WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported community differences

  1. Working Together and Making a Difference: Virginia Western Community College and Goodwill Industries of the Valleys Partnership Case Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Bill

    2015-01-01

    "Working Together and Making A Difference: Virginia Western Community College and Goodwill Industries of the Valleys Partnership Case Study Report" is a report aimed at informing community college and workforce leaders of best practices for launching and expanding partnerships to serve students more effectively. Co-published by AspenWSI…

  2. Report to the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braungart, S.; Ripley, M.

    2001-10-01

    In this document, Petro-Canada reports to the stakeholders on non-financial issues that have an impact on the communities in which the company operates. It is the first such annual report. The document touches environmental performance measures, the company's commitment and involvement in the various communities where it has a presence, health and safety, high-performance work environment for the employees, as well as business principles that guide the making of decisions. Some basic information concerning Petro-Canada is presented, followed by an overview of the corporate responsibility. The next section of the report is concerned with the environment. It is further divided into categories such as energy, air quality, water quality, regulatory compliance, environmental investments, waste management, and product quality. The section devoted to employee well-being addresses the work environment, and health and safety. The values and ethical decision-making are discussed in the next section, including the code of business conduct, corporate values, criteria for ethical decision-making, relationship with suppliers and business associates, community investment. The major growth areas, like Newfoundland, Northern Alberta, the Mackenzie Delta all benefit from a special sub-section that brushes on the major accomplishments. The report concludes by a statement concerning the contribution made by Petro-Canada to the Canadian economy. figs

  3. Community Connections. Time Warner Community Responsibility Report, 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jane; Stein, Carol

    This report highlights efforts by Time Warner personnel to strengthen community connections through various programs and services aimed at supporting: education, the arts, volunteerism, diversity, and business-community action. The report is divided into sections focusing on each of these areas. The first section, Education, describes programs…

  4. New Mexico High School Supercomputing Challenge, 1990--1995: Five years of making a difference to students, teachers, schools, and communities. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, M.; Kratzer, D.

    1996-02-01

    The New Mexico High School Supercomputing Challenge is an academic program dedicated to increasing interest in science and math among high school students by introducing them to high performance computing. This report provides a summary and evaluation of the first five years of the program, describes the program and shows the impact that it has had on high school students, their teachers, and their communities. Goals and objectives are reviewed and evaluated, growth and development of the program are analyzed, and future directions are discussed.

  5. Community Mental Health Clinic Cost Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Healthcare Cost Report Information System (HCRIS) Dataset - Community Mental Health Center (CMHC). This data was reported on form CMS-2088-92. The data in this...

  6. Community for Data Integration 2016 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, Madison L.; Hsu, Leslie; Amberg, Jon J.; Bliss, Norman; Bock, Andrew R.; Bolus, Rachel T.; Bristol, R. Sky; Chase, Katherine J.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Earle, Paul S.; Erickson, Richard; Everette, A. Lance; Falgout, Jeff T.; Faundeen, John L.; Fienen, Michael N.; Griffin, Rusty; Guy, Michelle R.; Henry, Kevin D.; Hoebelheinrich, Nancy J.; Hunt, Randall; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Ignizio, Drew A.; Infante, Dana M.; Jarnevich, Catherine; Jones, Jeanne M.; Kern, Tim; Leibowitz, Scott; Lightsom, Francis L.; Marsh, R. Lee; McCalla, S. Grace; McNiff, Marcia; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Nelson, John C.; Norkin, Tamar; Preston, Todd M.; Rosemartin, Alyssa; Sando, Roy; Sherba, Jason T.; Signell, Richard P.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sundquist, Eric T.; Talbert, Colin B.; Viger, Roland J.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Waltman, Sharon; Weber, Marc; Wieferich, Daniel J.; Williams, Brad; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2017-05-19

    The Community for Data Integration (CDI) represents a dynamic community of practice focused on advancing science data and information management and integration capabilities across the U.S. Geological Survey and the CDI community. This annual report describes the various presentations, activities, and outcomes of the CDI monthly forums, working groups, virtual training series, and other CDI-sponsored events in fiscal year 2016. The report also describes the objectives and accomplishments of the 13 CDI-funded projects in fiscal year 2016.

  7. 1997 report to the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In celebrating its thirtieth year of operation, Suncor has announced its future intentions, which includes doubling synthetic crude production from oil sands by 2002. This brochure presents an overview of the history of oil sands development in western Canada and describes the research since 1920 into the problem of separating the oil from the sand. The brochure was intended to inform residents in the Municipality of Wood Buffalo about the proposed Steepbank Mine on the east side of the Athabasca River, as well as provide information on other expansion projects. Suncor's strong commitment to community involvement was emphasized, along with the high priority that the company accords to environmental responsibility

  8. Do community and autonomy moral violations elicit different emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollareth, Dolichan; Kikutani, Mariko; Shirai, Mariko; Russell, James A

    2018-06-11

    According to one important set of theories, different domains of immorality are linked to different discrete emotions-panculturally. Violations against the community elicit contempt, whereas violations against an individual elicit anger. To test this theory, American, Indian and Japanese participants (N = 480) indicated contempt and anger reactions (with verbal rating and face selection) to both the types of immorality. To remedy method problems in previous research, community and autonomy violations were created for the same story-frame, by varying the target to be either the community or an individual. Community and autonomy violations did not differ significantly in the emotion elicited: overall, both types of violations elicited more anger than contempt (and more negative emotion of any kind than positive emotion). By verbal rating, Americans and Indians reported more anger than contempt for both types of violation, whereas Japanese reported more contempt than anger for both types. By face selection, the three cultural groups selected anger more than contempt for both types of violation. The results speak against defining distinct domains of morality by their association with distinct emotions. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges. Audit Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Office of the State Auditor, Jefferson City.

    This audit report reviews the employment contracts, related compensation, and other benefits provided for the chancellor and other officers of the Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges (KCMCC) in Missouri. The chancellor is allowed to either solicit bids or negotiate for contracted services such as architects, construction managers,…

  10. Group Differences in California Community College Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Deborah; Stowers, Genie N. L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which community colleges succeed in assisting students to transfer to four-year colleges. The study uses data from the California Community College system to test hypotheses about overall transfers and transfers of underrepresented students, It utilizes a framework based upon social reproduction theory (Bowles…

  11. Make a Difference in Your Community

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about making their schools and communities healthier places.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  12. SMUD Community Renewable Energy Deployment Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sison-Lebrilla, Elaine [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Tiangco, Valentino [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lemes, Marco [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Ave, Kathleen [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    This report summarizes the completion of four renewable energy installations supported by California Energy Commission (CEC) grant number CEC Grant PIR-11-005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Assistance Agreement, DE-EE0003070, and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) Community Renewable Energy Deployment (CRED) program. The funding from the DOE, combined with funding from the CEC, supported the construction of a solar power system, biogas generation from waste systems, and anaerobic digestion systems at dairy facilities, all for electricity generation and delivery to SMUD’s distribution system. The deployment of CRED projects shows that solar projects and anaerobic digesters can be successfully implemented under favorable economic conditions and business models and through collaborative partnerships. This work helps other communities learn how to assess, overcome barriers, utilize, and benefit from renewable resources for electricity generation in their region. In addition to reducing GHG emissions, the projects also demonstrate that solar projects and anaerobic digesters can be readily implemented through collaborative partnerships. This work helps other communities learn how to assess, overcome barriers, utilize, and benefit from renewable resources for electricity generation in their region.

  13. Prokaryotic communities differ along a geothermal soil photic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadow, James F; Zabinski, Catherine A

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal influenced soils exert unique physical and chemical limitations on resident microbial communities but have received little attention in microbial ecology research. These environments offer a model system in which to investigate microbial community heterogeneity and a range of soil ecological concepts. We conducted a 16S bar-coded pyrosequencing survey of the prokaryotic communities in a diatomaceous geothermal soil system and compared communities across soil types and along a conspicuous photic depth gradient. We found significant differences between the communities of the two different soils and also predictable differences between samples taken at different depths. Additionally, we targeted three ecologically relevant bacterial phyla, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia, for clade-wise comparisons with these variables and found strong differences in their abundances, consistent with the autecology of these groups.

  14. Learning from Experience. Project Work with Community Groups. A Report of the Communities in Crisis Programme. Occasional Papers Number 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Temple Foundation, Manchester (England).

    This publication reports on Communities in Crisis, a resource and adult education program designed to encourage local community leaders and volunteers to reflect critically upon their experiences and exchange ideas across different towns, cities, and regions in the United Kingdom. Part 1 describes the program and its three aims: sharing…

  15. Racial/ethnic and gender differences in the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and inflammation in the CARDIA cohort of 4 US communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Seeman, Teresa E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gortmaker, Steven L; Jacobs, David R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Berkman, Lisa F

    2012-09-01

    Inflammation is etiologically implicated in cardiometabolic diseases for which there are known racial/ethnic disparities. Prior studies suggest there may be an association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and inflammation, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP). It is not known whether that association is influenced by race/ethnicity and gender. In separate hierarchical linear models with time-varying covariates, we examined that association among 901 Black women, 614 Black men, 958 White women, and 863 White men in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study in four US communities. Self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination were ascertained in 1992-93 and 2000-01. Inflammation was measured as log-transformed CRP in those years and 2005-06. All analyses were adjusted for blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), age, education, and community. Our findings extend prior research by suggesting that, broadly speaking, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination are associated with inflammation; however, this association is complex and varies for Black and White women and men. Black women reporting 1 or 2 experiences of discrimination had higher levels of CRP compared to Black women reporting no experiences of discrimination (β = 0.141, SE = 0.062, P women reporting 3 or more experiences of discrimination and not independent of modifiable risks (smoking and obesity) in the final model. White women reporting 3 or more experiences of discrimination had significantly higher levels of CRP compared to White women reporting no experiences of discrimination independent of modifiable risks in the final model (β = 0.300, SE = 0.113, P discrimination and CRP was not statistically significant among Black and White men reporting 1 or 2 experiences of discrimination. Further research in other populations is needed

  16. Research on gender differences in online health communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Sun, Min; Li, Jia

    2018-03-01

    With the growing concern about health issues and the emergence of online communities based on user-generated content (UGC), more and more people are participating in online health communities (OHCs) to exchange opinions and health information. This paper aims to examine whether and how male and female users behave differently in OHCs. Using data from a leading diabetes community in China (Tianmijiayuan), we incorporate three different techniques: topic modeling analysis, sentiment analysis and friendship network analysis to investigate gender differences in chronic online health communities. The results indicated that (1) Male users' posting content was usually more professional and included more medical terms. Comparatively speaking, female users were more inclined to seek emotional support in the health communities. (2) Female users expressed more negative emotions than male users did, especially anxiety and sadness. (3) In addition, male users were more centered and influential in the friendship network than were women. Through these analyses, our research revealed the behavioral characteristics and needs for different gender users in online health communities. Gaining a deeper understanding of gender differences in OHCs can serve as guidance to better meet the information needs, emotional needs and relationship needs of male and female patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Racial differences in anticholinergic use among community-dwelling elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Maria; Hanlon, Joseph T; Perera, Subashan; Thorpe, Joshua M; Marcum, Zachary A

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have examined racial differences in potentially inappropriate medication use. The objective of this study was to examine racial disparities in using prescription and/or nonprescription anticholinergics, a type of potentially inappropriate medication, over time. Longitudinal. Data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (years 1, 5, and 10). Three thousand fifty-five community-dwelling older adults, both blacks and whites, at year 1. Highly anticholinergic medication use per the 2012 American Geriatrics Society Updated Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults. Blacks represented 41.4% of the participants at year 1. At year 1, 13.4% of blacks used an anticholinergic medication compared with 17.8% of whites, and this difference persisted over the ensuing 10-year period. Diphenhydramine was the most common anticholinergic medication reported at baseline and year 5, and meclizine at year 10, for both races. Controlling for demographics, health status, and access to care factors, blacks were 24% to 45% less likely to use any anticholinergics compared with whites over the years considered (all P blacks than whites over a 10-year period, and the difference was unexplained by demographics, health status, and access to care.

  18. Metabarcoding of the kombucha microbial community grown in different microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, Oleg N; Zaets, Iryna E; Ovcharenko, Leonid P; Kukharenko, Olga E; Shpylova, Switlana P; Podolich, Olga V; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Kozyrovska, Natalia O

    2015-12-01

    Introducing of the DNA metabarcoding analysis of probiotic microbial communities allowed getting insight into their functioning and establishing a better control on safety and efficacy of the probiotic communities. In this work the kombucha poly-microbial probiotic community was analysed to study its flexibility under different growth conditions. Environmental DNA sequencing revealed a complex and flexible composition of the kombucha microbial culture (KMC) constituting more bacterial and fungal organisms in addition to those found by cultural method. The community comprised bacterial and yeast components including cultured and uncultivable microorganisms. Culturing the KMC under different conditions revealed the core part of the community which included acetobacteria of two genera Komagataeibacter (former Gluconacetobacter) and Gluconobacter, and representatives of several yeast genera among which Brettanomyces/Dekkera and Pichia (including former Issatchenkia) were dominant. Herbaspirillum spp. and Halomonas spp., which previously had not been described in KMC, were found to be minor but permanent members of the community. The community composition was dependent on the growth conditions. The bacterial component of KMC was relatively stable, but may include additional member-lactobacilli. The yeast species composition was significantly variable. High-throughput sequencing showed complexity and variability of KMC that may affect the quality of the probiotic drink. It was hypothesized that the kombucha core community might recruit some environmental bacteria, particularly lactobacilli, which potentially may contribute to the fermentative capacity of the probiotic drink. As many KMC-associated microorganisms cannot be cultured out of the community, a robust control for community composition should be provided by using DNA metabarcoding.

  19. Storefront Cigarette Advertising Differs by Community Demographic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Caughey, Robert W.; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Tobacco manufacturers have targeted youth and ethnic/racial minorities with tailored advertising. Less is known about how characteristics of storefront tobacco advertisements, such as location, position, size, and content, are used to appeal to demographic subgroups. Design The occurrence and characteristics of storefront cigarette advertising were observed for all licensed tobacco retailers in two defined communities. Setting Measures were taken in two Boston, Massachusetts, area urban communities: a low-income, minority community and a high-income, nonminority community. Subjects No human subjects were involved in this study. Measures Advertisement position (attached or separated from storefront), size (small, medium, or large), mentholation, and price were recorded. Geographic coordinates of tobacco retailers and schools were mapped using ArcGIS 9.2. Analysis Differences between the communities in advertisement number and characteristics were assessed using bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to ascertain the odds of specific advertising features occurring in the low-income/minority community. Results The low-income/minority community had more tobacco retailers, and advertisements were more likely to be larger, promote menthol products, have a lower mean advertised price, and occur within 1000 feet of a school. Conclusion Storefront cigarette advertising characteristics that increase exposure and promote youth initiation were more prominent in a low-income/minority community. The findings emphasize the need for more effective regulation of storefront tobacco advertising. PMID:20594091

  20. Storefront cigarette advertising differs by community demographic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Caughey, Robert W; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco manufacturers have targeted youth and ethnic/racial minorities with tailored advertising. Less is known about how characteristics of storefront tobacco advertisements, such as location, position, size, and content, are used to appeal to demographic subgroups. The occurrence and characteristics of storefront cigarette advertising were observed for all licensed tobacco retailers in two defined communities. Measures were taken in two Boston, Massachusetts, area urban communities: a low-income, minority community and a high-income, nonminority community. No human subjects were involved in this study. Advertisement position (attached or separated from storefront), size (small, medium, or large), mentholation, and price were recorded. Geographic coordinates of tobacco retailers and schools were mapped using ArcGIS 9.2. Differences between the communities in advertisement number and characteristics were assessed using bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to ascertain the odds of specific advertising features occurring in the low-income/minority community. The low-income/minority community had more tobacco retailers, and advertisements were more likely to be larger, promote menthol products, have a lower mean advertised price, and occur within 1000 feet of a school. Storefront cigarette advertising characteristics that increase exposure and promote youth initiation were more prominent in a low-income/minority community. The findings emphasize the need for more effective regulation of storefront tobacco advertising.

  1. Gender Differences in Reporting of Battering Incidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Brygger, Mary Pat

    1986-01-01

    Examined difference between male and female reports of violence and threats directed by the man toward the woman. In many categories, significantly more women were found at intake to report more threats and violence than their male partners. After extensive intervention these differences were not found in the more severe categories of violence.…

  2. Similarity between community structures of different online social networks and its impact on underlying community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Yeung, K. H.

    2015-03-01

    As social networking services are popular, many people may register in more than one online social network. In this paper we study a set of users who have accounts of three online social networks: namely Foursquare, Facebook and Twitter. Community structure of this set of users may be reflected in these three online social networks. Therefore, high correlation between these reflections and the underlying community structure may be observed. In this work, community structures are detected in all three online social networks. Also, we investigate the similarity level of community structures across different networks. It is found that they show strong correlation with each other. The similarity between different networks may be helpful to find a community structure close to the underlying one. To verify this, we propose a method to increase the weights of some connections in networks. With this method, new networks are generated to assist community detection. By doing this, value of modularity can be improved and the new community structure match network's natural structure better. In this paper we also show that the detected community structures of online social networks are correlated with users' locations which are identified on Foursquare. This information may also be useful for underlying community detection.

  3. Communities of terrestrial nematodes after different approaches to heathland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radochova, Petra; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Since the 20th century, the distribution of European heathlands rapidly decreased due to agricultural intensification, heavy use of artificial fertilizers or acidification (Aerts & Heil, 1993). Therefore, various attempts of heathland restoration are under way in these days. Analysis of nematode community composition can be one of the tools suitable for succession evaluation (Ferris et al., 2001). In 2011, 2013 and 2014, soil samples were collected from heathland restoration experiment (launched in 2011) where different restoration methods were applied in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment; existing heathlands were also sampled to identify the target community both in dry and wet heathland. A total of 60 samples of extracted nematodes were analysed for absolute abundance, trophic groups, and genera dominance. Various indices were calculated to describe the nematode community. We were able to prove faster development of wet heathlands towards the target community. However, because of large data variability, there was no significant difference between treatments. Development of wet and dry heathlands differed also in increased proportion of omniphagous nematodes in 2013 and predators in 2014 in dry heathlands. After three years of heathland restoration, nematode community has not yet reached parameters of the target community. References Aerts, R., Heil, G. W., 1993. Heathlands: patterns and processes in a changing environment, 1st ed, Geobotany: 20. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, p. 229. Ferris, H., Bongers, T., De Goede, R. G. M., 2001. A framework for soil food web diagnostics: Extension of the nematode faunal analysis oncept. Appl. Soil Ecol. 18, 13-29.

  4. Community benefits from offshore renewables: The relationship between different understandings of impact, community, and benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, David Philipp; Haggett, Claire; Aitken, Mhairi

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research project evaluating community benefit models for offshore renewables. We identify and analyse UK and international case studies of different forms of community benefit, and provide evidence of how such benefits are delivered. In particular we consider......, and impact are understood is crucial in determining whether or how benefits should be apportioned and delivered; and that these definitions are closely connected to each other. We develop a new series of typologies as a way to understand this. Finally, we assess different mechanisms and schemes of community...

  5. Watershed Urbanization Linked to Differences in Stream Bacterial Community Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D. Hosen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization strongly influences headwater stream chemistry and hydrology, but little is known about how these conditions impact bacterial community composition. We predicted that urbanization would impact bacterial community composition, but that stream water column bacterial communities would be most strongly linked to urbanization at a watershed-scale, as measured by impervious cover, while sediment bacterial communities would correlate with environmental conditions at the scale of stream reaches. To test this hypothesis, we determined bacterial community composition in the water column and sediment of headwater streams located across a gradient of watershed impervious cover using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Alpha diversity metrics did not show a strong response to catchment urbanization, but beta diversity was significantly related to watershed impervious cover with significant differences also found between water column and sediment samples. Samples grouped primarily according to habitat—water column vs. sediment—with a significant response to watershed impervious cover nested within each habitat type. Compositional shifts for communities in urbanized streams indicated an increase in taxa associated with human activity including bacteria from the genus Polynucleobacter, which is widespread, but has been associated with eutrophic conditions in larger water bodies. Another indicator of communities in urbanized streams was an OTU from the genus Gallionella, which is linked to corrosion of water distribution systems. To identify changes in bacterial community interactions, bacterial co-occurrence networks were generated from urban and forested samples. The urbanized co-occurrence network was much smaller and had fewer co-occurrence events per taxon than forested equivalents, indicating a loss of keystone taxa with urbanization. Our results suggest that urbanization has significant impacts on the community composition

  6. Community for Data Integration 2014 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, Madison L.; Chang, Michelle Y.; Carlino, Jennifer; Birch, Daniella D.; Bradley, Joshua; Bristol, R. Sky; Conzelmann, Craig; Diehl, Robert H.; Earle, Paul S.; Ellison, Laura E.; Everette, Anthony L.; Fuller, Pamela L.; Gordon, Janice M.; Govoni, David L.; Guy, Michelle R.; Henkel, Heather S.; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Kern, Tim; Lightsom, Frances L.; Long, Joseph W.; Longhenry, Ryan; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Stan W.; Viger, Roland J.; Wesenberg, Katherine; Wood, Eric C.

    2015-10-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researches Earth science to help address complex issues affecting society and the environment. In 2006, the USGS held the first Scientific Information Management Workshop to bring together staff from across the organization to discuss the data and information management issues affecting the integration and delivery of Earth science research and investigate the use of “communities of practice” as mechanisms to share expertise about these issues. Out of this effort emerged the Council for Data Integration, which was conceived as an official organizational function that would help guide data integration activities and formalize communities of practice into working groups; however, by 2009 it became evident that many members of the Council for Data Integration had an interest in developing data integration solutions and sharing expertise in a less formal, grassroots manner, which transformed the Council into a Community for Data Integration (CDI). As of 2014, the CDI represents a dynamic community of practice focused on advancing science data and information management and integration capabilities across the USGS and the CDI community.

  7. Thematic report on community development and siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper analyses the Finnish spent fuel disposal facility siting from the perspective of community development, issues of fairness, and general factors of success. We found that anticipated positive impacts on host community development were the most important factors of local support. Second, the willingness of main stakeholders to adopt and combine several competing and changing concepts of fairness helped making legitimate decisions. Finally, we can conclude that in addition to important cultural factors which are unique in Finland, a number of siting elements have contributed to the success that are of cross-cultural nature. The paper summarises the lessons learned about the Finnish spent fuel disposal facility siting process regarding the issues of community development, fairness, and the transferability of siting approaches across cultures. It is largely based on information presented within the framework of the OECD Forum of Stakeholder Confidence Workshop held in Turku, Finland, on 15-16 November 2001. (author)

  8. Report on wind energy for small communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maissan, J.F. [Leading Edge Projects Inc., Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    Wind energy projects can be economically viable in the north under a range of conditions when oil prices are in the range of $60 U.S. per barrel. Some of the requirements for economic viability include locations with economies of scale, availability of local equipment, availability of local technical human resources, access to reasonable transportation, and a committed community and project proponent. This paper presented the results of a study on wind energy in small northern communities. The objective of the paper was to provide an assessment of the feasibility of wind power to community leaders in diesel-dependant remote communities. The paper provided a review of wind power technologies including wind turbines; wind turbine towers; wind-diesel integration; wind penetration levels; anti-icing technology; suppliers of wind-diesel integration systems; and wind turbine manufacturers promoting wind-diesel systems. The paper also provided a review of the historical capital costs for the installation of wind projects; recommendations from project developers; project site selection criteria; as well as a simplified economic analyses for small communities. The paper also discussed the successful Kotzebue Alaska wind-diesel project as a model to follow. It described how to start a wind energy program with reference to the roles of the federal government, territorial governments and their power utilities. It was demonstrated that wind energy can be a cost effective option to reduce diesel generation requirements in the appropriate circumstances. It was concluded that deployment of wind energy in the north still needs to proceed on a carefully planned path beginning with leader projects and branching out from there. In addition, there is a need for good quality wind resource assessment at potential wind project locations in many communities in the north. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Oakton Community College Annual Report to the Community, Fiscal Year 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakton Community Coll., Des Plaines, IL.

    This 1996 annual report from Oakton Community College in Illinois was prepared to inform the community about the college's operations and finances, but in a more condensed, user friendly format than the comprehensive financial report. It includes statements from the board chairman and president, a mission statement, and a description of the board…

  10. Evidence for cultural differences between neighboring chimpanzee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Mundry, Roger; Boesch, Christophe

    2012-05-22

    The majority of evidence for cultural behavior in animals has come from comparisons between populations separated by large geographical distances that often inhabit different environments. The difficulty of excluding ecological and genetic variation as potential explanations for observed behaviors has led some researchers to challenge the idea of animal culture. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, crack Coula edulis nuts using stone and wooden hammers and tree root anvils. In this study, we compare for the first time hammer selection for nut cracking across three neighboring chimpanzee communities that live in the same forest habitat, which reduces the likelihood of ecological variation. Furthermore, the study communities experience frequent dispersal of females at maturity, which eliminates significant genetic variation. We compared key ecological factors, such as hammer availability and nut hardness, between the three neighboring communities and found striking differences in group-specific hammer selection among communities despite similar ecological conditions. Differences were found in the selection of hammer material and hammer size in response to changes in nut resistance over time. Our findings highlight the subtleties of cultural differences in wild chimpanzees and illustrate how cultural knowledge is able to shape behavior, creating differences among neighboring social groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Community for Data Integration 2013 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Michelle Y.; Carlino, Jennifer; Barnes, Christopher; Blodgett, David L.; Bock, Andrew R.; Everette, Anthony L.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Gordon, Janice M.; Govoni, David L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Henkel, Heather S.; Hines, Megan K.; Holl, Sally L.; Homer, Collin G.; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Ignizio, Drew A.; Kern, Tim J.; Lightsom, Frances L.; Markstrom, Steven L.; O'Donnell, Michael S.; Schei, Jacquelyn L.; Schmid, Lorna A.; Schoephoester, Kathryn M.; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Skagen, Susan K.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Talbert, Colin; Warren, Meredith Pavlick

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts earth science to help address complex issues affecting society and the environment. In 2006, the USGS held the first Scientific Information Management Workshop to bring together staff from across the organization to discuss the data and information management issues affecting the integration and delivery of earth science research and investigate the use of “communities of practice” as mechanisms to share expertise about these issues. Out of this effort emerged the Council for Data Integration, which was conceived as an official organizational function that would help guide data integration activities and formalize communities of practice into working groups. However by 2009, it became apparent that many members of the council had an interest in developing data integration solutions and sharing expertise in a less formal grassroots perspective, thus transforming the “Council” into a “Community” for Data Integration (CDI). Today, the CDI represents a dynamic community of practice focused on advancing science data and information management and integration capabilities across the USGS and the CDI community.

  12. Evaluating Community College Personnel: A Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; And Others

    A statewide survey was conducted of local evaluation policies, procedures, and problems of implementing evaluation programs on the campuses of California community colleges. The following areas were studied: (1) the process of development of the evaluation program; (2) procedures utilized in the first year of implementing Senate Bill 696…

  13. Nitrification at different salinities: Biofilm community composition and physiological plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Silva, Blanca M; Jonassen, Kjell Rune; Bakke, Ingrid; Østgaard, Kjetill; Vadstein, Olav

    2016-05-15

    This paper describes an experimental study of microbial communities of three moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) inoculated with nitrifying cultures originated from environments with different salinity; freshwater, brackish (20‰) and seawater. All reactors were run until they operated at a conversion efficiency of >96%. The microbial communities were profiled using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Statistical analysis was used to investigate the differences in microbial community structure and distribution of the nitrifying populations with different salinity environments. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS) and the PERMANOVA test based on Bray-Curtis similarities revealed significantly different community structure in the three reactors. The brackish reactor showed lower diversity index than fresh and seawater reactors. Venn diagram showed that 60 and 78% of the total operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) guild, respectively, were unique OTUs for a given reactor. Similarity Percentages (SIMPER) analysis showed that two-thirds of the total difference in community structure between the reactors was explained by 10 OTUs, indicating that only a small number of OTUs play a numerically dominant role in the nitrification process. Acute toxicity of salt stress on ammonium and nitrite oxidizing activities showed distinctly different patterns, reaching 97% inhibition of the freshwater reactor for ammonium oxidation rate. In the brackish culture, inhibition was only observed at maximal level of salinity, 32‰. In the fully adapted seawater culture, higher activities were observed at 32‰ than at any of the lower salinities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Financial Statement Audit Report of Halifax Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ralph

    This report presents the results of the Halifax Community College financial statement audit for the fiscal year ending on June 30, 1998. Halifax Community College is a component of the State of North Carolina, thus the authority to audit is granted by Article 5A of G.S. 147. The accounts and operations of the institution were subject to audit…

  15. Financial Statement Audit Report of Guilford Technical Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ralph

    This report presents the results of the Guilford Technical Community College financial statement audit for the fiscal year ending on June 30, 1998. Guilford Technical Community College is a component of the State of North Carolina, thus the authority to audit is granted by Article 5A of G.S. 147. The accounts and operations of the institution were…

  16. Financial Statement Audit Report of Isothermal Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ralph

    This report presents the results of the Isothermal Community College financial statement audit for the fiscal year ending on June 30, 1998. Isothermal Community College is a component of the State of North Carolina, thus the authority to audit is granted by Article 5A of G.S. 147. The accounts and operations of the institution were subject to…

  17. Financial Statement Audit Report of Pamlico Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ralph

    This report presents the results of the Pamlico Community College financial statement audit for the fiscal year ending on June 30, 1998. Pamlico Community College is a component of the State of North Carolina, thus the authority to audit is granted by Article 5A of G.S. 147. The accounts and operations of the institution were subject to audit…

  18. Financial Statement Audit Report of Rockingham Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ralph

    This report presents the results of the Rockingham Community College financial statement audit for the fiscal year ending on June 30, 1998. Rockingham Community College is a component of the State of North Carolina, thus the authority to audit is granted by Article 5A of G.S. 147. The accounts and operations of the institution were subject to…

  19. Financial Statement Audit Report of Tri-County Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ralph

    This report presents the results of the Tri-County Community College financial statement audit for the fiscal year ending on June 30, 1998. Tri-County Community College is a component of the State of North Carolina, thus the authority to audit is granted by Article 5A of G.S. 147. The accounts and operations of the institution were subject to…

  20. Financial Statement Audit Report of Randolph Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ralph

    This report presents the results of the Randolph Community College financial statement audit for the fiscal year ending on June 30, 1998. Randolph Community College is a component of the State of North Carolina, thus the authority to audit is granted by Article 5A of G.S. 147. The accounts and operations of the institution were subject to audit…

  1. Financial Reporting Practices in Illinois Public Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeadas, Gus J.

    A study was conducted to determine how well Illinois' 38 community college districts satisfied the needs of board members, creditors, investors, and tax payers for financial information. A list of 38 financial reporting requirements was developed from the requirements of the Illinois Community College Board (ICCB) and guidelines from the Audits of…

  2. Instruction in News Reporting as Community-Focused Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardenne, Robert; Killenberg, G. Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a course in public journalism which emphasizes ways of reporting on the lives of ordinary citizens so that news becomes more relevant and useful to the whole community. States that the "Public Life" course seeks a broader understanding of community life; considers, debates, and tests definitions of news; and reexamines beat…

  3. LYNX community advocacy & service engagement (CASE) project final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-14

    This report is a final assessment of the Community Advocacy & Service Engagement (CASE) project, a LYNX-FTA research project designed : to study transit education and public engagement methods in Central Florida. In the Orlando area, as in other part...

  4. A+ Schools Report to the Community

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This report consolidates information from multiple data sources including PPS, PDE and Pittsburgh charter schools. Data is obtained through downloads from the web...

  5. Hycom Pre - Feasibility study. Final report[Hydrogen communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacobazzi, A; Mario, F di [ENEA, (Italy); Hasenauer, U [Fraunhofer IS, (Germany); Joergensen, B H; Bromand Noergaard, P [Risoe National Lab., (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    The Quick-start Programme of the European Union Initiative for Growth identifies the hydrogen economy as one of the key areas for investment in the medium term (2004-2015). In this context the HyCOM (Hydrogen Communities) programme has been initiated. The main goal of this programme is the creation of a limited number of strategically sited stand-alone hydrogen communities producing hydrogen from various primary sources (mostly renewables) and using it for heat and electricity production and as fuel for vehicles. This report looks at the establishment of such hydrogen communities, analysing the main technical, economic, social, and environmental aspects as well as financial and regulatory barriers associated with the creation and operation of hydrogen communities. It also proposes a number of concepts for Hydrogen Communities and criteria with which a Hydrogen Community should be evaluated. The study is not in any way intended to be prescriptive. (ln)

  6. Dynamic simulation of crime perpetration and reporting to examine community intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonas, Michael A; Burke, Jessica G; Brown, Shawn T; Borrebach, Jeffrey D; Garland, Richard; Burke, Donald S; Grefenstette, John J

    2013-10-01

    To develop a conceptual computational agent-based model (ABM) to explore community-wide versus spatially focused crime reporting interventions to reduce community crime perpetrated by youth. Agents within the model represent individual residents and interact on a two-dimensional grid representing an abstract nonempirically grounded community setting. Juvenile agents are assigned initial random probabilities of perpetrating a crime and adults are assigned random probabilities of witnessing and reporting crimes. The agents' behavioral probabilities modify depending on the individual's experience with criminal behavior and punishment, and exposure to community crime interventions. Cost-effectiveness analyses assessed the impact of activating different percentages of adults to increase reporting and reduce community crime activity. Community-wide interventions were compared with spatially focused interventions, in which activated adults were focused in areas of highest crime prevalence. The ABM suggests that both community-wide and spatially focused interventions can be effective in reducing overall offenses, but their relative effectiveness may depend on the intensity and cost of the interventions. Although spatially focused intervention yielded localized reductions in crimes, such interventions were shown to move crime to nearby communities. Community-wide interventions can achieve larger reductions in overall community crime offenses than spatially focused interventions, as long as sufficient resources are available. The ABM demonstrates that community-wide and spatially focused crime strategies produce unique intervention dynamics influencing juvenile crime behaviors through the decisions and actions of community adults. It shows how such models might be used to investigate community-supported crime intervention programs by integrating community input and expertise and provides a simulated setting for assessing dimensions of cost comparison and intervention effect

  7. Dark Sectors 2016 Workshop: Community Report

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Jim; Echenard, Bertrand; Essig, Rouven; Graham, Matthew; Izaguirre, Eder; Jaros, John; Krnjaic, Gordan; Mardon, Jeremy; Morrissey, David; Nelson, Tim; Perelstein, Maxim; Pyle, Matt; Ritz, Adam; Schuster, Philip; Shuve, Brian; Toro, Natalia; Van De Water, Richard G.; Akerib, Daniel; An, Haipeng; Aniol, Konrad; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Asner, David M.; Back, Henning O.; Baker, Keith; Baltzell, Nathan; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Batell, Brian; Bauer, Daniel; Beacham, James; Benesch, Jay; Bjorken, James; Blinov, Nikita; Boehm, Celine; Bondi, Mariangela; Bonivento, Walter; Bossi, Fabio; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Budnik, Ran; Bueltmann, Stephen; Bukhari, Masroor H.; Bunker, Raymond; Carpinelli, Massimo; Cartaro, Concetta; Cassel, David; Cavoto, Gianluca; Celentano, Andrea; Chaterjee, Animesh; Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Chiodini, Gabriele; Cho, Hsiao-Mei Sherry; Church, Eric D.; Cooke, D.A.; Cooley, Jodi; Cooper, Robert; Corliss, Ross; Crivelli, Paolo; Curciarello, Francesca; D'Angelo, Annalisa; Davoudiasl, Hooman; De Napoli, Marzio; De Vita, Raffaella; Denig, Achim; deNiverville, Patrick; Deshpande, Abhay; Dharmapalan, Ranjan; Dobrescu, Bogdan; Donskov, Sergey; Dupre, Raphael; Estrada, Juan; Fegan, Stuart; Ferber, Torben; Field, Clive; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Filippi, Alessandra; Fornal, Bartosz; Freyberger, Arne; Friedland, Alexander; Galon, Iftach; Gardner, Susan; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Gninenko, Sergei; Golutvin, Andrey; Gori, Stefania; Grab, Christoph; Graziani, Enrico; Griffioen, Keith; Haas, Andrew; Harigaya, Keisuke; Hearty, Christopher; Hertel, Scott; Hewett, JoAnne; Hime, Andrew; Hitlin, David; Hochberg, Yonit; Holt, Roy J.; Holtrop, Maurik; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hsu, Lauren; Ilten, Phil; Incandela, Joe; Inguglia, Gianluca; Irwin, Kent; Jaegle, Igal; Johnson, Robert P.; Kahn, Yonatan; Kalicy, Grzegorz; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Khachatryan, Vardan; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Krasnikov, N.V.; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuflik, Eric; Kurinsky, Noah; Laha, Ranjan; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Li, Dale; Lin, Tongyan; Lisanti, Mariangela; Liu, Kun; Liu, Ming; Loer, Ben; Loomba, Dinesh; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Manalaysay, Aaron; Mandaglio, Giuseppe; Mans, Jeremiah; Marciano, W.J.; Markiewicz, Thomas; Marsicano, Luca; Maruyama, Takashi; Matveev, Victor A.; McKeen, David; McKinnon, Bryan; McKinsey, Dan; Merkel, Harald; Mock, Jeremy; Monzani, Maria Elena; Moreno, Omar; Nantais, Corina; Paul, Sebouh; Peskin, Michael; Poliakov, Vladimir; Polosa, Antonio D.; Pospelov, Maxim; Rachek, Igor; Radics, Balint; Raggi, Mauro; Randazzo, Nunzio; Ratcliff, Blair; Rizzo, Alessandro; Rizzo, Thomas; Robinson, Alan; Rubbia, Andre; Rubin, David; Rueter, Dylan; Saab, Tarek; Santopinto, Elena; Schnee, Richard; Shelton, Jessie; Simi, Gabriele; Simonyan, Ani; Sipala, Valeria; Slone, Oren; Smith, Elton; Snowden-Ifft, Daniel; Solt, Matthew; Sorensen, Peter; Soreq, Yotam; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spencer, James; Stepanyan, Stepan; Strube, Jan; Sullivan, Michael; Tadepalli, Arun S.; Tait, Tim; Taiuti, Mauro; Tanedo, Philip; Tayloe, Rex; Thaler, Jesse; Tran, Nhan V.; Tulin, Sean; Tully, Christopher G.; Uemura, Sho; Ungaro, Maurizio; Valente, Paolo; Vance, Holly; Vavra, Jerry; Volansky, Tomer; von Krosigk, Belina; Whitbeck, Andrew; Williams, Mike; Wittich, Peter; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Xue, Wei; Yoon, Jong Min; Yu, Hai-Bo; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Tien-Tien; Zhang, Yue; Zhao, Yue; Zhong, Yiming; Zurek, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    This report, based on the Dark Sectors workshop at SLAC in April 2016, summarizes the scientific importance of searches for dark sector dark matter and forces at masses beneath the weak-scale, the status of this broad international field, the important milestones motivating future exploration, and promising experimental opportunities to reach these milestones over the next 5-10 years.

  8. Dark Sectors 2016 Workshop: Community Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Jim; et al.

    2016-08-30

    This report, based on the Dark Sectors workshop at SLAC in April 2016, summarizes the scientific importance of searches for dark sector dark matter and forces at masses beneath the weak-scale, the status of this broad international field, the important milestones motivating future exploration, and promising experimental opportunities to reach these milestones over the next 5-10 years.

  9. Differences in Active and Collaborative Learning by Race for Community College Developmental Writing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoum, Sim; Wood, J. Luke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not there were significant differences in the self-reported frequency of active and collaborative learning by racial/ethnic affiliation between students who have completed a developmental writing course and those that plan to take one. Drawing upon data from the Community College Survey of…

  10. Convergent evolution of modularity in metabolic networks through different community structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wanding

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that the modularity of metabolic networks of bacteria is closely related to the variability of their living habitats. However, given the dependency of the modularity score on the community structure, it remains unknown whether organisms achieve certain modularity via similar or different community structures. Results In this work, we studied the relationship between similarities in modularity scores and similarities in community structures of the metabolic networks of 1021 species. Both similarities are then compared against the genetic distances. We revisited the association between modularity and variability of the microbial living environments and extended the analysis to other aspects of their life style such as temperature and oxygen requirements. We also tested both topological and biological intuition of the community structures identified and investigated the extent of their conservation with respect to the taxomony. Conclusions We find that similar modularities are realized by different community structures. We find that such convergent evolution of modularity is closely associated with the number of (distinct enzymes in the organism’s metabolome, a consequence of different life styles of the species. We find that the order of modularity is the same as the order of the number of the enzymes under the classification based on the temperature preference but not on the oxygen requirement. Besides, inspection of modularity-based communities reveals that these communities are graph-theoretically meaningful yet not reflective of specific biological functions. From an evolutionary perspective, we find that the community structures are conserved only at the level of kingdoms. Our results call for more investigation into the interplay between evolution and modularity: how evolution shapes modularity, and how modularity affects evolution (mainly in terms of fitness and evolvability. Further, our results

  11. Convergent evolution of modularity in metabolic networks through different community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanding; Nakhleh, Luay

    2012-09-14

    It has been reported that the modularity of metabolic networks of bacteria is closely related to the variability of their living habitats. However, given the dependency of the modularity score on the community structure, it remains unknown whether organisms achieve certain modularity via similar or different community structures. In this work, we studied the relationship between similarities in modularity scores and similarities in community structures of the metabolic networks of 1021 species. Both similarities are then compared against the genetic distances. We revisited the association between modularity and variability of the microbial living environments and extended the analysis to other aspects of their life style such as temperature and oxygen requirements. We also tested both topological and biological intuition of the community structures identified and investigated the extent of their conservation with respect to the taxonomy. We find that similar modularities are realized by different community structures. We find that such convergent evolution of modularity is closely associated with the number of (distinct) enzymes in the organism's metabolome, a consequence of different life styles of the species. We find that the order of modularity is the same as the order of the number of the enzymes under the classification based on the temperature preference but not on the oxygen requirement. Besides, inspection of modularity-based communities reveals that these communities are graph-theoretically meaningful yet not reflective of specific biological functions. From an evolutionary perspective, we find that the community structures are conserved only at the level of kingdoms. Our results call for more investigation into the interplay between evolution and modularity: how evolution shapes modularity, and how modularity affects evolution (mainly in terms of fitness and evolvability). Further, our results call for exploring new measures of modularity and network

  12. Problems with Reporting and Evaluating Mining Industry Community Development Projects: A Case Study from Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Wangari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reporting on contributions to community development is one way gold mining companies communicate the expanse and depth of their commitment to social responsibility. These projects are intended to provide the mine-proximate communities with some of the wealth and other benefits generated by mine development in their locales. We raise questions about reporting and evaluation of community development projects undertaken by AngloGold Ashanti in the two communities of Nyakabale and Nyamalembo, near its Geita mining projects in the Lake Victoria goldfields of Tanzania. We use archival data and data obtained from field research conducted during different periods throughout 2005, 2007 and 2010 to compare what the company reports to have done with what is found on the ground. Our findings revealed that the corporate reporting is misleading, ambiguous, and omissive. Much of the effort labeled “community development” benefited the companies directly via infrastructure development, food supplies to the mine cafeteria, and worker health. We argue that, if Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR projects are to be the primary way local people directly benefit from mine development, the relationship between the value of those projects and the wealth taken from the location should be considered, community projects should be well defined and differentiated from company-oriented projects, and community representatives should participate in monitoring the success and impact of community development projects.

  13. Community characteristics, social service allocation, and child maltreatment reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arieh, Asher

    2015-03-01

    This study expands research on the relationship between community (defined here as a locality) characteristics and child maltreatment. Research in this field is not new, but it is scarce. Our study is unique by examining changes between two periods rather than focusing on one point in time. Furthermore, our study examines structural conditions in small and medium size localities in Israel, a non-Western and non-Christian society. We compare our results with those from studies on inner-city and suburban neighborhoods in Western countries and earlier studies in Israel. We collected data on 169 Israeli localities, ranging from small ones (with as few as 1,500 residents) to medium size localities (i.e., towns) (with as many as 50,000 residents) in which approximately 34% of the Israeli child population resides. Our study tested four hypotheses: (1) Socioeconomic characteristics of the locality will be negatively correlated with the availability of social services; (2) Reported child maltreatment rates will be negatively correlated with the socioeconomic characteristics of the locality; (3) The availability of social services will be positively correlated with reported child maltreatment rates; and (4) Overall reported child maltreatment rates will be negatively correlated with the overall status of the localities. We have supported our second and third hypothesis in full, and partially supported our first and fourth hypothesis. In particular we have demonstrated that while demographics play a different role in Israel than in other countries in regard to child maltreatment, social, economic and cultural context are crucial for understating reported rates of child maltreatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Creating a Community of Difference in Entrepreneurship Scholarship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartner, William B.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues for alternative forms of inquiry for exploring aspects of entrepreneurship scholarship that are often unseen, ignored or minimized. The label, ‘The European School of Entrepreneurship’, might serve as a useful rubric for identifying a community of scholars with tendencies...... towards the following: (1) an interest in the history of ideas that inform entrepreneurship scholarship, (2) a willingness to step outside of the entrepreneurship field, itself, to embrace a variety of ideas, particularly from philosophy and the humanities and (3) a concern for the ‘other’, so...... as to challenge the unspoken and often unrecognized ‘taken-for-granted’ aspects of what entrepreneurship is and what it might be. Such tendencies are fundamentally different by degree (rather than contrast) from current norms; yet, these tendencies can make a significant difference in current scholarly practice...

