the addition of a surface sand layer. Turfgrass productivity and quality was monitored over a four-month growth period. Clipping yield (CY was lower at the higher compaction effort for all turfgrasses, but across all stresses, drought (D and waterlogging (WL resulted in lower CY. Values were significantly lower under D. SG had the highest clipping yield across all soils. The chlorophyll index (CI was lower for all turfgrasses under water-induced stress compared to compaction stresses. SG had a significantly higher CI across all stress treatments. Correlation analysis showed a positive (r² = 0.420 and significant (p < 0.05 relationship between CY and CI. Similar to CI, stress type influenced turfgrass visual quality (VQ, with D stress, resulting in the lowest VQ rating among turfgrasses. Bermudagrass (BG had the lowest VQ across all stress treatments, whilst, comparatively, Zoysiagrass (ZG had significantly higher VQ under high compaction (HC, low compaction (LC and WL stress. Overall, SG showed a higher level of tolerance to applied stresses and warrants greater attention as a potential turfgrass under tropical conditions.

  5. Relationship between Self-Reported Health and Stress in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Sejunaite, Karolina; Osborne, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study explore the relationship between various forms of experienced stress (general stress and parenting stress) and both health-related quality of life (QoL) and reported physical health symptoms. One hundred and twenty-two mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder responded to an online survey included questionnaires on…

  6. Comparative evaluation of preventive measures against primary side stress corrosion cracking of mill annealed Inconel 600 steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, G.; Hernalsteen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Significant amounts of primary side cracking have been reported in the mechanically expanded area of the tubes of PWR steam generators in Europe, in Japan and to a lesser extent in the USA. The Belgian utilities are faced with the same problem. At Doel 2, where the tubes are rolled for only a part of the tubesheet, primary side cracking appeared in the roll transition. The Doel 3 and Tihange 2 steam generators, whose tubes are expanded for the full depth of the tube sheet, have experienced cracking after about 10 000 h of operation not only in the roll transition but also at roll overlaps. While some leaks and eddy current indications are associated with tubesheet or rolling anomalies, many of them are found on normal tubes. A programme was launched by the Belgian utilities and was further co-sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to develop preventive actions applicable not only to hot steam generators but also to cold steam generators already installed on site. These preventive measures include stress relaxation and metallurgical improvement of the material by an in situ heat treatment of the whole tube sheet (a steam generator model was used to evaluate the feasibility of this treatment), and the introduction of residual compressive stresses on ID by rotopeening or shotpeening without inducing unacceptable tensile stresses on OD. A comparative evaluation of these measures was established on the basis of tests performed on representative mock-ups and specimens. (author)

  7. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  8. Role stress among first-line nurse managers and registered nurses - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gunilla; Sandahl, Christer; Hasson, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Studies show that first-line nurse managers (F-LNMs) experience high psychological job demands and inadequate managerial guidance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether F-LNMs have higher stress levels and show more signs of stress-related ill health than registered nurses (RNs). The aim of this study was to examine possible differences in self-rated health between F-LNMs and RNs on various psychosocial factors (e.g. job demand, job control and managerial support). Data were collected at a university hospital in Sweden. Sixty-four F-LNMs and 908 RNs filled in a web-based questionnaire. Both F-LNMs and RNs reported having good health. Approximately 10-15% of the F-LNMs and RNs showed signs of being at risk for stress-related ill health. Statistically significant differences (Mann-Whitney U-test) were found in the distribution between the F-LNMs and the RNs on three indices of job control, job demand and managerial support. Our findings suggest that F-LNMs were able to cope with high-demand job situations because of relatively high control over work. The implication for nursing management shows the needs for a work environment for both F-LNMs and RNs that includes high job control and good managerial support. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Religiousness and Stress among College Students: A Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Walter E.; King, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Examined how current religious preference, attendance at religious services, importance of religion, and Christian rebirth were related to perceived stress among college students (N=195) in a communitywide survey. Found no association between any of the religiousness variables and perceived stress. (Author/ABL)

  10. Special Teacher Stress: Its Product and Prevention. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, Robert H.; Fones, Donald M.

    1985-01-01

    Findings from a study involving 60 special education teachers examine characteristics of 20 Ss who scored highest and 20 who scored lowest on both job stress and life stress measures. Teachers are urged to begin relaxation training, exercise, emphasize positive attitudes, and maintain adequate diets. (CL)

  11. Post-traumatic stress disorder: Case report | Nyamai | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following exposure to a major traumatic event like the August seventh 1998 Nairobi bomb blast various reactions occur, some of which result in stress-related psychiatric disorders. We have described one such case, and used it to illustrate the salient features of posttraumatic stress disorder. We have outlined the diagnostic ...

  12. Stress and stressors in the clinical environment: a comparative study of fourth-year student nurses and newly qualified general nurses in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Patricia; Matthews, Anne; Coyne, Imelda

    2013-03-01

    To measure and compare the perceived levels of job-related stress and stressors of newly qualified nurses and fourth-year student nurses in the clinical environment and to explore the participants' views on stress and stressors. Stress in the nursing workplace has significant consequences for the person, the patient and the organisation, such as psychological and physical health deterioration and impaired professional practice. To address this problem, stress and stressors need to be measured and identified. This study used a cross-sectional survey design and self-reporting questionnaires to measure and compare levels of stress in both groups. Convenience sampling involved all newly qualified nurses (n = 120) and fourth-year student nurses (n = 128) in Dublin North-East region in Ireland. The instrument used was 'The Nursing Stress Scale' (Gray-Toft & Anderson 1981, Journal of Behavioral Assessment 3, 11-23). Descriptive, qualitative analysis was conducted on an open-ended question. Data were obtained from newly qualified nurses (n = 31) and fourth-year student nurses (n = 40) in six acute hospital sites. Levels of perceived stress and stressors were high in both groups. Themes identified from the responses to the open question by both groups included excessive workload, difficult working relationships and unmet clinical learning needs. Student nurses also reported the combination of academic demands with clinical placement as a major stressor. There was no significant difference between each group. Stress continues to be a problem for nurses in the clinical setting. Excessive workload requires urgent attention by hospital managers in view of widespread retention difficulties. Themes identified could provide a framework for possible interventions for improving the clinical environment for nurses. These results can help stakeholders in nurse education and practice to develop interventions to reduce stress for both groups and to ease the transition from student to

  13. Associations Between Stressful Events and Self-Reported Mental Health Problems Among Non-Western Immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singhammer, John; Bancila, Delia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the relationships of stressful events with self-reported mental health problems in the general population, comparing non-western immigrants with Danish nationals. 11.500 individuals aged 18-64 years from eight ethnic groups were invited to participat...

  14. Comparative effects of curcumin and an analog of curcumin on alcohol and PUFA induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukkumani, Rajagopalan; Aruna, Kode; Varma, Penumathsa Suresh; Rajasekaran, Kallikat Narayanan; Menon, Venugopal Padmanabhan

    2004-08-20

    Alcoholic liver disease is a major medical complication of alcohol abuse and a common liver disease in western countries. Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress plays an important etiologic role in the development of alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol alone or in combination with high fat is known to cause oxidative injury. The present study therefore aims at evaluating the protective role of curcumin, an active principle of turmeric and a synthetic analog of curcumin (CA) on alcohol and thermally oxidised sunflower oil (DeltaPUFA) induced oxidative stress. Male albino Wistar rats were used for the experimental study. The liver marker enzymes: gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the lipid peroxidative indices: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HP) and antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were used as biomarkers for testing the antioxidant potential of the drugs. The liver marker enzymes and lipid peroxidative indices were increased significantly in alcohol, DeltaPUFA and alcohol + DeltaPUFA groups. Administration of curcumin and CA abrograted this effect. The antioxidant status which was decreased in alcohol, DeltaPUFA and alcohol + DeltaPUFA groups was effectively modulated by both curcumin and CA treatment. However, the reduction in oxidative stress was more pronounced in CA treatment groups compared to curcumin. In conclusion, these observations show that CA exerts its protective effect by decreasing the lipid peroxidation and improving antioxidant status, thus proving itself as an effective antioxidant.

  15. Groundwater development stress: Global-scale indices compared to regional modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William; Clark, Brian R.; Ely, Matt; Faunt, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The increased availability of global datasets and technologies such as global hydrologic models and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have resulted in a growing number of global-scale assessments of water availability using simple indices of water stress. Developed initially for surface water, such indices are increasingly used to evaluate global groundwater resources. We compare indices of groundwater development stress for three major agricultural areas of the United States to information available from regional water budgets developed from detailed groundwater modeling. These comparisons illustrate the potential value of regional-scale analyses to supplement global hydrological models and GRACE analyses of groundwater depletion. Regional-scale analyses allow assessments of water stress that better account for scale effects, the dynamics of groundwater flow systems, the complexities of irrigated agricultural systems, and the laws, regulations, engineering, and socioeconomic factors that govern groundwater use. Strategic use of regional-scale models with global-scale analyses would greatly enhance knowledge of the global groundwater depletion problem.

  16. Proteomic and comparative genomic analysis reveals adaptability of Brassica napus to phosphorus-deficient stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuisen; Ding, Guangda; Wang, Zhenhua; Cai, Hongmei; Xu, Fangsen

    2015-03-18

    Given low solubility and immobility in many soils of the world, phosphorus (P) may be the most widely studied macronutrient for plants. In an attempt to gain an insight into the adaptability of Brassica napus to P deficiency, proteome alterations of roots and leaves in two B. napus contrasting genotypes, P-efficient 'Eyou Changjia' and P-inefficient 'B104-2', under long-term low P stress and short-term P-free starvation conditions were investigated, and proteomic combined with comparative genomic analyses were conducted to interpret the interrelation of differential abundance protein species (DAPs) responding to P deficiency with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for P deficiency tolerance. P-efficient 'Eyou Changjia' had higher dry weight and P content, and showed high tolerance to low P stress compared with P-inefficient 'B104-2'. A total of 146 DAPs were successfully identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS, which were categorized into several groups including defense and stress response, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, signaling and regulation, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, protein process, biogenesis and cellular component, and function unknown. 94 of 146 DAPs were mapped to a linkage map constructed by a B. napus population derived from a cross between the two genotypes, and 72 DAPs were located in the confidence intervals of QTLs for P efficiency related traits. We conclude that the identification of these DAPs and the co-location of DAPs with QTLs in the B. napus linkage genetic map provide us novel information in understanding the adaptability of B. napus to P deficiency, and helpful to isolate P-efficient genes in B. napus. Low P seriously limits the production and quality of B. napus. Proteomics and genetic linkage map were widely used to study the adaptive strategies of B. napus response to P deficiency, proteomic combined with comparative genetic analysis to investigate the correlations between DAPs and QTLs are scarce. Thus, we herein investigated

  17. NMDA receptor modulation by dextromethorphan and acute stress selectively alters electroencephalographic indicators of partial report processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckesser, Lisa J; Enge, Sören; Riedel, Philipp; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Proceeding from a biophysical network model, the present study hypothesized that glutamatergic neurotransmission across the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) plays a key role in visual perception and its modulation by acute stress. To investigate these hypotheses, behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) indicators of partial report task processing were assessed in twenty-four healthy young men who randomly received a non-competitive NMDAR antagonist (0.8 mg/kg dextromethorphan, DXM) or a placebo, and concurrently accomplished a stress-induction (MAST) or control protocol in three consecutive sessions. Saliva samples served to quantify cortisol responses to the MAST, whereas a passive auditory oddball paradigm was implemented to verify the impact of DXM on the EEG-derived mismatch negativity component (MMN). DXM administration significantly increased MMN amplitudes but not salivary cortisol concentrations. By contrast, concurrent MAST exposure significantly reduced MMN latencies but also increased cortisol concentrations. With regard to EEG indicators, DXM administration reduced visually "evoked" (30Hz to 50Hz) and "induced" occipital gamma-band activity (70Hz to 100Hz), which was partly compensated by additional MAST exposure. However, neither the interventions nor EEG activity were significantly associated with behavioral partial report sensitivities. In summary, the present data suggest that glutamatergic neurotransmission across the NMDAR is only one among many determinants of intact visual perception. Accordingly, therapeutic doses of DXM and their inhibitory modulation by stress probably yield more pronounced electroencephalographic as compared with behavioural effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  18. Job-Related Stress in Forensic Interviewers of Children with Use of Therapy Dogs Compared with Facility Dogs or No Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Diane; Yamamoto, Mariko; Willits, Neil H; Hart, Lynette A

    2018-01-01

    Sexually abused children providing essential testimony regarding crimes in forensic interviews now sometimes are provided facility dogs or therapy dogs for comfort. Facility dogs are extensively trained to work with forensic interviewers; when using therapy dogs in interviews, volunteers are the dog handlers. Interviews can impact child welfare workers' mental health causing secondary traumatic stress (STS). To investigate this stress, first data were gathered on stress retrospectively for when interviewers initially started the job prior to working with a dog, and then currently, from forensic interviewers using a facility dog, a therapy or pet dog, or no dog. These retrospective and secondary traumatic stress scale (STSS) data compared job stress among interviewers of children using: a certified, workplace facility dog ( n  = 16), a volunteer's trained therapy dog or the interviewer's pet dog ( n  = 13/3), or no dog ( n  = 198). Retrospective scores of therapy dog and no dog interviewers' stress were highest for the first interviewing year 1 and then declined. Extremely or very stressful retrospective scores differed among the three groups in year 1 ( p  therapy dog group as compared with the facility dog group ( p  therapy dog users than no dog users ( p  dog users more consistently used dogs during interviews and conducted more interviews than therapy/pet dog users; both groups favored using dogs. Interviewers currently working with therapy dogs accompanied by their volunteers reported they had experienced heightened stress when they began their jobs; their high stress levels still persisted, indicating lower inherent coping skills and perhaps greater empathy among interviewers who later self-selected to work with therapy dogs. Results reveal extreme avoidant stress for interviewers witnessing children who are suffering and their differing coping approaches.

  19. Sport related stress fracture of the clavicle with non-union: Case report and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Demitri; Kastanos, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    Stress fractures are relatively uncommon sports injuries and when they do occur, are mostly found in the lower limb. Stress fractures of the clavicle are particularly rare, having been described in a number of non-sport related pathologies, such as nervous tics and post radical neck dissection. In sport, there have only been seven cases reported in the literature. We report on a clavicle stress fracture in a 47-year-old male, partaking in recreational weight lifting activities. This is the first reported case of a non-union stress fracture of the clavicle. The patient underwent an open reduction and internal fixation and made a full recovery. PMID:21264151

  20. Comparing parents' and overweight adolescents' reports on parent mealtime actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Carolina Bertagnoli; Petty, Maria Luiza Blanques; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Escrivão, Maria Arlete Meil Schimith

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare answers given by parents and their adolescent children to the Portuguese version of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale (PMAS) and to assess associations among the reported behaviors. To compare these answers, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 72 patients of the Obesity Clinic of the Division of Nutrology of the Pediatrics Department at the Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), Brazil. These patients were aged from 10 years to 19 years and 11 months, and their parents or legal guardians also participated. First, parents were interviewed and instructed to answer how often they perform each behavior measured by the PMAS (never, sometimes or always). Next, the same questions were answered by the adolescents. The general linear model (GLM) showed the effects of the interviewees and of the interaction between interviewees and sex. We also observed a triple interaction effect (sex x interviewees x categorized age). The internal reliability of the PMAS was higher for parental answers than for those given by the children. This finding is probably observed because the scale has been developed and validated to evaluate the pattern of parental responses concerning their eating practices during their children's meals. In addition, although parents believe they are engaging in certain behaviors, the effectiveness of these strategies may not be recognized by their children. Very low intraclass correlation coefficients were observed between parents' and children's answers to the original domains of the PMAS (ICC: 0.130-0.578), suggesting that the factorial structure of the PMAS may only be used to assess parental behavior, as it is not sufficiently accurate to assess the children's understanding of parent mealtime actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasound-Diagnosed Tibia Stress Fracture: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako, Adae; Abid, Ayesha; Shadiack, Anthony; Monaco, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Stress fractures are a frequent cause of lower extremity pain in athletes, and especially in runners. Plain imaging has a low sensitivity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or bone scan scintigraphy is the criterion standard, but expensive. We present the case of a young female distance runner with left shin pain. Plain radiography was unremarkable. Ultrasound showed focal hyperechoic elevation of the periosteum with irregularity over the distal tibia and increased flow on Doppler. These findings were consistent with a distal tibia stress fracture and confirmed by MRI. Examination of our case will highlight the utility of considering an ultrasound for diagnosis of tibial stress fracture.

  2. Ultrasound-Diagnosed Tibia Stress Fracture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adae Amoako

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress fractures are a frequent cause of lower extremity pain in athletes, and especially in runners. Plain imaging has a low sensitivity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or bone scan scintigraphy is the criterion standard, but expensive. We present the case of a young female distance runner with left shin pain. Plain radiography was unremarkable. Ultrasound showed focal hyperechoic elevation of the periosteum with irregularity over the distal tibia and increased flow on Doppler. These findings were consistent with a distal tibia stress fracture and confirmed by MRI. Examination of our case will highlight the utility of considering an ultrasound for diagnosis of tibial stress fracture.

  3. Physiotherapy students' perceived stress, stressors, and reactions to stressors : a comparative study between Sweden and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, Audy-Paul; Hemdal, Elin; Lundberg, Sophie; Bjarnegård, Anna; Hobbelen, Hans; Svantesson, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies of healthcare students report increased levels of stress, with academic pressures being the greatest source. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in the overall stress level, stressors, and reactions to stressors between physiotherapy students at

  4. Increased risk of coronary heart disease among individuals reporting adverse impact of stress on their health: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Hermann; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G David; Shipley, Martin J; Britton, Annie; Brunner, Eric J; Vahtera, Jussi; Lemogne, Cédric; Elbaz, Alexis; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2013-09-01

    Response to stress can vary greatly between individuals. However, it remains unknown whether perceived impact of stress on health is associated with adverse health outcomes. We examined whether individuals who report that stress adversely affects their health are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared with those who report that stress has no adverse health impact. Analyses are based on 7268 men and women (mean age: 49.5 years, interquartile range: 11 years) from the British Whitehall II cohort study. Over 18 years of follow-up, there were 352 coronary deaths or first non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) events. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, participants who reported at baseline that stress has affected their health 'a lot or extremely' had a 2.12 times higher (95% CI 1.52-2.98) risk of coronary death or incident non-fatal MI when compared with those who reported no effect of stress on their health. This association was attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjustment for biological, behavioural, and other psychological risk factors including perceived stress levels, and measures of social support; fully adjusted hazard ratio: 1.49 (95% CI 1.01-2.22). In this prospective cohort study, the perception that stress affects health, different from perceived stress levels, was associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether disease risk can be reduced by increasing clinical attention to those who complain that stress greatly affects their health.

  5. A Randomized Comparative Study Evaluating Various Cough Stress Tests and 24-Hour Pad Test with Urodynamics in the Diagnosis of Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joseph W; Kane, Sarah M; Mangel, Jeffrey M; Kikano, Elias G; Garibay, Jorge A; Pollard, Robert R; Mahajan, Sangeeta T; Debanne, Sara M; Hijaz, Adonis K

    2018-06-01

    The cough stress test is a common and accepted tool to evaluate stress urinary incontinence but there is no agreement on how the test should be performed. We assessed the diagnostic ability of different cough stress tests performed when varying patient position and bladder volume using urodynamic stress urinary incontinence as the gold standard. The 24-hour pad test was also evaluated. We recruited women who presented to specialty outpatient clinics with the complaint of urinary incontinence and who were recommended to undergo urodynamic testing. A total of 140 patients were randomized to 4 cough stress test groups, including group 1-a comfortably full bladder, group 2-an empty bladder, group 3- a bladder infused with 200 cc saline and group 4-a bladder filled to half functional capacity. The sequence of standing and sitting was randomly assigned. The groups were compared by 1-way ANOVA or the generalized Fisher exact test. The κ statistic was used to evaluate agreement between the sitting and standing positions. The 95% CIs of sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the Wilson method. ROC analysis was done to evaluate the performance of the 24-hour pad test. The cough stress test performed with a bladder filled to half functional capacity was the best performing test with 83% sensitivity and 90% specificity. There was no statistically significant evidence that the sensitivity or specificity of 1 cough stress test differed from that of the others. The pad test had no significant predictive ability to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence (AUC 0.60, p = 0.08). Cough stress tests were accurate to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence. The 24-hour pad test was not predictive of urodynamic stress urinary incontinence and not helpful when used in conjunction with the cough stress test. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hair cortisol and self-reported stress in healthy, working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlow, Christopher J; Randall, Jason; Gillman, Jamie; Silk, Steven; Jones, Marc V

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress can be important in the pathology of chronic disease. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are proposed to reflect long term cortisol secretion from exposure to stress. To date, inconsistencies in the relationship between HCC and self-reported stress have been attributed to variation and limitations of perceived stress measurement. We report data from employees of two large public sector worksites (n=132). Socio-demographic, health, lifestyle, perceived stress scale (PSS), and work-related effort reward imbalance (ERI) were collected at baseline. Participants were asked to respond to mobile text messages every two days, asking them to report current stress levels (Ecological momentary assessment, EMA), and mean stress was determined overall, during work hours, and out of work hours. At 12 weeks, the appraisal of stressful life events scale (ALES) was completed and 3 cm scalp hair samples were taken, from which HCC was determined (to reflect cortisol secretion over the past 12 weeks). Mean response rate to EMA was 81.9 ± 14.9%. Associations between HCC and the various self-reported stress measures (adjusted for use of hair dye) were weak (allwork hours (ρ=.196, p=.013) and ALES Loss subscale (ρ=.241, p=.003), and two individual items from ERI (relating to future work situation). In regression analysis adjusting for other possible confounders, only the HCC-ALES Loss association remained significant (p=.011). Overall, our study confirms that EMA provides a useful measurement tool that can gather perceived stress measures in real-time. But, there was no relationship between self-reported stress collected in this way, and HCC. The modest association between HCC and stress appraisal does however, provide some evidence for the role of cognitive processes in chronic stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Comparative Study Between Strain And Stress Based Forming Limit Analysis By Applying Several Phenomenological Yield Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butuc, Marilena C.; Vincze, Gabriela T.; Gracio, Jose J.; Barata da Rocha, A.

    2005-01-01

    The present work aims at analyzing a comparative study between the strain-based forming limit criterion (FLD) and the stress-based forming limit criterion (FLSD), under linear and complex strain paths. The selected material is an AA5182-0 aluminium alloy. Some relevant remarks about stress-based forming limit criterion concept are presented

  8. Final Report: Characterization of Canister Mockup Weld Residual Stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of interim storage containers has been indicated as a high priority data gap by the Department of Energy (DOE) (Hanson et al., 2012), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI, 2011), the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board (NWTRB, 2010a), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 2012a, 2012b). Uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that prevail on the surface of the storage containers, the stress state within the container walls associated both with weldments as well as within the base metal itself, and the electrochemical properties of the storage containers themselves. The goal of the work described in this document is to determine the stress states that exists at various locations within a typical storage canister by evaluating the properties of a full-diameter cylindrical mockup of an interim storage canister. This mockup has been produced using the same manufacturing procedures as the majority of the fielded spent nuclear fuel interim storage canisters. This document describes the design and procurement of the mockup and the characterization of the stress state associated with various portions of the container. It also describes the cutting of the mockup into sections for further analyses, and a discussion of the potential impact of the results from the stress characterization effort.

  9. Final Report: Characterization of Canister Mockup Weld Residual Stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of interim storage containers has been indicated as a high priority data gap by the Department of Energy (DOE) (Hanson et al., 2012), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI, 2011), the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board (NWTRB, 2010a), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 2012a, 2012b). Uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that prevail on the surface of the storage containers, the stress state within the container walls associated both with weldments as well as within the base metal itself, and the electrochemical properties of the storage containers themselves. The goal of the work described in this document is to determine the stress states that exists at various locations within a typical storage canister by evaluating the properties of a full-diameter cylindrical mockup of an interim storage canister. This mockup has been produced using the same manufacturing procedures as the majority of the fielded spent nuclear fuel interim storage canisters. This document describes the design and procurement of the mockup and the characterization of the stress state associated with various portions of the container. It also describes the cutting of the mockup into sections for further analyses, and a discussion of the potential impact of the results from the stress characterization effort.

  10. Chondromalacia of trochlear notch after healing of olecranon stress fracture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Chang; Chen, Shen-Kai; Wang, Chih-Wei; Chou, Pei-Hsi

    2006-05-01

    Chondromalacia of the trochlear notch and stress fracture of olecranon are uncommon injuries in the throwing athletes. We report an 18-year-old high school pitcher who had persistent postero-lateral elbow pain after a healed olecranon stress fracture of the right elbow. Diagnostic arthroscopy revealed chondromalacia of the trochlear notch. After treatment with arthroscopic drilling and abrasion chondroplasty, he returned to competitive pitching 1 year later postsurgery. This rare association between chondromalacia and stress fracture of the olecranon has not been reported previously in the literatures. Chondromalacia of the trochlear notch should be included as a differential diagnosis in evaluating athletes with persistent elbow pain after healed olecranon stress fractures.

  11. Job-Related Stress in Forensic Interviewers of Children with Use of Therapy Dogs Compared with Facility Dogs or No Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Diane; Yamamoto, Mariko; Willits, Neil H.; Hart, Lynette A.

    2018-01-01

    Sexually abused children providing essential testimony regarding crimes in forensic interviews now sometimes are provided facility dogs or therapy dogs for comfort. Facility dogs are extensively trained to work with forensic interviewers; when using therapy dogs in interviews, volunteers are the dog handlers. Interviews can impact child welfare workers’ mental health causing secondary traumatic stress (STS). To investigate this stress, first data were gathered on stress retrospectively for when interviewers initially started the job prior to working with a dog, and then currently, from forensic interviewers using a facility dog, a therapy or pet dog, or no dog. These retrospective and secondary traumatic stress scale (STSS) data compared job stress among interviewers of children using: a certified, workplace facility dog (n = 16), a volunteer’s trained therapy dog or the interviewer’s pet dog (n = 13/3), or no dog (n = 198). Retrospective scores of therapy dog and no dog interviewers’ stress were highest for the first interviewing year 1 and then declined. Extremely or very stressful retrospective scores differed among the three groups in year 1 (p pet dog users; both groups favored using dogs. Interviewers currently working with therapy dogs accompanied by their volunteers reported they had experienced heightened stress when they began their jobs; their high stress levels still persisted, indicating lower inherent coping skills and perhaps greater empathy among interviewers who later self-selected to work with therapy dogs. Results reveal extreme avoidant stress for interviewers witnessing children who are suffering and their differing coping approaches. PMID:29594160

  12. Comparative transcriptomics indicate changes in cell wall organization and stress response in seedlings during spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christina M; Subramanian, Aswati; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Correll, Melanie J; Kiss, John Z

    2017-08-21

    Plants will play an important role in the future of space exploration as part of bioregenerative life support. Thus, it is important to understand the effects of microgravity and spaceflight on gene expression in plant development. We analyzed the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana using the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware during Space Shuttle mission STS-131. The bioinformatics methods used included RMA (robust multi-array average), MAS5 (Microarray Suite 5.0), and PLIER (probe logarithmic intensity error estimation). Glycome profiling was used to analyze cell wall composition in the samples. In addition, our results were compared to those of two other groups using the same hardware on the same mission (BRIC-16). In our BRIC-16 experiments, we noted expression changes in genes involved in hypoxia and heat shock responses, DNA repair, and cell wall structure between spaceflight samples compared to the ground controls. In addition, glycome profiling supported our expression analyses in that there was a difference in cell wall components between ground control and spaceflight-grown plants. Comparing our studies to those of the other BRIC-16 experiments demonstrated that, even with the same hardware and similar biological materials, differences in results in gene expression were found among these spaceflight experiments. A common theme from our BRIC-16 space experiments and those of the other two groups was the downregulation of water stress response genes in spaceflight. In addition, all three studies found differential regulation of genes associated with cell wall remodeling and stress responses between spaceflight-grown and ground control plants. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Postpartum Sacral Stress Fracture: An Atypical Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Speziali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sacral stress fractures are common in elderly people. However, sacral stress fracture should be always screened in the differential diagnoses of low back pain during the postpartum period. We present a case of sacral fracture in a thirty-six-year-old woman with low back pain and severe right buttock pain two days after cesarean section delivery of a 3.9 Kg baby. The diagnosis was confirmed by MRI and CT scan, while X-ray was unable to detect the fracture. Contribution of mechanical factors during the cesarean section is not a reasonable cause of sacral fracture. Pregnancy and lactation could be risk factors for sacral stress fracture even in atraumatic delivery such as cesarean section. Our patient had no risk factors for osteoporosis except for pregnancy and lactation. Transient or focal osteoporosis is challenging to assess and it cannot be ruled out even if serum test and mineral density are within the normal range.

  14. Comparative Animal Research Laboratory. Progress report, 1974--1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for three sections of the report. The publication also includes an organizational chart, financial data, and a section on facilities construction and improvement. (HLW)

  15. Analytic model comparing the cost utility of TVT versus duloxetine in women with urinary stress incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Paul; Duckett, Jonathan; Renganathan, Arasee

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess cost utility of duloxetine versus tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) as a second-line treatment for urinary stress incontinence. A Markov model was used to compare the cost utility based on a 2-year follow-up period. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) estimation was performed by assuming a disutility rate of 0.05. Under base-case assumptions, although duloxetine was a cheaper option, TVT gave a considerably higher QALY gain. When a longer follow-up period was considered, TVT had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of pound 7,710 ($12,651) at 10 years. If the QALY gain from cure was 0.09, then the ICER for duloxetine and TVT would both fall within the indicative National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence willingness to pay threshold at 2 years, but TVT would be the cost-effective option having extended dominance over duloxetine. This model suggests that TVT is a cost-effective treatment for stress incontinence.

  16. Oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters in patients with major depressive disorder compared to healthy controls before and after antidepressant treatment: results from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Sara; Gurpegui, Manuel; Díaz-Atienza, Francisco; Pérez-Costillas, Lucía; Gerstenberg, Miriam; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in depression. We searched the literature without language restrictions through MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, Fisterra, and Galenicom from database inception until December 31, 2013, supplemented by a hand search of relevant articles. Search terms included (1) oxidative stress, antioxidant*, nitrosative stress, nitrative stress, nitro-oxidative stress, free radical*, and names of individual oxidative stress markers/antioxidants and (2) depression and related disorders and antidepressant. Included were studies in patients with depression comparing antioxidant or oxidative stress markers with those in healthy controls before and after antidepressant treatment. Two authors independently extracted the data for antioxidant or oxidative stress markers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) ± 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for results from ≥ 3 studies were calculated. Altogether, 29 studies (N = 3,961; patients with depression = 2,477, healthy controls = 1,484) reported on the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitrites, the antioxidants uric acid and zinc, or the antioxidant-enhancing enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). When patients with depression were compared with healthy controls, depression was associated with higher oxidative stress MDA levels (8 studies; n = 916; SMD = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.57 to 2.11; P Depression Rating Scale scores (24.6 ± 0.7 to 16.2 ± 1.6; SMD = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.13 to 4.15; P = .00065), reduced MDA (4 studies; n = 194; SMD = -1.45; 95% CI, -2.43 to -0.47; P = .004) and increased uric acid (3 studies; n = 212; SMD = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.03 to 1.49; P = .040) and zinc levels (3 studies; n = 65; SMD = 1.22; 95% CI, 0.40 to 2.04, P = .004), without differences in MDA (P = .60), uric acid (P = .10), and zinc (P = .163) levels compared to healthy controls. Results suggest that oxidative stress plays a role in depression

  17. POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: CASE REPORT C. M. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-04-04

    Apr 4, 2000 ... poor mental health when examined at six months and at one year ... the reader the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder .... interpersonal and social problems related to PTSD. ... of phobic avoidance and withdrawal associated with ... Cairns E. and Wilson R. The impact of political violence on mild.

  18. Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of sensitized stainless steels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, B.; Isaacs, H.S.; Weeks, J.R.

    1976-12-01

    A study was conducted of the intergranular stress corrosion cracking of materials used in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) aimed at developing an understanding of the mechanism(s) of this mode of failure and at developing tests to determine the susceptibility of a given material to this form of attack

  19. Computer Pure-Tone and Operator Stress: Report III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Caroline; Covert, Douglas C.

    Pure-tone sound at 15,750 Herz generated by flyback transformers in many computer and video display terminal (VDT) monitors has stress-related productivity effects in some operators, especially women. College-age women in a controlled experiment simulating half a normal work day showed responses within the first half hour of exposure to a tone…

  20. Drivers of self-reported heat stress in the Australian labour force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Kerstin K; Moss, Simon A; Garnett, Stephen T

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress causes reductions in well-being and health. As average annual temperatures increase, heat stress is expected to affect more people. While most research on heat stress has explored how exposure to heat affects functioning of the human organism, stress from heat can be manifest long before clinical symptoms are evident, with profound effects on behavior. Here we add to the little research conducted on these subclinical effects of environmental heat using results from an Australian-wide cross-sectional study of nearly 2000 respondents on their self-reported level of heat stress. Slightly less than half (47%) of the respondents perceived themselves as at least sometimes, often or very often stressed by heat during the previous 12 months. Health status and smoking behavior had the expected impact on self-reported perceived heat stress. There were also regional differences with people living in South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales most likely to have reported to have felt heat stressed. People generally worried about climate change, who had been influenced by recent heat waves and who thought there was a relationship between climate change and health were also more likely to have been heat stressed. Surprisingly average maximum temperatures did not significantly explain heat stress but stress was greater among people who perceived the day of the survey as hotter than usual. Currently heat stress indices are largely based on monitoring the environment and physical limitations to people coping with heat. Our results suggest that psychological perceptions of heat need to be considered when predicting how people will be affected by heat under climate change and when developing heat relief and climate change adaptation plans, at work, at home or in public spaces. We further conclude that the perception of temperature and heat stress complements measures that assess heat exposure and heat strain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bilateral Tibial Stress Fractures in a Young Man Associated with Idiopathic Osteoporosis - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Özyürek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress fractures are defined as a partial or complete fracture of bone due to an inability to endure a non-violent stress. Two factors have been proposed to explain the aetiology of stress fractures: muscle fatigue, and direct muscle action. We want to point to third factor with our case report: Osteoporosis. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2010;16:58-60

  2. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Erin S; Craighead, W Edward

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members' health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N = 119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members' health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative leaf proteomics of drought-tolerant and -susceptible peanut in response to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water stress (WS) predisposes peanut plants to fungal infection resulting in pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Major changes during water stress including oxidative stress, lead to destruction of photosynthetic apparatus and other macromolecules within cells. Two peanut cultivars with diverse dro...

  4. An empirical examination of self-reported work stress among U.S. managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, M A; Boswell, W R; Roehling, M V; Boudreau, J W

    2000-02-01

    This study proposes that self-reported work stress among U.S. managers is differentially related (positively and negatively) to work outcomes depending on the stressors that are being evaluated. Specific hypotheses were derived from this general proposition and tested using a sample of 1,886 U.S. managers and longitudinal data. Regression results indicate that challenge-related self-reported stress is positively related to job satisfaction and negatively related to job search. In contrast, hindrance-related self-reported stress is negatively related to job satisfaction and positively related to job search and turnover. Future research directions are discussed.

  5. Consumer response to a report card comparing healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Barbara L; Kind, Elizabeth A; Fowles, Jinnet B; Suarez, Walter G

    2002-06-01

    Report cards to date have focused on quality of care in health plans rather than within healthcare delivery systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate consumer response to the first healthcare system-level report card. Qualitative assessment of consumer response. We conducted 5 focus groups of community members to evaluate consumer response to the report card; 2 included community club members, 3 included community-dwelling retired persons. Discussions were audiotaped and transcribed; comments were categorized by topic area from the script, and common themes identified. Focus group participants, in general, were unaware of the current emphasis on medical quality improvement initiatives. However, they believed that the opinion that the descriptive clinic information and patient survey data contained in the report card would be most useful mainly for choosing a healthcare system if they were dissatisfied with current medical care, if their healthcare options changed, or if they were in poor health. Personal experience was considered a more trustworthy measure of healthcare quality than were patient survey results. Trustworthiness was perceived to be higher if the report card sponsor was not affiliated with the healthcare systems being evaluated. Participants also believed care system administrators should use the data to enact positive clinic-level and physician-level changes. Healthcare consumers appreciated the attention to patient experiences and supported healthcare quality improvement initiatives. Report cards were considered important for choosing a healthcare system in certain circumstances and for guiding quality improvement efforts at all levels.

  6. Comparative antistress effect of Vitis vinifera and Withania somnifera using unpredictable chronic mild stress model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Pal Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The human society has become complex. However, our physiological responses designed to cope with the ever-increasing adverse situations have not evolved appreciably during the past thousand years. The failure of successful adaptation during stressful situations has resulted in stress-related illnesses. Methods: The objective of the present study was to carry out a comparative assessment of anti-stress effect of Vitis vinifera and Withania somnifera using unpredictable chronic mild stress model in rats. Long-term exposure to multiple stressors can cause depression. The unpredictable chronic administration of various mild stresses, a procedure known as “unpredictable chronic mild stress”, is one of the best-validated rodent models to study stress in animals, for its good etiological and predictive validity. Result: Diazepam, Withania somnifera, Vitis vinifera administration dose dependently reversed the increase in immobility period in stressed rats. In the study of locomotion activity of rats in elevated plus maze apparatus, Stress treated control group rats showed less no of entries in open arm and also less time spent in open arm. Vitis vinifera treated (p<0.0001, Withania somnifera treated (p<0.0001 and Diazepam treated group showed (p<0.0001 no. of entries in open arms which were more than control group and stressed groups. Stressed group produce less average time spent in open arm as compared to treatment groups as Withania somnifera (p<0.05, Vitis vinifera and diazepam. Withania somnifera group showed significant antistress locomotry behaviour in rats. Administration of Vitis vinifera, Withania somnifera and diazepam during stress period restored the ambulatory behaviour of the rats which can be correlated with restoration of plasma corticosterone level. Finally, the results of the present study justified that Withania somnifera, Vitis vinifera and diazepam exhibited significant antistress activity in rats.

  7. Comparative metabolic responses and adaptive strategies of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to salt and alkali stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Yang, Zongze; Li, Feng; Yan, Changrong; Zhong, Xiuli; Liu, Qi; Xia, Xu; Li, Haoru; Zhao, Long

    2015-07-07

    It is well known that salinization (high-pH) has been considered as a major environmental threat to agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between salt stress and alkali stress in metabolic profiles and nutrient accumulation of wheat; these parameters were also evaluated to determine the physiological adaptive mechanisms by which wheat tolerates alkali stress. The harmful effect of alkali stress on the growth and photosynthesis of wheat were stronger than those of salt stress. High-pH of alkali stress induced the most of phosphate and metal ions to precipitate; as a result, the availability of nutrients significantly declined. Under alkali stress, Ca sharply increased in roots, however, it decreased under salt stress. In addition, we detected the 75 metabolites that were different among the treatments according to GC-MS analysis, including organic acids, amino acids, sugars/polyols and others. The metabolic data showed salt stress and alkali stress caused different metabolic shifts; alkali stress has a stronger injurious effect on the distribution and accumulation of metabolites than salt stress. These outcomes correspond to specific detrimental effects of a highly pH environment. Ca had a significant positive correlation with alkali tolerates, and increasing Ca concentration can immediately trigger SOS Na exclusion system and reduce the Na injury. Salt stress caused metabolic shifts toward gluconeogenesis with increased sugars to avoid osmotic stress; energy in roots and active synthesis in leaves were needed by wheat to develop salt tolerance. Alkali stress (at high pH) significantly inhibited photosynthetic rate; thus, sugar production was reduced, N metabolism was limited, amino acid production was reduced, and glycolysis was inhibited.

  8. TGI Monday?: Drug-Dependent Outpatients Report Lower Stress and More Happiness at Work than Elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2013-01-01

    In the general population, experience-sampling studies show that work is the aspect of daily life most associated with momentary unhappiness and a desire to be elsewhere. We assessed whether this holds true for urban outpatients in treatment for heroin and cocaine dependence. In a 25-week natural-history study, 79 employed methadone-maintained misusers of heroin and cocaine carried electronic diaries on which mood and behavior were assessed up to five times per day. Being at work was associated with lower stress, greater happiness, and lower drug craving. Work accounted for 14% of the variance in stress, 30% of the variance in happiness, and 50% of the variance in cocaine craving. Participants with skilled jobs reported more positive and less negative mood states (and lower cocaine craving) at all times compared to participants with semi/unskilled jobs, although the latter reported greater mood improvement at work. In all participants, mood improvements occurred specifically in the presence of coworkers (not other companions). Our seemingly unusual findings might be specific to substance-disorder patients (for whom work may be a respite from drug-using companions), but might also hold for other urban dwellers of similar socioeconomic backgrounds (for whom work may be a respite from environmental stressors). PMID:22494220

  9. Unusual longitudinal stress fractures of the femoral diaphysis: report of five cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Timsit, M.A.; Karneff, A.; Pertuiset, E.

    1999-01-01

    We present five cases of a distinctive type of longitudinal stress fracture of the upper femoral shaft in which the fracture line is parallel to the outer surface of the bone, in contrast to the perpendicular orientation to the cortical surface in previously reported cases of diaphyseal stress fractures. In two cases the fracture recurred after 15 and 18 months, respectively. (orig.)

  10. Final Report: Geothermal dual acoustic tool for measurement of rock stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy A. [Perma Works LLC, Pattonville, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  11. Final Report. Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy A [Perma Works LLC, Pattonville, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  12. BISPHOSPHONATE INDUCED STRESS FRACTURE OF BILATERAL FEMUR: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidapur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common problem affecting people after 4 - 5 decade of life. There are various treatment options available for Osteoporosis and Bisphosphonates are widely used. Bisphosphonates work by blocking osteoclast mediated bone resorption and can be given in oral and injectable forms. R ecent studies have brought to light the risk of sub trochanteric stress fracture secondary to bisphosphonate therapy. Here we are presenting a case with bilateral sub trochanteric fracture following prolonged bisphosphonate therapy

  13. Heat stress monitoring system. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program involves the need to decontaminate and decommission buildings expeditiously and cost-effectively. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. Often, D and D workers must perform duties in inclement weather, and because they also frequently work in contaminated areas, they must wear personal protective clothing and/or respirators. Monitoring the health status of workers under these conditions is an important component of ensuring their safety. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System's heat stress monitoring system (HSMS) is designed to monitor the vital signs of individual workers as they perform work in conditions that might be conducive to heat exhaustion or heat stress. The HSMS provides real-time data on the physiological condition of workers which can be monitored to prevent heat stress or other adverse health situations. This system is particularly useful when workers are wearing personal protective clothing or respirators that make visual observation of their condition more difficult. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System can monitor up to four channels (e.g., heart rate, body activity, ear canal, and skin temperature) and ten workers from a single supervisory station. The monitors are interfaced with a portable computer that updates and records information on individual workers. This innovative technology, even though it costs more, is an attractive alternative to the traditional (baseline) technology, which measures environmental statistics and predicts the average worker's reaction to those environmental conditions without taking the physical condition of the individual worker into consideration. Although use of the improved technology might be justified purely on the basis of improved safety, it has the potential to pay for itself by reducing worker time lost caused by heat

  14. Vegans report less stress and anxiety than omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, Bonnie; Radnitz, Cynthia; Rinne, Amy; DiMatteo, Julie

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating mood in vegetarian diets have yielded conflicting results, either demonstrating risk for mental disorders or mood protection. Our objective was to investigate mood, as well as factors that potentially impact mood in vegans (VG), vegetarians (VEG), and omnivores (OMN). We surveyed mood, diet, and lifestyle factors in a broad geographic online sample of adult VG (n = 283), VEG (n = 109), and OMN (n = 228) who were recruited via diet-related social networks. Mood was measured with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The sample was mostly female (78.5%), and age was inversely correlated with all DASS scores (p vegan diet and daily fruit and vegetable intake. Mean stress scores were different in females only (F(2,476) = 3.82, p = 0.023, η(p)(2) = 0.016) and lower stress in females was related to a vegan diet and lower daily intake of sweets. A strict plant-based diet does not appear to negatively impact mood, in fact, reduction of animal food intake may have mood benefits. The improved mood domains were not consistent with those found in other studies, which may be due to methodological differences.

  15. EU stress test: Swiss national report. ENSI review of the operators' reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    The earthquake on 11 March 2011 and the resultant tsunami led to severe accidents with core melt in three nuclear power plants (NPP) units at the Fukushima Dai-ichi site. These events were classified by the Japanese authorities as 'major accident' (INES 7). The EU stress test is part of the review process which Switzerland initiated immediately after the reactor accident. The Swiss Nuclear Safety Authority (ENSI) required from the operators of the Swiss NPPs to implement immediate measures and to conduct additional re-assessments. The immediate measures comprised the establishment of an external emergency storage facility for the Swiss NPPs, including the necessary plant specific connections, and back-fittings to provide external injection into the spent fuel pools. The additional re-assessments, which were to be carried out immediately, focused on the design of the Swiss NPPs against earthquakes, external flooding and a combination thereof, as well as investigations on the coolant supply for the safety systems and the spent fuel pool cooling. ENSI carried out an analysis of the events at Fukushima and published the results providing detailed descriptions of the causes, consequences and radiological impacts of the accident. The purpose of the EU stress test is to examine the robustness of the NPPs in case of impacts beyond the design basis due to earthquakes, external flooding and extreme weather conditions, loss of power supply and heat sink, and severe accident management. As the first step, it was necessary to present the hazard assumptions and design bases for the NPPs, and to assess their adequacy. In the second step, the objective was to identify and evaluate the protective measures implemented and their safety margins as compared to the design. Improvement measures were to be derived. The review by ENSI confirmed that the Swiss NPPs display a very high level of protection against the impacts of earthquakes, flooding and other natural hazards, as well as loss

  16. Disruptions to women's social identity: a comparative study of workplace stress experienced by women in three geographic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, M A; Joplin, J R; Bell, M P; Lau, T; Oguz, C

    2000-10-01

    Drawing on social identity theory (P. J. Burke, 1991) and the current status of women and equal opportunity legislation, the authors tested several factors associated with distress in working women in the People's Republic of China (PRC), Hong Kong, and the United States. Women in Hong Kong experienced significantly greater levels of life stress than PRC and U.S. women. Reports of negative attitudes toward women, gender evaluation, and avoidance coping were greater for Hong Kong and PRC women than for U.S. women. Hong Kong women reported more use of positive/confrontational coping mechanisms. Negative attitudes toward women had an important influence on life stress across regions. Moderator tests resulted in 2 significant findings: The effect of negative attitudes toward women on life stress was stronger for PRC and Hong Kong women, and the relationship between nervous/self-destructive coping and life stress was stronger for U.S. women.