  15. Mental health literacy among refugee communities: differences between the Australian lay public and the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Samantha; Rapee, Ronald M; Coello, Mariano; Momartin, Shakeh; Aroche, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated differences in mental health knowledge and beliefs between participants from the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities, and Australian-born individuals, in Sydney, Australia. Ninety-seven participants were given vignettes of characters describing symptoms of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress. They were required to identify psychological symptoms as disorders, rate beliefs about the causes of and helpful treatments for these disorders, and rate attitude statements regarding the two characters. Australian participants recognized the presented symptoms as specific mental disorders significantly more than Iraqi and Sudanese participants did, and reported causal and treatment beliefs which were more congruent with expert beliefs as per the western medical model of mental disorder. The Sudanese group endorsed supernatural and religious causal beliefs regarding depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms most often; but both Sudanese and Iraqi participants strongly supported options from the supernatural and religious treatment items. However, evidence for pluralistic belief systems was also found. Although sampling was non-random, suggesting caution in the interpretation of results, it appears that the mental health literacy of lay Australians may be more aligned with the western medical model of mental disorder than that of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities. Mental health literacy support needs of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities resettled in western countries such as Australia might include education about specific symptoms and causes of mental disorder and the effectiveness of psychiatric treatments. These findings provide useful directions for the promotion of optimal service utilization among such communities.

  16. Measuring up : reporting our environmental activities to the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    This report outlined the environmental activities undertaken during 2005 by the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA), the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) and the Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP). The 3 organizations were established to examine and address the environmental impacts of oil sands development in the region. CEMA was formed to manage cumulative impacts of oil sands development, while RAMP was formed to assess the health of rivers and lakes. WBEA was formed to monitor and report regional air quality. In 2005, CEMA focused on research designed to understand the sources of harmful emissions as well as how the natural environment responded to increased development. Long-term environmental impacts on surface water quantity and quality were investigated. Other activities included the creation of an acid sensitive lakes network and lake atlas; an ongoing assessment of the effects of air emissions on people living in the region; a Muskeg River watershed integrity and water management and mitigation strategies; a study of nitrogen sinks in boreal ecosystems; and the development of a pit lake work plan to integrate pit lakes within reclaimed ecosystems. RAMP was established in 1997 to monitor the health of lakes and rivers in the Wood Buffalo region. Studies conducted by RAMP in 2005 included water and sediment analyses, as well as fish and benthic communities monitoring. During 2005, RAMP studies observed no differences in benthic invertebrate communities, no significant accumulations of chemicals and sediments, and no appreciable differences in water chemistry. Concentrations of metals and tainting compounds in fish from the region have remained consistent over time. No significant changes in the overall chemistry of 50 lakes sampled during 2005 were observed. Air, land, and human monitoring programs conducted during 2005 by the WBEA included a human exposure monitoring program which studied the indoor and outdoor air

  17. Reconcilable differences? Human diversity, cultural relativity, and sense of community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M

    2011-03-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.

  18. Community pharmacy incident reporting: a new tool for community pharmacies in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Certina; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Gary; Kadija, Medina

    2010-01-01

    Incident reporting offers insight into a variety of intricate processes in healthcare. However, it has been found that medication incidents are under reported in the community pharmacy setting. The Community Pharmacy Incident Reporting (CPhIR) program was created by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada specifically for incident reporting in the community pharmacy setting in Canada. The initial development of key elements for CPhIR included several focus-group teleconferences with pharmacists from Ontario and Nova Scotia. Throughout the development and release of the CPhIR pilot, feedback from pharmacists and pharmacy technicians was constantly incorporated into the reporting program. After several rounds of iterative feedback, testing and consultation with community pharmacy practitioners, a final version of the CPhIR program, together with self-directed training materials, is now ready to launch. The CPhIR program provides users with a one-stop platform to report and record medication incidents, export data for customized analysis and view comparisons of individual and aggregate data. These unique functions allow for a detailed analysis of underlying contributing factors in medication incidents. A communication piece for pharmacies to share their experiences is in the process of development. To ensure the success of the CPhIR program, a patient safety culture must be established. By gaining a deeper understanding of possible causes of medication incidents, community pharmacies can implement system-based strategies for quality improvement and to prevent potential errors from occurring again in the future. This article highlights key features of the CPhIR program that will assist community pharmacies to improve their drug distribution system and, ultimately, enhance patient safety.

  19. Perceptions of community, social capital, and how they affect self-reported health: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadkowiec, O; Meissen, G J; Merkle, E C

    2017-11-01

    The link between social capital and self-reported health has been widely explored. On the other hand, we know less about the relationship between social capital, community socioeconomic characteristics, and non-social capital-related individual differences, and about their impact on self-reported health in community settings. Cross-sectional study design with a proportional sample of 7965 individuals from 20 US communities were analyzed using multilevel linear regression models, where individuals were nested within communities. The response rates ranged from 13.5% to 25.4%. Findings suggest that perceptions of the community and individual level socioeconomic characteristics were stronger predictors of self-reported health than were social capital or community socioeconomic characteristics. Policy initiatives aimed at increasing social capital should first assess community member's perceptions of their communities to uncover potential assets to help increase social capital. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Southeastern Community College Annual Progress Report, December 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, R. Gene

    Presenting information on the status of Southeastern Community College (SCC), in Iowa, this annual progress report highlights basic institutional data, financial information, and improvements and planned changes of the college as of 1995. Part 1 presents basic data on SCC, including facility locations, assessed property valuation, district…

  1. Brief Report: Autism Awareness--Views from a Campus Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Leigh Ann; Blacher, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a college community's views of the diagnostic characteristics and causes associated with autism spectrum disorders. An anonymous on-line survey of autism knowledge was distributed via campus server university-wide to all undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and staff. Of the 1,057 surveys completed, 76% of…

  2. E-Community: Mobile application for reporting incidents of public services of a city

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Suárez; Elvia Aispuro; Mónica Carreño; Andrés Sandoval; Italia Estrada; Jesús Hernández; Javier Aguilar; Yoshio Valles; Emma Ibarra

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the mobile application call E-Community, an application of a social nature with the objective that the civilian population in the city of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, have an alternative to report incidents that deal with services public. Generally, citizens reported by telephone different types of incidents such as traffic accidents, water leaks, lighting shabby, fire, garbage collection, however sometimes the phone is not attended for various reasons so regularly ...

  3. Mineralogical composition changes of postagrogenic soils under different plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilin, Nikita; Chizhikova, Natalia; Varlamov, Evgheni; Churilina, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    Plant communities play the leading role in transformation of soil. The need of studying former arable lands increases due to large number of abandoned lands in Russia. It is necessary to study mineralogical composition of soils involved into natural processes to understand the trends of their development after agricultural activities in the past. The aim of the study is to identify changes in mineralogical composition of soils under the influence of different plant communities. Soils were sampled in the south of Arkhangelsk region, Ustyansky district, near Akichkin Pochinok village. Soils are formed on clay moraine of Moscow glaciation. Soil profiles were dug on interfluve. We selected 4 plant communities on different stages of succession: upland meadow with domination of sod grasses (Phleum pratense, Agrostis tenuis), 16-year-old birch forest where dominants are herbaceous plants such as Poa sp., Chamerion angustiflium, Agrostis tenuis, 16-year-old spruce forest with no herbaceous vegetation and 70-year-old bilberry spruce forest with domination of Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. To separate soil fractions mineral content. We noticed a clear differentiation of studied soils both in the content of fraction and composition of minerals. Mineralogical composition and major mineral phases correlation of profiles under 70 years and 16 years of spruce forests are different. Mineralogical content in upper part of profile under the young spruce is more differentiated than in old spruce forest: the amount of quartz and kaolinite increases in upper horizon, although in this case the overall pattern of profile formation of clay material during podzolization remains unchanged. There is more substantial desilting under the birch forest, compared with profile under the spruce of same age within top 50 cm. Under the meadow vegetation we've discovered differentiation in mineral composition. Upper horizons contain smectite phase and differ from the underlying

  4. Community demographics and the propensity to report animal cruelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicola; Signal, Tania D

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increased awareness concerning links between violence to nonhuman animals and violence to humans. This has resulted in a number of cross-reporting initiatives between family service providers and animal welfare organizations. The success of these initiatives rests on individuals being willing to report such violence. Thus, there is a need to determine which variables influence an individual's willingness to report deliberate animal cruelty and abuse. The aim of this study was to examine demographic and attitudinal variables to ascertain their impact on propensity to report deliberate animal harm. A telephone questionnaire resulted in 1,208 valid responses from members of the general community. Results showed a number of variables that affected the propensity to report: gender, occupation, and acknowledgment of the link between family violence and deliberate animal harm. This article discusses these variables and their implications.

  5. Addressing Different Approaches for Evaluating Low-Exergy Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Meggers, Forrest; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    The IEA Annex 64 focusing on low-ex communities aims at the improvement of energy conversion chains on a community scale, using exergy analysis as the primary evaluation mode. Within this Annex the participants discuss important aspects and available methods for energy and exergy assessment as well

  6. Community Connection and Change: A Different Conceptualization of School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marian

    2008-01-01

    Many of our schools are situated in communities characterized by high levels of disadvantage, presenting a range of challenges. One possible response is to acknowledge this disadvantage and to try to address some of the problems it raises for students. Another is for the school to be proactive, recognizing the challenges faced by the community and…

  7. Neighbouring chimpanzee communities show different preferences in social grooming behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Cronin, Katherine A; Haun, Daniel B M; Mundry, Roger; Bodamer, Mark D

    2012-11-07

    Grooming handclasp (GHC) behaviour was originally advocated as the first evidence of social culture in chimpanzees owing to the finding that some populations engaged in the behaviour and others do not. To date, however, the validity of this claim and the extent to which this social behaviour varies between groups is unclear. Here, we measured (i) variation, (ii) durability and (iii) expansion of the GHC behaviour in four chimpanzee communities that do not systematically differ in their genetic backgrounds and live in similar ecological environments. Ninety chimpanzees were studied for a total of 1029 h; 1394 GHC bouts were observed between 2010 and 2012. Critically, GHC style (defined by points of bodily contact) could be systematically linked to the chimpanzee's group identity, showed temporal consistency both within and between groups, and could not be accounted for by the arm-length differential between partners. GHC has been part of the behavioural repertoire of the chimpanzees under study for more than 9 years (surpassing durability criterion) and spread across generations (surpassing expansion criterion). These results strongly indicate that chimpanzees' social behaviour is not only motivated by innate predispositions and individual inclinations, but may also be partly cultural in nature.

  8. Resolving community conflict in the nuclear power issue: a report and annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, R.S.; Fischer, M.; Corbett, T.; Garrett, K.; Lundgren, M.

    1978-02-01

    This report is a scholarly discussion of the escalation and possible resolution of community conflict in the nuclear power issue. The concern is at all times with the social factors in this conflict; technical problems in nuclear power are only considered to the extent that such problems are raised in conflict over nuclear power. Social science research on conflict is only reviewed to the extent that it bears on community conflict over nuclear power. Chapter 1 describes the nature of community conflict escalation in the nuclear power issue: stages of escalation, typical individuals and groups involved, typical issues raised, typical manners in which participants become involved, and the basic social parameters of conflict escalation. Chapter 2 outlines the community level determinants of conflict escalation in the nuclear power issue: How is a community in which conflict over a nuclear facility is most likely different from a community in which such conflict is least likely. Chapter 3 is a detailed consideration of alternative methods of containing and resolving conflict. Chapter 4 summarizes principles for dealing with community conflict in the nuclear power issue. Finally, Chapter 5 is an annotated bibliography of the literature reviewed in the report. 840 references

  9. Resolving community conflict in the nuclear power issue: a report and annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.S.; Fischer, M.; Corbett, T.; Garrett, K.; Lundgren, M.

    1978-02-01

    This report is a scholarly discussion of the escalation and possible resolution of community conflict in the nuclear power issue. The concern is at all times with the social factors in this conflict; technical problems in nuclear power are only considered to the extent that such problems are raised in conflict over nuclear power. Social science research on conflict is only reviewed to the extent that it bears on community conflict over nuclear power. Chapter 1 describes the nature of community conflict escalation in the nuclear power issue: stages of escalation, typical individuals and groups involved, typical issues raised, typical manners in which participants become involved, and the basic social parameters of conflict escalation. Chapter 2 outlines the community level determinants of conflict escalation in the nuclear power issue: How is a community in which conflict over a nuclear facility is most likely different from a community in which such conflict is least likely. Chapter 3 is a detailed consideration of alternative methods of containing and resolving conflict. Chapter 4 summarizes principles for dealing with community conflict in the nuclear power issue. Finally, Chapter 5 is an annotated bibliography of the literature reviewed in the report. 840 references.

  10. Phipps Bend Nuclear Energy Project. Community impact assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snapp, P.C.; Teilhet, A.; Newsom, R.; Bond, M.; Garland, M.

    1977-01-01

    In late 1977, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) proposed to build a 2 unit nuclear plant at Phipps Bend on the Holston River east of Surgoinsville, Tennessee. Total estimated cost is 1.6 billion dollars, with a generating capacity of 2,600,000 kilowatts. The facility will have an impact on Hawkins, Greene and Sullivan counties with 2,500 construction employees, a permanent work force of 300, increased availability of energy to stimulate new capital investment and the local government will need to deal with these. This report analyzed the facilities of each community in the impacted area and recommended certain action for infrastructure acquisition or improvements

  11. Changes in bacterial community after application of three different herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Jéssica Aparecida Silva; Altarugio, Lucas Miguel; Andrade, Pedro Avelino; Fachin, Ana Lúcia; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2017-07-06

    The native soil microbiota is very important to maintain the quality of that environment, but with the intensive use of agrochemicals, changes in microbial biomass and formation of large quantities of toxic waste were observed in soil, groundwater and surface water. Thereby, the goal of this study was to evaluate if the selective pressure exerted by the presence of the herbicides atrazine, diuron and 2,4-D changes the bacterial community structure of an agricultural soil, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique. According to PERMANOVA analysis, a greater effect of the herbicide persistence time in the soil, the effect of the herbicide class and the effect of interaction between these two factors (persistence time and herbicide class) were observed. In conclusion, the results showed that the selective pressure exerted by the presence of these herbicides altered the composition of the local microbiota, being atrazine and diuron that most significantly affected the bacterial community in soil, and the herbicide 2,4-D was the one that less altered the microbial community and that bacterial community was reestablished first. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Bacterial community structure at the microscale in two different soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michelland, R.; Thioulouse, J.; Kyselková, Martina; Grundmann, G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 3 (2016), s. 717-724 ISSN 0095-3628 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : abundancy-occupancy relationship * bacteria community structure * frequency-occupancy relationship * microscale in soil * soil microbial diversity * soil structure Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2016

  13. Anxiety and depression mediate the health-related quality of life differently in patients with cardiovascular disease and stroke-preliminary report of the Yilan study: a population-based community health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Wei; Tsao, Hsuan-Ming; Chen, Hsi-Chung; Chou, Pesus

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease and stroke have emerged as substantial and growing health challenges to populations around the world. Besides for the survival and medical prognosis, how to improve the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) might also become one of the goals of treatment programs. There are multiple factors that influence HRQol, including comorbidity, mental function and lifestyle. However, substantial research and investigation have still not clarified these underlying pathways, which merit further attention. The purpose of this study was to determine how psychological factors affect the link between cardiovascular disease and stroke with HRQoL. A total of 1,285 elder subjects at least 65 years of age (47.2% male) were enrolled. The mental function and HRQol of each patient was then measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Short Form-12. After multiple regression analysis, anxiety, depression, cardiovascular disease, stroke, education level and age were shown to be associated with both mental component score (MCS) and physical component score (PCS). In the mediation analysis using the SPSS macro provided by Preacher and Hayes, cardiovascular disease and stroke affected HRQoL via anxiety and depression, respectively. These results suggest that cardiovascular disease and stroke have negative impacts on patient MCS and PCS through different underlying pathways. Cardiovascular disease influences the HRQoL both directly and indirectly with the mediation of anxiety, and stroke influences the HRQoL by way of depression. These findings support the proposition that different combinations of both physical and psychological support are necessary to best manage these diseases.

  14. Comparing Metabolic Functionalities, Community Structures, and Dynamics of Herbicide-Degrading Communities Cultivated with Different Substrate Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gözdereliler, Erkin; Boon, Nico; Aamand, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Two 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA)-degrading enrichment cultures selected from an aquifer on low (0.1 mg liter−1) or high (25 mg liter−1) MCPA concentrations were compared in terms of metabolic activity, community composition, population growth, and single cell physiology. Different...... community compositions and major shifts in community structure following exposure to different MCPA concentrations were observed using both 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting and pyrosequencing. The communities also differed in their MCPA-mineralizing activities...... activity in cultures selected on low herbicide concentrations. This suggests that LNA bacteria may play a role in degradation of low herbicide concentrations in aquifers impacted by agriculture. This study shows that subpopulations of herbicide-degrading bacteria that are adapted to different pesticide...

  15. Disparities in Sense of Community: True Race Differences or Differential Item Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Donna L.; BeLue, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    The sense of community index (SCI) has been widely used to measure psychological sense of community (SOC). Furthermore, SOC has been found to differ among racial groups. Because different ethnic groups have different cultural and historical experiences that may lead to different interpretations of measurement items, it is important to know whether…

  16. Community acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in a young athlete man: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahdar, Hossein Ali; Kazemian, Hossein; Bimanand, Lida; Zahedani, Shahram Shahraki; Feyisa, Seifu Gizaw; Taki, Elahe; Havaei, Seyed Asghar; Karami-Zarandi, Morteza

    2018-04-10

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is commonly known as nosocomial infection agent but rarely previously healthy peoples infected by P. aeruginosa. Here we report community acquired pneumonia in a 27 years old athleteman. 15 published P. aeruginosa CAP case reports are reviewed.1 53.3% of patients was female and 46.67% was male. The mean age was 44 years old (SD: ±13.54). In 8 report it is mentioned that the patient was smoker. Fatality rate was 46.6% and death rate was not significantly different between selected antibiotic regimen, sex and smoking in patient's outcome. Chest strike can be a risk factor for P. aeruginosa CAP in athlete people. Our reported patient treated by ciprofloxacin 400 mg per day and healed without any Secondary complication. Fast and timelymanner diagnosis and treatment is critical in Community acquired P. aeruginosapneumonia outcome. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Kinds of access: Different methods for report reveal different kinds of metacognitive access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Sandberg, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    that there is not only a theoretical, but also an empirical difference between different methods of reporting. We hypothesize that differences in the sensitivity of different scales may reveal that different types of access are used to issue direct reports about experiences and metacognitive reports about...

  18. Contrasts and synergies in different biofuel reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, A; Landeweerd, L; Van der Werf-Kulichova, Z; Puylaert, P G B; Osseweijer, P

    2011-04-06

    The societal debate on biofuels is characterised by increased complexity. This can hinder the effective governance of the field. This paper attempts a quantitative bird's eye meta-analysis of this complexity by mapping different stakeholder perspectives and expected outcomes as seen in the secondary literature on biofuels, along the lines of the People-Planet-Profit framework. Our analysis illustrates the tension between stated and actual drivers of large scale biofuel development, especially for first generation biofuels. Although environmental (Planet) aspects have dominated the biofuel debate, their overall assessment is mostly negative with regard to first generation biofuels. By contrast, economic (Profit) aspects are the only ones that are assessed positively with regard to first generation biofuels. Furthermore, positive and negative assessments of biofuel development are strongly influenced by the differences in focus between different stakeholder clusters. Stakeholders who appear generally supportive to biofuel development (industry) focus relatively more on aspects that are generally assessed as positive (Profit). By contrast, non-supportive stakeholders (NGO's) tend to focus mainly on aspects that are generally assessed as negative (Planet). Moreover, our analysis of reference lists revealed few citations of primary scientific data, and also that intergovernmental organizations produce the most influential publications in the debate. The surprising lack of listed references to scientific (primary) data reveals a need to assess in which arena the transition of scientific data towards secondary publications takes place, and how one can measure its quality. This work should be understood as a first effort to take some control over a complex and contradictory number of publications, and to allow the effective governance of the field through the identification of areas of overlapping consensus and persisting controversy, without reverting to claims on

  19. Lower Sioux Indian Community Repository Research Project: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, L.; Farmer, D.; Lewis, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Upper and Lower Sioux Communities have undertaken a review of the geotechnical aspects of the Department of Energy (DOE) program document entitled Draft Area Recommendation Report (DARR). The DARR recommends twenty sites be retained for continued consideration as a possible location for the second high-level nuclear waste repository. Of these twenty sites, twelve are designated as Potentially Acceptable Sites (PAS), and eight are designated as candidate areas to serve as /open quotes/back-ups/close quotes/ to the PAS's. It is understood there are no current plans to investigate any of the eight candidate areas. It is distressing to the Upper and Lower Sioux Communities that the DOE intends to hold these eight sites in reserve. We do not feel it is appropriate to identify /open quotes/reserve/close quotes/ sites which could be elevated to a PAS at any time during the area phase of investigation. The following chapters in this report provide a summary of the specific procedural and technical problems noted in the screening methodology; and describe our concerns over the selection of NC-13 and NC-14 as reserve sites. Also included are the specific comments recorded by our technical subcontractors as they examined the DARR for us. 10 refs

  20. Firewood consumption pattern of different tribal communities in Northeast India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, B.P.; Sachan, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Excessive use of firewood, as a primary source of energy for domestic purposes, is leading to severe deforestation in the northeastern Himalayan region. Firewood consumption pattern of three tribal communities of Meghalaya, India- Garo, Khasi and Jaintia was studied under varying ecological, socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions. Fuelwood consumption was highest to Khasi community (5.81 kg/capita/day), followed by the Garo (5.32 kg/capita/day) and Jaintia (3.90 kg/capita/day), respectively, irrespective of their socio-economic status. The labour energy expenditure for fuelwood collection was highest for the Jaintia (88.56 MJ/capita/yr) and minimum to Garo (70.64 MJ/capita/yr). The fuelwood is burnt for various activities such as cooking, water heating, space heating, lighting and livestock rearing, etc. Among various activities, cooking required maximum energy. Commercial fuel is beyond the reach of the tribal communities due to their poor socio-economic conditions. The estimated growing stock is unable to sustain the rate of fuel consumption. This information could be utilized for developing appropriate technology for afforestation programmes in this region since 90% of the total population use biomass as an important source of energy

  1. Final report on the comprehensive approach to energy conservation for the Aboriginal community in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C.D. [Fort William First Nation, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-13

    This report presented a comprehensive approach to energy conservation programming for the Fort William First Nation, located in Thunder Bay, Ontario. The report outlined the historical context of the relationship between the Canadian government and Aboriginal people. The Aboriginal community in Ontario was described with reference to the difference between First Nations population, Metis, and Inuit. Statistics on the Aboriginal population in Ontario was broken down. Different Aboriginal organizations as well as organizations serving Aboriginal peoples were identified and described. The report also described the political process and administrative protocol for energy conservation and energy efficiency. Energy conservation in the Aboriginal community was also explained. Last, the report provided several recommendations related to awareness and education; translation; incentives; delivery mechanisms; and pilot projects. The report concluded with an agreement to hold a provincial conference in Toronto on the issues raised in the report. The report concluded that an Aboriginal unit within the Bureau of Conservation of the Ontario Power Authority was envisioned to plan, develop, implement, manage and monitor the deliverables resulting from the report.

  2. Benthic Ammonia Oxidizers Differ in Community Structure and Biogeochemical Potential Across a Riverine Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian eDamashek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen pollution in coastal zones is a widespread issue, particularly in ecosystems with urban or agricultural watersheds. California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, at the landward reaches of San Francisco Bay, is highly impacted by both agricultural runoff and sewage effluent, leading to chronically high nutrient loadings. In particular, the massive discharge of ammonium into the Sacramento River has altered this ecosystem by increasing ammonium concentrations and thus changing the stoichiometry of inorganic nitrogen stocks, with potential effects throughout the food web. To date, however, there has been little research examining N biogeochemistry or N-cycling microbial communities in this system. We report the first data on benthic ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities and potential nitrification rates for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, focusing on the functional gene amoA (encoding the α-subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. There were stark regional differences in ammonia-oxidizing communities, with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB outnumbering ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA only in the ammonium-rich Sacramento River. High potential nitrification rates in the Sacramento River suggested these communities may be capable of oxidizing significant amounts of ammonium, compared to the San Joaquin River and the upper reaches of San Francisco Bay. Gene diversity also showed regional patterns, as well as phylogenetically unique ammonia oxidizers in the Sacramento River. The community structure and biogeochemical function of benthic ammonia oxidizers appears related to nutrient loadings. Unraveling the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of N cycling pathways is a critical step toward understanding how such ecosystems respond to the changing environmental conditions wrought by human development and climate change.

  3. Evolving Frameworks for Different Communities of Scientists and End Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. J.; Keiser, K.

    2016-12-01

    Two evolving frameworks for interdisciplinary science will be described in the context of the Common Data Framework for Earth-Observation Data and the importance of standards and protocols. The Event Data Driven Delivery (ED3) Framework, funded by NASA Applied Sciences, provides the delivery of data based on predetermined subscriptions and associated workflows to various communities of end users. ED3's capabilities are used by scientists, as well as policy and resource managers, when event alerts are triggered to respond to their needs. The EarthCube Integration and Testing Environment (ECITE) Assessment Framework for Technology Interoperability and Integration is being developed to facilitate the EarthCube community's assessment of NSF funded technologies addressing Earth science problems. ECITE is addressing the translation of geoscience researchers' use cases into technology use case that apply EarthCube-funded building block technologies (and other existing technologies) for solving science problems. EarthCube criteria for technology assessment include the use of data, metadata and service standards to improve interoperability and integration across program components. The long-range benefit will be the growth of a cyberinfrastructure with technology components that have been shown to work together to solve known science objectives.

  4. Kinds of access: different methods for report reveal different kinds of metacognitive access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Morten; Sandberg, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    In experimental investigations of consciousness, participants are asked to reflect upon their own experiences by issuing reports about them in different ways. For this reason, a participant needs some access to the content of her own conscious experience in order to report. In such experiments, the reports typically consist of some variety of ratings of confidence or direct descriptions of one's own experiences. Whereas different methods of reporting are typically used interchangeably, recent experiments indicate that different results are obtained with different kinds of reporting. We argue that there is not only a theoretical, but also an empirical difference between different methods of reporting. We hypothesize that differences in the sensitivity of different scales may reveal that different types of access are used to issue direct reports about experiences and metacognitive reports about the classification process. PMID:22492747

  5. Community-Level Impacts Projection System (CLIPS). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monts, J.K.; Bareiss, E.R.

    1979-02-01

    The Community-Level Impacts Projection System includes a set of techniques for providing detailed advance information required for rational planning. The computerized system generates reports which enable the user: to describe the energy development activity in terms of its employment demands and spatial location; to estimate how many in-migrating workers will be required; to estimate the demographic characteristics of the in-migrating workers (e.g., how many elementary school children they will bring); to estimate how many additional secondary employment opportunities (e.g., employment in eating and drinking establishments and grocery stores) will be generated; to estimate what the local area's population levels in various age groups would be both with the project and without it; to estimate community population levels for both the impact case and the baseline case; and to estimate the approximate resource requirements and costs for providing additional municipal facilities and services (e.g., water treatment and distribution, wastewater treatment and collection, gas and electric distribution, police and fire protection, etc.)

  6. Self-reported sexual assault in convicted sex offenders and community men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael A; Bolen, Rebecca M

    2013-05-01

    Although self-reported sexual assault perpetrated by men against women has been well documented among college men, less is known about self-reported perpetration among convicted sex offenders and community men. This study provides unique descriptive and comparative information on sexual assaults in these understudied populations. Participants were 40 convicted sex offenders and 49 demographically comparable community men who completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Abbey, Parkhill, & Koss, 2005; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) and other surveys to capture the promiscuous sex and hostile masculinity pathways posited by the confluence model (Malamuth, 2003). We found notably few differences between sex offenders and community men in the rate and severity of sexual assault perpetration and the tactics used to obtain unwanted sexual contact. Specifically, 68% of sex offenders and 59% of community men acknowledged they had perpetrated sexual assault. Both groups used guilt and anger as the most frequent tactics to obtain unwanted sexual activity from their female victims. Consistent with the confluence model, an impersonal orientation toward sexual relationships was associated with sexual assault for both sex offenders and community men. Future directions for research on sexual assault perpetration and violence prevention efforts are discussed in light of these findings.

  7. Food preferences of winter bird communities in different forest types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swen C Renner

    Full Text Available Food availability for forest birds is a function of habitat type, forest management regime, and season. In winter, it is also impacted by variations in the weather. In the current study we assessed the food preferences of wild bird populations in two types of forest (spruce and beech during the months of November 2010 to April 2011 in the Schwäbische Alb Biodiversity Exploratory, south-western Germany. Our aim was to investigate whether local bird communities preferred fat-rich, carbohydrate-rich or wild fruits and to determine how forest structure, seasonality and local weather conditions affected food preferences. We found higher bird activity in beech forests for the eleven resident species. We observed a clear preference for fat-rich food for all birds in both forest types. Snow cover affected activity at food stations but did not affect food preferences. Periods of extreme low temperatures increased activity.

  8. Ethics support in community care makes a difference for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magelssen, Morten; Gjerberg, Elisabeth; Lillemoen, Lillian; Førde, Reidun; Pedersen, Reidar

    2018-03-01

    Through the Norwegian ethics project, ethics activities have been implemented in the health and care sector in more than 200 municipalities. To study outcomes of the ethics activities and examine which factors promote and inhibit significance and sustainability of the activities. Two online questionnaires about the municipal ethics activities. Participants and research context: A total of 137 municipal contact persons for the ethics project answered the first survey (55% response rate), whereas 217 ethics facilitators responded to the second survey (33% response rate). Ethical considerations: Based on informed consent, the study was approved by the Data Protection Official of the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Around half of the respondents found the ethics project to have been highly significant for daily professional practice. Outcomes include better handling of ethical challenges, better employee cooperation, better service quality, and better relations to patients and next of kin. Factors associated with sustainability and/or significance of the activities were sufficient support from stakeholders, sufficient available time, and ethics facilitators having sufficient knowledge and skills in ethics and access to supervision. This study shows that ethics initiatives can be both sustainable and significant for practice. There is a need to create regional or national structures for follow-up and develop more comprehensive ethics training for ethics facilitators. It is both possible and potentially important to implement clinical ethics support activities in community health and care services systematically on a large scale. Future ethics initiatives in the community sector should be designed in light of documented promoting and inhibiting factors.

  9. Emergency Department Utilization and Self-Reported Symptoms in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Patricia; Kennedy, Richard; Williams, Courtney; Brown, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The rise in emergency department (ED) utilization among older adults is a nursing concern, because emergency nurses are uniquely positioned to positively impact the care of older adults. Symptoms have been associated with ED utilization, however, it remains unclear if symptoms are the primary reason for ED utilization. Purpose Describe the self-reported symptoms of community-dwelling older adults prior to accessing the emergency department. Examine the differences in self-reported symptoms among those who utilized the emergency department, and those who did not. Procedures A prospective longitudinal design was used. The sample included 403 community-dwelling older adults 75 years and older. Baseline in-home interviews were conducted followed by monthly telephone interviews over 15 months. Main Findings Commonly reported symptoms at baseline included pain, feeling tired, and having shortness of breath. In univariate analysis, pain, shortness of breath, fair/poor well-being, and feeling tired were significantly correlated with ED utilization. In multivariable models, problems with balance, and fair/poor well-being were significantly associated with ED utilization. Conclusions Several symptoms were common among this cohort of older adults. However, there were no significant differences in the types of symptoms reported by older adults who utilized the emergency department compared to those who did not use the emergency department. Based on these findings, symptoms among community-dwelling older adults may not be the primary reason for ED utilization. PMID:28131350

  10. Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Different Regions of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Agkistrodon piscivorus, the Cottonmouth Snake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Colston

    Full Text Available Vertebrates are metagenomic organisms in that they are composed not only of their own genes but also those of their associated microbial cells. The majority of these associated microorganisms are found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and presumably assist in processes such as energy and nutrient acquisition. Few studies have investigated the associated gut bacterial communities of non-mammalian vertebrates, and most rely on captive animals and/or fecal samples only. Here we investigate the gut bacterial community composition of a squamate reptile, the cottonmouth snake, Agkistrodon piscivorus through pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We characterize the bacterial communities present in the small intestine, large intestine and cloaca. Many bacterial lineages present have been reported by other vertebrate gut community studies, but we also recovered unexpected bacteria that may be unique to squamate gut communities. Bacterial communities were not phylogenetically clustered according to GIT region, but there were statistically significant differences in community composition between regions. Additionally we demonstrate the utility of using cloacal swabs as a method for sampling snake gut bacterial communities.

  11. Diverse Asian American Families and Communities: Culture, Structure, and Education (Part 1: Why They Differ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on 11 diverse Asian American (AA) communities, this article discusses the similarities and differences across East, South, and Southeast Asians. Of two parts in this journal issue, Part 1 presents a review of literature and census data to understand the cultural and structural factors of different types of coethnic communities (strong, weak,…

  12. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars: NRC Community Panel Decadal Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.

    2002-12-01

    A report was completed recently by a Community Panel for the NRC Decadal Study of Solar System Exploration. The desire was for a review of the current state of knowledge and for recommendations for action over the next decade. The topic of this panel, Terrestrial Analogs to Mars, was chosen to bring attention to the need for an increase in analog studies in support of the increased pace of Mars exploration. It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all of these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the overarching science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel considered the issues of data collection and archiving, value of field workshops, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities. Parts of this work were performed under contract to NASA.

  13. Self reported skin morbidity and ethnicity: a population-based study in a Western community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Bernadette

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown ethnic differences concerning cardio-vascular disease, diabetes and mental health. Little is known about ethnic differences in skin morbidity. The purpose of this study was to describe possible ethnic differences in self-reported skin morbidity in a Western urban community. Methods The design was cross sectional. 40 888 adults in Oslo, Norway, received a postal questionnaire providing information on socio-demographic factors and self-reported health, including items on skin complaints. Results 18770 individuals answered the questionnaire. In the sample 84% were from Norway. The largest immigrant group was from Western countries (5% and the Indian Subcontinent (3%. Itch was the most prevalent reported skin symptom (7%, and was significantly more reported by men from East Asia (18% and Middle East/North Africa (13%. The same observations were seen for reported dry and sore skin. Hair loss was a dominating complaint for men from the Indian Subcontinent and the Middle East/North Africa (23% and 25% and for women from the same ethnic groups. Women from Sub-Saharan Africa reported significantly more pimples than in the other groups (17%. Conclusion The study showed that there were significant differences in self-reported skin complaints among ethnic groups. Issues concerning the cultural value of some skin symptoms should be examined further.

  14. Detection of stable community structures within gut microbiota co-occurrence networks from different human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew A; Bonder, Marc Jan; Kuncheva, Zhana; Zierer, Jonas; Fu, Jingyuan; Kurilshikov, Alexander; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Tim D; Steves, Claire J

    2018-01-01

    Microbes in the gut microbiome form sub-communities based on shared niche specialisations and specific interactions between individual taxa. The inter-microbial relationships that define these communities can be inferred from the co-occurrence of taxa across multiple samples. Here, we present an approach to identify comparable communities within different gut microbiota co-occurrence networks, and demonstrate its use by comparing the gut microbiota community structures of three geographically diverse populations. We combine gut microbiota profiles from 2,764 British, 1,023 Dutch, and 639 Israeli individuals, derive co-occurrence networks between their operational taxonomic units, and detect comparable communities within them. Comparing populations we find that community structure is significantly more similar between datasets than expected by chance. Mapping communities across the datasets, we also show that communities can have similar associations to host phenotypes in different populations. This study shows that the community structure within the gut microbiota is stable across populations, and describes a novel approach that facilitates comparative community-centric microbiome analyses.

  15. Diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi from different agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in two regions of Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J; González, María C

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and

  16. Explaining turnover intention in Korean public community hospitals: occupational differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jee-In; Chang, Hyejung

    2008-01-01

    Personnel in public hospitals had relatively low job satisfaction despite of tenure employment. High turnover rates degrade hospital image and incur additional costs related to recruitment and training. The purposes of this study were to describe the occupational differences and to identify factors affecting turnover intention among public hospital personnel. A questionnaire survey was conducted as part of Administrative Services Quality Evaluation Program by Seoul metropolitan municipality from 1 November to 1 December in 2003. The subjects were 1251 entire hospital personnel in four hospitals. The questionnaire was designed to measure job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors influencing turnover intention. There were significant differences in job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention according to the occupations. The turnover intention rates were highest among physicians, followed by paramedicals and nursing staffs and then administrators. The significant factors affecting turnover intention were involvement and loyalty among physicians, hospital type, satisfaction with systems and loyalty among nursing staffs, satisfaction with relationship and loyalty among administrators, and loyalty among paramedicals. There were different moderators that influence turnover intentions of hospital personnel. Loyalty had the most important effect upon turnover intention in all occupations. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  17. Quantitative microbial community analysis of three different sulfidic mine tailing dumps generating acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Dagmar; Schippers, Axel

    2008-08-01

    The microbial communities of three different sulfidic and acidic mine waste tailing dumps located in Botswana, Germany, and Sweden were quantitatively analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH (CARD-FISH), Sybr green II direct counting, and the most probable number (MPN) cultivation technique. Depth profiles of cell numbers showed that the compositions of the microbial communities are greatly different at the three sites and also strongly varied between zones of oxidized and unoxidized tailings. Maximum cell numbers of up to 10(9) cells g(-1) dry weight were determined in the pyrite or pyrrhotite oxidation zones, whereas cell numbers in unoxidized tailings were significantly lower. Bacteria dominated over Archaea and Eukarya at all tailing sites. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and/or sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus spp. dominated over the acidophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing Leptospirillum spp. among the Bacteria at two sites. The two genera were equally abundant at the third site. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and sulfur-oxidizing Sulfobacillus spp. were generally less abundant. The acidophilic Fe(III)-reducing Acidiphilium spp. could be found at only one site. The neutrophilic Fe(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae as well as the dsrA gene of sulfate reducers were quantifiable at all three sites. FISH analysis provided reliable data only for tailing zones with high microbial activity, whereas CARD-FISH, Q-PCR, Sybr green II staining, and MPN were suitable methods for a quantitative microbial community analysis of tailings in general.

  18. AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN BIOGEOCOENOSIS WITH DIFFERENT STAGES OF ANTHROPOGENIC CLYMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenkovskaya А. А.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the abundance of juvenile (fingerlings and yearlings and sexually mature (3-6 years of various anurans at various biotopes with different degrees of anthropogenic influence. Population analysis has revealed that the number of juveniles in all the habitats are depended on type and level of anthropogenic influence. In all the habitats the most numerous species was synanthropic bufo viridis. In biotopes with high contamination of pollutants, only one species of amphibians - the marsh frog has populations with juveniles migrating here in the early fall. The highest number of mature individuals registered for the population of Bombina bombina, pelobates fuscus and in one biotope for hyla arborea. The populations of pelophylax ridibundus could be considered as the most balanced by number of juvenile and mature individuals.

  19. Rural-Urban Differences in Preventable Hospitalizations among Community-Dwelling Veterans with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Joshua M.; Van Houtven, Courtney H.; Sleath, Betsy L.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Alzheimer's patients living in rural communities may face significant barriers to effective outpatient medical care. Purpose: We sought to examine rural-urban differences in risk for ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations (ACSH), an indicator of access to outpatient care, in community-dwelling veterans with dementia. Methods: Medicare…

  20. Benthic Algae Communities in the Rivers of Different Water Quality in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Vitonytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation into benthic algae communities was carried out in the Lithuanian rivers of different water quality during the period 2004–2006. The structure of benthic algae communities in the rivers of different water quality slightly differs. The community of Cladophora glomerata–Vaucheria sessilis–Fontinalis antipyretica mainly dominated in the rivers. Algae communities reiterate in unpolluted rivers (II class, according to biogenes such as Akmena, Babrungas, Bražuolė and Siesartis where Cladophora glomerata–Fontinalis antipyretica, Amblystegium riparium–Cladophora glomerata, and Fontinalis antipyretica–Cladophora glomerata communities predominate. In slightly and moderately polluted rivers, algae communities are unreiteratable. Differences in river water quality could be better determined by frequently appearing algae species in algae communities: in unpolluted rivers – Hildenbrandia rivularis, Audouinella chalybea and A. Hermanii, in slightly polluted – Vaucheria sessilis and Fontinalis antipyretica, and in moderately polluted – Stigeoclonium nanum, S. tenue, Aulacoseira islandica and Melosira varians.The variety of the structure of benthic algae communities could be determined by abiotic environmental factors such as the heterogenity of substratum, stream velocity and depth, the intensity of light and biogenes concentration.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Active microbial soil communities in different agricultural managements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, S.; Pastorelli, R.

    2009-04-01

    We studied the composition of active eubacterial microflora by RNA extraction from soil (bulk and rhizosphere) under different environmental impact managements, in a hilly basin in Gallura (Sardinia). We contrasted grassy vineyard, in which the soil had been in continuous contact with plant roots for a long period of time, with traditional tilled vineyard. Moreover, we examined permanent grassland, in which plants had been present for some years, with temporary grassland, in which varying plants had been present only during the respective growing seasons. Molecular analysis of total population was carried out by electrophoretic separation by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified cDNA fragments obtained from 16S rRNA. In vineyards UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Mathematical Average) analysis made up separate clusters depending on soil management. In spring both clusters showed similarity over 70%, while in autumn the similarity increased, 84% and 90% for grassy and conventional tilled vineyard respectively. Permanent and temporary grassland joined in a single cluster in spring, while in autumn a partial separation was evidenced. The grassy vineyard, permanent and temporary grassland showed higher richness and diversity Shannon-Weiner index values than vineyard with conventional tillage although no significant. In conclusion the expected effect of the rhizosphere was visible: the grass cover influenced positively the diversity of active microbial population.

  2. Phylogenetic and Functional Structure of Wintering Waterbird Communities Associated with Ecological Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xianli; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Yanyan; Zhang, Qiang; Quan, Qing; Møller, Anders; Zou, Fasheng

    2018-01-19

    Ecological differences may be related to community component divisions between Oriental (west) and Sino-Japanese (east) realms, and such differences may result in weak geographical breaks in migratory species that are highly mobile. Here, we conducted comparative phylogenetic and functional structure analyses of wintering waterbird communities in southern China across two realms and subsequently examined possible climate drivers of the observed patterns. An analysis based on such highly migratory species is particularly telling because migration is bound to reduce or completely eliminate any divergence between communities. Phylogenetic and functional structure of eastern communities showed over-dispersion while western communities were clustered. Basal phylogenetic and functional turnover of western communities was significant lower than that of eastern communities. The break between eastern and western communities was masked by these two realms. Geographic patterns were related to mean temperature changes and temperature fluctuations, suggesting that temperature may filter waterbird lineages and traits, thus underlying geographical community divisions. These results suggest phylogenetic and functional divisions in southern China, coinciding with biogeography. This study shows that temperature fluctuations constitute an essential mechanism shaping geographical divisions that have largely gone undetected previously, even under climate change.

  3. Different substrates and starter inocula govern microbial community structures in biogas reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Preseela; Steinigeweg, Sven; Cypionka, Heribert; Engelen, Bert

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different starter inocula on the microbial communities in biogas batch reactors fed with fresh maize and maize silage as substrates was investigated. Molecular biological analysis by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that each inoculum bore specific microbial communities with varying predominant phylotypes. Both, bacterial and archaeal DGGE profiles displayed three distinct communities that developed depending on the type of inoculum. Although maize and silage are similar substrates, different communities dominated the lactate-rich silage compared to lactate-free fresh maize. Cluster analysis of DGGE gels showed the communities of the same substrates to be stable with their respective inoculum. Bacteria-specific DGGE analysis revealed a rich diversity with Firmicutes being predominant. The other abundant phylotypes were Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes. Archaea-specific DGGE analysis displayed less diverse community structures, identifying members of the Methanosarcinales as the dominant methanogens present in all the three biogas digesters. In general, the source of inoculum played a significant role in shaping microbial communities. Adaptability of the inoculum to the substrates fed also influenced community compositions which further impacted the rates of biogas production.

  4. Building research infrastructure in community health centers: a Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likumahuwa, Sonja; Song, Hui; Singal, Robbie; Weir, Rosy Chang; Crane, Heidi; Muench, John; Sim, Shao-Chee; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN), a practice-based research network of community health centers (CHCs). Established by the Health Resources and Services Administration in 2010, CHARN is a network of 4 community research nodes, each with multiple affiliated CHCs and an academic center. The four nodes (18 individual CHCs and 4 academic partners in 9 states) are supported by a data coordinating center. Here we provide case studies detailing how CHARN is building research infrastructure and capacity in CHCs, with a particular focus on how community practice-academic partnerships were facilitated by the CHARN structure. The examples provided by the CHARN nodes include many of the building blocks of research capacity: communication capacity and "matchmaking" between providers and researchers; technology transfer; research methods tailored to community practice settings; and community institutional review board infrastructure to enable community oversight. We draw lessons learned from these case studies that we hope will serve as examples for other networks, with special relevance for community-based networks seeking to build research infrastructure in primary care settings.

  5. 76 FR 64022 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Lifting of Administrative Stay for Hydrogen Sulfide. SUMMARY: EPA is announcing... (EPCRA) section 313 toxic chemical release reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical...

  6. Cases of Lyme disease reported in a military community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, P K; Armour, V M

    1993-02-01

    Lyme disease, a growing public health problem in the United States, is also an increasing threat in Europe. Cases identified in a military community in West Germany are presented and problems of diagnosis and treatment discussed.

  7. Sustainable and Healthy Communities 2015 Research Accomplishments (Annual Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program scientists—together with input from their partners from EPA program and regional offices, state environmental management agencies, community decision-makers, and the scientific community—are embracing a truly cross-disciplinary research portfolio.

  8. Report on strategic special nuclear material inventory differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Information concerning accounting for significant quantities of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM) in ERDA facilities is reported. Inventory difference data are provided for fiscal year 1976 for ERDA and ERDA contractor facilities that possessed significant quantities of SSNM

  9. Different Land Use Intensities in Grassland Ecosystems Drive Ecology of Microbial Communities Involved in Nitrogen Turnover in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Keil, Daniel; Welzl, Gerhard; Sch?ning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions,...

  10. Fiscal Year 2006 Salary Report for the Illinois Public Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Community College Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Data about compensation received by employees in Illinois' 48 Illinois public community colleges are gathered by the Illinois Community College Board (ICCB). Data in the Fiscal Year 2006 Salary Report reflect the census date of October 1, 2005. Data are presented by peer groups with statewide totals. Most of the 25 tables in this report contain…

  11. Microbial communities from different subsystems in biological heap leaching system play different roles in iron and sulfur metabolisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Xueduan; Ma, Liyuan; Liang, Yili; Niu, Jiaojiao; Gu, Yabing; Zhang, Xian; Hao, Xiaodong; Dong, Weiling; She, Siyuan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-08-01

    The microbial communities are important for minerals decomposition in biological heap leaching system. However, the differentiation and relationship of composition and function of microbial communities between leaching heap (LH) and leaching solution (LS) are still unclear. In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to assess the microbial communities from the two subsystems in ZiJinShan copper mine (Fujian province, China). Results of PCoA and dissimilarity test showed that microbial communities in LH samples were significantly different from those in LS samples. The dominant genera of LH was Acidithiobacillus (57.2 ∼ 87.9 %), while Leptospirillum (48.6 ∼ 73.7 %) was predominant in LS. Environmental parameters (especially pH) were the major factors to influence the composition and structure of microbial community by analysis of Mantel tests. Results of functional test showed that microbial communities in LH utilized sodium thiosulfate more quickly and utilized ferrous sulfate more slowly than those in LS, which further indicated that the most sulfur-oxidizing processes of bioleaching took place in LH and the most iron-oxidizing processes were in LS. Further study found that microbial communities in LH had stronger pyrite leaching ability, and iron extraction efficiency was significantly positively correlated with Acidithiobacillus (dominated in LH), which suggested that higher abundance ratio of sulfur-oxidizing microbes might in favor of minerals decomposition. Finally, a conceptual model was designed through the above results to better exhibit the sulfur and iron metabolism in bioleaching systems.

  12. Frequency, stability and differentiation of self-reported school fear and truancy in a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzke Christa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surprisingly little is known about the frequency, stability, and correlates of school fear and truancy based on self-reported data of adolescents. Methods Self-reported school fear and truancy were studied in a total of N = 834 subjects of the community-based Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS at two times with an average age of thirteen and sixteen years. Group definitions were based on two behavioural items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR. Comparisons included a control group without indicators of school fear or truancy. The three groups were compared across questionnaires measuring emotional and behavioural problems, life-events, self-related cognitions, perceived parental behaviour, and perceived school environment. Results The frequency of self-reported school fear decreased over time (6.9 vs. 3.6% whereas there was an increase in truancy (5.0 vs. 18.4%. Subjects with school fear displayed a pattern of associated internalizing problems and truants were characterized by associated delinquent behaviour. Among other associated psychosocial features, the distress coming from the perceived school environment in students with school fear is most noteworthy. Conclusion These findings from a community study show that school fear and truancy are frequent and display different developmental trajectories. Furthermore, previous results are corroborated which are based on smaller and selected clinical samples indicating that the two groups display distinct types of school-related behaviour.

  13. Bacterial community composition and structure in an Urban River impacted by different pollutant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, A Mark; Ma, Jincai; Murinda, Shelton E

    2016-10-01

    Microbial communities in terrestrial fresh water are diverse and dynamic in composition due to different environmental factors. The goal of this study was to undertake a comprehensive analysis of bacterial composition along different rivers and creeks and correlate these to land-use practices and pollutant sources. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to determine the total bacterial community composition, and bacterial communities that are potentially of fecal origin, and of relevance to water quality assessment. The results were analyzed using UniFrac coupled with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) to compare diversity, abundance, and community composition. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to correlate bacterial composition in streams and creeks to different environmental parameters impacting bacterial communities in the sediment and surface water within the watershed. Bacteria were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, with Bacteroidetes significantly (PPCoA and DCA showed that bacterial composition in sediment and surface water was significantly different (Pmicrobial community compositions were influenced by several environmental factors, and pH, NO2, and NH4 were the major environmental factors driving FIB in surface water based on CCA analysis, while NO3 was the only factor in sediment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Comparisons of the fungal and protistan communities among different marine sponge holobionts by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic communities associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic communities. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic community structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the communities of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in marine sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in marine habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan communities according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan communities associated with different marine sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity.

  15. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and community structure associated with cork oak in different landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Francisca; Valdiviesso, Teresa; Varela, Carolina; Tavares, Rui M; Baptista, Paula; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2018-05-01

    Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) forests play an important ecological and economic role. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are key components for the sustainability and functioning of these ecosystems. The community structure and composition of ECMF associated with Q. suber in different landscapes of distinct Mediterranean bioclimate regions have not previously been compared. In this work, soil samples from cork oak forests residing in different bioclimates (arid, semi-arid, sub-humid, and humid) were collected and surveyed for ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tips. A global analysis performed on 3565 ECM root tips revealed that the ECMF community is highly enriched in Russula, Tomentella, and Cenoccocum, which correspond to the ECMF genera that mainly contribute to community differences. The ECMF communities from the rainiest and the driest cork oak forests were distinct, with soils from the rainiest climates being more heterogeneous than those from the driest climates. The analyses of several abiotic factors on the ECMF communities revealed that bioclimate, precipitation, soil texture, and forest management strongly influenced ECMF structure. Shifts in ECMF with different hyphal exploration types were also detected among forests, with precipitation, forest system, and soil texture being the main drivers controlling their composition. Understanding the effects of environmental factors on the structuring of ECM communities could be the first step for promoting the sustainability of this threatened ecosystem.

  16. Prevalence and Pattern of Consanguineous Marriages Among Different Communities in Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consanguineous marriages are a common practice in the Middle East, Asian and African populations. Many studies have stated an association between first cousin marriages and the incidence of autosomal recessive diseases and congenital malformations. High frequency of consanguinity is reported by researchers among South India. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and type of consanguineous marriages among the different communities of Mangalore. Methods: This study was conducted on 1164 married women in Mangalore to investigate the prevalence and type of consanguineous marriages. All the women were interviewed personally using a structured questionnaire. Family pedigree was constructed to study the type of consanguineous marriages. Data analysis was done by SPSS Win 13.0. Results: A low percentage of consanguinity (6.53% was observed with a mean inbreeding coefficient of 0.0339. Frequency of consanguinity between religions was highly significant. Of these the most frequent were first cousin marriages (43.42%. Within Hindu religion the highest rate of consanguinity was among the Billavas (47.62% of which the most frequent were distant relative marriages (75% followed by second cousin marriages (57.14%. There was no significant difference in the frequency distribution of the types of consanguinity between the religions and also between the different groups among Hindus. Conclusion: The frequency of consanguinity was found to be low in Mangalore. The findings contradict with the earlier reports of high prevalence of consanguineous marriages in South India. Increased female education, increased socio-economic status and decrease in parental decisions in marriages may be the reasons.

  17. COORDINATING HOSPITAL AND COMMUNITY WORK ADJUSTMENT SERVICES. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOERTZEL, VICTOR; AND OTHERS

    THE GOALS OF THIS STUDY WERE TO USE WORK TO HELP PATIENTS LEAVE THE CAMARILLO STATE HOSPITAL SOONER, BECOME A PART OF THE COMMUNITY, AND BECOME SELF-SUPPORTING. THE PROJECT SELECTED 146 SCHIZOPHRENIC MALES WHO HAD A HISTORY OF POOR WORK ADJUSTMENT. AS PART OF THE TREATMENT, THE MEN WERE PLACED IN THE HOSPITAL BAKERY. AFTER ADJUSTMENT TO THE WORK…

  18. Community College Pathways: 2012-2013 Descriptive Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campen, James; Sowers, Nicole; Strother, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Community College Pathways (CCP) program had an outstanding second year. In 2012-2013, the program reproduced the positive outcomes realized in the first year of implementation, including successful course completion rates of over 50 percent for both Pathways. Simultaneously, the administration of the Pathways has continued to develop and…

  19. Community College Pathways: 2013-2014 Descriptive Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Nicole; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Community College Pathways initiative consists of two pathways, Statway® and Quantway®, that accelerate post-secondary students' progress through their developmental mathematics sequence and a college-level course for credit. Launched in 2011, the Pathways have been remarkably successful, helping thousands of students achieve success in…

  20. Community Solar Program Final Report for Austin Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-02-10

    Austin Energy seeks to expand its portfolio of renewable programs with an innovative community solar program. The program provides an opportunity for Austin Energy's customers, who are unable or uninterested in installing solar on their own premises, to purchase solar power.

  1. Implementation Study of Smaller Learning Communities. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Lawrence; Millsap, Mary Ann; Schimmenti, Jennifer; Page, Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    The Smaller Learning Communities (SLC) program was established in response to growing national concerns about students too often lost and alienated in large, impersonal high schools, as well as concerns about school safety and low levels of achievement and graduation for many students. Authorized under the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act,"…

  2. Alpena Community College Workplace Partnership Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpena Community Coll., MI.

    This document consists of materials produced during the Workplace Partnership Project (WPP), a National Workplace Literacy Program-funded workplace literacy partnership between Alpena Community College (ACC) in Alpena, Michigan, and area businesses. Presented first is a personal reflection in which the project director shares some of the lessons…

  3. Community Eligibility Provision Evaluation. Nutrition Assistance Program Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Christopher W.; Connor, Patty; Harvill, Eleanor L.; Harkness, Joseph; Nisar, Hiren; Checkoway, Amy; Peck, Laura R.; Shivji, Azim; Bein, Edwin; Levin, Marjorie; Enver, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    Section 104(a) of the Healthy, Hunger Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010 made the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP) available to Local Educational Agencies (LEAs) and schools in high poverty areas. Under the CEP, families are not required to submit applications for free or reducedprice (FRP) meals, and schools must provide free lunch and breakfast…

  4. Implementing an Indigenous Community Education Program: A Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialek, Hilton; Nabokov, Peter

    Four rural communities in northern Maine were the setting for a pilot program in Indian adult education that featured a new kind of instructional model. Developed by the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO), it featured peer instruction, strict performance orientation, and insistance on mastery of certain skills. A HumRRO representative…

  5. Implementing an Indigenous Community Education Program: An Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, Peter

    Institutional success of an instructional model that featured peer instruction, a strict performance orientation, and an insistence on mastery of specific skills led developers to believe the same model could be used by communities to disseminate skills and information at low cost and with efficiency. The system was utilized in setting up an…

  6. Fungal Communities Associated with the Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane Buried under Compost at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Urooj; Houlden, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Plastics play an essential role in the modern world due to their low cost and durability. However, accumulation of plastic waste in the environment causes wide-scale pollution with long-lasting effects, making plastic waste management expensive and problematic. Polyurethanes (PUs) are heteropolymers that made up ca. 7% of the total plastic production in Europe in 2011. Polyester PUs in particular have been extensively reported as susceptible to microbial biodegradation in the environment, particularly by fungi. In this study, we investigated the impact of composting on PUs, as composting is a microbially rich process that is increasingly being used for the processing of green waste and food waste as an economically viable alternative to landfill disposal. PU coupons were incubated for 12 weeks in fresh compost at 25°C, 45°C, and 50°C to emulate the thermophilic and maturation stages of the composting process. Incubation at all temperatures caused significant physical deterioration of the polyester PU coupons and was associated with extensive fungal colonization. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and pyrosequencing of the fungal communities on the PU surface and in the surrounding compost revealed that the population on the surface of PU was different from the surrounding compost community, suggesting enrichment and selection. The most dominant fungi identified from the surfaces of PU coupons by pyrosequencing was Fusarium solani at 25°C, while at both 45°C and 50°C, Candida ethanolica was the dominant species. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the composting process has the potential to biodegrade PU waste if optimized further in the future. PMID:24056469

  7. Fungal communities associated with the biodegradation of polyester polyurethane buried under compost at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Urooj; Houlden, Ashley; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2013-12-01

    Plastics play an essential role in the modern world due to their low cost and durability. However, accumulation of plastic waste in the environment causes wide-scale pollution with long-lasting effects, making plastic waste management expensive and problematic. Polyurethanes (PUs) are heteropolymers that made up ca. 7% of the total plastic production in Europe in 2011. Polyester PUs in particular have been extensively reported as susceptible to microbial biodegradation in the environment, particularly by fungi. In this study, we investigated the impact of composting on PUs, as composting is a microbially rich process that is increasingly being used for the processing of green waste and food waste as an economically viable alternative to landfill disposal. PU coupons were incubated for 12 weeks in fresh compost at 25°C, 45°C, and 50°C to emulate the thermophilic and maturation stages of the composting process. Incubation at all temperatures caused significant physical deterioration of the polyester PU coupons and was associated with extensive fungal colonization. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and pyrosequencing of the fungal communities on the PU surface and in the surrounding compost revealed that the population on the surface of PU was different from the surrounding compost community, suggesting enrichment and selection. The most dominant fungi identified from the surfaces of PU coupons by pyrosequencing was Fusarium solani at 25°C, while at both 45°C and 50°C, Candida ethanolica was the dominant species. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the composting process has the potential to biodegrade PU waste if optimized further in the future.

  8. Ecosystem engineers on plants: indirect facilitation of arthropod communities by leaf-rollers at different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Camila; Romero, Gustavo Q

    2013-07-01

    Ecosystem engineering is a process by which organisms change the distribution of resources and create new habitats for other species via non-trophic interactions. Leaf-rolling caterpillars can act as ecosystem engineers because they provide shelter to secondary users. In this study, we report the influence of leaf-rolling caterpillars on speciose tropical arthropod communities along both spatial scales (leaf-level and plant-level effects) and temporal scales (dry and rainy seasons). We predict that rolled leaves can amplify arthropod diversity at both the leaf and plant levels and that this effect is stronger in dry seasons, when arthropods are prone to desiccation. Our results show that the abundance, richness, and biomass of arthropods within several guilds increased up to 22-fold in naturally and artificially created leaf shelters relative to unaltered leaves. These effects were observed at similar magnitudes at both the leaf and plant scales. Variation in the shelter architecture (funnel, cylinders) did not influence arthropod parameters, as diversity, abundance, orbiomass, but rolled leaves had distinct species composition if compared with unaltered leaves. As expected, these arthropod parameters on the plants with rolled leaves were on average approximately twofold higher in the dry season. Empty leaf rolls and whole plants were rapidly recolonized by arthropods over time, implying a fast replacement of individuals; within 15-day intervals the rolls and plants reached a species saturation. This study is the first to examine the extended effects of engineering caterpillars as diversity amplifiers at different temporal and spatial scales. Because shelter-building caterpillars are ubiquitous organisms in tropical and temperate forests, they can be considered key structuring elements for arthropod communities on plants.

  9. Shared Epizoic Taxa and Differences in Diatom Community Structure Between Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Distant Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Roksana; de Vijver, Bart Van; Nasrolahi, Ali; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Afkhami, Majid; Bolaños, Federico; Iamunno, Franco; Santoro, Mario; De Stefano, Mario

    2017-11-01

    The first reports of diatoms growing on marine mammals date back to the early 1900s. However, only recently has direct evidence been provided for similar associations between diatoms and sea turtles. We present a comparison of diatom communities inhabiting carapaces of green turtles Chelonia mydas sampled at two remote sites located within the Indian (Iran) and Atlantic (Costa Rica) Ocean basins. Diatom observations and counts were carried out using scanning electron microscopy. Techniques involving critical point drying enabled observations of diatoms and other microepibionts still attached to sea turtle carapace and revealed specific aspects of the epizoic community structure. Species-poor, well-developed diatom communities were found on all examined sea turtles. Significant differences between the two host sea turtle populations were observed in terms of diatom abundance and their community structure (including growth form structure). A total of 12 and 22 diatom taxa were found from sea turtles in Iran and Costa Rica, respectively, and eight of these species belonging to Amphora, Chelonicola, Cocconeis, Navicula, Nitzschia and Poulinea genera were observed in samples from both locations. Potential mechanisms of diatom dispersal and the influence of the external environment, sea turtle behaviour, its life stage, and foraging and breeding habitats, as well as epibiotic bacterial flora on epizoic communities, are discussed.

  10. Determinants of medication incident reporting, recovery, and learning in community pharmacies: a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A; Mahaffey, Thomas; Mackinnon, Neil J; Deal, Heidi; Hallstrom, Lars K; Morgan, Holly

    2011-03-01

    Evidence suggests that the underreporting of medication errors and near misses, collectively referred to as medication incidents (MIs), in the community pharmacy setting, is high. Despite the obvious negative implications, MIs present opportunities for pharmacy staff and regulatory authorities to learn from these mistakes and take steps to reduce the likelihood that they reoccur. However, these activities can only take place if such errors are reported and openly discussed. This research proposes a model of factors influencing the reporting, service recovery, and organizational learning resulting from MIs within Canadian community pharmacies. The conceptual model is based on a synthesis of the literature and findings from a pilot study conducted among pharmacy management, pharmacists, and pharmacy technicians from 13 community pharmacies in Nova Scotia, Canada. The purpose of the pilot study was to identify various actions that should be taken to improve MI reporting and included staff perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of their current MI-reporting process, desired characteristics of a new process, and broader external and internal activities that would likely improve reporting. Out of the 109 surveys sent, 72 usable surveys were returned (66.1% response rate). Multivariate analysis of variance found no significant differences among staff type in their perceptions of the current or new desired system but were found for broader initiatives to improve MI reporting. These findings were used for a proposed structural equation model (SEM). The SEM proposes that individual-perceived self-efficacy, MI process capability, MI process support, organizational culture, management support, and regulatory authority all influence the completeness of MI reporting, which, in turn, influences MI service recovery and learning. This model may eventually be used to enable pharmacy managers to make better decisions. By identifying risk factors that contribute to low MI

  11. National Differences in Reporting of Work Accidents at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse; Knudsen, Fabienne

    National Differences in Reporting of Work Accidents at Sea Grøn, S and Knudsen, F Centre for Maritime Health and Safety, University of Southern Denmark Filipinos working on Danish ships experience less work accidents than their Danish colleagues if we are to believe the various statistics available...... notification practices, and whether there are special conditions applicable to seafarers of other nationality than Danish. It will also explore the multicultural element of safety culture in selected Danish ships. There are different ways and channels for notification of an accident at sea, which means....... There are indications suggesting that this is due to differences in reporting and safety culture alike. In a new project, Safety Culture and Reporting Practice on Danish ships in the Danish International Ship Register (SADIS), we will therefore seek answers to what factors act as incentives or barriers for proper...

  12. Seasonally dynamic fungal communities in the Quercus macrocarpa phyllosphere differ between urban and nonurban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpponen, A; Jones, K L

    2010-04-01

    *The fungal richness, diversity and community composition in the Quercus macrocarpa phyllosphere were compared across a growing season in trees located in six stands within and outside a small urban center using 454-sequencing and DNA tagging. The approaches did not differentiate between endophytic and epiphytic fungal communities. *Fungi accumulated in the phyllosphere rapidly and communities were temporally dynamic, with more than a third of the analyzed operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and half of the BLAST-inferred genera showing distinct seasonal patterns. The seasonal patterns could be explained by fungal life cycles or environmental tolerances. *The communities were hyperdiverse and differed between the urban and nonurban stands, albeit not consistently across the growing season. Foliar macronutrients (nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and sulfur (S)), micronutrients (boron (B), manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se)) and trace elements (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) were enriched in the urban trees, probably as a result of anthropogenic activities. Because of correlations with the experimental layout, these chemical elements should not be considered as community drivers without further empirical studies. *We suggest that a combination of mechanisms leads to differences between urban and nonurban communities. Among those are stand isolation and size, nutrient and pollutant accumulation plus stand management, including fertilization and litter removal.

  13. Invasive lionfish harbor a different external bacterial community than native Bahamian fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J. L.; Olson, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    The introduction and subsequent spread of lionfish into the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea has become a worldwide conservation issue. These highly successful invaders may also be capable of introducing non-native microorganisms to the invaded regions. This study compared the bacterial communities associated with lionfish external tissue to those of native Bahamian fishes and ambient water. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses demonstrated that lionfish bacterial communities were significantly different than those associated with three native Bahamian fishes. Additionally, all fishes harbored distinct bacterial communities from the ambient bacterioplankton. Analysis of bacterial clone libraries from invasive lionfish and native squirrelfish indicated that lionfish communities were more diverse than those associated with squirrelfish, yet did not contain known fish pathogens. Using microscopy and molecular genetic approaches, lionfish eggs were examined for the presence of bacteria to evaluate the capacity for vertical transmission. Eggs removed from the ovaries of gravid females were free of bacteria, suggesting that lionfish likely acquire bacteria from the environment. This study was the first examination of bacterial communities associated with the invasive lionfish and indicated that they support different communities of environmentally derived bacteria than Caribbean reef fishes.

  14. Protist community in soil: Effects of different land-use types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Susana; Schöler, Anne; Winding, Anne

    Soil protist microorganisms represent an important part of the soil microbial community being major players in providing ecosystem services. Changes in their community structure and dynamics may influence the rate and kind of soil formation and fertility. Corroborative studies indicate that protist...... microorganisms exhibit high levels of molecular and functional diversity in soils. However, studies questioning the protist diversity in soil and their variability across different soil land-use types, have received far less attention. The purpose of our study was to obtain relative abundances of flagellate......, cilliates and amoeboid soil protists, and to relate the expected changes in community composition to space and land-use. Within the EU FP7 project EcoFINDERS, soils were collected from six long-term observatories (LTO’s) scattered around Europe, covering different climatic zones and different vegetation...

  15. Benefits of peer support in online Japanese breast cancer communities: differences between lurkers and posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoyama, Yoko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Namayama, Kazuhiro

    2011-12-29

    Web 2.0 has improved interactions among peers on the Internet, especially for the many online patient communities that have emerged over the past decades. Online communities are said to be particularly beneficial peer support resources for patients with breast cancer. However, most studies of online patient communities have focused on those members who post actively (posters), even though there are many members who participate without posting (lurkers). In addition, little attention has been paid to the usage of online communities among non-English-speaking patients. The present study explored the differences in peer support received by lurkers and posters in online breast cancer communities. It also examined the effects of such support on both groups' mental health. We conducted an exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional, Web-based survey among members of four Japanese online breast cancer communities. In an online questionnaire, we asked questions regarding sociodemographics, disease-related characteristics, mental health, participation in online communities, and peer support received from those communities. Of the 465 people who accessed the questionnaire, 253 completed it. Of the respondents, 113/220 (51.4%) were lurkers. There was no significant difference between lurkers and posters with regard to sociodemographic variables. About half of the posters had been given a diagnosis of breast cancer less than a year previously, which was a significantly shorter period than that of the lurkers (P = .02). The 5 support functions extracted by factor analysis were the same for both posters and lurkers. These were emotional support/helper therapy, emotional expression, conflict, advice, and insight/universality. When the support scores were calculated, insight/universality scored highest for both posters and lurkers, with scores that were not significantly different between the two groups. Among the 5 support scores, emotional support/helper therapy and emotional

  16. Bacterial Communities in Malagasy Soils with Differing Levels of Disturbance Affecting Botanical Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, Leah C.; Schmidt, Alex W.; Andriamiarinoro, Honoré; Mulaw, Temesgen; Rasolomampianina, Rado; Applequist, Wendy L.; Birkinshaw, Chris; Rejo-Fienena, Félicitée; Lowry, Porter P.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Hill, Russell T.

    2014-01-01

    Madagascar is well-known for the exceptional biodiversity of its macro-flora and fauna, but the biodiversity of Malagasy microbial communities remains relatively unexplored. Understanding patterns of bacterial diversity in soil and their correlations with above-ground botanical diversity could influence conservation planning as well as sampling strategies to maximize access to bacterially derived natural products. We present the first detailed description of Malagasy soil bacterial communities from a targeted 16S rRNA gene survey of greater than 290,000 sequences generated using 454 pyrosequencing. Two sampling plots in each of three forest conservation areas were established to represent different levels of disturbance resulting from human impact through agriculture and selective exploitation of trees, as well as from natural impacts of cyclones. In parallel, we performed an in-depth characterization of the total vascular plant morphospecies richness within each plot. The plots representing different levels of disturbance within each forest did not differ significantly in bacterial diversity or richness. Changes in bacterial community composition were largest between forests rather than between different levels of impact within a forest. The largest difference in bacterial community composition with disturbance was observed at the Vohibe forest conservation area, and this difference was correlated with changes in both vascular plant richness and soil pH. These results provide the first survey of Malagasy soil bacterial diversity and establish a baseline of botanical diversity within important conservation areas. PMID:24465484

  17. Potential Reporting Bias in Neuroimaging Studies of Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Sean P; Naudet, Florian; Laude, Jennifer; Radua, Joaquim; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Chu, Isabella; Stefanick, Marcia L; Ioannidis, John P A

    2018-04-17

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported sex differences. To empirically evaluate for evidence of excessive significance bias in this literature, we searched for published fMRI studies of human brain to evaluate sex differences, regardless of the topic investigated, in Medline and Scopus over 10 years. We analyzed the prevalence of conclusions in favor of sex differences and the correlation between study sample sizes and number of significant foci identified. In the absence of bias, larger studies (better powered) should identify a larger number of significant foci. Across 179 papers, median sample size was n = 32 (interquartile range 23-47.5). A median of 5 foci related to sex differences were reported (interquartile range, 2-9.5). Few articles (n = 2) had titles focused on no differences or on similarities (n = 3) between sexes. Overall, 158 papers (88%) reached "positive" conclusions in their abstract and presented some foci related to sex differences. There was no statistically significant relationship between sample size and the number of foci (-0.048% increase for every 10 participants, p = 0.63). The extremely high prevalence of "positive" results and the lack of the expected relationship between sample size and the number of discovered foci reflect probable reporting bias and excess significance bias in this literature.

  18. Differences in microbial community structure and nitrogen cycling in natural and drained tropical peatland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenberg, Mikk; Truu, Marika; Mander, Ülo; Kasak, Kuno; Nõlvak, Hiie; Ligi, Teele; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Maddison, Martin; Truu, Jaak

    2018-03-16

    Tropical peatlands, which play a crucial role in the maintenance of different ecosystem services, are increasingly drained for agriculture, forestry, peat extraction and human settlement purposes. The present study investigated the differences between natural and drained sites of a tropical peatland in the community structure of soil bacteria and archaea and their potential to perform nitrogen transformation processes. The results indicate significant dissimilarities in the structure of soil bacterial and archaeal communities as well as nirK, nirS, nosZ, nifH and archaeal amoA gene-possessing microbial communities. The reduced denitrification and N 2 -fixing potential was detected in the drained tropical peatland soil. In undisturbed peatland soil, the N 2 O emission was primarily related to nirS-type denitrifiers and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, while the conversion of N 2 O to N 2 was controlled by microbes possessing nosZ clade I genes. The denitrifying microbial community of the drained site differed significantly from the natural site community. The main reducers of N 2 O were microbes harbouring nosZ clade II genes in the drained site. Additionally, the importance of DNRA process as one of the controlling mechanisms of N 2 O fluxes in the natural peatlands of the tropics revealed from the results of the study.

  19. Does reporting timeliness affect book-tax differences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, a number of countries align tax accounts and parent-only accounts, while allowing companies to characterize consolidated profits to capital markets in a different way. Using parent-only (consolidated) accounts as a proxy for tax (book) accounts, this paper analyzes the role of reporting

  20. Review of a Proposal for a New Community College Center in Vallejo. Report 10-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stacy; Fuller, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a staff review of a proposal by the Solano Community College District to convert its existing facility in Vallejo to a state-approved off-campus educational center of Solano Community College. Educational centers can be a cost-effective means for meeting educational needs of a region through agreements with local high schools,…

  1. The Center for Community Development Annual Report, FY 1984-85. Volume II, Addendum 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom

    A variety of information is included in this 1984-85 annual report of Humboldt State University's Center for Community Development (California), which has been instrumental in establishing a wide range of community services and has worked extensively to preserve the language and culture of four northwestern California tribes--Hupa, Karuk, Tolowa,…

  2. Annual report on strategic special nuclear material inventory differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report of unclassified Inventory Difference (ID's) covers the twelve months from April 1, 1989 through March 31, 1990 for all key Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor operated facilities possessing strategic special nuclear material. Classified information is not included in this report. This classified information includes data for the Rocky Flats and Y-12 nuclear weapons production facilities or facilities under ID investigation. However, classified ID data from such facilities receive the same scrutiny and analyses was the included data. The data in this report have been prepared and reviewed by DOE contractors, field offices, and Headquarters. When necessary, special investigations have been performed in addition to these reviews: This ID data, explanations, reviews, and any additional special investigations, together with the absence of physical indications of any theft attempt, support a finding that no theft or diversion of significant quantities of strategic special nuclear material has occurred in DOE facilities during the twelve-month period covered by this report

  3. Aquatic macrophyte community varies in urban reservoirs with different degrees of eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Cristina Alves da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Investigate spatial and temporal variation in the aquatic macrophyte community in four urban reservoirs located in Curitiba metropolitan region, Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that aquatic macrophyte community differ among reservoirs with different degrees of eutrophication. METHODS: The reservoirs selected ranged from oligotrophic/mesotrophic to eutrophic. Sampling occurred in October 2011, January 2012 and June 2012. Twelve aquatic macrophytes stands were sampled at each reservoir. Species were identified and the relative abundance of aquatic macrophytes was estimated. Differences among reservoirs and over sampling periods were analyzed: i through two‑way ANOVAs considering the stand extent (m and the stand biodiversity - species richness, evenness, Shannon-Wiener index and beta diversity (species variation along the aquatic macrophyte stand; and ii through PERMANOVA considering species composition. Indicator species that were characteristic for each reservoir were also identified. RESULTS: The aquatic macrophyte stand extent varied among reservoirs and over sampling periods. Species richness showed only temporal variation. On the other hand, evenness and Shannon-Wiener index varied only among reservoirs. The beta diversity of macrophyte stands did not vary among reservoirs or over time, meaning that species variability among aquatic macrophyte stands was independent of the stand extent and reservoir eutrophication. Community composition depended on the reservoir and sampling period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our initial expectation that reservoirs of different degrees of eutrophication have different aquatic macrophyte communities. As a consequence, each reservoir had particular indicator species. Therefore, monitoring and management efforts must be offered for each reservoir individually.

  4. Participatory testing and reporting in an environmental-justice community of Worcester, Massachusetts: a pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvache Maria-Camila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite indoor home environments being where people spend most time, involving residents in testing those environments has been very limited, especially in marginalized communities. We piloted participatory testing and reporting that combined relatively simple tests with actionable reporting to empower residents in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts. We answered: 1 How do we design and implement the approach for neighborhood and household environments using participatory methods? 2 What do pilot tests reveal? 3 How does our experience inform testing practice? Methods The approach was designed and implemented with community partners using community-based participatory research. Residents and researchers tested fourteen homes for: lead in dust indoors, soil outdoors, paint indoors and drinking water; radon in basement air; PM2.5 in indoor air; mold spores in indoor/outdoor air; and drinking water quality. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates by residents and researchers used real-time data to stimulate dialogue. Results Given the newness of our partnership and unforeseen conflicts, we achieved moderate-high success overall based on process and outcome criteria: methods, test results, reporting, lessons learned. The conflict burden we experienced may be attributable less to generic university-community differences in interests/culture, and more to territoriality and interpersonal issues. Lead-in-paint touch-swab results were poor proxies for lead-in-dust. Of eight units tested in summer, three had very high lead-in-dust (>1000 μg/ft2, six exceeded at least one USEPA standard for lead-in-dust and/or soil. Tap water tests showed no significant exposures. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates raised awareness of environmental health risks, especially asthma. Conclusions Timely reporting back home-toxics' results to residents is ethical but it must be empowering. Future work should fund the active

  5. Task force report: the macroenvironment and community mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, J; Vaux, A

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. President's Commission on Mental Health (1978) has called for a broader conception of mental health and the factors that influence it. The "macro"-social environment is emerging as one area of concern. The influence of two macroenvironmental domains, the physical and economic, on several areas of human functioning is documented in this article. Topics in the physical domain include noise and crowding; and in the economic domain, socio-economic status, unemployment, and economic change. The implications of this research for community mental health practice is described.

  6. The effect of different growth regimes on the endophytic bacterial communities of the fern, Dicksonia sellowiana hook (Dicksoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene de Araújo Barros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria associated with the fern Dicksonia sellowiana were investigated. The bacterial communities from the surface-sterilized pinnae and rachis segments of the plants from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest that grew in native field conditions were compared with the bacterial communities from plants grown in greenhouses and plants that were initially grown in greenhouses and then transferred to the forest. From 540 pinnae and 540 rachis segments, 163 (30.2% and 346 (64.2% were colonized by bacteria, respectively. The main bacterial genera and species that were isolated included Bacillus spp. (B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus and B. subtilis, Paenibacillus sp., Amphibacillus sp., Gracilibacillus sp., Micrococcus sp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. (S. maltophilia and S. nitroreducens. B. pumilus was the most frequently isolated bacterial species. Amphibacillus and Gracilibacillus were reported as endophytes for the first time. Other commonly found bacterial genera were not observed in D. sellowiana, which may reflect preferences of specific bacterial communities inside this fern or detection limitations due to the isolation procedures. Plants that were grown in greenhouses and plants that were reintroduced into the forest displayed more bacterial genera and species diversity than native field plants, suggesting that reintroduction shifts the bacterial diversity. Endophytic bacteria that displayed antagonistic properties against different microorganisms were detected, but no obvious correlation was found between their frequencies with plant tissues or with plants from different growth regimes. This paper reports the first isolation of endophytic bacteria from a fern.

  7. The effect of different growth regimes on the endophytic bacterial communities of the fern, Dicksonia sellowiana hook (Dicksoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Barros, Irene; Luiz Araújo, Welington; Lúcio Azevedo, João

    2010-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria associated with the fern Dicksonia sellowiana were investigated. The bacterial communities from the surface-sterilized pinnae and rachis segments of the plants from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest that grew in native field conditions were compared with the bacterial communities from plants grown in greenhouses and plants that were initially grown in greenhouses and then transferred to the forest. From 540 pinnae and 540 rachis segments, 163 (30.2%) and 346 (64.2%) were colonized by bacteria, respectively. The main bacterial genera and species that were isolated included Bacillus spp. ( B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus and B. subtilis ) , Paenibacillus sp. , Amphibacillus sp. , Gracilibacillus sp. , Micrococcus sp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. ( S. maltophilia and S. nitroreducens ). B. pumilus was the most frequently isolated bacterial species . Amphibacillus and Gracilibacillus were reported as endophytes for the first time. Other commonly found bacterial genera were not observed in D. sellowiana , which may reflect preferences of specific bacterial communities inside this fern or detection limitations due to the isolation procedures. Plants that were grown in greenhouses and plants that were reintroduced into the forest displayed more bacterial genera and species diversity than native field plants, suggesting that reintroduction shifts the bacterial diversity. Endophytic bacteria that displayed antagonistic properties against different microorganisms were detected, but no obvious correlation was found between their frequencies with plant tissues or with plants from different growth regimes. This paper reports the first isolation of endophytic bacteria from a fern.

  8. Biofilm bacterial communities in urban drinking water distribution systems transporting waters with different purification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiting; Zhang, Jingxu; Mi, Zilong; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-02-01

    Biofilm formation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) has many adverse consequences. Knowledge of microbial community structure of DWDS biofilm can aid in the design of an effective control strategy. However, biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS and the impact of drinking water purification strategy remain unclear. The present study investigated the composition and diversity of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDSs transporting waters with different purification strategies (conventional treatment and integrated treatment). High-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis illustrated a large shift in the diversity and structure of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Cyanobacteria were the major components of biofilm bacterial community. Proteobacteria (mainly Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria) predominated in each DWDS biofilm, but the compositions of the dominant proteobacterial classes and genera and their proportions varied among biofilm samples. Drinking water purification strategy could shape DWDS biofilm bacterial community. Moreover, Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that Actinobacteria was positively correlated with the levels of total alkalinity and dissolved organic carbon in tap water, while Firmicutes had a significant positive correlation with nitrite nitrogen.

  9. Differences in the indicators of depressive symptoms among a community sample of African-American and Caucasian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Terry L; Alea, Nicole L; Cheong, Josepha A

    2004-08-01

    Depression among older adults is a major public health concern in the U.S. Yet, time and again this condition goes undiagnosed, or attributed to other causes. Despite being treatable, few individuals older than age 65 are treated for this disorder. Using a community sample of 404 African-American and Caucasian older adults, the aim of this study was to identify the sources of racial group variance in self-reports of depressive symptoms. Descriptive and multivariate analyses reveal no racial/ethnic differences in the mean level of depressive symptoms, but differences in the correlates of self-reported depression, as well as differences in the distribution of individual indicators of depressive symptoms.

  10. Differences in microbiological profile between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and hospital-acquired infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Teresa; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Aragão, Irene; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Sarmento, António

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological profiles were analysed and compared for intra-abdominal, urinary, respiratory and bloodstream infections according to place of acquisition: community-acquired, with a separate analysis of healthcare-associated, and hospital-acquired. Prospective cohort study performed at a university tertiary care hospital over 1 year. Inclusion criteria were meeting the Centers for Disease Control definition of intra-abdominal, urinary, respiratory and bloodstream infections. A total of 1035 patients were included in the study. More than 25% of intra-abdominal infections were polymicrobial; multi-drug resistant gram-negatives were 38% in community-acquired, 50% in healthcare-associated and 57% in hospital-acquired. E. coli was the most prevalent among urinary infections: 69% in community-acquired, 56% in healthcare-associated and 26% in hospital-acquired; ESBL producers' pathogens were 10% in healthcare-associated and 3% in community-acquired and hospital-acquired. In respiratory infections Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most prevalent in community-acquired (54%) and MRSA in healthcare-associated (24%) and hospital-acquired (24%). A significant association was found between MRSA respiratory infection and hospitalization in the previous year (adjusted OR = 6.3), previous instrumentation (adjusted OR = 4.3) and previous antibiotic therapy (adjusted OR = 5.7); no cases were documented among patients without risk factors. Hospital mortality rate was 10% in community-acquired, 14% in healthcare-associated and 19% in hospital-acquired infection. This study shows that healthcare-associated has a different microbiologic profile than those from community or hospital acquired for the four main focus of infection. Knowledge of this fact is important because the existing guidelines for community-acquired are not entirely applicable for this group of patients.

  11. Differences in health care seeking behaviour between rural and urban communities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore possible differences in health care seeking behaviour among a rural and urban African population. Design A cross sectional design was followed using the infrastructure of the PURE-SA study. Four rural and urban Setswana communities which represented different strata of urbanisation in the North West Province, South Africa, were selected. Structured interviews were held with 206 participants. Data on general demographic and socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health and (access to) health care was collected. Results The results clearly illustrated differences in socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health, and health care utilisation. In general, inhabitants of urban communities rated their health significantly better than rural participants. Although most urban and rural participants consider their access to health care as sufficient, they still experienced difficulties in receiving the requested care. The difference in employment rate between urban and rural communities in this study indicated that participants of urban communities were more likely to be employed. Consequently, participants from rural communities had a significantly lower available weekly budget, not only for health care itself, but also for transport to the health care facility. Urban participants were more than 5 times more likely to prefer a medical doctor in private practice (OR:5.29, 95% CI 2.83-988). Conclusion Recommendations are formulated for infrastructure investments in rural communities, quality of health care and its perception, improvement of household socio-economical status and further research on the consequences of delay in health care seeking behaviour. PMID:22691443

  12. Child leukaemia around Sellafield: local community attitudes and the Black Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macgill, S.M.; Berhout, F.G.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relevance of the Black Report to the communities whose situation it was primarily addressing - the communities of the towns and villages around Sellafield in West Cumbria. The authors are concerned (1) with examining in what ways and to what extent the Black Report was received by these communities, (2) with examining the extent to which these communities were reassured by the report's message (and, prior to that, in need of reassurance); and, (3) with revealing and examining the terms in which local people themselves speak about the report and related issues. Through a comprehensive linguistic analysis of these aspects the authors are concerned, inter alia, to recast the research priorities and methodology of work on risk 'perception'. The analysis and evaluation below draws on an original local attitude survey and is set against a number of contextual points. (author)

  13. Child leukaemia around Sellafield: local community attitudes and the Black Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macgill, S M; Berhout, F G

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relevance of the Black Report to the communities whose situation it was primarily addressing - the communities of the towns and villages around Sellafield in West Cumbria. The authors are concerned (1) with examining in what ways and to what extent the Black Report was received by these communities, (2) with examining the extent to which these communities were reassured by the report's message (and, prior to that, in need of reassurance); and, (3) with revealing and examining the terms in which local people themselves speak about the report and related issues. Through a comprehensive linguistic analysis of these aspects the authors are concerned, inter alia, to recast the research priorities and methodology of work on risk 'perception'. The analysis and evaluation draws on an original local attitude survey and is set against a number of contextual points.

  14. Microbial community diversity of the eastern Atlantic Ocean reveals geographic differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, C. J.; Franklin, R. B.; McCallister, S. L.; Rivera, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Prokaryotic communities are recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical processes in the oceans. However, the genetic diversity and composition of those communities is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the eubacterial communities in three different water layers: surface (2-20 m), deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; 28-90 m), and deep (100-4600 m) at nine stations along the eastern Atlantic Ocean from 42.8° N to 23.7° S. In order to describe the dynamics of the eubacterial assemblages in relation to depth, associated environmental properties, and Longhurstian ecological provinces community DNA was extracted from 16 samples, from which the V6 region of 16s rDNA was PCR-amplified with eubacteria-specific primers, and the PCR amplicons were pyrosequenced. A total of 352 029 sequences were generated; after quality filtering and processing, 257 260 sequences were clustered into 2871 normalized Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) using a definition of 97% sequence identity. Comparisons of the phylogenetic affiliation of those 2871 OTUs show more than 54% of them were assigned to the Proteobacteria, with the Alphaproteobacteria representing 4% of the total Proteobacteria OTUs, and the Gammaproteobacteria representing 22%. Within the Alphaproteobacteria-affiliated OTUs, 44% of the OTUs were associated with the ubiquitous SAR11 clade. The phylum Cyanobacteria represent 10% of the reads, with the majority of those reads among the GpIIa family including Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Among the Gammaproteobacteria, a single OTU affiliated to Alteromonas comprises ~3% of the abundance. The phyla Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes represent approximately 7%, 0.8%, 2%, and 0.05% of the read abundance, respectively. Community ecology statistical analyses and a novel implementation of Bayesian inference suggests that eastern Atlantic Ocean eubacterial assemblages are vertically stratified and associated with water layers

  15. Fungal communities in ancient peatlands developed from different periods in the Sanjiang Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenqing; Zhou, Xue; Tian, Lei; Ma, Lina; Luo, Shasha; Zhang, Jianfeng; Li, Xiujun; Tian, Chunjie

    2017-01-01

    Peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain could be more vulnerable to global warming because they are located at the southernmost boundary of northern peatlands. Unlike bacteria, fungi are often overlooked, even though they play important roles in substance circulation in the peatland ecosystems. Accordingly, it is imperative that we deepen our understanding of fungal community structure and diversity in the peatlands. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing was used to study the fungal communities in three fens in the Sanjiang Plain, located at the southern edge of northern peatlands. Peat soil was collected from the three fens which developed during different periods. A total of 463,198 fungal ITS sequences were obtained, and these sequences were classified into at least six phyla, 21 classes, more than 60 orders and over 200 genera. The fungal community structures were distinct in the three sites and were dominated by Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. However, there were no significant differences between these three fens in any α-diversity index (p > 0.05). Soil age and the carbon (C) accumulation rate, as well as total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio, and bulk density were found to be closely related to the abundance of several dominant fungal taxa. We captured a rich fungal community and confirmed that the dominant taxa were those which were frequently detected in other northern peatlands. Soil age and the C accumulation rate were found to play important roles in shaping the fungal community structure.

  16. Structure of the Bacterial Community in Different Stages of Early Childhood Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Marcos; Armas, Rafael Dutra de; Triches, Thaisa Cezária; Cardoso, Mariane; Vieira, Ricardo de Souza

    2018-01-15

    To characterise in vivo the structure of bacterial communities in decayed and sound primary teeth. Samples of biofilms were collected from three groups of patients with complete and exclusively primary dentition (n = 45): G1: sound teeth (n = 15); G2: enamel lesion (n = 15); G3: dentin lesion (n = 15). DNA was extracted (CTAB 2%) from the biofilm, the partial 16S rRNA gene was amplified with Bacteria Universal Primers (BA338fGC - UN518r) and subjected to DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). Multidimensional scaling and ANOSIM (analysis of similarity) were employed to determine the structure of the bacterial communities. The amplicon richness was determined by averaging amplicons, with the differences between treatments determined with ANOVA, while means were compared using Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Compared to sound teeth, a greater variety of bacterial communities was found in decayed teeth. Despite the differences between the bacterial communities of sound teeth and decayed teeth, the Venn diagram showed that the samples had 38 amplicons in common. Greater amplicon richness was observed in samples of decayed teeth (enamel: 20.5 ± 2.7; dentin: 20.1 ± 2.8) compared with the sound samples (12.0 ± 4.3) (p <0.05), indicating enhanced growth for specific groups of bacteria on decayed teeth. Although there is less bacterial diversity on sound than ECC-decayed teeth, the bacterial communities are very similar.

  17. Fungal communities in ancient peatlands developed from different periods in the Sanjiang Plain, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqing Zhang

    Full Text Available Peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain could be more vulnerable to global warming because they are located at the southernmost boundary of northern peatlands. Unlike bacteria, fungi are often overlooked, even though they play important roles in substance circulation in the peatland ecosystems. Accordingly, it is imperative that we deepen our understanding of fungal community structure and diversity in the peatlands. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing was used to study the fungal communities in three fens in the Sanjiang Plain, located at the southern edge of northern peatlands. Peat soil was collected from the three fens which developed during different periods. A total of 463,198 fungal ITS sequences were obtained, and these sequences were classified into at least six phyla, 21 classes, more than 60 orders and over 200 genera. The fungal community structures were distinct in the three sites and were dominated by Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. However, there were no significant differences between these three fens in any α-diversity index (p > 0.05. Soil age and the carbon (C accumulation rate, as well as total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, C/N ratio, and bulk density were found to be closely related to the abundance of several dominant fungal taxa. We captured a rich fungal community and confirmed that the dominant taxa were those which were frequently detected in other northern peatlands. Soil age and the C accumulation rate were found to play important roles in shaping the fungal community structure.