  17. The Impact of Parenting Stress: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Comparing the Experience of Parenting Stress in Parents of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Stephanie A.; Watson, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers commonly report that families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience more parenting stress than families of typically developing (TD) children or those diagnosed with other disabilities [e.g., Down syndrome (DS), cerebral palsy, intellectual disability]. The authors reexamined the research using comparison groups to…

  18. A comparative study of voluntarily reported medication errors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    errors among adult patients in intensive care (IC) and non-. IC settings in Riyadh, ... safety “To err is human: Building a safer health care system” .... regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting the .... that work in non-ICU areas are less likely to report such ... ve.org/read), which permit unrestricted use, distribution ...

  19. A comparative analysis of strategy disclosure reporting trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chestt

    disasters such as the Exxon Valdez oil disaster during 1989 (UNEP, KPMG, GRI &. University of Stellenbosch 2010: 6). The GRI reporting framework is designed to be used by organisations of all sizes and in any sector, with sector-specific supplements available. It was developed through the interaction and agreement of a ...

  20. Determination of service stresses in pretensioned beams, final report, December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report presents research on the evaluation of service flexural stresses and cracking moment in prestressed concrete members and on the minimum reinforcement requirements that are currently controlled by the flexural cracking moment. In prestress...

  1. Self reported stressful life events and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis: prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Buljevac (Dragan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); W. Reedeker; A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To study the relation between self reported stressful life events not related to multiple sclerosis and the occurrence of exacerbations in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: Longitudinal, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic of

  2. Differential effects comparing exercise and pharmacologic stress on left ventricular function using gated Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaki, Yuka; Chikamori, Taishiro; Igarashi, Yuko; Hida, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Hatano, Tsuguhisa; Usui, Yasuhiro; Miyagi, Manabu; Yamashina, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Although post-ischemic stunning has emerged as an important marker for severe coronary artery disease (CAD), differences in stress methods may have different effects on left ventricular (LV) volumes and function. To assess differential effects comparing exercise and pharmacologic stress on the LV measurements, 99m Tc-sestamibi gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) acquired more than 30 min after stress and at rest was evaluated in 38 patients undergoing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stress (ATP group) and 38 age- and sex-matched patients subjected to exercise stress (Ex group) among 268 patients with normal SPECT findings. Coronary risk factors and LV volumetric measurements at baseline were similar in the two groups. Compared with volumetric measurements at rest, end-diastolic volume (EDV) increased (72±21 ml to 74±21 ml; P=0.01), end-systolic volume increased (25±12 ml to 28±13 ml; P=0.001), and ejection fraction (EF) decreased after stress (66%±8% to 63%±9%; P<0.002) in the ATP group. In the Ex group, by contrast, no such change was observed. In addition, changes in EDV (3±6 vs. -1±5 ml; P=0.01) and the stress-to-rest ratio of EDV (1.04±0.09 vs. 0.99±0.08; P<0.02) after stress were greater in the ATP than in the Ex group. Differential effects of stress methods on LV volumes persist more than 30 min after the stress. These findings should be kept in mind when interpreting post-ischemic stunning. (author)

  3. Case report 491: Stress fracture of the right sacrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, T.A.; Nguyen, T.H.; Daffner, R.H.; Lupetin, A.R.; Deeb, Z.L.

    1988-07-01

    A case of stress fracture of the right sacrum in a postpartum woman has been presented. Key features in making the diagnosis include a history of pain in the sacrum, considerable weight gain during the pregnancy and pronounced increased physical activity in the immediate postpartum period. CT, particularly, and MRI were critical in making the diagnosis. A low signal area on the T-1 neglected image was considered characteristic for the sacral fracture. In the CT studies a vertical lucency thru a zone of sclerosis is classical for a fracture, whether an insufficiency fracture or a fatigue fracture.

  4. ER stress responses in the absence of apoptosome: a comparative study in CASP9 proficient vs deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Shane; Saveljeva, Svetlana; Gupta, Sanjeev; MacDonald, David C; Samali, Afshin

    2014-08-29

    Cells respond to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through the unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy and cell death. In this study we utilized casp9(+/+) and casp9(-/-) MEFs to determine the effect of inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway on ER stress-induced-cell death, UPR and autophagy. We observed prolonged activation of UPR and autophagy in casp9(-/-) cells as compared with casp9(+/+) MEFs, which displayed transient activation of both pathways. Furthermore we showed that while casp9(-/-) MEFs were resistant to ER stress, prolonged exposure led to the activation of a non-canonical, caspase-mediated mode of cell death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Occupational stress in men and women: a comparative study of coping resources

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.A. The ramifications of stress-related illnesses and disorders impact on the individual, the organization that the individual works for and the nation’s economic status as a whole. Coping with occupational stress has thus become the focus of occupational health specialists, organizations and industrial psychologists. South African managers and executives work under constant stress and pressure (Strumpfer, 1983). With the emergence of women into previously male dominated occupations, a gr...

  6. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  7. Job-Related Stress in Forensic Interviewers of Children with Use of Therapy Dogs Compared with Facility Dogs or No Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Walsh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexually abused children providing essential testimony regarding crimes in forensic interviews now sometimes are provided facility dogs or therapy dogs for comfort. Facility dogs are extensively trained to work with forensic interviewers; when using therapy dogs in interviews, volunteers are the dog handlers. Interviews can impact child welfare workers’ mental health causing secondary traumatic stress (STS. To investigate this stress, first data were gathered on stress retrospectively for when interviewers initially started the job prior to working with a dog, and then currently, from forensic interviewers using a facility dog, a therapy or pet dog, or no dog. These retrospective and secondary traumatic stress scale (STSS data compared job stress among interviewers of children using: a certified, workplace facility dog (n = 16, a volunteer’s trained therapy dog or the interviewer’s pet dog (n = 13/3, or no dog (n = 198. Retrospective scores of therapy dog and no dog interviewers’ stress were highest for the first interviewing year 1 and then declined. Extremely or very stressful retrospective scores differed among the three groups in year 1 (p < 0.038, and were significantly elevated for the therapy dog group as compared with the facility dog group (p < 0.035. All interviewing groups had elevated STSS scores; when compared with other healthcare groups that have been studied, sub-scores were especially high for Avoidance: a psychological coping mechanism to avoid dealing with a stressor. STSS scores differed among groups (p < 0.016, primarily due to Avoidance sub-scores (p < 0.009, reflecting higher Avoidance scores for therapy dog users than no dog users (p < 0.009. Facility dog users more consistently used dogs during interviews and conducted more interviews than therapy/pet dog users; both groups favored using dogs. Interviewers currently working with therapy dogs accompanied by their volunteers reported

  8. Pan-oral dose assessment: a comparative report of methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafford, J.; Pryor, M.; Hollaway, P.; Peet, D.; Oduko, J.

    2015-01-01

    National guidance from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM Report 91) currently recommends that the patient dose for a pan-oral X-ray unit is measured as dose area product (DAP) replacing dose width product described in earlier guidance. An investigation identifying different methods available to carry out this measurement has been undertaken and errors in the methodologies analysed. It has been shown that there may be up to a 30 % variation in DAP measurement between methods. This paper recommends that where possible a DAP meter is used to measure the dose-area product from a pan-oral X-ray unit to give a direct DAP measurement. However, by using a solid-state dose measurement and film/ruler to calculate DAP the authors have established a conversion factor of 1.4. It is strongly recommended that wherever a DAP value is quoted the methodology used to obtain that value is also reported. (authors)

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms after Exposure to Two Fire Disasters : Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loey, Nancy E.; van de Schoot, Rens; Faber, Albertus W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated traumatic stress symptoms in severely burned survivors of two fire disasters and two comparison groups of patients with "non-disaster" burn injuries, as well as risk factors associated with acute and chronic stress symptoms. Patients were admitted to one out of eight burn

  10. Fear of crime and its relationship to self-reported health and stress among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macassa, Gloria; Winersjö, Rocio; Wijk, Katarina; McGrath, Cormac; Ahmadi, Nader; Soares, Joaquim

    2017-12-13

    Fear of crime is a growing social and public health problem globally, including in developed countries such as Sweden. This study investigated the impact of fear of crime on self-reported health and stress among men living in Gävleborg County. The study used data collected from 2993 men through a cross sectional survey in the 2014 Health in Equal Terms survey. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out to study the relationship between fear of crime and self-reported health and stress. There was a statistically significant association between fear of crime and self-reported poor health and stress among men residing in Gävleborg County. In the bivariate analysis, men who reported fear of crime had odds of 1.98 (CI 1.47-2.66) and 2.23 (CI 1.45-3.41) respectively. Adjusting for demographic, social and economic variables in the multivariate analysis only reduced the odds ratio for self-reported poor health to 1.52 (CI 1.05-2.21) but not for self-reported stress with odds of 2.22 (1.27-3.86). Fear of crime among men was statistically significantly associated with self-reported poor health and stress in Gävleborg County. However, the statistically significant relationship remained even after accounting for demographic, social and economic factors, which warrants further research to better understand the role played by other variables.

  11. Differential relationship of recent self-reported stress and acute anxiety with divided attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrac, D C; Bedwell, J S; Renk, K; Orem, D M; Sims, V

    2009-07-01

    There have been relatively few studies on the relationship between recent perceived environmental stress and cognitive performance, and the existing studies do not control for state anxiety during the cognitive testing. The current study addressed this need by examining recent self-reported environmental stress and divided attention performance, while controlling for state anxiety. Fifty-four university undergraduates who self-reported a wide range of perceived recent stress (10-item perceived stress scale) completed both single and dual (simultaneous auditory and visual stimuli) continuous performance tests. Partial correlation analysis showed a statistically significant positive correlation between perceived stress and the auditory omission errors from the dual condition, after controlling for state anxiety and auditory omission errors from the single condition (r = 0.41). This suggests that increased environmental stress relates to decreased divided attention performance in auditory vigilance. In contrast, an increase in state anxiety (controlling for perceived stress) was related to a decrease in auditory omission errors from the dual condition (r = - 0.37), which suggests that state anxiety may improve divided attention performance. Results suggest that further examination of the neurobiological consequences of environmental stress on divided attention and other executive functioning tasks is needed.

  12. Comparing Dental Stress in New Child Patients and Returning Patients Using Salivary Cortisol, Immunoglobulin-A and Alpha- Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaki, Sumer M; Safi, Ayman; Ouda, Soliman; Nadhreen, Alaa

    this study was aimed at comparing dental stress in children having their first dental visit to those returning for dental treatment using salivary biomarkers of stress including salivary cortisol (s-cortisol), Immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA) and alpha-amylase (s-α-amylase). Additionally, the study was aimed at monitoring the change in stress in new patients as they progressed from the waiting to the clinical areas. salivary samples were collected from 40 children who had not been to a dentist before and similar samples were collected from 40 children who were returning for completion of dental treatment. Salivary cortisol, s-IgA and s-α-amylase concentrations were obtained by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). salivary cortisol levels were higher for new patients at the waiting area compared to that at the dental chair (p=0.05). Salivary alpha-amylase significantly increased in new patients while being seated in the dental chair. Returning patients had higher s-α-amylase (p=0.001) and s-IgA (p=0.016) compared to new patients. Returning patients had the lowest level of s-cortisol when providers were faculty pediatric dentists than with students and interns (p=0.035). children coming in for their first dental visit may experience dental stress at the waiting area before being seated for dental examination. Returning children may experience higher levels of stress compared to new child patients possibly due to previous dental exposure.

  13. Patterns of Stuttering Comparing two Languages: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Hernández-Jaramillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In bilinguals, specific patterns of stuttering in each one of the languages may be different. This study reports on the case of a bilingual adult who speaks Spanish and English simultaneously and whose dominant language is Spanish. Speech and language testing was performed in both languages. The samples chosen for the analysis of speech corpus were: spontaneous speech, de­scription of the picture and reading. Some differences in the stuttering distribution were found. Of the disfluent instants, 61.39 % of the total was presented in English and the other remaining 38.61 % in Spanish. In both languages, stuttering by word type was more frequent in function words (i.e. prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, particles and infinitive forms than in content words (i.e. verbs, nouns, adjectives. As observed, dysfluency types were similar in Spanish and English, with the greatest percentage being word repetition, followed by phonemic prolongations. These were more frequent in English than in Spanish. Although it is possible to find similari­ties in the stuttering pattern suggesting general stuttering laws, differences associated not only with language-specific idiosyncrasies but also with the individual’s bilingualism characteristics were also found.

  14. Psychological stress for alternatives of decontamination of TMI-2 reactor building atmosphere. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, A.; Gatchel, R.; Streufert, S.; Baum, C.S.; Fleming, R.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of the report is to consider the nature and level of psychological stress that may be associated with each of several alternatives for decontamination. The report briefly reviews some of the literature on stress, response to major disaster or life stressors, provides opinion on each decontamination alternative, and considers possible mitigative actions to reduce psychological stress. The report concludes that any procedure that is adapted for the decontamination of the reactor building atmosphere will result in some psychological stress. The stress, however, should abate as contamination is reduced and uncertainty is diminished. The advantages of the purge alternative are the rapid completion of the decontamination and the consequent elimination of future uncontrolled release. Severe stress effects are less likely if the duration of stressor exposure is reduced, if the feeling of public control is increased and if the degree of perceived safety is increased. The long delays, continued uncertainty, and possibility of uncontrolled release that characterize the other alternatives may offset the perception that they are safer. In addition, chronic stress could be a consequence of long delays and continued uncertainty

  15. A comparative evaluation of crowding stress on muscle HSP90 and myostatin expression in salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galt, Nicholas J.; Froehlich, Jacob Michael; McCormick, Stephen; Biga, Peggy R.

    2018-01-01

    Stress is a major factor that contributes to poor production and animal welfare concerns in aquaculture. As such, a thorough understanding of mechanisms involved in the stress response is imperative to developing strategies to mitigate the negative side effects of stressors, including the impact of high stocking densities on growth. The purpose of this study was to determine how the muscle growth inhibitor, myostatin, and the stress-responsive gene HSP90 are regulated in response to crowding stress in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). All species exhibited higher cortisol and glucose levels following the handling stress, indicating physiological response to the treatment. Additionally, all species, except rainbow trout, exhibited higher HSP90 levels in muscle after a 48 h crowding stress. Crowding stress resulted in a decrease of myostatin-1ain brook trout white muscle but not red muscle, while, myostatin-1a and -2a levels increased in white muscle and myostatin-1b levels increased in red muscle in Atlantic salmon. In rainbow trout, no significant changes were detected in either muscle type, but myostatin-1awas upregulated in both white and red skeletal muscle in the closely related cutthroat trout. The variation in response to crowding suggests a complex and species-specific interaction between stress and the muscle gene regulation in these salmonids. Only Atlantic salmon and cutthroat trout exhibited increased muscle myostatin transcription, and also exhibited the largest increase in circulating glucose in response to crowding. These results suggest that species-specific farming practices should be carefully examined in order to optimize low stress culture conditions.

  16. A comparative study of different techniques in the stress analysis of a nuclear component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickenson, P.W.; Floyd, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    The inner surface stresses around the corner between the cylindrical wall and end plate of a flat ended pressure vessel have been determined using finite element, boundary element and photoelastic techniques. The results demonstrate severe deficiencies under certain conditions in the performance of the quadrilateral axisymmetric finite element which is commonly used in this type of analysis. The boundary element method is shown to provide an alternative analysis route giving more accurate results. The hybrid formulation finite element is also found to give reasonable results for the analysis of stresses in regions of rapidly varying stress. (orig.)

  17. Self-reported stress and risk of stroke: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Naja; Boysen, Gudrun

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lay people often mention stress as one of the most important risk factors for stroke. Stress might trigger a cerebrovascular event directly or could be associated with higher levels of blood pressure or an unfavorable lifestyle. To examine these possibilities, we analyzed...... the association between self-reported stress frequency and intensity and risk of stroke. METHODS: Data from the second examination, 1981 to 1983, of participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were analyzed with Cox regression after a mean of 13 years of follow-up. A total of 5604 men and 6970 women were...... included, and 929 first-ever strokes occurred, of which 207 (22%) were fatal within 28 days after onset of symptoms. The stress frequency categories were never/hardly ever, monthly, weekly, or daily. The stress intensity categories were never/hardly ever, light, moderate, or high. RESULTS: Subjects...

  18. Self reported stress and risk of breast cancer: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Kristensen, Tage S

    2005-01-01

    cancer, and impairment of oestrogen synthesis induced by chronic stress may explain a lower incidence of breast cancer in women with high stress. Impairment of normal body function should not, however, be considered a healthy response, and the cumulative health consequences of stress may......OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between self reported intensity and frequency of stress and first time incidence of primary breast cancer. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with 18 years of follow-up. SETTING: Copenhagen City heart study, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: The 6689 women participating...... in the Copenhagen City heart study were asked about their perceived level of stress at baseline in 1981-3. These women were followed until 1999 in the Danish nationwide cancer registry, with

  19. Comparative study of soil erodibility and critical shear stress between loess and purple soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hang; Huang, Yu-han; Chen, Xiao-yan; Luo, Bang-lin; Mi, Hong-xing

    2018-03-01

    Loess and purple soils are two very important cultivated soils, with the former in the loess region and the latter in southern sub-tropical region of China, featured with high-risks of erosion, considerable differences of soil structures due to differences in mineral and nutrient compositions. Study on soil erodibility (Kr) and critical shear stress (τc) of these two soils is beneficial to predict soil erosion with such models as WEPP. In this study, rill erosion experimental data sets of the two soils are used for estimating their Kr and τc before they are compared to understand their differences of rill erosion behaviors. The maximum detachment rates of the loess and purple soils are calculated under different hydrodynamic conditions (flow rates: 2, 4, 8 L/min; slope gradients: 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°) through analytical and numerical methods respectively. Analytical method used the derivative of the function between sediment concentration and rill length to estimate potential detachment rates, at the rill beginning. Numerical method estimated potential detachment rates with the experimental data, at the rill beginning and 0.5 m location. The Kr and τc of these two soils are determined by the linear equation based on experimental data. Results show that the methods could well estimate the Kr and τc of these two soils as they remain basically unchanged under different hydrodynamic conditions. The Kr value of loess soil is about twice of the purple soil, whereas the τc is about half of that. The numerical results have good correlations with the analytical values. These results can be useful in modeling rill erosion processes of loess and purple soils.

  20. Comparative Physiological and Molecular Analyses of Two Contrasting Flue-Cured Tobacco Genotypes under Progressive Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhong Su

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major environmental factor that limits crop growth and productivity. Flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum is one of the most important commercial crops worldwide and its productivity is vulnerable to drought. However, comparative analyses of physiological, biochemical and gene expression changes in flue-cured tobacco varieties differing in drought tolerance under long-term drought stress are scarce. In this study, drought stress responses of two flue-cured tobacco varieties, LJ851 and JX6007, were comparatively studied at the physiological and transcriptional levels. After exposing to progressive drought stress, the drought-tolerant LJ851 showed less growth inhibition and chlorophyll reduction than the drought-sensitive JX6007. Moreover, higher antioxidant enzyme activities and lower levels of H2O2, Malondialdehyde (MDA, and electrolyte leakage after drought stress were found in LJ851 when compared with JX6007. Further analysis showed that LJ851 plants had much less reductions than the JX6007 in the net photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance during drought stress; indicating that LJ851 had better photosynthetic performance than JX6007 during drought. In addition, transcriptional expression analysis revealed that LJ851 exhibited significantly increased transcripts of several categories of drought-responsive genes in leaves and roots under drought conditions. Together, these results indicated that LJ851 was more drought-tolerant than JX6007 as evidenced by better photosynthetic performance, more powerful antioxidant system, and higher expression of stress defense genes during drought stress. This study will be valuable for the development of novel flue-cured tobacco varieties with improved drought tolerance by exploitation of natural genetic variations in the future.

  1. Depression and work related stress problems, with notes of comparative law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, Marilisa; Pettinelli, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    This paper supplies both a medical and legal analysis of work related stress problems, by going throught the role of prevention in the European legal system. The Authors, after reviewing the negative role that stress has in the management of the employment relationship, describe the main steps that have brought Europe to recognize the importance of the role of prevention, and to recognize the role of well-being in the workplace.

  2. Cortisol Variability and Self-reports in the Measurement of Work-related Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Björn; Eek, Frida; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether a high cortisol awakening response (CAR) and low cortisol decline over the day (CDD) are related to self-reported work stress and well-being, and whether there are gender differences in these relationships. Three hundred eighty-three working men and women responded to a survey...... measuring job stress factors, mastery at work, symptoms and well-being. Salivary cortisol was sampled at awakening, after 45 min and at 21:00, from which the variables CAR and CDD were defi ned. A high CAR was associated with lower perceived job control and work mastery, and poorer well-being. Low CDD...... men, a similar comparison showed those with low CDD to have poorer scores on job stress factors and symptom load. We conclude that individuals displaying high CAR or low CDD differ from those not displaying these cortisol profi les in self-report of work stress and well-being, and that gender...

  3. Comparative transcriptional analysis of clinically relevant heat stress response in Clostridium difficile strain 630.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel G Ternan

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is considered to be one of the most important causes of health care-associated infections worldwide. In order to understand more fully the adaptive response of the organism to stressful conditions, we examined transcriptional changes resulting from a clinically relevant heat stress (41 °C versus 37 °C in C. difficile strain 630 and identified 341 differentially expressed genes encompassing multiple cellular functional categories. While the transcriptome was relatively resilient to the applied heat stress, we noted upregulation of classical heat shock genes including the groEL and dnaK operons in addition to other stress-responsive genes. Interestingly, the flagellin gene (fliC was downregulated, yet genes encoding the cell-wall associated flagellar components were upregulated suggesting that while motility may be reduced, adherence--to mucus or epithelial cells--could be enhanced during infection. We also observed that a number of phage associated genes were downregulated, as were genes associated with the conjugative transposon Tn5397 including a group II intron, thus highlighting a potential decrease in retromobility during heat stress. These data suggest that maintenance of lysogeny and genome wide stabilisation of mobile elements could be a global response to heat stress in this pathogen.

  4. Physiotherapy students' perceived stress, stressors, and reactions to stressors: A comparative study between Sweden and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodselmans, Audy-Paul; Hemdal, Elin; Lundberg, Sophie; Bjarnegård, Anna; Hobbelen, Hans; Svantesson, Ulla

    2018-04-01

    Studies of healthcare students report increased levels of stress, with academic pressures being the greatest source. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in the overall stress level, stressors, and reactions to stressors between physiotherapy students at the University of Gothenburg (GU) and those at the Hanze University of Applied Sciences (HUAS). The Student-life Stress Inventory was used. The participants (n = 116) included physiotherapy students at GU and HUAS. The distribution of the questionnaire occurred during a regular lecture or in a lecture that was scheduled particularly for its distribution. At GU, 13.7% of the students rated their level of stress as mild, whereas 72.5% of them rated it as moderate. The corresponding values for HUAS students were 43.9% and 43.9%, respectively. This difference between two universities was significant (p = 0.006). The total score of the subcategories indicated that the students at GU reported significantly higher levels of stressors (p = 0.027) and reactions to stressors (p = 0.003). However, there were no significant differences in the male participants between the universities. Female students in their three-year educational program in Sweden experienced significantly more stress than Dutch female students in their four-year educational program.

  5. Stress fracture of hamate's hook: case report with emphasis to the imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Leonardo Fontenelle de; Vianna, Evandro Miguelote; Domingues, Romulo; Domingues, Romeu Cortes; Metsavaht, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    Stress fractures of the hook of the hamate are related to sports that use devices such as golf clubs, rackets and baseball bats. Because usually there is no history of obvious trauma, the diagnosis necessitates better knowledge of the lesion and high index of suspicion. The authors report a case of stress fracture of the hook of the hamate in a golf player with diagnosis and follow-up done with magnetic resonance and multislice computer tomography. (author)

  6. Fracture mechanics and residual fatigue life analysis for complex stress fields. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuner, P.M.

    1975-07-01

    This report reviews the development and application of an influence function method for calculating stress intensity factors and residual fatigue life for two- and three-dimensional structures with complex stress fields and geometries. Through elastic superposition, the method properly accounts for redistribution of stress as the crack grows through the structure. The analytical methods used and the computer programs necessary for computation and application of load independent influence functions are presented. A new exact solution is obtained for the buried elliptical crack, under an arbitrary Mode I stress field, for stress intensity factors at four positions around the crack front. The IF method is then applied to two fracture mechanics problems with complex stress fields and geometries. These problems are of current interest to the electric power generating industry and include (1) the fatigue analysis of a crack in a pipe weld under nominal and residual stresses and (2) fatigue analysis of a reactor pressure vessel nozzle corner crack under a complex bivariate stress field

  7. Stress and stressors in the clinical environment: a comparative study of fourth-year student nurses and newly qualified general nurses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Suresh, Patricia

    2013-03-01

    To measure and compare the perceived levels of job-related stress and stressors of newly qualified nurses and fourth-year student nurses in the clinical environment and to explore the participants\\' views on stress and stressors.

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals molecular mechanism of seedling roots of different salt tolerant soybean genotypes in responses to salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Ma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit agricultural yield. To understand salt-responsive protein networks in soybean seedling, the extracted proteins from seedling roots of two different genotypes (Lee 68 and Jackson were analyzed under salt stress by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sixty-eight differentially expressed proteins were detected and identified. The identified proteins were involved in 13 metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Proteins correlated to brassinosteroid and gilbberellin signalings were significantly increased only in the genotype Lee 68 under salt stress; abscisic acid content was positively correlated with this genotype; proteins that can be correlated to Ca2+ signaling were more strongly enhanced by salt stress in the seedling roots of genotype Lee 68 than in those of genotype Jackson; moreover, genotype Lee 68 had stronger capability of reactive oxygen species scavenging and cell K+/Na+ homeostasis maintaining in seedling roots than genotype Jackson under salt stress. Since the genotype Lee 68 has been described in literature as being tolerant and Jackson as sensitive, we hypothesize that these major differences in the genotype Lee 68 might contribute to salt tolerance. Combined with our previous comparative proteomics analysis on seedling leaves, the similarities and differences between the salt-responsive protein networks found in the seedling leaves and roots of both the genotypes were discussed. Such a result will be helpful in breeding of salt-tolerant soybean cultivars.

  9. A randomized clinical trial comparing the effect of basal insulin and inhaled mealtime insulin on glucose variability and oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegelaar, S. E.; Kulik, W.; van Lenthe, H.; Mukherjee, R.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; DeVries, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the effect of three times daily mealtime inhaled insulin therapy compared with once daily basal insulin glargine therapy on 72-h glucose profiles, glucose variability and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes patients. In an inpatient crossover study, 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes were

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children after paediatric intensive care treatment compared to children who survived a major fire disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, M.B.; Knoester, H.; Bos, AP; Last, B.F.; Grootenhuis, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The goals were to determine the presence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children after paediatric intensive care treatment, to identify risk factors for PTSD, and to compare this data with data from a major fire disaster in the Netherlands. Methods: Children completed the

  11. Comparative proteomics of oxidative stress response of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM reveals effects on DNA repair and cysteine de novo synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderini, Elia; Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Villarroel, Julia

    2017-01-01

    acidophilus NCFM to H2O2, simulating an oxidative environment. Bacterial growth was monitored by BioScreen and batch cultures were harvested at exponential phase for protein profiling of stress responses by 2D gel-based comparative proteomics. Proteins identified in 19 of 21 spots changing in abundance due...

  12. Comparative evaluation of human heat stress indices on selected hospital admissions in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, James; Alexander, Lisa; Lewis, Sophie C; Sherwood, Steven

    2017-08-01

    To find appropriate regression model specifications for counts of the daily hospital admissions of a Sydney cohort and determine which human heat stress indices best improve the models' fit. We built parent models of eight daily counts of admission records using weather station observations, census population estimates and public holiday data. We added heat stress indices; models with lower Akaike Information Criterion scores were judged a better fit. Five of the eight parent models demonstrated adequate fit. Daily maximum Simplified Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (sWBGT) consistently improved fit more than most other indices; temperature and heatwave indices also modelled some health outcomes well. Humidity and heat-humidity indices better fit counts of patients who died following admission. Maximum sWBGT is an ideal measure of heat stress for these types of Sydney hospital admissions. Simple temperature indices are a good fallback where a narrower range of conditions is investigated. Implications for public health: This study confirms the importance of selecting appropriate heat stress indices for modelling. Epidemiologists projecting Sydney hospital admissions should use maximum sWBGT as a common measure of heat stress. Health organisations interested in short-range forecasting may prefer simple temperature indices. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Fear of crime and its relationship to self-reported health and stress among men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Macassa

    2018-01-01

    Design and Methods: The study used data collected from 2993 men through a cross sectional survey in the 2014 Health in Equal Terms survey. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out to study the relationship between fear of crime and self-reported health and stress. Results: There was a statistically significant association between fear of crime and self-reported poor health and stress among men residing in Gävleborg County. In the bivariate analysis, men who reported fear of crime had odds of 1.98 (CI 1.47- 2.66 and 2.23 (CI 1.45-3.41 respectively. Adjusting for demographic, social and economic variables in the multivariate analysis only reduced the odds ratio for self-reported poor health to 1.52 (CI 1.05-2.21 but not for self-reported stress with odds of 2.22 (1.27-3.86. Conclusions: Fear of crime among men was statistically significantly associated with self-reported poor health and stress in Gävleborg County. However, the statistically significant relationship remained even after accounting for demographic, social and economic factors, which warrants further research to better understand the role played by other variables.

  14. Class I review of LOFT steam generator stress and fatigue life analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fors, R.M.; Silverman, S.

    1977-01-01

    Review of the LOFT steam generator stress and fatigue life analysis report is presented. Deficiencies were found which will require evaluation and in some areas reanalysis. The effects of these deficiencies upon the steam generator will include: to further reduce the allowable ΔP across the tubesheet for the abnormal design case of pressure on primary; and to reduce the allowable number of LOCE transients at some locations of the steam generator from the numbers listed in the stress report and to increase them at other locations

  15. School Performance, School Segregation, and Stress-Related Symptoms: Comparing Helsinki and Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Bitte; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Östberg, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates cross-cultural differences in the interrelation between school performance, school segregation, and stress-related health among 9th-grade students in the greater Stockholm and Helsinki areas. Contrary to the Swedish case, it has been proposed that school performance in Finland is largely independent of the specific school…

  16. Comparative transcriptome and phenotype analysis of acid-stressed Bacillus cereus strain ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.; Kranenburg, van Richard; Melis, van Clint; Moezelaar, Roy; Abee, Tjakko

    2009-01-01

    The food-borne human pathogen Bacillus cereus is found in environments that often have a low pH, such as food and soil. The physiological response upon exposure to several levels of acidity were investigated of B. cereus model strain ATCC 14579, to elucidate the response of B. cereus to acid stress.

  17. Comparative transcriptome and phenotype analysis of acid-stressed Bacillus cereus strain ATCC 10987

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.; Kranenburg, van Richard; Melis, van Clint; Moezelaar, Roy; Abee, Tjakko

    2009-01-01

    The food-borne human pathogen Bacillus cereus is found in environments that often have a low pH, such as food and soil. The physiological response upon exposure to several levels of acidity were investigated of B. cereus model strain ATCC 10987, to elucidate the response of B. cereus to acid stress.

  18. [Quality of life, stress management and health promotion in medical and dental students. A comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkat, H; Höfer, S; Richter, L; Cramer, M; Vetter, A

    2011-06-01

    Which are the differences in health-related quality of life and stress management in medical and dental students? 101 dental and 237 medical students from different years of Justus-Liebig University Giessen were examined during winter term 2008/09 and summer term 2009 using the specific Questionnaire on Health Promotion, Life Satisfaction, and Stress Management in Dental or Medical Students (addressing work satisfaction and choice of subject, private life, relaxation behavior and stress management, and health behavior), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and SF-36 Health Survey. For statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney-U-Test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson correlation and Chi2-Tests were primarily used. Dental and medical students showed considerable mental impairment in SF-36. Every fifth dental student suffered from slight to moderate depression. Though averaging more hours per week, medical students were more satisfied with their studies. More than half of the dental and medical students did not have appropriate strategies of coping with stress. Concerning the mental impairment in both groups and regarding a higher health-related quality of life, specific prevention courses or mentoring programs should already be offered at the beginning of medical training in order to cope with strains of medical school and future job strains in the medical or dental profession. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Comparative transcriptome profiling of chilling stress responsiveness in grafted watermelon seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinhua; Zhang, Man; Liu, Guang; Yang, Xingping; Hou, Xilin

    2016-12-01

    Rootstock grafting may improve the resistance of watermelon plants to low temperatures. However, information regarding the molecular responses of rootstock grafted plants to chilling stress is limited. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of chilling tolerance in grafted plants, the transcriptomic responses of grafted watermelon under chilling stress were analyzed using RNA-seq analysis. Sequencing data were used for digital gene expression (DGE) analysis to characterize the transcriptomic responses in grafted watermelon seedlings. A total of 702 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were found in rootstock grafted (RG) watermelon relative to self-grafted (SG) watermelon; among these genes, 522 genes were up-regulated and 180 were down-regulated. Additionally, 164 and 953 genes were found to specifically expressed in RG and SG seedlings under chilling stress, respectively. Functional annotations revealed that up-regulated DEGs are involved in protein processing, plant-pathogen interaction and the spliceosome, whereas down-regulated DEGs are associated with photosynthesis. Moreover, 13 DEGs were randomly selected for quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The expression profiles of these 13 DEGs were consistent with those detected by the DGE analysis, supporting the reliability of the DGE data. This work provides additional insight into the molecular basis of grafted watermelon responses to chilling stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  1. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  2. High-Intensity Exercise Induced Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Muscle Damage in Postpubertal Boys and Girls: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sangita; Chaki, Biswajit; Chattopadhyay, Sreya; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2018-04-01

    Pal, S, Chaki, B, Chattopadhyay, S, and Bandyopadhyay, A. High-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and skeletal muscle damage in post-pubertal boys and girls: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1045-1052, 2018-The purpose of this study was to examine the sex variation in high-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and muscle damage among 44 sedentary postpubertal boys and girls through estimation of postexercise release pattern of muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and oxidative stress markers like extent of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and catalase activity. Muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, LDH, ALT, and AST were measured before, immediately after, and 24 and 48 hours after high-intensity incremental treadmill running. Oxidative stress markers like thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and catalase activity were estimated before and immediately after the exercise. Lipid peroxidation and serum catalase activity increased significantly in both groups after exercise (p exercise level at 24 and 48 hours after exercise in both the sexes, (p exercise, the pattern of postexercise release of these markers were found to be similar in both the groups. Accordingly, it has been concluded from the present investigation that high-intensity exercise induces significant oxidative stress and increases indices of skeletal muscle damage in both postpubertal girls and boys. However, postpubertal girls are relatively better protected from oxidative stress and muscle damage as compared to the boys of similar age and physical activity level. It is further evident that sex difference may not be apparent for all the biomarkers of muscle damage in this age group.

  3. Citrate dialysate does not induce oxidative stress or inflammation in vitro as compared to acetate dialysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pérez-García

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased acetataemia during haemodialysis sessions has been associated with a number of abnormalities, including increased oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide synthesis. Citric acid may play an alternative role to acetate as a dialysate stabilizer given that the effect of citrate on complement and leukocyte activation is different to that of acetate. The purpose of this study was to compare the inflammatory effect in immunocompetent blood cells of acetate dialysate and citrate dialysate. Materials and methods: The effect of acetate and/or citrate was investigated in the whole blood of uremic patients and in healthy in vitro samples. Four types of dialysate were tested: dialysate 1, acetate-free with 1 mmol/L of citrate; dialysate 2, with 0.8 mmol/L of citrate and 0.3 mmol/L of acetate; dialysate 3, citrate-free with 3 mmol/L of acetate; and dialysate 4, citrate-free with 4 mmol/L of acetate. The cell types used were: human monocyte culture (THP-1; and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from healthy subjects and uremic patients on haemodialysis. ICAM-1 was determined and levels of reactive oxygen species and total microvesicles were quantified. Results: Unlike the citrate dialysates, the dialysates with acetate (dialysate 3 and dialysate 4 induced increased ICAM-1 expression density in THP-1 cells; an increase in ICAM-1 expression was observed in the immunocompetent cells of healthy subjects with acetate dialysate (dialysate 3 and dialysate 4 but not with citrate dialysate (dialysate 1 and dialysate 2. No significant ICAM-1 differences were found between the different dialysates in the cells of haemodialysed patients. Reactive oxygen species expression and the number of microvesicles increased significantly with acetate dialysate but not with citrate dialysate in the cells of both healthy subjects and haemodialysed patients. Conclusion: At the concentrations in which it is generally used in clinical practice

  4. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved cold stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) by exogenous calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Zhong, Bao; Liu, Xun; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-11-01

    As an important second messenger, calcium is involved in plant cold stress response, including chilling (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.). Physiological analyses showed that CaCl2 treatment alleviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage triggered by chilling stress, via activating antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool, while EGTA treatment had the opposite effects. Additionally, comparative proteomic analysis identified 51 differentially expressed proteins that were enriched in redox, tricarboxylicacid cycle, glycolysis, photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and amino acid metabolisms. Consistently, 42 metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were regulated by CaCl2 treatment under control and cold stress conditions, further confirming the common modulation of CaCl2 treatment in carbon metabolites and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study reported first evidence of the essential and protective roles of endogenous and exogenous calcium in bermudagrass response to cold stress, partially via activation of the antioxidants and modulation of several differentially expressed proteins and metabolic homeostasis in the process of cold acclimation. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. A randomised controlled trial comparing TVT, Pelvicol and autologous fascial slings for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, K L; Emery, S J; Wareham, K; Ismail, S; Watkins, A; Lucas, M G

    2010-11-01

    To compare TVT(TM) , Pelvicol(TM) and autologous fascial slings (AFSs). A multicentre randomised control trial. Four units in the UK. Women requiring primary surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A total of 201 women with urodynamically proven stress incontinence were randomised into three groups and assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year. The primary outcome was patient-reported improvement rates. Secondary outcomes included operative complications/time, intermittent self-catheterisation (ISC) and re-operation rates. The quality-of-life tools used were the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (BFLUTS) and EuroQoL. Fifty women had a Pelvicol(TM) sling, 79 had AFSs and 72 had TVT(TM). At 6 months the Pelvicol(TM) arm had poorer improvement rates (73%) than TVT(TM) (92%)/AFS (95%); P=0.003. At 1 year only 61% of the Pelvicol(TM) slings remained as improved, versus 93% of TVTs and 90% of AFSs (PTVT(TM) (55%)/AFS (48%) (P=0.001) at 1 year; hence, the Pelvicol(TM) arm was suspended following interim analysis. There is no difference in the success rates between TVT(TM) and AFS. One in five women in the Pelvicol(TM) arm had further surgery for SUI by 1 year, but none required further surgery in the other arms. AFS took longer to do (54 minutes versus 35 minutes for TVT(TM) /36 minutes for Pelvicol(TM) ) and had higher ISC rates (9.9 versus 0% Pelvicol(TM) /TVT(TM) 1.5%). Hospital stay was shortest for TVT(TM) (2 days). Most BFLUTS domains showed improvement in all three arms. The improvement for women in the Pelvicol(TM) arm, however, was less than for women in the other arms in several key domains. Pelvicol(TM) cannot be recommended for the management of SUI. TVT(TM) does not have greater efficacy than AFS, but does utilise fewer resources. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © RCOG 2010 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

  6. Comparing genomic expression patterns across plant species reveals highly diverged transcriptional dynamics in response to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Close Timothy J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice and barley are both members of Poaceae (grass family but have a marked difference in salt tolerance. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference was previously unexplored. This study employs a comparative genomics approach to identify analogous and contrasting gene expression patterns between rice and barley. Results A hierarchical clustering approach identified several interesting expression trajectories among rice and barley genotypes. There were no major conserved expression patterns between the two species in response to salt stress. A wheat salt-stress dataset was queried for comparison with rice and barley. Roughly one-third of the salt-stress responses of barley were conserved with wheat while overlap between wheat and rice was minimal. These results demonstrate that, at transcriptome level, rice is strikingly different compared to the more closely related barley and wheat. This apparent lack of analogous transcriptional programs in response to salt stress is further highlighted through close examination of genes associated with root growth and development. Conclusion The analysis provides support for the hypothesis that conservation of transcriptional signatures in response to environmental cues depends on the genetic similarity among the genotypes within a species, and on the phylogenetic distance between the species.

  7. European stress tests for nuclear power plants. The Swedish National Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku region in north Honshu, Japan, suffered a severe earthquake with an ensuing tsunami and an accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Due to the accident the Council of the European Union declared in late March that Member States were prepared to begin reviewing safety at nuclear facilities in the European Union by means of a comprehensive assessment of risk and safety ('stress testing'). On 25 May, SSM ordered the licensees of the nuclear power plants to conduct renewed analyses of the facilities' resilience against different kinds of natural phenomena. They were also to analyse how the facilities would be capable of dealing with a prolonged loss of electrical power, regardless of cause. On 31 October, the licensees reported on their stress tests to SSM. After reviewing these reports, SSM produced a summary stress test report, which was submitted to the Government on the 15 December. The present report is the national report on Swedish stress tests of nuclear power plants. The report will be submit to the European Commission no later than 31 December. Based on the review SSM has drawn the conclusion that the stress tests carried out by Swedish licensees are largely performed in accordance with the specification resolved within the European Union. The scope and depth of these analyses and assessments are essentially in accordance with ENSREG's definition of 'a comprehensive assessment of risk and safety'. The stress tests show that Swedish facilities are robust, but the tests also identify a number of opportunities to further strengthen the facilities' robustness. SSM will order the respective licensees to present an action plan for dealing with the results from the stress tests. The Authority will then examine the plans and adopt a standpoint on proposed measures as well as check that the necessary safety improvements are made. In a number of cases, the stress tests indicate deficiencies in relation to, or alternatively

  8. Concordance of parent proxy report and child self-report of posttraumatic stress in children with cancer and healthy children: influence of parental posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Ashley H; Jurbergs, Niki; Lindwall, Jennifer; Phipps, Sean

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the relationships between parental posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), child PTSS, and parent-child concordance for child PTSS. Participants were children with cancer (n = 199), and healthy children (n = 108) and their parents. Children self-reported on PTSS and parents completed measures of child and parent PTSS. In the cancer group, child and parent reports of child PTSS were significantly correlated with no mean differences between reporters. In contrast, correlations were non-significant in the control group, and parents reported significantly lower levels of child PTSS than children. Increased parental PTSS was associated with better concordance in the cancer group but not in the control group. In fact, in the cancer group, parent-child concordance was strongest at the highest level of parental PTSS. Parents of children with cancer were found to be accurate reporters of their children's distress, even with high levels of reported personal distress. In contrast, parents of healthy children appear primarily influenced by personal distress when reporting child PTSS. Although multiple informant assessments are always desirable, it appears that utilization of a single informant may be reasonable in the cancer setting when access to informants is limited. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis of sweet corn seedlings under low-temperature stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua Mao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress induced by low temperature, which represents a widespread environmental factor, strongly affects maize growth and yield. However, the physiological characteristics and molecular regulatory mechanisms of maize seedlings in response to cold remain poorly understood. In this study, using RNA-seq, we investigated the transcriptome profiles of two sweet corn inbred lines, “Richao” (RC and C5, under cold stress. A total of 357 and 455 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in the RC and C5 lines, respectively, 94 DEGs were detected as common DEGs related to cold response in both genotypes, and a total of 589 DEGs were detected as cold tolerance-associated genes. By combining protein function clustering analysis and significantly enriched Gene Ontology (GO terms analysis, we suggest that transcription factors may play a dominating role in the cold stress response and tolerance of sweet corn. Furthermore, 74 differentially expressed transcription factors were identified, of those many genes involved in the metabolism and regulation of hormones. These results expand our understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in chilling tolerance in maize, and provide a set of candidate genes for further genetic analyses.

  10. Effects of Stress and Relaxation on Central Pain Modulation in Chronic Whiplash and Fibromyalgia Patients Compared to Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Iris; Cagnie, Barbara; Nijs, Jo; van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Danneels, Lieven; De Pauw, Robby; Meeus, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Compelling evidence has demonstrated that impaired central pain modulation contributes to persistent pain in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and fibromyalgia (FM). However, there is limited research concerning the influence of stress and relaxation on central pain modulation in patients with chronic WAD and FM. The present study aims to investigate the effects of acute cognitive stress and relaxation on central pain modulation in chronic WAD and FM patients compared to healthy individuals. A randomized crossover design was employed. The present study took place at the University of Brussels, the University Hospital Brussels, and the University of Antwerp. Fifty-nine participants (16 chronic WAD patients, 21 FM, 22 pain-free controls) were enrolled and subjected to various pain measurements. Temporal summation (TS) of pain and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were evaluated. Subsequently, participants were randomly allocated to either a group that received progressive relaxation therapy or a group that performed a battery of cognitive tests (= cognitive stressor). Afterwards, all pain measurements were repeated. One week later participant groups were switched. A significant difference was found between the groups in the change in TS in response to relaxation (P = 0.008) and cognitive stress (P = 0.003). TS decreased in response to relaxation and cognitive stress in chronic WAD patients and controls. In contrast, TS increased after both interventions in FM patients. CPM efficacy decreased in all 3 groups in response to relaxation (P = 0.002) and cognitive stress (P = 0.001). The obtained results only apply for a single session of muscle relaxation therapy and cognitive stress, whereby no conclusions can be made for effects on pain perception and modulation of chronic cognitive stress and long-term relaxation therapies. A single relaxation session as well as cognitive stress may have negative acute effects on pain modulation in patients with

  11. Qigong program on insomnia and stress in cancer patients: A case series report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmo Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the interest in Qigong as an alternative therapy has grown following reports of its ability to regulate psychological factors in cancer patients. This is a case series to evaluate the outcome measures of Qigong when used as an adjunct to standard medical care to treat insomnia and stress in cancer patients. Patients and methods: The Qigong program was applied to four cancer patients with insomnia, stress, and anxiety. The program consisted of 30-min sessions involving exercise, patting of the 12 meridians, and spontaneous breathing exercises three times a week for a period of 4 weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was measured as the primary outcome, while the Stress Scale, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy–General determined the secondary outcomes. Insomnia, stress, and anxiety levels were examined weekly, while quality of life was examined on the first visit and the last visit. Results: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Stress Scale scores were reduced after conduct of the Qigong program. Conclusion: This study could provide a better understanding of Qigong’s influence on insomnia and stress in cancer patients. However, a larger controlled trial should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  12. Manubrial stress fractures diagnosed on MRI: report of two cases and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Jonathan C.; Demertzis, Jennifer L. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In contrast to widely-reported sternal insufficiency fractures, stress fractures of the sternum from overuse are extremely rare. Of the 5 cases of sternal stress fracture published in the English-language medical literature, 3 were in the sternal body and only 2 were in the manubrium. We describe two cases of manubrial stress fracture related to golf and weightlifting, and present the first report of the MR findings of this injury. In each of these cases, the onset of pain was atraumatic, insidious, and associated with increased frequency of athletic activity. Imaging was obtained because of clinical diagnostic uncertainty. On MRI, each patient had a sagittally oriented stress fracture of the lateral manubrium adjacent to the first rib synchondrosis. Both patients had resolution of pain after a period of rest, with subsequent successful return to their respective activities. One patient had a follow-up MRI, which showed resolution of the manubrial marrow edema and fracture line. Based on the sternal anatomy and MR findings, we hypothesize that this rare injury might be caused by repetitive torque of the muscle forces on the first costal cartilage and manubrium, and propose that MRI might be an effective means of diagnosing manubrial stress fracture. (orig.)