  18. Predictability of bee community composition after floral removals differs by floral trait group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Mead, Katherine R

    2017-11-01

    Plant-bee visitor communities are complex networks. While studies show that deleting nodes alters network topology, predicting these changes in the field remains difficult. Here, a simple trait-based approach is tested for predicting bee community composition following disturbance. I selected six fields with mixed cover of flower species with shallow (open) and deep (tube) nectar access, and removed all flowers or flower heads of species of each trait in different plots paired with controls, then observed bee foraging and composition. I compared the bee community in each manipulated plot with bees on the same flower species in control plots. The bee morphospecies composition in manipulations with only tube flowers remaining was the same as that in the control plots, while the bee morphospecies on only open flowers were dissimilar from those in control plots. However, the proportion of short- and long-tongued bees on focal flowers did not differ between control and manipulated plots for either manipulation. So, bees within some functional groups are more strongly linked to their floral trait partners than others. And, it may be more fruitful to describe expected bee community compositions in terms of relative proportions of relevant ecological traits than species, particularly in species-diverse communities. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Fungal communities in ancient peatlands developed from different periods in the Sanjiang Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei; Ma, Lina; Luo, Shasha; Zhang, Jianfeng; Li, Xiujun

    2017-01-01

    Peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain could be more vulnerable to global warming because they are located at the southernmost boundary of northern peatlands. Unlike bacteria, fungi are often overlooked, even though they play important roles in substance circulation in the peatland ecosystems. Accordingly, it is imperative that we deepen our understanding of fungal community structure and diversity in the peatlands. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing was used to study the fungal communities in three fens in the Sanjiang Plain, located at the southern edge of northern peatlands. Peat soil was collected from the three fens which developed during different periods. A total of 463,198 fungal ITS sequences were obtained, and these sequences were classified into at least six phyla, 21 classes, more than 60 orders and over 200 genera. The fungal community structures were distinct in the three sites and were dominated by Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. However, there were no significant differences between these three fens in any α-diversity index (p > 0.05). Soil age and the carbon (C) accumulation rate, as well as total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio, and bulk density were found to be closely related to the abundance of several dominant fungal taxa. We captured a rich fungal community and confirmed that the dominant taxa were those which were frequently detected in other northern peatlands. Soil age and the C accumulation rate were found to play important roles in shaping the fungal community structure. PMID:29236715

  20. Student Engagement at a Large Suburban Community College: Gender and Race Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontam, Varalakshmi; Gabriel, George

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that there are individual differences in academic achievement associated with gender and race. Research also suggests that student engagement is an important determinant of student outcomes/achievement. The present study explored student engagement at an extra-large community college. It specifically investigated possible…

  1. Differences in Texas Community College Certificate Completion Rates by Ethnicity/Race, Gender, and Institution Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the first study within this journal-ready dissertation was to determine the extent to which ethnicity/race-based differences were present in Texas community college completion rates specifically within workforce certificate programs. Regarding the second study, the purpose was to determine the extent to which gender…

  2. Different Oceanographic Regimes in the Vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula Reflected in Benthic Nematode Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freija Hauquier

    Full Text Available Marine free-living nematode communities were studied at similar depths (~500 m at two sides of the Antarctic Peninsula, characterised by different environmental and oceanographic conditions. At the Weddell Sea side, benthic communities are influenced by cold deep-water formation and seasonal sea-ice conditions, whereas the Drake Passage side experiences milder oceanic conditions and strong dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. This resulted in different surface primary productivity, which contrasted with observed benthic pigment patterns and varied according to the area studied: chlorophyll a concentrations (as a proxy for primary production were high in the Weddell Sea sediments, but low in the surface waters above; this pattern was reversed in the Drake Passage. Differences between areas were largely mirrored by the nematode communities: nematode densities peaked in Weddell stations and showed deeper vertical occurrence in the sediment, associated with deeper penetration of chlorophyll a and indicative of a strong bentho-pelagic coupling. Generic composition showed some similarities across both areas, though differences in the relative contribution of certain genera were noted, together with distinct community shifts with depth in the sediment at all locations.

  3. COMMUNITY SCALE STREAM TAXA SENSITIVITIES TO DIFFERENT COMPOSITIONS OF EXCESS TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model stream chronic dosing studies (42 d) were conducted with three total dissolved solids (TDS) recipes. The recipes differed in composition of major ions. Community scale emergence was compared with single-species responses conducted simultaneously using the whole effluent tox...

  4. Differences between Girls and Boys in Emerging Language Skills: Evidence from 10 Language Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Marten; Marschik, Peter B.; Tulviste, Tiia; Almgren, Margareta; Perez Pereira, Miguel; Wehberg, Sonja; Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Gayraud, Frederique; Kovacevic, Melita; Gallego, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored gender differences in emerging language skills in 13,783 European children from 10 non-English language communities. It was based on a synthesis of published data assessed with adapted versions of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) from age 0.08 to 2.06. The results showed that girls are…

  5. Differences in mycorrhizal communities between Epipactis palustris, E. helleborine and its presumed sister species E. neerlandica

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Lievens, Bart; Brys, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims In orchid species that have populations occurring in strongly contrasting habitats, mycorrhizal divergence and other habitat-specific adaptations may lead to the formation of reproductively isolated taxa and ultimately to species formation. However, little is known about the mycorrhizal communities associated with recently diverged sister taxa that occupy different habitats.

  6. Differences in cancer mortality rates in Ohio communities with respect to uraniferous geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzik, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Populations in areas of uraniferous geology may be at risk from radon emissions. Twenty-eight municipalities were examined as to their location with respect to uraniferous geology. Communities with possible radon risk had higher rates for all cancers and cancer of the respiratory system, but differences were not statistically significant. Some possible reasons for the results are discussed

  7. Semiannual report on strategic special nuclear material inventory differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This twentieth periodic semiannual report of unclassified Inventory Differences (ID's) covers the second six months of fiscal year 1986 (April 1, 1986, through September 30, 1986) for all key Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor operated facilities possessing strategic special nuclear materials. Data for the Rocky Flats and Y-12 nuclear weapons production facilities are not included in the report in order to protect classified nuclear weapons information; however, classified ID data from these facilities receive the same scrutiny and analyses as the unclassified data

  8. Ectomycorrhizal community structure of different genotypes of Scots pine under forest nursery conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leski, Tomasz; Aucina, Algis; Skridaila, Audrius; Pietras, Marcin; Riepsas, Edvardas; Rudawska, Maria

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we report the effect of Scots pine genotypes on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community and growth, survival, and foliar nutrient composition of 2-year-old seedlings grown in forest bare-root nursery conditions in Lithuania. The Scots pine seeds originated from five stands from Latvia (P1), Lithuania (P2 and P3), Belarus (P4), and Poland (P5). Based on molecular identification, seven ECM fungal taxa were identified: Suillus luteus and Suillus variegatus (within the Suilloid type), Wilcoxina mikolae, Tuber sp., Thelephora terrestris, Cenococcum geophilum, and Russuloid type. The fungal species richness varied between five and seven morphotypes, depending on seed origin. The average species richness and relative abundance of most ECM morphotypes differed significantly depending on pine origin. The most essential finding of our study is the shift in dominance from an ascomycetous fungus like W. mikolae in P2 and P4 seedlings to basidiomycetous Suilloid species like S. luteus and S. variegatus in P1 and P5 seedlings. Significant differences between Scots pine origin were also found in seedling height, root dry weight, survival, and concentration of C, K, Ca, and Mg in the needles. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient revealed that survival and nutritional status of pine seedlings were positively correlated with abundance of Suilloid mycorrhizas and negatively linked with W. mikolae abundance. However, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only survival and magnesium content in pine needles were significantly correlated with abundance of ECM fungi, and Suilloid mycorrhizas were a main significant predictor. Our results may have implications for understanding the physiological and genetic relationship between the host tree and fungi and should be considered in management decisions in forestry and ECM fungus inoculation programs.

  9. Differences in mycorrhizal communities between Epipactis palustris, E. helleborine and its presumed sister species E. neerlandica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Lievens, Bart; Brys, Rein

    2016-07-01

    In orchid species that have populations occurring in strongly contrasting habitats, mycorrhizal divergence and other habitat-specific adaptations may lead to the formation of reproductively isolated taxa and ultimately to species formation. However, little is known about the mycorrhizal communities associated with recently diverged sister taxa that occupy different habitats. In this study, 454 amplicon pyrosequencing was used to investigate mycorrhizal communities associating with Epipactis helleborine in its typical forest habitat and with its presumed sister species E. neerlandica that almost exclusively occurs in coastal dune habitats. Samples of the phylogenetically more distant E. palustris, which co-occurred with E. neerlandica, were also included to investigate the role of habitat-specific conditions on mycorrhizal communities. A total of 105 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of putative orchid mycorrhizal fungi were observed in the three studied species. The majority of these fungi were endophytic fungi of Helotiales and ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to Thelephoraceae, Sebacinaceae and Inocybaceae. In addition, a large number of other ectomycorrhizal taxa were detected, including Cortinarius, Cenococcum, Tuber, Geopora, Wilcoxina, Meliniomyces, Hebeloma, Tricholoma, Russula and Peziza Mycorrhizal communities differed significantly between the three species, but differences were most pronounced between the forest species (E. helleborine) and the two dune slack species (E. neerlandica and E. palustris). The results clearly showed that recently diverged orchid species that occupy different habitats were characterized by significantly different mycorrhizal communities and call for more detailed experiments that aim at elucidating the contribution of habitat-specific adaptations in general and mycorrhizal divergence in particular to the process of speciation in orchids. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  10. Ecological drift and local exposures drive enteric bacterial community differences within species of Galápagos iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W; Hong, Pei-Ying; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-04-01

    Diet strongly influences the intestinal microbial communities through species sorting. Alternatively, these communicates may differ because of chance variation in local microbial exposures or species losses among allopatric host populations (i.e. ecological drift). We investigated how these forces shape enteric communities of Galápagos marine and land iguanas. Geographically proximate populations shared more similar communities within a host ecotype, suggesting a role for ecological drift during host colonization of the islands. Additionally, evidence of taxa sharing between proximate heterospecific host populations suggests that contemporary local exposures also influence the gut community assembly. While selective forces such as host-bacterial interactions or dietary differences are dominant drivers of intestinal community differences among hosts, historical and contemporary processes of ecological drift may lead to differences in bacterial composition within a host species. Whether such differences in community structure translate into geographic variation in benefits derived from these intimate microbial communities remains to be explored. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Microbial Communities in Different Tissues of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Leaf-cutting Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Ramalho, Manuela O; Martins, Cintia; Martins, Vanderlei G; Bueno, Odair C

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts are common in all insects, and symbiosis has played an integral role in ant evolution. Atta sexdens rubropilosa leaf-cutting ants cultivate their symbiotic fungus using fresh leaves. They need to defend themselves and their brood against diseases, but they also need to defend their obligate fungus gardens, their primary food source, from infection, parasitism, and usurpation by competitors. This study aimed to characterize the microbial communities in whole workers and different tissues of A. sexdens rubropilosa queens using Ion Torrent NGS. Our results showed that the microbial community in the midgut differs in abundance and diversity from the communities in the postpharyngeal gland of the queen and in whole workers. The main microbial orders in whole workers were Lactobacillales, Clostridiales, Enterobacteriales, Actinomycetales, Burkholderiales, and Bacillales. In the tissues of the queens, the main orders were Burkholderiales, Clostridiales, Syntrophobacterales, Lactobacillales, Bacillales, and Actinomycetales (midgut) and Entomoplasmatales, unclassified γ-proteobacteria, and Actinomycetales (postpharyngeal glands). The high abundance of Entomoplasmatales in the postpharyngeal glands (77%) of the queens was an unprecedented finding. We discuss the role of microbial communities in different tissues and castes. Bacteria are likely to play a role in nutrition and immune defense as well as helping antimicrobial defense in this ant species.

  12. Environmental drivers of differences in microbial community structure in crude oil reservoirs across a methanogenic gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna L Shelton

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stimulating in situ microbial communities in oil reservoirs to produce natural gas is a potentially viable strategy for recovering additional fossil fuel resources following traditional recovery operations. Little is known about what geochemical parameters drive microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs. We investigated if microbial community structure was significantly impacted by the extent of crude oil biodegradation, extent of biogenic methane production, and formation water chemistry. Twenty-two oil production wells from north central Louisiana, USA, were sampled for analysis of microbial community structure and fluid geochemistry. Archaea were the dominant microbial community in the majority of the wells sampled. Methanogens, including hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic organisms, were numerically dominant in every well, accounting for, on average, over 98% of the total archaea present. The dominant Bacteria groups were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridiales, which have also been identified in other microbially-altered oil reservoirs. Comparing microbial community structure to fluid (gas, water, and oil geochemistry revealed that the relative extent of biodegradation, salinity, and spatial location were the major drivers of microbial diversity. Archaeal relative abundance was independent of the extent of methanogenesis, but closely correlated to the extent of crude oil biodegradation; therefore, microbial community structure is likely not a good sole predictor of methanogenic activity, but may predict the extent of crude oil biodegradation. However, when the shallow, highly biodegraded, low salinity wells were excluded from the statistical analysis, no environmental parameters could explain the differences in microbial community structure. This suggests that the microbial community structure of the 5 shallow up-dip wells was different than the 17 deeper, down-dip wells, and that

  13. Final Report. Forest County Potawatomi Community, Community-Scale Solar Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, Sara M. [Forest County Potawatomi Community, Crandon, WI (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The Forest County Potawatomi Community (“FCPC” or “Tribe”) is a federally recognized Indian tribe with a membership of over 1400. The Tribe has a reservation in Forest County, Wisconsin, and also holds tribal trust and fee lands in Milwaukee, Oconto, and Fond du Lac Counties, Wisconsin. The Tribe has developed the long-term goal of becoming energy independent using renewable resources. In order to meet this goal, the Tribe has taken a number of important steps including energy audits leading to efficiency measures, installation of solar PV, the construction of a biodigester and the purchase of Renewable Energy Certificates to offset its current energy use. To further its energy independence goals, FCPC submitted an application to the Department of Energy (“DOE”) and was awarded a Community-Scale Clean Energy Projects in Indian Country grant, under funding opportunity DE-FOA-0000852. The Tribe, in collaboration with Pewaukee, Wisconsin based SunVest Solar Inc. (SunVest), installed approximately 922.95 kW of solar PV systems at fifteen tribal facilities in Milwaukee and Forest Counties. The individual installations ranged from 9.0 kW to 447.64 kW and will displace between 16.9% to in some cases in excess of 90% of each building’s energy needs.

  14. Biogeographic patterns of microbial communities from different oil-contaminated fields in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yuting; Li, Guanghe [School of Environment, Tsinghua University (China); Zhou, Ji zhong [Institute for Environmental Genomics, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma (United States)], email: jzhou@ou.edu

    2011-07-01

    Some striking biological challenges of the 21st century include linking biodiversity to ecosystem functions, information scaling, and linking genomics to ecology. This paper discusses the biogeographic patterns of microbial communities from various oil-contaminated fields in China. Two kinds of high throughput approaches are used, open format and closed format. Key differences between them are outlined. The GeoChip, or functional gene array (FGA) approach is presented. This is a high throughput tool for linking community structure to functions. Its main advantages are its high resolution and detecting functions. This approach was applied to soils, bioreactors and ground waters, among others. Issues related to specificity, sensitivity and quantification are listed. An overview of the microarray analysis is given. This is applied to the BP oil spill. 100 samples were chosen from representative oil fields to study the biogeographic patterns of microbial communities in China. The complete study is presented with the results.

  15. Understanding Motivations and User Interests as Antecedents for Different Interaction Forms in Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lina; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    This study contributes to the understanding of online user communities as a potential source of innovation. That would require an interest from users in interacting in such communities. In order to establish interaction, users must provide as well as consume information. However, depending...... on the innovation task, one may be more important than the other. It is therefore important to understand, how companies can increase user willingness to engage in these different interaction forms. This study investigates the influence of various motivation factors and user interests on intention to provide...... or consume information in online food communities. A survey was conducted among 1009 respondents followed by analysis based on Structural Equation Modelling. Results revealed the effect of motivation factors to be stronger than basic consumer interests indicating that companies can influence the intended...

  16. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  17. The effects of different fertilizers on the ciliate communities of forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehle, E.; Funke, W.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of lime, mineral fertilizers and different composts on the ciliate communities (Protozoa: Ciliophora) of very acidified spruce forests were tested. In succession culture experiments species range, total numbers, abundance and dominance structure of the ciliate communities showed continued changes over a 90 day period. This method offers the opportunity not only to diagnose, but also to quantify effects of soil treatments. Investigations at the ARINUS-site Schluchsee (Black Forest) showed the following results: Liming led to a greater change in the ciliate communities than fertilization with magnesium-sulphate and ammonia-sulphate. Liming and treatment with compost, made from household garbage, and compost, made from chopped wood on the Beimerstetten site (Swabian Alb) led also to remarkably changes in the ciliate communities. The total ciliate numbers of the household garbage area were very low. In contrast, the ciliate community of the chopped wood compost areas were characterized by a great species number and high abundances of spirotrichuous ciliates, especially Halteria grandinella. (orig./UWA) [de

  18. Marine bioinvasions: Differences in tropical copepod communities between inside and outside a port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo de Oliveira; Campos, Carolina Coelho; Santos, Nívia Maria Oliveira; Barroso, Hortência de Sousa; Mota, Erika Maria Targino; Menezes, Maria Ozilea Bezerra de; Rossi, Sergio; Garcia, Tatiane Martins

    2018-04-01

    The difficulty of detecting non-indigenous species (NIS) in marine environments is an "invisible problem" in areas where plankton monitoring does not occur. In this study, we investigated the dominance of the NIS Temora turbinata and copepod community structure in two tropical marine habitats: inside an offshore port, which had turbid and calm waters, and outside the port, which was more hydrodynamic. Our study area was on the northeast coast of Brazil. We found 17 taxa of Copepoda, which were dominated by T. turbinata and the congener, T. stylifera. The high average density of the NIS (21.03 ind./m3) was in stark contrast with that of the native copepods (0.01-3.27 ind./m3). The NIS density was negatively correlated with the species richness and evenness of the native community, was significantly higher inside the port than outside, and was positively correlated with phytoplankton density. A multivariate analysis revealed that there was a significant difference in copepod community structure between inside and outside the port; outside the port, the community was more diverse, and the native T. stylifera was more abundant. We found that tropical copepod communities inside an offshore port have low diversity, and probably have little biotic resistance against NIS invasions. Our results, combined with those previously obtained, highlight the need to study the spatial distributions of NIS and native species in pelagic environments.

  19. The same but different: equally megadiverse but taxonomically variant spider communities along an elevational gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Crespo, Luís; Cardoso, Pedro; Szűts, Tamás; Fannes, Wouter; Pape, Thomas; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2018-04-01

    Spatial variation in biodiversity is one of the key pieces of information for the delimitation and prioritisation of protected areas. This information is especially important when the protected area includes different climatic and habitat conditions and communities, such as those along elevational gradients. Here we test whether the megadiverse communities of spiders along an elevational gradient change according to two diversity models - a monotonic decrease or a hump-shaped pattern in species richness. We also measure compositional variation along and within elevations, and test the role of the preference of microhabitat (vegetation strata) and the functional (guild) structure of species in the changes. We sampled multiple spider communities using standardised and optimised sampling in three forest types, each at a different elevation along a climatic gradient. The elevational transects were at increasing horizontal distances (between 0.1 and 175 km) in the Udzungwa Mountains, Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. The number of species was similar between plots and forest types, and therefore the pattern did not match either diversity model. However, species composition changed significantly with a gradual change along elevations. Although the number of species per microhabitat and guild also remained similar across elevations, the number of individuals varied, e.g. at higher elevations low canopy vegetation was inhabited by more spiders, and the spiders belonging to guilds that typically use this microhabitat were more abundant. Our findings reflex the complex effects of habitat-microhabitat interactions on spider communities at the individual, species and guild levels. If we aim to understand and conserve some of the most diverse communities in the world, researchers and managers may need to place more attention to small scale and microhabitat characteristics upon which communities depend.

  20. Sex Differences in Patient-Reported Poststroke Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brandi M; Magwood, Gayenell S; Burns, Suzanne Perea; Ellis, Charles

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that stroke has a differential impact in women compared to men. Women are more likely to survive strokes than men, yet they experience more severe strokes resulting in greater poststroke disability. However, few studies have characterized sex differences in functional ability after stroke. This study examined sex differences in long-term disability among stroke survivors. This was a retrospective analysis of the 2015 National Health Interview Survey. Respondents were asked to rate their ability to perform 11 functional tasks. Univariate comparisons were completed to evaluate sex differences in performance, and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the odds of reporting functional limitations. Five hundred fourteen men and 641 women stroke survivors completed the survey (mean age: 66.9 years). Approximately 75% of the sample reported having hypertension, 61% high cholesterol, 33% diabetes, 24% heart disease, 21% heart attack, and 16% chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the predictive models, men were less likely to report "very difficult/can't do at all" in walking ¼ mile (odds ratios [OR] = 0.68, 95% CI 0.51-0.90), climbing 10 steps (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.49-0.85), standing 2 hours (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50-0.87), stooping (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.39-0.68), reaching overhead (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.97), carrying 10 pounds (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.34-0.59), and pushing large objects (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.28-0.5) compared to women. The functional outcomes of men stroke survivors were significantly greater than women. The specific factors that contribute to sex differences in stroke-related outcomes are not entirely clear. Future research is needed to better understand these differences to ensure that equity of care is received.

  1. Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded neighbor pledge: contribute to quality of life in Northern New Mexico through economic development

  2. Community Earth System Model (CESM) Tutorial 2016 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamarque, Jean-Francois [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory (CGD), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-09

    For the 2016 tutorial, NCAR/CGD requested a total budget of $70,000 split equally between DOE and NSF. The funds were used to support student participation (travel, lodging, per diem, etc.). Lectures and practical session support was primarily provided by local participants at no additional cost (see list below). The seventh annual Community Earth System Model (CESM) tutorial (2016) for students and early career scientists was held 8 – 12 August 2016. As has been the case over the last few years, this event was extremely successful and there was greater demand than could be met. There was continued interest in support of the NSF’s EaSM Infrastructure awards, to train these awardees in the application of the CESM. Based on suggestions from previous tutorial participants, the 2016 tutorial experience again provided direct connection to Yellowstone for each individual participant (rather than pairs), and used the NCAR Mesa Library. The 2016 tutorial included lectures on simulating the climate system and practical sessions on running CESM, modifying components, and analyzing data. These were targeted to the graduate student level. In addition, specific talks (“Application” talks) were introduced this year to provide participants with some in-depth knowledge of some specific aspects of CESM.

  3. Crying in Middle Childhood: A Report on Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellesma, Francine C; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-10-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to confirm gender differences in crying in middle childhood and (2) to identify factors that may explain why girls cry more than boys in a Dutch sample (North Holland and Utrecht). We examined 186 children's (age: 9-13 years) self-reports on crying, catharsis, seeking support for feelings, and internalizing feelings. Girls reported a greater crying frequency and crying proneness, and more emotional and physical catharsis after crying. In addition, they more frequently sought support for feelings and more often experienced sadness and somatic complaints than boys. Seeking help for negative feelings and the experience of sadness and somatic complaints were positively associated with crying frequency and crying proneness. Emotional catharsis was positively linked to crying proneness. Support was found for the potential mediating role of sadness and somatic complaints with respect to the gender difference in crying frequency and for the potential mediating role of emotional catharsis and somatic complaints for crying proneness. This study demonstrates that gender differences in crying frequency already exist in middle childhood and the findings suggest a linkage between these gender differences in crying and psychosocial factors.

  4. Chief Joseph Dam, Columbia River, Washington, Community Impact Reports,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    rsa , construction period in late 1977. A subsequent report (sc-,he(’, j f or- 1981) will. document commun i t ad jus tmen t to rns-+mparrt cond it...763 = Pateros 764 =Soap Lake 765 =Tonasket 766 =Twisp 767 = Wilbur 768 = Inside 50 Miles 769 =Outside 90 MilIes But Wi ti 1,-0!zi q- ton State 998 = No

  5. Gender differences in the use of transportation services to community rehabilitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneda Mariko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention and reduction of disability among community-dwelling older adults have been an important health policy concern in Japan. Moreover, it has also become a gendered issue due to the recent rapid growth in older females than males with disability living in their own homes. The aim of this study is to examine whether there is a gender difference in the use of community rehabilitation programs in Japan, and if so, whether the lack of transportation services and accompanying caregivers are the reasons for the gender difference. Methods This study was based on surveys of the program administrators and the primary caregivers of the program participants from 55 randomly selected community rehabilitation programs (CRP in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Questions included sociodemographic characteristics of program participants, types of transportation services provided by the CRP, caregiver's relationship to participant, and the nature of family support. Bivariate statistical analysis was conducted. Results Although there were more females than males with disability residing in communities, our findings showed that females were less likely to use CRP than males (1.3% and 2.3%, respectively; X2 = 93.0, p Conclusion This study builds on previous research findings, which suggest gender inequality in access to CRP.

  6. Differences in microbial community composition between injection and production water samples of water flooding petroleum reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water flooding petroleum reservoirs. To investigate the similarities and differences in microbial communities in injected water and reservoir strata, high-throughput sequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA of the water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir and a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir were performed. The results indicate that a small number of microbial populations are shared between the water samples from the injection and production wells in the sandstone reservoir, whereas a large number of microbial populations are shared in the conglomerate reservoir. The bacterial and archaeal communities in the reservoir strata have high concentrations, which are similar to those in the injected water. However, microbial population abundance exhibited large differences between the water samples from the injection and production wells. The number of shared populations reflects the influence of microbial communities in injected water on those in reservoir strata to some extent, and show strong association with the unique variation of reservoir environments.

  7. Facilitating Low-Carbon Living? A Comparison of Intervention Measures in Different Community-Based Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Schäfer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of facilitating a shift towards sustainable housing, food and mobility has been taken up by diverse community-based initiatives ranging from “top-down” approaches in low-carbon municipalities to “bottom-up” approaches in intentional communities. This paper compares intervention measures in four case study areas belonging to these two types, focusing on their potential of re-configuring daily housing, food, and mobility practices. Taking up critics on dominant intervention framings of diffusing low-carbon technical innovations and changing individual behavior, we draw on social practice theory for the empirical analysis of four case studies. Framing interventions in relation to re-configuring daily practices, the paper reveals differences and weaknesses of current low-carbon measures of community-based initiatives in Germany and Austria. Low-carbon municipalities mainly focus on introducing technologies and offering additional infrastructure and information to promote low-carbon practices. They avoid interfering into residents’ daily lives and do not restrict carbon-intensive practices. In contrast, intentional communities base their interventions on the collective creation of shared visions, decisions, and rules and thus provide social and material structures, which foster everyday low-carbon practices and discourage carbon-intensive ones. The paper discusses the relevance of organizational and governance structures for implementing different types of low-carbon measures and points to opportunities for broadening current policy strategies.

  8. Cultural differences in ant-dipping tool length between neighbouring chimpanzee communities at Kalinzu, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Schöning, Caspar; Isaji, Mina; Hashimoto, Chie

    2015-07-22

    Cultural variation has been identified in a growing number of animal species ranging from primates to cetaceans. The principal method used to establish the presence of culture in wild populations is the method of exclusion. This method is problematic, since it cannot rule out the influence of genetics and ecology in geographically distant populations. A new approach to the study of culture compares neighbouring groups belonging to the same population. We applied this new approach by comparing ant-dipping tool length between two neighbouring communities of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda. Ant-dipping tool length varies across chimpanzee study sites in relation to army ant species (Dorylus spp.) and dipping location (nest vs. trail). We compared the availability of army ant species and dipping tool length between the two communities. M-group tools were significantly longer than S-group tools, despite identical army ant target species availabilities. Moreover, tool length in S-group was shorter than at all other sites where chimpanzees prey on epigaeic ants at nests. Considering the lack of ecological differences between the two communities, the tool length difference appears to be cultural. Our findings highlight how cultural knowledge can generate small-scale cultural diversification in neighbouring chimpanzee communities.

  9. Phospholipid fatty acid patterns of microbial communities in paddy soil under different fertilizer treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi-chun; WANG Guang-huo; YAO Huai-ying

    2007-01-01

    The microbial communities under irrigated rice cropping with different fertilizer treatments, including control (CK), PK, NK, NP, NPK fertilization, were investigated using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profile method. The results of this study revealed that the fertilizer practice had an impact on the community structure of specific microbial groups. The principal components analysis (PCA) showed that proportion of the actinomycete PLFAs (10Me 18:0 and 10Me 16:0) were the lowest in the PK treatment and the highest in the NPK treatment, which means that soil nitrogen status affected the diversity of actinomycetes, whereas nitrogen cycling was related to the actinomycets. Under CK treatment, the ratio of Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria was lower compared with that in fertilizer addition treatments, indicating that fertilizer application stimulated Gram-positive bacterial population in paddy soil. The fatty acid 18:2ω6, 9, which is considered to be predominantly of fungal origin, was at low level in all the treatments. The ratio of cy19:0 to 18:1ω7, which has been proposed as an indicator of stress conditions, decreased in PK treatment. Changes of soil microbial community under different fertilizer treatments of paddy soil were detected in this study; however, the causes that lead to changes in the microbial community still needs further study.

  10. Differences in planktonic microbial communities associated with three types of macrophyte stands in a shallow lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentes, Anikó; Szabó, Attila; Somogyi, Boglárka; Vajna, Balázs; Tugyi, Nóra; Csitári, Bianka; Vörös, Lajos; Felföldi, Tamás

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about how various substances from living and decomposing aquatic macrophytes affect the horizontal patterns of planktonic bacterial communities. Study sites were located within Lake Kolon, which is a freshwater marsh and can be characterised by open-water sites and small ponds with different macrovegetation (Phragmites australis, Nymphea alba and Utricularia vulgaris). Our aim was to reveal the impact of these macrophytes on the composition of the planktonic microbial communities using comparative analysis of environmental parameters, microscopy and pyrosequencing data. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were dominated by members of phyla Proteobacteria (36%-72%), Bacteroidetes (12%-33%) and Actinobacteria (5%-26%), but in the anoxic sample the ratio of Chlorobi (54%) was also remarkable. In the phytoplankton community, Cryptomonas sp., Dinobryon divergens, Euglena acus and chrysoflagellates had the highest proportion. Despite the similarities in most of the measured environmental parameters, the inner ponds had different bacterial and algal communities, suggesting that the presence and quality of macrophytes directly and indirectly controlled the composition of microbial plankton. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Community structure of soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantations at different slope locations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhong, Yu; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wan-qin

    2010-09-01

    To understand the effects of slope location on the community structure of soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantation, an investigation was made on the soil fauna in 3 E. grandis plantations at different slope locations in the hilly area of Sichuan Province from January to October 2009. A total of 39,2762 individuals were observed, belonging to 146 groups, 7 phyla, 16 classes, and 31 orders. The community composition, trophic group, diversity, and seasonal dynamics of soil fauna in the plantations all varied with slope. The abundance of macro-fauna, xeric meso- and micro-fauna, saprophagous macro-fauna, and omnivorous xeric meso- and micro-fauna increased with the decrease of slope, indicating that soil fauna had sensitive responses to the soil environmental factors affected by slope. Significant differences in the diversity of soil saprophagous macro-fauna and hygrophilous meso- and micro-fauna were observed at different slope locations, suggesting that these two faunal groups could be used as the indicators of the habitat heterogeneity of E. grandis plantations at different slope. Overall, slope location had definite effects on the community structure and distribution of soil fauna in the E. grandis plantations, but the effects were not statistically significant.

  12. The F. E. College and the Community. Coombe Lodge Report Volume 7 Number 6. Study Conference 74/14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

    Speakers at the Coombe Lodge study conference covered a wide range of subjects related to the continuing education college and the community. They include: adult education: the Russell Report, the community, and the college (D. J. Moore); the FE college and the community (A.N. Fairbairn); the Abraham Moss Centre (R. Mitson); the community college…

  13. Differences between food group reports of low energy reporters and non-low energy reporters on a food frequency questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Amy E.; Tooze, Janet A.; Subar, Amy F.; Kahle, Lisa L.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Krebs-Smith, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low-energy reporters (LERs) and non-LERs differ with respect to a number of characteristics, including self-reported intake of foods. Limited data exists investigating food intake differences with LERs identified using doubly labeled water (DLW). Objective In the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study (September, 1999-March, 2000), differences were examined between food group reports of LERs and non-LERs on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (n=440). Design LERs were identified using DLW. LERs' (n=220) and non-LERs' (n=220) reports of 43 food groups on the FFQ were examined in three ways: whether they reported consuming a food group (yes/no), how frequently they reported consuming it (times/day), and the reported portion size (small, medium, or large). Analyses were adjusted for total energy expenditure from DLW. Results LERs compared to non-LERs were less likely to report consumption for one food group among women (soft drinks/regular) and no food groups among men. Reported mean daily frequency of consumption was lower in LERs compared to non-LERs for 23 food groups among women and 24 food groups among men (18 food groups were similar in men and women). Additionally, reported mean portion sizes were smaller for LERs compared to non-LERs for 6 food groups among women and 5 food groups among men (3 food groups were similar in men and women). Results varied minimally by sex and body mass index (BMI). Conclusions LERs as compared to non-LERs were more likely to differ regarding their reported frequency of consumption of food groups than their reported consumption (yes/no) of the food groups or the food groups' reported portion sizes. Results did not vary greatly by sex or BMI. It still remains to be known whether improvement in questionnaire design or additional tools or methods would lead to a decrease in differential reporting due to LER status on an FFQ. PMID:19559136

  14. 76 FR 69136 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Lifting of Administrative Stay for Hydrogen Sulfide; Correction. SUMMARY: The... Administrative Stay of the reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide. The Office of the Federal Register...

  15. The Fort Logan Lodge: Intentional Community for Chronic Mental Patients. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort Logan Mental Health Center, Denver, CO.

    This report attempts to identify important variables affecting the success of the Lodge Program, affiliated with the Fort Logan Mental Health Center. The Lodge Program is a community based, group oriented, social and work program for the rehabilitation of the refractory, long stay mental patient. Findings reported include the following: (1) the…

  16. Validating the Factor Structure of the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Menictas, Con; Stevenson, Richard J.; Homewood, Judi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard self-report measure of psychopathy in community-dwelling samples that parallels the most commonly used measure of psychopathy in forensic and clinical samples, the Psychopathy Checklist. A promising instrument is the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP), which was derived from the original version the Psychopathy…

  17. 2010 Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System. Twenty First Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    First mandated by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1989 (S.L. 1989; C. 752; S. 80), the Critical Success Factors report has evolved into the major accountability document for the North Carolina Community College System. This twenty first annual report on the critical success factors is the result of a process undertaken to streamline and…

  18. Final Report: Northern Virginia Community College Training for Biotechnology Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Johanna V

    2010-05-31

    The intent of this project was to expand Northern Virginia Community College's capability to offer training to support the Biotechnology Industry in the northern Virginia region. The general goal of this project was to create a College Biotechnology Program; specific goals of the project were to a) design curricula/courses to prepare students to become entry-level lab technicians, b) redesign and equip lab space to better suit the needs of the program, c) develop partnerships with the local industry through outreach and the formation on an advisory board, d) recruit students into the program, and e) provide instructional support for local high school teachers. At the end of the grant period, NOVA has successfully created two new curricula in biotechnology: an Associate of Applied Science (A.A.S.) in Biotechnology (initiated in Fall 2008) and a Career Studies Certificate for Biotechnology Lab Technicians (to be initiated in Fall 2010). These curricula were designed with advice from an external advisory committee which is comprised of representatives from industry, transfer institutions and high school administrators. To date, almost all courses have been designed and piloted; the equipment needed for the courses and the initial supplies were paid for by the grant as was the re-modeling of some lab space to be used for the biotech courses. In order to market the program, the NOVA Biotech Program has also established relationships with the local high schools. Presentations were given at several local high schools and on-site workshops were held for high school students and teachers. As a result, close to 1000 students have attended program open houses, presentations within the high schools, or workshops held in the summer. Over 100 teachers have received information and/or training in biotechnology. These outreach efforts as well as high quality curricula have started to attract a number of students to the program – for example, there are currently 70 students

  19. Effects of heavy metal pollution from mining and smelting on enchytraeid communities under different land management and soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Paweł; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2015-12-01

    We studied enchytraeid communities in several habitats polluted by heavy metals from Zn-Pb mining and smelting activities. We sampled 41 sites that differed in the type of substratum (carbonate rock, metal-rich carbonate mining waste, siliceous sand) and land management (planting Scots pine, topsoiling, leaving to natural succession), and the distance from the smelter. Our main aims were to determine which pollution variables and natural factors most influenced enchytraeid species composition, richness and density, and examine what was the effect of planting Scots pine (reclamation) on enchytraeid communities. The soils harboured on average 1 to 5 enchytraeid species and 700 to 18,300 individuals per square metre, depending on the habitat. These figures were generally lower than those reported from unpolluted regions. Redundancy and multiple regression analyses confirmed the negative impact of heavy metal pollution on both enchytraeid community structure and abundance. Among pollution variables, the distance from the smelter best explained the variation in enchytraeid communities. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil had less (e.g. total Pb and exchangeable Zn) or negligible (water-soluble forms) explanatory power. Natural soil properties were nearly irrelevant for enchytraeids, except for soil pH, which determined the species composition. Plant species richness was an important explanatory variable, as it positively affected most parameters of enchytraeid community. The results of two-by-two factorial comparisons (planting Scots pine vs. natural succession; carbonate mining waste vs. siliceous sand) suggest that reclamation can improve soil quality for biota, since it increased the diversity and abundance of enchytraeids; this effect was not dependent on the type of substratum. In conclusion, enchytraeids responded negatively to heavy metal pollution and their response was consistent and clear. These animals can be used as indicators of metal toxicity

  20. Evaluating the use of diversity indices to distinguish between microbial communities with different traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feranchuk, Sergey; Belkova, Natalia; Potapova, Ulyana; Kuzmin, Dmitry; Belikov, Sergei

    2018-05-23

    Several measures of biodiversity are commonly used to describe microbial communities, analyzed using 16S gene sequencing. A wide range of available experiments on 16S gene sequencing allows us to present a framework for a comparison of various diversity indices. The criterion for the comparison is the statistical significance of the difference in index values for microbial communities with different traits, within the same experiment. The results of the evaluation indicate that Shannon diversity is the most effective measure among the commonly used diversity indices. The results also indicate that, within the present framework, the Gini coefficient as a diversity index is comparable to Shannon diversity, despite the fact that the Gini coefficient, as a diversity estimator, is far less popular in microbiology than several other measures. Copyright © 2018 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative analysis of microbial community of novel lactic acid fermentation inoculated with different undefined mixed cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Settles, Matthew L; Forney, Larry J; Coats, Erik R; McDonald, Armando G

    2015-03-01

    Three undefined mixed cultures (activated sludge) from different municipal wastewater treatment plants were used as seeds in a novel lactic acid fermentation process fed with potato peel waste (PPW). Anaerobic sequencing batch fermenters were run under identical conditions to produce predominantly lactic acid. Illumina sequencing was used to examine the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in the three seeds and fermenters. Results showed that the structure of microbial communities of three seeds were different. All three fermentation products had unique community structures that were dominated (>96%) by species of the genus Lactobacillus, while members of this genus constituted undefined mixed cultures were robust and resilient, which provided engineering prospects for the microbial utilization of carbohydrate wastes to produce lactic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Habitat differences in deep-sea megafaunal communities off New Zealand: implications for vulnerability to anthropogenic disturbance and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Alun Rowden

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on benthic communities in the deep sea has focused largely on habitats in isolation, with few studies considering multiple habitats simultaneously in a comparable manner. The present study aimed to determine the structural differences in benthic communities of continental slope, seamount, canyon, vent, and seep habitats, and assess their relative vulnerabilities to disturbance from bottom trawling and potential seabed mining. Megafaunal invertebrate communities of these habitats were sampled in two regions off New Zealand, in four depth strata between 700 and 1500 m, using an epibenthic sled and a beam trawl. Patterns of community and trophic structure, and the potential influence of environmental variables, were determined using multivariate analyses. The difference in community structure between regions was greater than among habitats and depth strata. Levels of food availability may explain regional differences in community structure, although some influence of fishing disturbance is also possible. Differences in community and trophic structure were most pronounced between the chemosynthetic vent and seep habitats, and other habitats. Differences among these other habitats within a region were inconsistent, except that canyon and slope communities always differed from each other. Community and trophic structural patterns were partly explained by the environmental differences observed among habitats. The relative vulnerabilities of benthic communities to human disturbance in the two regions were determined based on patterns of abundance and feeding mode of the megafauna. Communities of vent and seep habitats were assessed to be more vulnerable to disturbance than those of the other habitats based on a number of habitat-related attributes. However, the relative vulnerability of megafaunal communities at slope, canyon, and seamount habitats could not confidently be assessed on a habitat basis alone. The results of the present study have

  3. Temporal dynamics of soil microbial communities under different moisture regimes: high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Zhuravleva, Anna; Semenov, Vyacheslav; Yevdokimov, Ilya; Larionova, Alla

    2017-04-01

    Recent climate scenarios predict not only continued global warming but also an increased frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as strong changes in temperature and precipitation regimes. Microorganisms are well known to be more sensitive to changes in environmental conditions than to other soil chemical and physical parameters. In this study, we determined the shifts in soil microbial community structure as well as indicative taxa in soils under three moisture regimes using high-throughput Illumina sequencing and range of bioinformatics approaches for the assessment of sequence data. Incubation experiments were performed in soil-filled (Greyic Phaeozems Albic) rhizoboxes with maize and without plants. Three contrasting moisture regimes were being simulated: 1) optimal wetting (OW), a watering 2-3 times per week to maintain soil moisture of 20-25% by weight; 2) periodic wetting (PW), with alternating periods of wetting and drought; and 3) constant insufficient wetting (IW), while soil moisture of 12% by weight was permanently maintained. Sampled fresh soils were homogenized, and the total DNA of three replicates was extracted using the FastDNA® SPIN kit for Soil. DNA replicates were combined in a pooled sample and the DNA was used for PCR with specific primers for the 16S V3 and V4 regions. In order to compare variability between different samples and replicates within a single sample, some DNA replicates treated separately. The products were purified and submitted to Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Sequence data were evaluated by alpha-diversity (Chao1 and Shannon H' diversity indexes), beta-diversity (UniFrac and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity), heatmap, tagcloud, and plot-bar analyses using the MiSeq Reporter Metagenomics Workflow and R packages (phyloseq, vegan, tagcloud). Shannon index varied in a rather narrow range (4.4-4.9) with the lowest values for microbial communities under PW treatment. Chao1 index varied from 385 to 480, being a more flexible

  4. Effects of sandbar openings on the zooplankton community of coastal lagoons with different conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayanne Barros Setubal

    Full Text Available AIM: Artificial sandbar openings are a common management practice in coastal lagoons but they can be a threat when negative effects to the quality of water and to the aquatic biota are observed. The current study compared sandbar opening effects in two coastal lagoons located close to each other, but differing on trophic status and on sandbar openings' background. METHODS:Limnological variables and zooplankton community were recorded monthly during one year before and one year after sandbar openings that occurred in the same month for both lagoons, giving 24 samples. We compared the effects of sandbar opening on response variables, according to the two types of system. RESULTS: The sandbar openings determined changes in some limnological features - depth and salinity - but such effects were different in the two types of system. The zooplankton structure displayed dramatic changes in the eutrophic and commonly opened lagoon. The occurrence and abundance of some species were closely related to changes in limnological variables. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated that zooplankton communities are more resistant to sandbar openings in coastal lagoons historically less disturbed. The direction and magnitude of changes promoted by sandbar openings might be specific to each lagoon, due to different backgrounds of disturbances that, in the long term, modify the water quality and the structure of zooplankton communities, and consequently, their resistance and resilience.

  5. Different farming and water regimes in Italian rice fields affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal soil communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumini, Erica; Vallino, Marta; Alguacil, Maria M; Romani, Marco; Bianciotto, Valeria

    2011-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) comprise one of the main components of soil microbiota in most agroecosystems. These obligate mutualistic symbionts colonize the roots of most plants, including crop plants. Many papers have indicated that different crop management practices could affect AMF communities and their root colonization. However, there is little knowledge available on the influence of conventional and low-input agriculture on root colonization and AMF molecular diversity in rice fields. Two different agroecosystems (continuous conventional high-input rice monocropping and organic farming with a five-year crop rotation) and two different water management regimes have been considered in this study. Both morphological and molecular analyses were performed. The soil mycorrhizal potential, estimated using clover trap cultures, was high and similar in the two agroecosystems. The diversity of the AMF community in the soil, calculated by means of PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) and 18S rDNA sequencing on clover trap cultures roots, was higher for the organic cultivation. The rice roots cultivated in the conventional agrosystem or under permanent flooding showed no AMF colonization, while the rice plants grown under the organic agriculture system showed typical mycorrhization patterns. Considered together, our data suggest that a high-input cropping system and conventional flooding depress AMF colonization in rice roots and that organic managements could help maintain a higher diversity of AMF communities in soil.

  6. [Community structure of soil meso- and micro-fauna in different habitats of urbanized region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhong; Zhang, Jia-en; Li, Qing-fang

    2009-12-01

    Investigations were made in May, June, and November 2007 and January 2008 to study the structural characteristics and their seasonal variations of soil meso- and micro-fauna communities in six habitats of three land use types (forest land, constructed grassland and farmland) in Tianhe District of Guangzhou City. The horizontal spatial distribution of soil fauna differed with habitat. During the investigation periods, the Botanical Garden of South China Agricultural University had the highest individual number (1286) of soil mesa- and micro-fauna, while the farmland, especially in the Fenghuang Street area, had the lowest number of individuals and groups. The seasonal variation of the individual number was in order of autumn (1815) > spring (1623) > winter (1365) > summer (1276). Hierarchical clustering and detrended correspondence analysis also showed that the community composition of soil meso- and micro-fauna in different habitats exhibited distinct seasonal variation. In the same seasons, the community structure and composition of soil meso- and micro-fauna in different habitats were correlated to the degrees of human interferences and the properties of soil environment.

  7. Effect of metal oxide nanoparticles on microbial community structure and function in two different soil types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Frenk

    Full Text Available Increased availability of nanoparticle-based products will, inevitably, expose the environment to these materials. Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs may thus find their way into the soil environment via wastewater, dumpsters and other anthropogenic sources; metallic oxide nanoparticles comprise one group of ENPs that could potentially be hazardous for the environment. Because the soil bacterial community is a major service provider for the ecosystem and humankind, it is critical to study the effects of ENP exposure on soil bacteria. These effects were evaluated by measuring bacterial community activity, composition and size following exposure to copper oxide (CuO and magnetite (Fe3O4 nanosized (<50 nm particles. Two different soil types were examined: a sandy loam (Bet-Dagan and a sandy clay loam (Yatir, under two ENP concentrations (1%, 0.1%. Results indicate that the bacterial community in Bet-Dagan soil was more susceptible to change due to exposure to these ENPs, relative to Yatir soil. More specifically, CuO had a strong effect on bacterial hydrolytic activity, oxidative potential, community composition and size in Bet-Dagan soil. Few effects were noted in the Yatir soil, although 1% CuO exposure did cause a significant decreased oxidative potential and changes to community composition. Fe3O4 changed the hydrolytic activity and bacterial community composition in Bet-Dagan soil but did not affect the Yatir soil bacterial community. Furthermore, in Bet-Dagan soil, abundance of bacteria annotated to OTUs from the Bacilli class decreased after addition of 0.1% CuO but increased with 1% CuO, while in Yatir soil their abundance was reduced with 1% CuO. Other important soil bacterial groups, including Rhizobiales and Sphingobacteriaceae, were negatively affected by CuO addition to soil. These results indicate that both ENPs are potentially harmful to soil environments. Furthermore, it is suggested that the clay fraction and organic matter in

  8. Parent Report of Community Psychiatric Comorbid Diagnoses in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Rebecca E.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Law, J. Kiely; Law, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-as...

  9. Impact of board independence on the quality of community disclosures in annual reports

    OpenAIRE

    Yekini, Cecilia Olukemi; Adelopo, Ismail; Andrikopoulos, Panagiotis; Yekini, Sina

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the link between board independence and the quality of community disclosures in annual reports. Using content analysis and a panel dataset from UK FTSE 350 companies the results indicate a statistically significant relationship between board independence, as measured by the proportion of non-executive directors, and the quality of community disclosures, while holding constant other corporate governance and firm specific variables. The study indicates tha...

  10. Bacterial endophyte communities of three agricultural important grass species differ in their response towards management regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemheuer, Franziska; Kaiser, Kristin; Karlovsky, Petr; Daniel, Rolf; Vidal, Stefan; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are critical for plant growth and health. However, compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophyte communities towards agricultural practices are still poorly understood. Hence, we analyzed the influence of fertilizer application and mowing frequency on bacterial endophytes in three agriculturally important grass species. For this purpose, we examined bacterial endophytic communities in aerial plant parts of Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca rubra L., and Lolium perenne L. by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes over two consecutive years. Although management regimes influenced endophyte communities, observed responses were grass species-specific. This might be attributed to several bacteria specifically associated with a single grass species. We further predicted functional profiles from obtained 16S rRNA data. These profiles revealed that predicted abundances of genes involved in plant growth promotion or nitrogen metabolism differed between grass species and between management regimes. Moreover, structural and functional community patterns showed no correlation to each other indicating that plant species-specific selection of endophytes is driven by functional rather than phylogenetic traits. The unique combination of 16S rRNA data and functional profiles provided a holistic picture of compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophytes in agricultural relevant grass species towards management practices.

  11. Soil bacterial and fungal communities respond differently to various isothiocyanates added for biofumigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eHu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The meals from many oilseed crops have potential for biofumigation due to their release of biocidal compounds such as isothiocyanates (ITCs. Various ITCs are known to inhibit numerous pathogens; however, much less is known about how the soil microbial community responds to the different types of ITCs released from oilseed meals (SMs. To simulate applying ITC-releasing SMs to soil, we amended soil with 1% flax SM (contains no biocidal chemicals along with four types of ITCs (allyl, butyl, phenyl, and benzyl ITC in order to determine their effects on soil fungal and bacterial communities in a replicated microcosm study. Microbial communities were analyzed based on the ITS region for fungi and 16S rRNA gene for bacteria using qPCR and tag-pyrosequencing with 454 GS FLX titanium technology. A dramatic decrease in fungal populations (~85% reduction was observed after allyl ITC addition. Fungal community compositions also shifted following ITC amendments (e.g., Humicola increased in allyl and Mortierella in butyl ITC amendments. Bacterial populations were less impacted by ITCs, although there was atransient increase in the proportion of Firmicutes, related to bacteria know to be antagonistic to plant pathogens, following amendment with allyl ITC. Our results indicate that the type of ITC released from SMs can result in differential impacts on soil microorganisms. This information will aid selection and breeding of plants for biofumigation-based control of soil-borne pathogens while minimizing the impacts on non-target microorganisms.

  12. Comparison of Community Annoyance from Railway Noise Evaluated by Different Category Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, T.; Yamashita, T.; Izumi, K.

    1997-08-01

    A considerable number of reviews on community responses to noise have been carried out to compare dose-response relationships obtained from different noise sources and to investigate the effects of various factors on noise annoyance by using the data from different surveys. In order to compare the findings from various surveys precisely, it is very important to know how the different subjective or objective scales are transformed to unified scale. The present paper discusses the effect of four kinds of category scale on the annoyance response by using the data obtained from a social survey on community response to railway noise and compares the dose-response relationships between railway and road traffic noise obtained with the same scale. The extent of annoyance, such as % very annoyed, is strongly affected by the descriptors just below the annoyance range. This means that the descriptors are very important in constructing questionnaires and comparing the findings of different surveys. No systematic difference is found in dose-response relationships between railway and road traffic noises, using data obtained with the same method in the same area. This finding is quite different from those of European studies.

  13. Frequency, stability and differentiation of self-reported school fear and truancy in a community sample

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Müller, Nora; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Surprisingly little is known about the frequency, stability, and correlates of school fear and truancy based on self-reported data of adolescents. Methods Self-reported school fear and truancy were studied in a total of N = 834 subjects of the community-based Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS) at two times with an average age of thirteen and sixteen years. Group definitions were based on two behavioural items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Comp...

  14. Vadose zone microbial community structure and activity in metal/radionuclide contaminated sediments. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balkwill, David L.

    2002-08-17

    This final technical report describes the research carried out during the final two months of the no-cost extension ending 11/14/01. The primary goals of the project were (1) to determine the potential for transformation of Cr(VI) (oxidized, mobile) to Cr(III) (reduced, immobile) under unsaturated conditions as a function of different levels and combinations of (a) chromium, (b) nitrate (co-disposed with Cr), and (c) molasses (inexpensive bioremediation substrate), and (2) to determine population structure and activity in experimental treatments by characterization of the microbial community by signature biomarker analysis and by RT-PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. It was determined early in the one-year no-cost extension period that the T-RFLP approach was problematic in regard to providing information on the identities of microorganisms in the samples examined. As a result, it could not provide the detailed information on microbial community structure that was needed to assess the effects of treatments with chromium, nitrate, and/or molasses. Therefore, we decided to obtain the desired information by amplifying (using TR-PCR, with the same primers used for T-RFLP) and cloning 16S rRNA gene sequences from the same RNA extracts that were used for T-RFLP analysis. We also decided to use a restriction enzyme digest procedure (fingerprinting procedure) to place the clones into types. The primary focus of the research carried out during this report period was twofold: (a) to complete the sequencing of the clones, and (b) to analyze the clone sequences phylogenetically in order to determine the relatedness of the bacteria detected in the samples to each other and to previously described genera and species.

  15. Persistent differences between coastal and offshore kelp forest communities in a warming Gulf of Maine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon D Witman

    Full Text Available Kelp forests provide important ecosystem services, yet coastal kelp communities are increasingly altered by anthropogenic impacts. Kelp forests in remote, offshore locations may provide an informative contrast due to reduced impacts from local stressors. We tested the hypothesis that shallow kelp assemblages (12-15 m depth and associated fish and benthic communities in the coastal southwest Gulf of Maine (GOM differed significantly from sites on Cashes Ledge, 145 km offshore by sampling five coastal and three offshore sites at 43.0 +/- 0.07° N latitude. Offshore sites on Cashes Ledge supported the greatest density (47.8 plants m2 and standing crop biomass (5.5 kg m2 fresh weight of the foundation species Saccharina latissima kelp at this depth in the Western North Atlantic. Offshore densities of S. latissima were over 150 times greater than at coastal sites, with similar but lower magnitude trends for congeneric S. digitata. Despite these differences, S. latissima underwent a significant 36.2% decrease between 1987 and 2015 on Cashes Ledge, concurrent with a rapid warming of the GOM and invasion by the kelp-encrusting bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. In contrast to kelp, the invasive red alga Dasysiphonia japonica was significantly more abundant at coastal sites, suggesting light or dispersal limitation offshore. Spatial differences in fish abundance mirrored those of kelp, as the average biomass of all fish on Cashes Ledge was 305 times greater than at the coastal sites. Remote video censuses of cod (Gadus morhua, cunner (Tautaogolabrus adspersus, and pollock (Pollachius virens corroborated these findings. Understory benthic communities also differed between regions, with greater abundance of sessile invertebrates offshore. Populations of kelp-consuming sea urchins Stronglyocentrotus droebachiensis, were virtually absent from Cashes Ledge while small urchins were abundant onshore, suggesting recruitment limitation offshore. Despite

  16. Persistent differences between coastal and offshore kelp forest communities in a warming Gulf of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witman, Jon D; Lamb, Robert W

    2018-01-01

    Kelp forests provide important ecosystem services, yet coastal kelp communities are increasingly altered by anthropogenic impacts. Kelp forests in remote, offshore locations may provide an informative contrast due to reduced impacts from local stressors. We tested the hypothesis that shallow kelp assemblages (12-15 m depth) and associated fish and benthic communities in the coastal southwest Gulf of Maine (GOM) differed significantly from sites on Cashes Ledge, 145 km offshore by sampling five coastal and three offshore sites at 43.0 +/- 0.07° N latitude. Offshore sites on Cashes Ledge supported the greatest density (47.8 plants m2) and standing crop biomass (5.5 kg m2 fresh weight) of the foundation species Saccharina latissima kelp at this depth in the Western North Atlantic. Offshore densities of S. latissima were over 150 times greater than at coastal sites, with similar but lower magnitude trends for congeneric S. digitata. Despite these differences, S. latissima underwent a significant 36.2% decrease between 1987 and 2015 on Cashes Ledge, concurrent with a rapid warming of the GOM and invasion by the kelp-encrusting bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. In contrast to kelp, the invasive red alga Dasysiphonia japonica was significantly more abundant at coastal sites, suggesting light or dispersal limitation offshore. Spatial differences in fish abundance mirrored those of kelp, as the average biomass of all fish on Cashes Ledge was 305 times greater than at the coastal sites. Remote video censuses of cod (Gadus morhua), cunner (Tautaogolabrus adspersus), and pollock (Pollachius virens) corroborated these findings. Understory benthic communities also differed between regions, with greater abundance of sessile invertebrates offshore. Populations of kelp-consuming sea urchins Stronglyocentrotus droebachiensis, were virtually absent from Cashes Ledge while small urchins were abundant onshore, suggesting recruitment limitation offshore. Despite widespread warming of

  17. Minnesota AGRI-Power Project. Task V - community education. Community education. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C.; Martin, N.

    1997-10-30

    This report describes the educational efforts made by Minnesota Agri-Power to provide education to the general public, to agricultural professionals and to growers. Information on the management of alfalfa growth, as well as sharing of research results were some of the information made available. The education program was accomplished by participation in: workshops for producers; professional conferences; field days and informational meetings for producers, educators, and Ag professionals; demonstrations; community meetings and information dissemination; fact sheets and management guides; internet information; press releases, publications, and publicity.

  18. Differences in Certification and the Effect on Team Climate Among Community Health Workers in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemon, Mark; Kreglo, Brenna; Boursaw, Blake

    The purpose of this study was to compare team climate among Texas community health workers (CHWs)/promotoras who were certified by the 2 different methods: (a) completing a state-approved training program, and (b) providing evidence of work experience (grandfathering). Analysis of survey results found no significant differences in Team Climate Inventory scores between CHWs who were certified either through state-approved training or through work experience. This research provides some preliminary evidence in support of experience-based certification, but there continues to be a need for more research evaluating CHW certification requirements and the impact of state certification of CHWs on population health outcomes.

  19. Influences of Different Halophyte Vegetation on Soil Microbial Community at Temperate Salt Marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Doongar R; Kim, Jinhyun; Kang, Hojeong

    2018-04-01

    Salt marshes are transitional zone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, occupied mainly by halophytic vegetation which provides numerous ecological services to coastal ecosystem. Halophyte-associated microbial community plays an important role in the adaptation of plants to adverse condition and also affected habitat characteristics. To explore the relationship between halophytes and soil microbial community, we studied the soil enzyme activities, soil microbial community structure, and functional gene abundance in halophytes- (Carex scabrifolia, Phragmites australis, and Suaeda japonica) covered and un-vegetated (mud flat) soils at Suncheon Bay, South Korea. Higher concentrations of total, Gram-positive, Gram-negative, total bacterial, and actinomycetes PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids) were observed in the soil underneath the halophytes compared with mud flat soil and were highest in Carex soil. Halophyte-covered soils had different microbial community composition due to higher abundance of Gram-negative bacteria than mud flat soil. Similar to PLFA concentrations, the increased activities of β-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase, and sulfatase enzymes were observed under halophyte soil compared to mud flat soil and Carex exhibited highest activities. The abundance of archaeal 16S rRNA, fungal ITS, and denitrifying genes (nirK, nirS, and nosZ) were not influenced by the halophytes. Abundance bacterial 16S rRNA and dissimilatory (bi)sulfite (dsrA) genes were highest in Carex-covered soil. The abundance of functional genes involved in methane cycle (mcrA and pmoA) was not affected by the halophytes. However, the ratios of mcrA/pmoA and mcrA/dsrA increased in halophyte-covered soils which indicate higher methanogenesis activities. The finding of the study also suggests that halophytes had increased the microbial and enzyme activities, and played a pivotal role in shaping microbial community structure.

  20. A Descriptive Analysis of Incidents Reported by Community Aged Care Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Amina; Douglas, Heather E; Smith, Cheryl; Georgiou, Andrew; Osmond, Tracey; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the types of incidents that occur to aged care clients in the community. This limits the development of effective strategies to improve client safety. The objective of the study was to present a profile of incidents reported in Australian community aged care settings. All incident reports made by community care workers employed by one of the largest community aged care provider organizations in Australia during the period November 1, 2012, to August 8, 2013, were analyzed. A total of 356 reports were analyzed, corresponding to a 7.5% incidence rate per client year. Falls and medication incidents were the most prevalent incident types. Clients receiving high-level care and those who attended day therapy centers had the highest rate of incidents with 14% to 20% of these clients having a reported incident. The incident profile indicates that clients on higher levels of care had higher incident rates. Incident data represent an opportunity to improve client safety in community aged care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Differences in career paths and attributes of pharmacists completing a community pharmacy residency program (CPRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Ulbrich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine any differences in career paths and career attributes of pharmacists who have completed a PGY1 community pharmacy residency program (CPRP as compared to those that have not completed a PGY1 CPRP. Methods: A web-based survey evaluating various aspects of community pharmacists' careers was distributed to 274 CPRP graduates in addition to a random sample of 7,376 community pharmacists. The survey contained 32 questions evaluating various career attributes. Questions that assessed level of agreement were on a 6-point Likert-type Scale (1=strongly disagree; 6=strongly agree. Results: A total of 353 participants completed the survey, with 224 indicating that they had not completed a CPRP. Pharmacists who completed a CPRP responded that they spend significantly more time on patient care services, teaching, and research, and spend less time dispensing medications compared to those that have not completed a CPRP. Compared to those that did not complete a CPRP, CPRP graduates were less likely to agree that current level of workload negatively impacts job performance, motivation to work, job satisfaction, mental/emotional health, and physical health. Conclusion: Pharmacists completing a CPRP noted significant differences in their current employment and job responsibilities. Additional expansion and education regarding the importance of CPRPs should be considered.   Type: Original Research

  2. Rumen prokaryotic communities of ruminants under different feeding paradigms on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dan; Chen, Huai; Zhao, Xinquan; Xu, Shixiao; Hu, Linyong; Xu, Tianwei; Jiang, Lin; Zhan, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Yak and Tibetan sheep are the major indigenous ruminants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China. The aim of this work was to study the differences in ruminal fermentation parameters and rumen prokaryotic community composition between hosts and feeding paradigms. The 16S rRNA genes targeting bacteria and archaea were sequenced using the MiSeq platform. The results showed that the prokaryotic community structure between yak and Tibetan sheep was significantly different (PTibetan sheep of the two groups (P=0.026). The core prokaryotic populations that existed in the rumen mostly dominated the structure. There was an obvious correlation of the prokaryotic community composition at the phylum and genus levels with the host or the feeding pattern. In addition, Tibetan sheep showed significantly higher yields of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) than yak, as did the NG group compared with the TMR group. In conclusion, both the host and feeding pattern may influence rumen microbial ecology system, with host effects being more important than those of the feeding pattern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Joint community update 2008 : reporting our environmental activities to the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This paper provided an update of the environmental activities conducted by the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA); the Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP); and the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA). The organizations were established to examine and address the environmental impacts of oil sands development on the Wood Buffalo region. The role of the WBEA is to continuously monitor and report on air quality on behalf of the residents of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo (RMWB), while RAMP monitors the health of lakes and rivers in the oil sands region. CEMA was formed to determine the best management tools for protecting, sustaining and reclaiming the environment. A joint approach is used by the organizations to increase public awareness and education. Details of each organization's and activities conducted during 2008 were presented, as well as an overview of annual budgets, day-to-day operations, and funding partners. 6 tabs., 12 figs

  4. PCR-DGGE analysis of the microbial communities in three different Chinese "Baiyunbian" liquor fermentation starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaomao; Hu, Yuanliang; Yan, Nanfeng; Huang, Yingna; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Shumiao

    2014-08-01

    A systematic investigation was performed on the bacterial, Bacillus, fungal, and yeast communities of the three types of Daqu (mechanically prepared, manually prepared, and mixed prepared) used in Baiyunbian Company by reconditioning PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The DGGE results showed that the microbes in the three types of Daqu were mainly thermotolerant and thermophilic microbes, and the most dominant bacterial species were Bacillus and Virgibacillus, followed by Lactobacillus and Trichococcus. Furthermore, the dominant fungi were found to be molds, such as Rasamsonia, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus, and the dominant yeasts were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Pichia anomala, and Debaryomyces hansenii. In general, the three types of Daqu showed slight differences in microbial communities, and the Shannon indexes (H') of the manually prepared and mechanically prepared Daqu were similar. The results suggest that mechanically prepared Daqu can replace manually prepared Daqu in liquor production, and this research provides useful information for liquor production and process improvement.

  5. Intestinal Microbial Community Differs between Acute Pancreatitis Patients and Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi Mei; Zhang, Zheng Yu; Zhang, Chen Huan; Wu, Jing; Wang, You Xin; Zhang, Guo Xin

    2018-01-01

    A case control study including 45 acute pancreatitis and 44 healthy volunteers was performed to investigate the association between intestinal microbial community and acute pancreatitis. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to profile the microbiological composition of the samples. In total, 27 microbial phyla were detected and the samples of pancreatitis patients contained fewer phyla. Samples from acute pancreatitis patients contained more Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria and fewer Firmicutes and Actinobacteria than those from healthy volunteers. PCoA analyses distinguished the fecal microbial communities of acute pancreatitis patients from those of healthy volunteers. The intestinal microbes of acute pancreatitis patients are different from those of healthy volunteers. Modulation of the intestinal microbiome may serve as an alternative strategy for treating acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing lake eutrophication using chironomids: understanding the nature of community response in different lake types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdon, P. G.; Ruiz, Z.; Brodersen, K. P.

    2006-01-01

    in the original calibration or extended datasets. However, since the transfer functions are based on weighted averages of the trophic optima for the taxa present and not on community similarities, reasonable downcore inferences were produced. Ordination analyses also showed that the lakes retain their 'identity......1. Total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll a (Chl a) chironomid inference models ( Brodersen & Lindegaard, 1999 ; Brooks, Bennion & Birks, 2001 ) were used in an attempt to reconstruct changes in nutrients from three very different lake types. Both training sets were expanded, particularly at the low....... A response to nutrients (TP or total nitrogen (TN) ) at this site is also indirect, and the TP reconstruction therefore cannot be reliably interpreted. The third lake, March Ghyll Reservoir has little change in historic chironomid communities, suggesting that this well mixed, relatively unproductive lake has...

  7. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  8. A Critical Examination of Change in Interpersonal Relationships among Youth from Different Ethnic Communities as a Result of Ethnic Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigera, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    This study examined interpersonal relationships among youth from different ethnic communities. The purpose of this study was to examine interpersonal relationships among youth from different ethnic communities in Kenya, especially the vulnerable population of individuals with disabilities, and the ways interpersonal relationships between youth…

  9. Zooplankton community response to experimental acidification in boreal shield lakes with different ecological histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derry, A.M.; Arnott, S.E. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2007-06-15

    This study investigated the adaptive response of crustacean zooplankton to widespread regional acidification at the Killarney Provincial Park in Ontario. Mesocosm experiments were conducted in 2 circumneutral lakes with different acidification histories. A reciprocal transplant field enclosure experiment was conducted to assess whether the zooplankton community within the acid-recovering boreal shield lake showed evidence of increased acid tolerance to historical acidification following a 6 year period in which the lake's pH was 6.0. The enclosures were filled with epilimnetic water from the lake. Zooplankton from other lakes in the area were used. Zooplankton and water samples were collected from the enclosures once a week. Shannon-Wiener indices, species richness, and total abundance of the zooplankton were calculated for each sample day. Repeated measures analyses of variance (RM-ANOVAs) were used to test for the effects of the incubation lake, the zooplankton source, and the pH. Species abundance data were log{sub 10} transformed to improve homogeneity of variances and normality. Principle components analysis was conducted on species abundances to infer the influence of treatments on zooplankton community composition. Zooplankton were also transferred from 1 lake to the other in order to determine if subtle differences in local water chemistry and food conditions were limiting the recovery of species in acid-recovering lakes. The study showed that 2 key species, H. gibberum and L. minutus, contributed to community-level differences to acid tolerance of zooplankton with different acidification histories. It was concluded that zooplankton with adaptable acid tolerances may monopolize resources in acidified and acid-recovering lakes, and may contribute to the delayed recolonization of other taxa. 62 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. Racial Differences in Reported Napping and Nocturnal Sleep in 2- to 8-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Brian; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Harsh, John

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep of 2- to 8-year-old children, to identify factors accounting for these differences, and to determine if variability in napping was related to psychosocial functioning. Methods Caretakers of 1043 children (73.5% non-Hispanic white; 50.4% male) 2 to 8 years old from a community sample reported on their children’s napping behavior and nighttime sleep. Caretakers of 255 preschool children (3–5 years old) also completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children. Results A more gradual age-related decline in napping was found for black children. At age 8, 39.1% of black children were reported to nap, compared with only 4.9% of white children. Black children also napped significantly more days per week, had shorter average nocturnal sleep durations, and slept significantly less on weekdays than on weekend nights. Despite differences in sleep distribution, total weekly sleep duration (diurnal and nocturnal) was nearly identical for the 2 racial groups at each year of age. Logistic regression analysis revealed that demographic variables were related to but did not fully explain napping differences. Napping in a subset of preschoolers was not significantly related to psychosocial functioning. Conclusions There are remarkable racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep patterns beginning as early as age 3 and extending to at least 8 years of age. These differences are independent of commonly investigated demographic factors. Differences in napping behavior do not seem to have psychosocial significance in a sample of preschool children. PMID:15866856

  11. Aboveground and belowground arthropods experience different relative influences of stochastic versus deterministic community assembly processes following disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ferrenberg

    2016-10-01

    aboveground arthropod communities and vegetation and soil properties, but no significant association among belowground arthropod communities and environmental factors. Discussion Our results suggest context-dependent influences of stochastic and deterministic community assembly processes across different fractions of a spatially co-occurring ground-dwelling arthropod community following disturbance. This variation in assembly may be linked to contrasting ecological strategies and dispersal rates within above- and below-ground communities. Our findings add to a growing body of evidence indicating concurrent influences of stochastic and deterministic processes in community assembly, and highlight the need to consider potential variation across different fractions of biotic communities when testing community ecology theory and considering conservation strategies.

  12. Aboveground and belowground arthropods experience different relative influences of stochastic versus deterministic community assembly processes following disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alexander S.; Faist, Akasha M.

    2016-01-01

    communities and vegetation and soil properties, but no significant association among belowground arthropod communities and environmental factors. Discussion Our results suggest context-dependent influences of stochastic and deterministic community assembly processes across different fractions of a spatially co-occurring ground-dwelling arthropod community following disturbance. This variation in assembly may be linked to contrasting ecological strategies and dispersal rates within above- and below-ground communities. Our findings add to a growing body of evidence indicating concurrent influences of stochastic and deterministic processes in community assembly, and highlight the need to consider potential variation across different fractions of biotic communities when testing community ecology theory and considering conservation strategies. PMID:27761333

  13. The relationships among work stress, strain and self-reported errors in UK community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S J; O'Connor, E M; Jacobs, S; Hassell, K; Ashcroft, D M

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the UK community pharmacy profession including new contractual frameworks, expansion of services, and increasing levels of workload have prompted concerns about rising levels of workplace stress and overload. This has implications for pharmacist health and well-being and the occurrence of errors that pose a risk to patient safety. Despite these concerns being voiced in the profession, few studies have explored work stress in the community pharmacy context. To investigate work-related stress among UK community pharmacists and to explore its relationships with pharmacists' psychological and physical well-being, and the occurrence of self-reported dispensing errors and detection of prescribing errors. A cross-sectional postal survey of a random sample of practicing community pharmacists (n = 903) used ASSET (A Shortened Stress Evaluation Tool) and questions relating to self-reported involvement in errors. Stress data were compared to general working population norms, and regressed on well-being and self-reported errors. Analysis of the data revealed that pharmacists reported significantly higher levels of workplace stressors than the general working population, with concerns about work-life balance, the nature of the job, and work relationships being the most influential on health and well-being. Despite this, pharmacists were not found to report worse health than the general working population. Self-reported error involvement was linked to both high dispensing volume and being troubled by perceived overload (dispensing errors), and resources and communication (detection of prescribing errors). This study contributes to the literature by benchmarking community pharmacists' health and well-being, and investigating sources of stress using a quantitative approach. A further important contribution to the literature is the identification of a quantitative link between high workload and self-reported dispensing errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Different land use intensities in grassland ecosystems drive ecology of microbial communities involved in nitrogen turnover in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Keil, Daniel; Welzl, Gerhard; Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM), intensely used mown pastures (IP) and extensively used pastures (EP), respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK). The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation) might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity.

  15. Different land use intensities in grassland ecosystems drive ecology of microbial communities involved in nitrogen turnover in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Meyer

    Full Text Available Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM, intensely used mown pastures (IP and extensively used pastures (EP, respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK. The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity.

  16. Different Land Use Intensities in Grassland Ecosystems Drive Ecology of Microbial Communities Involved in Nitrogen Turnover in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Keil, Daniel; Welzl, Gerhard; Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM), intensely used mown pastures (IP) and extensively used pastures (EP), respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK). The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation) might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity. PMID:24039974

  17. Ninth general report on the activities of the European Communities in 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A requirement to publish this report is in accordance with Article 18 of the Treaty establishing a single Council and a single Commission of the European Communities. In his opening address to the European Parliament Feb. 10, 1976, Mr. Francois-Xavier Ortoli, President of the Commission, reviewed the achievements of the Community in 1975 and assessed its successes and failures prior to presenting its plans for 1976. Europe in the World, Building up an Integrated Economic Unit, and Improved Structural and Regional Balances and a Better Quality of Life are three memoranda annexed to the address by the President. The activities of the Communities in 1975 are summarized in five chapters. Abstracts were prepared for two activities dealing with energy: ''The Sectoral Policies: Common Energy Policy'' in one of the annexed memoranda and ''Community Policies, Section 14: Energy,'' in Chapter III. (MCW)

  18. [Food insecurity in rural communities in Northeast Brazil: does belonging to a slave-descendent community make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Etna Kaliane Pereira da; Medeiros, Danielle Souto de; Martins, Poliana Cardoso; Sousa, Líllian de Almeida; Lima, Gislane Pereira; Rêgo, Maria Amanda Sousa; Silva, Tainan Oliveira da; Freire, Alessandra Silva; Silva, Fernanda Moitinho

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to measure the prevalence of food insecurity in a rural area of Northeast Brazil and investigate this outcome according to residence in quilombola communities (descendants of African slaves) versus non-quilombola communities. This was a cross-sectional study in 21 rural communities, 9 of which quilombolas, in 2014, using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA). Prevalence rates and prevalence ratios were estimated for food insecurity, and Poisson multiple regression analysis with robust variance was performed. Food insecurity was found in 52.1% of the families: 64.9% in quilombola communities and 42% in the others. Food insecurity was associated with belonging to a quilombola community (PR = 1.25), lower economic status (PR = 1.89; 2.98, and 3.22 for status C2, D, and E, respectively), beneficiaries of Bolsa Família program (PR = 1.52), and four or more household members (PR = 1.20). Food insecurity prevalence was high in the entire population, but it was even higher in quilombola communities, even though they belonged to the same coverage area. The results emphasize this population's vulnerability.

  19. HIV Testing and Counselling in Colombia: Local Experience on Two Different Recruitment Strategies to Better Reach Low Socioeconomic Status Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Galindo-Quintero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV testing rates remain very low in Colombia, with only 20% of individuals at risk ever tested. In order to tackle this issue, the Corporacion de Lucha Contra el Sida (CLS has implemented a multidisciplinary, provider-initiated, population-based HIV testing/counselling strategy named BAFI. In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1 and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2. Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% and 93.7%, return rate for comprehensive care = 83.3% and 92.8%, and ART initiation rate = 20% and 76.9%. Although more people were reached with BAFI-1, the community-led BAFI-2 was more effective at reaching individuals with a higher prevalence of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection.

  20. HIV Testing and Counselling in Colombia: Local Experience on Two Different Recruitment Strategies to Better Reach Low Socioeconomic Status Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Quintero, Jaime; Mueses-Marin, Hector Fabio; Montaño-Agudelo, David; Pinzón-Fernández, María Virginia; Tello-Bolívar, Inés Constanza; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz Eugenia; Martinez-Cajas, Jorge Luis

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing rates remain very low in Colombia, with only 20% of individuals at risk ever tested. In order to tackle this issue, the Corporacion de Lucha Contra el Sida (CLS) has implemented a multidisciplinary, provider-initiated, population-based HIV testing/counselling strategy named BAFI. In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1) and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2). Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% and 93.7%, return rate for comprehensive care = 83.3% and 92.8%, and ART initiation rate = 20% and 76.9%. Although more people were reached with BAFI-1, the community-led BAFI-2 was more effective at reaching individuals with a higher prevalence of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection. PMID:24592330

  1. Structure of an epiphytic hydroid community on Cystoseira at two sites of different wave exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuschka Faucci

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytism is a strategy by which opportunistic species such as hydroids, escape the intense levels of competition in marine hard bottom communities. Species of the macroalgae Cystoseira have a seasonal turnover of the frond, and we hypothesise that epiphytic hydroids colonising such an unstable substrate might show some degree of specialisation. Here the first systematic study on hydroid-Cystoseira communities is presented. In particular, the seasonal and spatial distribution of epiphytic hydroids on three species of Cystoseira at two sites of different wave exposure at Porto Cesareo (Ionian Sea/Italy were investigated. Thirty-two hydroid species were recorded which are well known from other substrates and thus are not specific to Cystoseira; dominant species were all thecates. The influence of biological factors such as competition and the structure and abundance of the host, seem to have little influence on the hydroid community. The factors of greatest influence were mostly abiotic: sedimentation rate, nutrient levels, temperature and most especially water movement. The importance of water movement was evident in the higher colonisation of algal stems, higher hydroid frequency, larger colonies, reduced colony height, species composition, and distribution on the stems at the wave-exposed site.

  2. Fungal Community Responses to Past and Future Atmospheric CO2 Differ by Soil Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. Christopher; Fay, Philip A.; Polley, H. Wayne; Jackson, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Soils sequester and release substantial atmospheric carbon, but the contribution of fungal communities to soil carbon balance under rising CO2 is not well understood. Soil properties likely mediate these fungal responses but are rarely explored in CO2 experiments. We studied soil fungal communities in a grassland ecosystem exposed to a preindustrial-to-future CO2 gradient (250 to 500 ppm) in a black clay soil and a sandy loam soil. Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing of the rRNA gene cluster revealed that fungal community composition and its response to CO2 differed significantly between soils. Fungal species richness and relative abundance of Chytridiomycota (chytrids) increased linearly with CO2 in the black clay (P 0.7), whereas the relative abundance of Glomeromycota (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) increased linearly with elevated CO2 in the sandy loam (P = 0.02, R2 = 0.63). Across both soils, decomposition rate was positively correlated with chytrid relative abundance (r = 0.57) and, in the black clay soil, fungal species richness. Decomposition rate was more strongly correlated with microbial biomass (r = 0.88) than with fungal variables. Increased labile carbon availability with elevated CO2 may explain the greater fungal species richness and Chytridiomycota abundance in the black clay soil, whereas increased phosphorus limitation may explain the increase in Glomeromycota at elevated CO2 in the sandy loam. Our results demonstrate that soil type plays a key role in soil fungal responses to rising atmospheric CO2. PMID:25239904

  3. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck O P Stefani

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  4. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Franck O P; Bell, Terrence H; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  5. Relating coccolithophore calcification rates to phytoplankton community dynamics: Regional differences and implications for carbon export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alex J.; Adey, Tim R.; Balch, William M.; Holligan, Patrick M.

    2007-03-01

    Recent measurements of surface coccolithophore calcification from the Atlantic Ocean (50°N-50°S) are compared to similar measurements from other oceanic settings. By combining the different data sets of surface measurements, we examine general and regional patterns of calcification relative to organic carbon production (photosynthesis) and other characteristics of the phytoplankton community. Generally, surface calcification and photosynthesis are positively correlated, although the strength of the relationship differs between biogeochemical provinces. Relationships between surface calcification, chlorophyll- a and calcite concentrations are also statistically significant, although again there is considerable regional variability. Such variability appears unrelated to phytoplankton community composition or hydrographic conditions, and may instead reflect variations in coccolithophore physiology. The contribution of inorganic carbon fixation (calcification) to total carbon fixation (calcification plus photosynthesis) is ˜1-10%, and we estimate a similar contribution from coccolithophores to total organic carbon fixation. However, these contributions vary between biogeochemical provinces, and occasionally coccolithophores may account for >20% of total carbon fixation in unproductive central subtropical gyres. Combining surface calcification and photosynthetic rates with standing stocks of calcite, particulate organic carbon, and estimated phytoplankton carbon allows us to examine the fates of these three carbon pools. The relative turnover times vary between different biogeochemical provinces, with no clear relationship to the overall productivity or phytoplankton community structure found in each province. Rather, interaction between coccolithophore physiology (coccolith production and detachment rates), species diversity (cell size), and food web dynamics (grazer ecology) may control the composition and turnover times of calcite particles in the upper ocean.

  6. Gender differences in the effects of community violence on mental health outcomes in a sample of low-income youth receiving psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javdani, Shabnam; Abdul-Adil, Jaleel; Suarez, Liza; Nichols, Sara R; Farmer, A David

    2014-06-01

    Previous research suggests that community violence impacts mental health outcomes, but much of this research has not (a) distinguished between different types of community violence, (b) examined gender differences, and (c) focused on youth living in urban poverty. The current study addresses these questions. Participants were 306 youth (23 % girls) and one parent/guardian receiving outpatient psychiatric services for disruptive behavior disorders in a large urban city. Youth and parents reported on youth's experience of different types of community violence (being a direct victim, hearing reports, and witnessing violence), and whether violence was directed toward a stranger or familiar. Outcomes included youth externalizing, internalizing, and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed via parent and youth reports. Being a direct victim of violence accords risk for all mental health outcomes similarly for both boys and girls. However, gender differences emerged with respect to indirect violence, such that girls who hear reports of violence against people they know are at increased risk for all assessed mental health outcomes, and girls who witness violence against familiars are at increased risk for externalizing mental health symptoms in particular. There are gender differences in violence-related mental health etiology, with implications for intervention assessment and design.

  7. Comparative analysis of the intestinal bacterial communities in different species of carp by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongtong; Long, Meng; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Aihua; Gong, Xiaoning

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota is increasingly regarded as an integral component of the host, due to important roles in the modulation of the immune system, the proliferation of the intestinal epithelium and the regulation of the dietary energy intake. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of these microbial communities is essential to health management, and the application to aquatic animals still requires basic investigation. In this study, we compared the bacterial communities harboured in the intestines and in the rearing water of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri), and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), by using 454-pyrosequencing with barcoded primers targeting the V4 to V5 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The specimens of the three species were cohabiting in the same pond. Between 6,218 and 10,220 effective sequences were read from each sample, resulting in a total of 110,398 sequences for 13 samples from gut microbiota and pond water. In general, the microbial communities of the three carps were dominated by Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, but the abundance of each phylum was significantly different between species. At the genus level, the overwhelming group was Cetobacterium (97.29 ± 0.46 %) in crucian carp, while its abundance averaged c. 40 and 60 % of the sequences read in the other two species. There was higher microbial diversity in the gut of filter-feeding bighead carp than the gut of the two other species, with grazing feeding habits. The composition of intestine microbiota of grass carp and crucian carp shared higher similarity when compared with bighead carp. The principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) with the weighted UniFrac distance and the heatmap analysis suggested that gut microbiota was not a simple reflection of the microbial community in the local habitat but resulted from species-specific selective pressures, possibly dependent on behavioural, immune

  8. Quantitative comparison of the in situ microbial communities in different biomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ringelberg, D.B.; Palmer, R.J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology

    1995-12-31

    A system to define microbial communities in different biomes requires the application of non-traditional methodology. Classical microbiological methods have severe limitations for the analysis of environmental samples. Pure-culture isolation, biochemical testing, and/or enumeration by direct microscopic counting are not well suited for the estimation of total biomass or the assessment of community composition within environmental samples. Such methods provide little insight into the in situ phenotypic activity of the extant microbiota since these techniques are dependent on microbial growth and thus select against many environmental microorganisms which are non- culturable under a wide range of conditions. It has been repeatedly documented in the literature that viable counts or direct counts of bacteria attached to sediment grains are difficult to quantitative and may grossly underestimate the extent of the existing community. The traditional tests provide little indication of the in situ nutritional status or for evidence of toxicity within the microbial community. A more recent development (MIDI Microbial Identification System), measure free and ester-linked fatty acids from isolated microorganisms. Bacterial isolates are identified by comparing their fatty acid profiles to the MIKI database which contains over 8000 entries. The application of the MIKI system to the analysis of environmental samples however, has significant drawbacks. The MIDI system was developed to identify clinical microorganisms and requires their isolation and culture on trypticase soy agar at 27{degrees}C. Since many isolates are unable to grow at these restrictive growth conditions, the system does not lend itself to identification of some environmental organisms. A more applicable methodology for environmental microbial analysis is based on the liquid extrication and separation of microbial lipids from environmental samples, followed by quantitative analysis using gas chromatography/

  9. Differences in composition of shallow-water marine benthic communities associated with two ophiolitic rock substrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavestrello, Giorgio; Bo, Marzia; Betti, Federico; Canessa, Martina; Gaggero, Laura; Rindi, Fabio; Cattaneo-Vietti, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    On marine rocky shores, several physical, chemical and biological processes operate to maintain the benthic assemblages' heterogeneity, but among the abiotic factors, the composition and texture of the rocky substrata have been only sporadically considered. However, biomineralogical studies have demonstrated an unsuspected ability of the benthic organisms to interact at different levels with rocky substrata. Therefore, the mineralogy of the substratum can affect the structure of benthic communities. To evaluate this hypothesis, the macrobenthic assemblages developed on two different ophiolitic rocks (serpentinites and metagabbros) in contact at a restricted stretch of the western Ligurian Riviera (western Mediterranean Sea), with identical environmental and climatic conditions, were analysed. Samplings were carried out at four bathymetric levels (+1m, 0m, -1m, and -3m respect to the mean sea level) and the analysis of the data evidenced differences in terms of species distribution and percent coverage. Algal communities growing on metagabbros were poorer in species richness and showed a much simpler structure when compared to the assemblages occurring on the serpentinites. The most widely distributed animal organism, the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus, was dominant on serpentinites, and virtually absent on metagabbros. Our results suggest a complex pattern of interactions between lithology and benthic organisms operating through processes of inhibition/facilitation related to the mineral properties of the substratum.

  10. Epicurus and Athens: the creation of an identity community different from the polis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José PASCUAL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to demonstrate that Epicurus’ life was influenced by the political facts that Athens went through during the period from 341 to 267 B.C. And also that through the analysis of Epicurus’ critics to the three elements that support the polis , especially the Athenian polis, the paideia, the participation in the political life and the religion of the polis, it tries to prove that the philosopher constituted a different community from the civic one which identity signs where far away from those of the polis.

  11. Exploring sex and gender differences in sleep health: a Society for Women's Health Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampalli, Monica P; Carter, Christine L

    2014-07-01

    Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by gender differences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and gender differences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and gender differences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions.

  12. Towards Community-Based Communication Intervention for Severely Handicapped Children. Report ASS/BBS-48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alant, Erna

    This report describes the development of a community-based service for the implementation of augmentative and alternative communication strategies with regard to children with severe disabilities in South Africa. The intervention process was developed by the Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication of the University of Pretoria. The…

  13. Solar Heating/Cooling of Buildings: Current Building Community Projects. An Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Building Research Advisory Board.

    Projects being carried out by the private sector involving the use of solar energy for heating and cooling buildings are profiled in this report. A substantial portion of the data were collected from a broad cross-section of the building community. Data collection efforts also involved the canvassing of the nearly 200 trade and professional…

  14. The Community's research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear installations. Third annual progress report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This is the third annual progress report of the European Community's programme (1984-88) of research on the decommissioning of nuclear installations. It shows the status of the programme on 31 December 1987. The third progress report describes the objectives, scope and work programme of the 69 research contracts concluded, as well as the progress of work achieved and the results obtained in 1987

  15. The community's research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear installations. Fourth annual progress report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This is the fourth annual progress report on the European Community's programme (1984-88) of research on the decommissioning of nuclear installations. It shows the status of the programme at 31 December 1988. The fourth progress report describes the objectives, scope and work programme of the 72 research contracts concluded, as well as the progress of work achieved and the results obtained in 1988

  16. Can differences in soil community composition after peat meadow restoration lead to different decomposition and mineralization rates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.; Didden, W.A.M.; Kuenen, F.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Verhoef, H.A.; Aerts, R.

    2009-01-01

    Reducing decomposition and mineralization of organic matter by increasing groundwater levels is a common approach to reduce plant nutrient availability in many peat meadow restoration projects. The soil community is the main driver of these processes, but how community composition is affected by

  17. Bacterial Community Associated with Healthy and Diseased Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Larvae and Rearing Water across Different Growth Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yanfen; Yu, Min; Liu, Jiwen; Qiao, Yanlu; Wang, Long; Li, Zhitao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Mingchao

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial communities are called another “organ” for aquatic animals and their important influence on the health of host has drawn increasing attention. Thus, it is important to study the relationships between aquatic animals and bacterial communities. Here, bacterial communities associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at different healthy statuses (diseased and healthy) and growth stages (i.e., zoea, mysis, and early postlarvae periods) were examined using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S r...

  18. Ethnic Differences for Public Health Knowledge, Health Advocacy Skills, and Health Information Seeking Among High School Students: Community Agents of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Rao, Satya; Marquez, Ruben

    2018-03-06

    Although adult health advocacy programs have been examined in communities, little is known about integrated adolescent health advocacy programs in high schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the health advocacy program impact and ethnic differences among high school students. Using a cross-sectional study, high school students participating in the school-based program completed evaluation surveys. The program domains included upstream causes of health, community assets, and public health advocacy. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine ethnic differences for public health knowledge, health advocacy skills, and health information seeking behaviors. Using thematic analysis, open-ended survey item responses were coded to identify themes for students' perceptions of community health. Non-Hispanic (n = 72) and Hispanic high school students (n = 182) in ten classes reported owning smartphones (95%) and laptops (76%). Most students (72%) reported seeking online health information. Non-Hispanic students reported significantly higher health advocacy skills for speaking with the class about health issues, identifying community services, or creating health awareness at school than Hispanic students. Non-Hispanic students were more likely to seek health information from fathers and television than Hispanic students. Hispanic students were more likely to seek health information from hospital or clinic staff than non-Hispanic students. Emergent themes included health advocacy skills, community awareness, and individual and community health changes. High schools benefit from integrating health advocacy programs into the core curriculum. Adolescents gain important skills to improve their individual health and engage in changing community health.