  13. Manubrial stress fractures diagnosed on MRI: report of two cases and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Jonathan C.; Demertzis, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to widely-reported sternal insufficiency fractures, stress fractures of the sternum from overuse are extremely rare. Of the 5 cases of sternal stress fracture published in the English-language medical literature, 3 were in the sternal body and only 2 were in the manubrium. We describe two cases of manubrial stress fracture related to golf and weightlifting, and present the first report of the MR findings of this injury. In each of these cases, the onset of pain was atraumatic, insidious, and associated with increased frequency of athletic activity. Imaging was obtained because of clinical diagnostic uncertainty. On MRI, each patient had a sagittally oriented stress fracture of the lateral manubrium adjacent to the first rib synchondrosis. Both patients had resolution of pain after a period of rest, with subsequent successful return to their respective activities. One patient had a follow-up MRI, which showed resolution of the manubrial marrow edema and fracture line. Based on the sternal anatomy and MR findings, we hypothesize that this rare injury might be caused by repetitive torque of the muscle forces on the first costal cartilage and manubrium, and propose that MRI might be an effective means of diagnosing manubrial stress fracture. (orig.)

  14. Manubrial stress fractures diagnosed on MRI: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jonathan C; Demertzis, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to widely-reported sternal insufficiency fractures, stress fractures of the sternum from overuse are extremely rare. Of the 5 cases of sternal stress fracture published in the English-language medical literature, 3 were in the sternal body and only 2 were in the manubrium. We describe two cases of manubrial stress fracture related to golf and weightlifting, and present the first report of the MR findings of this injury. In each of these cases, the onset of pain was atraumatic, insidious, and associated with increased frequency of athletic activity. Imaging was obtained because of clinical diagnostic uncertainty. On MRI, each patient had a sagittally oriented stress fracture of the lateral manubrium adjacent to the first rib synchondrosis. Both patients had resolution of pain after a period of rest, with subsequent successful return to their respective activities. One patient had a follow-up MRI, which showed resolution of the manubrial marrow edema and fracture line. Based on the sternal anatomy and MR findings, we hypothesize that this rare injury might be caused by repetitive torque of the muscle forces on the first costal cartilage and manubrium, and propose that MRI might be an effective means of diagnosing manubrial stress fracture.

  15. Comparative analysis of root transcriptome profiles between drought-tolerant and susceptible wheat genotypes in response to water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ling; Xie, Yan; Fan, Shoujin; Wang, Zongshuai; Wang, Fahong; Zhang, Bin; Li, Haosheng; Song, Jie; Kong, Lingan

    2018-07-01

    Water deficit is one of the major factors limiting crop productivity worldwide. Plant roots play a key role in uptaking water, perceiving and transducing of water deficit signals to shoot. Although the mechanisms of drought-tolerance have been reported recently, the transcriptional regulatory network of wheat root response to water stress has not been fully understood. In this study, drought-tolerant cultivar JM-262 and susceptible cultivar LM-2 are planted to characterize the root transcriptional changes and physiological responses to water deficit. A total of 8197 drought tolerance-associated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are identified, these genes are mainly mapped to carbon metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis, and phytohormone signal transduction. The number and expression level of DEGs involved in antioxidative and antiosmotic stresses are more enhanced in JM-262 under water stress. Furthermore, we find the DEGs related to root development are much more induced in JM-262 in phytohormone signal transduction and carbon metabolism pathway. In conclusion, JM-262 may alleviate the damage of drought by producing more osmoprotectants, ROS scavengers, biomass and energy. Interestingly, hormone signaling and cross-talk probably play an important role in promoting JM-262 greater root systems to take up more water, higher capabilities to induce more drought-related DEGs and higher resisitance to oxidative stresse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceived fitness protects against stress-based mental health impairments among police officers who report good sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Kellmann, Micheal; Elliot, Catherine; Hartmann, Tim; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a cognitive stress-moderation model that posits that the harmful effects of chronic stress are decreased in police officers who perceive high levels of physical fitness. It also determined whether the stress-buffering effect of perceived fitness is influenced by officers' self-reported sleep. A total of 460 police officers (n=116 females, n=344 males, mean age: M=40.7; SD=9.7) rated their physical fitness and completed a battery of self-report stress, mental health, and sleep questionnaires. Three-way analyses of covariance were performed to examine whether officers' self-reported mental health status depends on the interaction between stress, perceived fitness and sleep. Highly stressed officers perceived lower mental health and fitness and were overrepresented in the group of poor sleepers. Officers with high fitness self-reports revealed increased mental health and reported good sleep. In contrast, poor sleepers scored lower on the mental health index. High stress was more closely related to low mental health among poor sleepers. Most importantly, perceived fitness revealed a stress-buffering effect, but only among officers who reported good sleep. High perceived fitness and good sleep operate as stress resilience resources among police officers. The findings suggest that multimodal programs including stress management, sleep hygiene and fitness training are essential components of workplace health promotion in the police force.

  17. Stress distribution patterns of implant supported overdentures-analog versus finite element analysis: A comparative in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyadev Satpathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to asses & compare the load transfer characteristics of Ball/O-ring and Bar/Clip attachment systems in implant supported overdentures using analog and finite element analysis models. Methodology: For the analog part of the study, castable bar was used for the bar and clip attachment and a metallic housing with a rubber O-ring component was used for the ball/O-ring attachment. The stress on the implant surface was measured using the strain-gauge technique. For the finite element analysis, the model were fabricated and load applications were done in a similar manner as in analog study. Results: The difference between both the attachment systems was found to be statistically significant (P<0.001. Conclusion: Ball/O-ring attachment system transmitted lesser amount of stresses to the implants on the non-loading side, as compared to the Bar-Clip attachment system. When overall stress distribution is compared, the Bar-Clip attachment seems to perform better than the Ball/O-ring attachment, because the force was distributed better.

  18. Socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress in Finland from 1979 to 2002: a population-based repeated cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talala Kirsi M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the decades, global public health efforts have sought to reduce socio-economic health differences, including differences in mental health. Only a few studies have examined changes in socio-economic differences in psychological symptoms over time. The aim of this study was to assess trends in socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress over a 24-year time period in Finland. Methods The data source is a repeated cross-sectional survey “Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population” (AVTK, from the years 1979 to 2002, divided into five study periods. Indicators for socio-economic status included employment status from the survey, and educational level and household income from the Statistics Finland register data. We studied the age group of 25–64 years (N = 70115; average annual response rate 75%. Outcome measures were single questions of self-reported insomnia and stress. Results The overall prevalence of insomnia was 18-19% and that of stress 16-19%. Compared to the first study period, 1979–1982, the prevalence of stress increased until study period 1993–1997. The prevalence of insomnia increased during the last study period, 1998–2002. Respondents who were unemployed or had retired early reported more insomnia and stress over time among both men and women. Lower education was associated with more insomnia especially among men; and conversely, with less stress among both sexes. Compared to the highest household income level, those in the intermediate levels of income had less stress whereas those in the lowest income levels had more stress among both sexes. Income level differences in insomnia were less consistent. In general, socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress fluctuated some, but did not change substantially over the study period 1979–2002. Conclusions Self-reported insomnia and stress were more common during later study periods. The

  19. Wind stress over the Arabian Sea from ship reports and Seasat scatterometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perigaud, C.; Minster, J. F.; Delecluse, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seasat scatterometer data over the Arabian Sea are used to build wind-stress fields during July and August 1978. They are first compared with 3-day wind analyses from ship data along the Somali coast. Seasat scatterometer specifications of 2-m/s and 20-deg accuracy are fulfilled in almost all cases. The exceptions are for winds stronger than 14 m/s, which are underestimated by the scatterometer by 15 percent. Wind stress is derived from these wind data using a bulk formula with a drag coefficient depending on the wind intensity. A successive-correction objective analysis is used to build the wind-stress field over the Arabian Sea with 2 x 2-deg and 6-day resolution. The final wind-stress fields are not significantly dependent on the objective analysis because of the dense coverage of the scatterometer. The combination of scatterometer and coastal ship data gives the best coverage to resolve monsoon wind structures even close to the coast. The final wind stress fields show wind features consistent with other monthly mean wind stress field. However, a high variability is observed on the 6-day time scale.

  20. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  1. Hamate hook stress fracture in a professional bowler: Case report of an unusual causal sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How Kit, N; Malherbe, M; Hulet, C

    2017-02-01

    Stress fracture of the hook of the hamate is uncommon and is usually seen in sports involving a club, racquet or bat (i.e., golf, tennis or baseball). It is caused by direct blunt trauma. We report an unusual case of stress fracture with non-union in a 23-year-old professional bowler, probably caused by endogenous constraints, 1 year after the start of symptoms. Treatment consisted of surgical resection of the hook of the hamate. Multimodal imaging of this fracture is reviewed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Recent life stress exposure is associated with poorer long-term memory, working memory, and self-reported memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Doty, Dominique; Shields, Rebecca H; Gower, Garrett; Slavich, George M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-11-01

    Although substantial research has examined the effects of stress on cognition, much of this research has focused on acute stress (e.g. manipulated in the laboratory) or chronic stress (e.g. persistent interpersonal or financial difficulties). In contrast, the effects of recent life stress on cognition have been relatively understudied. To address this issue, we examined how recent life stress is associated with long-term, working memory, and self-reported memory in a sample of 142 healthy young adults who were assessed at two time points over a two-week period. Recent life stress was measured using the newly-developed Stress and Adversity Inventory for Daily Stress (Daily STRAIN), which assesses the frequency of relatively common stressful life events and difficulties over the preceding two weeks. To assess memory performance, participants completed both long-term and working memory tasks. Participants also provided self-reports of memory problems. As hypothesized, greater recent life stress exposure was associated with worse performance on measures of long-term and working memory, as well as more self-reported memory problems. These associations were largely robust while controlling for possible confounds, including participants' age, sex, and negative affect. The findings indicate that recent life stress exposure is broadly associated with worse memory. Future studies should thus consider assessing recent life stress as a potential predictor, moderator, or covariate of memory performance.

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Necrotrophic Fungus Ascochyta rabiei during Oxidative Stress: Insight for Fungal Survival in the Host Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunal; Nizam, Shadab; Sinha, Manisha; Verma, Praveen K.

    2012-01-01

    Localized cell death, known as the hypersensitive response (HR), is an important defense mechanism for neutralizing phytopathogens. The hallmark of the HR is an oxidative burst produced by the host plant. We aimed to identify genes of the necrotrophic chickpea blight fungus Ascochyta rabiei that are involved in counteracting oxidative stress. A subtractive cDNA library was constructed after menadione treatment, which resulted in the isolation of 128 unigenes. A reverse northern blot was used to compare transcript profiles after H2O2, menadione and sodium nitroprusside treatments. A total of 70 unigenes were found to be upregulated by more than two-fold following menadione treatment at different time intervals. A large number of genes not previously associated with oxidative stress were identified, along with many stress-responsive genes. Differential expression patterns of several genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and northern blotting. In planta qRT-PCR of several selected genes also showed differential expression patterns during infection and disease progression. These data shed light on the molecular responses of the phytopathogen A. rabiei to overcome oxidative and nitrosative stresses and advance the understanding of necrotrophic fungal pathogen survival mechanisms. PMID:22427966

  4. Assessing conflict communication in couples: comparing the validity of self-report, partner-report, and observer ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-04-01

    This study of married couples investigated the short-term predictive validity of the partner-report and self-report scales of the Conflict Communication Inventory and compared the validity of these scales with the validity of observer ratings. A sample of 83 married couples completed two problem-solving conversations. Self-report, partner-report, and observer ratings from Conversation 1 were used to predict behavior in Conversation 2, as rated by a separate panel of observers. The short-term predictive validity of partner-report ratings was extremely high and indistinguishable from the validity of observer ratings. Self-report ratings also demonstrated good validity, albeit slightly lower than other methods. Both partner-report and self-report scores explained a substantial amount of variance in concurrent observer ratings of communication after controlling for relationship satisfaction. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Stress sensitive electricity based on Ag/cellulose nanofiber aerogel for self-reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiufang; Fan, Bitao; Xiong, Ye; Wang, Chao; Wang, Hanwei; Jin, Chunde; Sun, Qingfeng

    2017-07-15

    A self-reporting aerogel toward stress sensitive slectricity (SSE) was presented using an interconnected 3D fibrous network of Ag nanoparticles/cellulose nanofiber aerogel (Ag/CNF), which was prepared via combined routes of silver mirror reaction and ultrasonication. Sphere-like Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) with mean diameter of 74nm were tightly anchored in the cellulose nanofiber through by the coherent interfaces as the conductive materials. The as-prepared Ag/CNF as a self-reporting material for SSE not only possessed quick response and sensitivity, but also be easily recovered after 100th compressive cycles without plastic deformation or degradation in compressive strength. Consequently, Ag/CNF could play a viable role in self-reporting materials as a quick electric-stress responsive sensor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-reported racial discrimination and endothelial reactivity to acute stress in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie A; Tennen, Howard; Finan, Patrick H; Ghuman, Nimrta; Burg, Matthew M

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of self-reported racial discrimination on endothelial responses to acute laboratory mental stress among post-menopausal women. One-hundred thirteen women (n = 94 self-identified as White and n = 19 self-identified as racial/ethnic minority), 43% with type 2 diabetes, reported lifetime experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination. Repeated assessments of flow-mediated dilation were performed at baseline, immediately after 5 min of mental arithmetic and at 20-min recovery. Both White and racial/ethnic minority women reported lifetime discrimination, with rates significantly higher among minorities. Self-reported lifetime discrimination was associated with attenuated flow-mediated dilation at recovery. Confounding variables, including clinical characteristics, mood, personality traits, other life stressors and general distress, did not better account for the effect of racial discrimination. Neither race/ethnicity nor diabetes status moderated the effect. The perceived stressfulness of the mental arithmetic was not associated with the endothelial response. In conclusion, self-reported lifetime discrimination is associated with attenuated endothelial recovery from acute mental stress. Elucidating the effects of discrimination and the biological mechanisms through which it affects the vasculature may suggest interventions to improve health. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Self-reported impulsivity, but not behavioral choice or response impulsivity, partially mediates the effect of stress on drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Ansell, Emily B; Reynolds, Brady; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Stress and impulsivity contribute to alcohol use, and stress may also act via impulsivity to increase drinking behavior. Impulsivity represents a multi-faceted construct and self-report and behavioral assessments may effectively capture distinct clinically relevant factors. The present research investigated whether aspects of impulsivity mediate the effect of stress on alcohol use. A community-based sample of 192 men and women was assessed on measures of cumulative stress, alcohol use, self-reported impulsivity, and behavioral choice and response impulsivity. Data were analyzed using regression and bootstrapping techniques to estimate indirect effects of stress on drinking via impulsivity. Cumulative adversity exhibited both direct effects and indirect effects (via self-reported impulsivity) on drinking behavior. Additional models examining specific types of stress indicated direct and indirect effects of trauma and recent life events, and indirect effects of major life events and chronic stressors on drinking behavior. Overall, cumulative stress was associated with increased drinking behavior, and this effect was partially mediated by self-reported impulsivity. Self-reported impulsivity also mediated the effects of different types of stress on drinking behavior. These findings highlight the value of mediation models to examine the pathways through which different types of stress increase drinking behavior. Treatment and prevention strategies should focus on enhancing stress management and self-control.

  8. Comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of Type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems and related mobile stress response systems in prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarova Kira S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS, also referred to as TA loci are widespread, mobile two-gene modules that can be viewed as selfish genetic elements because they evolved mechanisms to become addictive for replicons and cells in which they reside, but also possess "normal" cellular functions in various forms of stress response and management of prokaryotic population. Several distinct TAS of type 1, where the toxin is a protein and the antitoxin is an antisense RNA, and numerous, unrelated TAS of type 2, in which both the toxin and the antitoxin are proteins, have been experimentally characterized, and it is suspected that many more remain to be identified. Results We report a comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of Type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems in prokaryotes. Using sensitive methods for distant sequence similarity search, genome context analysis and a new approach for the identification of mobile two-component systems, we identified numerous, previously unnoticed protein families that are homologous to toxins and antitoxins of known type 2 TAS. In addition, we predict 12 new families of toxins and 13 families of antitoxins, and also, predict a TAS or TAS-like activity for several gene modules that were not previously suspected to function in that capacity. In particular, we present indications that the two-gene module that encodes a minimal nucleotidyl transferase and the accompanying HEPN protein, and is extremely abundant in many archaea and bacteria, especially, thermophiles might comprise a novel TAS. We present a survey of previously known and newly predicted TAS in 750 complete genomes of archaea and bacteria, quantitatively demonstrate the exceptional mobility of the TAS, and explore the network of toxin-antitoxin pairings that combines plasticity with selectivity. Conclusion The defining properties of the TAS, namely, the typically small size of the toxin and antitoxin genes, fast evolution, and

  9. Comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems and related mobile stress response systems in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2009-06-03

    The prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS, also referred to as TA loci) are widespread, mobile two-gene modules that can be viewed as selfish genetic elements because they evolved mechanisms to become addictive for replicons and cells in which they reside, but also possess "normal" cellular functions in various forms of stress response and management of prokaryotic population. Several distinct TAS of type 1, where the toxin is a protein and the antitoxin is an antisense RNA, and numerous, unrelated TAS of type 2, in which both the toxin and the antitoxin are proteins, have been experimentally characterized, and it is suspected that many more remain to be identified. We report a comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of Type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems in prokaryotes. Using sensitive methods for distant sequence similarity search, genome context analysis and a new approach for the identification of mobile two-component systems, we identified numerous, previously unnoticed protein families that are homologous to toxins and antitoxins of known type 2 TAS. In addition, we predict 12 new families of toxins and 13 families of antitoxins, and also, predict a TAS or TAS-like activity for several gene modules that were not previously suspected to function in that capacity. In particular, we present indications that the two-gene module that encodes a minimal nucleotidyl transferase and the accompanying HEPN protein, and is extremely abundant in many archaea and bacteria, especially, thermophiles might comprise a novel TAS. We present a survey of previously known and newly predicted TAS in 750 complete genomes of archaea and bacteria, quantitatively demonstrate the exceptional mobility of the TAS, and explore the network of toxin-antitoxin pairings that combines plasticity with selectivity. The defining properties of the TAS, namely, the typically small size of the toxin and antitoxin genes, fast evolution, and extensive horizontal mobility, make the task of

  10. Breast Cancer Surgery: Comparing Surgical Groups and Determining Individual Differences in Postoperative Sexuality and Body Change Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurek, Debora; Farrar, William; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2007-01-01

    Women diagnosed and surgically treated for regional breast cancer (N = 190) were studied to determine the sexual and body change sequelae for women receiving modified radical mastectomy (MRM) with breast reconstruction in comparison with the sequelae for women receiving breast-conserving therapy (BCT) or MRM without breast reconstruction. The sexuality pattern for women receiving reconstructive surgery was one that was significantly different—with lower rates of activity and fewer signs of sexual responsiveness—than that for women in either of the other groups. Significantly higher levels of traumatic stress and situational distress regarding the breast changes were reported by the women receiving an MRM in contrast to the women treated with BCT. Using a model to predict sexual morbidity, regression analyses revealed that individual differences in sexual self-schema were related to both sexual and body change stress outcomes. PMID:10965644

  11. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  12. Objective effect manifestation of pectus excavatum on load-stressed pulmonary function testing: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Jason

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall that, under certain conditions, may pose functional problems due to cardiopulmonary compromise and exercise intolerance. Case presentation We present the case of an otherwise physically-adept 21-year-old Chinese sportsman with idiopathic pectus excavatum, whose symptoms manifested only on bearing a loaded body vest and backpack during physical exercise. Corroborative objective evidence was obtained via load-stressed pulmonary function testing, which demonstrated restrictive lung function. Conclusion This report highlights the possible detrimental synergism of thoracic load stress and pectus excavatum on cardiopulmonary function. Thoracic load-stressed pulmonary function testing provides objective evidence in support of such a synergistic relationship.

  13. Bilateral stress fracture of femoral neck in non-athlete - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubiratan Stefani de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bilateral stress fracture of femoral neck in healthy young patients is an extremely rare entity, whose diagnostic and treatment represent a major challenge. Patients with history of hip pain, even non-athletes or military recruits, should be analyzed to achieve an early diagnosis and prevent possible complications from the surgical treatment. This report describes a 43-year-old male patient, non-athlete, without previous diseases, who developed bilateral stress fracture of femoral neck without displacement. He had a late diagnosis; bilateral osteosynthesis was made using cannulated screws. Although the diagnosis was delayed in this case, the study highlights the importance of the diagnosis of stress fracture, regardless of the activity level of the patients, for the success of the treatment.

  14. Comparing Anxiety and Depression in Patients With Takotsubo Stress Cardiomyopathy to Those With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Anne C H; Wong, Stephanie; Zaroff, Jonathan G; Shafaee, Navid; Lundstrom, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether anxiety or depression is associated with takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy (TSCM). A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 73 TSCM cases and 111 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) controls matched for age, sex, and cardiac catheterization date. The study was conducted between May 1, 2009, and February 28, 2010. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was completed by all participants after hospital discharge. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess psychological distress with measurement of anxiety and depression scores. The presence of a stressful emotional or physical trigger before the TSCM presentation was determined. Univariate testing was performed to quantify the associations between anxiety and depression and TSCM trigger status. Multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify the independent associations between anxiety and depression and TSCM status after controlling for relevant covariates. The mean anxiety score was 6.7 ± 4.7 for TSCM cases versus 5.4 ± 3.4 for ACS controls (P = .06). The mean depression score was 4.3 ± 3.7 for TSCM cases versus 4.0 ± 3.1 for controls (P = .61). Anxiety was particularly associated with TSCM status with an emotional trigger (P = .05). After multivariable adjustment, anxiety (OR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26; P = .03) was associated with TSCM status but depression was not (OR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.83-1.05; P = .29). In comparison with a control group with ACS, patients who presented with TSCM have higher levels of anxiety but not depression.

  15. Randomized clinical trial comparing TVT Secur system and trans vaginal obturator tape for the surgical management of stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Ken; Gupta, Chander; Klippenstein, Peter; Girouard, Lise

    2014-07-01

    This prospective randomized study aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of the TVT-Secur (TVT-S) with the trans vaginal obturator tape (TVT-O) for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. We set out to enroll 136 patients in our study. 106 patients with stress urinary incontinence were randomized to either the TVT-S (n = 56) or TVT-O (n = 50) procedure. Patients were evaluated postoperatively at 2 months and 1 year. Our primary outcome was objective cure measured by the cough test. Secondary outcomes of subjective symptoms, questionnaires, pain scores, complications, and urodynamic studies were also included. Statistical analysis was by Chi-squared, Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon, and Fisher's exact tests as appropriate. P values of TVT-O compared with TVT-S at 1 year (86 % and 63 % respectively, p = 0.01). Subjective cure rates were 88 % for TVT-O and 63 % for TVT-S. Quality of life scores through questionnaires improved in both groups and were not statistically different. Initial post-operative groin pain was more prevalent in the TVT-O group; however, this resolved quickly with time. TVT-O was superior to TVT-S in the objective cure of stress urinary incontinence at 1-year follow-up.

  16. Relationship between Job Stress and 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms on Self-Reported Sleep Quality in Physicians in Urumqi (Xinjiang, China): A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyan; Ge, Hua; Jiang, Yu; Lian, Yulong; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Jiwen

    2018-05-21

    The serotonin receptor (5-HTR) plays a key role in sleep quality regulation. Job-related stress is an important factor that influences sleep quality. However, few reports on the interaction between 5-HTR2A polymorphisms and job stress, and how they may impact upon sleep quality are available. Therefore this study investigated the effects of job stress, 5-HTR2A polymorphisms, and their interaction on sleep quality, in physicians. Using a two-stage stratified sampling method, 918 participants were initially invited to participate in the study. After screening for study inclusion and exclusion criteria, 504 subjects were eventually included in the study. Job stress and sleep quality were assessed using the Job Stress Survey (JSS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), respectively. The 5-HTR2A receptor gene polymorphisms T102C and -1438G/A of were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Job stress was significantly associated with sleep quality. High levels of job stress were linked to a higher risk of poor sleep quality compared to low or moderate levels [odds ratio (OR) = 2.909, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.697⁻4.986]. High levels of stress may reduce subjects’ sleep quality, leading to an increase the likelihood of sleep disturbances and subsequent daytime dysfunction. The 5-HTR2A receptor gene polymorphism T102C was not significantly associated with sleep quality in this study, however, the -1438G/A polymorphism was significantly associated with sleep quality. The GG genotype of the -1438G/A polymorphism was linked to poorer sleep quality. When compared with subjects with low job-related stress levels×AG/AA genotype (OR = 2.106, 95% CI: 1.278⁻3.471), physicians with high job-related stress levels×GG genotype had a higher risk of experiencing poor sleep quality (OR = 13.400, 95% CI: 3.143⁻57.137). The findings of our study indicate that job stress and 5-HTR2A receptor gene polymorphisms are associated

  17. First-rib stress fracture in two adolescent swimmers: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sara; Kern, Michael; Atanda, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    First-rib stress fractures have been described in adolescent athletes in various sports, with only one prior case report of first-rib stress fractures in an adolescent female swimmer. There is a need for research on the cause, management, and prevention of these injuries as they lead to significant morbidity and critical time away from sport for these aspiring athletes. We aimed to describe first-rib stress fractures as a potential cause for non-specific atraumatic chronic shoulder pain in adolescent swimmers and to discuss the different presentations, unique risk factors, treatment, and potential injury prevention strategies of such fractures. We discussed two such cases which were successfully treated with activity modification with restriction of all overhead activity, gradually progressive physical therapy and a return to swimming protocol. First-rib stress fractures can vary in presentation and should be in the differential diagnosis in adolescent swimmers with chronic shoulder pain. These injuries can be successfully managed with rest from overhead activities and physical therapy. Gradual return to competitive swimming can be achieved even with non-union of a first-rib stress fracture. Emphasis on balanced strength training in different muscle groups and proper swimming technique is essential to prevent these injuries.

  18. Comparative Study of Teachers in Regular Schools and Teachers in Specialized Schools in France, Working with Students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Stress, Social Support, Coping Strategies and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujut, Emilie; Dean, Annika; Grouselle, Amélie; Cappe, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in schools is a source of stress for teachers. Specialized teachers have, in theory, received special training. To compare the experiences of teachers dealing with students with ASD in different classroom environments. A total of 245 teachers filled out four self-report questionnaires…

  19. Perceived stress and reported cognitive symptoms among Georgia patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, L; Lim, S S; Bowling, C B; Drenkard, C

    2017-09-01

    Objective To examine associations of perceived stress with cognitive symptoms among adults with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Among 777 adult (≥18 years) SLE patients, the association of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores with two self-reported cognitive symptoms was examined: forgetfulness (severe/moderate vs. mild/none; from the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire) and difficulty concentrating (all/most vs. some/little/none of the time; from the Lupus Impact Tracker). The study used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) per minimal important difference (MID = 0.5*SD) of PSS score and cognitive symptoms. Results Forgetfulness and difficulty concentrating were reported by 41.7% and 29.5%, respectively. Women and those with less education and high disease activity had higher PSS scores and were more likely to report cognitive symptoms than their counterparts. With adjustment for age, race, sex, education, and disease activity, each MID increase in PSS score was associated with higher prevalence of forgetfulness (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.29-1.47) and difficulty concentrating (OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.90-2.52). No substantial differences in this association by age, race, sex, or disease activity were noted. Conclusions SLE patients, particularly those with high disease activity, report a high burden of cognitive symptoms, for which stress may be a modifiable risk factor.

  20. Reiki brief report: using Reiki to reduce stress levels in a nine-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L; Berardi, Diana

    2014-01-01

    A nine-year-old female with a history of perinatal stroke, seizures, and type-I diabetes was seen for six weeks of Reiki to determine the effects of Reiki on relaxation, and in turn, the prevention of future seizures. The secondary and tertiary aims were to determine the effects of Reiki on sleep patterns and the stress levels of the mother. There was a decrease in stress in both the child and the mother, as measured by a modified Perceived Stress Scale and a Perceived Stress Scale, respectively. There was no change in the child's overall sense of well-being, as measured by a global questionnaire. There was a positive change in sleep patterns on 33.3% of the nights during which the study occurred, as reported on a sleep log kept by the mother. The child and the Reiki Master (a Reiki practitioner who has completed all three levels of Reiki certification training and trains and certifies individuals in the practice of Reiki as well as provides Reiki to individuals) experienced warmth and tingling sensations on the same area of the child during the Reiki sessions. The child relaxed within the first five to seven minutes of each session as reported by the Reiki Master. There were no reports of seizures during this study. Reiki may be a useful adjunct for children with increased stress levels and sleep disturbances secondary to their medical condition. Further research is warranted to evaluate the use of Reiki in children, particularly with a large sample size, and to evaluate the long-term use of Reiki and its effects on adequate sleep. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The comparative effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Rat on oxidative stress parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Nurina Tyagita; Taufiqurrachman Nasihun; Titiek Sumarawati

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting, like Islamic Ramadan Fasting, has been associated with health benefits. Islamic Ramadan fasting, a form of caloric restriction (CR) or alternate day fasting that. Studies suggest a comparable effect of ADF and caloric restriction. Despite the fact that fasting can be considered as a form of dietary restriction, fasters tend to have difficulty to reduce their food intake during non-fasting period by overeating leading to the excessive calorie intake. To compare the effec...

  2. Culture and health reporting: a comparative content analysis of newspapers in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Peng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Health reporting has the potential to educate the public and promote health behaviors. Culture influences the style of such communication. Following the theorization of national cultures by Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) and Wilber (2000), this study compares health reporting in the United States and China through a content analysis of leading newspapers. The authors discover significant differences in health reporting in terms of controllability attribution, temporal orientation, citation of authority sources, and use of statistics. As one of the first comparative content analysis studies of health reporting in Eastern and Western cultures, this study provides a unique cultural lens for health communication scholars to better understand health information in the news media.

  3. Radiographers and trainee radiologists reporting accident radiographs: A comparative plain film-reading performance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buskov, L.; Abild, A.; Christensen, A.; Holm, O.; Hansen, C.; Christensen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical validity of reporting radiographers with that of trainee radiologists whom they have recently joined in reporting emergency room radiographs at Bispebjerg University Hospital. Materials and methods: Plain radiographs of the appendicular skeleton from 1000 consecutive emergency room patients were included in the study: 500 primarily reported by radiographers and 500 by trainee radiologists. The final reporting was subsequently undertaken by a consultant radiologist in consensus with an orthopaedic surgeon. Two observers classified reports as either true positive/negative or false positive/negative based on the final report, which was considered the reference standard. To evaluate the severity of incorrect primary reports, errors were graded into three categories concerning clinical impact and erroneous reports graded as the most severe category were subsequently analysed. Mann–Whitney and Chi-squared tests were used to compare differences and associations between radiographers versus trainee radiologists regarding film reporting. Results: The sensitivity for correct diagnosis was 99% for reporting radiographers and 94% for trainee radiologists. The specificity was found to be 97% for reporting radiographers and 99% for trainee radiologists. Radiographers missed significantly fewer fractures (n = 2) than trainee radiologists (n = 14; p = 0.006) but had a higher, but not significant, degree of overcalling. No significant difference was found between groups regarding clinical impact of incorrect reporting. Conclusion: Trained radiographers report accident radiographs of the extremities with high accuracy and constitute a qualified resource to help meet increasing workload and demands in quality standards.

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis of Typha angustifolia leaf under chromium, cadmium and lead stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bah, Alieu Mohamed; Sun Hongyan; Chen Fei; Zhou Jing; Dai Huaxin; Zhang Guoping; Wu Feibo

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated Typha angustifolia leaf proteome in response to Cr, Cd and Pb stress. T. angustifolia of 90 (D90) and 130 d (D130) old plants were subjected to 1 mM Cr, Cd and Pb and samples were collected 30 d after treatment. 2-DE coupled with MS (mass spectrometry) was used to analyze and identify Cr, Cd and Pb-responsive proteins. More than 1600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel, wherein 44, 46, 66 and 33, 26, 62 spots in D90 and D130 samples were differentially expressed by Cr, Cd, Pb over the control, respectively. Of these differentially expressed proteins, 3, 1, 8 overlapped in D90 and D130; while 5, 8, 5 with regulation factors above 3 in one of D90 or D130 samples. Total of 22 and 4 up- and down-regulated proteins were identified using MS and data bank analysis. Cr-induced expression of ATP synthase, RuBisCO small subunit and coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; Cd-induced RuBisCO large subunit; Pb up-regulated carbohydrate metabolic pathway enzymes of fructokinase, and improved RuBisCO activase and large subunit, Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase. Contrarily, elF4F was inhibited by Cr/Pb, chloroplast FtsZ-like protein and GF14omega impeded by Cd and Pb, respectively.

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of Typha angustifolia leaf under chromium, cadmium and lead stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Alieu Mohamed; Sun Hongyan; Chen Fei; Zhou Jing; Dai Huaxin; Zhang Guoping [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Wu Feibo, E-mail: wufeibo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2010-12-15

    The present study investigated Typha angustifolia leaf proteome in response to Cr, Cd and Pb stress. T. angustifolia of 90 (D90) and 130 d (D130) old plants were subjected to 1 mM Cr, Cd and Pb and samples were collected 30 d after treatment. 2-DE coupled with MS (mass spectrometry) was used to analyze and identify Cr, Cd and Pb-responsive proteins. More than 1600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel, wherein 44, 46, 66 and 33, 26, 62 spots in D90 and D130 samples were differentially expressed by Cr, Cd, Pb over the control, respectively. Of these differentially expressed proteins, 3, 1, 8 overlapped in D90 and D130; while 5, 8, 5 with regulation factors above 3 in one of D90 or D130 samples. Total of 22 and 4 up- and down-regulated proteins were identified using MS and data bank analysis. Cr-induced expression of ATP synthase, RuBisCO small subunit and coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; Cd-induced RuBisCO large subunit; Pb up-regulated carbohydrate metabolic pathway enzymes of fructokinase, and improved RuBisCO activase and large subunit, Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase. Contrarily, elF4F was inhibited by Cr/Pb, chloroplast FtsZ-like protein and GF14omega impeded by Cd and Pb, respectively.

  6. A phytotron for plant stress research: how far can artificial lighting compare to natural sunlight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, S.; Döhring, T.; Köfferlein, M.; Kosak, A.; Martin, P.; Seidlitz, H.K.

    1996-01-01

    Plants have adapted very efficiently to their natural light habitat. Artificial plant illumination, therefore, requires careful design. Not only the quantity of radiation per area or volume (intensity) but also the spectral quality has to match seasonal and diurnal variations of natural global radiation as close as possible. The GSF Research Center has developed a phytotron system especially devoted to plant stress research, where these requirements are of particular importance. The phytotron consists of seven closed chambers (4 walk-in size chambers, two medium and one small sun simulator). Our contribution outlines the basic design of the lighting and presents spectral data. A good approximation of terrestrial global radiation is achieved if several commercially available lamp types are combined and adequate filters are applied to reject unwanted infrared and harmful ultraviolet radiation. A programmable switch control for the individual lamp banks allows a variation of both spectrum and intensity of the illumination. Spectroradiometric measurements show that the maximum level of illumination in the small and in the medium size chambers can compete both in spectral distribution and in intensity with outdoor global radiation for solar elevations up to 60°. The maximum light level available inside the large walk-in chambers reaches an irradiance corresponding to solar elevation of 50°. The UV-B: UV-A: PAR ratio, which mirrors the spectral balance of plant lighting, can be adjusted to values following the diurnal variation of natural global radiation.(author)

  7. Comparative proteomics in alkaptonuria provides insights into inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconi, Daniela; Bernardini, Giulia; Paffetti, Alessandro; Millucci, Lia; Geminiani, Michela; Laschi, Marcella; Frediani, Bruno; Marzocchi, Barbara; Santucci, Annalisa

    2016-12-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an ultra-rare inborn error of metabolism associated with a defective catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine leading to increased systemic levels of homogentisic acid (HGA). Excess HGA is partly excreted in the urine, partly accumulated within the body and deposited onto connective tissues under the form of an ochronotic pigment, leading to a range of clinical manifestations. No clear genotype/phenotype correlation was found in AKU, and today there is the urgent need to identify biomarkers able to monitor AKU progression and evaluate response to treatment. With this aim, we provided the first proteomic study on serum and plasma samples from alkaptonuric individuals showing pathological SAA, CRP and Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) levels. Interesting similarities with proteomic studies on other rheumatic diseases were highlighted together with proteome alterations supporting the existence of oxidative stress and inflammation in AKU. Potential candidate biomarkers to assess disease severity, monitor disease progression and evaluate response to treatment were identified as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of the stress analysis reports for Angra I reactor coolant loop - part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, S.V.G.; Andrade, J.E.L. de

    1980-03-01

    A methodology that will allow CNEN to approve the stress analysis reports of the components of the Brazilian nuclear power plants, was developed. The reactor coolant loop (RCL)of Angra I was checkd. This is the first part of the complete report and consists of the approval of the design documents, the approval of the equipment support models and the aproval of the steam generator dynamic model. The second part of this work is under way now and should contain the approval of the RCL stress and fatigue analysis according to ASME code section III. As shown in section 7 it appears necessary additional information from Westinghouse about the design of the RCL. (Author) [pt

  9. Recruitment of aged donor heart with pharmacological stress echo. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heart transplant is a treatment of the heart failure, which is not responding to medications, and its efficiency is already proved: unfortunately, organ donation is a limiting step of this life-saving procedure. To counteract heart donor shortage, we should screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease. Donors with a history of cardiac disease are generally excluded. Coronary angiography is recommended for most male donors older than 45 years and female donors older than 50 years to evaluate coronary artery stenoses. A simpler way to screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease should be stress echocardiography. Case report A marginal donor (A 57 year old woman meeting legal requirements for brain death underwent a transesophageal (TE Dipyridamole stress echo (6 minutes accelerated protocol to rule out moderate or severe heart and coronary artery disease. Wall motion was normal at baseline and at peak stress (WMSI = 1 at baseline and peak stress, without signs of stress inducible ischemia. The pressure/volume ratio was 9.6 mmHg/ml/m2 at baseline, increasing to 14 mmHg/ml/m2 at peak stress, demonstrating absence of latent myocardial dysfunction. The marginal donor heart was transplanted to a recipient "marginal" for co-morbidity ( a 63 year old man with multiple myeloma and cardiac amyloidosis , chronic severe heart failure, NYHA class IV. Postoperative treatment and early immunosuppressant regimen were performed according to standard protocols. The transplanted heart was assessed normal for dimensions and ventricular function at transthoracic (TT echocardiography on post-transplant day 7. Coronary artery disease was ruled out at coronary angiography one month after transplant; left ventriculography showed normal global and segmental LV function of the transplanted heart. Conclusion For

  10. Comparative analysis of salt stress, duration and intensity, on the chloroplast ultrastructure and photosynthetic apparatus in Thellungiella salsuginea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussi, Rahma; Manaa, Arafet; Derbali, Walid; Cantamessa, Simone; Abdelly, Chedly; Barbato, Roberto

    2018-06-01

    Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stress affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Photosynthesis, together with cell growth, is among the primary process affected by salinity. Here, we report the effects of salt stress on photosynthesis in the model halophyte Thellungiella salsuginea. Plants were grown in hydroponic system and then treated for 2 weeks with different NaCl concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 400 mM). Leaf analysis using both photonic and transmission electron microscopes showed some changes in mesophyll cell organization, including shape and dimension. Under high NaCl concentration (400 mM) a swelling of thylakoids and starch accumulation was also observed. The obtained results also showed a change in the photosynthetic efficiency of both photosystems (PSI and PSII), depending on both NaCl concentrations and duration of the stress treatment. Under moderate salinity (100 and 200 mM NaCl) no significant variation was observed in PSI and PSII yield parameters. Chlorophyll a fluorescence transient showed some variations in OJ, JI and IP phases under salt stress depending also on NaCl levels and the duration of stress. Under high salinity PSII donor side was affected as well as quantum yield of PSI which also showed a donor side limitation. A significant decrease on quantum yields Y(I) and Y(II) under high salt treatment (400 mM NaCl) for prolonged period of time (15 days) was observed. The decrease of these parameters was quantitatively compensated by a corresponding increase of energy thermal dissipation Y(NPQ) in photosystem II and a increase in the Y(ND) in PSI. Analysis of derived parameters from the OJIP transient curve revealed that ABS/RC decreased under NaCl treatment by reason of the increase in size of antenna of active reaction centers. An increase in the performance index PI (ABS) , a slight decrease in the rate of DI O /RC, TR O /RC and the level of electron transport per PSII RC (ET O /RC) were observed during

  11. Residual stress state in an induction hardened steel bar determined by synchrotron- and neutron diffraction compared to results from lab-XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Jonas; Steuwer, Axel; Stormvinter, Albin; Kristoffersen, Hans; Haakanen, Merja; Berglund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Induction hardening is a relatively rapid heat treatment method to increase mechanical properties of steel components. However, results from FE-simulation of the induction hardening process show that a tensile stress peak will build up in the transition zone in order to balance the high compressive stresses close to the surface. This tensile stress peak is located in the transition zone between the hardened zone and the core material. The main objective with this investigation has been to non-destructively validate the residual stress state throughout an induction hardened component. Thereby, allowing to experimentally confirming the existence and magnitude of the tensile stress peak arising from rapid heat treatment. For this purpose a cylindrical steel bar of grade C45 was induction hardened and characterised regarding the microstructure, hardness, hardening depth and residual stresses. This investigation shows that a combined measurement with synchrotron/neutron diffraction is well suited to non-destructively measure the strains through the steel bar of a diameter of 20 mm and thereby making it possible to calculate the residual stress profile. The result verified the high compressive stresses at the surface which rapidly changes to tensile stresses in the transition zone resulting in a large tensile stress peak. Measured stresses by conventional lab-XRD showed however that at depths below 1.5 mm the stresses were lower compared to the synchrotron and neutron data. This is believed to be an effect of stress relaxation from the layer removal. The FE-simulation predicts the depth of the tensile stress peak well but exaggerates the magnitude compared to the measured results by synchrotron/neutron measurements. This is an important knowledge when designing the component and the heat treatment process since this tensile stress peak will have great impact on the mechanical properties of the final component.

  12. Residual stress state in an induction hardened steel bar determined by synchrotron- and neutron diffraction compared to results from lab-XRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.holmberg@swerea.se [Swerea IVF AB, Argongatan 30, 431 22 Mölndal (Sweden); University West, 461 86 Trollhättan (Sweden); Steuwer, Axel [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Gardham Avenue, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Stormvinter, Albin; Kristoffersen, Hans [Swerea IVF AB, Argongatan 30, 431 22 Mölndal (Sweden); Haakanen, Merja [Stresstech OY, Tikkutehtaantie 1, 40 800 Vaajakoski (Finland); Berglund, Johan [Swerea IVF AB, Argongatan 30, 431 22 Mölndal (Sweden)

    2016-06-14

    Induction hardening is a relatively rapid heat treatment method to increase mechanical properties of steel components. However, results from FE-simulation of the induction hardening process show that a tensile stress peak will build up in the transition zone in order to balance the high compressive stresses close to the surface. This tensile stress peak is located in the transition zone between the hardened zone and the core material. The main objective with this investigation has been to non-destructively validate the residual stress state throughout an induction hardened component. Thereby, allowing to experimentally confirming the existence and magnitude of the tensile stress peak arising from rapid heat treatment. For this purpose a cylindrical steel bar of grade C45 was induction hardened and characterised regarding the microstructure, hardness, hardening depth and residual stresses. This investigation shows that a combined measurement with synchrotron/neutron diffraction is well suited to non-destructively measure the strains through the steel bar of a diameter of 20 mm and thereby making it possible to calculate the residual stress profile. The result verified the high compressive stresses at the surface which rapidly changes to tensile stresses in the transition zone resulting in a large tensile stress peak. Measured stresses by conventional lab-XRD showed however that at depths below 1.5 mm the stresses were lower compared to the synchrotron and neutron data. This is believed to be an effect of stress relaxation from the layer removal. The FE-simulation predicts the depth of the tensile stress peak well but exaggerates the magnitude compared to the measured results by synchrotron/neutron measurements. This is an important knowledge when designing the component and the heat treatment process since this tensile stress peak will have great impact on the mechanical properties of the final component.

  13. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  14. [A comparative study on behaviors of two depression models in rats induced by chronic forced swimming stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming-Fei; Gao, Dong; Sun, Xue-Li

    2010-01-01

    To compare the behaviors of rats with depressions induced by chronic forced swimming stress under two different conditions. Eighteen male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, with 6 rats in each group. The rats in the control group (C group) were not forced into swimming, while the rats in the stress groups (S1 and S2) were forced to swim for 14 consecutive days. The rats in S1 group and S2 group swam for five minutes every morning, in water with (23 +/- 1) degree C, and (10 +/- 0.5) degree C in temperature, respectively. The weight gain, food intake, open-field test and saccharin solution test were observed on the seventh day and fourteenth day. On the seventh day following chronic swim stress, the rats in the S2 group had significant lower ratio in weight gain and food intake than the controls (P forced swimming. On the fourteenth day, the rats in the S1 group still had lower ratio in weight gain, but had higher ratio in food intake and preference for saccharin solution, and greater number of crossing than the controls. Chronic forced swimming at a lower temperature could induce depression better than at a higher temperature.