  19. The Impact of Formal versus Informal Sport: Mapping the Differences in Sense of Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Stacy; Dixon, Marlene A.; Chalip, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    As the popularity of sport continues to grow, more community developers, planners, and leaders are recognizing the ability for sport to foster community. Similar to other community contexts, understanding the structure and management of sport remains central to community building. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explain how sport system…

  20. Pattern of adverse drug reactions reported by the community pharmacists in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaian S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacovigilance program in Nepal is less than a decade old, and is hospital centered. This study highlights the findings of a community based pharmacovigilance program involving the community pharmacists. Objectives: To collect the demographic details of the patients experiencing adverse drug reactions (ADR reported by the community pharmacists; to identify the common drugs causing the ADRs, the common types of ADRs; and to carry out the causality, severity and preventability assessments of the reported ADRs. Methods: The baseline Knowledge-Attitude-Practices (KAP of 116 community pharmacists from Pokhara valley towards drug safety was evaluated using a validated (Cronbach alpha=0.61 KAP questionnaire having 20 questions [(knowledge 11, attitude 5 and practice 4 maximum possible score 40]. Thirty community pharmacists with high scores were selected for three training sessions, each session lasting for one to two hours, covering the basic knowledge required for the community pharmacists for ADR reporting. Pharmacist from the regional pharmacovigilance center visited the trained community pharmacists every alternate day and collected the filled ADR reporting forms. Results: Altogether 71 ADRs, from 71 patients (37 males were reported. Antibiotics/ antibacterials caused 42% (n=37 of the total ADRs followed by non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [25% (n=22]. Ibuprofen/paracetamol combination accounted for ten ADRs. The most common type of ADR was itching [17.2 % (n=20, followed by generalized edema [8.6 % (n=10]. In order to manage the ADRs, the patients needed medical treatment in 69% (n=49 of the cases. Over two third (69% of the ADRs had a ‘possible’ association with the suspected drugs and a high percentage (70.4% were of ‘mild (level 2’ type. Nearly two third [64.7 % (n=46] of the ADRs were ‘definitely preventable’. Conclusion: The common class of drugs known to cause ADRs was antibacterial/ antibiotics. Ibuprofen

  1. Concussion Knowledge and Reporting Behavior Differences Between High School Athletes at Urban and Suburban High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jessica; Covassin, Tracey; Nogle, Sally; Gould, Daniel; Kovan, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    We determined differences in knowledge of concussion and reporting behaviors of high school athletes attending urban and suburban high schools, and whether a relationship exists between underreporting and access to an athletic trainer in urban schools. High school athletes (N = 715) from 14 high schools completed a validated knowledge of concussion survey consisting of 83 questions. The independent variable was school type (urban/suburban). We examined the proportion of athletes who correctly identified signs and symptoms of concussion, knowledge of concussion and reasons why high school athletes would not disclose a potential concussive injury across school classification. Data were analyzed using descriptive, non-parametric, and inferential statistics. Athletes attending urban schools have less concussion knowledge than athletes attending suburban schools (p urban schools without an athletic trainer have less knowledge than urban athletes at schools with an athletic trainer (p urban schools and 10 reasons for not reporting. Concussion education efforts cannot be homogeneous in all communities. Education interventions must reflect the needs of each community. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  2. Archaeal and Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus of Caribbean Corals Differ in Their Degree of Host Specificity and Community Turnover Over Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, Pedro R; Roll, Katharina; Bergauer, Kristin; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the distribution of archaeal versus bacterial communities associated with the surface mucus layer of corals have rarely taken place. It has therefore remained enigmatic whether mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities exhibit a similar specificity towards coral hosts and whether they vary in the same fashion over spatial gradients and between reef locations. We used microbial community profiling (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP) and clone library sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the diversity and community structure of dominant archaeal and bacterial communities associating with the mucus of three common reef-building coral species (Porites astreoides, Siderastrea siderea and Orbicella annularis) over different spatial scales on a Caribbean fringing reef. Sampling locations included three reef sites, three reef patches within each site and two depths. Reference sediment samples and ambient water were also taken for each of the 18 sampling locations resulting in a total of 239 samples. While only 41% of the bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) characterized by T-RFLP were shared between mucus and the ambient water or sediment, for archaeal OTUs this percentage was 2-fold higher (78%). About half of the mucus-associated OTUs (44% and 58% of bacterial and archaeal OTUs, respectively) were shared between the three coral species. Our multivariate statistical analysis (ANOSIM, PERMANOVA and CCA) showed that while the bacterial community composition was determined by habitat (mucus, sediment or seawater), host coral species, location and spatial distance, the archaeal community composition was solely determined by the habitat. This study highlights that mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities differ in their degree of community turnover over reefs and in their host-specificity.

  3. Archaeal and Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus of Caribbean Corals Differ in Their Degree of Host Specificity and Community Turnover Over Reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R Frade

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on the distribution of archaeal versus bacterial communities associated with the surface mucus layer of corals have rarely taken place. It has therefore remained enigmatic whether mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities exhibit a similar specificity towards coral hosts and whether they vary in the same fashion over spatial gradients and between reef locations. We used microbial community profiling (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP and clone library sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the diversity and community structure of dominant archaeal and bacterial communities associating with the mucus of three common reef-building coral species (Porites astreoides, Siderastrea siderea and Orbicella annularis over different spatial scales on a Caribbean fringing reef. Sampling locations included three reef sites, three reef patches within each site and two depths. Reference sediment samples and ambient water were also taken for each of the 18 sampling locations resulting in a total of 239 samples. While only 41% of the bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs characterized by T-RFLP were shared between mucus and the ambient water or sediment, for archaeal OTUs this percentage was 2-fold higher (78%. About half of the mucus-associated OTUs (44% and 58% of bacterial and archaeal OTUs, respectively were shared between the three coral species. Our multivariate statistical analysis (ANOSIM, PERMANOVA and CCA showed that while the bacterial community composition was determined by habitat (mucus, sediment or seawater, host coral species, location and spatial distance, the archaeal community composition was solely determined by the habitat. This study highlights that mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities differ in their degree of community turnover over reefs and in their host-specificity.

  4. Effects of imidacloprid on soil microbial communities in different saline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingming; Xue, Changhui; Wang, Caixia

    2015-12-01

    The effects of imidacloprid in the soil environment are a worldwide concern. However, the impact of imidacloprid on soil microorganisms under salt stress is almost unknown. Therefore, an indoor incubation test was performed, and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach was used to determine the response of different saline soil bacterial and fungal community structures to the presence of imidacloprid (0.4, 2, 10 mg kg(-1)). The results showed that the soil bacterial diversity slightly declined with increasing imidacloprid concentration in soils with low salinity. In moderately saline soils, a new band in the DGGE profile suggested that imidacloprid could improve the soil bacterial diversity to some degree. An analysis of variance indicated that the measured soil bacterial diversity parameters were significantly affected by dose and incubation time. Compared with the control, the soil fungal community structure showed no obvious changes in low and moderately saline soils treated with imidacloprid. The results of these observations provide a basic understanding of the potential ecological effects of imidacloprid on different microorganisms in saline soils.

  5. Study of microarthopod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, E.; Goggioli, D.; Tarchi, F.; Guidi, S.; Nannelli, R.; Vignozzi, N.; Valboa, G.; Lottero, M. R.; Corino, L.; Simoni, S.

    2015-01-01

    Land use influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the impact of different management strategies on soil quality is increasingly requested. The determination of communities' structures of edaphic fauna can represent an efficient tool. In this study, in some vineyards in Piedmont (Italy), the effects of two different management systems, organic and integrated pest management (IPM), on soil biota were evaluated. As microarthropods living in soil surface are an important component of soil ecosystem interacting with all the other system components, a multi disciplinary approach was adopted by characterizing also some soil physical and chemical characteristics (soil texture, soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, calcium carbonate). Soil samplings were carried out on Winter 2011 and Spring 2012. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biological quality of the soil was defined through the determination of ecological indices, such as QBS-ar, species richness and indices of Shannon-Weaver, Pielou, Margalef and Simpson. The mesofauna abundance was affected by both the type of management and the soil texture. The analysis of microarthropod communities by QBS-ar showed higher values in organic than in IPM managed vineyards; in particular, the values registered in organic vineyards were similar to those characteristic of preserved soils.

  6. [Assemblage effect of ground arthropod community in desert steppe shrubs with different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Tao; Zhu, Fan; Chai, Yong-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Taking the 6-, 15-, 24- and 36-year-old Caragana intermedia shrubs in desert steppe as a subject, an investigation on soil properties and ground arthropod community was carried out under the shrub and in the open to probe into the assemblage effect of ground arthropod community in desert steppe shrubs with different ages. The results were as follows: 1) In the 6-year-old shrubland, significant differences were only found in soil physical properties (soil texture, soil moisture and electrical conductivity) between the microhabitats under shrub and in the open. Beginning from the 15-year-old shrubland, however, soil organic matter and nutrition (N, P) increased significantly. 2) A total of 27 groups were captured in the studied sites which dominated by Carabidae, Tenebrionidae and Formicidae. From 6- to 15-year-old shrubland, the number of dominant groups decreased while that of common groups increased for the ground arthropod community under the shrub. From 15- to 24- and 36-year-old shrubland, the difference between the microhabitats under the shrub and in the open decreased firstly, and then increased. Some special groups appeared under the shrub in the 36-year-old shrubland, and dung beetles became dominant. 3) In the 6- and 24-year-old shrublands, there were no significant differences in group richness, abundance, and diversity index between the microhabitats under the shrub and in the open. As for the 15- and 36-year-old shrublands, however, significant differences were observed. 4) The shrub age had a stronger effect on the distribution of ground arthropods living under the shrubs compared to that in the open. The changes in soil texture, pH and electrical conductivity could significantly influence on the distribution of ground arthropods under the shrub, also in the open to some degree. It was suggested that the development of shrubland had strong impact on assemblage effect of ground arthropods, which was closely correlated with the stand age and would

  7. Gender differences in physical disability among older adults in underprivileged communities in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Mehio Sibai, Abla; Chaaya, Monique; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Yount, Kathryn M

    2011-03-01

    To examine the role of health conditions, socioeconomic, and socioenvironmental factors in explaining gender differences in physical disability among older adults. We compared 412 women and 328 men residing in underprivileged communities in Lebanon on their activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and physical tasks (PT). Binary logistic regression analyses adjusting for possible explanatory covariates were conducted sequentially. Women showed higher prevalence rates of ADL, IADL, and PT compared to men. Gender disparities in ADL disability were explained by chronic-disease risk factors and health conditions (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 0.94-2.25). The odds of disability in IADL and PT remained significantly higher for women compared to men after accounting for all available covariates. These results suggest underlying differences in functional status between women and men, yet, may have been influenced by the sensitivity of the measures to the social context and gendered environment surrounding daily activities.

  8. Urban Transit System Microbial Communities Differ by Surface Type and Interaction with Humans and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tiffany; Joice, Regina; Vallarino, Jose; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Hartmann, Erica M; Shafquat, Afrah; DuLong, Casey; Baranowski, Catherine; Gevers, Dirk; Green, Jessica L; Morgan, Xochitl C; Spengler, John D; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Public transit systems are ideal for studying the urban microbiome and interindividual community transfer. In this study, we used 16S amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to profile microbial communities on multiple transit surfaces across train lines and stations in the Boston metropolitan transit system. The greatest determinant of microbial community structure was the transit surface type. In contrast, little variation was observed between geographically distinct train lines and stations serving different demographics. All surfaces were dominated by human skin and oral commensals such as Propionibacterium , Corynebacterium , Staphylococcus , and Streptococcus . The detected taxa not associated with humans included generalists from alphaproteobacteria, which were especially abundant on outdoor touchscreens. Shotgun metagenomics further identified viral and eukaryotic microbes, including Propionibacterium phage and Malassezia globosa . Functional profiling showed that Propionibacterium acnes pathways such as propionate production and porphyrin synthesis were enriched on train holding surfaces (holds), while electron transport chain components for aerobic respiration were enriched on touchscreens and seats. Lastly, the transit environment was not found to be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. Our results suggest that microbial communities on transit surfaces are maintained from a metapopulation of human skin commensals and environmental generalists, with enrichments corresponding to local interactions with the human body and environmental exposures. IMPORTANCE Mass transit environments, specifically, urban subways, are distinct microbial environments with high occupant densities, diversities, and turnovers, and they are thus especially relevant to public health. Despite this, only three culture-independent subway studies have been performed, all since 2013 and all with widely differing designs and conclusions. In this study, we

  9. Study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, Elena; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Corino, Lorenzo; Goggioli, Donatella; Guidi, Silvia; Lottero, Mariarosa; Tarchi, Franca; Simoni, Sauro

    2014-05-01

    Land use type influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the effects of different crop managements on soil quality is commonly requested; it can be pursued by means of the determination of communities' structure of edaphic fauna. The development and application of biological indices may represent an efficient mean to assess soil quality. We evaluated the effect of crop managements (organic and Integrated Pest Management-IPM) in some vineyards in Piedmont (Italy) on soil biota in relation to some physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. The study was performed in eleven sites, including seven organic and four IPM managed vineyards located in the Costigliole d'Asti area. Samplings were carried out during the winter 2011 and the spring 2012. Soil samples were collected using a cylindrical soil core sampler (3cm diameter x 30cm height): each sample was a cylindrical soil core which was equally subdivided to study arthropod communities at different depth ranges. Additional samples were collected and analyzed for the following soil physical and chemical properties: texture (sedigraph method), pH (1:2.5 soil/water), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (NT) and calcium carbonate (dry combustion by CN analyzer). The extraction of microarthropods was performed using the selector Berlese-Tullgren. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The influence of soil properties and of agronomic practices on the abundance of mesofauna was evaluated by multivariate analysis (MANOVA). The biological soil quality was also defined through the determination of biotic indices such as the qualitative and quantitative QBSar (Quality Biological Soil - arthropods), and biodiversity indices such as species richness and indices of Shannon-Wiener (H') and Simpson (D). Overall, more than four thousands arthropods were collected and the highest abundance was in biological management with about 2:1 ratio (biological vs

  10. Methane production potential and microbial community structure for different forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Ueyama, M.; Kominami, Y.; Endo, R.; Tokumoto, H.; Hirano, T.; Takagi, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Iwata, H.; Harazono, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Forest soils are often considered as a methane (CH4) sink, but anaerobic microsites potentially decrease the sink at the ecosystem scale. In this study, we measured biological CH4 production potential of soils at various ecosystems, including upland forests, a lowland forest, and a bog, and analyzed microbial community structure using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Three different types of soil samples (upland, bank of the stream, and center of the stream) were collected from Yamashiro forest meteorology research site (YMS) at Kyoto, Japan, on 11 May 2017. The soils were incubated at dark and anaerobic conditions under three different temperatures (37°C, 25°C, and 10°C) from 9 June 2017. The upland soils emitted CH4 with largest yields among the three soils at 37°C and 25°C, although no CH4 emission was observed at 10°C. For all temperature ranges, the emission started to increase with a 14- to 20-days lag after the start of the incubation. The lag indicates a slow transition to anaerobic conditions; as dissolved oxygen in water decreased, the number and/or activity of anaerobic bacteria like methanogens increased. The soils at the bank and center of the stream emitted CH4 with smaller yields than the upland soils in the three temperature ranges. The microbial community analyses indicate that methanogenic archaea presented at the three soils including the aerobic upland soil, but compositions of methanogenic archaea were different among the soils. In upland soils, hydrogenotrophic methanogens, such as Methanobacterium and Methanothermobacter, consisted almost all of the total methanogen detected. In the bank and center of the stream, soils contained approximately 10-25% of acetoclastic methanogens, such as Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta, among the total methanogen detected. Methanotrophs, a genus of Methanobacteriaceae, was appeared in the all types of soils. We will present results from same incubation and 16S rRNA analyses for other ecosystems, including

  11. DIFFERENCES IN REPORTED FIRM PERFORMANCE BY GENDER: DOES INDUSTRY MATTER?

    OpenAIRE

    JANE L. SWINNEY; RODNEY C. RUNYAN; PATRICIA HUDDLESTON

    2006-01-01

    Business performance results were collected from small business entrepreneurs in one Mid-western state operating in the retail and services industries. These industries account for more than 80 percent of female entrepreneurs' fields of operation. The pattern of reported firm performance between the genders indicated that male entrepreneurs with a high school education reported the highest firm performance scores overall. Female entrepreneurs with a college degree reported the highest firm pe...

  12. Two different techniques of manufacturing TMJ replacements - A technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakiewicz, Marcin; Wach, Tomasz; Szymor, Piotr; Zieliński, Rafał

    2017-09-01

    Presently, during the surgical treatment of the patients in maxillofacial surgery, one can use various medical implants. Moreover custom made implants are being used. Replacements may be fitted to the structure and shape of the human skull owing to CAD/CAM (custom aided design/manufacture) called customized implants. This study was aimed to report for the first time clinical material from which custom implants, using two different techniques, were manufactured to reconstruct the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In this study, eleven patients with an average age of 54 years were included. All of the patients underwent TMJ reconstruction using direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) or computer numerical control milling (CNC) techniques for implant manufacture. Four of the eleven patients had a malignancy diagnosis, and seven had a benign diagnosis. Patients complained of hypomobility of the TMJ, facial asymmetry, pain and swelling of the preauricular region. Treatment included 7 CNC milled implants and 4 implants in DMLS. More metallic implant parts with a rough surface were associated with the DMLS technique. Post operational, uneventful healing was observed in all clinical cases during an average of 26.8 months of follow-up. Three months post-operation, facial nerve palsy, swallowing disturbances and pain were not observed. Infections, allergic reactions to materials and re-ankylosis were also not observed. Replacements received correct forms and functions owing to the CAM techniques. Post-operational maximal interincisal opening improved (p < 0.01) and was not significantly related to preoperational opening, age, sex, diagnosis or adjuvant radiotherapy. Considering both methods, the feature that differentiates the manufacture technique is the more subtractive surface finishing required for the DMLS implant than the CNC implant. Both techniques resulted the same clinical outcomes and can be used successfully in patients with neoplastic lesions and other TMJ disorders

  13. Two-Step Oxidation of Refractory Gold Concentrates with Different Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Hua; Xie, Jian-Ping; Li, Shou-Peng; Guo, Yu-Jie; Pan, Ying; Wu, Haiyan; Liu, Xin-Xing

    2016-11-28

    Bio-oxidation is an effective technology for treatment of refractory gold concentrates. However, the unsatisfactory oxidation rate and long residence time, which cause a lower cyanide leaching rate and gold recovery, are key factors that restrict the application of traditional bio-oxidation technology. In this study, the oxidation rate of refractory gold concentrates and the adaption of microorganisms were analyzed to evaluate a newly developed two-step pretreatment process, which includes a high temperature chemical oxidation step and a subsequent bio-oxidation step. The oxidation rate and recovery rate of gold were improved significantly after the two-step process. The results showed that the highest oxidation rate of sulfide sulfur could reach to 99.01 % with an extreme thermophile microbial community when the pulp density was 5%. Accordingly, the recovery rate of gold was elevated to 92.51%. Meanwhile, the results revealed that moderate thermophiles performed better than acidophilic mesophiles and extreme thermophiles, whose oxidation rates declined drastically when the pulp density was increased to 10% and 15%. The oxidation rates of sulfide sulfur with moderate thermophiles were 93.94% and 65.73% when the pulp density was increased to 10% and 15%, respectively. All these results indicated that the two-step pretreatment increased the oxidation rate of refractory gold concentrates and is a potential technology to pretreat the refractory sample. Meanwhile, owing to the sensitivity of the microbial community under different pulp density levels, the optimization of microbial community in bio-oxidation is necessary in industry.

  14. Diversity and structure of Chironomidae communities in relation to water quality differences in the Swartkops River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odume, O. N.; Muller, W. J.

    The Swartkops River is an important freshwater ecosystem in South Africa. But owing to its location, it suffers varying degrees of human induced impacts which include industrial and domestic effluent discharges, deforestation as well as agricultural land use which have negatively impacted on the water quality. Diversity and community composition of aquatic insects are frequently used to assess environmental water quality status. Chironomids occupy extremely varied biotopes. Their extraordinary ecological range and environmental sensitivity make them particularly useful for assessing and interpreting changes in water quality of aquatic ecosystems. The community structure of chironomid larvae was investigated at four sites in the Swartkops River and effects of different chemical and physical variables on their distribution were explored. Chironomid larvae were collected using the South African Scoring System version 5 (SASS5) protocol. A total of 26 taxa from four sampling sites in the Swartkops River were identified. Margalef’s species richness index, equitability, Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were highest at site 1 (reference site). The downstream sites contained 6-20 taxa compared to the 25 taxa at site 1. Site 1 was characterised by the subfamilies Orthocladiinae, Tanypodinae and the tribe Tanytarsini while the impacted sites were characterised by Orthocladiinae and Chironomini. Chironomus spp., Dirotendipes sp., Kiefferulus sp. and Tanypus sp. seemed to be tolerant to pollution, occurring in high abundance at sites 2, 3 and 4. In contrast, Polypedilum sp., Tanytarsus sp., Orthocladius sp., Cricotopus spp. and Ablabesmyia sp. appeared to be more sensitive taxa, being less common at the impacted sites (sites 2, 3 and 4). Five days biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, orthophosphate-phosphorus and total inorganic nitrogen were among the important variables that determine the observed chironomid community structure

  15. Enrichment of the hydrogen-producing microbial community from marine intertidal sludge by different pretreatment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongyan [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Shinan District, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); College of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Wang, Guangce [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Shinan District, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); College of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Zhu, Daling; Pan, Guanghua [College of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2009-12-15

    To determine the effects of pretreatment on hydrogen production and the hydrogen-producing microbial community, we treated the sludge from the intertidal zone of a bathing beach in Tianjin with four different pretreatment methods, including acid treatment, heat-shock, base treatment as well as freezing and thawing. The results showed that acid pretreatment significantly promoted the hydrogen production by sludge and provided the highest efficiency of hydrogen production among the four methods. The efficiency of the hydrogen production of the acid-pretreated sludge was 0.86 {+-} 0.07 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose (mean {+-} S.E.), whereas that of the sludge treated with heat-shock, freezing and thawing, base method and control was 0.41 {+-} 0.03 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, 0.17 {+-} 0.01 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, 0.11 {+-} 0.01 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose and 0.20 {+-} 0.04 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, respectively. The result of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that pretreatment methods altered the composition of the microbial community that accounts for hydrogen production. Acid and heat pretreatments were favorable to enrich the dominant hydrogen-producing bacterium, i.e. Clostridium sp., Enterococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. However, besides hydrogen-producing bacteria, much non-hydrogen-producing Lactobacillus sp. was also found in the sludge pretreated with base, freezing and thawing methods. Therefore, based on our results, we concluded that, among the four pretreatment methods using acid, heat-shock, base or freezing and thawing, acid pretreatment was the most effective method for promoting hydrogen production of microbial community. (author)

  16. Innerarity and Immunology: Difference and Identity in selves, bodies and communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Bula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Innerarity’s Ethics of Hospitality highlights a tension in both communities and individuals between embracing difference and protecting identity, while recognizing that difference is constitutive of identity (the fear that dominates contemporary society is above all a fear of difference, of contamination. This dynamical relation between difference and identity can be seen in the workings of the human immune system, as explained by Chilean biologist and philosopher Francisco Varela: the immune system is a process of perpetual construction of bodily identity through self-referential cognition and distinction between self and non-self. This similarity allows for interesting analogies: for example, a society torn apart by xenophobia and chauvinism can be seen as analogous to a body ravaged by an autoimmune disease such as lupus. With the working hypothesis that the similarities respond to what Stafford Beer calls “systemic invariance”,   this paper explores the similarities between the activity of the immune system and the relation between identity and difference in the work of Innerarity.

  17. Parents' reports of the body shape and feeding habits of 36-month-old children: an investigation of gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Gau, Jeffrey M; Joiner, Thomas E; Striegel-Moore, Ruth; Otamendi, Ainhoa

    2005-11-01

    The current study examined parental perception of offspring body shape, differential reporting of offspring eating behaviors by mothers and fathers, and gender-specific patterns of offspring feeding habits. Parents of a community sample of 36-month-old children (N = 93) completed measures regarding their offspring's feeding patterns and body shape. Results revealed noteworthy correlates (e.g., concerns about their child's appetite) of parental perception of offspring weight status. They further suggested that mothers and fathers often differed in their accounts of their child's eating habits, and that parents report certain eating behaviors differently depending on the gender of their child. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  18. Endoparasite Community Differences in Sunfish (Lepomis spp.) Above and Below Coal Mine Effluent in Southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Andrew; Laursen, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    Parasite assemblages acquired through trophic interactions in fish hosts are increasingly cited as a means to determine pollution effects on water quality and food web structure. We examined gastrointestinal parasite community changes above and below coal mine input from 597 individuals representing 3 species of sunfish: green sunfish ( Lepomis cyanellus ), bluegill ( L. macrochirus ), and longear sunfish ( L. megalotis ). Hosts were collected from 6 sites in or near the south fork of the Saline River Basin in southern Illinois in the spring and fall of 2006. Three sites received no known effluent from coal mines. An additional 3 sites received effluent termed acid mine drainage (AMD). We recovered 1,064 parasites from 12 genera. The parasite community in sunfish collected downstream nearest to the source of AMD was significantly different from 3 upstream sites. In addition, 2 sites farther downstream receiving AMD were different from 2 of 3 reference sites. However, there was also considerable variability in parasite assemblages between sites grouped as above or below coal mine effluent. Several parasite species responded to changes in water quality. Spinitectus sp. (Nematoda), which uses sensitive mayfly hosts to complete its life cycle, was less abundant at sites downstream of coal mine effluent in both green sunfish and bluegill. In contrast, 2 acanthocephalans ( Neoechinorhynchus sp. and Eocollis arcanus) and a nematode ( Spiroxys sp.) were found in green sunfish more frequently in areas downstream of AMD. This study further suggests metazoan parasites may be useful as indicators of water quality; however, variability among similar sites may limit their application. In addition, strong assemblage differences were found among the 3 sunfish species, suggesting variable habitat usage and potential resource partitioning among congeneric fish hosts in streams.

  19. A carbon finance fund for local communities: why? how? Study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Nicolas; Delbosc, Anais; Dupont, Marion; Leseur, Alexia

    2013-09-01

    This study aims at promoting practices of ecological and social transition and sustainable development for local communities, and at developing the North-South solidarity in terms of development and struggle against poverty on issues like access to water and sanitation, and access to electrification by means of renewable energies. The first part describes the role of voluntary offsetting within the carbon finance, gives an overview of the use of carbon finance by local communities. The second part discusses the involvement of local communities in decentralized cooperation for climate-energy projects. The third one reports the analysis of the main benefits and constraints of the implementation of a local carbon fund in relationship with a decentralized cooperation approach

  20. Fringing reefs exposed to different levels of eutrophication and sedimentation can support similar benthic communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouzé, H.; Lecellier, G.; Langlade, M.J.; Planes, S.; Berteaux-Lecellier, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess anthropogenic pressures on coral reef health. • We present a spatio-temporal survey of environmental parameters as bio-indicators. • Poor water quality (e.g. high turbidity and high sediments) was not correlated with lower coral cover. • Phytoplankton community size-composition and habitat stability were important predictors of coral reef health. - Abstract: Benthic communities are sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances which can result in changes in species assemblages. A spatio-temporal survey of environmental parameters was conducted over an 18-month period on four different fringing reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia, with unusual vs. frequent human pressures. This survey included assessment of biological, chemical, and physical parameters. First, the results showed a surprising lack of a seasonal trend, which was likely obscured by short-term variability in lagoons. More frequent sampling periods would likely improve the evaluation of a seasonal effect on biological and ecological processes. Second, the three reef habitats studied that were dominated by corals were highly stable, despite displaying antagonistic environmental conditions through eutrophication and sedimentation gradients, whereas the reef dominated by macroalgae was relatively unstable. Altogether, our data challenge the paradigm of labelling environmental parameters such as turbidity, sedimentation, and nutrient-richness as stress indicators

  1. The Effects of Different Forest Loggings on Forest Birds Community Composition in Shastkolateh Forest, Gorgan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Parsaei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The species composition of a bird community is dependent upon many factors. Within any geographic area, vegetation structure may be the most important factor. The changes of bird community composition based on foraging behavior in relation to 3 different harvesting systems, including strip cutting, group selection logging, and single tree selection logging, was evaluated in a virgin area in this study. Birds and environmental variables were detected within 103 circle sampling plots with 25m radius. Based on the results, 4 groups of birds were observed in treatments based on the foraging behavior. Group 1 was ground foragers, group 2 consisted of foliage gleaning, group 3 included flycatchers, and group 4 represented bark foraging. The first group had the highest abundance in the strip treatment. The second group in group selection treatment, and the third and fourth groups had the highest abundance in the virgin area and then, in single tree selection treatment. The first group showed the highest correlation with shrub and herb or grass layer, stone cover and the number of trees 10-20m in height. The second, third and fourth groups showed the highest correlation with the number of trees>20m in height, basal areas, dead trees number, and the number of fagus trees. The results showed the single cutting treatment had a relatively minor effect on mature forest bird species and were more appropriate and sustainable methods to reduce the negative effects of forest harvesting on the birds.

  2. Bioelectrochemical BTEX removal at different voltages: assessment of the degradation and characterization of the microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghio, Matteo; Espinoza Tofalos, Anna; Leoni, Barbara; Cristiani, Pierangela; Papacchini, Maddalena; Jalilnejad, Elham; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Franzetti, Andrea

    2018-01-05

    BTEX compounds (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes) are toxic hydrocarbons that can be found in groundwater due to accidental spills. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are an innovative technology to stimulate the anaerobic degradation of hydrocarbons. In this work, single chamber BESs were used to assess the degradation of a BTEX mixture at different applied voltages (0.8V, 1.0V, 1.2V) between the electrodes. Hydrocarbon degradation was linked to current production and to sulfate reduction, at all the tested potentials. The highest current densities (about 200mA/m 2 with a maximum peak at 480mA/m 2 ) were observed when 0.8V were applied. The application of an external voltage increased the removal of toluene, m-xylene and p-xylene. The highest removal rate constants at 0.8V were: 0.4±0.1days -1 , 0.34±0.09days -1 and 0.16±0.02days -1 , respectively. At the end of the experiment, the microbial communities were characterized by high throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Microorganisms belonging to the families Desulfobulbaceae, Desulfuromonadaceae and Geobacteraceae were enriched on the anodes suggesting that both direct electron transfer and sulfur cycling occurred. The cathodic communities were dominated by the family Desulfomicrobiaceae that may be involved in hydrogen production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increasing Patient Engagement in Pharmacovigilance Through Online Community Outreach and Mobile Reporting Applications: An Analysis of Adverse Event Reporting for the Essure Device in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Chi Y; Goshgarian, Melanie; Donahue, Krystal; Freifeld, Clark C; Menone, Christopher M; Pierce, Carrie E; Rodriguez, Harold; Brownstein, John S; Furberg, Robert; Dasgupta, Nabarun

    salpingectomy (62), were reported by 598 women (44.3 %). Other events of interest included loss of libido ( n  = 115); allergy to metals (109), primarily nickel; and alopecia (252). VigiGrade completeness scores were high, averaging 0.80 (±0.15). Reports received via the mobile app were considered "well documented" 55.9 % of the time, compared with an international average of 13 % for all medical products. On average, there were 15 times more reports submitted per month via the app with patient community support versus traditional pharmacovigilance portals. Outreach via an online patient community, coupled with an easy-to-use app, allowed for rapid and detailed ICSRs to be submitted, with gains in efficiency. Two-way communication and public posting of narratives led to successful engagement within a Motivation-Incentive-Activation-Behavior framework, a conceptual model for successful crowdsourcing. Reports submitted by patients were considerably more complete than those submitted by physicians in routine spontaneous reports. Further research is needed to understand how biases operate differently from those of traditional pharmacovigilance.

  4. How do different types of community commitment influence brand commitment? The mediation of brand attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Zhi-min; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-11-01

    Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management.

  5. Medication Incidents Related to Automated Dose Dispensing in Community Pharmacies and Hospitals - A Reporting System Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka-Chun; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.; Bouvy, Marcel L.; Wensing, Michel; De Smet, Peter A. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Automated dose dispensing (ADD) is being introduced in several countries and the use of this technology is expected to increase as a growing number of elderly people need to manage their medication at home. ADD aims to improve medication safety and treatment adherence, but it may introduce new safety issues. This descriptive study provides insight into the nature and consequences of medication incidents related to ADD, as reported by healthcare professionals in community pharmacies and hospitals. Methods The medication incidents that were submitted to the Dutch Central Medication incidents Registration (CMR) reporting system were selected and characterized independently by two researchers. Main Outcome Measures Person discovering the incident, phase of the medication process in which the incident occurred, immediate cause of the incident, nature of incident from the healthcare provider's perspective, nature of incident from the patient's perspective, and consequent harm to the patient caused by the incident. Results From January 2012 to February 2013 the CMR received 15,113 incidents: 3,685 (24.4%) incidents from community pharmacies and 11,428 (75.6%) incidents from hospitals. Eventually 1 of 50 reported incidents (268/15,113 = 1.8%) were related to ADD; in community pharmacies more incidents (227/3,685 = 6.2%) were related to ADD than in hospitals (41/11,428 = 0.4%). The immediate cause of an incident was often a change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation. Most reported incidents occurred in two phases: entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag. Conclusion A proportion of incidents was related to ADD and is reported regularly, especially by community pharmacies. In two phases, entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag, most incidents occurred. A change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation was the immediate causes of an incident

  6. Semi-wild chimpanzees open hard-shelled fruits differently across communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Bruce; Davila-Ross, Marina; Boysen, Sarah T

    2014-07-01

    Researchers investigating the evolutionary roots of human culture have turned to comparing behaviours across nonhuman primate communities, with tool-based foraging in particular receiving much attention. This study examined whether natural extractive foraging behaviours other than tool selection differed across nonhuman primate colonies that had the same foods available. Specifically, the behaviours applied to open the hard-shelled fruits of Strychnos spp. were examined in three socially separate, semi-wild colonies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that lived under shared ecological conditions at Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage, and were comparable in their genetic makeup. The chimpanzees (N=56) consistently applied six techniques to open these fruits. GLMM results revealed differences in the number of combined technique types to open fruits across the colonies. They also showed colony differences in the application of three specific techniques. Two techniques (full biting and fruit cracking) were entirely absent in some colonies. This study provides empirical evidence that natural hard-shelled fruit-opening behaviours are distinct across chimpanzee colonies, differences that most likely have not resulted from ecological and genetic reasons.

  7. The reproduction of difference in the practices of Free/Libre Open Source Software Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Free software is developed and distributed by communities. These communities seek to enable themselves and others to design technologies by and for themselves, rather than accepting technologies as given artefacts. These communities attempt to practise a very open approach towards spreading and sharing knowledge. This thesis analyzes how social power relations are reproduced in the sociotechnological practices of these communities. Based on participant obeservation in Linux User Groups, four ...

  8. Incidence of self-reported brain injury and the relationship with substance abuse: findings from a longitudinal community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butterworth Peter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic or serious brain injury (BI has persistent and well documented adverse outcomes, yet 'mild' or 'moderate' BI, which often does not result in hospital treatment, accounts for half the total days of disability attributed to BI. There are currently few data available from community samples on the incidence and correlates of these injuries. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the 1 incidence of self-reported mild (not requiring hospital admission and moderate (admitted to hospital brain injury (BI, 2 causes of injury 3 physical health scores and 4 relationship between BI and problematic alcohol or marijuana use. Methods An Australian community sequential-cohort study (cohorts aged 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years at wave one used a survey methodology to assess BI and substance use at baseline and four years later. Results Of the 7485 wave one participants, 89.7% were re-interviewed at wave two. There were 56 mild (230.8/100000 person-years and 44 moderate BI (180.5/100000 person-years reported between waves one and two. Males and those in the 20-24 year cohort had increased risk of BI. Sports injury was the most frequent cause of BI (40/100 with traffic accidents being a greater proportion of moderate (27% than mild (7% BI. Neither alcohol nor marijuana problems at wave one were predictors of BI. BI was not a predictor of developing substance use problems by wave two. Conclusions BI were prevalent in this community sample, though the incidence declined with age. Factors associated with BI in community samples differ from those reported in clinical samples (e.g. typically traumatic brain injury with traffic accidents the predominate cause. Further, detailed evaluation of the health consequences of these injuries is warranted.

  9. Being Involved in the Country: Productive Ageing in Different Types of Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sandra; Crothers, Natalie; Grant, Jeanette; Young, Sari; Smith, Karly

    2012-01-01

    Productive ageing recognises the contribution of older people to economic, social and cultural growth and helps build a sustainable community. Being involved in community life is good for individuals and good for society. However, we know very little about the participation of and contribution by people aged 50 and over in rural communities. This…

  10. A general picture of the learning communities: characteristics, similarities and differences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkleij, K.A.M.; Francke, A.L.; Voordouw, I.; Albers, M.; Gobbens, R.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Because learning communities of community care nurses and nursing lectures are a new phenomenon, it is of interest to evaluate en monitor the learning communities. the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, NIVEL, was commissioned to monitor the realization of the learning

  11. An Analysis of Gender and Major Differences upon Undergraduate Student Attitudes about Community Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.; Shukla, Monica P.

    2014-01-01

    Community Service Learning (CSL) believes that university and colleges should incorporate community based service projects into courses. There are faculty and administrator supporters who argue for such proposals to require community service learning components into classes, but there are also faculty and administrator critics of such proposals.…

  12. Membrane fouling related to microbial community and extracellular polymeric substances at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Wen; Wen, Zhi-Dan; Li, Bao; Liang, Hong

    2013-09-01

    An anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor was established to investigate the role of microorganisms and microbial metabolites in membrane fouling at different temperatures. The results showed that the membrane fouling cycle at 303, 293, and 283 K were 30, 29, and 5.5 days, respectively. Polysaccharides dominated the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) at 303 and 293 K, instead, proteins was the predominant composition of metabolites at 283 K. The correlation coefficient (r(2)) was calculated to identify the relationship between temperature (T), filtration resistance (R) and compositions of EPS and SMP. In biocake, the EPS polysaccharides (EPSc) was the most correlative factor to temperature (T) and filtration resistance (R); in mixed liquor, the ratio of SMP polysaccharides to proteins (SMPc/p) was the most correlative factor. The microbial community structure and the dominant species was the major reason causing the change of EPS and SMP composition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sex Differences and Similarities in Atrial Fibrillation Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Mortality in Community Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Christina; Niiranen, Teemu J; Ojeda, Francisco M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac disease in aging populations with high comorbidity and mortality. Sex differences in AF epidemiology are insufficiently understood. METHODS: In N=79 793 individuals without AF diagnosis at baseline (median age, 49.6 years; age range, 24.......1-97.6 years; 51.7% women) from 4 community-based European studies (FINRISK, DanMONICA, Moli-sani Northern Sweden) of the BiomarCaRE consortium (Biomarker for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe), we examined AF incidence, its association with mortality, common risk factors, biomarkers, and prevalent...... cardiovascular disease, and their attributable risk by sex. Median follow-up time was 12.6 (to a maximum of 28.2) years. RESULTS: Fewer AF cases were observed in women (N=1796; 4.4%), than in men (N=2465; 6.4%). Cardiovascular risk factor distribution and lipid profile at baseline were less beneficial in men...

  14. Outcomes in elderly Danish citizens admitted with community-acquired pneumonia. Regional differences, in a public healthcare system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard Klausen, Henrik; Petersen, J; Lindhardt, T

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate regional differences in and risk factors for admission, length of stay, mortality, and readmission for community-acquired pneumonia in elderly Danish patients. METHODS: National registry study on elderly Danish citizens with an acute admission in 2009 owing to community....... RESULTS: A total of 11,332 elderly citizens were admitted with community-acquired pneumonia. Mortality during admission and 30-days from discharge were 11.6% and 16.2%, respectively. Readmission rates within 30 days of discharge were 12.3%. There were significantly differences between hospitals in length...

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting: Differences among Selected EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukic Nikolina Markota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Greater transparency has become a relevant topic for companies around the world. Information and communication technologies revolution (ICT revolution has forced companies to become more transparent. With the intention of increasing companies’ transparency, the European Union (hereinafter: the EU has presented a new Accounting Directive 2013/34/EU which makes Corporate Social Reporting (hereinafter: CSR reporting mandatory for certain companies.

  16. Biochar alters microbial community and carbon sequestration potential across different soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yaqi; Zhu, Lizhong

    2018-05-01

    Biochar application to soil has been proposed for soil carbon sequestration and global warming mitigation. While recent studies have demonstrated that soil pH was a main factor affecting soil microbial community and stability of biochar, little information is available for the microbiome across different soil pH and the subsequently CO 2 emission. To investigate soil microbial response and CO 2 emission of biochar across different pH levels, comparative incubation studies on CO 2 emission, degradation of biochar, and microbial communities in a ferralsol (pH5.19) and a phaeozems (pH7.81) with 4 biochar addition rates (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 5.0%) were conducted. Biochar induced higher CO 2 emission in acidic ferralsol, largely due to the higher biochar degradation, while the more drastic negative priming effect (PE) of SOC resulted in decreased total CO 2 emission in alkaline phaeozems. The higher bacteria diversity, especially the enrichment of copiotrophic bacteria such as Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, and decrease of oligotrophic bacteria such as Acidobacteria, were responsible for the increased CO 2 emission and initial positive PE of SOC in ferralsol, whereas biochar did not change the relative abundances of most bacteria at phylum level in phaeozems. The relative abundances of other bacterial taxa (i.e. Actinobacteria, Anaerolineae) known to degrade aromatic compounds were also elevated in both soils. Soil pH was considered to be the dominant factor to affect CO 2 emission by increasing the bioavailability of organic carbon and abundance of copiotrophic bacteria after biochar addition in ferralsol. However, the decreased bioavailability of SOC via adsorption of biochar resulted in higher abundance of oligotrophic bacteria in phaeozems, leading to the decrease in CO 2 emission. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Contextualizing gender differences and methamphetamine use with HIV prevalence within a South African community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Myers, Bronwyn; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Emanuel, Andrea; Carney, Tara; Kline, Tracy L; Zule, William A

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted in a large Black African township outside of Cape Town, South Africa, where HIV infection has been endemic at extremely high levels for years. Problems associated with high HIV prevalence are compounded by gender inequality and high rates of gender-based violence exacerbated by heavy alcohol use and increasing methamphetamine use. Informal drinking establishments (known as shebeens) were geocoded and mapped. Based on visual examination, we identified 36 neighbourhoods, each of which contained between three to seven drinking venues clustered together. Neighbourhoods were separated from each other by at least 200m. We randomly selected 30 of the 36 neighbourhoods. Outreach workers screened males in shebeens and screened their female partners. This analysis includes 580 study participants recruited from 30 neighbourhoods between 2010 and 2012. All participants completed a baseline questionnaire that included individual-level, couple-level, and neighbourhood-level measures of alcohol and other drug use, HIV infection, and HIV risk behaviours. Multilevel fixed effects regression analyses stratified by gender were conducted to examine correlates of HIV infection. Women were twice as likely as men to be HIV infected, yet they reported fewer sex partners. Neighbourhood prevalence of HIV was correlated with greater likelihood of HIV infection among women, but not men. Neighbourhood methamphetamine use was marginally associated with HIV among women but not among men. At the individual level, heavy alcohol use was marginally associated with HIV infection among men but not among women. Having an HIV positive partner was the strongest correlate of being HIV positive among both men and women. Findings from this study underscore the need for policy makers to direct scarce resources to the communities, places within communities, and populations, especially vulnerable women, where the impact on HIV prevention and onward transmission will be greatest

  18. Race and Gender Differences in One-Year Outcomes for Community-Dwelling Stroke Survivors with Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, David L.; Haley, William E.; Clay, Olivio J.; Perkins, Martinique; Grant, Joan S.; Rhodes, J. David; Wadley, Virginia G.; Kissela, Brett; Howard, George

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Previous research has reported worse outcomes after stroke for women and for African Americans, but few prospective, population-based studies have systematically examined demographic differences on long-term stroke outcomes. Race and gender differences on one-year stroke outcomes were examined using an epidemiologically-derived sample of first-time stroke survivors from the national REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Methods Participants of REGARDS who reported a first-time stroke event during regular surveillance calls were interviewed by telephone and then completed an in-home evaluation approximately one year after the verified first-time stroke event (N = 112). A primary family caregiver was also enrolled and interviewed for each stroke survivor. Measures from the in-home evaluation included previously validated stroke outcomes assessments of neurological deficits, functional impairments, and patient-reported effects of stroke in multiple domains. Results African American stroke survivors were less likely to be living with their primary family caregivers than White participants. Analyses that controlled for age, education, and whether the stroke survivors lived with their primary family caregivers indicated that African Americans and women showed significantly greater deficits on multiple one-year outcome measures compared to Whites and men, respectively. Conclusions Among community-dwelling stroke survivors with family caregivers, women and African Americans are at heightened risk for poor long-term outcomes one year after first-time stroke events. Rehabilitation services and public health policies aimed at enhancing stroke recovery rates should address these disparities in post-stroke outcomes. PMID:21257820

  19. Co-culture microorganisms with different initial proportions reveal the mechanism of chalcopyrite bioleaching coupling with microbial community succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liyuan; Wang, Xingjie; Feng, Xue; Liang, Yili; Xiao, Yunhua; Hao, Xiaodong; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Xueduan

    2017-01-01

    The effect of co-culture microorganisms with different initial proportions on chalcopyrite bioleaching was investigated. Communities were rebuilt by six typical strains isolated from the same habitat. The results indicated, by community with more sulfur oxidizers at both 30 and 40°C, the final copper extraction rate was 19.8% and 6.5% higher, respectively, than that with more ferrous oxidizers. The variations of pH, redox potential, ferrous and copper ions in leachate also provided evidences that community with more sulfur oxidizers was more efficient. Community succession of free and attached cells revealed that initial proportions played decisive roles on community dynamics at 30°C, while communities shared similar structures, not relevant to initial proportions at 40°C. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed different microbial functions on mineral surface. A mechanism model for chalcopyrite bioleaching was established coupling with community succession. This will provide theoretical basis for reconstructing an efficient community in industrial application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fungal community structure of fallen pine and oak wood at different stages of decomposition in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jie; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Fei; Zhu, Xian; Hou, Lin; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2017-10-24

    Historically, intense forest hazards have resulted in an increase in the quantity of fallen wood in the Qinling Mountains. Fallen wood has a decisive influence on the nutrient cycling, carbon budget and ecosystem biodiversity of forests, and fungi are essential for the decomposition of fallen wood. Moreover, decaying dead wood alters fungal communities. The development of high-throughput sequencing methods has facilitated the ongoing investigation of relevant molecular forest ecosystems with a focus on fungal communities. In this study, fallen wood and its associated fungal communities were compared at different stages of decomposition to evaluate relative species abundance and species diversity. The physical and chemical factors that alter fungal communities were also compared by performing correspondence analysis according to host tree species across all stages of decomposition. Tree species were the major source of differences in fungal community diversity at all decomposition stages, and fungal communities achieved the highest levels of diversity at the intermediate and late decomposition stages. Interactions between various physical and chemical factors and fungal communities shared the same regulatory mechanisms, and there was no tree species-specific influence. Improving our knowledge of wood-inhabiting fungal communities is crucial for forest ecosystem conservation.