  15. Comparative Investigations on the Stress Corrosion Behavior of α -Al Bronze and α Brass in Sodium Nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashour, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The stress corrosion behavior of α- Aluminum bronze (copper [Cu] -7% Al) (UNS C 61400) has been investigated as compared to α- brass under slow strain in sodium nitrite solutions under open - circuit and different anodic potentials. While α- brass was quite susceptible to SCC, α- Al bronze was found to be resistant to SCC. The ratios of time to failure in solution to that in air and of maximum stress in solution to that in air decreased sharply with increase of anodic potential for α-brass but remained virtually constant for α- Al bronze. The mode of failure was predominantly ductile for α- Al bronze under various conditions. The stress corrosion cracking of α - brass has been shown to be promoted by relatively concentrated Na N O 2 and high anodic potentials. Previous explanations for the change of the mode of failure from intergranular at open circuit potential (OCP) to transgranular cracking under anodic potential were confirmed. The bronzes resistance to SCC was attributed to the presence of Al 2 O 3 on the alloy surface. 10 Figs

  16. Bicuspid aortic valves are associated with increased wall and turbulence shear stress levels compared to trileaflet aortic valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Mirabella, Lucia; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2015-06-01

    Congenital bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) are associated with accelerated disease progression, such as leaflet calcification and ascending aorta dilatation. Although common underlying genetic factors have been implicated in accelerated disease in BAV patients, several studies have suggested that altered hemodynamics also play a role in this disease process. The present study compares turbulence and wall shear stress (WSS) measurements between various BAV and trileaflet aortic valve (TAV) models to provide information for mechanobiological models of BAV disease. BAV and TAV models were constructed from excised porcine aortic valves to simulate parametric variations in BAV stenosis, hemodynamics and geometry. Particle image velocimetry experiments were conducted at physiological pressure conditions to characterize velocity fields in the ascending aorta. The velocity fields were post-processed to calculate turbulence, viscous and wall shear stresses in the ascending aorta. Stenosed BAV models showed the presence of eccentric systolic jets, causing increased WSS. Lower cardiac output resulted in a narrower jet, lower turbulence and lower viscous shear stress (VSS). The specific severe stenosis BAV model studied here showed reduced WSS due to reduction in non-fused leaflet mobility. Dilation of the aorta did not affect any turbulence or VSS, but reduced the WSS. In comparison with BAVs, TAVs have similar VSS values, but much smaller WSS and turbulence levels. These increased turbulence  and WSS levels in BAVs may play a key role in amplifying the biological responses of the ascending aorta wall and valvular leaflets, and support the hemodynamic underpinnings of BAV disease processes.

  17. Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Makhloufi, Emna; Marande, William; Ghorbel, Abdel W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bergès, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L . ssp. durum ). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within oceans of TEs. Each BAC clone harbored a TdWRKY gene. The study showed a very extensive conservation of genomic structure between TdWRKYs and their orthologs from Brachypodium, barley, and T. aestivum . The structural features of TdWRKY proteins suggested that they are novel members of the WRKY family in durum wheat. TdWRKY1/2/4, TdWRKY3, and TdWRKY5 belong to the group Ia, IIa, and IIc, respectively. Enrichment of cis -regulatory elements related to stress responses in the promoters of some TdWRKY genes indicated their potential roles in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental stresses. TdWRKY genes displayed different expression patterns in response to salt stress that distinguishes two durum wheat genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance phenotypes. TdWRKY genes tended to react earlier with a down-regulation in sensitive genotype leaves and with an up-regulation in tolerant genotype leaves. The TdWRKY transcripts levels in roots

  18. Case report: multifocal subchondral stress fractures of the femoral heads and tibial condyles in a young military recruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong

    2012-03-01

    Subchondral stress fractures of the femoral head may be either of the insufficiency-type with poor quality bone or the fatigue-type with normal quality bone but subject to high repetitive stresses. Unlike osteonecrosis, multiple site involvement rarely has been reported for subchondral stress fractures. We describe a case of multifocal subchondral stress fractures involving femoral heads and medial tibial condyles bilaterally within 2 weeks. A 27-year-old military recruit began having left knee pain after 2 weeks of basic training, without any injury. Subsequently, right knee, right hip, and left hip pain developed sequentially within 2 weeks. The diagnosis of multifocal subchondral stress fracture was confirmed by plain radiographs and MR images. Nonoperative treatment of the subchondral stress fractures of both medial tibial condyles and the left uncollapsed femoral head resulted in resolution of symptoms. The collapsed right femoral head was treated with a fibular strut allograft to restore congruity and healed without further collapse. There has been one case report in which an insufficiency-type subchondral stress fracture of the femoral head and medial femoral condyle occurred within a 2-year interval. Because the incidence of bilateral subchondral stress fractures of the femoral head is low and multifocal involvement has not been reported, multifocal subchondral stress fractures can be confused with multifocal osteonecrosis. Our case shows that subchondral stress fractures can occur in multiple sites almost simultaneously.

  19. Comparative miRNAs analysis of Two contrasting broccoli inbred lines with divergent head-forming capacity under temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chien; Fu, Shih-Feng; Norikazu, Monma; Yang, Yau-Wen; Liu, Yu-Ju; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in growth, development, and stress response at the post-transcriptional level. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italic) is an important vegetable crop, and the yield and quality of broccoli are decreased by heat stress. The broccoli inbred lines that are capable of producing head at high temperature in summer are unique varieties in Taiwan. However, knowledge of miRNAomes during the broccoli head formation under heat stress is limited. In this study, molecular characterization of two nearly isogenic lines with contrasting head-forming capacity was investigated. Head-forming capacity was better for heat-tolerant (HT) than heat-sensitive (HS) broccoli under heat stress. By deep sequencing and computational analysis, 20 known miRNAs showed significant differential expression between HT and HS genotypes. According to the criteria for annotation of new miRNAs, 24 novel miRNA sequences with differential expression between the two genotypes were identified. To gain insight into functional significance, 213 unique potential targets of these 44 differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. These targets were implicated in shoot apical development, phase change, response to temperature stimulus, hormone and energy metabolism. The head-forming capacity of the unique HT line was related to autonomous regulation of Bo-FT genes and less expression level of heat shock protein genes as compared to HS. For the genotypic comparison, a set of miRNAs and their targets had consistent expression patterns in various HT genotypes. This large-scale characterization of broccoli miRNAs and their potential targets is to unravel the regulatory roles of miRNAs underlying heat-tolerant head-forming capacity.

  20. Stability of cracked pipe under inertial stresses. Subtask 1.1 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.; Wilson, M.; Olson, R.; Marschall, C.; Schmidt, R.; Wilkowski, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the results of the pipe fracture experiments, analyses, and material characterization efforts performed within Subtask 1.1 of the IPIRG Program. The objective of Subtask 1.1 was to experimentally verify the analysis methodologies for circumferentially cracked pipe subjected primarily to inertial stresses. Eight cracked-pipe experiments were conducted on 6-inch nominal diameter TP304 and A106B pipe. The experimental procedure was developed using nonlinear time-history finite element analyses which included the nonlinear behavior due to the crack. The model did an excellent job of predicting the displacements, forces, and times to maximum moment. The comparison of the experimental loads to the predicted loads by the Net-Section-Collapse (NSC), Dimensionless Plastic-Zone Parameter, J-estimation schemes, R6, and ASME Section XI in-service flaw assessment criteria tended to underpredict the measured bending moments except for the NSC analysis of the A106B pipe. The effects of flaw geometry and loading history on toughness were evaluated by calculating the toughness from the pipe tests and comparing these results to C(l) values. These effects were found to be variable. The surface-crack geometry tended to increase the toughness (relative to CM results), whereas a negative load-ratio significantly decreased the TP304 stainless steel surface-cracked pipe apparent toughness. The inertial experiments tended to achieve complete failure within a few cycles after reaching maximum load in these relatively small diameter pipe experiments. Hence, a load-controlled fracture mechanics analysis may be more appropriate than a displacement-controlled analysis for these tests

  1. Damage assessment in the stress field of scale, comparability and transferability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assmann André

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage assessment is an important task requested in very different contexts. On the one hand very detailed studies are required for cost benefit analysis, on the other hand vulnerability and risk needs to be evaluated for political decisions and emergency situations (i.e. loss estimation of a large scale flood event. Even though a lot of studies have been performed and a lot of different methods are available by now, it is very difficult to use the results in the decision making process, as many methods are poorly described or are based on very special data, and therefore cannot be compared to each other. The attempt of regional (German federal state level standardizations based on very detailed object based approaches are shown. Additionally, a European wide data set for asset mapping is described and a set of application examples is given. It is designed to enable users to compare the impact of different types of hazard. To take it one step further, a global map for vulnerability is presented that can be used to set up a monetary based data set if detailed statistical data is not available. Every type of data set and methodology has its special tasks to fulfil but there is also a high demand for harmonisation and comparability between different studies to enable better decision making. The next demand on data sets and methodologies is to perform time sequence analyses, therefore all data sets and methods presented fulfil the requirement of being updated regularly.

  2. Suicide Risk, Stress Sensitivity, and Self-Esteem among Young Adults Reporting Auditory Hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with subthreshold psychotic experiences are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior, similar to those with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. This may be explained by shared risk factors such as heightened stress sensitivity or low self-esteem. Understanding the nature of this relationship could inform suicide prevention in social work practice. In this study, authors examined the relationship between self-reported auditory hallucinations and suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, in a nonclinical sample of young adults, controlling for scores on the Psychological Stress Index and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Auditory hallucinations were associated with approximately double the odds of suicidal ideation and plans and four times the odds for suicide attempts. This relationship was not explained by stress sensitivity or self-esteem, which were independently related to hallucinations and suicidality, respectively. Subthreshold auditory hallucinations may be a useful indicator of suicide risk. This association may represent a clinically significant relationship that may be addressed through social work interventions intended to alleviate stress sensitivity or improve self-esteem.

  3. Library sequencing strategies for comparative analysis of stress resistance mechanisms in Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennen, Rebecca; Bonde, Ida; Koza, Anna

    2014-01-01

    and subjected to growth selections. Following selection, the locations of all insertions in the population are counted and can be compared between a control and a target condition, enabling the identification of genes that are both conditionally essential and conditionally detrimental. We have exploited Tn....... Tn-Seq revealed many differences and similarities in resistance mechanisms at the genetic level across strains, allowing correlations to be made with growth phenotypes. Cross-strain comparisons of conditionally essential genes and their relative essentiality also suggest a large degree of variation...

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Pain, Stress, Neuropeptide Y, ACTH, and Cortisol Levels Between a Conventional Postoperative Care Protocol and a Fast-Track Recovery Program in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapritsou, Maria; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D; Bozas, Evangelos; Korkolis, Dimitrios P; Konstantinou, Evangelos A; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Giannakopoulou, Margarita

    2017-03-01

    Fast-track (FT) postoperative protocol in oncological patients after major abdominal surgery reduces complications and length of postoperative stay compared to the conventional (CON) protocol. However, stress and pain responses have not been compared between the two protocols. To compare stress, pain, and related neuropeptidic responses (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], cortisol, and neuropeptide Y [NPY]) between FT and CON protocols. A clinical trial with repeated measurements was conducted (May 2012 to May 2014) with a sample of 63 hepatectomized or pancreatectomized patients randomized into two groups: FT ( n = 29) or CON ( n = 34). Demographic and clinical data were collected, and pain (Visual Analog Scale [VAS] and Behavioral Pain Scale [BPS]) and stress responses (3 self-report questions) assessed. NPY, ACTH, and cortisol plasma levels were measured at T1 = day of admission, T2 = day of surgery, and T3 = prior to discharge. ACTH T1 and ACTH T2 levels were positively correlated with self-reported stress levels (ρ = .43 and ρ = .45, respectively, p .05). Neuropeptidic levels were higher in the FT group. Future research should evaluate this association further, as these biomarkers might serve as objective indicators of postoperative pain and stress.

  5. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdi, Gurkiran; Cooke, Richard; Knibb, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population completed validated measures of QoL, anxiety, depression, and stress. Results. Parents of children with food allergy (PA or MA) reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression than the control group (all p food allergy related QoL compared to parents of children with PA (p food allergy have significantly poorer mental health compared to healthy controls, irrespective of whether food allergy is medically diagnosed or not. It is important to encourage parents to have their child medically tested for food allergy and to recognise and refer for psychological support where needed.

  6. Influence of adjuvant detached mindfulness and stress management training compared to pharmacologic treatment in primiparae with postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Nazaribadie, Marzieh; Aghaei, Elham; Ghaleiha, Ali; Bakhtiari, Azade; Haghighi, Mohammad; Bahmani, Dena Sadeghi; Akhondi, Amineh; Bajoghli, Hafez; Jahangard, Leila; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2018-02-01

    Ten to 15% of mothers experience postpartum depression (PPD). If untreated, PPD may negatively affect mothers' and infants' mental health in the long term. Accordingly, effective treatments are required. In the present study, we investigated the effect of detached mindfulness (DM) and stress management training (SMT) as adjuvants, compared to pharmacologic treatment only, on symptoms of depression in women with PPD. Forty-five primiparae (mean age: M = 24.5 years) with diagnosed PPD and treated with an SSRI (citalopram; CIT) took part in the study. At baseline, they completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic data and symptoms of depression. Experts rated also symptoms of depression. Next, participants were randomly assigned to one of the following study conditions: adjuvant detached mindfulness (CIT+DM); adjuvant stress management training (CIT+SMT); control condition (CIT). Self- and experts' ratings were completed at the end of the study 8 weeks later, and again at 8 weeks follow-up. Symptoms of depression decreased significantly over time, but more so in the CIT+DM and CIT+SMT group, compared to the control condition. The pattern of results remained stable at follow-up. In primiparae with PPD and treated with a standard SSRI, adjuvant psychotherapeutic interventions led to significant and longer-lasting improvements.

  7. Comparative Study of Antidiabetic Activity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Zinc Sulfate in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarizadeh, Ali; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak

    2016-08-01

    In the current study, antidiabetic activity and toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) were investigated in diabetic rats compared to zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) with particular emphasis on oxidative stress parameters. One hundred and twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two healthy and diabetic groups, randomly. Each major group was further subdivided into five subgroups and then orally supplemented with various doses of ZnO (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) and ZnSO4 (30 mg/kg) for 56 consecutive days. ZnO showed greater antidiabetic activity compared to ZnSO4 evidenced by improved glucose disposal, insulin levels, and zinc status. The altered activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes as well as raised levels of lipid peroxidation and a marked reduction of total antioxidant capacity were observed in rats receiving ZnO. ZnO nanoparticles acted as a potent antidiabetic agent, however, severely elicited oxidative stress particularly at higher doses.

  8. Global Metabolic Stress of Isoeffort Continuous and High Intensity Interval Aerobic Exercise: A Comparative 1H NMR Metabonomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Sarivasiliou, Haralambos; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Baskakis, Constantinos; Dipla, Konstantina; Theodoridis, Georgios A

    2016-12-02

    The overall metabolic/energetic stress that occurs during an acute bout of exercise is proposed to be the main driving force for long-term training adaptations. Continuous and high-intensity interval exercise protocols (HIIE) are currently prescribed to acquire the muscular and metabolic benefits of aerobic training. We applied 1 H NMR-based metabonomics to compare the overall metabolic perturbation and activation of individual bioenergetic pathways of three popular aerobic exercises matched for effort/strain. Nine men performed continuous, long-interval (3 min), and short-interval (30 s) bouts of exercise under isoeffort conditions. Blood was collected before and after exercise. The multivariate PCA and OPLS-DA models showed a distinct separation of pre- and postexercise samples in three protocols. The two models did not discriminate the postexercise overall metabolic profiles of the three exercise types. Analysis focused on muscle bioenergetic pathways revealed an extensive upregulation of carbohydrate-lipid metabolism and the TCA cycle in all three protocols; there were only a few differences among protocols in the postexercise abundance of molecules when long-interval bouts were performed. In conclusion, continuous and HIIE exercise protocols, when performed with similar effort/strain, induce comparable global metabolic response/stress despite their marked differences in work-bout intensities. This study highlights the importance of NMR metabonomics in comprehensive monitoring of metabolic consequences of exercise training in the blood of athletes and exercising individuals.

  9. Stress among Parents of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Comparison Involving Physiological Indicators and Parent Self-Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, Ciara; James, Jack E

    2017-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been reported as experiencing higher levels of stress and poorer physical health than parents of typically developing children. However, most of the relevant literature has been based on parental self-reports of stress and health. While research on physiological outcomes has grown in recent years, gaps still exist in our understanding of the physiological effects, if any, of stress related to parenting a child with ASD. The present study compared parent-reported stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as selected physiological measures of stress (i.e., cortisol, alpha-amylase, and ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate) between matched groups of parents of children with ( N =  38) and without ( N  = 38) ASD. Participants completed questionnaires, collected saliva samples for the purpose of measuring cortisol and alpha-amylase, and wore an ambulatory blood pressure monitor for 24 h. Parents of children with ASD reported significantly higher levels of parental distress, anxiety, and depression than parents of typically developing children. Parent-reported distress, anxiety, depression, and health were not correlated with physiological measures. With the exception that parents of children with ASD had significantly lower cortisol levels 30 min after waking, no other significant group differences were found for physiological measures. Parents of children with ASD reported significantly higher use of a number of adaptive coping strategies (e.g., emotional support) in comparison to parents of typically developing children. Results are discussed in the context of implications for future research directions, stress research, and practical implications for parental support.

  10. The comparative effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Rat on oxidative stress parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurina Tyagita

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting, like Islamic Ramadan Fasting, has been associated with health benefits. Islamic Ramadan fasting, a form of caloric restriction (CR or alternate day fasting that. Studies suggest a comparable effect of ADF and caloric restriction. Despite the fact that fasting can be considered as a form of dietary restriction, fasters tend to have difficulty to reduce their food intake during non-fasting period by overeating leading to the excessive calorie intake. To compare the effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: The rats were assigned to one of three groups: ADF with 70 % calorie intake (30% CR, ADF with 100 % calorie intake (0% CR, and ADF with 140 % calorie intake (excessive calorie intake and AL (fed ad libitum. All groups were subjected to 6 hour fasting per day (9 a.m. until 3 p.m. or 15 days. The plasma sample was taken for MDA level assessment. Urinary 8-oxodG levels were determined by using ELISA. Results: ADF with 30% calorie restriction (F70 group had the lowest MDA level. Measurement of 8-oxodG level showed that group F70 had the highest production of 8-oxodG. There was an inverse relationship between MDA level and 8-oxodG level meaning the lower MDA level, the lower 8-oxodG levels were produced. Conclusion: ADF fasting with 30% caloric restriction reduce the MDA level but increase 8-oxodG levels. This study suggest the beneficial effect of fasting requires decrease in overall caloric intake.

  11. Pipe stress intensity factors and coupled depressurization and dynamic crack propagation. 1976 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, A.F.; Kobayashi, A.S.; Love, W.J.

    1978-04-01

    This report contains the description of predictive models for the initiation and propagation of cracks in pipes and the numerical results obtained. The initiation of the crack was studied by evaluating stress intensity factors under static conditions for a series of representative flaws. Three-dimensional static stress intensity factors were determined for quarter-elliptical cracks at the corner of a hole in an infinite plate and at the corner of a bore in a rotating disk. Semi-elliptical cracks for plates in bending and in pressurized and thermally stressed hollow cylinders were also evaluated. The stress fields, in the absence of a crack, were used in the ''alternating technique'' to compute the stress intensity factors along the crack front. Parametric studies were made to assess the effects of crack thickness, the ratio of the major and minor axes of the ellipse and the thickness of the cylinders or plates. These parametric results may be used to predict critical flaw sizes for the initiation of the running crack. The initiation and propagation of axial through cracks in pressurized pipes was studied by using an elastic-plastic finite different shell code coupled with a one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic code which computed the leakage through the crack opening and the depressurization of the fluid in the pipe. The effects of large deflections and different fluid pressure profiles were investigated. The results showed that the crack opening shape is dependent upon the fracture criterion used and upon the average pressure on the crack flaps, but not upon the specific pressure profile. The consideration of large deflections changed the opening size of the crack and through the coupling with the pipe pressures, strongly affected the crack tip speed. However, for equal crack lengths, there was little difference between calculations made for large and small deflection

  12. Do Exercisers With Musculoskeletal Injuries Report Symptoms of Depression and Stress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Gudex, Claire; Andersen, Kjeld

    2018-01-01

    on somatic symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression and emotional stress, and measure self-rated health in regular exercisers presenting to a sports medicine clinic with musculoskeletal injury. The secondary aim was to identify psychosocial factors...... associated with depression in injured exercisers and the potential need for psychological counselling. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: A sports medicine clinic for injuries of the foot, knee, or shoulder. PARTICIPANTS: Regular exercisers with present injuries (n=694) and exercisers without...... completed the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L), and questions on sociodemographics, exercise habits, and injury history. RESULTS: Symptoms of depression were reported by 12% of injured exercisers and 5% of non-injured controls (p

  13. Numerical modeling of rock stresses within a basaltic nuclear waste repository. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, M.P.; Hocking, G.

    1978-01-01

    The modeling undertaken during this project incorporated a wide range of problems that impact the design of the waste repository. Interaction of groundwater, heat and stress were considered on a regional scale, whereas on the room and canister scale thermo-mechanical analyses were undertaken. In the Phase II report, preliminary guidelines for waste densities were established based primarily on short-term stress criteria required to maintain stability during the retrievability period. Additional analyses are required to evaluate the effect of joints, borehole linings, room support and ventilation on these preliminary waste loading densities. The regional analyses did not indicate any adverse effect that could control the allowable waste loading densities. However, further refinements of geologic structure, hydrologic models, seismicity and possible induced seismicity are required before firm estimates of the loading densities can be made

  14. comparative study with commercial rootstocks to determine the tolerance to heavy metal (Pb in the drought and salt stress tolerant eggplant breeding lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüde Nur TOPAL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Negative effects of heavy metals on plants are peroxidation of lipids in cell membranes, production of free oxygen radicals, disorders in photosynthesis, damages in DNAs and as a result death of the cell. Plant development, productivity and quality of the fruits are decreased in the plants that are exposed to Pb stress which is one of the most toxic heavy metals. Usage of rootstocks which is mainly used against biotic stress conditions also seems to be defined as a solution to abiotic stress conditions such as heavy metal stresses. In eggplant production, wild species and hybrids are used as rootstocks against soil based pathogens and nematode. Reactions of improvement lines derived from local gene resources for rootstock improvement to heavy metal stress which is one of the abiotic stresses were determined. While determining the resistance against Pb stress, commercially used eggplant rootstocks are compared. In this study 4 eggplant cultivars (S. melongena: Burdur Bucak, Mardin Kızıltepe, Artvin Hopa and Kemer whose resistance potential against salt and drought stresses had been previously revealed and 6 rootstocks of wild eggplant species or hybrids (AGR-703, Doyran, Hawk, Hikyaku, Köksal-F1 and Vista-306 were tested against Pb stress. Eggplant seedlings were applied to 0, 150 and 300 ppm Pb solutions (Pb(NO32 during 4-5 true leaf stage. 20 days after the stress application wet and dry weight of green parts and roots, height of the body part and leaf areas were measured. Pb tolerance of Köksal F1 and AGR703 rootstocks were higher than other commercial rootstocks. Mardin Kızıltepe and Burdur Merkez genotypes which have high tolerances against abiotic stress gave lower values with respect to Artvin Hopa and Kemer which are sensitive genotypes and many other rootstocks while comparing the reduction ratios of stress signs such as shoot fresh weight and shoot length according to control under Pb stress.

  15. Overall comparative analysis of management and outcomes of cardiac cases reported on board merchant ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolatos, Charalampos; Andria, Vivian; Licari, Julie

    Telemedical assistance has always been the cornerstone of medical care on board. Significant technological progress has provided improved scientific tools and equipment for high-quality communication and prompt management of either minor incidents or major emergencies on board. Med Solutions International is a medical management company, offering services exclusively to the maritime industry. Registered vessels contact the medical team and healthcare professionals provide immediate guidelines for onboard management as well as necessary action thereafter, i.e. examination ashore or urgent medical evacuation. Since cardiac conditions or diseases are potentially the most dangerous when traveling at sea, it is of major importance to analyse and evaluate the overall management and outcomes of cases reporting symptoms of possible heart disease so as to improve telemedical assistance services in future. The study included cases reporting cardiac symptoms from 5 major shipping companies during the year 2016. Data was collected from telecommunication, emails and seafarers' final medical reports. A descriptive analysis of overall management and outcomes was performed. The study showed that the number of confirmed cardiovascular cases on board was very low. Among 551 total cases and 44 cases with reported cardiac symptoms there was only one heart attack, one pulmonary oedema and one suspected myocarditis. In the majority of cases, chest pain was musculoskeletal or due to respiratory infection. Symptoms resulting from issues such as stress or anxiety often present as potential cardiac conditions. Stress may also amplify the severity of symptoms. Language barriers between the seafarer, the master and the doctor often make communication very difficult. According to our findings there are grounds to intensify the prevention process through more efficient pre-employment medical examinations and improve management on board through more intensive training. Communication problems

  16. A comparative study on the elastic modulus of polyvinyl alcohol sponge using different stress-strain definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Alizadeh, Mansour; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-10-01

    There have been different stress-strain definitions to measure the elastic modulus of spongy materials, especially polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge. However, there is no agreement as to which stress-strain definition should be implemented. This study was aimed to show how different results are given by the various definitions of stress-strain used, and to recommend a specific definition when testing spongy materials. A fabricated PVA sponge was subjected to a series of tensile tests in order to measure its mechanical properties. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) were used to determine the elastic modulus. The results revealed that the Almansi-Hamel strain definition exhibited the highest non-linear stress-strain relation and, as a result, may overestimate the elastic modulus at different stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress). The Green-St. Venant strain definition failed to address the non-linear stress-strain relation using different definitions of stress and invoked an underestimation of the elastic modulus values. Engineering stress and strain definitions were only valid for small strains and displacements, which make them impractical when analyzing spongy materials. The results showed that the effect of varying the stress definition on the maximum stress measurements was significant but not when calculating the elastic modulus. It is important to consider which stress-strain definition is employed when characterizing the mechanical properties of spongy materials. Although the true stress-true strain definition exhibits a non-linear relation, we favor it in spongy materials mechanics as it gives more accurate measurements of the material's response using the instantaneous values.

  17. Improvement of heavy metal stress and toxicity assays by coupling a transgenic reporter in a mutant nematode strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.-W. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chan, Shirley K.W. [Atmospheric, Marine and Coastal Environment Program, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chow, King L. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China) and Atmospheric, Marine and Coastal Environment Program, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bokchow@ust.hk

    2005-09-30

    Previous studies have demonstrated that wild type Caenorhabditis elegans displays high sensitivity to heavy metals in a lethality test at a level comparable to that of other bioindicator organisms. Taking advantage of the genetics of this model organism, we have tested a number of mutant strains for enhanced sensitivity in heavy metal induced lethality and stress response. These mutants are defective in genes controlling dauer formation, longevity or response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the tested mutants, a double mutant daf-16 unc-75 strain was identified to have superior sensitivity. It has a 6-, 3- and 2-fold increase in sensitivity to cadmium, copper and zinc, respectively, as compared with that of wild type animals. When a fluorescent reporter transgene was coupled with this double mutant for stress detection, a 10-fold enhancement of sensitivity to cadmium over the wild type strain was observed. These transgenic animals, superior to most of the model organisms currently used in bioassays for environmental pollutants, offer a fast and economic approach to reveal the bioavailability of toxic substance in field samples. This study also demonstrates that combination of genetic mutations and transgenesis is a viable approach to identify sensitive indicator animals for environmental monitoring.

  18. Improvement of heavy metal stress and toxicity assays by coupling a transgenic reporter in a mutant nematode strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, K.-W.; Chan, Shirley K.W.; Chow, King L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that wild type Caenorhabditis elegans displays high sensitivity to heavy metals in a lethality test at a level comparable to that of other bioindicator organisms. Taking advantage of the genetics of this model organism, we have tested a number of mutant strains for enhanced sensitivity in heavy metal induced lethality and stress response. These mutants are defective in genes controlling dauer formation, longevity or response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the tested mutants, a double mutant daf-16 unc-75 strain was identified to have superior sensitivity. It has a 6-, 3- and 2-fold increase in sensitivity to cadmium, copper and zinc, respectively, as compared with that of wild type animals. When a fluorescent reporter transgene was coupled with this double mutant for stress detection, a 10-fold enhancement of sensitivity to cadmium over the wild type strain was observed. These transgenic animals, superior to most of the model organisms currently used in bioassays for environmental pollutants, offer a fast and economic approach to reveal the bioavailability of toxic substance in field samples. This study also demonstrates that combination of genetic mutations and transgenesis is a viable approach to identify sensitive indicator animals for environmental monitoring

  19. A comparative study of the effect of stress on the cognitive parameters in women with increased body mass index before and after menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, M B; Ammu, S; Nayanatara, A K; Vinodini, N A; Pratik, K C; Anupama, N; Bhagyalakshmi, K

    2018-03-23

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity is a critical public health problem for women. The negative effect of stress on memory and cognitive functions has been widely explored for decades in numerous research projects using a wide range of methodology. Deterioration of memory and other brain functions is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen fluctuations and withdrawal have myriad direct effects on the central nervous system that have the potential to influence cognitive functions. The present study aims to compare the effect of stress on the cognitive functions in overweight/obese women before and after menopause. A total of 142 female subjects constituting women before menopause between the ages of 18 and 44 years and women after menopause between the ages of 45 and 60 years were included in the sample. Participants were categorized into overweight/obese groups based on the body mass index. The major tool perceived stress scale was used for measuring the perception of stress. On the basis of the stress scale measurement, each group was classified into with stress and without stress. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-III was used for measuring the cognitive functions. Premenopausal women with stress showed a significant (pembroidery, games and relaxation techniques should be recommended to prevent stress. Insights into the neurobiology before and after menopause can be gained from future studies examining the effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in relation to cognition and stress.

  20. Social Support and Self-Reported Stress Levels in a Predominantly African American Sample of Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Marie Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus patients should avoid stress because physical or emotional stress can affect overall physical health. It has been suggested that social support has a positive influence on health status, but there is a lack of information in the literature on the association between the two among lupus patients. The current study investigated the association between social support and self-reported stress and coping status among African American women with lupus using data collected from two linked cross-sectional surveys. No social support differences in groups of high and low stress/coping were revealed; a duplicate study with a larger sample size is required.

  1. EU stresstest national report of Germany. Implementation of the EU stress tests in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The European Council concluded in March 2011 that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be reviewed on the basis of a comprehensive and transparent risk assessment (''stress test''). In addition to the European initiative, all countries with operating nuclear power plants indicated the performance of immediate safety reviews to take into account any lessons already learned or to be learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident of 11{sup th} March 2011. The German Bundestag (Federal Parliament) called upon the German Federal Government on 17{sup th} March 2011 to conduct a comprehensive review of the safety requirements for the German nuclear power plants. The competent Federal Ministry asked its advisory body, the RSK, to perform this review. The findings of the RSK safety review were presented to the public on 17{sup th} May 2011. For the European stress tests, ENSREG published the scope and modalities for comprehensive risk and safety assessments of EU nuclear power plants on 13{sup th} May 2011. This ''Declaration of ENSREG'' determines the concept, methodology and time schedule of the EU stress test. Detailed requirements on content and structure of the reports and the planned peer reviews in 2012 were developed under the leadership of ENREG and agreed at its meeting on 11{sup th} October 2011. The BMU as the federal regulator in Germany asked the Laender nuclear regulatory authorities to initiate the EU stress tests according to the ENSREG Declaration. A joint meeting of BMU, Laender authorities, expert organisations and the licensees of the German nuclear power plants took place on 30{sup th} June 2011 to agree on the scope and the procedure of stress tests in Germany. It was also decided to take the 30{sup th} June 2011 as the reference date for the plants in operation, regardless future decisions on the possible limitation of the operating time by amendment to the Atomic Energy Act which were in the legislative

  2. EU stresstest national report of Germany. Implementation of the EU stress tests in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The European Council concluded in March 2011 that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be reviewed on the basis of a comprehensive and transparent risk assessment (''stress test''). In addition to the European initiative, all countries with operating nuclear power plants indicated the performance of immediate safety reviews to take into account any lessons already learned or to be learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident of 11 th March 2011. The German Bundestag (Federal Parliament) called upon the German Federal Government on 17 th March 2011 to conduct a comprehensive review of the safety requirements for the German nuclear power plants. The competent Federal Ministry asked its advisory body, the RSK, to perform this review. The findings of the RSK safety review were presented to the public on 17 th May 2011. For the European stress tests, ENSREG published the scope and modalities for comprehensive risk and safety assessments of EU nuclear power plants on 13 th May 2011. This ''Declaration of ENSREG'' determines the concept, methodology and time schedule of the EU stress test. Detailed requirements on content and structure of the reports and the planned peer reviews in 2012 were developed under the leadership of ENREG and agreed at its meeting on 11 th October 2011. The BMU as the federal regulator in Germany asked the Laender nuclear regulatory authorities to initiate the EU stress tests according to the ENSREG Declaration. A joint meeting of BMU, Laender authorities, expert organisations and the licensees of the German nuclear power plants took place on 30 th June 2011 to agree on the scope and the procedure of stress tests in Germany. It was also decided to take the 30 th June 2011 as the reference date for the plants in operation, regardless future decisions on the possible limitation of the operating time by amendment to the Atomic Energy Act which were in the legislative procedure at that time. The ''stress tests'' were started by all German

  3. Hand 'stress' arthritis in young subjects: effects of Flexiqule (pharma-standard Boswellia extract). A preliminary case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Feragalli, B; Cornelli, U; Dugall, M

    2015-10-22

    This case report (supplement registry study) evaluated subjects with painful 'stress' arthritis of the hand mainly localized at the joints. The patients received a suggestion to follow a rehabilitation plan (standard management; SM). A second group also used the same SM in association with the oral, pharma-standard supplement FlexiQule (Alchem) a new standardized, phytosomal preparation manufactured from the Boswellia plant, which can be used for self-management in inflammatory conditions (150 mg / 3 times daily). The two resulting registry groups included 12 subjects using SM+Flexiqule and and 11 controls (SM only). The groups were comparable. Serology showed no significant alterations: only ESR was slightly elevated (minimal elevation). After 2 weeks, the ESR was normal in the supplement group and mildly elevated in controls (p<0.05%). The decrease in hypertermic areas was greater/faster (p<0.05) in the supplement group. The identification of a working stress and the localization to the dominant hand was comparable in both groups. At 2 weeks, the decrease in pain was significantly faster and more important with the supplement (p<0.05). The hand became more usable in time and the score was better with the supplement (p<0.05). No supplemented patient had to use other drugs, while in the control group 3 subjects eventually used NSAIDs to control pain and stiffness and one used corticosteroids. In conclusion, the natural extract Flexiqule was effective in controlling work-related stress arthritis (without inflammaìtory signs) over a 2 weeks period, better than only Standard Management. More prolonged and larger studies are needed.

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis of rats subjected to water immersion and restraint stress as an insight into gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng-Rong; Huang, Pan; Song, Guang-Hao; Zhang, Zhuang; An, Ke; Lu, Han-Wen; Ju, Xiao-Li; Ding, Wei

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, comparative proteomic analysis was performed in rats subjected to water immersion‑restraint stress (WRS). A total of 26 proteins were differentially expressed and identified using matrix‑assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Among the 26 differentially expressed protein spots identified, 13 proteins were significantly upregulated under WRS, including pyruvate kinase and calreticulin, which may be closely associated with energy metabolism. In addition, 12 proteins were downregulated under WRS, including hemoglobin subunit β‑2 and keratin type II cytoskeletal 8, which may be important in protein metabolism and cell death. Gene Ontology analysis revealed the cellular distribution, molecular function and biological processes of the identified proteins. The mRNA levels of certain differentially expressed proteins were analyzed using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results of the present study aimed to offer insights into proteins, which are differentially expressed in gastric ulcers in stress, and provide theoretical evidence of a radical cure for gastric ulcers in humans.

  5. Signal Detection of Imipenem Compared to Other Drugs from Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyounghoon; Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Kwon, Kyoung Eun; Jin, Xue Mei; Lee, Joongyub; Yang, Bo Ram; Park, Byung Joo

    2017-05-01

    To detect signals of adverse drug events after imipenem treatment using the Korea Institute of Drug Safety & Risk Management-Korea adverse event reporting system database (KIDS-KD). We performed data mining using KIDS-KD, which was constructed using spontaneously reported adverse event (AE) reports between December 1988 and June 2014. We detected signals calculated the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component of imipenem. We defined a signal as any AE that satisfied all three indices. The signals were compared with drug labels of nine countries. There were 807582 spontaneous AEs reports in the KIDS-KD. Among those, the number of antibiotics related AEs was 192510; 3382 reports were associated with imipenem. The most common imipenem-associated AE was the drug eruption; 353 times. We calculated the signal by comparing with all other antibiotics and drugs; 58 and 53 signals satisfied the three methods. We compared the drug labelling information of nine countries, including the USA, the UK, Japan, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, France, Canada, and South Korea, and discovered that the following signals were currently not included in drug labels: hypokalemia, cardiac arrest, cardiac failure, Parkinson's syndrome, myocardial infarction, and prostate enlargement. Hypokalemia was an additional signal compared with all other antibiotics, and the other signals were not different compared with all other antibiotics and all other drugs. We detected new signals that were not listed on the drug labels of nine countries. However, further pharmacoepidemiologic research is needed to evaluate the causality of these signals. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  6. Canine parvovirus in Australia: A comparative study of reported rural and urban cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourkas, Elaine; Ward, Michael P; Kelman, Mark

    2015-12-31

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious and often fatal disease reported worldwide. Outbreaks occur throughout Australia, and it has been suggested that disproportionally more CPV cases occur in rural locations. However, evidence to support this suggestion-and possible reasons for such a predisposition-has not existed until now. In this study a total of 4870 CPV cases reported from an Australian disease surveillance system between September 2009 and July 2014 were analysed. Australian postcodes were classified as rural or urban (based on human population density) and reported CPV cases were then categorised as rural or urban based on their reported home postcode. Parvovirus cases were predominately young (<12 months), entire, unvaccinated, mixed-breed dogs. More than twice as many of the reported cases were from a rural area (3321 cases) compared to an urban area (1549 cases). The overall case fatality rate was 47.2%; it was higher for those CPV cases reported from urban areas (50.6%) than rural areas (45.5%). A greater proportion of rural cases were younger, entire dogs compared to urban cases. The final multivariable model of CPV cases being reported from a rural area included age (<12 months) and vaccination status (never vaccinated) as significant predictors. Poor socioeconomic status might be a reason for the decision of rural owners not to vaccinate their dogs as readily as urban owners. The excess reporting of rural CPV cases compared to urban cases and the predictive risk factors identified in this study can be used by veterinarians to reduce the incidence of CPV by educating owners about the disease and promoting better vaccination programs in rural areas. This study also supports that the increased risk of CPV in rural areas may necessitate a need for increased vigilance around preventing CPV disease spread, additional care with puppies which are the most susceptible to this disease and tighter vaccination protocols, compared to urban areas

  7. Working conditions and job quality: comparing sectors in Europe: overview report

    OpenAIRE

    van Houten, Gijs; Cabrita, Jorge; Vargas, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    This report and the accompanying 33 sectoral information sheets aim to capture the diversity prevalent across sectors in Europe in terms of working conditions and job quality. The information sheets indicate how workers in each sector compare to the European average for all workers, as well as highlighting differences and similarities among different groups of workers. The report pinpoints trends across sectors in areas such as working time and work–life balance, work organisation, skills and...

  8. The psoriasis sufferers report emotional stress for multiple environmental effects on their quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesar, S.M.; Bajaj, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    The people suffering from psoriasis were recruited for the study. The interaction of the people with affected persons in routine life and the effects of, environment and diet in take developed stress and psychological depression in psoriatic patients. The nature of work and the atmosphere of working place, play an important role in metabolic and emotional variations. It has been observed that the inter action between the mind and skin is obvious in psoriasis sufferers for which they report their complains like anxiety, depression, avoiding nature, and non cooperative in taking drugs. (author)

  9. Low level radioactive waste disposal: An evaluation of reports comparing ocean and land based disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This document evaluates reports presenting comparative assessments of land and sea disposal options for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. It was performed following a request by the LDC to the IAEA. In this evaluation, IAEA Safety Series No. 65 ''Environmental Assessment Methodologies for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Wastes'', was used as the main reference in reviewing the comparative assessments made to date. IAEA Safety Series No. 65 gives guidance on the performance of comparative assessments of the different options, and provides a list and scheme of factors to be considered. 5 studies were transmitted by the Contracting Parties and considered in this review. A larger number of reports was not considered in this effort on the basis that the evaluation would be most effective if directed at those studies which specifically compared ocean disposal with land based disposal in a consistent manner. It is not the purpose of this report to state whether one document is better than another or whether one report forms a good blueprint for future assessments. This would require a different type of review and is outside the scope of this document. Indeed since the purposes of the five reports were originally so different it would not be possible to produce such a ranking and any attempts in that direction would be very misleading. 11 refs, 3 tabs

  10. Stress fractures of the ribs in elite competitive rowers: a report of nine cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragoni, S. [Institute of Sport Medicine and Science of the Italian Olympic Committee, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Giombini, A.; Ripani, M. [University of Motor Sciences, Department of Health, Rome (Italy); Di Cesare, A. [University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rome (Italy); Magliani, G. [Medical Department of the Italian State Police, Rome (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    The objective was to report the clinical and imaging patterns of nine cases of stress fractures of the rib diagnosed in Italian Olympic rowers. Nine patients with stress fractures of the rib detected from 103 (8.7%) Italian team rowers competing between May 2000 and May 2006 were identified based on the database of a sports medicine institute. All athletes were male. They were aged between 17 and 31 years (mean: 24.4). Patient weight, fracture location, rowing side and imaging methods employed were noted. The diagnosis was made based on history, clinical examination and Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy. Eight of the 9 fractures were located anterolaterally between the fourth and ninth rib. In 1 of the 5 athletes with standard radiographs, a fracture line was visible and in 4 there was callus formation. In 2 athletes sonography was performed, which detected discontinuity of the rib surface and callus formation (1 case each). Stress fractures of the ribs are relatively common in competitive rowers. They are characterized by increasing lateral chest pain and typical scintigraphic, radiographic and sonographic findings. (orig.)

  11. Stress fractures of the ribs in elite competitive rowers: a report of nine cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoni, S.; Giombini, A.; Ripani, M.; Di Cesare, A.; Magliani, G.

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to report the clinical and imaging patterns of nine cases of stress fractures of the rib diagnosed in Italian Olympic rowers. Nine patients with stress fractures of the rib detected from 103 (8.7%) Italian team rowers competing between May 2000 and May 2006 were identified based on the database of a sports medicine institute. All athletes were male. They were aged between 17 and 31 years (mean: 24.4). Patient weight, fracture location, rowing side and imaging methods employed were noted. The diagnosis was made based on history, clinical examination and Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy. Eight of the 9 fractures were located anterolaterally between the fourth and ninth rib. In 1 of the 5 athletes with standard radiographs, a fracture line was visible and in 4 there was callus formation. In 2 athletes sonography was performed, which detected discontinuity of the rib surface and callus formation (1 case each). Stress fractures of the ribs are relatively common in competitive rowers. They are characterized by increasing lateral chest pain and typical scintigraphic, radiographic and sonographic findings. (orig.)

  12. Analyses of the probiotic property and stress resistance-related genes of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 through comparative genomics and in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Letícia C; Saraiva, Tessália D L; Silva, Wanderson M; Pereira, Ulisses P; Campos, Bruno C; Benevides, Leandro J; Rocha, Flávia S; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Azevedo, Vasco; Soares, Siomar C

    2017-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 was recently reported to alleviate colitis symptoms via its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, which are exerted by exported proteins that are not produced by L. lactis subsp. lactis IL1403. Here, we used in vitro and in silico approaches to characterize the genomic structure, the safety aspects, and the immunomodulatory activity of this strain. Through comparative genomics, we identified genomic islands, phage regions, bile salt and acid stress resistance genes, bacteriocins, adhesion-related and antibiotic resistance genes, and genes encoding proteins that are putatively secreted, expressed in vitro and absent from IL1403. The high degree of similarity between all Lactococcus suggests that the Symbiotic Islands commonly shared by both NCDO 2118 and KF147 may be responsible for their close relationship and their adaptation to plants. The predicted bacteriocins may play an important role against the invasion of competing strains. The genes related to the acid and bile salt stresses may play important roles in gastrointestinal tract survival, whereas the adhesion proteins are important for persistence in the gut, culminating in the competitive exclusion of other bacteria. Finally, the five secreted and expressed proteins may be important targets for studies of new anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory proteins. Altogether, the analyses performed here highlight the potential use of this strain as a target for the future development of probiotic foods.

  13. The Accuracy of the Information Presented in Credit Bureau Reports: Research and Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Simović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research results regarding information accuracy in the Serbian credit bureau reports and tries to identify the reasons which affect the accuracy of the information presented in credit bureau reports, in global terms. The research was conducted by interviewing respondents. Comparative analysis was used in order to formulate proposal of factors which determine information accuracy in the credit bureau reports. The results show that the materially significant errors in information presented in Serbian credit bureau reports make 0.5% of the sample. This implies that creditors in Serbia base their credit decisions on reliable information. The results of this study were compared to results of the studies conducted in USA and Germany in order to formulate proposal of factors which influence the information accuracy in the credit bureau reports. In order toimprove information accuracy in credit bureau reports, in global terms, special attention should be paid to formulation of international standards of credit reporting and identification systems of natural persons and legal entities.

  14. Growth stress buildup in ion beam sputtered Mo thin films and comparative study of stress relaxation upon thermal annealing or ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelle, A.; Abadias, G.; Michel, A.; Jaouen, C.; Pelosin, V.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to address the understanding of the origin of growth stress in thin films deposited under very energetic conditions, the authors investigated the stress state and microstructure of Mo thin films grown by ion beam sputtering (IBS) as well as the stress relaxation processes taking place during subsequent thermal annealing or ion irradiation. Different sets of samples were grown by varying the IBS deposition parameters, namely, the energy E 0 and the flux j of the primary ion beam, the target-to-sputtering gas mass ratio M 1 /M 2 as well as film thickness. The strain-stress state was determined by x-ray diffraction using the sin 2 ψ method and data analyzed using an original stress model which enabled them to correlate information at macroscopic (in terms of stress) and microscopic (in terms of defect concentration) levels. Results indicate that these refractory metallic thin films are characterized by a high compressive growth stress (-2.6 to -3.8 GPa), resulting from the creation of a large concentration (up to ∼1.4%) of point or cluster defects, due to the atomic peening mechanism. The M 1 /M 2 mass ratio enables tuning efficiently the mean deposited energy of the condensing atoms; thus, it appears to be the more relevant deposition parameter that allows modifying both the microstructure and the stress level in a significant way. The growth stress comes out to be highly unstable. It can be easily relaxed either by postgrowth thermal annealing or ion irradiation in the hundred keV range at very low dose [<0.1 dpa (displacement per atom)]. It is shown that thermal annealing induces deleterious effects such as oxidation of the film surface, decrease of the film density, and in some cases adhesion loss at the film/substrate interface, while ion irradiation allows controlling the stress level without generating any macroscopic damage

  15. Effect of 5-HT2A receptor polymorphisms and occupational stress on self-reported sleep quality: a cross-sectional study in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Cui, Changyong; Ge, Hua; Guan, Suzhen; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-04-01

    Occupational stress and the serotonin receptor (5-HTR) play a key role in the regulation of sleep quality. Previous studies on the relationship between work-related stress, 5-HTR2A polymorphism, and sleep complaints found that 5-HTR2A modulates the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress and the maintenance of circadian rhythm. However, the effect of 5-HTR2A polymorphism and occupational stress on sleep quality has not been reported. The present study investigated the effects of 5-HTR2A genotypes, occupational stress, and gene-environment interactions on the sleep quality. Using a three-stage stratified sampling method, 1181 participants were recruited. Then, according to the study exclusion criteria, 810 subjects remained eligible. Finally, because some of subjects did not agree to being involved in this study, 700 workers were included. Of 700 workers finally included in the study, 251 had poor sleep quality based on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Occupational stress was assessed with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. 5-HTR2A genotype was significantly associated with sleep quality. The CT genotype of rs1923884 was detected at a higher frequency among individuals with low sleep efficiency; the AA genotype of rs2070040 was associated with long sleep duration and more daytime dysfunction; and the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to long sleep latency and duration and poor sleep quality. A high level of occupational stress was linked to higher risk of poor sleep quality than low or moderate levels (odds ratio [OR] = 12.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.02-22.43). A crossover analysis demonstrated an occupational stress × 5-HTR2A interaction. Compared to participants with low occupational stress and a CT/TT genotype, those with high occupational stress and a CC genotype had a higher risk of poor sleep quality (OR

  16. Protective factors and predictors of vulnerability to chronic stress: a comparative study of 4 communities after 7 years of continuous rocket fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelkopf, Marc; Berger, Rony; Bleich, Avraham; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2012-03-01

    Many communities across the world are chronically exposed to extreme violence. Responses of residents from a city and rural community in Southern Israel, both exposed to 7 years of daily mortar fire, were compared to residents from demographically, socio-economically and geographically comparable non-exposed control samples to examine protective factors and predictors of vulnerability to chronic war-related attacks. Samples from a highly exposed city (Sderot) and a highly exposed rural community region (Otef Aza), along with a demographically comparable comparison non-exposed city (Ofakim) and non-exposed rural community region (Hevel Lachish), were obtained in 2007 using Random Digit Dialing. In total, 740 individuals (81.8% participation rate) were interviewed about trauma exposure, mental health, functioning and health care utilization. In the highly exposed city of Sderot, 97.8% of residents had been in close proximity to falling rockets; in the highly exposed rural community region of Otef Aza, 95.5% were similarly exposed. Despite exposure to chronic rocket attacks, residents of Otef Aza evidenced little symptomatology: only one person (1.5%) reported symptoms consistent with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functioning levels did not differ from those of non-exposed communities. In contrast, posttraumatic stress (PTS), distress, functional impairment and health care utilization were substantially higher in the highly exposed city of Sderot than the other three communities. Lack of resources was associated with increased vulnerability among city residents; predictors of PTS across all samples included being female, older, directly exposed to rockets, history of trauma, suffering economic loss, and lacking social support. Increased community solidarity, sense of belonging and confidence in authorities may have served a protective function for residents of rural communities, despite the chronic attacks to which they were exposed. Copyright

  17. Climate change induced occupational stress and reported morbidity among cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Climate change is one of the major development hurdles in many developing countries. The health outcome of farm households are related to climate change, which is related to several external and internal health-related issues, such as management of occupational stressors. This study seeks, inter alia, to determine the climate related occupational stress and factors influencing reported sick times among cocoa farmers. Material and Method. Data were collected from selected cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and Negative Binomial regression were used for data analyses. Results. The results showed that cocoa farmers were ageing, and that the majority had cultivating cocoa for most of their years of farming. Cocoa was the primary crop for the majority of the farmers, while 92.00% of the farmers in Osun state owned the cultivated cocoa farms. The forms of reported climate change induced occupational stresses were increase in pest infestation (74.5% in Ekiti state, difficulties in weed control (82.1% in Ekiti state, missing regular times scheduled for spraying cocoa pods (45.7% in Ondo state, inability to spray cocoa effectively (58.5% in Ondo state, and reduction in cocoa yield (71.7% in Ekiti state. The Negative Binomial regression results showed that the age of farmers (0.0103, their education (-0.0226, years of cocoa farming (-0.0112, malaria infection (0.4901, missed spraying (0.5061, re-spraying of cocoa (0.2630, reduction in cocoa yield (0.20154, contact with extension (0.2411 and residence in Ondo state (-0.2311 were statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion. Climate change influences the farm operations of cocoa farmers with resultant occupational stresses. Efforts to assist cocoa farmers should include, among others, provision of weather forecasts and some form of insurance.

  18. Learning Center and Study Carrels: A Comparative Study. Technical Report #18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sherlyn; And Others

    This Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) report presents a comparative study of the work rates of kindergarten and first grade children in two classroom environments: a learning-center and a study-carrel environment. The subjects, seven matched pairs of kindergarten and first grade students, were chosen on the basis of the results of a…

  19. Parental Report of the Diagnostic Process and Outcome: ASD Compared with Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Donald P.; Haworth, Shannon M.; Mackenzie, Bernadette K.; Willis, Janet H.

    2017-01-01

    Parents report that the process of getting an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis is arduous, lengthy, and fraught with difficulties. This analysis of the Pathways survey data set examined the experiences of parents who said, at the time of the survey, that their child currently had ASD compared with parents who said, at the time of the…

  20. Instructional Television: A Comparative Study of Satellites and Other Delivery Systems. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syracuse Univ. Research Corp., NY. Educational Policy Research Center.

    This report summarizes the results of a two year investigation into the feasibility of using telecommunications satellites for educational purposes compared with the use of other delivery systems. Different systems emerge as preferable depending upon such circumstances as topography, number, and geographic distribution of participants, and the…

  1. The Cortisol Awakening Response Mediates the Relationship Between Acculturative Stress and Self-Reported Health in Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Antonio F; Wilborn, Kristin; Mangold, Deborah L

    2017-12-01

    The assessment of acculturative stress as synonymous with acculturation level overlooks the dynamic, interactive, and developmental nature of the acculturation process. An individual's unique perception and response to a range of stressors at each stage of the dynamic process of acculturation may be associated with stress-induced alterations in important biological response systems that mediate health outcomes. Evidence suggests the cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a promising pre-clinical biomarker of stress exposure that may link acculturative stress to self-reported health in Mexican Americans. The aim of the current study was to examine whether alterations in the CAR mediate the relationship between acculturative stress and self-reported health in Mexican Americans. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from a sample of adult Mexican Americans. Acculturative stress and self-reported health were assessed. Data were aggregated and analyzed (n = 89) using a mixed effects regression model and path analysis. Poorer self-reported health was associated with attenuated CAR profiles (primarily due to a diminished post-awakening rise in cortisol) predicted by both moderate and high levels of exposure to acculturative stress. Stress-induced alterations in the CAR mediated the relationship between exposure to acculturative stressors and self-reported health. Findings demonstrate that different levels of acculturative stress are associated with distinct CAR profiles and suggest the CAR is one possible biological pathway through which exposure to culturally unique stressors may be linked to health disparities.

  2. Stress relief to prevent stress corrosion in the transition region of expanded Alloy 600 steam-generator tubing. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

    1983-05-01

    The feasibility of preventing primary side roll transition cracking has been investigated, using induction heating to attain stress relief of expanded Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Work on rolled tubing and U-bends has shown that temperatures with which stress relief can be obtained range from 700 to 850 0 C, with lower temperatures in this range requiring longer times at temperature to provide the requisite reduction in residual stresses. No work has yet been done outside this range. Preliminary tests, using induction heating, have been carried out on a mock tube sheet assembly, designed to the dimensions of a typical steam generator, and have identified the type of heating/cooling cycle that would occur in the tube sheet during a stress relief operation. Preliminary results show that the times to reach the higher temperatures in the range observed to give stress relief, of the order of 850 0 C, can be as short as 8 seconds, and less with optimum coil design and power control

  3. Stress Reactivity in Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrman, Philip R; Hall, Martica; Barilla, Holly; Buysse, Daniel; Perlis, Michael; Gooneratne, Nalaka; Ross, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with primary insomnia (PI) are more reactive to stress than good sleepers (GS). PI and GS (n = 20 per group), matched on gender and age, completed three nights of polysomnography. On the stress night, participants received a mild electric shock and were told they could receive additional shocks during the night. Saliva samples were obtained for analysis of cortisol and alpha amylase along with self-report and visual analog scales (VAS). There was very little evidence of increased stress on the stress night, compared to the baseline night. There was also no evidence of greater stress reactivity in the PI group for any sleep or for salivary measures. In the GS group, stress reactivity measured by VAS scales was positively associated with an increase in sleep latency in the experimental night on exploratory analyses. Individuals with PI did not show greater stress reactivity compared to GS.

  4. Beyond Self-Report: Tools to Compare Estimated and Real-World Smartphone Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sally; Ellis, David A.; Shaw, Heather; Piwek, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists typically rely on self-report data when quantifying mobile phone usage, despite little evidence of its validity. In this paper we explore the accuracy of using self-reported estimates when compared with actual smartphone use. We also include source code to process and visualise these data. We compared 23 participants’ actual smartphone use over a two-week period with self-reported estimates and the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale. Our results indicate that estimated time spent using a smartphone may be an adequate measure of use, unless a greater resolution of data are required. Estimates concerning the number of times an individual used their phone across a typical day did not correlate with actual smartphone use. Neither estimated duration nor number of uses correlated with the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale. We conclude that estimated smartphone use should be interpreted with caution in psychological research. PMID:26509895

  5. A comparative study of depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with smoking pattern in caregivers of patients of casualty and outpatient departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is prohibited in India at all the public places including hospital premises, but people with habit of smoking are not able to abide the rules strictly. Somehow, level of dependence and stress along with other psychological variables like anxiety and depression play key roles in smoking in the hospital premises. Methodology: Present study aimed to know the level of dependence and other psychological variables like depression, anxiety, and stress in the caregivers of patients of casualty and outpatients departments. Seventy five participants were recruited purposively from the hospital premises. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS- Hindi were administered. Result: Participants reported nicotine dependence was associated with psychological variables like mild to moderate level of depression, anxiety, and stress. Caregivers of casualty patients were having high level of stress than caregivers of outpatients. Conclusion: It can be concluded that psychological variables play a significant role in nicotine dependence.

  6. The healing stages of an intramedullary implanted tibia: A stress strain comparative analysis of the calcification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardi, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Aims The extended usage of unreamed tibial nailing resulted in reports of an increased rate of complications, especially for the distal portion of the tibia. Unreamed nailing favours biology at the expense of the achievable mechanical stability, it is therefore of interest to define the limits of the clinical indications for this method. Extra-articular fractures of the distal tibial metaphysis, meta-diaphyseal junction, and adjacent diaphysis are distinct in their management from impaction derived ‘‘pilon’’ type fractures and mid-diaphyseal fractures. The goals of this work were to gain a thorough understanding of the load-sharing mechanism between unreamed nail and bones in a fractured tibia. With this purpose a complete model of the human leg was realised, simulating a mid-diaphyseal fracture, classified as A2 type 1, according to the AO classification. The analysis of the entire chain allows to have a complete picture of the stress distribution and of the most stressed bones and soft tissues, but, more importantly can overcome problems connected with boundary conditions imposed at single bony components. Methods Model consists of six bony structures: pelvis, femur, patella, fibula, tibia, and a simplified lump of the feet, configured in a standing up position. Their articular cartilage layers, were simulated by 3D membranes of opportune stiffness connecting the different segments. Moreover an unreamed intra-medullary nail Expert Tibial Nail (DePuy Synthes®) stabilized the fractured tibia. A load of 700 N has been applied at the top of pelvis and a part the feet, at the tip, was rigidly fixed. Five different contact interfaces have been imposed at the different bony surfaces in contact. Results Three different conditions were analysed: the initially healthy tibia, the A2 type 1 fractured tibia with the Expert tibial nail implanted, and the follow up stage after complete healing of tibia. Non-linear finite element analysis of the models were performed

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in children after paediatric intensive care treatment compared to children who survived a major fire disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Last Bob F

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goals were to determine the presence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in children after paediatric intensive care treatment, to identify risk factors for PTSD, and to compare this data with data from a major fire disaster in the Netherlands. Methods Children completed the Dutch Children's Responses to Trauma Inventory at three and nine months after discharge from the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU. Comparison data were available from 355 children survivors who completed the same questionnaire 10 months after a major fire disaster. Results Thirty-six children aged eight to 17 years completed questionnaires at three month follow-up, nine month follow-up, or both. More than one third (34.5% of the children had subclinical PTSD, while 13.8% were likely to meet criteria for PTSD. Maternal PTSD was the strongest predictor for child PTSD. There were no significant differences in (subclinical PTSD symptoms either over time or compared to symptoms of survivors from the fire disaster. Conclusion This study shows that a considerable number of children have persistent PTSD after PICU treatment. Prevention of PTSD is important to minimize the profound adverse effects that PTSD can have on children's well-being and future development.

  8. Comparative analyses reveal potential uses of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for cold stress responses in temperate grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chuan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the potential of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for low temperature stress responses in Pooideae. The ice recrystallization inhibition protein (IRIP genes, fructosyltransferase (FST genes, and many C-repeat binding factor (CBF genes are Pooideae specific and important in low temperature responses. Here we used comparative analyses to study conservation and evolution of these gene families in B. distachyon to better understand its potential as a model species for agriculturally important temperate grasses. Results Brachypodium distachyon contains cold responsive IRIP genes which have evolved through Brachypodium specific gene family expansions. A large cold responsive CBF3 subfamily was identified in B. distachyon, while CBF4 homologs are absent from the genome. No B. distachyon FST gene homologs encode typical core Pooideae FST-motifs and low temperature induced fructan accumulation was dramatically different in B. distachyon compared to core Pooideae species. Conclusions We conclude that B. distachyon can serve as an interesting model for specific molecular mechanisms involved in low temperature responses in core Pooideae species. However, the evolutionary history of key genes involved in low temperature responses has been different in Brachypodium and core Pooideae species. These differences limit the use of B. distachyon as a model for holistic studies relevant for agricultural core Pooideae species.

  9. [A comparative study on treating femal stress urinary incontinence with TVT-Abbrevo and TVT-Obturator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W L; Lu, Z W; Li, F P; Yu, H Y

    2016-07-26

    To compare the effectiveness and complications of TVT-Abbrevo (tension-free vaginal tape-Abbrevo) and TVT-Obturator (tension-free vaginal tape-obturator) for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). From Nov.2012 to Nov.2013, 117 patients suffering from SUI were treated with TVT-Abbrebo (n=79) or TVT-Obturator (n=38) procedure, the clinical efficacy and operation-correlated complications were observed. A total of 117 cases, 107 cases of urinary incontinence symptoms disappeared completely, 10 cases were improved. 72 cases (91.1%) were cured and 7 cases (8.9%) were improved in TVT-Abbrevo group; 35 cases (92.1%) were cured and 3 cases (7.9%) were improved in TVT-Obturator group. No significant differences could be found for the curing rates between two groups (P>0.05). Compared with the TVT-Obturator group, the TVT-Abbrevo group had less patients complaining of inner thigh pain at 24 h and 1 w after surgery (PTVT-Abbrevo and TVT-Obturator group (P>0.05). No intraoperative complications such as blood vessel, nerve, bladder damage were recorded and no postoperative retropubic hematoma, tape adjustment and other complications occurred in two goups. No recurrence after 1 year follow-up. The study shows that TVT-Abbrevo procedure is safe and efficacy in treatment of SUI, and associated with low incidence of recent postoperative inner thigh pain.

  10. Comparative Effects of Salt Stress and Extreme pH Stress Combined on Glycinebetaine Accumulation, Photosynthetic Abilities and Growth Characters of Two Rice Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriyan CHA-UM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycinebetaine (Glybet accumulation, photosynthetic efficiency and growth performance in indica rice cultivated under salt stress and extreme pH stress were investigated. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH activity and Glybet accumulation in the seedlings of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive rice varieties grown under saline and acidic conditions peaked after treatment for 72 h and 96 h, respectively, and were higher than those grown under neutral pH and alkaline salt stress. A positive correlation was found between BADH activity and Glybet content in both salt-tolerant (r2 = 0.71 and salt-sensitive (r2 = 0.86 genotypes. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids contents in the stressed seedlings significantly decreased under both acidic and alkaline stresses, especially in the salt-sensitive genotype. Similarly, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm, photon yield of PSII (ΦPSII, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ and net photosynthetic rate (Pn in the stressed seedlings were inhibited, leading to overall growth reduction. The positive correlations between chlorophyll a content and Fv/Fm, total chlorophyll content and ΦPSII, ΦPSII and Pn as well as Pn and leaf area in both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive genotypes were found. Saline acidic and saline alkaline soils may play a key role affecting vegetative growth prior to the reproductive stage in rice plants.

  11. Psychological stress in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a comparative Polish-German study: summary of the current conceptualization of the role of stress in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugajska, J; Brzosko, M; Jedryka-Góral, A; Głuszko, P; Zołnierczyk-Zreda, D; Sagan, A; Konarska, M; Rell-Bakalarska, M; Pazdur, J; Zeidler, H; Rihl, M

    2010-02-01

    Cultural differences in experiencing individual stress in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients might be observed. The aim of the study was to assess quality of life and psychological stress (distress) in RA patients, and to evaluate socio-demographic and disease specific variables predicting stress of patients. The study covered 300 Polish and 137 German RA patients. SF-36v2 scale was used to evaluate the patients' health. Psychological stress was defined as the feeling of "social isolation" and "being a burden" as demanding help in everyday activities. In both countries, the mental and physical health of patients deteriorated and about 50% of patients required support in everyday activities. 95% of Polish and 62% of German patients felt rejected from social activities. For the psychological stress perceived, functional capacity class 3 and male gender were shown to be predictive in Polish patients and living in a small town - in German patients. In the Polish group, the tertiary/bachelor level of education was linked with lower distress level. RA has a serious impact on the mental health owing to a great disease burden. Awareness of impact of the disease on quality of life and psychological stress of patients should be considered in routine clinical practice. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative analysis of conditional reporter alleles in the developing embryo and embryonic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellisor, Debra; Koveal, Dorothy; Hagan, Nellwyn; Brown, Ashly; Zervas, Mark

    2009-10-01

    A long-standing problem in development is understanding how progenitor cells transiently expressing genes contribute to complex anatomical and functional structures. In the developing nervous system an additional level of complexity arises when considering how cells of distinct lineages relate to newly established neural circuits. To address these problems, we used both cumulative marking with Cre/loxP and Genetic Inducible Fate Mapping (GIFM), which permanently and heritably marks small populations of progenitors and their descendants with fine temporal control using CreER/loxP. A key component used in both approaches is a conditional phenotyping allele that has the potential to be expressed in all cell types, but is quiescent because of a loxP flanked Stop sequence, which precedes a reporter allele. Upon recombination, the resulting phenotyping allele is 'turned on' and then constitutively expressed. Thus, the reporter functions as a high fidelity genetic lineage tracer in vivo. Currently there is an array of reporter alleles that can be used in marking strategies, but their recombination efficiency and applicability to a wide array of tissues has not been thoroughly described. To assess the recombination/marking potential of the reporters, we utilized CreER(T) under the control of a Wnt1 transgene (Wnt1-CreER(T)) as well as a cumulative, non-inducible En1(Cre) knock-in line in combination with three different reporters: R26R (LacZ reporter), Z/EG (EGFP reporter), and Tau-Lox-STOP-Lox-mGFP-IRES-NLS-LacZ (membrane-targeted GFP/nuclear LacZ reporter). We marked the Wnt1 lineage using each of the three reporters at embryonic day (E) 8.5 followed by analysis at E10.0, E12.5, and in the adult. We also compared cumulative marking of cells with a history of En1 expression at the same stages. We evaluated the reporters by whole-mount and section analysis and ascertained the strengths and weaknesses of each of the reporters. Comparative analysis with the reporters

  13. Status report: Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of BWR core shrouds and other internal components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    On July 25, 1994, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 94-03 to obtain information needed to assess compliance with regulatory requirements regarding the structural integrity of core shrouds in domestic boiling water reactors (BWRs). This report begins with a brief description of the safety significance of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) as it relates to the design and function of BWR core shrouds and other internal components. It then presents a brief history of shroud cracking events both in the US and abroad, followed by an indepth summary of the industry actions to address the issue of IGSCC in BWR core shrouds and other internal components. This report summarizes the staff's basis for issuing GL 94-03, as well as the staff's assessment of plant-specific responses to GL 94-03. The staff is continually evaluating the licensee inspection programs and the results from examinations of BWR core shrouds and other internal components. This report is representative of submittals to and evaluations by the staff as of September 30, 1995. An update of this report will be issued at a later date

  14. Reported Exposure and Emotional Reactivity to Daily Stressors: The Roles of Adult-Age and Global Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Almeida, David M.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    A central goal of daily stress research is to identify resilience and vulnerability factors associated with exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. The current study examined how age differences and global perceptions of stress relate to exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Sixty-seven younger (Mage = 20) and 116 older (Mage = 80) adults completed a daily stress diary and measures of positive and negative affect on 6 days over a 14 day period. Participants also completed a measure of global perceived stress. Results revealed that reported exposure to daily stressors is reduced in old age, but that emotional reactivity to daily stressors did not differ between young and older adults. Global perceived stress was associated with greater reported exposure to daily stressors in old adults, and greater stress-related increases in negative affect in younger adults. Furthermore, across days on which daily stressors were reported, intraindividual variability in the number and severity of stressors reported was associated with increased negative affect, but only among younger adults. PMID:18361654

  15. Reported exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors: the roles of adult age and global perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M

    2008-03-01

    A central goal of daily stress research is to identify resilience and vulnerability factors associated with exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. The present study examined how age differences and global perceptions of stress relate to exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Sixty-seven younger (M age = 20) and 116 older (M age = 80) adults completed a daily stress diary and measures of positive and negative affect on 6 days over a 14-day period. Participants also completed a measure of global perceived stress. Results revealed that reported exposure to daily stressors is reduced in old age but that emotional reactivity to daily stressors did not differ between younger and older adults. Global perceived stress was associated with greater reported exposure to daily stressors in older adults and greater stress-related increases in negative affect in younger adults. Furthermore, across days on which daily stressors were reported, intraindividual variability in the number and severity of stressors reported was associated with increased negative affect, but only among younger adults. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Managerial span of control: a pilot study comparing departmental complexity and number of direct reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Katreena Collette; Pepper, Ginette; Blegen, Mary

    2013-09-01

    Nurse managers play pivotal roles in hospitals. However, restructuring has resulted in nurse managers having wider span of control and reduced visibility. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare two methods of measuring span of control: departmental complexity and number of direct reports. Forty-one nurse managers across nine hospitals completed The Ottawa Hospital Clinical Manager Span of Control Tool (TOH-SOC) and a demographic survey. A moderate positive relationship between number of direct reports and departmental complexity score was identified (r=.49, p=managers' responsibility. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  17. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy and post-traumatic stress disorder after a skiing accident: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Birgit Maria; Wonisch, Manfred; Fruhwald, Friedrich; Fazekas, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Symptoms of a post-traumatic stress disorder can follow Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy. This vignette describes such a linkage and exemplifies the risk that these symptoms may remain undetected. After a skiing accident that had evoked existential fear of suffocation, a post-menopausal woman was diagnosed with Tako-tsubo syndrome and myocardial contusion. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder appeared 2 weeks after remission of the cardiomyopathy. Two months later, a psychological assessment was conducted during cardiac rehabilitation. A post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed and successfully treated by narrative exposure. This case report suggests that these patients should be informed during the initial hospital stay that post-traumatic stress symptoms could appear. It also suggests including a screening for post-traumatic stress disorder in the follow-up of these patients.

  18. Travel Time to Hospital for Childbirth: Comparing Calculated Versus Reported Travel Times in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Hugo; Prunet, Caroline; Blondel, Béatrice; Charreire, Hélène; Combier, Evelyne; Le Vaillant, Marc; Amat-Roze, Jeanne-Marie; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Timely access to health care is critical in obstetrics. Yet obtaining reliable estimates of travel times to hospital for childbirth poses methodological challenges. We compared two measures of travel time, self-reported and calculated, to assess concordance and to identify determinants of long travel time to hospital for childbirth. Methods Data came from the 2010 French National Perinatal Survey, a national representative sample of births (N = 14 681). We compared both travel time measures by maternal, maternity unit and geographic characteristics in rural, peri-urban and urban areas. Logistic regression models were used to study factors associated with reported and calculated times ≥30 min. Cohen's kappa coefficients were also calculated to estimate the agreement between reported and calculated times according to women's characteristics. Results In urban areas, the proportion of women with travel times ≥30 min was higher when reported rather than calculated times were used (11.0 vs. 3.6%). Longer reported times were associated with non-French nationality [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.7)] and inadequate prenatal care [aOR 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-2.0)], but not for calculated times. Concordance between the two measures was higher in peri-urban and rural areas (52.4 vs. 52.3% for rural areas). Delivery in a specialised level 2 or 3 maternity unit was a principal determinant of long reported and measured times in peri-urban and rural areas. Conclusions for Practice The level of agreement between reported and calculated times varies according to geographic context. Poor measurement of travel time in urban areas may mask problems in accessibility.

  19. A comparative proteomic analysis of Bacillus coagulans in response to lactate stress during the production of L-lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuwen; Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Landong; Xu, Ping

    2014-12-01

    The growth rate and maximum biomass of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 were inhibited by lactate; inhibition by sodium lactate was stronger than by calcium lactate. The differences of protein expressions by B. coagulans 2-6 under the lactate stress were determined using two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometric identification. Under the non-stress condition, calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, the number of detected protein spots was 1,571 ± 117, 1,281 ± 231 and 904 ± 127, respectively. Four proteins with high expression under lactate stress were identified: lactate dehydrogenase, cysteine synthase A, aldo/keto reductase and ribosomal protein L7/L12. These proteins are thus potential targets for the reconstruction of B. coagulans to promote its resistance to lactate stress.

  20. A comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the core genetic components of salt and osmotic stress responses in Braya humilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengshan Zhao

    Full Text Available Braya humilis is a member of the Euclidieae tribe within the family Brassicaceae. This species exhibits a broad range of adaptations to different climatic zones and latitudes as it has a distribution that ranges from northern Asia to the arctic-alpine regions of northern North America. In China, B. humilis is mainly found on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP and in adjacent arid regions. In this study, we sequenced a sample from an arid region adjacent to the QTP using the Illumina platform generating a total of 46,485 highly accurate unigenes, of which 78.41% were annotated by BLASTing versus public protein databases. The B. humilis transcriptome is characterized by a high level of sequence conservation compared with its close relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. We also used reciprocal blast to identify shared orthologous genes between B. humilis and four other sequenced Brassicaceae species (i.e. A. thaliana, A. lyrata, Capsella rubella, and Thellungiella parvula. To enable precise characterization of orthologous genes, the early-diverging basal angiosperm Amborella trichopoda was also included. A total of 6,689 orthologous genes were identified before stricter criteria for the determination of e-values, amino acid hit lengths, and identity values was applied to further reduce this list. This led to a final list of 381 core orthologous genes for B. humilis; 39 out of these genes are involved in salt and osmotic stress responses and estimations of nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios for this species and A. thaliana orthologs show that these genes are under purifying selection in B. humilis. Expression of six genes was detected in B. humilis seedlings under salt and osmotic stress treatments. Comparable expression patterns to their counterparts in Arabidopsis suggest that these orthologous genes are both sequence and functional conservation. The results of this study demonstrate that the environmental adaptations of B. humilis are mainly the

  1. Considering benefits and harms of duloxetine for treatment of stress urinary incontinence: a meta-analysis of clinical study reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maund, Emma; Guski, Louise Schow; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Medicines Agency makes clinical study reports publicly available and publishes reasons for not approving applications for marketing authorization. Duloxetine has been approved in Europe for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. The reported adverse effects...... of duloxetine include mental health problems and suicidality. We obtained clinical study reports from the European Medicines Agency concerning use of this drug for stress urinary incontinence. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of 4 randomized placebo-controlled trials of duloxetine (involving a total...... of 1913 patients) submitted to the European Medicines Agency for marketing approval for the indication of stress urinary incontinence in women. We used data from the clinical study reports (totalling 6870 pages and including individual patient data) to assess benefits (including frequency of incontinence...

  2. Relationship between turbine rotor and disk metallurgical characteristics and stress corrosion cracking behavior. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayley, H.B.

    1986-09-01

    This report describes stress corrosion test results in which several heats of turbine rotor steels specially prepared to achieve different degrees of segregation to the grain boundaries were tested in concentrated laboratory and actual steam turbine environments. Grain boundary characteristics are considered important because turbine rotor failures in field service have been of an intergranular nature and because grain boundary segregation is known to affect the impact toughness of rotor steels (''temper embrittlement''). The laboratory stress corrosion testing results showed no differences between heavily and lightly segregated test pieces which differed greatly in impact toughness. All test specimens cracked, indicating the laboratory environments may have been too severe to allow differentiation between the various metallurgical conditions, if any differences exist. Test loops and autoclaves for chemical analysis and mechanical testing were designed, installed and are operating in the field testing portion of this program. No intergranular cracking has occurred to date; hence, no differentiation between heavily and lightly segregated test pieces has been possible in field testing. Instrumented crack propagation specimens, which permit measurement of cracking as it occurs, have been installed for the continuing field testing program. Correlation of such cracking with the continuously monitored chemical composition of the environment will increase understanding of the cracking process and may give the possibility of providing an early warning of the existence of conditions which might cause turbine rotor cracking

  3. Final report of the rock sealing project - Identification of zones disturbed by blasting and stress release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, L.; Pusch, R.; Fredriksson, A.; Hoekmark, H.; Karnland, O.; Sanden, R.

    1992-01-01

    Tests 2 and 3 of the rock sealing project comprised determination of the hydraulic properties of the disturbed rock around tunnels and drifts and the possibilities of decreasing the hydraulic conductivity of the disturbed zones by an attempt to seal the very fine fractures that are causing the increased conductivity. This report deals with the hydraulic testing while the grouting procedures and their effect are described in volume 3. The BMT drift was used for the experiments which basically consisted of measuring the flow of water from an inner pressurized slot and borehole curtain to an outer curtain with zero water pressure (Macro Flow Test). The 12 m long drift was sealed from water inflow by a slurry that filled the entire drift. The slurry was pressurized by a large water filled bladder for eliminating leakage along and through the drift. The flow tests were primarily evaluated by finite element modeling in which the rock was considered an equivalent porous medium. Two possible rock models were developed that satisfied not only the flow and water pressure measurements during the macro flow test but also 3 different flow situations preceding the test. The models imply a shallow blast-disturbed zone with a strongly increased hydraulic conductivity, and a stress disturbed zone with a decreased radial hydraulic conductivity. The main difference between the models is the extension of the blast-damaged zone and the axial hydraulic conductivity of the stress disturbed zone. (au)

  4. Reason for hospital admission: a pilot study comparing patient statements with chart reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Zackary; Dembitzer, Anne; Beach, Mary Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Providers and patients bring different understandings of health and disease to their encounters in the hospital setting. The literature to date only infrequently addresses patient and provider concordance on the reported reason for hospitalization, that is, whether they express this reason in similar ways. An agreement or common ground between such understandings can serve as a basis for future communication regarding an illness and its treatment. We interviewed a convenience sample of patients on the medical wards of an urban academic medical center. We asked subjects to state the reason why their doctors admitted them to the hospital, and then compared their statement with the reason in the medical record. We defined concordance on reported reason for hospitalization as agreement between the patient's report and the reason abstracted from the chart. We interviewed and abstracted chart data from a total of 46 subjects. Concordance on reported reason for hospitalization was present in 24 (52%) and discordance in 17 (37%); 5 patients (11%) could not give any reason for their hospitalization. Among the 17 patients whose report was discordant with their chart, 12 (71%) reported a different organ system than was recorded in the chart. A significant proportion of medical inpatients could not state their physicians' reason for admission. In addition, patients who identify a different reason for hospitalization than the chart often give a different organ system altogether. Providers should explore patient understanding of the reason for their hospitalization to facilitate communication and shared decision making.

  5. Stress at the Korean Mountains: meeting report of the 8th International Workshop on the Molecular Biology of Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    De Maio, Antonio; Tanguay, Robert M.; Kampinga, Harm; Lee, Eunil; Kim, Chang Duck; Hightower, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    South Korea is a country exemplified by a combination of upscale new technology and ancient mysticism. The busy streets of Seoul hustle and bustle like any large, active metropolis, yet the city's inhabitants radiate an intrinsic sense of peace, creating a timeless atmosphere. The combination of emerging technology and profound respect for the Korean culture and heritage makes this country a unique environment in which to organize a successful scientific meeting. Cell Stress Society Internati...

  6. A diagnostic dilemma between psychosis and post-traumatic stress disorder: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coentre Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder is defined as a mental disorder that arises from the experience of traumatic life events. Research has shown a high incidence of co-morbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. Case presentation We report the case of a 32-year-old black African woman with a history of both post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. Two years ago she presented to mental health services with auditory and visual hallucinations, persecutory delusions, suicidal ideation, recurring nightmares, hyper-arousal, and initial and middle insomnia. She was prescribed trifluoperazine (5 mg/day and began cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis. Her psychotic symptoms gradually resolved over a period of three weeks; however, she continues to experience ongoing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. In our case report, we review both the diagnostic and treatment issues regarding post-traumatic stress disorder with psychotic symptoms. Conclusions There are many factors responsible for the symptoms that occur in response to a traumatic event, including cognitive, affective and environmental factors. These factors may predispose both to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or psychotic disorders. The independent diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder with psychotic features remains an open issue. A psychological formulation is essential regarding the appropriate treatment in a clinical setting.

  7. Self-Reported Fractures in Dermatitis Herpetiformis Compared to Coeliac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Pasternack

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH is a cutaneous manifestation of coeliac disease. Increased bone fracture risk is known to associate with coeliac disease, but this has been only scantly studied in DH. In this study, self-reported fractures and fracture-associated factors in DH were investigated and compared to coeliac disease. Altogether, 222 DH patients and 129 coeliac disease-suffering controls were enrolled in this study. The Disease Related Questionnaire and the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and Psychological General Well-Being questionnaires were mailed to participants; 45 out of 222 (20% DH patients and 35 out of 129 (27% of the coeliac disease controls had experienced at least one fracture (p = 0.140. The cumulative lifetime fracture incidence did not differ between DH and coeliac disease patients, but the cumulative incidence of fractures after diagnosis was statistically significantly higher in females with coeliac disease compared to females with DH. The DH patients and the coeliac disease controls with fractures reported more severe reflux symptoms compared to those without, and they also more frequently used proton-pump inhibitor medication. To conclude, the self-reported lifetime bone fracture risk is equal for DH and coeliac disease. After diagnosis, females with coeliac disease have a higher fracture risk than females with DH.

  8. Self-Reported Fractures in Dermatitis Herpetiformis Compared to Coeliac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, Camilla; Mansikka, Eriika; Kaukinen, Katri; Hervonen, Kaisa; Reunala, Timo; Collin, Pekka; Mattila, Ville M.

    2018-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a cutaneous manifestation of coeliac disease. Increased bone fracture risk is known to associate with coeliac disease, but this has been only scantly studied in DH. In this study, self-reported fractures and fracture-associated factors in DH were investigated and compared to coeliac disease. Altogether, 222 DH patients and 129 coeliac disease-suffering controls were enrolled in this study. The Disease Related Questionnaire and the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and Psychological General Well-Being questionnaires were mailed to participants; 45 out of 222 (20%) DH patients and 35 out of 129 (27%) of the coeliac disease controls had experienced at least one fracture (p = 0.140). The cumulative lifetime fracture incidence did not differ between DH and coeliac disease patients, but the cumulative incidence of fractures after diagnosis was statistically significantly higher in females with coeliac disease compared to females with DH. The DH patients and the coeliac disease controls with fractures reported more severe reflux symptoms compared to those without, and they also more frequently used proton-pump inhibitor medication. To conclude, the self-reported lifetime bone fracture risk is equal for DH and coeliac disease. After diagnosis, females with coeliac disease have a higher fracture risk than females with DH. PMID:29538319

  9. Strengths and difficulties in children with cochlear implants--comparing self-reports with reports from parents and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anmyr, Lena; Larsson, Kjerstin; Olsson, Mariann; Freijd, Anders

    2012-08-01

    The aim was to explore and compare how children with cochlear implants, their parents, and their teachers perceive the children's mental health in terms of emotional and behavioral strengths and difficulties. The self-report, parents', and teachers' versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to assess the mental health of 22 children with cochlear implants. The children's assessments were then compared to the parents' and 17 teachers' assessments. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software package. Total difficulties (p=.000), emotional symptoms (p=.000), and conduct problems (p=.007) were greater according to the children than according to parents and teachers. Younger children (9 years, n=12) reported more emotional symptoms than older children (12 and 15 years, n=10). Almost a quarter of the children rated themselves in a way indicating mental ill-health. Parents and teachers each indicated mental ill-health for one child. Children with cochlear implants express greater concerns about their mental health than their parents and teachers do. This is important knowledge for adults in families, schools, and health care in order to support these children and offer treatment when needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FY17 Status Report: Research on Stress Corrosion Cracking of SNF Interim Storage Canisters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alexander, Christopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This progress report describes work done in FY17 at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. Work in FY17 refined our understanding of the chemical and physical environment on canister surfaces, and evaluated the relationship between chemical and physical environment and the form and extent of corrosion that occurs. The SNL corrosion work focused predominantly on pitting corrosion, a necessary precursor for SCC, and process of pit-to-crack transition; it has been carried out in collaboration with university partners. SNL is collaborating with several university partners to investigate SCC crack growth experimentally, providing guidance for design and interpretation of experiments.

  11. Negative magnetic resonance imaging in femoral neck stress fracture with joint effusion: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Nobutoshi; Okuyama, Koichiro; Kamo, Keiji; Chiba, Mitsuho [Akita Rosai Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Odate, Akita (Japan); Shimada, Yoichi [Akita University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Akita (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Femoral neck stress fracture (FNSF) is well documented in the orthopedic literature and is generally associated with strenuous activities such as long-distance running and military training. The diagnostic yield of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for FNSF was reported to be 100 %, and early MRI is recommended when this fracture is suspected. We encountered a 16-year-old male long-distance runner with FNSF in whom the left femoral neck showed no signal changes on MRI although an effusion was detected in the left hip joint. One month later, roentgenograms revealed periosteal callus and oblique consolidation of the left femoral neck, confirming the diagnosis of compression FNSF. Because FNSF with a normal bone marrow signal on MRI is very rare, this patient is presented here. (orig.)

  12. Comparative proteomic analysis of the thermotolerant plant Portulaca oleracea acclimation to combined high temperature and humidity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunqiang; Chen, Jinhui; Liu, Qi; Ben, Cécile; Todd, Christopher D; Shi, Jisen; Yang, Yongping; Hu, Xiangyang

    2012-07-06

    Elevated temperature and humidity are major environmental factors limiting crop yield and distribution. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to high temperature and humidity may facilitate the development of cultivars adaptable to warm or humid regions. Under conditions of 90% humidity and 35 °C, the thermotolerant plant Portulaca oleracea exhibits excellent photosynthetic capability and relatively little oxidative damage. To determine the proteomic response that occurs in leaves of P. oleracea following exposure to high temperature and high humidity, a proteomic approach was performed to identify protein changes. A total of 51 differentially expressed proteins were detected and characterized functionally and structurally; these identified proteins were involved in various functional categories, mainly including material and energy metabolism, the antioxidant defense responses, protein destination and storage, and transcriptional regulation. The subset of antioxidant defense-related proteins demonstrated marked increases in activity with exposure to heat and humidity, which led to lower accumulations of H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) in P. oleracea compared with the thermosensitive plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The quickly accumulations of proline content and heat-shock proteins, and depleting abscisic acid (ABA) via increasing ABA-8'-hydroxylase were also found in P. oleracea under stress conditions, that resulted into greater stomata conductance and respiration rates. On the basis of these findings, we propose that P. oleracea employs multiple strategies to enhance its adaptation to high-temperature and high-humidity conditions.

  13. Is it Trauma- or Fantasy-based? Comparing dissociative identity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, simulators, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissia, E M; Giesen, M E; Chalavi, S; Nijenhuis, E R S; Draijer, N; Brand, B L; Reinders, A A T S

    2016-08-01

    The Trauma Model of dissociative identity disorder (DID) posits that DID is etiologically related to chronic neglect and physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. In contrast, the Fantasy Model posits that DID can be simulated and is mediated by high suggestibility, fantasy proneness, and sociocultural influences. To date, these two models have not been jointly tested in individuals with DID in an empirical manner. This study included matched groups [patients (n = 33) and controls (n = 32)] that were compared on psychological Trauma and Fantasy measures: diagnosed genuine DID (DID-G, n = 17), DID-simulating healthy controls (DID-S, n = 16), individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, n = 16), and healthy controls (HC, n = 16). Additionally, personality-state-dependent measures were obtained for DID-G and DID-S; both neutral personality states (NPS) and trauma-related personality states (TPS) were tested. For Trauma measures, the DID-G group had the highest scores, with TPS higher than NPS, followed by the PTSD, DID-S, and HC groups. The DID-G group was not more fantasy-prone or suggestible and did not generate more false memories. Malingering measures were inconclusive. Evidence consistently supported the Trauma Model of DID and challenges the core hypothesis of the Fantasy Model. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Beneficial effects of spin-labelled nitrosourea on CCNU-induced oxidative stress in rat blood compared with vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadjeva, V; Kuchukova, D; Tolekova, A; Tanchev, S

    2005-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of a recently synthesized 1-ethyl-3-[4-(2,2,6,6-tetra-methylpiperidine-1-oxyl)]-1-nitrosourea (SLENU), compared with vitamin E as a positive control, on 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU)-induced oxidative stress in rats. We determined plasma malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) levels and the activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Forty two white albino healthy rats were treated once daily for 30 days with oral preparations of CCNU (12.5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg), SLENU (25-200 mg/kg), and combinations of these. The CCNU-induced increase in plasma MDA level and the usual decrease in erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities were reversed by SLENU, but not by vitamin E. We have previously demonstrated that SLENU is a superoxide scavenger. A combination of our present findings with previous results thus leads us to proposing a new chemotherapeutic combination of CCNU and SLENU that is devoid of high toxicity.

  15. Homicides by Police: Comparing Counts From the National Violent Death Reporting System, Vital Statistics, and Supplementary Homicide Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Catherine; Azrael, Deborah; Cohen, Amy; Miller, Matthew; Thymes, Deonza; Wang, David Enze; Hemenway, David

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) as a surveillance system for homicides by law enforcement officers. We assessed sensitivity and positive predictive value of the NVDRS "type of death" variable against our study count of homicides by police, which we derived from NVDRS coded and narrative data for states participating in NVDRS 2005 to 2012. We compared state counts of police homicides from NVDRS, Vital Statistics, and Federal Bureau of Investigation Supplementary Homicide Reports. We identified 1552 police homicides in the 16 states. Positive predictive value and sensitivity of the NVDRS "type of death" variable for police homicides were high (98% and 90%, respectively). Counts from Vital Statistics and Supplementary Homicide Reports were 58% and 48%, respectively, of our study total; gaps varied widely by state. The annual rate of police homicide (0.24/100,000) varied 5-fold by state and 8-fold by race/ethnicity. NVDRS provides more complete data on police homicides than do existing systems. Expanding NVDRS to all 50 states and making 2 improvements we identify will be an efficient way to provide the nation with more accurate, detailed data on homicides by law enforcement.

  16. Peer-led Stress Prevention Seminars in the First Year of Medical School – A Project Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaj, Till Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From the beginning of the first year of medical studies, increased psychological stress and elevated burnout prevalence rates can be registered compared to sample populations. Characterized by learning “on an equal footing”, the principle of peer-assisted learning (PAL is widely used in medical education. This report aims to showcase the development and evaluation of peer-led stress prevention seminars for first year medical students after one year of implementation.Project description: With each of the three sessions lasting 90 min., the stress prevention seminars took place in small groups (6-10 students in the period from November 2013 to January 2014 and from November 2014 to December 2014 at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg. Led by trained peers, the seminar content ranged from psycho-educational elements, i.e. time management strategy development and test anxiety assistance, to relaxation techniques. All seminar sessions were evaluated via questionnaire. All questions were answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7 (1=strongly agree; 7=strongly disagree.Results: 75 students consented to participate in seminars (65% female; aged 20.5±3.3 years. The series of seminars was averagely given the school grade of 1.2±0.4 (1=very good to 6=unsatisfactory in WS 2013/14 and 1.5±0.5 in the following year and the peer tutors’ competence was evaluated as very high (1.4 to 1.5 approval rate on the Likert scale.Discussion: The seminar sessions’ importance to the students is underlined by their very positive evaluations. This offer seems to have benefited students especially during the demanding transitional phase at the start of their studies. Both the implementation of the preventive measure at an early stage as well as the use of PAL seem to have proven effective.Conclusion: PAL seems to be effective in the field of stress prevention. However, specific efficacy studies are still lacking.