  1. Intra- and interspecific differences in diet quality and composition in a large herbivore community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Redjadj

    Full Text Available Species diversity in large herbivore communities is often explained by niche segregation allowed by differences in body mass and digestive morphophysiological features. Based on large number of gut samples in fall and winter, we analysed the temporal dynamics of diet composition, quality and interspecific overlap of 4 coexisting mountain herbivores. We tested whether the relative consumption of grass and browse differed among species of different rumen types (moose-type and intermediate-type, whether diet was of lower quality for the largest species, whether we could identify plant species which determined diet quality, and whether these plants, which could be "key-food-resources" were similar for all herbivores. Our analyses revealed that (1 body mass and rumen types were overall poor predictors of diet composition and quality, although the roe deer, a species with a moose-type rumen was confirmed as an "obligatory non grazer", while red deer, the largest species, had the most lignified diet; (2 diet overlap among herbivores was well predicted by rumen type (high among species of intermediate types only, when measured over broad plant groups, (3 the relationship between diet composition and quality differed among herbivore species, and the actual plant species used during winter which determined the diet quality, was herbivore species-specific. Even if diets overlapped to a great extent, the species-specific relationships between diet composition and quality suggest that herbivores may select different plant species within similar plant group types, or different plant parts and that this, along with other behavioural mechanisms of ecological niche segregation, may contribute to the coexistence of large herbivores of relatively similar body mass, as observed in mountain ecosystems.

  2. Factors associated with differences in quit rates between "specialist" and "community" stop-smoking practitioners in the english stop-smoking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Beard, Emma; Brose, Leonie S; West, Robert; McEwen, Andy

    2013-07-01

    Behavioral support improves smokers' chances of quitting, but quit rates are typically lower for smokers supported by "community practitioners" for whom smoking cessation is a small part of their job than for those supported by "specialist practitioners" for whom it is the main role. This article examined the factors that might contribute to this. A total of 573 specialist practitioners and 466 community practitioners completed a 42-item online survey that covered demographic and employment information, current practices, levels of training, and 4-week CO-verified quit rates. Responses were compared for community and specialist practitioners. Mediation analysis was undertaken to assess how far "structural" and "modifiable" variables account for the difference in quit rates. Specialist practitioners reported higher 4-week CO-verified quit rates than community practitioners (63.6% versus 50.4%, p Specialist" practitioners in the English stop-smoking services report higher success rates than "community" practitioners and this is at least in part attributable to more extensive training and supervision and greater adherence to evidence-based practice including advising on medication usage and promoting abrupt rather than gradual quitting.

  3. Private-sector community forestry partnerships in the Eastern Cape – Overview report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available instrument and provides commentary on how it is used. • Clarke, J. 2000. Social and environmental aspects of the forest management certification process: a discussion of social assessment components in South Africa. This report, drawing on audit experience..., tackles the ability of FSC certification and the certification process to improve the wellbeing of workers and communities dependent on plantations. • Hamman, J. 2000. Forestry certification: social aspects. Also by a member of FSC inspection teams...

  4. Demographic Differences in Sun Protection Beliefs and Behavior: A Community-Based Study in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuxian; Xu, Feng; Yang, Chunxue; Li, Fei; Fan, Jing; Wang, Linggao; Cai, Minqiang; Zhu, Jianfeng; Kan, Haidong; Xu, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We want to know the attitudes and behaviors towards UV protection and we want to analyze the difference between different Chinese demographic groups in this study. Methods: A community-based study was undertaken in Shanghai from October 2009 to January 2010. The participants, ages 20–60 years old, were screened by cluster sampling and were investigated through interviews at their own homes. Personal basic information and questions pertaining to their knowledge and attitudes towards sunlight and sun protective activities were included in the questionnaire. Results: We completed 5964 questionnaires (2794 men and 3170 women). Eighty-six percent of the respondents belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Knowledge about UV-induced risks was known by more than half of the participants. However, only one-third of the participants thought they needed sun protection in winter and indoors or in vehicles, and 27% of the participants acknowledged tanning was not favorable. The attitudes towards sun exposure varied greatly, showing significant differences based on gender, age, socioeconomic groups and skin type groups (p sun-protective behaviors than males and those of an older age and lower education level (p sun protection existing in our surveyed Chinese population, especially in males and lower socioeconomic population, which could allow for planning prevention campaigns and exploring sun-preventive products. PMID:25794187

  5. Like on Different Planets? Lebanese Social Scientists in Their Scientific Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kriener

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Social sciences and humanities at Arab universities are often described as suffering from a lack of academic freedom. However, institutional autonomy and the individual academic’s opportunities and constraints seem to differ considerably among Arab institutions and individuals conducting social sciences and humanities under different configurations of local, regional and international influences from the state, the market and the civil society. One problem evident from existing research literature about Arab social sciences is the comparably weak networking capacity of its academic publishing and library systems. It suggests over-dependence upon international systems, a lack of direct communication amongst local and regional scientific communities, and intellectual bigotry. This article sheds light on the question how Arab institutions and individuals cope with this particular trait of their academic system. It focuses on correlations between institutional and individual autonomy as measured by the modes of decision making and funding, and between an institution’s autonomy and its interconnectedness as measured by its library services and by references in the dissertations of its faculty. Data stem from interviews with faculty, surveys among students, and visits to libraries of two different universities in Lebanon, which are analyzed in comparison. Moreover, several networking initiatives are characterized by which social scientists in the region tackle this problem. With private initiative, they seem to recover regional coherence based on Arab language and experience and international quality standards to an extent that governmental and inter-governmental institutions never remotely succeeded to establish by ways of their cultural policies.

  6. Writing Experiences of Community College Students with Self-Reported Writing Anxieties and Linguistic Insecurity: A Perspective for College Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Rochelle

    2013-01-01

    This explanatory case study researched the writing experiences of 11 community college students who differed subculturally and who were all part of the African diasporic community. The theoretical perspectives used for this study were Arthur Chickering's (1969) classical concept of academic competence and community dialect theory (Baxter &…

  7. Effects of different international fiscal systems on reserves reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMichael, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of international fiscal systems on oil and gas reserves evaluation and reporting, was reviewed. The movement in reserves estimates with changing technical, political and economic conditions, was described. Difficulties associated with the evaluation and booking of reserves is largely due to the confusing duplication of terms. For example, explorationists refer to reserves as an undrilled prospect, while engineers refer to them as producing property. The financial analyst refers to reserves of a company, while governments refer to the reserves of the country. The importance of defining reserves with full knowledge of the specific regulations that govern the reporting of reserves externally, and the internal reporting requirements for business planning purposes, was stressed. 2 refs

  8. Climate change on Twitter: topics, communities and conversations about the 2013 IPCC Working Group 1 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Warren; Holmberg, Kim; Hellsten, Iina; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    In September 2013 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published its Working Group 1 report, the first comprehensive assessment of physical climate science in six years, constituting a critical event in the societal debate about climate change. This paper analyses the nature of this debate in one public forum: Twitter. Using statistical methods, tweets were analyzed to discover the hashtags used when people tweeted about the IPCC report, and how Twitter users formed communities around their conversational connections. In short, the paper presents the topics and tweeters at this particular moment in the climate debate. The most used hashtags related to themes of science, geographical location and social issues connected to climate change. Particularly noteworthy were tweets connected to Australian politics, US politics, geoengineering and fracking. Three communities of Twitter users were identified. Researcher coding of Twitter users showed how these varied according to geographical location and whether users were supportive, unsupportive or neutral in their tweets about the IPCC. Overall, users were most likely to converse with users holding similar views. However, qualitative analysis suggested the emergence of a community of Twitter users, predominantly based in the UK, where greater interaction between contrasting views took place. This analysis also illustrated the presence of a campaign by the non-governmental organization Avaaz, aimed at increasing media coverage of the IPCC report.

  9. Climate change on Twitter: topics, communities and conversations about the 2013 IPCC Working Group 1 report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Pearce

    Full Text Available In September 2013 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published its Working Group 1 report, the first comprehensive assessment of physical climate science in six years, constituting a critical event in the societal debate about climate change. This paper analyses the nature of this debate in one public forum: Twitter. Using statistical methods, tweets were analyzed to discover the hashtags used when people tweeted about the IPCC report, and how Twitter users formed communities around their conversational connections. In short, the paper presents the topics and tweeters at this particular moment in the climate debate. The most used hashtags related to themes of science, geographical location and social issues connected to climate change. Particularly noteworthy were tweets connected to Australian politics, US politics, geoengineering and fracking. Three communities of Twitter users were identified. Researcher coding of Twitter users showed how these varied according to geographical location and whether users were supportive, unsupportive or neutral in their tweets about the IPCC. Overall, users were most likely to converse with users holding similar views. However, qualitative analysis suggested the emergence of a community of Twitter users, predominantly based in the UK, where greater interaction between contrasting views took place. This analysis also illustrated the presence of a campaign by the non-governmental organization Avaaz, aimed at increasing media coverage of the IPCC report.

  10. Alerting the apathetic and reassuring the alarmed: communicating about radon risk in three communities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chess, C.; Hance, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Public reaction to the risk from radon varied widely in three communities chosen for qualitative analysis. In Boyertown, PA, some residents were very alarmed, but most were apathetic toward this newly identified environmental risk. In Clinton, NJ, residents were concerned and worked with the mayor and the state to determine whether they were at risk and to disseminate information about mitigation of high indoor radon levels. Residents in Vernon, New Jersey were very alarmed and actively opposed the state's decision to site low-level radium wastes there. The qualitative study examines why reactions differed among the three communities, and extracts lessons for communicating about the risk from radon. These lessons should apply to communicating about other environmental hazards to individuals and communities

  11. Spore communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal associations in different ecosystems, south Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. I. Antoniolli

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF were surveyed in different South Australian ecosystems. The soil was wet-sieved for spore extraction, followed by the determination of presence and abundance of AMF species as well as the percentage of root colonization. Mycorrhizal associations were common and there was substantial fungal diversity in different ecosystems. Spores were most abundant in the permanent pasture system and less abundant under continuous wheat. The incidence of mycorrhizal associations in different plant species and the occurrence of Arum and Paris type colonization generally conformed with previous information. Spores of seventeen AMF were verified throughout seasonal changes in 1996 and 1997 in the permanent pasture and on four host species (Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata, Sorghum sp. and Trifolium subterraneum , set up with the same soils under greenhouse conditions. Glomus mosseae was the dominant spore type at all sampling times and in all trap cultures. Mycorrhizal diversity was significantly affected by different sampling times in trap cultures but not in field-collected soil. P. lanceolata, Sorghum sp. and T. subterraneum as hosts for trap cultures showed no differences in richness and diversity of AMF spores that developed in association with their roots. Abundance and diversity were lowest, however, in association with L. perenne , particularly in December 1996. Results show that the combination of spore identification from field-collected soil and trap cultures is essential to study population and diversity of AMF. The study provides baseline data for ongoing monitoring of mycorrhizal populations using conventional methods and material for the determination of the symbiotic effectiveness of AMF key members.

  12. Proxy-Reports in the Ascertainment of Disability Prevalence with American Community Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siordia, C

    2014-01-01

    Population estimates on disability prevalence inform policy makers and public health professionals. Understanding how factors capable of affecting measurement (e.g., proxy-report) vary in the population is important for establishing level of confidence in sample-derived population estimates. To establish how use of proxy-reports varies by six disability types stratified by sex, race-ethnicity, and age group. Specific aim is achieved by investigating the number of proxy-reports used amongst the disable population. Cross-sectional study using American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 3-year file collected during 2009-2011 survey period. Community-dwelling population in continental United States (US). The unweighted count of 6,003,183 individuals in the microdata are said to represent about 193,277,485 individuals in the continental US population. Stratified disability period estimates are computed. Amongst the disable: the number of proxy-reports; allocations; and Person Inflation Ratios (PRIs) are presented by disability type. Half of all the reported disabilities are derived through the use of proxy-report. In addition, high rates of item-allocation and PRIs are generally found in race-ethnic minorities. Proxy-report use and PRIs are lower for those aged > 65-but not allocation rates. Although use of proxy report in the ascertainment of disability varies in complex ways, data suggest prevalence of proxy reports is lowest amongst Non-Latino-Black females ages 21 to 64. Efforts toward providing clinicians with high quality descriptive epidemiology should continue as a reliable thermometer for measuring disability in the population is needed.

  13. Gender Differences in Major Federal External Grant Programs. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosek, Susan D.; Cox, Amy G.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Kofner, Aaron; Ramphal, Nishal; Scott, Jon; Berry, Sandra H.

    2005-01-01

    The Wyden amendment to the National Science Foundation (NSF) Authorization Act of 2002 sought to determine whether federally funded educational programs other than sports comply with Title IX, which prohibits gender discrimination. At the request of NSF, this report analyzes administrative data from fiscal years 2001 through 2003 describing the…

  14. Individual Differences in Reported Visual Imagery and Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Stuart J.; Demers, Elizabeth G.

    1979-01-01

    High- and low-visualizing males, identified by the self-report VVIQ, participated in a memory experiment involving abstract words, concrete words, and pictures. High-visualizers were superior on all items in short-term recall but superior only on pictures in long-term recall, supporting the VVIQ's validity. (Author/SJL)

  15. Sexual Harassment in Academia: Individual Differences in Student Reporting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Linda J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    College students (n=182) answered a questionnaire about personal and educational information, and completed the Feminist Attitudes Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. In response to a standardized sexual harassment scenario, participants answered a series of questions about reporting the incident. Discusses findings and offers recommendations.…

  16. Reports of violence against women in different life cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Tavares de Souza Leite

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the reports and factors associated with violence against women. METHOD: this was a cross-sectional, exploratory and analytical study with information about the cases of reported violence, extracted from the Civil Police Report Bulletin, in a mid-sized city in Minas Gerais, Brazil. RESULTS: out of the 7,487 reports of violence against women, it was found that 44.6% of the cases were threats, 28.5% aggression, 25.1% bodily injury, 1.1% rape, and 0.7% some other type of injury. In the bivariate analysis, a higher number of cases (p=0.000 committed by partners was evidenced, for all kinds of violence except for rape. Children, adolescents and adults experienced violence by partners, followed by family members. Regarding older women, violence was committed by family members. CONCLUSION: there is the need for programs to be established to prevent violence against women in various sectors of society, permeating the life cycle.

  17. [Soil meso- and micro-fauna community structures in different urban forest types in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shi Ke; Wang, Juan Juan; Zhu, Sha; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiang; Zheng, Wen Jing; You, Wen Hui

    2016-07-01

    Soil meso- and micro-fauna of four urban forest types in Shanghai were investigated in four months which include April 2014, July 2014, October 2014 and January 2015. A total of 2190 soil fauna individuals which belong to 6 phyla, 15 classes and 22 groups were collected. The dominant groups were Nematoda and Arcari, accounting for 56.0% and 21.8% of the total in terms of individual numbers respectively. The common groups were Enchytraeidae, Rotatoria, Collembola and Hymenoptera and they accounted for 18.7% of the total in terms of individual numbers. There was a significant difference (PMetasequoia glyptostroboides forest, the smallest in Cinnamomum camphora forest. The largest groupe number was found in near-nature forest, the smallest was found in M. glyptostroboides forest. There was obvious seasonal dynamics in each urban forest type and green space which had larger density in autumn and larger groupe number in summer and autumn. In soil profiles, the degree of surface accumulation of soil meso- and micro-fauna in C. camphora forest was higher than in other forests and the vertical distribution of soil meso- and micro-fauna in near-nature forest was relatively homogeneous in four layers. Density-group index was ranked as: near-nature forest (6.953)> C. camphora forest (6.351)> Platanus forest (6.313)>M. glyptostroboides forest (5.910). The community diversity of soil fauna in each vegetation type could be displayed preferably by this index. It could be inferred through redundancy analysis (RDA) that the soil bulk density, organic matter and total nitrogen were the main environmental factors influencing soil meso- and micro-fauna community structure in urban forest. The positive correlations occurred between the individual number of Arcari, Enchytraeidae and soil organic matter and total nitrogen, as well as between the individual number of Diptera larvae, Rotatoria and soil water content.

  18. Cross-cultural differences in caregiving: The relevance to community care in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deinstitutionalization movement in the West brought about community care movement of mentally ill. Because of this, caring for the mentally ill became an important aspect. In resource-rich countries, caregiving is done by trained persons and in resource-poor country (like India, caregiving was done by untrained family members. Cross-cultural factors such as interdependence and greater family involvement in care have contributed for family members′ decision-making in caregiving in India. Nevertheless, cross-cultural similarities in caregiving are more striking than differences. Genuine caregiving of mentally ill will make significant difference to the recipient. In India, majority of the persons with mental illness are cared by family members. Family members lack knowledge about the nature of the illness, have little support and advice by the medical professional, and have difficulties in understanding illness-related behavior. Hence, in India, there is need to develop effective, user-friendly, educational modules in all languages; to increase the knowledge of the carers about the mental illness, and help in decreasing their distress.

  19. [Important differences between faculties of medicine. Implications for family and community medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Lopez-Valcarcel, Beatriz; Ortún, Vicente; Barber, Patricia; Harris, Jeffrey E

    2014-03-01

    To determine if there are significant differences between universities in the proclivity to choose Family and Community Medicine (FCM), given the constraints imposed by the number of choice. To test the hypothesis that the Schools of Medicine that have the FCM as a compulsory subject in the degree (3 of 27) had the highest preference for this specialty. Observational study on the data file of all the individuals taking the MIR examination between 2003 and 2011. Spain. All those who sat the examinations called by MIR 2003-2011. Position in the ranking of each candidate, elected position (specialty and center), post code of residence, sex, nationality and university in which they studied, and post code location for the residence chosen. The percentage electing FCM is highly correlated with the position in the ranking: 8% of graduates for the 'best' college, 46% for the worst. Very noticeable and consistent differences in the preparation for the MIR among the 27 medical schools. Ranking in the exam, female and foreigner, help predict the choice of FCM. The FCM compulsory curriculum from three universities does not seem to exert any influence. The convenient yardstick competition between the schools of medicine, FCM in their curriculum and the emphasis on the most attractive attributes of the specialty can contribute to the necessary renewal of FCM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Responses of the soil fungal communities to the co-invasion of two invasive species with different cover classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Zhou, J; Liu, J; Jiang, K; Xiao, H; Du, D

    2018-01-01

    Soil fungal communities play an important role in the successful invasion of non-native species. It is common for two or more invasive plant species to co-occur in invaded ecosystems. This study aimed to determine the effects of co-invasion of two invasive species (Erigeron annuus and Solidago canadensis) with different cover classes on soil fungal communities using high-throughput sequencing. Invasion of E. annuus and/or S. canadensis had positive effects on the sequence number, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, Shannon diversity, abundance-based cover estimator (ACE index) and Chao1 index of soil fungal communities, but negative effects on the Simpson index. Thus, invasion of E. annuus and/or S. canadensis could increase diversity and richness of soil fungal communities but decrease dominance of some members of these communities, in part to facilitate plant further invasion, because high soil microbial diversity could increase soil functions and plant nutrient acquisition. Some soil fungal species grow well, whereas others tend to extinction after non-native plant invasion with increasing invasion degree and presumably time. The sequence number, OTU richness, Shannon diversity, ACE index and Chao1 index of soil fungal communities were higher under co-invasion of E. annuus and S. canadensis than under independent invasion of either individual species. The co-invasion of the two invasive species had a positive synergistic effect on diversity and abundance of soil fungal communities, partly to build a soil microenvironment to enhance competitiveness of the invaders. The changed diversity and community under co-invasion could modify resource availability and niche differentiation within the soil fungal communities, mediated by differences in leaf litter quality and quantity, which can support different fungal/microbial species in the soil. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Benefits of Peer Support in Online Japanese Breast Cancer Communities: Differences Between Lurkers and Posters

    OpenAIRE

    Setoyama, Yoko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Namayama, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Background Web 2.0 has improved interactions among peers on the Internet, especially for the many online patient communities that have emerged over the past decades. Online communities are said to be particularly beneficial peer support resources for patients with breast cancer. However, most studies of online patient communities have focused on those members who post actively (posters), even though there are many members who participate without posting (lurkers). In addition, little attentio...

  2. Validation of reported physical activity for cholesterol control using two different physical activity instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Z Fan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Amy Z Fan1, Sandra A Ham2, Shravani Reddy Muppidi3, Ali H Mokdad41Behavioral Surveillance Branch, Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 2Physical Activity and Health Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 4Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician’s advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising

  3. Participation is possible: A case report of integration into a community performing arts program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Emily; Dusing, Stacey

    2010-05-01

    Typically developing children frequently participate in community recreation activities that enhance their social/emotional and physical development. The inclusion of children with developmental disabilities in these activities continues to be a challenge. This case report investigated the feasibility of including a child with Down syndrome in a community performing arts program. The participant is an 11-year-old female with Down syndrome and mild cognitive impairment. The participant was enrolled in a 14-week performing arts session that included a combination of acting, voice, and dance instruction. She participated in the program with the support of a one-on-one assistant who was a physical therapy student. The assistant facilitated learning the choreography, appropriate socialization, and positioning on the stage. Peer helpers were used to allow for greater independence toward the end of the session and for the final performance. The participant completed the final performance without the one-on-one assistant. The participant's mother completed the PedsQL before and after the performance, and the participant's scaled scores increased in all subsets except for emotional function and the total scales score increased from 51 to 57. With appropriate modifications and the right child/program fit, children with developmental disabilities such as Down syndrome can successfully be included in community programs. Physical therapists can assist families and community programs to make developmentally appropriate modifications to enhance participation.

  4. Community Structure of Active Aerobic Methanotrophs in Red Mangrove (Kandelia obovata) Soils Under Different Frequency of Tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Yo-Jin; Cai, Yuanfeng; Lin, Yu-Te; Jia, Zhongjun; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2018-04-01

    Methanotrophs are important microbial communities in coastal ecosystems. They reduce CH 4 emission in situ, which is influenced by soil conditions. This study aimed to understand the differences in active aerobic methanotrophic communities in mangrove forest soils experiencing different inundation frequency, i.e., in soils from tidal mangroves, distributed at lower elevations, and from dwarf mangroves, distributed at higher elevations. Labeling of pmoA gene of active methanotrophs using DNA-based stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) revealed that methanotrophic activity was higher in the dwarf mangrove soils than in the tidal mangrove soils, possibly because of the more aerobic soil conditions. Methanotrophs affiliated with the cluster deep-sea-5 belonging to type Ib methanotrophs were the most dominant methanotrophs in the fresh mangrove soils, whereas type II methanotrophs also appeared in the fresh dwarf mangrove soils. Furthermore, Methylobacter and Methylosarcina were the most important active methanotrophs in the dwarf mangrove soils, whereas Methylomonas and Methylosarcina were more active in the tidal mangrove soils. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene also confirmed similar differences in methanotrophic communities at the different locations. However, several unclassified methanotrophic bacteria were found by 16S rRNA MiSeq sequencing in both fresh and incubated mangrove soils, implying that methanotrophic communities in mangrove forests may significantly differ from the methanotrophic communities documented in previous studies. Overall, this study showed the feasibility of 13 CH 4 DNA-SIP to study the active methanotrophic communities in mangrove forest soils and revealed differences in the methanotrophic community structure between coastal mangrove forests experiencing different tide frequencies.

  5. Age, sex, and climate factors show different effects on survival of three different bat species in a woodland bat community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antica Culina

    2017-10-01

    5. Our study provides, for the first time, a robust estimate of annual survival in bats. We advocate careful attention to possible sources of biases when studying survival rates in the wild, considering species-specific life-history and population-specific features. Considering these factors that influence wider community responses to environmental conditions is important for the effective conservation management of an area.

  6. Rhizosphere microbial communities from resistant and susceptible watermelon cultivars showed different response to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, W.F.; Can, C.S.; Ling, C.; Hui, X.W.

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), a soil-borne pathogen of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), can cause substantial production losses worldwide. In this study, plate culture and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methods were used to evaluate the effects of inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum on rhizosphere microbial communities of different watermelon cultivars to FON. Two methods indicated that the effects of watermelon rhizosphere microbial community of different resistance cultivars to FON were much different. Populations of culturable bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of susceptible watermelon cultivar were significantly lower than in the resistant cultivar after inoculation (P<0.05), but the opposite result was observed for fungi. Principal component analysis of bacterial and fungal community structure also showed that the cultivar of FON-inoculated soil treatment were separated from the non-inoculated controls after inoculation, and there was clear discrimination between the susceptible cultivars and the resistant cultivars. Sequence analysis of specific bands from DGGE profiles showed that specific rhizosphere bacterial and fungal groups differed between watermelon cultivars after inoculation . Both methods demonstrated that different resistant watermelon cultivars occupied different rhizosphere microbial communities, and and disease suppression might be correlated with high microbial diversity. F. oxysporum f. sp. Niveum alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with watermelon rhizosphere. (author)

  7. Ethnomedicinal practices in different communities of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka for treatment of wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep; Hegde, Gurumurthi; Hegde, Ganesh R

    2012-09-28

    Uttara Kannada district is located in the heart of the Western Ghats, one of the biodiversity hotspots, in Karnataka state of India. The thick evergreen forests are home to several ethnic communities. The study was under taken for documentation and analysis of ethnomedicinal plants in the treatment of wounds. Field trips were made in Uttara Kannada district to identify the key informants. The collection of information was through semi-structured open ended interviews with a questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to obtain the information about their experience in the field of treatment, number of patients treated per week, knowledge about the medicinal plants, vernacular names, parts of the plants used and other ingredients added during the drug formulations. Plants mentioned for treatment were photographed in the field, cuttings of the samples were taken and voucher specimens are deposited in the herbarium of P.G. Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad. The information such as botanical name, status, family, vernacular name habit and habitat, statistical analysis like percentage of parts used, Use value (UV) and Informants Consensus Factor (ICF) are provided. Present study resulted in recording 106 medicinal plant species of 55 families and 86 formulations to treat different types of wounds by 44 key informants. Among the 106 plants recorded four species are endemic to India and 22 species have the nativity outside India. Rest of the species have nativity both in India and elsewhere. The highest number of species belonged to Apocynaceae and Rubiaceae (6 species each). Trees are used more often (35.84%), followed by herbs (28.30%), shrubs (23.58%), climbers (11.32) and parasites (0.80%). Leaves are the major part of the plants used in the formulations (28.57%). The highest Use value is for Calycopteris floribunda (1.80), followed by Rauvolfia serpentina and Achyranthes aspera (1.67). The different types of wounds treated by traditional healers

  8. Household reporting of childhood respiratory health and air pollution in rural Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Desirae N; Lewis, Johnnye; Hopkins, Scarlett; Boyer, Bert; Montrose, Luke; Noonan, Curtis W; Semmens, Erin O; Ward, Tony J

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution is an important contributor to respiratory disease in children. To examine associations between household reporting of childhood respiratory conditions and household characteristics related to air pollution in Alaska Native communities. In-home surveys were administered in 2 rural regions of Alaska. The 12-month prevalence of respiratory conditions was summarized by region and age. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to describe associations between respiratory health and household and air quality characteristics. Household-reported respiratory health data were collected for 561 children in 328 households. In 1 region, 33.6% of children aged respiratory infections in children (ORs 1.6-2.5), while reported wheezing was associated with 1 or more smokers living in the household. Reported asthma in 1 region (7.6%) was lower than national prevalence estimates. Findings suggest that there may be preventable exposures, including wood smoke and mould that affect childhood respiratory disease in these rural areas. Additional research is needed to quantify particulate matter 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter or less and mould exposures in these communities, and to objectively evaluate childhood respiratory health.

  9. Household reporting of childhood respiratory health and air pollution in rural Alaska Native communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirae N. Ware

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution is an important contributor to respiratory disease in children. Objective: To examine associations between household reporting of childhood respiratory conditions and household characteristics related to air pollution in Alaska Native communities. Design: In-home surveys were administered in 2 rural regions of Alaska. The 12-month prevalence of respiratory conditions was summarized by region and age. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated to describe associations between respiratory health and household and air quality characteristics. Results: Household-reported respiratory health data were collected for 561 children in 328 households. In 1 region, 33.6% of children aged <5 years had a recent history of pneumonia and/or bronchitis. Children with these conditions were 2 times more likely to live in a wood-heated home, but these findings were imprecise. Resident concern with mould was associated with elevated prevalence of respiratory infections in children (ORs 1.6–2.5, while reported wheezing was associated with 1 or more smokers living in the household. Reported asthma in 1 region (7.6% was lower than national prevalence estimates. Conclusions: Findings suggest that there may be preventable exposures, including wood smoke and mould that affect childhood respiratory disease in these rural areas. Additional research is needed to quantify particulate matter 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter or less and mould exposures in these communities, and to objectively evaluate childhood respiratory health.

  10. Demographic Differences in Sun Protection Beliefs and Behavior: A Community-Based Study in Shanghai, China

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    Shuxian Yan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We want to know the attitudes and behaviors towards UV protection and we want to analyze the difference between different Chinese demographic groups in this study. Methods: A community-based study was undertaken in Shanghai from October 2009 to January 2010. The participants, ages 20–60 years old, were screened by cluster sampling and were investigated through interviews at their own homes. Personal basic information and questions pertaining to their knowledge and attitudes towards sunlight and sun protective activities were included in the questionnaire. Results: We completed 5964 questionnaires (2794 men and 3170 women. Eighty-six percent of the respondents belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Knowledge about UV-induced risks was known by more than half of the participants. However, only one-third of the participants thought they needed sun protection in winter and indoors or in vehicles, and 27% of the participants acknowledged tanning was not favorable. The attitudes towards sun exposure varied greatly, showing significant differences based on gender, age, socioeconomic groups and skin type groups (p < 0.05. Fifty-five percent of the participants never use an umbrella under sunlight, only 26.5% of the respondents wear hats, and 21.3% of the participants applied sunscreen. Females and individuals of a younger age and higher education level were more likely to perform sun-protective behaviors than males and those of an older age and lower education level (p < 0.001. Conclusion: There is a deficit in the use of sun protection existing in our surveyed Chinese population, especially in males and lower socioeconomic population, which could allow for planning prevention campaigns and exploring sun-preventive products.

  11. Effect of mesohabitats on responses of invertebrate community structure in streams under different land uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos Vinícius Dias; Rosa, Beatriz F J V; Alves, Roberto G

    2015-11-01

    Riparian vegetation is one of the most important abiotic components determining the water flow pattern in lotic ecosystems, influencing the composition, richness, and diversity of invertebrates. We have identified whether differences in the structure of the assemblages of invertebrates between riffles and pools may influence the responses of fauna to the effects of land use. In addition, we investigated which fauna metrics are responsible for the differentiation between riffles and pools in streams subject to different land uses. During the dry season of 2012, the main substrates of riffles and pools were sampled (Surber collector) from nine streams within forest, pasture, and urban areas. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Permanova showed differences in the set of environmental variables between streams and mesohabitats. The first PCA axis distinguished the forest and pasture streams from the urban area streams and was related to variables indicative of nutrient enrichment and land use, while the second axis was formed by velocity flow and by the quantities of ultrafine and coarse sand, which distinguished the riffles and pools of the streams. The faunal composition distinguished the streams in pasture and forest areas from the urban streams. Riffles and pools were not concordant in the representation of the invertebrate fauna, indicating the importance of sampling both mesohabitats in the types of streams investigated. The richness, taxonomic composition, and relative abundance of families of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera showed robust responses in riffles to the effects of environmental changes, while in pools, only the richness showed a significant response. It was possibly concluded that riffles were more sensitive in detecting the effects of land use. The information from this study help to understand how the community of invertebrates and the types of habitats in streams may be affected by anthropogenic impacts.

  12. Food-web structure of seagrass communities across different spatial scales and human impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Marta; Schmidt, Allison; Romanuk, Tamara; Lotze, Heike K

    2011-01-01

    Seagrass beds provide important habitat for a wide range of marine species but are threatened by multiple human impacts in coastal waters. Although seagrass communities have been well-studied in the field, a quantification of their food-web structure and functioning, and how these change across space and human impacts has been lacking. Motivated by extensive field surveys and literature information, we analyzed the structural features of food webs associated with Zostera marina across 16 study sites in 3 provinces in Atlantic Canada. Our goals were to (i) quantify differences in food-web structure across local and regional scales and human impacts, (ii) assess the robustness of seagrass webs to simulated species loss, and (iii) compare food-web structure in temperate Atlantic seagrass beds with those of other aquatic ecosystems. We constructed individual food webs for each study site and cumulative webs for each province and the entire region based on presence/absence of species, and calculated 16 structural properties for each web. Our results indicate that food-web structure was similar among low impact sites across regions. With increasing human impacts associated with eutrophication, however, food-web structure show evidence of degradation as indicated by fewer trophic groups, lower maximum trophic level of the highest top predator, fewer trophic links connecting top to basal species, higher fractions of herbivores and intermediate consumers, and higher number of prey per species. These structural changes translate into functional changes with impacted sites being less robust to simulated species loss. Temperate Atlantic seagrass webs are similar to a tropical seagrass web, yet differed from other aquatic webs, suggesting consistent food-web characteristics across seagrass ecosystems in different regions. Our study illustrates that food-web structure and functioning of seagrass habitats change with human impacts and that the spatial scale of food-web analysis

  13. Food-web structure of seagrass communities across different spatial scales and human impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Coll

    Full Text Available Seagrass beds provide important habitat for a wide range of marine species but are threatened by multiple human impacts in coastal waters. Although seagrass communities have been well-studied in the field, a quantification of their food-web structure and functioning, and how these change across space and human impacts has been lacking. Motivated by extensive field surveys and literature information, we analyzed the structural features of food webs associated with Zostera marina across 16 study sites in 3 provinces in Atlantic Canada. Our goals were to (i quantify differences in food-web structure across local and regional scales and human impacts, (ii assess the robustness of seagrass webs to simulated species loss, and (iii compare food-web structure in temperate Atlantic seagrass beds with those of other aquatic ecosystems. We constructed individual food webs for each study site and cumulative webs for each province and the entire region based on presence/absence of species, and calculated 16 structural properties for each web. Our results indicate that food-web structure was similar among low impact sites across regions. With increasing human impacts associated with eutrophication, however, food-web structure show evidence of degradation as indicated by fewer trophic groups, lower maximum trophic level of the highest top predator, fewer trophic links connecting top to basal species, higher fractions of herbivores and intermediate consumers, and higher number of prey per species. These structural changes translate into functional changes with impacted sites being less robust to simulated species loss. Temperate Atlantic seagrass webs are similar to a tropical seagrass web, yet differed from other aquatic webs, suggesting consistent food-web characteristics across seagrass ecosystems in different regions. Our study illustrates that food-web structure and functioning of seagrass habitats change with human impacts and that the spatial scale of

  14. Assessment of Health Needs in Children with Congenital Upper Limb Differences in Nicaragua: Community Case Study

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    Maria F. Canizares

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies are prevalent in Nicaragua, and disability is estimated to be 10% in the general population. We studied children with congenital upper limb differences, as they are vulnerable to disability. This case study documents a collaborative effort between American and Nicaraguan orthopedic surgeons to determine unmet health needs of children with congenital upper limb differences at Hospital Manuel de Jesus Rivera (“La Mascota” Hospital in Nicaragua, with the goal of developing programs that successfully address these needs within the context of the priorities of the community. Participants were recruited during one of the biannual pediatric hand specialty clinics held by a partnership of pediatric hand surgeons and occupational therapists under the auspices of Health Volunteers Overseas (La Brigada de las Manos, or “La Brigada” and Nicaraguan orthopedic surgeons. Structured interviews were performed with 34 parents or caregivers of patients with the diagnosis of a congenital upper limb difference. Parents were asked to rank the social, economic, environmental, and biological factors that determine health according to priority. Using the Hanlon Method for prioritizing health problems, in consultation with local providers and the program director of La Brigada, five needs were identified: (1 improvements in access to specialized care from hand surgeons and (2 rehabilitation specialists; (3 improvements in upper extremity function; (4 access to transportation; and (5 improvement in physical activity and sports participation. Based on the results of this needs assessment, we learned that some of the needs were already part of the ongoing work of the partnership, but in addition, more needs became evident; for that reason, local health care providers and members of La Brigada identified potential solutions to these needs and are currently working to translate these in future interventions.

  15. Retrospective observational assessment of statin adherence among subjects patronizing different types of community pharmacies in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charity D; Eurich, Dean T; Lamb, Darcy A; Taylor, Jeffrey G; Jorgenson, Derek J; Semchuk, William M; Mansell, Kerry D; Blackburn, David F

    2009-01-01

    Community pharmacies vary widely in terms of ownership structures, location, and dispensing policies. It is unknown if an association exists between the type of community pharmacy and the degree of medication adherence exhibited by patrons-patients. To describe adherence to statin therapy among subjects patronizing different types of community pharmacy categories (department- mass merchandise, chain-franchise, and independent-banner) in Saskatchewan, Canada, between 2000 and 2005. Study data were obtained from the Saskatchewan Drug Plan and Extended Benefits database, which is maintained by the government of Saskatchewan, Canada. The study included all subjects who (a) filled a statin prescription within selected community pharmacies between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2005; (b) had no record of statin prescriptions during the year prior to the first statin prescription, according to the records of the Saskatchewan Drug Plan and Extended Benefits; and (c) demonstrated active utilization in the drug plan database for at least 1 year after the first statin prescription. The proxy criterion for activity was any dispensing record for statin or nonstatin medications at least 1 year following the index claim. Statin adherence level was estimated as tablets per day, defined as the total number of tablets dispensed divided by the total number of days of observation. Each subject's observation period began on the index date and ended on the earlier of (a) 30 days after the last recorded fill for any type of prescription medication (statin or nonstatin), or (b) December 31, 2005. The primary end point was the proportion of subjects within each pharmacy category who maintained an adherence level of 80% or greater during their individual observation period. Additional adherence calculations were performed for each of 3 time periods, beginning on the index date and ending on days 365, 729, and 1094 (i.e., 1, 2, and 3 years). Patients were included in the analysis for each

  16. Differences in Bacterial Diversity and Communities Between Glacial Snow and Glacial Soil on the Chongce Ice Cap, West Kunlun Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang Li; Hou, Shu Gui; Le Baoge, Ri; Li, Zhi Guo; Xu, Hao; Liu, Ya Ping; Du, Wen Tao; Liu, Yong Qin

    2016-11-04

    A detailed understanding of microbial ecology in different supraglacial habitats is important due to the unprecedented speed of glacier retreat. Differences in bacterial diversity and community structure between glacial snow and glacial soil on the Chongce Ice Cap were assessed using 454 pyrosequencing. Based on rarefaction curves, Chao1, ACE, and Shannon indices, we found that bacterial diversity in glacial snow was lower than that in glacial soil. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and heatmap analysis indicated that there were major differences in bacterial communities between glacial snow and glacial soil. Most bacteria were different between the two habitats; however, there were some common bacteria shared between glacial snow and glacial soil. Some rare or functional bacterial resources were also present in the Chongce Ice Cap. These findings provide a preliminary understanding of the shifts in bacterial diversity and communities from glacial snow to glacial soil after the melting and inflow of glacial snow into glacial soil.

  17. Community Colleges in the South: Strengthening Readiness and Pathways. The Report of the SREB Community College Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cheryl; Spence, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges are vital to the states and the nation. The importance of community colleges as providers of postsecondary education and training is well documented. Fulfilling both economic and social roles, these institutions have successfully created new markets and empowered new populations through educational opportunity. This report…

  18. Changes in diversity, abundance, and structure of soil bacterial communities in Brazilian Savanna under different land use systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampelotto, Pabulo Henrique; de Siqueira Ferreira, Adão; Barboza, Anthony Diego Muller; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig

    2013-10-01

    The Brazilian Savanna, also known as "Cerrado", is the richest and most diverse savanna in the world and has been ranked as one of the main hotspots of biodiversity. The Cerrado is a representative biome in Central Brazil and the second largest biome in species diversity of South America. Nevertheless, large areas of native vegetation have been converted to agricultural land including grain production, livestock, and forestry. In this view, understanding how land use affects microbial communities is fundamental for the sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems. The aim of this work was to analyze and compare the soil bacterial communities from the Brazilian Cerrado associated with different land use systems using high throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Relevant differences were observed in the abundance and structure of bacterial communities in soils under different land use systems. On the other hand, the diversity of bacterial communities was not relevantly changed among the sites studied. Land use systems had also an important impact on specific bacterial groups in soil, which might change the soil function and the ecological processes. Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the most abundant groups in the Brazilian Cerrado. These findings suggest that more important than analyzing the general diversity is to analyze the composition of the communities. Since soil type was the same among the sites, we might assume that land use was the main factor defining the abundance and structure of bacterial communities.

  19. Aboveground herbivory by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) affects soil nematode communities under different rice varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.; Huang, J.; Chen, X.; Wang, F.; Ge, C.; Su, Y.; Shao, B.; Tang, Y.; Li, H.

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between aboveground–belowground communities play an important role in regulating terrestrial ecological processes; however, the interactions between rice varieties, herbivory and the soil community are often ignored. A pot experiment with a full 2×2 factorial design was conducted to

  20. Learning Communities for University Students At-Risk of School Failure: Can They Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Terri J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of learning communities on the academic success of university students at-risk of academic failure. The effects of learning communities (LC) at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) on cumulative GPAs, retention rates, and earned cumulative hours of students with ACT sub-scores of 17 or 18 in math who were…

  1. Sex differences in Hadza dental wear patterns : a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbesque, J Colette; Marlowe, Frank W; Pawn, Ian; Thompson, Peter; Johnson, Guy; Mabulla, Audax

    2012-09-01

    Among hunter-gatherers, the sharing of male and female foods is often assumed to result in virtually the same diet for males and females. Although food sharing is widespread among the hunting and gathering Hadza of Tanzania, women were observed eating significantly more tubers than men. This study investigates the relationship between patterns of dental wear, diet, and extramasticatory use of teeth among the Hadza. Casts of the upper dentitions were made from molds taken from 126 adults and scored according to the Murphy dental attrition scoring system. Females had significantly greater anterior occlusal wear than males when we controlled for age. Males exhibited greater asymmetry in wear, with greater wear on the left side in canines, first premolars, and first molars. We suggest that these sex differences in wear patterns reflect the differences seen in the diet, as well as in the use of teeth as tools.

  2. Institutions in transitioning peri-urban communities: spatial differences in groundwater access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sharlene L.; Hermans, Leon M.

    2016-05-01

    Urbanization creates challenges for water management in an evolving socio-economic context. This is particularly relevant in transitioning peri-urban areas like Khulna, Bangladesh where competing demands have put pressure on local groundwater resources. Users are unable to sufficiently meet their needs through existing institutions. These institutions provide the rules for service provision and act as guidelines for actors to resolve their water related issues. However, the evolving peri-urban context can produce fragmented institutional arrangements. For example in Khulna, water supply is based on urban and rural boundaries that has created water access issues for peri-urban communities. This has motivated local actors to manage their groundwater needs in various ways. General institutional theories are well developed in literature, yet little is known about institutions in transitioning peri-urban areas. Institutions that fail to adapt to changing dynamics run the risk of becoming obsolete or counter-productive, hence the need for investigating institutional change mechanisms in this context. This paper examines peri-urban case studies from Khulna using the Institutional Analysis and Development framework to demonstrate how institutions have contributed to spatial differences in groundwater access with local actors investing in formal and informal institutional change as a means of accessing groundwater.

  3. Caste-specific differences in hindgut microbial communities of honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapheim, Karen M; Rao, Vikyath D; Yeoman, Carl J; Wilson, Brenda A; White, Bryan A; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-01-01

    Host-symbiont dynamics are known to influence host phenotype, but their role in social behavior has yet to be investigated. Variation in life history across honey bee (Apis mellifera) castes may influence community composition of gut symbionts, which may in turn influence caste phenotypes. We investigated the relationship between host-symbiont dynamics and social behavior by characterizing the hindgut microbiome among distinct honey bee castes: queens, males and two types of workers, nurses and foragers. Despite a shared hive environment and mouth-to-mouth food transfer among nestmates, we detected separation among gut microbiomes of queens, workers, and males. Gut microbiomes of nurses and foragers were similar to previously characterized honey bee worker microbiomes and to each other, despite differences in diet, activity, and exposure to the external environment. Queen microbiomes were enriched for bacteria that may enhance metabolic conversion of energy from food to egg production. We propose that the two types of workers, which have the highest diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of bacteria, are central to the maintenance of the colony microbiome. Foragers may introduce new strains of bacteria to the colony from the environment and transfer them to nurses, who filter and distribute them to the rest of the colony. Our results support the idea that host-symbiont dynamics influence microbiome composition and, reciprocally, host social behavior.

  4. Case study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, E.; Goggioli, D.; Tarchi, F.; Guidi, S.; Nannelli, R.; Vignozzi, N.; Valboa, G.; Lottero, M. R.; Corino, L.; Simoni, S.