  17. Specificity of Affective Instability in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder Compared to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Bulimia Nervosa, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Philip; Mussgay, Lutz; Sawitzki, Günther; Trull, Timothy J.; Reinhard, Iris; Steil, Regina; Klein, Christoph; Bohus, Martin; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Affective instability is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The use of advanced assessment methodologies and appropriate statistical analyses has led to consistent findings that indicate a heightened instability in patients with BPD compared with healthy controls. However, few studies have investigated the specificity of affective instability among patients with BPD with regard to relevant clinical control groups. In this study, 43 patients with BPD, 28 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 20 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28 healthy controls carried e-diaries for 24 hours and were prompted to rate their momentary affective states approximately every 15 minutes while awake. To quantify instability, we used 3 state-of-the-art indices: multilevel models for squared successive differences (SSDs), multilevel models for probability of acute changes (PACs), and aggregated point-by-point changes (APPCs). Patients with BPD displayed heightened affective instability for emotional valence and distress compared with healthy controls, regardless of the specific instability indices. These results directly replicate earlier studies. However, affective instability did not seem to be specific to patients with BPD. With regard to SSDs, PACs, and APPCs, patients with PTSD or BN showed a similar heightened instability of affect (emotional valence and distress) to that of patients with BPD. Our results give raise to the discussion if affective instability is a transdiagnostic or a disorder-specific mechanism. Current evidence cannot answer this question, but investigating psychopathological mechanisms in everyday life across disorders is a promising approach to enhance validity and specificity of mental health diagnoses. PMID:24661176

  18. No sustained attention differences in a longitudinal randomized trial comparing mindfulness based stress reduction versus active control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal G MacCoon

    Full Text Available Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR is a secular form of meditation training. The vast majority of the extant literature investigating the health effects of mindfulness interventions relies on wait-list control comparisons. Previous studies have found that meditation training over several months is associated with improvements in cognitive control and attention.We used a visual continuous performance task (CPT to test the effects of eight weeks of mindfulness training on sustained attention by comparing MBSR to the Health Enhancement Program (HEP, a structurally equivalent, active control condition in a randomized, longitudinal design (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01301105 focusing on a non-clinical population typical of MBSR participants. Researchers were blind to group assignment. 63 community participants were randomized to either MBSR (n = 31 or HEP (n = 32. CPT analyses were conducted on 29 MBSR participants and 25 HEP participants. We predicted that MBSR would improve visual discrimination ability and sustained attention over time on the CPT compared to HEP, with more home practice associated with greater improvements. Our hypotheses were not confirmed but we did find some evidence for improved visual discrimination similar to effects in partial replication of other research. Our study had sufficient power to demonstrate that intervention groups do not differ in their improvement over time in sustained attention performance. One of our primary predictions concerning the effects of intervention on attentional fatigue was significant but not interpretable.Attentional sensitivity is not affected by mindfulness practice as taught in MBSR, but it is unclear whether mindfulness might positively affect another aspect of attention, vigilance. These results also highlight the relevant procedural modifications required by future research to correctly investigate the role of sustained attention in similar samples.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT

  19. Mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking in RBMK reactors. Final report of the programme's steering committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    In 2000 the IAEA initiated an Extrabudgetary Programme on Mitigation of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking in RBMK Reactors to assist countries operating RBMK reactors in addressing the issue in austenitic stainless steel 300 mm diameter piping. Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel piping in BWRs has been a major safety concern since the early seventies. Similar degradation was found in RBMK reactor piping in 1997. Early in 1998 the IAEA responded to requests for assistance from RBMK operating countries on this issue through activities organized in the framework of Technical Co-operation Department regional projects and the Extrabudgetary Programme on the Safety of WWER and RBMK Nuclear Power Plants. Results of these activities were a basis for the formulation of the objective and scope of the Extrabudgetary Programme on Mitigation of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking in RBMK reactors ('the Programme'). The scope of the Programme included in-service inspection, assessment, repair and mitigation, and water chemistry and decontamination. The Programme was pursued by means of exchange of experience, formulation of guidance, transfer of technology, and training, which will assist the RBMK operators to address related safety concerns. The Programme implementation relied on voluntary extrabudgetary financial contributions from Japan, Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, and on in kind contributions from Finland, Germany and Sweden. The Programme was implemented in close co-ordination with ongoing national and bilateral activities and major inputs to the Programme were provided through the activities of the Swedish International Project Nuclear Safety and of the US DOE International Nuclear Safety Program. The RBMK nuclear power plants in Lithuania, Russian Federation and Ukraine hosted most of the Programme activities. Support of these Member States involved in the Programme was instrumental for its successful completion in

  20. Comparative proteome analysis of metabolic proteins from seeds of durum wheat (cv. Svevo) subjected to heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laino, Paolo; Shelton, Dale; Finnie, Christine

    2010-01-01

    of nonprolamin proteins were monitored to identify polypeptides affected by heat stress during grain fill. This study shows that heat stress alters significantly the durum wheat seed proteome, although the changes range is only between 1.2- and 2.2-fold. This analysis revealed 132 differentially expressed...... include proteins with metabolic activity or structural function. In order to investigate the consequences of heat stress on the accumulation of nonprolamin proteins in mature durum wheat kernels, the Italian cultivar Svevo was subjected to two thermal regimes (heat stress versus control). The 2-D patterns...... polypeptides, 47 of which were identified by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS and included HSPs, proteins involved in the glycolysis and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as stress-related proteins. Many of the heat-induced polypeptides are considered to be allergenic for sensitive individuals....

  1. Changes in clinical and hotel expenditures following publication of the nursing home compare report card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamel, Dana B; Spector, William D; Zinn, Jacqueline; Weimer, David L; Ahn, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Nursing Home Compare first published clinical quality measures at the end of 2002. It is a quality report card that for the first time offers consumers easily accessible information about the clinical quality of nursing homes. It led to changes in consumers' demand, increasing the relative importance of clinical versus hotel aspects of quality in their search and choice of a nursing home. To examine the hypothesis that nursing homes responding to these changes in demand shifted the balance of resources from hotel to clinical activities. The study included 10,022 free-standing nursing homes nationwide during 2001 to 2006. RESEARCH DESIGN AND DATA: A retrospective multivariate statistical analysis of trends in the ratio of clinical to hotel expenditures, using Medicare cost reports, Minimum Data Set and Online Survey, Certification and Reporting data, controlling for changes in residents' acuity and facility fixed effects. Inference is based on robust standard errors. The ratio of clinical to hotel expenditures averaged 1.78. It increased significantly (P hotel expenditures following publication of the report card suggests that nursing homes responded as expected to the changes in the elasticity of demand with respect to clinical quality brought about by the public reporting of clinical quality measures. The response was stronger among nursing homes facing stronger incentives.

  2. Test report on experimental stress analysis of a 24 inch diameter tee (ORNL T-12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, D.R.

    1975-04-01

    The experimental stress analysis and low cycle fatigue test of one 24'' x 24'' x 10'' schedule 40 carbon steel, ANSI B16.9 tee performed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. is described. The tee was instrumented with 230 rectangular strain gage rosettes. Elastic data was obtained for 12 loading conditions consisting of internal pressure and orthogonal pure moments and orthogonal direct forces applied individually to the free branch and run ends of the tee. One of the run ends of the tee was ''built in'' throughout the test. All loads were applied through pipe extensions welded to the tee. The tee was tested to failure in a low cycle pressure fatigue test with a cyclic internal pressure between 0 psi and 1800 psi. A through-the-wall fatigue crack occurred at 76620 cycles. Significant test results are summarized and compared with design values tabulated in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, 1971. (U.S.)

  3. Adverse effect of high migration stress on mental health during pregnancy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Vanessa; Richard-Fortier, Zoé; Rousseau, Cécile

    2017-02-01

    Despite empirical evidence on the numerous consequences associated with high migration stress and mental health problems during pregnancy, a psychosocial stress assessment is rarely done, leaving it largely unaddressed. This case illustration sheds light on the common multiple risk factors related to migration stress that have to be taken into consideration when addressing perinatal mental health, and highlights the importance of obstetric appointments as a unique opportunity to assess psychosocial stress and mobilize interdisciplinary interventions.

  4. Randomized controlled trial comparing TVT-O and TVT-S for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence: 2-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Ferraro, Ana Maria H M; Jarmy-DiBella, Zsuzsanna I K; de Aquino Castro, Rodrigo; Bortolini, Maria Augusta T; Sartori, Marair G F; Girão, Manoel J B C

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of single-incision sling TVT-Secur (TVT-S) and transobturator midurethral sling (TVT-O) for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) over 2 years' follow-up. This is a randomized controlled trial in which women with SUI were randomly assigned to have either TVT-O (n = 56) or TVT-S (n = 66). Exclusion criteria included: voiding dysfunction, detrusor overactivity, and pelvic organ prolapse beyond the hymen. The primary outcomes were objective and subjective cure rates at a follow-up visit at 24 months, defined as a negative stress test and pad test as well as absence of self-reported SUI symptoms. Secondary endpoints included quality of life assessment using the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), and complication and reoperation rates. Analysis was performed using intention to treat, and statistical significance was fixed at 5% (p TVT-S and TVT-O groups were 77.3% and 83.6%, while subjective cure rates were 75.7% and 80.3% respectively, with no statistically significant differences between the techniques. There was a significant improvement in all KHQ domains in both groups (p TVT-O, while the long-term one was tape exposure observed in 5.3% of TVT-O and in 7.5% of TVT-S cases. The efficacy of the TVT-S was similar to that of the TVT-O after 2 years' assessment. This cohort will continue to be followed in order to maintain commitment to contributing data on long-term results.

  5. Comparative Analysis of GF-1 and HJ-1 Data to Derive the Optimal Scale for Monitoring Heavy Metal Stress in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmin; Liu, Xiangnan

    2018-03-06

    Remote sensing can actively monitor heavy metal contamination in crops, but with the increase of satellite sensors, the optimal scale for monitoring heavy metal stress in rice is still unknown. This study focused on identifying the optimal scale by comparing the ability to detect heavy metal stress in rice at various spatial scales. The 2 m, 8 m, and 16 m resolution GF-1 (China) data and the 30 m resolution HJ-1 (China) data were used to invert leaf area index (LAI). The LAI was the input parameter of the World Food Studies (WOFOST) model, and we obtained the dry weight of storage organs (WSO) and dry weight of roots (WRT) through the assimilation method; then, the mass ratio of rice storage organs and roots (SORMR) was calculated. Through the comparative analysis of SORMR at each spatial scale of data, we determined the optimal scale to monitor heavy metal stress in rice. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) SORMR could accurately and effectively monitor heavy metal stress; (2) the 8 m and 16 m images from GF-1 were suitable for monitoring heavy metal stress in rice; (3) 16 m was considered the optimal scale to assess heavy metal stress in rice.

  6. Stress (Tako-Tsubo) Cardiomyopathy Following Radiofrequency Ablation of a Liver Tumor: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Ijin; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Eun-Ah

    2011-01-01

    Stress cardiomyopathy is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction occurring in the absence of obstructive coronary disease. It is precipitated by acute emotional or physical stress. We present a case of stress cardiomyopathy which developed during hepatic radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  7. RISK DISCLOSURE ANALYSIS IN THE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ANNUAL REPORT USING FUZZY-SET QUALITATIVE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carmona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the necessary and sufficient conditions of good Corporate Governance practices for high risk disclosure by firms in their Corporate Governance Annual Report. Additionally, we explore whether those recipes have changed during the financial crisis. With a sample of 271 Spanish listed companies, we applied fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to a database of financial and non-financial data. We report that Board of Directors independence, size, level of activity and gender diversity, CEO duality, Audit Committee independence, being audited by the Big Four auditing firms and the presence of institutional investors are associated with high risk disclosure. The conditions included in almost every combination are the presence of institutional investors and being audited by the Big Four. We found similar combinations for 2006 and 2012, while the analysis for 2009 showed the lowest number of causal configurations.

  8. Sequential Proximal Tibial Stress Fractures associated with Prolonged usage of Methotrexate and Corticosteroids: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan TJL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress fractures of the proximal tibia metaphysis are rare in the elderly. We present a case of a 65-year old male who developed sequential proximal tibia stress fractures associated with prolonged usage of methotrexate and prednisolone within a span of 18 months. Magnetic Resonance Imaging revealed an incomplete stress fracture involving the medial proximal tibial region. The patient was treated with stemmed total knee arthroplasty (TKA bilaterally. Stress fractures should be considered in patients with atypical knee pain who have a history of methotrexate and prednisolone usage. TKA is an effective treatment in stress fractures of the proximal tibia.

  9. Stress measurements in the Stripa granite. Technical project report No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, H.

    1978-08-01

    Rock stress measurements at the 348 m level of the Stripa Mine have been carried out with the Leeman tri-axial equipment. The largest principal stress is found to be 20.0 MPa and directed parallel with the strike of the contact between the granite and the orebody. The intermediate principal stress is 11.4 MPa and directed almost horizontal and perpendicular to the contact. The minor principal stress has a magnitude of 5.4 MPa. The deduced vertical stress is approximately of the same value as can be theoretically calculated

  10. Internet-based stress management for women with preterm labour--a case-based experience report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Sandra; Urech, Corinne; Hösli, Irene; Tschudin, Sibil; Gaab, Jens; Berger, Thomas; Alder, Judith

    2014-12-01

    Pregnant women with preterm labour (PTL) in pregnancy often experience increased distress and anxieties regarding both the pregnancy and the child's health. The pathogenesis of PTL is, among other causes, related to the stress-associated activation of the maternal-foetal stress system. In spite of these psychobiological associations, only a few research studies have investigated the potential of psychological stress-reducing interventions. The following paper will present an online anxiety and stress management self-help program for pregnant women with PTL. Structure and content of the program will be illustrated by a case-based experience report. L.B., 32 years (G3, P1), was recruited at gestational week 27 while hospitalized for PTL for 3 weeks. She worked independently through the program for 6 weeks and had regular written contact with a therapist. Processing the program had a positive impact on L.B.'s anxiety and stress levels, as well as on her experienced depressive symptoms and bonding to the foetus. As PTL and the risk of PTB are associated with distress, psychological stress-reducing interventions might be beneficial. This study examines the applicability of an online intervention for pregnant women with PTL. The case report illustrates how adequate low-threshold psychological support could be provided to these women.

  11. [Comparative study of the LIFT and the TVT procedure in the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerrou, M; Just, S Bresson; Girard, J-M; Nayama, M; Cosson, M

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare a polyester mesh coated with silicone (LIFT, Cousin) to a polypropylene mesh (TVT, Gynecare), in terms of results, and short and middle term complications. We have performed a retrospective study concerning 140 patients between 2000 and 2002 (71 LIFT and 69 TVT operated for stress incontinence with or without vaginal surgery (prolapse surgery or hysterectomy). We noticed per- and postoperative complications. The patients were contacted by phone to evaluate the middle and long-term results. The mean age of the patients were of 58.8+/-11.3 years in LIFT group and 57.2+/-7.5 years in TVT group. More intraoperative complications arose in the TVT group (six bladder injuries and three haemorrhages versus two in LIFT group, pTVT. 80% of the patients were dry in the LIFT and 75.8% in the TVT group. There was no significant difference concerning the rate of de novo urge incontinence (18.3 versus 17.7%) and voiding difficulties (10 versus 16%). On the other hand, 6.7% of the patients of the group LIFT presented bad healing with prosthesis exposure, in every case a partial resection of the mesh was performed. We did not observe any case of exposure in the TVT group. The LIFT seems as effective as the TVT with a rate of de novo urge incontinence and voiding difficulties similar to the TVT and to the literature's data. However the rate of 6.7% of exposure leads us to prefer polypropylene meshes.

  12. A comparing study of alloy 600 and alloy 690 on resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking(IGSCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hun

    1993-02-01

    In order to compare the effect of senitization on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking(IGSCC) between Alloy 600 and Alloy 690, these alloys have been sensitized for 1 to 100 hours at 700 .deg. C. The degree of sensitization(DOS) has evaluated by the ratio of Ir(the maximum current density at anodic scan) to Ia(the maximum current density at reverse scan) in the modified double loop EPR(electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation) test in 0.01M H 2 SO 4 + 0.0001M KSCN at 25 .deg. C and at scan rate of 0.5mV/sec. The susceptibility to IGSCC has been measured in 0.01M Na 2 S 4 O 6 solution using CERT(constant extension rate tester) at strain rate of 1.0 x 10 -6 S -1 . With increasing sensitization time the DOS of Alloy 600 increases to the maximum value at 5 hours and decreases gradually due to the replenishment of Cr to the Cr-depleted grain boundaries. For Alloy 600 samples except those sensitized for less than 1 hour, the DOS measured by the modified EPR test parallel to susceptibility to IGSCC revealed by the ratio of strain to failure (εf, Na 2 S 4 O 6 /εf, Air). It appears that the susceptibility to IGSCC is closely associated with the depth in Cr-depleted concentration profile across grain boundary. For the sensitized Alloy 690 samples exhibited extremely low value of Ir/Ia less than 0.074% and also were immune to IGSCC. The good resistance of Alloy 690 to IGSCC is considered to be attributed to the higher Cr concentration to avoid serious Cr-depletion problems adjacent to grain boundary

  13. Proximal tibial stress fracture associated with mild osteoarthritis of the knee: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curković, Marko; Kovac, Kristina; Curković, Bozidar; Babić-Naglić, Durda; Potocki, Kristina

    2011-03-01

    Stress fractures are considered as multifactorial overuse injuries occurring in 0.3%-0.8% of patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, with rheumatoid arthritis being the most common underlying condition. Stress fractures can be classified according to the condition of the bone affected as: 1) fatigue stress fractures occurring when normal bone is exposed to repeated abnormal stresses; and 2) insufficiency stress fractures that occur when normal stress is applied to bone weakened by an underlying condition. Stress fractures are rarely associated with severe forms of knee osteoarthritis, accompanied with malalignment and obesity. We present a patient with a proximal tibial stress fracture associated with mild knee osteoarthritis without associated malalignment or obesity. Stress fracture should be considered when a patient with osteoarthritis presents with sudden deterioration, severe localized tenderness to palpation and localized swelling or periosteal thickening at the pain site and elevated local temperature. The diagnosis of stress fractures in patients with rheumatic diseases may often be delayed because plain film radiographs may not reveal a stress fracture soon after the symptom onset; moreover, evidence of a fracture may never appear on plain radiographs. Triple phase nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging are more sensitive in the early clinical course than plain films for initial diagnosis.

  14. Comparative analyses reveal different consequences of two oxidative stress inducers, gamma irradiation and potassium tellurite, in the extremophile Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimha, Anaganti; Basu, Bhakti; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic and mass spectrometric analyses revealed differential responses of D. radiodurans to two oxidative stressors. While both elicited oxidative stress alleviation response, major divergence was observed at the level of DNA repair, metabolic pathways and protein homeostasis. Response to gamma irradiation was focused on DNA repair and ROS scavenging but supported metabolism as well as protein homeostasis. Tellurite, induced oxidative stress alleviation but decreased reducing affected and adversely affected metabolism and protein homeostasis

  15. Prediction of cause of death from forensic autopsy reports using text classification techniques: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Ghulam; Shuib, Liyana; Raj, Ram Gopal; Rajandram, Retnagowri; Shaikh, Khairunisa

    2018-07-01

    Automatic text classification techniques are useful for classifying plaintext medical documents. This study aims to automatically predict the cause of death from free text forensic autopsy reports by comparing various schemes for feature extraction, term weighing or feature value representation, text classification, and feature reduction. For experiments, the autopsy reports belonging to eight different causes of death were collected, preprocessed and converted into 43 master feature vectors using various schemes for feature extraction, representation, and reduction. The six different text classification techniques were applied on these 43 master feature vectors to construct a classification model that can predict the cause of death. Finally, classification model performance was evaluated using four performance measures i.e. overall accuracy, macro precision, macro-F-measure, and macro recall. From experiments, it was found that that unigram features obtained the highest performance compared to bigram, trigram, and hybrid-gram features. Furthermore, in feature representation schemes, term frequency, and term frequency with inverse document frequency obtained similar and better results when compared with binary frequency, and normalized term frequency with inverse document frequency. Furthermore, the chi-square feature reduction approach outperformed Pearson correlation, and information gain approaches. Finally, in text classification algorithms, support vector machine classifier outperforms random forest, Naive Bayes, k-nearest neighbor, decision tree, and ensemble-voted classifier. Our results and comparisons hold practical importance and serve as references for future works. Moreover, the comparison outputs will act as state-of-art techniques to compare future proposals with existing automated text classification techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. [Triggering role of emotional stress and childbirth. Unexpected occurrence of Graves' disease compared to 96 cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis and 97 cases of thyroid nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-du Pan, R C

    1998-07-01

    98 patients with Graves' disease have been compared to 95 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and to 97 patients with benign thyroid nodules (control group) in order to evaluate the triggering role of major stressors and pregnancy in the occurrence of autoimmune thyroid diseases. A stress factor has been encountered in 11% cases of Graves' disease and in 6% of Hashimoto's and thyroid nodes (chi 2 test, not different). Graves' disease occurred after a pregnancy in 25% of the women in child bearing age versus 10% of the cases of Hashimoto's (p thyroid nodes. The role of stressors, if any, in triggering Graves' disease seems to be weak and dubious compared to the role of pregnancy and post-partum. It is assumed that the decrease of immunosuppressive hormones occurring after stress or delivery could induce a rebound autoimmune reaction responsible for the thyroid disease. In Hashimoto's thyroiditis, stress and pregnancies do not seem to have any triggering role.

  17. The relationship between self-reported childhood adversities, adulthood psychopathology and psychological stress markers in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidenfaden, Dea; Knorr, Ulla; Soendergaard, Mia Greisen

    2017-01-01

    : To compare levels of childhood trauma in schizophrenia patients vs. healthy control persons, and to study the association between childhood adversity and the symptomatology of adulthood schizophrenia, as well as subjective and biological markers of psychological stress.  Methods: Thirty-seven patients...... of the patients was measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and analyzed by a five-factor PANSS model. Measures of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity (9 AM plasma cortisol and daytime salivary cortisol output) were recorded...... was found (P = 0.009). The high CATS score group showed higher levels of perceived stress (P = 0.02), but there was no difference between the high vs. low CATS group in HPA-axis activity. Conclusion: Although causal inferences cannot be made from this cross-sectional study, the study adds support...

  18. Stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture: a comparative finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowei; Zhi, Zhongzheng; Yu, Baoqing; Chen, Fancheng

    2015-11-25

    The purpose of this study is to compare the stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the medial tibial plateau fracture (Schatzker type IV fracture) was created. An axial force of 2500 N with a distribution of 60% to the medial compartment was applied to simulate the axial compressive load on an adult knee during single-limb stance. The equivalent von Mises stress, displacement of the model relative to the distal tibia, and displacement of the implants were used as the output measures. The mean stress value of the plate-screw fixation system was 18.78 MPa, which was significantly (P stress value of the triangular fragment in the plate-screw fixation system model was 42.04 MPa, which was higher than that in the screw fixation model (24.18 MPa). But the mean stress of the triangular fractured fragment in the screw fixation model was significantly higher in terms of equivalent von Mises stress (EVMS), x-axis, and z-axis (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the load transmission mechanism between plate-screw fixation system and screw fixation system was different and the stability provided by the plate-screw fixation system was superior to the screw fixation system.

  19. The comparative study of anatomical structure of stem and ovule development of four cultivars of Glycine max L. merr in water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissa Jonoubi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the most important limiting factors that affect different aspects of plants vegetative and reproductive growth. It is one of the most important limiting factors of crop productivity. Regarding to the importance of soybean as an oilseed plant, and in order to identify the drought tolerant cultivars as well as evaluating of the effects of drought stress on anatomical structureof four soybean cultivars (Clin, Clark, M9 and L17, two series of experiments were carried out as randomized complete design. In the first experiment, at optimum conditions, plants were irrigated after 50 mm evaporation from germination to the end of growing period, whereas the second experiment was irrigated after 150 mm (sever stress evaporation from evaporation pan. The results showed that the effect of water deficit stress on cortex thickness and number of layers, Phloem and xylem thickness, diameter of vessel elements, number of vessel element rows, number of vessel elements in stem, pith and stele thickness, stem diameter and number of trichomes were significant. Relative acceleration of embryo sac development was observed in all plants under water deficit stress except for Clark cultivar. Evaluation of anatomical factors on these cultivars showed that Clin cultivar was more tolerant to water deficit stress compared to other cultivars.

  20. Dosimetry study comparing NCS report-2 versus IAEA TRS-398 protocol for high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attalaa, E.M.; Khaled, N.E.; Abou Elenein, H.S.; Elsayed, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work a dosimetry study is presented in which the results of absorbed dose determined at reference condition according to the IAEA TRS-398 protocol and the NCS report-2 are compared. The IAEA TRS-398 protocol for absorbed dose calibration is based on ionization chamber having absorbed dose to water calibration factor N d w, while the NCS-2 dosimetry report for absorbed dose calibration is based on an ionization chamber having air- kerma calibration factor N k . This study shows that the absorbed dose which is calculated with The IAEA TRS-398 formalisms is higher than that calculated with NCS report-2 formalisms within range from 0.4 to 0.9% in cobalt-60 beam as sensed by different ionization chambers, and from 0.2 to 1.1% for different higher energy photon beams of 6, 8 and 18 MV. The chambers used are PTW 30001, 30004, and NE-2571; which have calibration factors N k and N d w traceable to the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures)

  1. Self-Reported Chemotherapy-Related Cognitive Impairment Compared with Cognitive Complaints following Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Jennifer N; Dumas, Julie; Newhouse, Paul

    2018-06-15

    Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is commonly reported following the administration of cancer treatment. Current longitudinal studies, primarily in women with breast cancer, suggest that up to 35%-60% of patients exhibit persistent CRCI (pCRCI) following completion of chemotherapy. Complaints of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are also commonly reported by women during and following the menopause transition in non-cancer patients. Although the majority of evidence for cognitive difficulties in cancer patients and survivors is attributed to chemotherapy, there is growing evidence to suggest that menopausal status can also influence cognitive function in cancer patients. Given that menopausal status may be contributing to pCRCI, we compared a group of primarily post-menopausal women with pCRCI to two groups of post-menopausal women: women who endorse menopause-associated SCD (maSCD+) and women who do not (maSCD-) to explore the similarities/differences between maSCD and pCRCI and the potential role of menopause in pCRCI. pCRCI participants report more severe SCD symptoms than women after natural menopause, despite being on average 2.5-years post-chemotherapy, supporting previous findings that CRCI can persist for months to years after completing treatment. pCRCI participants not only endorsed greater SCD, but also exhibited objective performance differences. In addition, pCRCI participants endorsed significantly greater menopausal symptoms compared to either maSCD group. Results were not related to menopausal status prior to chemotherapy or current endocrine therapy use. These results suggest that while menopausal symptoms may contribute to SCD experienced by cancer patients after chemotherapy, they do not fully account for pCRCI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing Service Delivery Models for Children with Developmental Delays in Canada: Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviours, Parental Perceptions of Stress and of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Fontil, Laura; Miodrag, Nancy; Karagiannakis, Anastasia; Amar, Daniel; Amos, Janet

    2017-01-01

    This study compares two service delivery models (community-based and centre-based), examining them in light of children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours, and parental perceptions of stress and of care. More specifically, parents of 96 children with developmental delays assessed their children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours and rated…

  3. A randomized, controlled trial comparing an innovative single incision sling with an established transobturator sling to treat female stress urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinoul, Piet; Vervest, Harry A. M.; den Boon, Jan; Venema, Pieter L.; Lakeman, Marielle M.; Milani, Alfredo L.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2011-01-01

    Mid urethral sling procedures have become the surgical treatment of choice for female stress urinary incontinence. Innovative modifications of mid urethral sling procedures were recently introduced with the claim of offering similar efficacy and decreased morbidity. We compared the efficacy and

  4. Comparative functional analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum) zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins in response to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Gu, Lili; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Ryeo Jin; Suh, Mi Chung; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-01-01

    Although the functional roles of zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (RZs) have been characterized in several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), the physiological functions of RZs in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain largely unknown. Here, the functional roles of the three wheat RZ family members, named TaRZ1, TaRZ2, and TaRZ3, were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Expression of TaRZs was markedly regulated by salt, dehydration, or cold stress. The TaRZ1 and TaRZ3 proteins were localized to the nucleus, whereas the TaRZ2 protein was localized to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and cytoplasm. Germination of all three TaRZ-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded compared with that of wild-type seeds under salt stress conditions, whereas germination of TaRZ2- or TaRZ3-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded under dehydration stress conditions. Seedling growth of TaRZ1-expressing transgenic plants was severely inhibited under cold or salt stress conditions, and seedling growth of TaRZ2-expressing plants was inhibited under salt stress conditions. By contrast, expression of TaRZ3 did not affect seedling growth of transgenic plants under any of the stress conditions. In addition, expression of TaRZ2 conferred freeze tolerance in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that different TaRZ family members play various roles in seed germination, seedling growth, and freeze tolerance in plants under abiotic stress.

  5. Comparative transcriptome and gene co-expression network analysis reveal genes and signaling pathways adaptively responsive to varied adverse stresses in the insect fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhangjiang; Zhao, Xin; Lu, Zhuoyue; Wang, Huifang; Liu, Pengfei; Zeng, Fanqin; Zhang, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Sensing, responding, and adapting to the surrounding environment are crucial for all living organisms to survive, proliferate, and differentiate in their biological niches. Beauveria bassiana is an economically important insect-pathogenic fungus which is widely used as a biocontrol agent to control a variety of insect pests. The fungal pathogen unavoidably encounters a variety of adverse environmental stresses and defense response from the host insects during application of the fungal agents. However, few are known about the transcription response of the fungus to respond or adapt varied adverse stresses. Here, we comparatively analyzed the transcriptome of B. bassiana in globe genome under the varied stationary-phase stresses including osmotic agent (0.8 M NaCl), high temperature (32 °C), cell wall-perturbing agent (Congo red), and oxidative agents (H 2 O 2 or menadione). Total of 12,412 reads were obtained, and mapped to the 6767 genes of the B. bassiana. All of these stresses caused transcription responses involved in basal metabolism, cell wall construction, stress response or cell rescue/detoxification, signaling transduction and gene transcription regulation, and likely other cellular processes. An array of genes displayed similar transcription patterns in response to at least two of the five stresses, suggesting a shared transcription response to varied adverse stresses. Gene co-expression network analysis revealed that mTOR signaling pathway, but not HOG1 MAP kinase pathway, played a central role in regulation the varied adverse stress responses, which was verified by RNAi-mediated knockdown of TOR1. Our findings provided an insight of transcription response and gene co-expression network of B. bassiana in adaptation to varied environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative expression profile of NOD1/2 and certain acute inflammatory cytokines in thermal-stressed cell culture model of native and crossbred cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V.; Singh, Umesh; Sengar, Gyanendra Singh; Raja, T. V.; Sajjanar, Basavraj; Alex, Rani; Kumar, Sushil; Alyethodi, R. R.; Kumar, Ashish; Sharma, Ankur; Kumar, Suresh; Bhusan, Bharat; Deb, Rajib

    2017-05-01

    Thermotolerance depends mainly on the health and immune status of the animals. The variation in the immune status of the animals may alter the level of tolerance of animals exposed to heat or cold stress. The present study was conducted to investigate the expression profile of two important nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain receptors (NLRs) (NOD1 and NOD2) and their central signalling molecule RIP2 gene during in vitro thermal-stressed bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of native (Sahiwal) and crossbred (Sahiwal X HF) cattle. We also examined the differential expression profile of certain acute inflammatory cytokines in in vitro thermal-stressed PBMC culture among native and its crossbred counterparts. Results revealed that the expression profile of NOD1/2 positively correlates with the thermal stress, signalling molecule and cytokines. Present findings also highlighted that the expression patterns during thermal stress were comparatively superior among indigenous compared to crossbred cattle which may add references regarding the better immune adaptability of Zebu cattle.

  7. Anterior tension band plating for anterior tibial stress fractures in high-performance female athletes: a report of 4 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borens, Olivier; Sen, Milan K.; Huang, Russel C.; Richmond, Jeffrey; Kloen, Peter; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Helfet, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Stress fracture of the anterior tibial cortex is an extremely challenging fracture to treat, especially in the high-performance female athlete who requires rapid return to competition. Previous reports have not addressed treating these fractures in the world-class athlete with anterior plating. We

  8. Status report. Characterization of Weld Residual Stresses on a Full-Diameter SNF Interim Storage Canister Mockup.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report documents the mockup specifications and manufacturing processes; the initial cutting of the mockup into three cylindrical pieces for testing and the measured strain changes that occurred during the cutting process; and the planned weld residual stress characterization activities and the status of those activities.

  9. Self-reported Cognitive Biases Moderate the Associations Between Social Stress and Paranoid Ideation in a Virtual Reality Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Counotte, Jacqueline; van der Gaag, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive biases are associated with psychosis liability and paranoid ideation. This study investigated the moderating relationship between pre-existing self-reported cognitive biases and the occurrence of paranoid ideation in response to different levels of social stress in a virtual

  10. The Effect of Meditation on Self-Reported Measures of Stress, Anxiety, Depression, and Perfectionism in a College Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jaimie L.; Lee, Randolph M.; Brown, Lauren J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of meditation, specifically Transcendental Meditation (TM), on college students' experience of stress, anxiety, depression, and perfectionistic thoughts was investigated using 43 undergraduate students. Self-report measures of the variables were completed prior to the start of the study. Student groups were trained in TM and practiced…

  11. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  12. Novel whole-cell Reporter Assay for Stress-Based Classification of Antibacterial Compounds Produced by Locally Isolated Bacillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Nithya, Vadakedath; Halami, Prakash M.

    2012-01-01

    Reporter bacteria are beneficial for the rapid and sensitive screening of cultures producing peptide antibiotics, which can be an addition or alternative to the established antibiotics. This study was carried out to validate the usability of specific reporter strains for the target mediated identification of antibiotics produced by native Bacillus spp. isolated from different food sources. During preliminary classification, cell wall stress causing Bacillus isolates were screened by using rep...

  13. Medication errors: an analysis comparing PHICO's closed claims data and PHICO's Event Reporting Trending System (PERTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, David M; Pendrak, Robert F

    2003-07-01

    Clinical pharmacologists are all dedicated to improving the use of medications and decreasing medication errors and adverse drug reactions. However, quality improvement requires that some significant parameters of quality be categorized, measured, and tracked to provide benchmarks to which future data (performance) can be compared. One of the best ways to accumulate data on medication errors and adverse drug reactions is to look at medical malpractice data compiled by the insurance industry. Using data from PHICO insurance company, PHICO's Closed Claims Data, and PHICO's Event Reporting Trending System (PERTS), this article examines the significance and trends of the claims and events reported between 1996 and 1998. Those who misread history are doomed to repeat the mistakes of the past. From a quality improvement perspective, the categorization of the claims and events is useful for reengineering integrated medication delivery, particularly in a hospital setting, and for redesigning drug administration protocols on low therapeutic index medications and "high-risk" drugs. Demonstrable evidence of quality improvement is being required by state laws and by accreditation agencies. The state of Florida requires that quality improvement data be posted quarterly on the Web sites of the health care facilities. Other states have followed suit. The insurance industry is concerned with costs, and medication errors cost money. Even excluding costs of litigation, an adverse drug reaction may cost up to $2500 in hospital resources, and a preventable medication error may cost almost $4700. To monitor costs and assess risk, insurance companies want to know what errors are made and where the system has broken down, permitting the error to occur. Recording and evaluating reliable data on adverse drug events is the first step in improving the quality of pharmacotherapy and increasing patient safety. Cost savings and quality improvement evolve on parallel paths. The PHICO data

  14. 3T MRI induced post-traumatic stress disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhan Shaheen E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction MRI is considered a safe and well tolerated imaging technique with risks largely limited to heating and/or displacement of implanted ferromagnetic metal in the patient’s body, worsening anxiety, triggering claustrophobia, and gadolinium induced nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Case presentation We present a case of a 26 year old Asian American man with no significant past medical or psychiatric history and two months of left T4 radicular pain. During 3T-MRI of the whole spine, the patient experienced acute agitation, fear, anxiety, tachypnea, tachycardia with palpitations, and dizziness. He felt intense surface heat over segments of his body and very loud noises. He perceived impending serious bodily harm by the scanner. The scan was aborted at the lumbar spine, and cervical and thoracic spine was unremarkable. The patient’s pain resolved in the weeks following with over the counter analgesics, however, he developed increased arousal, re-experiencing the event, persistent avoidance, and significant psychosocial impairment consistent with DSM-IV-TR criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Conclusion This is the first reported case of MRI induced PTSD. Theoretically, the high-magnetic field of the 3T scanner may have contributed to the development of symptoms.

  15. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Isaria cateniannulata and comparative analysis of gene expression in response to heat and cold stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingfeng Wang

    Full Text Available Isaria cateniannulata is a very important and virulent entomopathogenic fungus that infects many insect pest species. Although I. cateniannulata is commonly exposed to extreme environmental temperature conditions, little is known about its molecular response mechanism to temperature stress. Here, we sequenced and de novo assembled the transcriptome of I. cateniannulata in response to high and low temperature stresses using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. Our assembly encompassed 17,514 unigenes (mean length = 1,197 bp, in which 11,445 unigenes (65.34% showed significant similarities to known sequences in NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (Nr database. Using digital gene expression analysis, 4,483 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified after heat treatment, including 2,905 up-regulated genes and 1,578 down-regulated genes. Under cold stress, 1,927 DEGs were identified, including 1,245 up-regulated genes and 682 down-regulated genes. The expression patterns of 18 randomly selected candidate DEGs resulting from quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR were consistent with their transcriptome analysis results. Although DEGs were involved in many pathways, we focused on the genes that were involved in endocytosis: In heat stress, the pathway of clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE was active; however at low temperature stresses, the pathway of clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE was active. Besides, four categories of DEGs acting as temperature sensors were observed, including cell-wall-major-components-metabolism-related (CWMCMR genes, heat shock protein (Hsp genes, intracellular-compatible-solutes-metabolism-related (ICSMR genes and glutathione S-transferase (GST. These results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of I. cateniannulata in response to temperature stresses and provide a valuable resource for the future investigations.

  16. Transcript and protein analysis reveals better survival skills of monocyte-derived dendritic cells compared to monocytes during oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Van Brussel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs, professional antigen-presenting cells with the unique ability to initiate primary T-cell responses, are present in atherosclerotic lesions where they are exposed to oxidative stress that generates cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS. A large body of evidence indicates that cell death is a major modulating factor of atherogenesis. We examined antioxidant defence systems of human monocyte-derived (moDCs and monocytes in response to oxidative stress. METHODS: Oxidative stress was induced by addition of tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (tert-BHP, 30 min. Cellular responses were evaluated using flow cytometry and confocal live cell imaging (both using 5-(and-6-chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, CM-H(2DCFDA. Viability was assessed by the neutral red assay. Total RNA was extracted for a PCR profiler array. Five genes were selected for confirmation by Taqman gene expression assays, and by immunoblotting or immunohistochemistry for protein levels. RESULTS: Tert-BHP increased CM-H(2DCFDA fluorescence and caused cell death. Interestingly, all processes occurred more slowly in moDCs than in monocytes. The mRNA profiler array showed more than 2-fold differential expression of 32 oxidative stress-related genes in unstimulated moDCs, including peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2, an enzyme reducing hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides. PRDX2 upregulation was confirmed by Taqman assays, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Silencing PRDX2 in moDCs by means of siRNA significantly increased CM-DCF fluorescence and cell death upon tert-BHP-stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that moDCs exhibit higher intracellular antioxidant capacities, making them better equipped to resist oxidative stress than monocytes. Upregulation of PRDX2 is involved in the neutralization of ROS in moDCs. Taken together, this points to better survival skills of DCs in oxidative stress environments, such as atherosclerotic plaques.

  17. Effects of gender discrimination and reported stress on drug use among racially/ethnically diverse women in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Gender discrimination has been associated with worse health outcomes for U.S. women. Using the stress and coping process framework, we examined whether lifetime gender discrimination was associated with maladaptive coping behaviors, namely, lifetime and recent hard drug use. We also considered whether reported stress from gender discrimination mediated this relationship and whether this process differed across racial/ethnic groups. We used data from a racially/ethnically diverse convenience sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in Northern California (11% African American, 17% Latina, 10% Asian, and 62% Caucasian). To test our hypotheses, we conducted logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Gender discrimination was positively associated with both lifetime and recent hard drug use. We did not find support for the mediation hypothesis, because stress was not associated with either lifetime or recent hard drug use. There was evidence of some race moderation for the Latina sample. Among these respondents, gender discrimination was associated with higher odds of lifetime drug use, whereas stress was associated with lower odds. These results suggest that experiences of gender discrimination may still activate negative coping strategies involving drug use, regardless of the stress they cause. For Latina respondents, more research is needed to better understand the stress and coping process related to gender discrimination. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  18. Self-reported postoperative recovery in children after tonsillectomy compared to tonsillotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mats; Nilsson, Ulrica; Bramhagen, Ann-Cathrine; Idvall, Ewa; Ericsson, Elisabeth

    2017-05-01

    Tonsil surgery is associated with significant morbidity during recovery. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) are the golden standard for the planning and follow-up of delivered care, which should also be an axiom for children. The current aims were to describe self-reported postoperative recovery in children after tonsil surgery, and to compare tonsillotomy and tonsillectomy in this respect. In total, 238 children (4-12 years old) with a history of obstructive problems and/or recurrent tonsillitis, and undergoing tonsil surgery were included. Forty-eight per cent were operated with partial tonsil resection/tonsillotomy (TT) and 52% with total tonsillectomy (TE), all in day surgery. Postoperative recovery was assessed on days 1, 4 and 10 using the validated self-rating instrument PRiC, Postoperative Recovery in Children. This includes 23 items covering different aspects of recovery after tonsil surgery. A higher score indicates worse status in the respective items. Daily life activities (sleeping, eating and playing), physical symptoms (e.g., headache, stomach ache, sore throat, otalgia, dizziness, nausea, defecation, urination), and emotional aspects (sadness, frightening dreams) were affected during the recovery period. The TE-girls showed higher scores than the boys regarding stomach ache, defecation and dizziness. Children above 6 years of age reported higher values for the physical comfort variables, while the younger group showed worse emotional states. Postoperative recovery improved from day 1-10 in all surgical groups. The TE-group showed lower recovery compared to the TT-group (p < 0.01-0.001) in most items. The goal of postoperative management is to minimize or eliminate discomfort, facilitating the recovery process and avoiding complications. Children are able to describe their recovery, and thus, PRiC seems to be able to serve as a PROM to obtain patient-centered data after tonsil surgery. The recovery process after TT causes less postoperative

  19. DON shares a similar mode of action as the ribotoxic stress inducer anisomycin while TBTO shares ER stress patterns with the ER stress inducer Thapsigargin based on comparative gene expression profiling in Jurkat T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeits, P.C.J.; Katika, M.R.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Loveren, van H.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we studied the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and tributyltin oxide (TBTO) on whole genome mRNA expression profiles of human T lymphocyte Jurkat cells. These studies indicated that DON induces ribotoxic stress and both DON and TBTO induced ER stress which resulted into T-cell activation

  20. Failure prevention with stress measurement for dismantling of nuclear facilities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komber, T.; Reimche, W.; Bach, F.W.

    2003-07-01

    The dismantling of nuclear facilities is in progress since 20 years in Germany. Practical experiences in decommissioning have shown, that problem can occur during dismantling operations caused by release of residual stresses. In this case cutting parts or cutting tools get jammed if mechanical cutting techniques are used. The aim of this research work was to develop measuring techniques for the determination of the stress state in RPV, to predict the deformation during dismantling operations. This can serve as additional base for improved decommissioning planning and for time optimised dismantling. For determination of the stress state in components two small and inexpensive measuring techniques were new designed, for remote-controlled on-site use in atmosphere and under water. For the nondestructive determination of the directional stress state, based on the magnetostriction and the Harmonic-Analysis of alternating magnetic fields, a new developed rotating sensor is in use with a principal magnetisation direction. Because of the mainly isotropic material properties and the directional stresses, measured Harmonic values are influenced mainly by the stress state in the surface areas. In this way it is possible to determine the stress state qualitatively and the direction of principal stresses in the surface areas of the component. As an alternative to the established wire strain gauge, which remote-controlled application is still not possible under water, a new slot jet cutting strain control technique was designed. This technique detects the deformation in the surface after stresses are cut free by a water jet. So the stress state could be determined quantitatively in the surface and assessed in the depth. With the help of these two measuring techniques it is possible to characterize the stress state along a planned cutting line. The use of an adapted FEM simulation enables to calculate and determine the deformation of the cutting gap beforehand. These information

  1. Long-term clinical outcomes with the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure compared to Burch colposuspension for correcting stress urinary incontinence (SUI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdø, Bjørn; Verelst, Margareta; Svenningsen, Rune; Milsom, Ian; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2017-11-01

    The retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure replaced Burch colposuspension as the primary surgical method for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) in women in our department in 1998. In this study we compared the short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of these surgical procedures. Using a case series design, we compared the last 5 years of the Burch procedure (n = 127, 1994-1999) with the first 5 years of the retropubic TVT procedure (n = 180, 1998-2002). Information from the medical records was transferred to a case report form comprising data on perioperative and long-term complications as well as recurrence of UI, defined as bothersome UI or UI in need of repeat surgery. Other endpoints were rates of perioperative and late complications and the rates of prolapse surgery after primary surgery. The data were analyzed with the chi-squared and t tests and survival analysis using SPSS. The cumulative recurrence rate of SUI in women with preoperative SUI was significantly higher after the Burch procedure, but no difference was observed in women with MUI. There were no significant differences in rates of perioperative and late complications. At 12 years there was a significant increase in rates of repeat surgery for incontinence and prolapse in women after the Burch procedure. The long-term efficacy of TVT surgery was superior to that of Burch colposuspension in women with SUI. In addition, the rate of late prolapse surgery was significantly higher after the Burch procedure.

  2. Test report on experimental stress analysis of a 24 inch diameter tee (ORNL T-13)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, D.R.

    1975-03-01

    The experimental stress analysis and low cycle fatigue test of one 24 in. x 24 in. x 10 in. schedule 160 carbon steel, ANSI B16.9 tee performed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. are described. The tee was instrumented with 230 rectangular strain gage rosettes. Elastic data was obtained for 12 loading conditions consisting of internal pressure and orthogonal pure moments and orthogonal direct forces applied individually to the free branch and run ends of the tee. One of the run ends of the tee was ''built in'' throughout the test. All loads were applied through pipe extensions welded to the tee. The tee was tested to failure in a low cycle pressure fatigue test with a cyclic internal pressure between 100 psi and 7000 psi. A through-the-wall fatigue crack occurred at 15,084 cycles. Significant test results are summarized and compared with design values tabulated in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, 1971. (U.S.)

  3. Placement of endosseous implant in infected alveolar socket with large fenestration defect: A comparative case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Anitha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Placement of endosseous implants into infected bone is often deferred or avoided due to fear of failure. However, with the development of guided bone regeneration [GBR], some implantologists have reported successful implant placement in infected sockets, even those with fenestration defects. We had the opportunity to compare the osseointegration of an immediate implant placed in an infected site associated with a large buccal fenestration created by the removal of a root stump with that of a delayed implant placed 5 years after extraction. Both implants were placed in the same patient, in the same dental quadrant by the same implantologist. GBR was used with the fenestration defect being filled with demineralized bone graftFNx01 and covered with collagen membraneFNx08. Both implants were osseointegrated and functional when followed up after 12 months.

  4. Ethnicity, work-related stress and subjective reports of health by migrant workers: a multi-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Roberto; Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Smith, Andrew P

    2018-02-01

    This study integrates different aspects of ethnicity and work-related stress dimensions (based on the Demands-Resources-Individual-Effects model, DRIVE [Mark, G. M., and A. P. Smith. 2008. "Stress Models: A Review and Suggested New Direction." In Occupational Health Psychology, edited by J. Houdmont and S. Leka, 111-144. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press]) and aims to test a multi-dimensional model that combines individual differences, ethnicity dimensions, work characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction/stress as independent variables in the prediction of subjectives reports of health by workers differing in ethnicity. A questionnaire consisting of the following sections was submitted to 900 workers in Southern Italy: for individual and cultural characteristics, coping strategies, personality behaviours, and acculturation strategies; for work characteristics, perceived job demands and job resources/rewards; for appraisals, perceived job stress/satisfaction and racial discrimination; for subjective reports of health, psychological disorders and general health. To test the reliability and construct validity of the extracted factors referred to all dimensions involved in the proposed model and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the main effects of the independent variables on the health outcomes were conducted. Principal component analysis (PCA) yielded seven factors for individual and cultural characteristics (emotional/relational coping, objective coping, Type A behaviour, negative affectivity, social inhibition, affirmation/maintenance culture, and search identity/adoption of the host culture); three factors for work characteristics (work demands, intrinsic/extrinsic rewards, and work resources); three factors for appraisals (perceived job satisfaction, perceived job stress, perceived racial discrimination) and three factors for subjective reports of health (interpersonal disorders, anxious-depressive disorders, and general health). Logistic

  5. Gender differences in the association between self-reported stress and cigarette smoking in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisok Kim

    2016-06-01

    This study found a statistically significant association between stress and smoking among Korean adolescents and this association was stronger in girls than boys. Further research is needed to understand more fully the link between stress and smoking in adolescents, with particular attention to sex differences.

  6. Reducing Stress within the Rehabilitative Work Setting - A Report on the ROSE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John S. G.; Denny, Margaret

    Reducing Occupational Stress in Employment (ROSE) is an EU funded project which aims to develop a combined person and work directed stress management programme in order to improve the long-term retention of staff in the vocational rehabilitation sector for mental health and intellectual disabilities.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Bai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS rice Y58S and P64S (Pei’ai64S were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress.

  8. Comparative Study of Government and Non Government College Teachers in Relation to Job Satisfaction and Job Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sarbjit; Kumar, Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    They studied on the government non government college teachers in relation to job satisfaction and job stress. They collected the sample from 200 college teacher from government and non government from bathinda district (Punjab) to discover the difference between government and non government male and female college teachers in relation to job…

  9. The Comparative Study of the Occupational Stress among Jobs and Bio-Feedback Training Effects in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarzarin, Hamid

    The effectiveness of biofeedback and relaxation training in reducing occupational stress was examined in a study of 50 individuals employed in various occupations in Iran. The study sample consisted of 15 workers (5 females, 10 males); 15 managers (5 females, 10 males); 9 guardians (3 females, 6 males); 5 dentists (2 females, 3 males); and 6…

  10. Measuring Levels of Stress and Depression in Mothers of Children Using Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Santhi S; Prakash, S. G. R.; Ravichandran, Aparna; Susan, K. Y.; Alex, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    Hearing impairment is an exceptional circumstance that restricts the child's ability to communicate verbally. Depression is a common stress-related response for hearing parents of children with hearing loss. Evidence suggests that mothers are more inclined than fathers to experience depression in response to their child's hearing loss (Mavrolas,…

  11. Damage evolution under cyclic multiaxial stress state: A comparative analysis between glass/epoxy laminates and tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaresimin, M.; Carraro, P.A.; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2014-01-01

    In this work an experimental investigation on damage initiation and evolution in laminates under cyclic loading is presented. The stacking sequence [0/θ2/0/-θ2]s has been adopted in order to investigate the influence of the local multiaxial stress state in the off-axis plies and the possible effect...

  12. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Child Welfare Workers: A Comparative Analysis of Occupational Distress across Professional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprang, Ginny; Craig, Carlton; Clark, James

    2011-01-01

    This study describes predictors of secondary traumatic stress and burnout in a national sample of helping professionals, with a specific focus on the unique responses of child welfare (CW) workers. Specific worker and exposure characteristics are examined as possible predictors of these forms of occupational distress in a sample of 669…

  13. Humeral stress remodelling locations differ in Thoroughbred racehorses training and racing on dirt compared to synthetic racetrack surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimock, A N; Hoffman, K D; Puchalski, S M; Stover, S M

    2013-03-01

    Veterinarians have observed a putative change in the location of humeral stress remodelling in Thoroughbred racehorses with change from dirt to synthetic racetrack surfaces. To determine whether the location and severity of humeral stress remodelling differs between Thoroughbred racehorses exercising on dirt and synthetic racetrack surfaces, the potential significance of different locations of stress remodelling, and the potential usefulness of scintigraphy for prevention of complete humeral fracture. Scintigraphic images of humeri from 841 Thoroughbred racehorses at 3 racetracks during 2 years before and after conversion from dirt to synthetic surfaces were evaluated for location and severity of lesions. The effects of surface on lesion distributions were examined using Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Archived fractured humeri were examined to determine the location and severity of stress remodelling associated with complete fracture. Databases were queried to determine whether racehorses with scintigraphic lesions suffered humeral fracture and whether racehorses with a complete humeral fracture had had a scintigraphic examination. Horses at synthetic racetracks had a greater proportion of distal humeral lesions, whereas horses at dirt racetracks had a greater proportion of caudoproximal lesions (Pdirt surfaces, and, by inference, for horses examined using scintigraphy. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Non-invasive continuous finger blood pressure measurement during orthostatic stress compared to intra-arterial pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imholz, B. P.; Settels, J. J.; van der Meiracker, A. H.; Wesseling, K. H.; Wieling, W.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether invasive blood pressure responses to orthostatic stress can be replaced by non-invasive continuous finger blood pressure responses. DESIGN - Intrabrachial and Finapres blood pressures were simultaneously measured during passive head up tilt and during

  15. [Comparative pathology of early stress-induced changes in the duodenal mucosa in laboratory rats and in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peychl, L; Brejcha, A

    2003-01-01

    Our presentation comprises results of two studies: The first was an experimental investigation of 60 Wistar-strain rats used in a toxicological study. The other part analysed stress changes in the duodenal mucosa in the human autopsy material. Both humans and rats had been exposed to stress and showed similar histological changes. In the rats the same duodenal lesions were present both in the test group and the control animals in the toxicological study. Lesions consisted of oedema of the duodenal villi and erosions in the tips of the villi. We believe that in the experimental group the stress was caused by restraining the animals by daily introduction of the gastric metallic tube, by taking blood from the retrobulbar plexus, and by anaesthesia. The autopsy study comprised 35 cases displaying congestion and macroscopically recognizable multifocal bleeding into the duodenal mucosal folds. The microscopic investigation revealed bleeding into the mucosal villi and small erosions. In some cases there were cuneiform mucosal infarcts extending into the submucosa. In the humans, severe cardiovascular diseases and circulatory disturbances represented the main causes of the stress. Local hypoxia and gastric juice acidity were involved in the pathogenesis of the duodenal mucosal changes.

  16. Self-reported stress and risk of endometrial cancer: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess a possible relationship between perceived stress and first-time incidence of primary endometrial cancer. Psychological stress may affect the synthesis and metabolism of estrogens and thereby be related to risk of endometrial cancer. METHODS: The 6760 women participating...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked about their stress level at baseline from 1981 to 1983. These women were prospectively followed up in the Danish nationwide cancer registry until 2000 and ...-up, 72 women were diagnosed with endometrial cancer. For each increase in stress level on a 7-point stress scale, there was a lower risk of primary endometrial cancer (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-1.01). This inverse association was particularly strong in women who...

  17. Measurement Matters: Comparing Old and New Definitions of Rape in Federal Statistical Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierie, David M; Davis-Siegel, James C

    2015-10-01

    National statistics on the incidence of rape play an important role in the work of policymakers and academics. The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) have provided some of the most widely used and influential statistics on the incidence of rape across the United States over the past 80 years. The definition of rape used by UCR changed in 2012 to include substantially more types of sexual assault. This article draws on 20 years of data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System to describe the impact this definitional change will have on estimates of the incidence of rape and trends over time. Drawing on time series as well as panel random effects methodologies, we show that 40% of sexual assaults have been excluded by the prior definition and that the magnitude of this error has grown over time. However, the overall trend in rape over time (year-to-year change) was not substantially different when comparing events meeting the prior definition and the subgroups of sexual assault that will now be counted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Reported awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion in China compared to Thailand, Australia and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Yong, H-H; Borland, R; Fong, G T; Thompson, M E; Jiang, Y; Yang, Y; Sirirassamee, B; Hastings, G; Harris, F

    2009-06-01

    China currently does not have comprehensive laws or regulations on tobacco advertising and promotion, although it ratified the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in October 2005 and promised to ban all tobacco advertising by January 2011. Much effort is needed to monitor the current situation of tobacco advertising and promotion in China. This study aims to examine levels of awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion among smokers in China as compared to other countries with different levels of restrictions. One developing country (Thailand) and two developed countries (Australia and the USA) were selected for comparison. All four countries are part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey project. Between 2005 and 2006, parallel ITC surveys were conducted among adult smokers (at least smoked weekly) in China (n = 4763), Thailand (n = 2000), Australia (n = 1767) and the USA (n = 1780). Unprompted and prompted recall of noticing tobacco advertising and promotion were measured. Chinese respondents reported noticing tobacco advertisements in a range of channels and venues, with highest exposure levels on television (34.5%), billboards (33.4%) and in stores (29.2%). A quarter of respondents noticed tobacco sponsorships, and a high level of awareness of promotion was reported. Cross-country comparison reveals that overall reported awareness was significantly higher in China than in Thailand (particularly) and Australia, but lower than in the USA. There is a big gap between China and the better-performing countries such as Thailand and Australia regarding tobacco promotion restrictions. China needs to do more, including enhanced policy and more robust enforcement.

  19. Contrast Media–Induced Anaphylaxis Causing a Stress-Related Cardiomyopathy Post Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Seecheran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is a sudden-onset, severe hypersensitivity reaction that can be potentially fatal. It can often transition to refractory hemodynamic instability, eventually resulting in death. Stress-related cardiomyopathies (SRCs have multifactorial etiologies, including being linked to excessive catecholamine release in periods of intense stress. This novel case report recounts a SRC caused by contrast-induced anaphylaxis within 1 hour post percutaneous coronary intervention. Both acutely life-threatening conditions may occur simultaneously and are implicated with devastating complications. Further research is required to understand this cardiac-neuroaxis interplay in SRC to identify risk factors and develop management strategies.

  20. Effect of Short Term NaCl Stress on Cultivars of S. lycopersicum: A Comparative Biochemical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Roy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a crop plant with high fruit nutritive value and other useful properties. The cultivation of this species is dependent on many environmental factors, e.g. temperature, salinity, nutrients etc, affecting the yield and reproductive potential of the plant. Salinity in soil or water is of increasing importance to agriculture because it causes stress to crop plants. Plants exposed to an excess amount of salts such as NaCl undergo osmotic stress, water deficit and ionic imbalances and can increase production of reactive oxygen species(ROS. Higher plants possess very efficient enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative defense mechanisms that allow the scavenging of ROS and protection of cellular components from oxidative damage. Studies were conducted to investigate the effect of short term salinity stress on some physiological alterations in three tomato cultivars Pusa Ruby(PR, Punjab Keshari (PK and Ailsa Craig(AC. Some biochemical parameters (anthocyanin and carotenoeid content, polyamines, proline, cysteine, peroxidase and malondialdehyde were set and applied at two month old stage of tomato plants. Three tomato cultivars were grown in 0.5xMS for 2 months and at this stage, they were treated with 0 and 200mM NaCl for a short period of six hours in hydroponic conditions. The genotypes exhibited different responses in terms of different osmoprotectant, antioxidant, and pigment level. The relationships among the salinity and accumulation of these compounds in leaf were then determined. It was concluded that, tomato cultivars under study responded differently showing their sensitivity or tolerance to salinity stress. Among three cultivars PK appeared to be more tolerant genotype than the other two cultivars PR and AC. PK could rapidly evolve physiological and antioxidant mechanisms to adapt to salt and manage the oxidative stress. The research was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications.

  1. De Novo Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of Schima superba Seedlings to Explore the Response to Drought Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Cai Han

    Full Text Available Schima superba is an important dominant species in subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests of China, and plays a vital role in community structure and dynamics. However, the survival rate of its seedlings in the field is low, and water shortage could be a factor that limits its regeneration. In order to better understand the response of its seedlings to drought stress on a functional genomics scale, RNA-seq technology was utilized in this study to perform a large-scale transcriptome sequencing of the S. superba seedlings under drought stress. More than 320 million clean reads were generated and 72218 unique transcripts were obtained through de novo assembly. These unigenes were further annotated by blasting with different public databases and a total of 53300 unique transcripts were annotated. A total of 31586 simple sequence repeat (SSR loci were presented. Through gene expression profiling analysis between drought treatment and control, 11038 genes were found to be significantly enriched in drought-stressed seedlings. Based on these differentially expressed genes (DEGs, Gene Ontology (GO terms enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG enrichment analysis indicated that drought stress caused a number of changes in the types of sugars, enzymes, secondary mechanisms, and light responses, and induced some potential physical protection mechanisms. In addition, the expression patterns of 18 transcripts induced by drought, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR, were consistent with their transcript abundance changes, as identified by RNA-seq. This transcriptome study provides a rapid method for understanding the response of S. superba seedlings to drought stress and provides a number of gene sequences available for further functional genomics studies.

  2. A comparative evaluation of acute stress and corticosterone on the process of learning and emotional memory in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaei AA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Previous studies suggested that stressful events that release Glucocorticoid from adrenal cortex and also injection of agonists of glucocorticoids receptors probably affect emotional learning and memory process and modulate them. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute stress and systemic injection of Corticosterone (as agonist of glucocorticoid receptors on acquisition (ACQ, consolidation (CONS and retrieval (RET of emotional memory in rat. "nMethods: In this experimental study we used 180 male Wistar rats (220-250. At the first rats was training in one trial inhibitory avoidance task. On the retention test given 48 h after training, the latency to re-enter the dark compartment of the apparatus (Step-through latency, STL and the time spent in light chamber (TLC were recorded during 10 min test. Intraperitoneal corticosterone in doses of 0.5, 1 and 3mg/kg injected 30min before, immediately after instruction and 30min before retrieval test. Also some groups received 10min stressful stimulation by restrainer at the same time. At the end locomotor's activity was measured for all animals. "nResults: The data indicated that administration of corticosterone 30min before ACQ (1mg/kg, and immediately after CONS (1, 3mg/kg enhance and 30min before RET (1, 3mg/kg impair emotional memory (p<0.05. Acute stress impaired emotional memory in all phases (p<0.05. Also acute stress and injection of Corticosterone have not significantly affect motor activity.  "nConclusions: These findings show that Glucocorticoid receptors in activation dependently plays an important role in modulation of emotional spatial memory processes (ACQ, CONS and RET in new information for emotional events and these effects varies in different phases.

  3. Resilience Training for Work-related Stress Among Health Care Workers: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing In-person and Smartphone-delivered Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistretta, Erin G; Davis, Mary C; Temkit, M'hamed; Lorenz, Christopher; Darby, Betty; Stonnington, Cynthia M

    2018-01-24

    The aim of this study was to assess whether an in-person mindfulness-based resilience training (MBRT) program or a smartphone-delivered resiliency-based intervention improved stress, well-being, and burnout in employees at a major tertiary health care institution. Sixty participants were randomized to a 6-week MBRT, a resiliency-based smartphone intervention, or an active control group. Stress, well-being, and burnout were assessed at baseline, at program completion, and 3 months postintervention. Both the MBRT and the smartphone groups showed improvements in well-being, whereas only the MBRT group showed improvements in stress and emotional burnout over time. The control group did not demonstrate sustained improvement on any outcome. Findings suggest that brief, targeted interventions improve psychological outcomes and point to the need for larger scale studies comparing the individual and combined treatments that can inform development of tailored, effective, and low-cost programs for health care workers.

  4. Comparing the reported burn conditions for different severity burns in porcine models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Christine J; Cuttle, Leila

    2017-12-01

    There are many porcine burn models that create burns using different materials (e.g. metal, water) and different burn conditions (e.g. temperature and duration of exposure). This review aims to determine whether a pooled analysis of these studies can provide insight into the burn materials and conditions required to create burns of a specific severity. A systematic review of 42 porcine burn studies describing the depth of burn injury with histological evaluation is presented. Inclusion criteria included thermal burns, burns created with a novel method or material, histological evaluation within 7 days post-burn and method for depth of injury assessment specified. Conditions causing deep dermal scald burns compared to contact burns of equivalent severity were disparate, with lower temperatures and shorter durations reported for scald burns (83°C for 14 seconds) compared to contact burns (111°C for 23 seconds). A valuable archive of the different mechanisms and materials used for porcine burn models is presented to aid design and optimisation of future models. Significantly, this review demonstrates the effect of the mechanism of injury on burn severity and that caution is recommended when burn conditions established by porcine contact burn models are used by regulators to guide scald burn prevention strategies. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparative proteomic and physiological analyses reveal the protective effect of exogenous polyamines in the bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) response to salt and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2013-11-01

    Polyamines conferred enhanced abiotic stress tolerance in multiple plant species. However, the effect of polyamines on abiotic stress and physiological change in bermudagrass, the most widely used warm-season turfgrasses, are unknown. In this study, pretreatment of exogenous polyamine conferred increased salt and drought tolerances in bermudagrass. Comparative proteomic analysis was performed to further investigate polyamines mediated responses, and 36 commonly regulated proteins by at least two types of polyamines in bermudagrass were successfully identified, including 12 proteins with increased level, 20 proteins with decreased level and other 4 specifically expressed proteins. Among them, proteins involved in electron transport and energy pathways were largely enriched, and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and three antioxidant enzymes were extensively regulated by polyamines. Dissection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels indicated that polyamine-derived H2O2 production might play dual roles under abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, accumulation of osmolytes was also observed after application of exogenous polyamines, which is consistent with proteomics results that several proteins involved in carbon fixation pathway were mediated commonly by polyamines pretreatment. Taken together, we proposed that polyamines could activate multiple pathways that enhance bermudagrass adaption to salt and drought stresses. These findings might be applicable for genetically engineering of grasses and crops to improve stress tolerance.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Stress Induced Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans following Exposure to Environmental and Lab Reconstituted Complex Metal Mixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Kumar

    Full Text Available Metals are essential for many physiological processes and are ubiquitously present in the environment. However, high metal concentrations can be harmful to organisms and lead to physiological stress and diseases. The accumulation of transition metals in the environment due to either natural processes or anthropogenic activities such as mining results in the contamination of water and soil environments. The present study used Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate gene expression as an indicator of physiological response, following exposure to water collected from three different locations downstream of a Swedish mining site and a lab reconstituted metal mixture. Our results indicated that the reconstituted metal mixture exerted a direct stress response in C. elegans whereas the environmental waters elicited either a diminished or abrogated response. This suggests that it is not sufficient to use the biological effects observed from laboratory mixtures to extrapolate the effects observed in complex aquatic environments and apply this to risk assessment and intervention.

  7. Comparative study of residual stress by table of coordinates and X-ray diffraction in a welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira Filho, A.V.; Rolim, T.L.; Yadava, Y.P.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Guimaraes, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Residual stresses in a welded joint of naval steel ASTM AH-32 was measured either by the displacements of referenced points with a coordinated table (CT) or by x-ray diffraction (X-DR) after welding. For all tests, the welding was performed by a certified welder in the SMAW process, using an AWS E 7018 G3 electrode. Before welding, small holes evenly spaced were made in the specimens to be mapped on a coordinated table (CT). After labeling, the specimens were submitted to the welding process and new measurements by (CT) to evaluate the displacements produced by the tensions generated. In parallel, residual stress were measured by DR-X for validation of this new measurement methodology. (author)

  8. Effect of heat stress on the expression profile of Hsp90 among Sahiwal (Bos indicus) and Frieswal (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) breed of cattle: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil; Singh, Rani; Sengar, G; Sharma, Arjava

    2014-02-25

    We evaluated the effect of thermal challenge on the expression profile of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) among Sahiwal (Bos indicus) and Frieswal (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) breeds of cattle. The present investigation was focused on the comparative studies on Hsp90 expression among Frieswal and Sahiwal under in vitro and environmental heat stress. Measured immediately after the in vitro heat shock to the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative expression of Hsp90 mRNA was significantly (Pcows consistently recorded higher rectal temperatures than the Sahiwal breed. Further during this peak summer stress, Sahiwal showed significantly higher levels of mRNA transcripts as well as protein concentration compared to the Frieswal breed. Our findings also interestingly showed that, the cell viability of PBMC are significantly higher among the Sahiwal than Frieswal. Taken together, the experiments of both induced in vitro and environmental stress conditions indicate that, Sahiwal may express higher levels of Hsp90 then Frieswal to regulate their body temperature and increase cell survivality under heat stressed conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal study of the feasibility of using ecological momentary assessment to study teacher stress: Objective and self-reported measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Teresa M; McIntyre, Scott E; Barr, Christopher D; Woodward, Phillip S; Francis, David J; Durand, Angelia C; Mehta, Paras; Kamarck, Thomas W

    2016-10-01

    There is a lack of comprehensive research on Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) feasibility to study occupational stress, especially its long-term sustainability. EMA application in education contexts has also been sparse. This study investigated the feasibility of using EMA to study teacher stress over 2 years using both objective compliance data and a self-reported feasibility survey. It also examined the influence of individual and school factors on EMA feasibility. Participants were 202 sixth through eighth grade teachers from 22 urban middle schools in the southern United States. EMA was implemented via an iPod-based Teacher Stress Diary (TSD). Teachers recorded demands, stress responses, and resources during 12 days (6 waves) over 2 years. Feasibility was assessed via compliance data generated by the TSD (e.g., entry completion) and an EMA Feasibility Survey of self-reported user-friendliness and EMA interference. The results showed high compliance regarding entry and item completion, and completion time, which was sustained over time. User-friendliness was appraised as very high and EMA interference as low. Initial difficulties regarding timing and length of assessments were addressed via EMA method refinement, resulting in improved feasibility. Teachers' ethnicity, age, marital status, grade/course taught, class size, class load, and daily workload impacted feasibility. The results supported the feasibility of using EMA to study work stress longitudinally and the value of continued feasibility monitoring. They also support EMA use to study teacher stress and inform EMA implementation in schools. Some teacher and school factors need to be taken into consideration when deciding on EMA implementation in education contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Comparative Study on the Effect of Water Stress and Rootstock on Photosynthetic Function in Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Ranjbar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the  effects of water deficit stress on chlorophyll fluorescence (CF characteristics of photosystem II (PSII and pigment contents in two rootstock seedlings (Pistacia atlantica L. and P. khinjuk L.. Three levels of soil water potential (Ψs was used, including WWD (-0.05 MPa, MWD (-0.7 MPa and SWD (-1.5 MPa. It was found that water stress increased the minimal fluorescence (F0, quantum yield baseline (F0/Fm and decreased the maximal fluorescence (Fm and maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm parameters in dark adapted leaves. In light adapted leaves, a significant increase in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ and thermal dissipation of light energy to heat (D and a decrease in electron transport rate (ETR and photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII occurred. The results demonstrated a decline in photosynthetic pigments (Chla, (Chlb and carotenoids (Car content with increasing water stress, whereas there was no significant effect on Chl (a/b and Car/(a+b ratios. Our data revealed there was no different in terms of performance between the two rootstocks in the alteration rate of pigment contents and photosynthetic features against soil water deficit conditions.

  11. Comparative Physiological and Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Response to Cadmium-Induced Stress in Poplar (Populus yunnanensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Yang

    Full Text Available Excess amounts of heavy metals are important environmental pollutants with significant ecological and nutritional effects. Cdmium (Cd is of particular concern because of its widespread occurrence and high toxicity. We conducted physiological and proteomic analyses to improve our understanding of the responses of Populus yunnanensis to Cd stress. The plantlets experienced two apparent stages in their response to Cd stress. During the first stage, transiently induced defense-response molecules, photosynthesis- and energy-associated proteins, antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs accumulated to enhance protein stability and establish a new cellular homeostasis. This activity explains why plant photosynthetic capability during this period barely changed. During the second stage, a decline of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO and HSP levels led to imbalance of the plant photosynthetic system. Additionally, the expression of Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3, Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6 and a homeobox-leucine zipper protein was higher in the second stage. Higher expression of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT may regulate plant cell wall synthesis for greater Cd storage. These genes may be candidates for further research and use in genetic manipulation of poplar tolerance to Cd stress.

  12. Salivary cortisol and self-reported stress among persons with environmental annoyance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Frida; Persson, Roger; Karlson, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Increased vulnerability to stress has been suggested as a possible mechanism behind medically unexplained conditions such as sensitivity to electricity and common smells. This study examined whether subjective environmental annoyance among the general population is associated with increased physi...

  13. Acute pulmonary edema due to stress cardiomyopathy in a patient with aortic stenosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Monika F

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Stress cardiomyopathy is a condition of chest pain, breathlessness, abnormal heart rhythms and sometimes congestive heart failure or shock precipitated by intense mental or physical stress. Case presentation A 64-year-old male with a known diagnosis of moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis and advised that valve replacement was not urgent, presented with acute pulmonary edema following extraordinary mental distress. The patient was misdiagnosed as having a "massive heart attack" and...

  14. Predictive factors that influence treatment outcomes of innovative single incision sling: comparing TVT-Secur to an established transobturator sling for female stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eugene; Shin, Ju Hyun; Lim, Jae Sung; Song, Ki Hak; Sul, Chong Koo; Na, Yong Gil

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to identify independent risk factors for treatment failure of tension-free vaginal tape TVT-Secur (TVT-S) compared to that of the well-established transobturator tape. Of a total of 175 consecutive patients with urodynamically confirmed stress urinary incontinence (SUI) identified between July 2007 and March 2010, 89 patients underwent TVT-S, and 86 underwent TOT. Cure was defined using the Urogenital Distress Inventory as no urinary leakage during physical activity, coughing, or sneezing as reported by patients during a telephone survey. To identify predictors of treatment failure, multivariable logistic regression models were used, and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using variables identified during univariate analysis. There were more patients with cystocele ≥ grade 2 in the TVT-S group (p = 0.031); otherwise the groups were well matched. After a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 12-44 months), the overall cure rate was 80.6%; it was 70.8% for those treated with TVT-S and 90.7% for those treated with TOT (p = 0.001). In a multivariate model, previous incontinence surgery (OR 27.1, p = 0.005) and a cystocele ≥ grade 2 (OR 3.0, p = 0.020) were independent risk factors influencing the outcome of TVT-S procedures. For the TOT procedures, detrusor overactivity was an independent risk factor in a multivariate model (OR 8.6, p = 0.033). TVT-S could be performed for selected patients, but conventional TOT procedures are still superior to the novel TVT-S device.

  15. Normalized wall index specific and MRI-based stress analysis of atherosclerotic carotid plaques. A study comparing acutely symptomatic and asymptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, C.; Teng, Z.; Sadat, U.; Young, V.E.; Graves, M.J.; Gillard, J.H.; Li Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    Biomechanical stresses play an important role in determining plaque stability. Quantification of these simulated stresses can be potentially used to assess plaque vulnerability and differentiate different patient groups. 54 asymptomatic and 45 acutely symptomatic patients underwent in vivo multicontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the carotid arteries. Plaque geometry used for finite element analysis was derived from in vivo MRI at the sites of maximum and minimum plaque burden. In total, 198 slices were used for the computational simulations. A pre-shrink technique was used to refine the simulation. Maximum principle stress at the vulnerable plaque sites (id est (ie), critical stress) was extracted for the selected slices and a comparison was performed between the 2 groups. Critical stress in the slice with maximum plaque burden is significantly higher in acutely symptomatic patients as compared to asymptomatic patients (median, inter quartile range: 198.0 kPa (119.8-359.0 kPa) vs 138.4 kPa (83.8-242.6 kPa), P=0.04). No significant difference was found in the slice with minimum plaque burden between the 2 groups (196.7 kPa (133.3-282.7 kPa) vs 182.4 kPa (117.2-310.6 kPa), P=0.82). Acutely symptomatic carotid plaques have significantly high biomechanical stresses than asymptomatic plaques. This might be potentially useful for establishing a biomechanical risk stratification criteria based on plaque burden in future studies. (author)

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to other adrenal hormones during an acute inflammatory stressful disease state compared with chronic inflammatory disease: role of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Rainer H; Lehle, Karin; Herfarth, Hans; Weber, Markus; Falk, Werner; Preuner, Jurgen; Scholmerich, Jurgen

    2002-03-01

    Serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) are low in chronic inflammatory diseases, although the reasons are unexplained. Furthermore, the behaviour of serum levels of these hormones during an acute inflammatory stressful disease state is not well known. In this study in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state (13 patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery) and patients with chronic inflammation (61 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)) vs. 120 controls, we aimed to investigate adrenal hormone shifts looking at serum levels of DHEA in relation to other adrenal hormones. Furthermore, we tested the predictive role of serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) for a change of serum levels of DHEA in relation to other adrenal hormones. The molar ratio of serum levels of DHEA/androstenedione (ASD) was increased in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state and was decreased in patients with chronic inflammation. The molar ratio of serum levels of DHEAS/DHEA was reduced during an acute inflammatory stressful disease state and was increased in patients with chronic inflammation. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that elevated serum levels of TNF were associated with a high ratio of serum levels of DHEA/ASD in all groups (for IL-6 in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state only), and, similarly, elevated serum levels of TNF were associated with a high ratio of serum levels of DHEAS/DHEA only in IBD (for IL-6 only in healthy subjects). This study indicates that changes of serum levels of DHEA in relation to serum levels of other adrenal hormones are completely different in patients with an acute inflammatory stressful disease state compared with patients with chronic inflammation. The decrease of serum levels of DHEAS and DHEA is typical for chronic inflammation and TNF and IL-6 play a predictive role for these changes.

  17. Report of the consultants' meeting on comparative laboratory evaluation of therapeutic radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals consist of two components - the radionuclide and the biological carrier. With regard to the radionuclide, an advantage of targeted radiotherapy is that there are a wide variety of radionuclides with different physical half-lives and radiation qualities that can be applied for this purpose. An important task is to select a radionuclide that is compatible with the needs of a particular clinical application. The identification of the ideal targeted radiotherapeutic for each potential clinical application is a difficult task because of the multitude of variables that must be considered, some relating to the radioisotope, and others to the biological carrier. Hence it is recommended that a Co-ordinated Research Programme be established by the Agency to enable participants to acquire and intercompare the methodological expertise to evaluate the relative merit of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. These studies will be performed using a model system selected either from those described in this report or a promising agent that has emerged in the time since this meeting. The molecular carrier will be labelled with 131 I, 125 I as well as other therapeutic radionuclides available to the participant (for example, 90 Y, 186 Re, 188 Re, 153 Sm, 166 Ho, 165 Dy). The potential radiopharmaceuticals will then be compared in a progression of studies evaluating biological integrity after labelling, internalisation and residualization of radioactivity in the tumour cell, in vitro cytotoxicity, tissue distribution, normal organ toxicity (determination of the maximum tolerated dose) and finally, therapeutic efficacy

  18. Comparative Study of Local and National Media Reporting: Conflict around the TV Oak in Stockholm, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Östberg

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The TV oak (Television Oak conflict concerned felling an old tree in a wealthy area of Stockholm. The case received great public attention in different media formats with different scopes (e.g., newspapers, television, internet. The TV Oak issue involved actors with different, partly conflicting perceptions. Assuming that the relevance of urban tree management issues in particular leads to increased interest among the local audience, this paper compared differences in reporting on the TV Oak case in local and national newspapers. The comparison comprised the actors “speaking” in the newspapers, the interest roles attributed to different actors and the frames used. The empirical materials used were articles concerning the TV Oak published between October 2011 and June 2012 in one local and two national Swedish newspapers. Quantitative analysis of statements in these articles showed that the geographical scope of the newspaper was not the major driving force framing the TV Oak conflict and that variety of framings, ranging from a humanised perception of the oak to a more analytical hazard perception, were used. Differences between the interest roles allocated to different actors (e.g., in terms of victim, causer, and helper in the oak conflict showed that the framing of conflicts very much depended on single actors, in particular a high profile journalist in the national newspapers and private individuals writing letters to the editor in the local newspaper.

  19. Comparative Study of some Parameters reported in the Safety Analysis Report of TRIGA MARK II Research reactor with Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrobortty, T.K.; Huda, M.Q.; Bhuiyan, S.I.; Mondal, M.A.W.

    1997-06-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate some of the parametric results reported in the safety Analysis Report (SAR) with the theoretical analysis carried out by different computer codes and data bases. Different neutronics, thermal hydraulics and safety parameters such as core criticality and burnup lifetime, power peaking factor, prompt negative temperature coefficient, neutron flux, pulse characteristics, steady state and transient behaviors of the TRIGA reactor were analyzed. The investigated results were found to be in fairly good agreement with the values reported in the SAR. 12 refs., 14 figs., 1 table (Author)

  20. An In Vitro Comparative Study of Intracanal Fluid Motion and Wall Shear Stress Induced by Ultrasonic and Polymer Rotary Finishing Files in a Simulated Root Canal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Jon; Borg, John; Mattson, Abby; Olsen, Kris; Bahcall, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This in vitro study compared the flow pattern and shear stress of an irrigant induced by ultrasonic and polymer rotary finishing file activation in an acrylic root canal model. Flow visualization analysis was performed using an acrylic canal filled with a mixture of distilled water and rheoscopic fluid. The ultrasonic and polymer rotary finishing file were separately tested in the canal and activated in a static position and in a cyclical axial motion (up and down). Particle moveme...

  1. Short-term effects of air quality and thermal stress on non-accidental morbidity—a multivariate meta-analysis comparing indices to single measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokys, Hanna Leona; Junk, Jürgen; Krein, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Air quality and thermal stress lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Studies on morbidity and the combined impact of air pollution and thermal stress are still rare. To analyse the correlations between air quality, thermal stress and morbidity, we used a two-stage meta-analysis approach, consisting of a Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) and a meta-analysis investigating whether latitude or the number of inhabitants significantly influence the correlations. We used air pollution, meteorological and hospital admission data from 28 administrative districts along a north-south gradient in western Germany from 2001 to 2011. We compared the performance of the single measure particulate matter (PM10) and air temperature to air quality indices (MPI and CAQI) and the biometeorological index UTCI. Based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC), it can be shown that using air quality indices instead of single measures increases the model strength. However, using the UTCI in the model does not give additional information compared to mean air temperature. Interaction between the 3-day average of air quality (max PM10, max CAQI and max MPI) and meteorology (mean air temperature and mean UTCI) did not improve the models. Using the mean air temperature, we found immediate effects of heat stress (RR 1.0013, 95% CI: 0.9983-1.0043) and by 3 days delayed effects of cold stress (RR: 1.0184, 95% CI: 1.0117-1.0252). The results for air quality differ between both air quality indices and PM10. CAQI and MPI show a delayed impact on morbidity with a maximum RR after 2 days (MPI 1.0058, 95% CI: 1.0013-1.0102; CAQI 1.0068, 95% CI: 1.0030-1.0107). Latitude was identified as a significant meta-variable, whereas the number of inhabitants was not significant in the model.

  2. Short-term effects of air quality and thermal stress on non-accidental morbidity-a multivariate meta-analysis comparing indices to single measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokys, Hanna Leona; Junk, Jürgen; Krein, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Air quality and thermal stress lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Studies on morbidity and the combined impact of air pollution and thermal stress are still rare. To analyse the correlations between air quality, thermal stress and morbidity, we used a two-stage meta-analysis approach, consisting of a Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) and a meta-analysis investigating whether latitude or the number of inhabitants significantly influence the correlations. We used air pollution, meteorological and hospital admission data from 28 administrative districts along a north-south gradient in western Germany from 2001 to 2011. We compared the performance of the single measure particulate matter (PM10) and air temperature to air quality indices (MPI and CAQI) and the biometeorological index UTCI. Based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC), it can be shown that using air quality indices instead of single measures increases the model strength. However, using the UTCI in the model does not give additional information compared to mean air temperature. Interaction between the 3-day average of air quality (max PM10, max CAQI and max MPI) and meteorology (mean air temperature and mean UTCI) did not improve the models. Using the mean air temperature, we found immediate effects of heat stress (RR 1.0013, 95% CI: 0.9983-1.0043) and by 3 days delayed effects of cold stress (RR: 1.0184, 95% CI: 1.0117-1.0252). The results for air quality differ between both air quality indices and PM10. CAQI and MPI show a delayed impact on morbidity with a maximum RR after 2 days (MPI 1.0058, 95% CI: 1.0013-1.0102; CAQI 1.0068, 95% CI: 1.0030-1.0107). Latitude was identified as a significant meta-variable, whereas the number of inhabitants was not significant in the model.

  3. Evaluation of stress, anxiety and depression in parents of children with leukemia: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farhangi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer diagnosis is the biggest stress for the child and his family. Diagnosis and treatment of cancer in children can cause stress, which often has a negative effect on the health of parents. Psychological reactions such as anxiety, depression, denial and loss of confidence in parents observed that because of the fear of recurrence and future of children. This study aimed to determine the level of stress and anxiety and depression in parents of children with leukemia who were in the maintenance phase of treatment. Methods: This cross-sectional study has been conducted on 48 parents have referred to the clinic of Dr. Sheikh Hospital of Mashhad City, Iran, whom selected using easy sampling method. DASS-21 questionnaire was used for data collection. Another questionnaire containing demographic information such as age, sex, income, educational level and duration of illness was filled under supervision of the psychologist and pediatric physician. Data with SPSS software, ver. 20 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA, descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis was performed. Results: The results showed that in this study, 37% had abnormal stress levels (33% and 2% of mild stress, moderate stress and severe stress 2% and 79% had abnormal anxiety level (mild 19%, moderate 31% and severe 29% and 67% had abnormal depression level (mild 33%, moderate depression 33% tests, respectively. In our study, there was no relationship between age, sex and duration of illness with these variables. Conclusion: According to this study, in addition to the classic treatment of patients, parent’s mental performance should be paid attention.

  4. Comparative study of finite element method, isogeometric analysis, and finite volume method in elastic wave propagation of stress discontinuities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berezovski, A.; Kolman, Radek; Blažek, Jiří; Kopačka, Ján; Gabriel, Dušan; Plešek, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0288; GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/2315 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : elastic wave propagation * finite element method * isogeometric analysis * finite volume method * stress discontinuities * spurious oscillations Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/25_Berezovski_Rev1.pdf

  5. Technical report on comparative analysis of ASME QA requirements and ISO series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwan Hyun

    2000-06-01

    This technical report provides the differences on the QA requirement ASME and ISO in nuclear fields. This report applies to the quality assurance(QA) programmes of the design of two requirement. The organization having overall responsibility for the nuclear design, preservation, fabrication shall be described in this report in each stage of design project

  6. Comparative genomic study of ALDH gene superfamily in Gossypium: A focus on Gossypium hirsutum under salt stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Dong

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs are a superfamily of enzymes which play important role in the scavenging of active aldehydes molecules. In present work, a comprehensive whole-genomic study of ALDH gene superfamily was carried out for an allotetraploid cultivated cotton species, G. hirsutum, as well as in parallel relative to their diploid progenitors, G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Totally, 30 and 58 ALDH gene sequences belong to 10 families were identified from diploid and allotetraploid cotton species, respectively. The gene structures among the members from same families were highly conserved. Whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication might be the major driver for the expansion of ALDH gene superfamily in G. hirsutum. In addition, the expression patterns of GhALDH genes were diverse across tissues. Most GhALDH genes were induced or repressed by salt stress in upland cotton. Our observation shed lights on the molecular evolutionary properties of ALDH genes in diploid cottons and their alloallotetraploid derivatives. It may be useful to mine key genes for improvement of cotton response to salt stress.

  7. Comparative Salt Stress Study on Intracellular Ion Concentration in Marine and Salt-adapted Freshwater Strains of Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhad TALEBI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salinity imposes significant stresses in various living organisms including microalgae. High extracellular concentration of Na+ directly influences ionic balance inside the cell and subsequently the cellular activities. In the present study, the effect of such stress on growth and intracellular ions concentration (IIC of Dunaliella salina and Chlorella Spp. was investigated. IIC was analyzed using Ion chromatography technique. D. salina showed the highest degree of resistance to increase in salinity as little changes occurred both in IIC and in growth parameters. D. salina could maintain the balance of K+ inside the cell and eject the excess Na+ even at NaCl concentrations above 1M. Moreover, D. salina accumulated β-carotene in order to protect its photosynthetic apparatus. Among Chlorella species, C. vulgaris showed signs of adaptation to high content of salinity, though it is a fresh water species by nature. Moreover, the response shown by C. vulgaris to rise in salinity was even stronger than that of C. salina, which is presumably a salt-water resistant species. In fact, C. vulgaris could maintain intracellular K+ better than C. salina in response to increasing salinity, and as a result, it could survive at NaCl concentrations as high as 0.75 M. Marine strains such as D. salina well cope with the fluctuations in salinity through the existing adaptation mechanisms i.e. maintaining the K+/N+ balance inside the cell, K+ accumulation and Na+ ejection, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments like β-carotene.

  8. Conclusions about children’s reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients over multiple interviews depend on the analytic approach for comparing reported information to reference information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Smith, Albert F.; Hardin, James W.; Nichols, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Validation-study data are used to illustrate that conclusions about children’s reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients over multiple interviews (ie, time) depend on the analytic approach for comparing reported and reference information—conventional, which disregards accuracy of reported items and amounts, or reporting-error-sensitive, which classifies reported items as matches (eaten) or intrusions (not eaten), and amounts as corresponding or overreported. Subjects and design Children were observed eating school meals on one day (n = 12), or two (n = 13) or three (n = 79) nonconsecutive days separated by ≥25 days, and interviewed in the morning after each observation day about intake the previous day. Reference (observed) and reported information were transformed to energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate, fat), and compared. Main outcome measures For energy and each macronutrient: report rates (reported/reference), correspondence rates (genuine accuracy measures), inflation ratios (error measures). Statistical analyses Mixed-model analyses. Results Using the conventional approach for analyzing energy and macronutrients, report rates did not vary systematically over interviews (Ps > .61). Using the reporting-error-sensitive approach for analyzing energy and macronutrients, correspondence rates increased over interviews (Ps macronutrients improved over time, but the conventional approach masked improvements and overestimated accuracy. Applications The reporting-error-sensitive approach is recommended when analyzing data from validation studies of dietary reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients. PMID:17383265

  9. Conclusions about children's reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients over multiple interviews depend on the analytic approach for comparing reported information to reference information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Smith, Albert F; Hardin, James W; Nichols, Michele D

    2007-04-01

    Validation study data are used to illustrate that conclusions about children's reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients over multiple interviews (ie, time) depend on the analytic approach for comparing reported and reference information-conventional, which disregards accuracy of reported items and amounts, or reporting-error-sensitive, which classifies reported items as matches (eaten) or intrusions (not eaten), and amounts as corresponding or overreported. Children were observed eating school meals on 1 day (n=12), or 2 (n=13) or 3 (n=79) nonconsecutive days separated by >or=25 days, and interviewed in the morning after each observation day about intake the previous day. Reference (observed) and reported information were transformed to energy and macronutrients (ie, protein, carbohydrate, and fat), and compared. For energy and each macronutrient: report rates (reported/reference), correspondence rates (genuine accuracy measures), and inflation ratios (error measures). Mixed-model analyses. Using the conventional approach for analyzing energy and macronutrients, report rates did not vary systematically over interviews (all four P values >0.61). Using the reporting-error-sensitive approach for analyzing energy and macronutrients, correspondence rates increased over interviews (all four P values macronutrients improved over time, but the conventional approach masked improvements and overestimated accuracy. The reporting-error-sensitive approach is recommended when analyzing data from validation studies of dietary reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients.

  10. Effectiveness of Myocardial Contrast Echocardiography Quantitative Analysis during Adenosine Stress versus Visual Analysis before Percutaneous Therapy in Acute Coronary Pain: A Coronary Artery TIMI Grading Comparing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixia; Mu, Yuming; Quaglia, Luiz Augusto; Tang, Qi; Guan, Lina; Wang, Chunmei; Shih, Ming Chi

    2012-01-01

    The study aim was to compare two different stress echocardiography interpretation techniques based on the correlation with thrombosis in myocardial infarction (TIMI ) flow grading from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Forty-one patients with suspected ACS were studied before diagnostic coronary angiography with myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) at rest and at stress. The correlation of visual interpretation of MCE and TIMI flow grade was significant. The quantitative analysis (myocardial perfusion parameters: A, β, and A × β) and TIMI flow grade were significant. MCE visual interpretation and TIMI flow grade had a high degree of agreement, on diagnosing myocardial perfusion abnormality. If one considers TIMI flow grade <3 as abnormal, MCE visual interpretation at rest had 73.1% accuracy with 58.2% sensitivity and 84.2% specificity and at stress had 80.4% accuracy with 76.6% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity. The MCE quantitative analysis has better accuracy with 100% of agreement with different level of TIMI flow grading. MCE quantitative analysis at stress has showed a direct correlation with TIMI flow grade, more significant than the visual interpretation technique. Further studies could measure the clinical relevance of this more objective approach to managing acute coronary syndrome patient before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). PMID:22778555

  11. Anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and stressful life events in non-cardiac adolescent chest pain: a comparative study about the hidden part of the iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliacik, Kayi; Kanik, Ali; Bolat, Nurullah; Mertek, Hilal; Guven, Baris; Karadas, Ulas; Dogrusoz, Buket; Bakiler, Ali Rahmi

    2017-08-01

    Chest pain in adolescents is rarely associated with cardiac disease. Adolescents with medically unexplained chest pain usually have high levels of anxiety and depression. Psychological stress may trigger non-cardiac chest pain. This study evaluated risk factors that particularly characterise adolescence, such as major stressful events, in a clinical population. The present study was conducted on 100 adolescents with non-cardiac chest pain and 76 control subjects. Stressful life events were assessed by interviewing patients using a 36-item checklist, along with the Children's Depression Inventory and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for children, in both groups. Certain stressful life events, suicidal thoughts, depression, and anxiety were more commonly observed in adolescents with non-cardiac chest pain compared with the control group. Moreover, binary logistic regression analysis showed that trouble with bullies, school-related problems, and depression may trigger non-cardiac chest pain in adolescents. Non-cardiac chest pain on the surface may point to the underlying psychosocial health problems such as depression, suicidal ideas, or important life events such as academic difficulties or trouble with bullies. The need for a psychosocial evaluation that includes assessment of negative life events and a better management have been discussed in light of the results.

  12. Comparative effectiveness of Pseudomonas and Serratia sp. containing ACC-deaminase for improving growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salt-stressed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Ghani, Usman; Naveed, Muhammad; Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Asghar, Hafiz Naeem

    2009-05-01

    Ethylene synthesis is accelerated in response to various environmental stresses like salinity. Ten rhizobacterial strains isolated from wheat rhizosphere taken from different salt affected areas were screened for growth promotion of wheat under axenic conditions at 1, 5, 10 and 15 dS m(-1). Three strains, i.e., Pseudomonas putida (N21), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (N39) and Serratia proteamaculans (M35) showing promising performance under axenic conditions were selected for a pot trial at 1.63 (original), 5, 10 and 15 dS m(-1). Results showed that inoculation was effective even in the presence of higher salinity levels. P. putida was the most efficient strain compared to the other strains and significantly increased the plant height, root length, grain yield, 100-grain weight and straw yield up to 52, 60, 76, 19 and 67%, respectively, over uninoculated control at 15 dS m(-1). Similarly, chlorophyll content and K(+)/Na(+) of leaves also increased by P. putida over control. It is highly likely that under salinity stress, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-deaminase activity of these microbial strains might have caused reduction in the synthesis of stress (salt)-induced inhibitory levels of ethylene. The results suggested that these strains could be employed for salinity tolerance in wheat; however, P. putida may have better prospects in stress alleviation/reduction.

  13. Atypical femoral neck stress fracture in a marathon runner: a case report and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Femoral neck stress fractures are relatively rare and may present as sports-related injuries. The presentation is variable, and prompt diagnosis facilitates the earliest return to pre-morbid functional activity levels. Delayed detection may precipitate femoral non-union or avascular necrosis, resulting in long-term functional deficit. AIMS: We present the case of a basicervical femoral neck stress fracture occurring in a 23-year-old marathon runner. The pathophysiology and practical management issues related to this unusual injury pattern are discussed. CONCLUSION: The growing interest in amateur athletic activities should raise the index of suspicion for stress fractures of the femoral neck in healthy adults with atypical hip pain. Increased levels of patient education and physician awareness can reduce the incidence of long-term morbidity in cases of this unusual sports-related injury.

  14. A study to compare chest X-ray reports on overseas nursing recruits.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, S

    2010-05-01

    This study was carried out to assess if there was a difference in the Chest X- ray (CXR) report on recruited nurses carried out overseas and later repeated in Ireland. This study was carried out in two Irish teaching hospitals. The subjects of this study comprised all overseas nurses recruited in each of the two hospitals within the defined period. The total number of subjects recruited from the 2 two centres was 84. Only nurses that had a repeat CXR were included in this study. 6\\/84 (7%) of the CXR that were initially reported as normal were subsequently reported as abnormal and were later diagnosed as Latent TB. 2\\/84(2%) of the CXR that were reported as abnormal were subsequently reported as normal. The data collected in this study has demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the CXR report from overseas and the CXR report in Ireland.

  15. An audit comparing the reporting of staging MRI scans for rectal cancer with the London Cancer Alliance (LCA) guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M R S; Shanmuganandan, A P; Rasheed, S; Tekkis, P; Brown, G; Abulafi, A M

    2017-11-01

    This article focuses on the audit and assessment of clinical practice before and after introduction of MRI reporting guidelines. Standardised proforma based reporting may improve quality of MRI reports. Uptake of the use may be facilitated by endorsement from regional and national cancer organisations. This audit was divided into 2 phases. MRI reports issued between April 2014 and June 2014 were included in the first part of our audit. Phase II included MRI reports issued between April 2015 and June 2015. 14 out of 15 hospitals that report MRI scans in the LCA responded to our audit proposal. The completion rate of key MRI metrics/metrics was better in proforma compared to prose reports both before (98% vs 73%; p < 0.05) and after introduction of the guidelines (98% vs 71%; p < 0.05). There was an approximate doubling of proforma reporting after the introduction of guidelines and workshop interventions (39% vs 65%; p < 0.05). Evaluation of locally advanced cancers (tumours extending to or beyond the circumferential resection margin) for beyond TME surgery was reported in 3% of prose reports vs. 42% in proformas. Incorporation of standardised reporting in official guidelines improved the uptake of proforma based reporting. Proforma based reporting captured more MRI reportable items compared to prose summaries, before and after the implementation of guidelines. MRI reporting of advanced cancers for beyond TME surgery falls short of acceptable standards but is more detailed in proforma based reports. Further work to improve completion especially in beyond TME reporting is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal stress microfracturing of crystalline and sedimentary rock. Final report, September 16, 1987--September 15, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.

    1995-08-01

    Slow uniform heating of crustal rocks is both a pervasive geologic process and an anticipated by-product of radioactive waste disposal. Such heating generates microcracks which alter the strength, elastic moduli, and transport properties of the rock. The research program was to understand mechanisms of thermal cracking in rocks. It included development of a theoretical understanding of cracking due to thermal stresses, laboratory work to characterize crack strain in rocks thermally stressed under different conditions (including natural thermal histories), microscopic work to count and catalog crack occurrences, and geologic application to determine paleostress history of granites from the midcontinent

  17. Stress intensities for nozzle cracks in reactor vessels. Reporting period, January 1, 1976--October 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.; Jolles, M.; Peters, W.H.

    1976-11-01

    A series of six frozen stress photoelastic tests was conducted to investigate the distribution of stress intensity factor (SIF) along a crack which occurred at the juncture of a pipe (nozzle) with a cylindrical pressure vessel. Typical photoelastic fringe patterns are shown for slices which were taken mutually orthogonal to the flaw border and the flaw surface. A typical plot of normalized apparent SIF versus square root of normalized distance from the crack tip is presented. The variation in SIF along the flaw border is given for all six different crack geometries and also the variation of SIF with varying a/T is presented. 40 references

  18. Summary report - development of laboratory tests and the stress- strain behaviour of Olkiluoto mica gneiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Rock Engineering

    1997-05-01

    This work summarizes the project aimed at developing and qualifying a suitable combination of laboratory tests to establish a statistically reliable stress-strain behaviour of the main rock types at Posiva Oy`s detailed investigation sites for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The work includes literature study of stress-strain behaviour of brittle rock, development and qualification of laboratory tests, suggested test procedures and interpretation methods and finally testing of Olkiluoto mica gneiss. The Olkiluoto study includes over 130 loading tests. Besides the commonly used laboratory tests, direct tensile tests, damage controlled tests and acoustic emission measurements were also carried out. (orig.) (54 refs.).

  19. Summary report - development of laboratory tests and the stress- strain behaviour of Olkiluoto mica gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E.

    1997-05-01

    This work summarizes the project aimed at developing and qualifying a suitable combination of laboratory tests to establish a statistically reliable stress-strain behaviour of the main rock types at Posiva Oy's detailed investigation sites for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The work includes literature study of stress-strain behaviour of brittle rock, development and qualification of laboratory tests, suggested test procedures and interpretation methods and finally testing of Olkiluoto mica gneiss. The Olkiluoto study includes over 130 loading tests. Besides the commonly used laboratory tests, direct tensile tests, damage controlled tests and acoustic emission measurements were also carried out. (orig.) (54 refs.)

  20. Stress relief of ceramic components in high voltage assemblies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, R.J.

    1979-02-01

    Two types of ceramic packages were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of encapsulating the ceramic components in beta eucryptite filled epoxy. The requirements (no high voltage breakdown, no ceramic cracking, and no encapsulant cracking) were met by the spark gap assembly, but the sprytron assembly had cracking in the encapsulant after thermal cycling. The encapsulation of the ceramic component in beta eucryptite filled epoxy with a stress decoupling material selectively applied in the stress concentrated areas were used to prevent cracking in the sprytron encapsulant. This method is proposed as the standard encapsulation process for high voltage ceramic components

  1. How bicycle level of traffic stress correlate with reported cyclist accidents injury severities: A geospatial and mixed logit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Anderson, Jason C; Wang, Haizhong; Wang, Yinhai; Vogt, Rachel; Hernandez, Salvador

    2017-11-01

    Transportation agencies need efficient methods to determine how to reduce bicycle accidents while promoting cycling activities and prioritizing safety improvement investments. Many studies have used standalone methods, such as level of traffic stress (LTS) and bicycle level of service (BLOS), to better understand bicycle mode share and network connectivity for a region. However, in most cases, other studies rely on crash severity models to explain what variables contribute to the severity of bicycle related crashes. This research uniquely correlates bicycle LTS with reported bicycle crash locations for four cities in New Hampshire through geospatial mapping. LTS measurements and crash locations are compared visually using a GIS framework. Next, a bicycle injury severity model, that incorporates LTS measurements, is created through a mixed logit modeling framework. Results of the visual analysis show some geospatial correlation between higher LTS roads and "Injury" type bicycle crashes. It was determined, statistically, that LTS has an effect on the severity level of bicycle crashes and high LTS can have varying effects on severity outcome. However, it is recommended that further analyses be conducted to better understand the statistical significance and effect of LTS on injury severity. As such, this research will validate the use of LTS as a proxy for safety risk regardless of the recorded bicycle crash history. This research will help identify the clustering patterns of bicycle crashes on high-risk corridors and, therefore, assist with bicycle route planning and policy making. This paper also suggests low-cost countermeasures or treatments that can be implemented to address high-risk areas. Specifically, with the goal of providing safer routes for cyclists, such countermeasures or treatments have the potential to substantially reduce the number of fatalities and severe injuries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Child Autism Spectrum Disorder Traits and Parenting Stress: The Utility of Using a Physiological Measure of Parental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Reina S.; Swain, Deanna M.; Scarpa, Angela

    2018-01-01

    Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report greater stress due to unique parenting demands (e.g.; Estes et al. in "Brain Dev" 35(2):133-138, 2013). Stress is often studied through self-report and has not been extensively studied using physiological measures. This study compared parenting stress in mothers of…

  3. Comparative study on the stress corrosion cracking of X70 pipeline steel in simulated shallow and deep sea environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Feilong [Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of Corrosion and Protection of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100083 (China); China Building Material Test & Certification Group Co. Ltd., Beijing 100024 (China); Ren, Shuai [Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of Corrosion and Protection of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Zhong [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2G6 (Canada); Liu, Zhiyong, E-mail: liuzhiyong7804@ustb.edu.cn [Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of Corrosion and Protection of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Xiaogang; Du, Cuiwei [Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of Corrosion and Protection of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-02-08

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of X70 steel in simulated shallow and deep sea environments was studied using potentiodynamic polarization measurement, a slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the predominant cathodic reaction changes from an oxygen reduction reaction to the hydrogen evolution reaction as the dissolved oxygen (DO) content decreases. In the simulated deep sea environment, the SCC susceptibility of X70 steel decreased first, reached its lowest point at 15 MPa and then increased as the simulated sea hydrostatic pressure (HP) further increased. This is consistent with the regularity for the change of the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction current density i{sub H} at E{sub corr}, which indicates that the HP may influence the SCC susceptibility of X70 steel by changing the permeated hydrogen concentration.

  4. Elucidation of complex nature of PEG induced drought-stress response in rice root using comparative proteomics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Agrawal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with many adaptive strategies, dynamic changes in protein abundance seem to be the common strategy to cope up with abiotic stresses which can be best explored through proteomics. Understanding of drought response is the key to decipher regulatory mechanism of better adaptation. Rice (Oryza sativa L. proteome represents a phenomenal source of proteins that govern traits of agronomic importance, such as drought tolerance. In this study, a comparison of root cytoplasmic proteome was done for a drought tolerant rice (Heena cultivar in PEG induced drought conditions. A total of 510 protein spots were observed by PDQuest analysis and 125 differentially regulated spots were subjected for MALDI-TOF MS-MS analysis out of which 102 protein spots identified which further led to identification of 78 proteins with a significant score. These 78 differentially expressed proteins appeared to be involved in different biological pathways. The largest percentage of identified proteins was involved in bioenergy and metabolism (29% and mainly consists of malate dehydrogenase, succinyl-CoA, putative acetyl-CoA synthetase and pyruvate dehydrogenase etc. This was followed by proteins related to cell defense and rescue (22% such as monodehydroascorbate reductase and stress-induced protein sti1, then by protein biogenesis and storage class (21% e.g. putative thiamine biosynthesis protein, putative beta-alanine synthase and cysteine synthase. Further, cell signaling (9% proteins like actin and prolyl endopeptidase and proteins with miscellaneous function (19% like Sgt1 and some hypothetical protein were also represented a large contribution towards drought regulatory mechanism in rice. We propose that protein biogenesis, cell defense and superior homeostasis may render better drought-adaptation. These findings might expedite the functional determination of the drought-responsive proteins and their prioritisation as potential molecular targets for perfect adaptation.

  5. [Comparative mutagenesis of human cells in vivo and in vitro]. Progress report, January 1-December 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Annual progress report is made on project focusing on the comparative mutagenesis of human cells in vivo and in vitro. The study employs the HGPRT gene to explore the changes in nucleotide sequence which has occurred in spontaneous mutations or mutations induced by MNNG or ICR191. Reports on the individual projects have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base. (DT)

  6. Cilnidipine lowered psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure in a hypertensive man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji Sadatoshi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some hypertensive patients, psychological stress makes blood pressure difficult to control and causes physical symptoms such as headache or dizziness. We report the case of a hypertensive man whose psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure was attenuated by cilnidipine. Case Presentation The patient (a 72-year-old man had hypertension and was on antihypertensive therapy. When mentally concentrating, he experienced occipital headaches and dizziness, and despite thorough testing, no abnormality was found. He was subsequently referred to our department. The mirror drawing test (MDT, a psychological stress test, increased blood pressure by about 40 mmHg, and the patient described occipital headache. Plasma noradrenaline level also increased from 212 to 548 pg/ml. We therefore switched the patient from nifedipine, an L-type calcium (Ca channel blocker, to cilnidipine, an L-type/N-type Ca channel blocker with suppressive effects on sympathetic activity. Cilnipidine attenuated MDT-induced an increase in blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline level and prevented the development of headache during testing. Conclusion These findings suggest that cilnidipine is a useful antihypertensive agent for hypertensive patients in whom psychological stress causes marked fluctuations in blood pressure.

  7. 2009 Cost of Recruiting Report: Comparative Benchmarks for Two-Year and Four-Year Institutions. Noel-Levitz Report on Undergraduate Recruitment Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In November of 2009, Noel-Levitz conducted a Web-based poll of accredited postsecondary institutions across the U.S. to compare their spending on undergraduate student recruitment. To provide context, the 2009 costs were then compared to the findings of previous Noel-Levitz polls conducted in fall 2007 and fall 2005. This report provides…

  8. Increased component safety through improved methods for residual stress analysis. Subprojects. Consideration of real component geometries (phase 1). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nau, Andreas; Scholtes, B.

    2014-01-01

    -axial plane stress states were taken into account in this study. In the case of component's edges minor influences on the calculated stresses could be observed using standard calibration coefficients. Thus, a specific calibration is not considered necessary. The effects on shoulders could be assessed analogously. In the case of the claddings a remarkable influence could only be observed, if their thickness is below 2 mm. Essential benefits were reached through pre-experiments. As a consequence, the experimental execution was improved in terms of the material removal technique. The experimental data preparation was investigated in addition, which lead to the approach not to condition the experimental strains but rather the calculated stresses. This method is important for the experiments of phase 2 within this project. As a consequence of a successful project, the present knowledge base will be considerably improved and will be available for various engineering fields. Especially, the quantitative consideration of real residual stress states for optimized component designs will be feasible and finally the consequences of residual stresses an the component's safety, which are used in nuclear facilities, can be evaluated. The findings of the first numerical and theoretical research period (phase 1) at Kassel University are documented in this report.

  9. Bilateral Stress Fractures of the Femoral Neck from Renal Osteomalacia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sengupta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of spontaneous bilateral stress fractures of femoral neck leading to coxa vara in a young female with history of chronic renal disease and secondary osteomalacia is described. Once the underlying disease was controlled, the fracture was treated by valgus osteotomy with good result.

  10. Sternal stress fracture in a gymnast: A case report and literature review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a high incidence of injuries among gymnasts.1 This is not surprising given the ... stress fracture. A common example of poor posture in gymnasts is excessive ... Dimakatso Althea Ramagole (MB ChB, MSc (Sports Med)). Dina Christina ...

  11. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  12. Stress Fracture of the Pubic Ramus in a Female Long Distance Runner: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçkin Şenışık

    2017-06-01

    Stress fractures of the pelvis should be included in the differential diagnosis of female distance runners who have prolonged groin pain increasing with exercise. Detailed medical history, physical examination, blood tests, and radiological images are keys to reach certain diagnosis. Treatment plan should include risk factor analysis and progressive training programs.

  13. Comparison report of RPV pressurised thermal shock - international comparative assessment study (PTS ICAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    review progress and discuss preliminary results for each task. Twenty-eight researchers representing 20 organizations in 13 countries participated in that Workshop. A Final Workshop was held at Orlando, Florida, during February 24-27, 1998, to provide a forum for presentation of the full set of solutions that had been submitted by participants. Thirty-four researchers representing 20 organizations in 11 countries participated in the final workshop. Approximately 145 comparative plots were generated from an electronic data base of results to focus the discussions on the predictive capabilities of the analysis methods applied to the different tasks. Selected plots are presented and discussed in this report. The results show that a best-estimate methodology for RPV integrity assessment can benefit from a reduction of the uncertainties in each phase of the process. Within the DFM task, where account was taken of material properties and boundary conditions, reasonable agreement was obtained in linear-elastic and elastic-plastic analysis results. Linear elastic analyses and J-estimation schemes were shown to provide conservative estimates of peak crack driving force when compared with those obtained using complex three-dimensional (3D) finite element analyses. Predictions of RTNDT generally showed less scatter than that observed in crack driving force calculations due to the fracture toughness curve used for fracture assessment in the transition temperature region. Observed scatter in some analytical results could be traced mainly to a misinterpretation of the thermal expansion coefficient data given for the cladding and base metal. Also, differences in some results could be due to a quality assurance problem related to procedures for approximating the loading data given in the Problem Statement. For the PFM task, linear-elastic solutions were again shown to be conservative with respect to elastic-plastic solutions (by a factor of 2 to 4). Scatter in solutions obtained using

  14. Comparative analysis of root transcriptome profiles of two pairs of drought-tolerant and susceptible rice near-isogenic lines under different drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumeni Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant roots are important organs to uptake soil water and nutrients, perceiving and transducing of soil water deficit signals to shoot. The current knowledge of drought stress transcriptomes in rice are mostly relying on comparative studies of diverse genetic background under drought. A more reliable approach is to use near-isogenic lines (NILs with a common genetic background but contrasting levels of resistance to drought stress under initial exposure to water deficit. Here, we examined two pairs of NILs in IR64 background with contrasting drought tolerance. We obtained gene expression profile in roots of rice NILs under different levels of drought stress help to identify genes and mechanisms involved in drought stress. Results Global gene expression analysis showed that about 55% of genes differentially expressed in roots of rice in response to drought stress treatments. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs increased in NILs as the level of water deficits, increased from mild to severe condition, suggesting that more genes were affected by increasing drought stress. Gene onthology (GO test and biological pathway analysis indicated that activated genes in the drought tolerant NILs IR77298-14-1-2-B-10 and IR77298-5-6-B-18 were mostly involved in secondary metabolism, amino acid metabolism, response to stimulus, defence response, transcription and signal transduction, and down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis and cell wall growth. We also observed gibberellic acid (GA and auxin crosstalk modulating lateral root formation in the tolerant NILs. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis on two pairs of NILs with a common genetic background (~97% showed distinctive differences in gene expression profiles and could be effective to unravel genes involved in drought tolerance. In comparison with the moderately tolerant NIL IR77298-5-6-B-18 and other susceptible NILs, the tolerant NIL IR77298-14-1-2-B-10 showed

  15. Comparing the Self-Report and Measured Smartphone Usage of College Students: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heyoung; Ahn, Heejune; Nguyen, Trung Giang; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dae Jin

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays smartphone overuse has become a social and medical concern. For the diagnosis and treatment, clinicians use the self-report information, but the report data often does not match actual usage pattern. The paper examines the similarity and variance in smartphone usage patterns between the measured data and self-reported data. Together with the self-reported data, the real usage log data is collected from 35 college students in a metropolitan region of Northeast Asia, using Android smartphone monitoring application developed by the authors. The unconscious users underestimate their usage time by 40%, in spite of 15% more use in the actual usage. Messengers are most-used application regardless of their self-report, and significant preference to SNS applications was observed in addict group. The actual hourly pattern is consistent with the reported one. College students use more in the afternoon, when they have more free time and cannot use PCs. No significant difference in hourly pattern is observed between the measured and self-report. The result shows there are significant cognitive bias in actual usage patterns exists in self report of smartphone addictions. Clinicians are recommended to utilize measurement tools in diagnosis and treatment of smartphone overusing subjects.

  16. Surgeon-tailored polypropylene mesh as a needleless single-incision sling versus TVT-O for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSheemy, Mohammed S; Fathy, Hesham; Hussein, Hussein A; Hussein, Eman A; Hassan, Sarah Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    To compare safety and efficacy of surgeon-tailored polypropylene mesh through needleless single-incision technique (STM) versus tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (TVT-O) aiming to decrease cost of treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This is important in developing countries due to limited healthcare resources. A retrospective cohort study was done at Urology and Gynecology Departments (dual-center), Cairo University, from January 2011 to August 2013. STM was inserted in 72 females, while TVT-O was inserted in 48 females. Females evaluated by cough stress test, stress and urge incontinence quality of life questionnaire (SUIQQ), Q max and abdominal leak point pressure (ALPP) were included. Different factors were compared between both groups using paired t, Wilcoxon's signed rank, McNemar, Chi-square, Fisher's exact, independent t or Mann-Whitney tests. Age, parity, previous surgeries, ALPP, intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD), associated prolapse and associated prolapse repair were comparable in both groups. No significant difference was found between both groups in postoperative complications (except groin pain), cure, SUIQQ indices improvement and Q max decline. In total, 65 (90 %) cured, 6 (8 %) improved while failure was detected in one (1 %) patient in STM group, while 42 (87 %) cured, 4 (8 %) improved and failure was detected in two (4 %) patients in TVT-O group. Presence of ISD (p = 0.565), urgency (p = 0.496), UUI (p = 0.531), previous surgeries (p = 0.345), associated urogenital prolapse (p = 0.218) or associated prolapse repair (p = 0.592) did not lead to any significant difference in outcome between both groups. Cost of mesh decreased from US$500 (TVT-O) to US$10 (STM). Outcome of STM is comparable to TVT-O. Furthermore, STM is more economic.

  17. Pulsatile Stress in Middle-Aged Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Compared With Nondiabetic Control Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Philips, Jean-Christophe; Marchand, Monique; Scheen, Andr? J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Arterial pulse pressure is considered to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared pulse pressure during an active orthostatic test in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes and corresponding nondiabetic control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 50 years, diabetes duration 23 years, and BMI 23.0 kg/m2) were compared with 40 nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (respectively, 50 yea...

  18. 2010-2014: A Comparative Evolution of Sustainability Reporting and Its Assurance in Europe and the U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tînjală Diana-Maria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainability has evolved to encompass environmental, social and governance issues regarding corporate behaviour. For the last few years, stakeholders have begun putting pressure on companies to report on sustainability issues. Several national and international regulations and standards have been adopted to guide companies in their reporting. To ensure the accuracy and comparability of non-financial data needed for the stakeholders' decision making process, there is an increasing preference for the external assurance of sustainability reporting. The internationally recognized CSR report assurance standards are the International Standard on Assurance Engagements, ISAE 3000, and AccountAbility's AA1000 Assurance Standard (AA1000AS. This study focuses on the evolution of corporate sustainability reporting, using two non-financial indicators: ESG reporting, and Assurance of ESG reporting. The data for the study is based on content analysis of both CSR reports and corporate websites, courtesy of Sustainalytics. We assessed the evolution of the two indicators from June 2010 to February 2014, for 50 listed European companies and 50 American ones. The comparative approach illustrates the different evolutions of sustainability in Europe and the USA, emphasising the need for stronger regulations and guidelines in the USA, similar to those already implemented in European Countries. For the selected time period, US companies are shown to be worse reporters than European ones, having a negligible number of reports externally verified.

  19. Composite scores in comparative effectiveness research: counterbalancing parsimony and dimensionality in patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Patrick, Donald L

    2014-07-01

    When planning a comparative effectiveness study comparing disease-modifying treatments, competing demands influence choice of outcomes. Current practice emphasizes parsimony, although understanding multidimensional treatment impact can help to personalize medical decision-making. We discuss both sides of this 'tug of war'. We discuss the assumptions, advantages and drawbacks of composite scores and multidimensional outcomes. We describe possible solutions to the multiple comparison problem, including conceptual hierarchy distinctions, statistical approaches, 'real-world' benchmarks of effectiveness and subgroup analysis. We conclude that comparative effectiveness research should consider multiple outcome dimensions and compare different approaches that fit the individual context of study objectives.

  20. Work-related stress and quality of life among Iranian blue-collar workers with self-reported low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir-Mokamelkhah, Elaheh; Bahrami-Ahmadi, Amir; Aghili, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Impairment in quality of life and mental health had been reported in the previous studies as the results of musculoskeletal disorders among workers. Mental health has a wide concept and contains different disorders including anxiety, depression or even decreased quality of life, all of which having challengeable impacts on work- related characters such as work productivity and absensism. The present study aimed at evaluating work- related stress and quality of life among Iranian blue-collar workers of Fars ABFA Company with selfreported low back pain. Methods: In the present study, we focused on the low back pain among 451 blue-collar workers and assessed their work- related stress and quality of life status using DASS-21 and short form questionnaire (SF-36), respectively. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the qualitative variables, and chi-square test was utilized for statistical analysis of the qualitative variables. Results: Mean of the total score of quality of life among workers with low back pain was significantly lower than in those workers without low back pain. The mean of work- related stress score was significantly higher in workers with low back pain than in workers without low back pain. The mean quality of life subdomains in patients with low back pain was significantly lower than in workers without low back pain. Conclusion: Findings of the present study revealed that workers with low back pain had lower quality of life score and higher work- related stress score. These findings should be considered in designing preventive programs rather than controlling the pain.

  1. De novo transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in dryoperis fragrans under temperature stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.Z.; Tong, W.S.; Gao, R.

    2016-01-01

    Dryopteris fragrans is a species of fern and contains flavonoids compounds with medicinal value. This study explain the temperature stress impact flavonoids synthesis in D. fragrans tissue culture seedlings under the low temperature at 4 degree C, high temperature at 35 degree C and moderate temperature at 25 degree C. By using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing, 80.9 million raw sequence reads were de novo assembled into 66,716 non-redundant unigenes. 38,486 unigenes (57.7%) were annotated for their function. 13,973 unigenes and 29,598 unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) and clusters of orthologous group (COG), respectively. 18,989 sequences mapped to 118 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 204 genes were involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, regulation and transport. 25,292 and 16,817 unigenes exhibited marked differential expression in response to temperature shifts of 25 degree C to 4 degree C and 25 degree C to 35 degree C, respectively. 4CL and CHS genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were tested and suggested that they were responsible for biosynthesis of flavonoids. This study provides the first published data to describe the D. fragrans transcriptome and should accelerate understanding of flavonoids biosynthesis, regulation and transport mechanisms. Since most unigenes described here were successfully annotated, these results should facilitate future functional genomic understanding and research of D. fragrans. (author)

  2. Comparative study of the two-fluid momentum equations for multi-dimensional bubbly flows: Modification of Reynolds stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Ik Kyu; Yoon, Han Young [Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Byoung [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Two-fluid equations are widely used to obtain averaged behaviors of two-phase flows. This study addresses a problem that may arise when the two-fluid equations are used for multi-dimensional bubbly flows. If steady drag is the only accounted force for the interfacial momentum transfer, the disperse-phase velocity would be the same as the continuous-phase velocity when the flow is fully developed without gravity. However, existing momentum equations may show unphysical results in estimating the relative velocity of the disperse phase against the continuous-phase. First, we examine two types of existing momentum equations. One is the standard two-fluid momentum equation in which the disperse-phase is treated as a continuum. The other is the averaged momentum equation derived from a solid/ fluid particle motion. We show that the existing equations are not proper for multi-dimensional bubbly flows. To resolve the problem mentioned above, we modify the form of the Reynolds stress terms in the averaged momentum equation based on the solid/fluid particle motion. The proposed equation shows physically correct results for both multi-dimensional laminar and turbulent flows.

  3. Gaussian curvature elasticity determined from global shape transformations and local stress distributions: a comparative study using the MARTINI model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingyang; de Jong, Djurre H; Marrink, Siewert J; Deserno, Markus

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the Gaussian curvature modulus kappa of a systematically coarse-grained (CG) one-component lipid membrane by applying the method recently proposed by Hu et al. [Biophys. J., 2012, 102, 1403] to the MARTINI representation of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC). We find the value kappa/kappa = -1.04 +/- 0.03 for the elastic ratio between the Gaussian and the mean curvature modulus and deduce kappa(m)/kappa(m) = -0.98 +/- 0.09 for the monolayer elastic ratio, where the latter is based on plausible assumptions for the distance z0 of the monolayer neutral surface from the bilayer midplane and the spontaneous lipid curvature K(0m). By also analyzing the lateral stress profile sigma0(z) of our system, two other lipid types and pertinent data from the literature, we show that determining K(0m) and kappa through the first and second moment of sigma0(z) gives rise to physically implausible values for these observables. This discrepancy, which we previously observed for a much simpler CG model, suggests that the moment conditions derived from simple continuum assumptions miss the effect of physically important correlations in the lipid bilayer.

  4. Comparative transcriptome profiling of a thermal resistant vs. sensitive silkworm strain in response to high temperature under stressful humidity condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfu Xiao

    Full Text Available Thermotolerance is important particularly for poikilotherms such as insects. Understanding the mechanisms by which insects respond to high temperatures can provide insights into their adaptation to the environment. Therefore, in this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis of two silkworm strains with significantly different resistance to heat as well as humidity; the thermo-resistant strain 7532 and the thermos-sensitive strain Knobbed. We identified in total 4,944 differentially expressed genes (DEGs using RNA-Seq. Among these, 4,390 were annotated and 554 were novel. Gene Ontology (GO analysis of 747 DEGs identified between RT_48h (Resistant strain with high-temperature Treatment for 48 hours and ST_48h (Sensitive strain with high-temperature Treatment for 48 hours showed significant enrichment of 12 GO terms including metabolic process, extracellular region and serine-type peptidase activity. Moreover, we discovered 12 DEGs that may contribute to the heat-humidity stress response in the silkworm. Our data clearly showed that 48h post-exposure may be a critical time point for silkworm to respond to high temperature and humidity. These results provide insights into the genes and biological processes involved in high temperature and humidity tolerance in the silkworm, and advance our understanding of thermal tolerance in insects.

  5. The effects of human relations training on reported teacher stress, pupil control ideology and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E; Hall, C; Abaci, R

    1997-12-01

    This study presents the reported outcomes of a two-year, part-time Masters' programme in human relations using an experiential learning methodology based mainly on humanistic psychological theory. The following hypotheses were examined. That as a result of the two-year programme: the experience of reported stress would be reduced; reported attitudes to student classroom control would shift from custodial to humanistic; there would be an increase in reports from participants of a sense of control over their lives; changes of behaviour in work, social settings and at home related to these three variables would be reported. Involved in the study were 42 experienced teachers. These included 32 women and 10 men, with an average age of 35, who worked in a wide range of educational institutions. Their learning style preferences were also considered as independent variables. A control group of 42 was established with similar demographic characteristics. Prior to the course, the experimental group and the control group were given the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Pupil Control Ideology Form. In the early stages of the course, the experimental group completed the Kolb Learning Style Inventory and an informal measure of locus of control which was repeated at the end of the first year of the course. A sample of 32 from the experimental group were given semi-structured interviews relating to changes in their professional and personal lives. The results indicated that, following the training, there was a reduction in reported stress, indications of a more humanistic orientation towards pupil control and an increase in a sense of an internal locus of control. The quantitative data were confirmed by qualitative data generated from semi-structured interviews, which involved substantial reports of applications of the training in their professional and personal lives. These results provide support for including experiential human relations training as part of both the in

  6. Project RA Research nuclear reactor - Annual report 1993 with comparative review for the period 1991 - 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    Research reactor RA Annual report for year 1993 is divided into two main parts to cover: (1) operation and maintenance and (2) activities related to radiation protection. First part includes 8 annexes describing reactor operation, activities of services for maintenance of reactor components and instrumentation, financial report and staffing. The ninth separate annex deals with the feasibility of RA reactor applications. Second part of the report is devoted to radiation protection issues and contains 4 annexes with data about radiation control of the working environment and reactor environment, description of decontamination activities, collection of radioactive wastes, and meteorology data [sr

  7. Water quality assessment using the AREc32 reporter gene assay indicative of the oxidative stress response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Dutt, Mriga; Maylin, Erin; Tang, Janet Y M; Toze, Simon; Wolf, C Roland; Lang, Matti

    2012-11-01

    The reporter gene assay AREc32 is based on the induction of the Nrf2 mediated oxidative stress response pathway in the human breast cancer cell line MCF7, where eight copies of the antioxidant response element (ARE) are linked to a reporter gene encoding for luciferase. The Nrf2-ARE pathway is responsive to many chemicals that cause oxidative stress, among them a large number of pesticides and skin irritants. We adopted and validated the AREc32 bioassay for water quality testing. tert-Butylhydroquinone served as the positive control, phenol as the negative control and other reactive chemicals were assessed for their specificity. An environmentally relevant reference chemical, benzo(a)pyrene was the most potent inducer of all tested chemicals. The concentration causing an induction ratio (IR) of 1.5 (EC(IR1.5)) was chosen as the effect benchmark value. The assay was applied to 21 water samples ranging from sewage to drinking water, including secondary treatment and various tertiary treatment options (ozonation, biologically activated carbon filtration, membrane filtration, reverse osmosis, advanced oxidation, chlorination, chloramination). The samples were enriched by solid phase extraction. In most samples the oxidative stress response was far more sensitive than cytotoxicity. The primary and secondary treated effluent exceeded the effect threshold IR 1.5 at a relative enrichment factor (REF) of 1, i.e., the native samples were active. All tertiary treated samples were less potent and their EC(IR1.5) lay between REF 1 and 10. The Nrf2 pathway was induced at a REF of approximately 10 for surface waters and drinking water, and above this enrichment cytotoxicity took over in most samples and quenched the induction. The blank (ultrapure water run through the sample enrichment process) was cytotoxic at an REF of 100, which is the limit of concentrations range that can be evaluated. Treatment typically decreased both the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response apart

  8. Elastic and plastic strains and the stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccaro, F.P.; Hehemann, R.F.; Troiano, A.R.

    1979-08-01

    The influence of elastic (stress) and plastic (cold work) strains on the stress corrosion cracking of a transformable austenitic stainless steel was studied in several aqueous chloride environments. Initial polarization behavior was active for all deformation conditions as well as for the annealed state. Visual observation, potential-time, and current-time curves indicated the development of a pseudo-passive (flawed) film leading to localized corrosion, occluded cells and SCC. SCC did not initiate during active corrosion regardless of the state of strain unless severe low temperature deformation produced a high percentage of martensite. Both elastic and plastic deformation increased the sensitivity to SCC when examined on the basis of percent yield strength. The corrosion potential, the critical cracking potential, and the potential at which the current changes from anodic to cathodic were essentially unaffected by deformation. It is apparent that the basic electrochemical parameters are independent of the bulk properties of the alloy and totally controlled by surface phenomena

  9. SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING QUALITY OF INDIAN AND AMERICAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diganta Munshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The content analysis method has been adopted to study the pattern of reporting on sustainability indicators by 10 American and 10 Indian manufacturing firms in their sustainability reports prepared as per the GRI framework and published during 2011-2013. Scores of 2, 1 and 0 have been respectively assigned for full, partial and non disclosure of sub clauses of economic, environmentand social indicators to compute a SDI (sustainability disclosure index. Independent t test found a significant difference in the quality of sustainability disclosure of the sampled American and Indian manufacturing firms during 2011-13. The improvement/ deterioration in the quality of disclosure over the period were correlated with changes in performance parameters like EPS and ROA to examine if betterment in quality of sustainability reporting translates into financial performance of the firms. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the variables which explain the variation in the sustainability reporting quality of firms.

  10. Comparative evaluation of concrete sealers and multiple layer polymer concrete overlays. Interim report no. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The report presents comparisons of initial evaluations of several concrete sealers and multiple layer polymer concrete overlays. The sealers evaluated included a solvent-dlspersed epoxy, a water-dlspersed epoxy, a silane, and a high molecular weight ...

  11. Examining the Relationship between Physiological Measurements and Self-Reports of Stress and Well-Being in Middle School Teachers over One School Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Deirdre A.; Harris, Alexis R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Educators are exposed to a variety of stressors, which can lead to poorer teaching performance, burnout, and increased student misbehavior (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009). Although self-report measures of stress are most commonly used in education research, physiological measures of stress may also contribute to the understanding of educators'…

  12. Stress corrosion cracking studies of reactor pressure vessel steels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Sluys, W.A.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project was to perform a critical review of the information available in open literature on stress corrosion cracking of reactor pressure vessel materials in simulated light-water-reactor (LWR) conditions, develop a test procedure for conducting stress corrosion crack growth experiments in simulated LWR environments, and conduct a test program in an effort to duplicate some of the data available from the literature. The authors concluded that stress corrosion crack growth has been observed in pressure vessel steels under laboratory test conditions. The composition of the water in most cases where growth was observed is outside of the composition specified for operating conditions. Crack growth was observed in the experiments performed in this program, and it was intermittent. The cracking would start and stop for no apparent reason. In most instances, it would not restart without the change of some external variable. In a few instances, it restarted on its own. Crack growth rates as high as 3.6 x 10 -9 m/sec were observed in pressure vessel steels in high-purity water with 8 ppm oxygen. These high crack growth rates were observed for extremely short bursts in crack extension. They could not be sustained for crack growth extensions greater than a few tenths of a millimeter. From the results of this project it appears highly unlikely that stress corrosion cracking will be observed in operating nuclear plants where the coolant composition is maintained within water chemistry guidelines. However, more work is needed to better define the contaminations that cause crack growth. The crack growth rates are so high and the threshold values for crack nucleation are so low that the conditions causing them need to be well defined and avoided

  13. An Annotated Bibliography of DoD-Funded Reports Concerning Psychological Stress: 1950-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    unemployed actors) were put through an intensive multiform assessment (a battery of objectively scorable tests plus qualitative data from projective...Research Unit, San Diego, CA Extreme Stress in Adult Life and Its Psychic and Psycho- physiological Consequences Nov 1972 16p Psychoanalytic views that...all serious adult maladjustment must have its roots in infantile psychic trauma are undermined by evidence from the study of survivors of prisoner of

  14. Comparing recall vs. recognition measures of accident under-reporting: A two-country examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Tahira M; Petitta, Laura; Barbaranelli, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of research suggests that national injury surveillance data significantly underestimate the true number of non-fatal occupational injuries due to employee under-reporting of workplace accidents. Given the importance of accurately measuring such under-reporting, the purpose of the current research was to examine the psychometric properties of two different techniques used to operationalize accident under-reporting, one using a free recall methodology and the other a recognition-based approach. Moreover, in order to assess the cross-cultural generalizability of these under-reporting measures, we replicated our psychometric analyses in the United States (N=440) and Italy (N=592). Across both countries, the results suggest that both measures exhibited similar patterns of relationships with known antecedents, including job insecurity, production pressure, safety compliance, and safety reporting attitudes. However, the recall measures had more severe violations of normality and were less correlated with self-report workplace injuries. Considerations, implications, and recommendations for using these different types of accident measures are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pulsatile stress in middle-aged patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes compared to nondiabetic controls.

    OpenAIRE

    Philips, Jean-Christophe; Marchand, Monique; Scheen, André

    2010-01-01

    AbstractBackground: Arterial pulse pressure (PP) is considered as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared PP during an active orthostatic test in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes, and corresponding nondiabetic controls. Methods: 40 patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 50 years, diabetes duration 23 years, BMI 23.0 kg/m(2)) were compared to 40 non hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (respectively, 50 years, 8 years, 29.7 kg/m(2)). Pati...

  16. Bilateral stress fractures of femoral neck in non-athletes: a report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Monappa A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Femoral neck stress fractures (FNSFs are rare, constituting only 5% of all stress fractures in young adults. These fractures are usually seen in athletes, military recruits and patients with underlying metabolic diseases. The treatment of FNSFs is still controversial because of the inherent complications associated with the treatment procedure. We came across 4 cases of bilateral FNSFs in non-athletic individuals who were manual labourers with-out underlying bony disorders. Two patients with FNSFs and coxa vara deformity on both sides were managed by subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy and dynamic hip screw fixation. One of the remaining two patients was treated by cannulated cancellous screw fixation on one side and sub-trochanteric valgus osteotomy on the other side. The fourth patient received subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy on one side and bipolar hemiarthroplasty on the other side after failed cannulated screw fixation. All the fractures healed without any complications. No evidence of avascular ne-crosis or arthritis was noted in our series. Subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy restores normal neck-shaft angle in pa-tients suffering from FNSFs combined with coxa vara deformity. Moreover, it helps to bring the forces acting around the hip to normal biomechanical levels, leading to fracture union and better results. Replacement arthroplasty is recommended to patients who fail to achieve bony union after fixation. Key words: Fractures, stress; Femoral neck fractures; Coxa vara; Osteotomy

  17. Opposite Effects of Stress on Pain Modulation Depend on the Magnitude of Individual Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Nirit; Defrin, Ruth

    2018-04-01

    The effect of acute stress on pain threshold and intolerance threshold are reported as producing either hypoalgesia or hyperalgesia. Yet, the contribution of individual stress reactivity in this respect has not been established. The aim was to test 2 pain modulation paradigms under acute stress manipulation, to our knowledge, for the first time, to study whether stress differentially affects pain modulation, and whether the effect is related to individual stress response. Participants were 31 healthy subjects. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and pain adaptation were measured before and after inducing an acute stress response using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task. Subjects' stress response was evaluated according to salivary cortisol, autonomic function, and perceived stress and anxiety. The Montreal Imaging Stress Task induced a validated stress response. On a group level, stress induced reduction in CPM magnitude and increase in pain adaptation compared with baseline. These responses correlated with stress reactivity. When the group was subdivided according to stress reactivity, only high stress responders exhibited reduced CPM whereas only low stress responders exhibited increased pain adaptation. The results suggest that acute stress may induce opposite effects on pain modulation, depending on individual stress reactivity magnitude, with an advantage to low stress responders. This study evaluated the effect of acute stress on pain modulation. Pain modulation under stress is affected by individual stress responsiveness; decreased CPM occurs in high stress responders whereas increased pain adaptation occurs in low stress responders. Identification of high stress responders may promote better pain management. Copyright © 2017 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing the validity of informant and self-reports of personality using laboratory indices of emotional responding as criterion variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lynne; Liu, Huiting; Huggins, Ashley A; Katz, Andrea C; Zvolensky, Michael J; Shankman, Stewart A

    2016-09-01

    Personality traits relate to risk for psychopathology and can inform predictions about treatment outcome. In an effort to obtain a comprehensive index of personality, informant reports of personality are sometimes obtained in addition to self-reports of personality. However, there is limited research comparing the validity of self- and informant reports of personality, particularly among those with internalizing psychopathology. This is important given that informants may provide an additional (and perhaps different) perspective on individuals' personality. The present study therefore compared how both reports of positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) relate to psychophysiological and subjective measures of emotional responding to positive and negative stimuli. Given that our sample (n = 117) included individuals with no history of psychopathology, as well as individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and/or panic disorder (PD), we were also able to explore whether these internalizing diagnoses moderated the association between personality reports and measures of emotional responding. Informant-reported PA predicted physiological responses to positive stimuli (but not negative). Informant-reported NA predicted physiological responses to negative stimuli (but not positive). Self-reported personality did not predict physiological responding, but did predict subjectively measured emotional responding (NA for negative responding, PA for positive responding). Diagnoses of internalizing psychopathology (PD or MDD) did not moderate these associations. Results suggest self- and informant reports of personality may each provide valid indices of an individual's emotional response tendencies, but predict different aspects of those tendencies. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Comparing the Validity of Informant- and Self-reports of Personality Using Laboratory Indices of Emotional Responding as Criterion Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lynne; Liu, Huiting; Huggins, Ashley A.; Katz, Andrea C.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Shankman, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits relate to risk for psychopathology and can inform predictions about treatment outcome. In an effort to obtain a comprehensive index of personality, informant-reports of personality are sometimes obtained in addition to self-reports of personality. However, there is limited research comparing the validity of self- and informant-reports of personality, particularly among those with internalizing psychopathology. This is important given that informants may provide an additional (and perhaps different) perspective on individuals’ personality. The present study therefore compared how both reports of positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) relate to psychophysiological and subjective measures of emotional responding to positive and negative stimuli. Given that our sample (n = 117) included individuals with no history of psychopathology, as well as individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and/or panic disorder (PD), we were also able to explore whether these internalizing diagnoses moderated the association between personality reports and measures of emotional responding. Informant-reported PA predicted physiological responses to positive stimuli (but not negative). Informant reported NA predicted physiological responses to negative stimuli (but not positive). Self-reported personality did not predict physiological responding, but did predict subjectively measured emotional responding (NA for negative responding; PA for positive responding). Diagnoses of internalizing psychopathology (PD or MDD) did not moderate these associations. Results suggest self- and informant-reports of personality may each provide valid indices of an individual’s emotional response tendencies, but predict different aspects of those tendencies. PMID:27273802

  20. The pacing stress test: thallium-201 myocardial imaging after atrial pacing. Diagnostic value in detecting coronary artery disease compared with exercise testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, G.V.; Aroesty, J.M.; Parker, J.A.; McKay, R.G.; Silverman, K.J.; Als, A.V.; Come, P.C.; Kolodny, G.M.; Grossman, W.

    1984-01-01

    Many patients suspected of having coronary artery disease are unable to undergo adequate exercise testing. An alternate stress, pacing tachycardia, has been shown to produce electrocardiographic changes that are as sensitive and specific as those observed during exercise testing. To compare thallium-201 imaging after atrial pacing stress with thallium imaging after exercise stress, 22 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization were studied with both standard exercise thallium imaging and pacing thallium imaging. Positive ischemic electrocardiographic changes (greater than 1 mm ST segment depression) were noted in 11 of 16 patients with coronary artery disease during exercise, and in 15 of the 16 patients during atrial pacing. One of six patients with normal or trivial coronary artery disease had a positive electrocardiogram with each test. Exercise thallium imaging was positive in 13 of 16 patients with coronary artery disease compared with 15 of 16 patients during atrial pacing. Three of six patients without coronary artery disease had a positive scan with exercise testing, and two of these same patients developed a positive scan with atrial pacing. Of those patients with coronary artery disease and an abnormal scan, 85% showed redistribution with exercise testing compared with 87% during atrial pacing. Segment by segment comparison of thallium imaging after either atrial pacing or exercise showed that there was a good correlation of the location and severity of the thallium defects (r . 0.83, p . 0.0001, Spearman rank correlation). It is concluded that the location and presence of both fixed and transient thallium defects after atrial pacing are closely correlated with the findings after exercise testing

  1. Contasure-Needleless® single incision sling compared with transobturator TVT-O® for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Franco, Eva; Amat Tardiu, Lluís

    2015-02-01

    This study compared transobturator tension-free vaginal tape (TVT-O®) and Contasure-Needleless (C-NDL®) at long-term follow-up . Non-inferiority, prospective, single-centre , quasi-randomised trial started in September 2006 and finished in April 2011 to compare C-NDL® with transobturator vaginal tape (TVT-O®) mesh in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) . Epidemiological information, intraoperative and postoperative complications, subjective estimates of blood loss and pain levels were recorded. We also analysed the postoperative stress test, the subjective impression of improvement using the Sandvik Severity Index and the quality of life during follow-up using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) . Two hundred and fifty-seven women with primary SUI were scheduled to receive TVT-O® or C-NDL® and were followed up at least 3 years after the procedure . One hundred and eleven women in the C-NDL® group (84.7%) had a negative stress test, compared with 54 women (88.9%) in the TVT-O® group (p = 0.0065 for the non-inferiority test). The postoperative Sandvik Severity Index was 0 or better than the preoperative score in 90.7% of patients in the C-NDL® group and 95.4% of patients in the TVT-O® group (p = 0.0022). The complication rate was similar in both groups. There were significant differences (p = 0.02) in postoperative pain within the TVT-O® group. The degree of satisfaction was not statistically significant between the two groups. The outcomes for the C-NDL® group were similar to those of the TVT-O® group, adding the concept of "single incision tape" to the tension-free sling option.

  2. Comparative Effect of Silymarin and D-Penicillamine on Lead Induced Hemotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Missagh Jalali*

    2017-03-01

    Full Te