    2015-07-01

    Land use influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the impact of different management strategies on soil quality is increasingly sought, and the determination of community structures of edaphic fauna can represent an efficient tool. In the area of Langhe (Piedmont, Italy), eight vineyards characterized for physical and chemical properties (soil texture, soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, calcium carbonate) were selected. We evaluated the effect of two types of crop management, organic and integrated pest management (IPM), on abundance and biodiversity of microarthropods living at the soil surface. Soil sampling was carried out in winter 2011 and spring 2012. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biodiversity analysis was performed using ecological indexes (taxa richness, dominance, Shannon-Wiener, Buzas and Gibson's evenness, Margalef, equitability, Berger-Parker), and the biological soil quality was assessed with the BSQ-ar index. The mesofauna abundance was affected by both the type of management and sampling time. On the whole, a higher abundance was in organic vineyards (N = 1981) than in IPM ones (N = 1062). The analysis performed by ecological indexes showed quite a high level of biodiversity in this environment, particularly in May 2012. Furthermore, the BSQ-ar values registered were similar to those obtained in preserved soils.

  5. Comparison of rumen bacterial communities in dairy herds of different production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indugu, Nagaraju; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Baker, Linda D; Ferguson, James D; Vanamala, Jairam K P; Pitta, Dipti W

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the rumen bacterial composition in high and low yielding dairy cows within and between two dairy herds. Eighty five Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation (79-179 days in milk) were selected from two farms: Farm 12 (M305 = 12,300 kg; n = 47; 24 primiparous cows, 23 multiparous cows) and Farm 9 (M305 = 9700 kg; n = 38; 19 primiparous cows, 19 multiparous cows). Each study cow was sampled once using the stomach tube method and processed for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using the Ion Torrent (PGM) platform. Differences in bacterial communities between farms were greater (Adonis: R 2  = 0.16; p forage type and proportion in the diets. A combination of corn silage and alfalfa silage may have contributed to the increased proportion of Proteobacteria in Farm 12. It was concluded that Farm 12 had a greater proportion of specialist bacteria that have the potential to enhance rumen fermentative digestion of feedstuffs to support higher milk yields.

  6. Caste-specific differences in hindgut microbial communities of honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Kapheim

    Full Text Available Host-symbiont dynamics are known to influence host phenotype, but their role in social behavior has yet to be investigated. Variation in life history across honey bee (Apis mellifera castes may influence community composition of gut symbionts, which may in turn influence caste phenotypes. We investigated the relationship between host-symbiont dynamics and social behavior by characterizing the hindgut microbiome among distinct honey bee castes: queens, males and two types of workers, nurses and foragers. Despite a shared hive environment and mouth-to-mouth food transfer among nestmates, we detected separation among gut microbiomes of queens, workers, and males. Gut microbiomes of nurses and foragers were similar to previously characterized honey bee worker microbiomes and to each other, despite differences in diet, activity, and exposure to the external environment. Queen microbiomes were enriched for bacteria that may enhance metabolic conversion of energy from food to egg production. We propose that the two types of workers, which have the highest diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTUs of bacteria, are central to the maintenance of the colony microbiome. Foragers may introduce new strains of bacteria to the colony from the environment and transfer them to nurses, who filter and distribute them to the rest of the colony. Our results support the idea that host-symbiont dynamics influence microbiome composition and, reciprocally, host social behavior.

  7. Comparison of 2 Different Exercise Approaches: Tai Chi Versus Otago, in Community-Dwelling Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Nam-Kuk; Ryu, Young Uk; Jeong, Hye-Won; Jang, Young-Hwan; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Regular exercise can delay age-related risk factors and can maintain or improve physical health and activity in older adults leading to a decrease in fall risk. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different interventions for fall prevention, tai chi (TC) and Otago, by examining lower extremity strength, balance, and spatiotemporal gait parameters in community-dwelling older women. We performed a randomized trial in which subjects were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: the TC group (n = 21; age, 72.8 ± 4.7 years, range: 65-83 years), which participated in a modified Sun-style TC exercise program; and the Otago group (n = 24; age, 71.5 ± 3.6 years, range: 65-79 years), which participated in the Otago exercise program. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, functional reach (FR) test, one-leg standing (OLS) test, 5 times sit-to-stand test (5×STS), 30-second sit-to-stand (30s STS) test, and gait parameters (gait velocity, step length, step width, stride time, and cadence) were measured before and after the intervention. Both groups showed statistically significant improvements in balance (TUG and OLS tests), lower extremity strength (5×STS and 30s STS tests), and spatiotemporal gait parameters, except for step width and step length (P fall prevention.

  8. Shifts in phylogenetic diversity of archaeal communities in mangrove sediments at different sites and depths in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Lucas William; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Navarrete, Acácio Aparecido; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2012-06-01

    This study focused on the structure and composition of archaeal communities in sediments of tropical mangroves in order to obtain sufficient insight into two Brazilian sites from different locations (one pristine and another located in an urban area) and at different depth levels from the surface. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments was used to scan the archaeal community structure, and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were used to determine the community composition. Redundancy analysis of T-RFLP patterns revealed differences in archaeal community structure according to location, depth and soil attributes. Parameters such as pH, organic matter, potassium and magnesium presented significant correlation with general community structure. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis revealed a community composition distributed differently according to depth where, in shallow samples, 74.3% of sequences were affiliated with Euryarchaeota and 25.7% were shared between Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota, while for the deeper samples, 24.3% of the sequences were affiliated with Euryarchaeota and 75.7% with Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Archaeal diversity measurements based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries decreased with increasing depth and there was a greater difference between depths (25% of sequences shared). Taken together, our findings indicate that mangrove ecosystems support a diverse archaeal community; it might possibly be involved in nutrient cycles and are affected by sediment properties, depth and distinct locations. Copyright © 2012 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Parental report of abdominal pain and abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders from a community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saps, Miguel; Adams, Papa; Bonilla, Silvana; Chogle, Ashish; Nichols-Vinueza, Diana

    2012-12-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common in children. Abdominal pain (AP) is the most common gastrointestinal (GI) symptom in children. The severity of AP drives medical consultations and quality of life in adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Thirty-eight percent of 8- to 15-year-old schoolchildren report AP weekly with 24% of those children reporting persistence of AP >8 weeks. Despite the high prevalence of AP, only 2% of school children seek medical attention for AP. Lack of parental knowledge on their child's symptoms may constitute one of the factors affecting the low ratio of consultation in children reporting AP. The aim was to assess parental reports of AP symptoms in a population of healthy community children. Data of 5 studies with identical methodology to assess GI symptoms in children with celiac disease (CD), cow's milk allergy (CMA), pyloric stenosis (PS), Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP), and stem cell transplant (SC) and their healthy siblings were reviewed: a phone questionnaire on GI symptoms and Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rome III version questionnaire (QPGS-RIII). Inclusion criteria were healthy children 4 to 18 years of age with a sibling previously diagnosed with CD, CMA, PS, HSP, or SC. Data on 246 healthy children, mean age (9.8 years, range 3-24, 112 girls) were obtained. Parents reported presence of AP in the last 8 weeks before the telephone contact in 20 (8.1%) children (age range 4-18 years, 11 girls). There was no significant difference in AP prevalence between boys and girls (P = 0.64). Six children (2.4%) met QPGS-RIII diagnostic criteria for FGIDs: 3 functional abdominal pain (FAP) and 3 IBS. AP was common in community children. FAP was the most common FGID among healthy community children. The prevalence of AP by parental report is lower than the previously published prevalence of AP reported by children. Lack of awareness of children's symptoms may play a role in the low ratio of

  10. The interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism in general community samples: Findings in a Midwestern US twin birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Glowinski, Anne L.; Grant, Julia D.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Jacob, Theodore; Sher, Kenneth J.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there is a long tradition in alcoholism research of using family history ratings, the interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism from general community samples has yet to be established. Methods Telephone interview data obtained from a large cohort of female like-sex twins (N = 3787, median age 22) and their biological parents (N = 2928, assessed at twins’ median age 15) were analyzed to determine agreement between parent self-report, parent ratings of coparent, and twin narrow (alcohol problems) versus broad (problem or excessive drinking) ratings of each parent. Results In European ancestry (EA) families, high tetrachoric correlations were observed between twin and cotwin ratings of parental alcohol problems, between twin and parent ratings of coparent alcohol problems using symptom-based and single-item assessments, as well as moderately high correlations between twin and both mother and father self-reports. In African American (AA) families, inter-rater agreement was substantially lower than for EA families, with no cases where father ratings of maternal alcohol problems agreed with either twin ratings or mother self-report; and both cotwin agreement and mother-twin agreement were reduced. Differences between EA and AA families were not explained by differences in years of cohabitation with father or mother’s education; however, underreporting of problems by AA parents may have contributed. Conclusions Results support the use of family history ratings of parental alcoholism in general community surveys for European ancestry families, but suggest that family history assessment in African American families requires improved methods. PMID:22235921

  11. Environment and geographic distance differ in relative importance for determining fungal community of rhizosphere and bulk soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaoping; Adams, Jonathan M; Shi, Yu; Yang, Teng; Sun, Ruibo; He, Dan; Ni, Yingying; Chu, Haiyan

    2017-09-01

    Rhizospheric fungi play major roles in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. However, little is known about the determinants of their diversity and biogeographic patterns. Here, we compared fungal communities in rhizosphere and bulk soils of wheat fields in the North China Plain. The rhizosphere had a lower fungal diversity (observed OTUs and Chao1) than bulk soil, and a distinct fungal community structure in rhizosphere compared with bulk soil. The relative importance of environmental factors and geographic distance for fungal distribution differed between rhizosphere and bulk soil. Environmental factors were the primary cause of variations in total fungal community and major fungal phyla in bulk soil. By contrast, fungal communities in soils loosely attached to roots were predictable from both environmental factors and influences of geographic distance. Communities in soils tightly attached to roots were mainly determined by geographic distance. Our results suggest that both contemporary environment processes (present-day abiotic and biotic environment characters) and historical processes (spatial isolation, dispersal limitation occurred in the past) dominate variations of fungal communities in wheat fields, but their relative importance of all these processes depends on the proximity of fungal community to the plant roots. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Validity and reliability of self-reported diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrea L C; Pankow, James S; Heiss, Gerardo; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity of prevalent and incident self-reported diabetes compared with multiple reference definitions and to assess the reliability (repeatability) of a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes. Data from 10,321 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who attended visit 4 (1996-1998) were analyzed. Prevalent self-reported diabetes was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose and medication use obtained at visit 4. Incident self-reported diabetes was assessed during annual follow-up telephone calls and was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and medication use obtained during an in-person visit attended by a subsample of participants (n = 1,738) in 2004-2005. The sensitivity of prevalent self-reported diabetes ranged from 58.5% to 70.8%, and specificity ranged from 95.6% to 96.8%, depending on the reference definition. Similarly, the sensitivity of incident self-reported diabetes ranged from 55.9% to 80.4%, and specificity ranged from 84.5% to 90.6%. Percent positive agreement of self-reported diabetes during 9 years of repeat assessments ranged from 92.7% to 95.4%. Both prevalent self-reported diabetes and incident self-reported diabetes were 84%-97% specific and 55%-80% sensitive as compared with reference definitions using glucose and medication criteria. Self-reported diabetes was >92% reliable over time.

  13. Promoting Gatekeeper Course Success among Community College Students Needing Remediation: Findings and Recommendations from a Virginia Study (Summary Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Davis; Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Roksa, Josipa

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes key findings and recommendations from a Community College Research Center (CCRC) study designed to help community colleges develop strategies for improving the rate at which academically underprepared students take and pass initial college-level (or "gatekeeper") courses in math and English. CCRC conducted the…

  14. The Socialization Process of Street Children in the Youth Gangs and Groups of Organized Crime in Local Community. Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the research report on the socialization process of children in the street, youth gangs, and organized criminal groups in local communities. The author has analysed the signs and communication codes located on walls in local communities. This is very important to the socialization process of the youth street gangs.

  15. Preparing for Further Introduction of Computing Technology in Vancouver Community College Instruction. Report of the Instructional Computing Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancouver Community Coll., British Columbia.

    After examining the impact of changing technology on postsecondary instruction and on the tools needed for instruction, this report analyzes the status and offers recommendations concerning the future of instructional computing at Vancouver Community College (VCC) in British Columbia. Section I focuses on the use of computers in community college…

  16. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, Duane A.; Weaver, Clifford L.; Rielley, Kevin J.; Gallagher, Kevin C.; Harmon, Susan B.; Hejna, David T.; Kitch, Edmund W.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Bacterial Community Associated with Healthy and Diseased Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Larvae and Rearing Water across Different Growth Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanfen; Yu, Min; Liu, Jiwen; Qiao, Yanlu; Wang, Long; Li, Zhitao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Mingchao

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial communities are called another "organ" for aquatic animals and their important influence on the health of host has drawn increasing attention. Thus, it is important to study the relationships between aquatic animals and bacterial communities. Here, bacterial communities associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at different healthy statuses (diseased and healthy) and growth stages (i.e., zoea, mysis, and early postlarvae periods) were examined using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial communities with significant difference were observed between healthy and diseased rearing water, and several bacterial groups, such as genera Nautella and Kordiimonas could also distinguish healthy and diseased shrimp. Rhodobacteraceae was widely distributed in rearing water at all growth stages but there were several stage-specific groups, indicating that bacterial members in rearing water assembled into distinct communities throughout the larval development. However, Gammaproteobacteria , mainly family Enterobacteriaceae , was the most abundant group (accounting for more than 85%) in shrimp larvae at all growth stages. This study compared bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased L . vannamei larvae and rearing water, and identified several health- and growth stage-specific bacterial groups, which might be provided as indicators for monitoring the healthy status of shrimp larvae in hatchery.

  18. Bacterial Community Associated with Healthy and Diseased Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Larvae and Rearing Water across Different Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfen Zheng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities are called another “organ” for aquatic animals and their important influence on the health of host has drawn increasing attention. Thus, it is important to study the relationships between aquatic animals and bacterial communities. Here, bacterial communities associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at different healthy statuses (diseased and healthy and growth stages (i.e., zoea, mysis, and early postlarvae periods were examined using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial communities with significant difference were observed between healthy and diseased rearing water, and several bacterial groups, such as genera Nautella and Kordiimonas could also distinguish healthy and diseased shrimp. Rhodobacteraceae was widely distributed in rearing water at all growth stages but there were several stage-specific groups, indicating that bacterial members in rearing water assembled into distinct communities throughout the larval development. However, Gammaproteobacteria, mainly family Enterobacteriaceae, was the most abundant group (accounting for more than 85% in shrimp larvae at all growth stages. This study compared bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae and rearing water, and identified several health- and growth stage-specific bacterial groups, which might be provided as indicators for monitoring the healthy status of shrimp larvae in hatchery.

  19. Analysis of sea water by difference chromatography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangelsdorf, P.C. Jr.

    1977-02-01

    During the final period of this research contract the principal results obtained were: (a) the development of anion analysis by difference chromatography to the extent that SO/sub 4//sup =//Cl/sup -/ can be determined to better than 0.1 percent using an 0.5 ml seawater sample, (b) the determination of the ion-exchange cation complements of a variety of sediments in river water and in seawater, and (c) the discovery of a simple technique for the qualitative removal of NH/sub 4//sup +/ from seawater samples without altering the ratios of the other cations. This method supersedes the use of Cu-Chelex which has proved impossible to sustain.

  20. Deep-sea seabed habitats: Do they support distinct mega-epifaunal communities that have different vulnerabilities to anthropogenic disturbance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, David A.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Leduc, Daniel; Beaumont, Jennifer; Clark, Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Growing economic interest in seabed resources in the deep-sea highlights the need for information about the spatial distribution and vulnerability to disturbance of benthic habitats and fauna. Categorisation of seabed habitats for management is often based on topographic features such as canyons and seamounts that can be distinguished using regional bathymetry ('mega-habitats'). This is practical but because such habitats are contiguous with others, there is potential for overlap in the communities associated with them. Because concepts of habitat and community vulnerability are based on the traits of individual taxa, the nature and extent of differences between communities have implications for strategies to manage the environmental effects of resource use. Using towed video camera transects, we surveyed mega-epifaunal communities of three topographically-defined habitats (canyon, seamount or knoll, and continental slope) and two physico-chemically defined meso-scale habitats (cold seep and hydrothermal vent) in two regions off New Zealand to assess whether each supports a distinct type of community. Cold seep and hydrothermal vent communities were strongly distinct from those in other habitats. Across the other habitats, however, distinctions between communities were often weak and were not consistent between regions. Dissimilarities among communities across all habitats were stronger and the density of filter-feeding taxa was higher in the Bay of Plenty than on the Hikurangi Margin, whereas densities of predatory and scavenging taxa were higher on the Hikurangi Margin. Substratum diversity at small spatial scales (the general utility of topographically-defined mega-habitats in environmental management, (2) fine-scale survey of individual features is necessary to identify the locations, characteristics, and extents of ecologically important or vulnerable seabed communities, and (3) evaluation of habitat vulnerability to future events should be in the context of

  1. Coastal-inland solar radiation difference study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, W.D. Jr.; Vukovich, F.M.

    1980-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the characteristics of solar insolation in the coastal zone and to determine the effect of the sea breeze circulation on the global insolation. In order to satisfy these objectives, a six station sampling network was established in the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina, where previous evidence has indicated that the sea breeze circulation is almost a daily occurrence from late May through October. Three sites (Sloop Point, Onslow Beach, and Cape Fear Technical Institute (CFTI)) were located near the coast (coastal sites) to assess the insolation at the coast. A site (Clinton) was located in an area seldom affected by the sea breeze (about 100 km from the coast). Two additional sites, Wallace and Ellis Airport, located between the coastal sites and the control site, were to be used to assess the transient impact of the sea breeze upon the insolation. Pyranometers were located at each site to measure the global insolation. Direct normal insolation measured by a pyrheliometer and ultraviolet radiation measured by uv radiometers were observed at the Sloop Point and Clinton sites only. Data were collected during the calendar year 1978. The results of the study indicated that the global insolation had greater variability over the network during the summer season (June, July, and August). During the summer, there was a systematicdiurnal variation of the difference in global insolation between the inland and the coastal sites.

  2. Local participation in complex technological projects as bridging between different communities in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, K.; Craps, M.; Dewulf, A.

    2013-01-01

    Local community participation in complex technological projects, where technological innovations and risks need to be managed, is notoriously challenging. Relations with local inhabitants easily take the form of exclusion, protest, controversy or litigation. While such projects represent

  3. Changes in bacterial community structure in the colon of pigs fed different experimental diets and after infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leser, Thomas D.; Lindecrona, Rikke Hvid; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial communities in the large intestines of pigs were compared using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis targeting the 16S ribosomal DNA. The pigs were fed different experimental diets based on either modified standard feed or cooked rice supplemented with die......Bacterial communities in the large intestines of pigs were compared using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis targeting the 16S ribosomal DNA. The pigs were fed different experimental diets based on either modified standard feed or cooked rice supplemented...

  4. Diversity of bacterial communities on the facial skin of different age-group Thai males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilantho, Alisa; Deekaew, Pamornya; Srisuttiyakorn, Chutika; Tongsima, Sissades; Somboonna, Naraporn

    2017-01-01

    Skin microbiome varies from person to person due to a combination of various factors, including age, biogeography, sex, cosmetics and genetics. Many skin disorders appear to be related to the resident microflora, yet databases of facial skin microbiome of many biogeographies, including Thai, are limited. Metagenomics derived B-RISA and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was utilized to identify the culture-independent bacterial diversity on Thai male faces (cheek and forehead areas). Skin samples were categorized (grouped) into (i) normal ( teenage.hea ) and (ii) acne-prone ( teenage.acn ) young adults, and normal (iii) middle-aged ( middle.hea ) and (iv) elderly ( elderly.hea ) adults. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was successful as the sequencing depth had an estimated >98% genus coverage of the true community. The major diversity was found between the young and elderly adults in both cheek and forehead areas, followed by that between normal and acne young adults. Detection of representative characteristics indicated that bacteria from the order Rhizobiales, genera Sphingomonas and Pseudoalteromonas , distinguished the elderly.hea microbiota, along the clinical features of wrinkles and pores. Prediction of the metabolic potential revealed reduced metabolic pathways involved in replication and repair, nucleotide metabolism and genetic translation in the elderly.hea compared with that in the teenage.hea . For young adults, some unique compositions such as abundance of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis , with a minor diversity between normal and acne skins, were detected. The metabolic potentials of the acne vs. normal young adults showed that teenage.acn was low in many cellular processes (e.g., cell motility and environmental adaptation), but high in carbohydrate metabolism, which could support acne growth. Moreover, comparison with the age-matched males from the US (Boulder, Colorado) to gain insight into the diversity across national biogeography

  5. Environmental Drivers of Differences in Microbial Community Structure in Crude Oil Reservoirs across a Methanogenic Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Jenna L.; Akob, Denise M.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Fierer, Noah; Spear, John R.; Warwick, Peter D.; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulating in situ microbial communities in oil reservoirs to produce natural gas is a potentially viable strategy for recovering additional fossil fuel resources following traditional recovery operations. Little is known about what geochemical parameters drive microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs. We investigated if microbial community structure was significantly impacted by the extent of crude oil biodegradation, extent of biogenic methane production, a...

  6. Possible development of nuclear energy in the European Community and consequences of different reactor strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decressin, A.; Haytinck, B.; Orlowski, S.

    1974-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities recommended to stimulate the development of the nuclear energy, in order to ensure in the middle or long term, a diversification of the energy supply sources of the Community. According to such a policy, nuclear energy could cover nearly 80% of the Community needs in electrical power in the year 2000 - these being estimated at 50% of total energy needs of the Community - and correspond to 1,3 billion tep for that year alone. In the year 2000, the installed nuclear capacity in the Community (i.e. nearly 1000 GWe) would imply the consumption of roughly 150.000 metric tons of natural uranium and necessitate 90.000 tons of SWU in enrichment services, whatever ''average'' strategy is considered for the period 1980 - 2000. The choices between these various strategies made by public or industrial decision centers, will be the result of a complex assessment of many factors. In any case, the flow of nuclear material between countries will remain very important and a Community nuclear self sufficiency based on breeding is not conceivable before the time at which new energy sources could be brought in effective uses

  7. The Impact of Participation in Online Cancer Communities on Patient Reported Outcomes: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eenbergen, Mies C; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Heine, Peter; Mols, Floortje

    2017-09-28

    In recent years, the question of how patients' participating in online communities affects various patient reported outcomes (PROs) has been investigated in several ways. This study aimed to systematically review all relevant literature identified using key search terms, with regard to, first, changes in PROs for cancer patients who participate in online communities and, second, the characteristics of patients who report such effects. A computerized search of the literature via PubMed (MEDLINE), PsycINFO (5 and 4 stars), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ScienceDirect was performed. Last search was conducted in June 2017. Studies with the following terms were included: (cancer patient) and (support group or health communities) and (online or Internet). A total of 21 studies were included and independently assessed by 2 investigators using an 11-item quality checklist. The methodological quality of the selected studies varied: 12 were of high quality, eight were of adequate quality, and only one was of low quality. Most of the respondents were women (about 80%), most with breast cancer; their mean age was 50 years. The patients who were active in online support groups were mostly younger and more highly educated than the nonusers. The investigated PROs included general well-being (ie, mood and health), anxiety, depression, quality of life, posttraumatic growth, and cancer-related concerns. Only marginal effects-that is, PRO improvements-were found; in most cases they were insignificant, and in some cases they were contradictory. The main shortcoming of this kind of study is the lack of methodological instruments for reliable measurements. Furthermore, some patients who participate in online communities or interact with peers via Internet do not expect to measure changes in their PROs. If cancer survivors want to meet other survivors and share information or get support, online communities can be a trustworthy and reliable platform to facilitate

  8. Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The notion of animal culture has been well established mainly through research aiming at uncovering differences between populations. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), cultural diversity has even been found in neighboring communities, where differences were observed despite frequent immigration of individuals. Female chimpanzees transfer at the onset of sexual maturity at an age, when the behavioral repertoire is fully formed. With immigrating females, behavioral variety enters the group. Little is known about the diversity and the longevity of cultural traits within a community. This study is building on previous findings of differences in hammer selection when nut cracking between neighboring communities despite similar ecological conditions. We now further investigated the diversity and maintenance of cultural traits within one chimpanzee community and were able to show high levels of uniformity in group-specific behavior. Fidelity to the behavior pattern did not vary between dispersing females and philopatric males. Furthermore, group-specific tool selection remained similar over a period of 25 years. Additionally, we present a study case on how one newly immigrant female progressively behaved more similar to her new group, suggesting that the high level of similarity in behavior is actively adopted by group members possibly even when originally expressing the behavior in another form. Taken together, our data support a cultural transmission process in adult chimpanzees, which leads to persisting cultural behavior of one community over time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Is H3N2 Pneumonia Different from Other Community-Acquired Pneumonia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Doğan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical, laboratory, radiological, and demographic data of H3N2 pneumonia cases hospitalized to the Pulmonology Department during H3N2 pandemics and compare them with non-H3N2 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP cases. Methods: The study population consisted of all CAP cases hospitalized to our Pulmonology Department between December 2013 and February 2014 during the influenza outbreak. The patient files were evaluated for physical findings, laboratory data, radiological findings, and treatment and outcome of cases. H3N2 was diagnosed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis of throat swabs. The clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings of H3N2 pneumonia cases were compared with those of non-H3N2 pneumonia cases. Mann–Whitney U test, Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression analysis by the forward step wise method were used for statistical analyses. P value0.05. The rates of treatment failure and/or transport to the intensive care unit with the need of invasive mechanical ventilation and mortality rates were also similar in both groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: H3N2 pneumonia/viral pneumonia is a member of CAP. Although the number of H3N2 cases are extremely small to draw a conclusion, the results of this study highlight that the clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings of H3N2 pneumonia cases are not different from those of non-H3N2 CAP cases.

  10. Can we measure daily tobacco consumption in remote indigenous communities? Comparing self-reported tobacco consumption with community-level estimates in an Arnhem Land study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Alan R; MacLaren, David J; Robertson, Jan A; Ivers, Rowena G; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2011-03-01

    In remote Indigenous Australian communities measuring individual tobacco use can be confounded by cultural expectations, including sharing. We compared self-reported tobacco consumption with community-level estimates in Arnhem Land (Northern Territory). In a cross-sectional survey in three communities (population 2319 Indigenous residents, aged ≥16 years), 400 Indigenous residents were interviewed (206 men, 194 women). Eight community stores provided information about tobacco sold during the survey. To gauge the impact of 255 non-Indigenous residents on tobacco turnover, 10 were interviewed (five men, five women). Breath carbon monoxide levels confirmed self-reported smoking. Self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day was compared with daily tobacco consumption per user estimated using amounts of tobacco sold during 12 months before the survey (2007-2008). 'Lighter smokers' (Indigenous study participants, 305 (76%) used tobacco; four chewed tobacco. Of 301 Indigenous smokers, 177 (58%) provided self-reported consumption information; a median of 11-11.5 cigarettes per day in men and 5.5-10 cigarettes per day in women. Men were three times (odds ratio=2.9) more likely to be 'heavier smokers'. Store turnover data indicated that Indigenous tobacco users consumed the equivalent of 9.2-13.1 cigarettes per day; very similar to self-reported levels. Sixty per cent (=6/10) of non-Indigenous residents interviewed were smokers, but with little impact on tobacco turnover overall (2-6%). Smoking levels reported by Indigenous Australians in this study, when sharing tobacco was considered, closely reflected quantities of tobacco sold in community stores. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Use, perceived effectiveness, and gender differences of pain relief strategies among the community-dwelling elderly in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Kuo, Benjamin Ing-Tiau; Yu, Shu

    2011-03-01

    Pain is a common problem among the elderly. The entire scope of chronic pain relief strategies used by community elderly is still unclear. A limited number of studies have investigated this issue from diverse culture perspectives. In the present study, we investigated the use and perceived effectiveness of pain relief strategies adopted by the elderly; gender differences between frequently used relief strategies were also explored. Two hundred nineteen participants living in Taiwan City, Taiwan, were recruited by a random sampling method and interviewed face to face. The prevalence of chronic pain among the elderly was 42.0% (n = 92). The elderly tended to adopt multiple strategies (mean ± SD = 9.08 ± 3.56; range = 2-18) to relieve their chronic pain. In three domains of pain relief strategies, conventional medicine was used more frequently than complementary and alternative medicine and psychologic approaches. Most pain relief strategies were ineffective. Among the 22 strategies used, no strategy was reported as "much improved" by a majority of users. The top five pain relief strategies used by men and women were the same. Elderly women tended to adopt more psychologic approaches, such as acceptance and ignoring to relieve pain, than men. The findings suggest that nurses should pay more attention to the issue of chronic pain relief and provide the elderly with more effective pain relief strategies. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Some factors underlying individual differences in speech recognition on PRESTO: a first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamati, Terrin N; Gilbert, Jaimie L; Pisoni, David B

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies investigating speech recognition in adverse listening conditions have found extensive variability among individual listeners. However, little is currently known about the core underlying factors that influence speech recognition abilities. To investigate sensory, perceptual, and neurocognitive differences between good and poor listeners on the Perceptually Robust English Sentence Test Open-set (PRESTO), a new high-variability sentence recognition test under adverse listening conditions. Participants who fell in the upper quartile (HiPRESTO listeners) or lower quartile (LoPRESTO listeners) on key word recognition on sentences from PRESTO in multitalker babble completed a battery of behavioral tasks and self-report questionnaires designed to investigate real-world hearing difficulties, indexical processing skills, and neurocognitive abilities. Young, normal-hearing adults (N = 40) from the Indiana University community participated in the current study. Participants' assessment of their own real-world hearing difficulties was measured with a self-report questionnaire on situational hearing and hearing health history. Indexical processing skills were assessed using a talker discrimination task, a gender discrimination task, and a forced-choice regional dialect categorization task. Neurocognitive abilities were measured with the Auditory Digit Span Forward (verbal short-term memory) and Digit Span Backward (verbal working memory) tests, the Stroop Color and Word Test (attention/inhibition), the WordFam word familiarity test (vocabulary size), the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) self-report questionnaire on executive function, and two performance subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) Performance Intelligence Quotient (IQ; nonverbal intelligence). Scores on self-report questionnaires and behavioral tasks were tallied and analyzed by listener group (HiPRESTO and LoPRESTO). The extreme

  13. Education level and physical functional limitations among Japanese community residents-gender difference in prognosis from stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue Manami

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has been conducted to examine the relationship between education level and functional limitations among Japanese community residents. We sought to examine the association between education level and physical functional limitations among Japanese men and women, and whether that association was modified by gender and history of stroke. Methods We examined prevalence of physical functional limitation by educational level using the data from a total of 29,134 Japanese men and women aged 50–69 years living in communities in 2000. The information of educational level (junior high school graduates, senior high school graduates, college and/or higher education and physical functional limitations (no need for assistance, need for assistance when going outdoors, and need for assistance to carry out indoor activities were obtained by self-administrated questionnaire. Results The proportions of the subjects reported their highest level of schooling were 48% for junior high school, 39% for high school, and 13% for college. Three hundred and twenty eight subjects (1% of total subjects reported having some physical functional limitations. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that the odds ratio of needing assistance to carry out indoor activities were 4.84(95%CI:3.61,6.50 for lowest education level group and 2.21(95%CI:1.00,4.86 for middle education level group compared to highest education level group. The corresponding odds ratios of needing assistance when going outdoors were 2.36(95%CI: 2.03,2.72 and 1.08(95%CI:0.73,1.60, respectively. Further, the significant excess prevalence of having functional limitations associated with the low education level was identified for men regardless of history of stroke and for women without history of stroke. Conclusion Low education level was associated with the higher prevalence of physical functional limitations for both genders. That association among persons with

  14. Higgs Working Group Report of the Snowmass 2013 Community Planning Study

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, S; Logan, H; Qian, J; Tully, C; Van Kooten, R; Ajaib, A; Anastassov, A; Anderson, I; Bake, O; Barger, V; Barklow, T; Batell, B; Battaglia, M; Berge, S; Blondel, A; Bolognesi, S; Brau, J; Brownson, E; Cahill-Rowley, M; Calancha-Paredes, C; Chen, C -Y; Chou, W; Clare, R; Cline, D; Craig, N; Cranmer, K; de Gruttola, M; Elagin, A; Essig, R; Everett, L; Feng, E; Fujii, K; Gainer, J; Gao, Y; Gogoladze, I; Gori, S; Goncalo, R; Graf, N; Grojean, C; Guindon, S; Han, T; Hanson, G; Harnik, R; Heinemann, B; Heinemeyer, S; Heintz, U; Hewett, J; Ilchenko, Y; Ismail, A; Jain, V; Janot, P; Kawada, S; Kehoe, R; Klute, M; Kotwal, A; Krueger, K; Kukartsev, G; Kumar, K; Kunkle, J; Lewis, I; Li, Y; Linssen, L; Lipeles, E; Lipton, R; Liss, T; List, J; Liu, T; Liu, Z; Low, I; Ma, T; Mackenzie, P; Mellado, B; Melnikov, K; Moortgat-Pick, G; Mourou, G; Narain, M; Nielsen, J; Okada, N; Okawa, H; Olsen, J; Onyisi, P; Parashar, N; Peskin, M; Petriello, F; Plehn, T; Pollard, C; Potter, C; Prokofiev, K; Rauch, M; Rizzo, T; Robens, T; Rodriguez, V; Roloff, P; Ruiz, R; Sanz, V; Sayre, J; Shafi, Q; Shaughnessy, G; Sher, M; Simon, F; Solyak, N; Stupak, J; Su, S; Tanabe, T; Tajima, T; Telnov, V; Tian, J; Thomas, S; Thomson, M; Un, C; Velasco, M; Wagner, C; Wang, S; Whitbeck, A; Yao, W; Yokoya, H; Zenz, S; Zerwas, D; Zhang, Y; Zhou, Y

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of the Energy Frontier Higgs Boson working group of the 2013 Community Summer Study (Snowmass). We identify the key elements of a precision Higgs physics program and document the physics potential of future experimental facilities as elucidated during the Snowmass study. We study Higgs couplings to gauge boson and fermion pairs, double Higgs production for the Higgs self-coupling, its quantum numbers and $C\\!P$-mixing in Higgs couplings, the Higgs mass and total width, and prospects for direct searches for additional Higgs bosons in extensions of the Standard Model. Our report includes projections of measurement capabilities from detailed studies of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), a Gamma-Gamma Collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC), the Large Hadron Collider High-Luminosity Upgrade (HL-LHC), Very Large Hadron Colliders up to 100 TeV (VLHC), a Muon Collider, and a Triple-Large Electron Positron Collider (TLEP).

  15. Causes of schizophrenia reported by urban African American lay community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Esterberg, Michelle L; Broussard, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Although mental health professionals' "etiologic beliefs" concerning schizophrenia have evolved in accordance with diathesis-stress and neurodevelopmental models, little is known about etiologic attributions in nonclinical general population samples in the United States. Yet, course and outcome for people with the illness may be indirectly influenced by beliefs about causes in the larger community. Because of very limited research in this area, especially among African Americans in particular, this descriptive study investigated the causes of schizophrenia reported by 127 urban African Americans from the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the most commonly reported causes of schizophrenia, as well as the frequency of endorsing items from a list of 30 factors, some of which are congruent with current psychiatric conceptualizations of schizophrenia, whereas others are not. Results of this report complement previously reported findings from the same setting involving family members of patients with schizophrenia [Esterberg ML, Compton MT. Causes of schizophrenia reported by family members of urban African American hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Compr Psychiatry 2006;47:221-226]. The 5 most commonly reported causes were disturbance of brain biochemistry (49.6%), drug/alcohol abuse (42.5%), hereditary factors (40.9%), brain injury (40.2%), and avoidance of problems in life (37.8%). The mean number of likely or very likely causes endorsed by participants was 7.5 +/- 5.7. Some 47.9% reported one or more esoteric factors as a cause. Of the 6 esoteric factors, possession by evil spirits (28.3%), radiation (20.2%), and punishment by God (19.7%) were most common. Esoteric causes were more commonly chosen by male participants, those with 12 years of education or less, and participants who reported never having known someone with schizophrenia. Future research should seek to better understand how esoteric beliefs about causation affect attitudes

  16. Self-reported skin concerns: An epidemiological study of community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdell, Fiona; Dyson, Judith; Long, Judith; Macleod, Una

    2018-03-25

    To identify the frequency and impact of self-reported skin concerns in community-dwelling older people. Globally, the population is getting older and it is essential to develop effective interventions to promote healthy ageing. Skin change with age is inevitable and renders this often neglected organ more vulnerable to damage and breakdown; this can be costly to individuals and society. Maintenance of skin health in older people presents a health challenge that has yet to be fully understood or addressed. Cross-sectional, self-reported questionnaire survey in England. Patients registered with participating general practices (n = 3), aged ≥70 years, living in their own homes and able to give informed consent (n = 3,359) were sent a letter of invitation to a free health and care assessment, and 1116 responded. When asked "do you have any concerns about your skin?", 16.5% (n = 183) said yes. Of this group, the most common concerns were dry skin 80.7% (n = 146), itching 56.9% (n = 103) and aged appearance 61% (n = 113). Itch, dry skin and inflammation were rated as most bothersome. There was a significant association between the dry skin and itch χ 2 (1) = 6.9, p < .05. Many community-dwelling older people suffer from skin concerns predominantly dry skin and itching that is often bothersome. Skin health assessment is often absent in routine consultations with community-dwelling older people. Dry, itchy skin is prevalent and can be simply managed with low-cost interventions. This has the potential to reduce suffering and maintain or improve skin barrier function. Nurses and other health professionals should therefore routinely assess and advise on skin health care for this population. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Petroleum Contamination and Plant Identity Influence Soil and Root Microbial Communities While AMF Spores Retrieved from the Same Plants Possess Markedly Different Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising in situ green technology based on the use of plants to cleanup soils from organic and inorganic pollutants. Microbes, particularly bacteria and fungi, that closely interact with plant roots play key roles in phytoremediation processes. In polluted soils, the root-associated microbes contribute to alleviation of plant stress, improve nutrient uptake and may either degrade or sequester a large range of soil pollutants. Therefore, improving the efficiency of phytoremediation requires a thorough knowledge of the microbial diversity living in the rhizosphere and in close association with plant roots in both the surface and the endosphere. This study aims to assess fungal ITS and bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity using high-throughput sequencing in rhizospheric soils and roots of three plant species ( Solidago canadensis, Populus balsamifera , and Lycopus europaeus ) growing spontaneously in three petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sedimentation basins. Microbial community structures of rhizospheric soils and roots were compared with those of microbes associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) spores to determine the links between the root and rhizosphere communities and those associated with AMF. Our results showed a difference in OTU richness and community structure composition between soils and roots for both bacteria and fungi. We found that petroleum hydrocarbon pollutant (PHP) concentrations have a significant effect on fungal and bacterial community structures in both soils and roots, whereas plant species identity showed a significant effect only on the roots for bacteria and fungi. Our results also showed that the community composition of bacteria and fungi in soil and roots varied from those associated with AMF spores harvested from the same plants. This let us to speculate that in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils, AMF may release chemical compounds by which they recruit beneficial microbes to tolerate or degrade the

  18. Petroleum Contamination and Plant Identity Influence Soil and Root Microbial Communities While AMF Spores Retrieved from the Same Plants Possess Markedly Different Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachir Iffis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a promising in situ green technology based on the use of plants to cleanup soils from organic and inorganic pollutants. Microbes, particularly bacteria and fungi, that closely interact with plant roots play key roles in phytoremediation processes. In polluted soils, the root-associated microbes contribute to alleviation of plant stress, improve nutrient uptake and may either degrade or sequester a large range of soil pollutants. Therefore, improving the efficiency of phytoremediation requires a thorough knowledge of the microbial diversity living in the rhizosphere and in close association with plant roots in both the surface and the endosphere. This study aims to assess fungal ITS and bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity using high-throughput sequencing in rhizospheric soils and roots of three plant species (Solidago canadensis, Populus balsamifera, and Lycopus europaeus growing spontaneously in three petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sedimentation basins. Microbial community structures of rhizospheric soils and roots were compared with those of microbes associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF spores to determine the links between the root and rhizosphere communities and those associated with AMF. Our results showed a difference in OTU richness and community structure composition between soils and roots for both bacteria and fungi. We found that petroleum hydrocarbon pollutant (PHP concentrations have a significant effect on fungal and bacterial community structures in both soils and roots, whereas plant species identity showed a significant effect only on the roots for bacteria and fungi. Our results also showed that the community composition of bacteria and fungi in soil and roots varied from those associated with AMF spores harvested from the same plants. This let us to speculate that in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils, AMF may release chemical compounds by which they recruit beneficial microbes to tolerate

  19. Petroleum Contamination and Plant Identity Influence Soil and Root Microbial Communities While AMF Spores Retrieved from the Same Plants Possess Markedly Different Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising in situ green technology based on the use of plants to cleanup soils from organic and inorganic pollutants. Microbes, particularly bacteria and fungi, that closely interact with plant roots play key roles in phytoremediation processes. In polluted soils, the root-associated microbes contribute to alleviation of plant stress, improve nutrient uptake and may either degrade or sequester a large range of soil pollutants. Therefore, improving the efficiency of phytoremediation requires a thorough knowledge of the microbial diversity living in the rhizosphere and in close association with plant roots in both the surface and the endosphere. This study aims to assess fungal ITS and bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity using high-throughput sequencing in rhizospheric soils and roots of three plant species (Solidago canadensis, Populus balsamifera, and Lycopus europaeus) growing spontaneously in three petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sedimentation basins. Microbial community structures of rhizospheric soils and roots were compared with those of microbes associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) spores to determine the links between the root and rhizosphere communities and those associated with AMF. Our results showed a difference in OTU richness and community structure composition between soils and roots for both bacteria and fungi. We found that petroleum hydrocarbon pollutant (PHP) concentrations have a significant effect on fungal and bacterial community structures in both soils and roots, whereas plant species identity showed a significant effect only on the roots for bacteria and fungi. Our results also showed that the community composition of bacteria and fungi in soil and roots varied from those associated with AMF spores harvested from the same plants. This let us to speculate that in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils, AMF may release chemical compounds by which they recruit beneficial microbes to tolerate or degrade the

  20. Different in the dark: The effect of habitat characteristics on community composition and beta diversity in bromeliad microfauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Busse

    Full Text Available The mechanisms which structure communities have been the focus of a large body of research. Here, we address the question if habitat characteristics describing habitat quality may drive changes in community composition and beta diversity of bromeliad-inhabiting microfauna. In our system, changes in canopy cover along an environmental gradient may affect resource availability, disturbance in form of daily water temperature fluctuations and predation, and thus may lead to changes in community structure of bromeliad microfauna through differences in habitat quality along this gradient. Indeed, we observed distinct changes in microfauna community composition along the environmental gradient explained by changes in the extent of daily water temperature fluctuations. We found beta diversity to be higher under low habitat quality (low canopy cover than under high habitat quality (high canopy cover, which could potentially be explained by a higher relative importance of stochastic processes under low habitat quality. We also partitioned beta diversity into turnover and nestedness components and we found a nested pattern of beta diversity along the environmental gradient, with communities from the lower-quality habitat being nested subsets of communities from the higher-quality habitat. However, this pattern resulted from an increase in microfauna alpha diversity with an increase in habitat quality. By providing insights into microfauna-environment relationships our results contribute to the mechanistic understanding of community dynamics in small freshwater bodies. Here, we highlight the importance of habitat characteristics representing habitat quality in structuring communities, and suggest that this information may help to improve conservation practices of small freshwater ecosystems.

  1. Different in the dark: The effect of habitat characteristics on community composition and beta diversity in bromeliad microfauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiqueira, Pablo A. P.; Neutzling, Alexandre S.; Wolf, Anna M.; Romero, Gustavo Q.; Petermann, Jana S.

    2018-01-01

    The mechanisms which structure communities have been the focus of a large body of research. Here, we address the question if habitat characteristics describing habitat quality may drive changes in community composition and beta diversity of bromeliad-inhabiting microfauna. In our system, changes in canopy cover along an environmental gradient may affect resource availability, disturbance in form of daily water temperature fluctuations and predation, and thus may lead to changes in community structure of bromeliad microfauna through differences in habitat quality along this gradient. Indeed, we observed distinct changes in microfauna community composition along the environmental gradient explained by changes in the extent of daily water temperature fluctuations. We found beta diversity to be higher under low habitat quality (low canopy cover) than under high habitat quality (high canopy cover), which could potentially be explained by a higher relative importance of stochastic processes under low habitat quality. We also partitioned beta diversity into turnover and nestedness components and we found a nested pattern of beta diversity along the environmental gradient, with communities from the lower-quality habitat being nested subsets of communities from the higher-quality habitat. However, this pattern resulted from an increase in microfauna alpha diversity with an increase in habitat quality. By providing insights into microfauna-environment relationships our results contribute to the mechanistic understanding of community dynamics in small freshwater bodies. Here, we highlight the importance of habitat characteristics representing habitat quality in structuring communities, and suggest that this information may help to improve conservation practices of small freshwater ecosystems. PMID:29401522

  2. Community analysis of the abundance and diversity of biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in three European countries at different latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlmann, Tim W R; Wennergren, Uno; Tälle, Malin; Favia, Guido; Damiani, Claudia; Bracchetti, Luca; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2018-03-27

    The outbreaks of bluetongue and Schmallenberg disease in Europe have increased efforts to understand the ecology of Culicoides biting midges and their role in pathogen transmission. However, most studies have focused on a specific habitat, region, or country. To facilitate wider comparisons, and to obtain a better understanding of the spread of disease through Europe, the present study focused on monitoring biting midge species diversity in three different habitat types and three countries across Europe. Biting midges were trapped using Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute light traps at a total of 27 locations in Sweden, the Netherlands and Italy, comprising farm, peri-urban and wetland habitats. From July 2014 to June 2015 all locations were sampled monthly, except for during the winter months. Trapped midges were counted and identified morphologically. Indices on species richness, evenness and diversity were calculated. Community compositions were analysed using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) techniques. A total of 50,085 female midges were trapped during 442 collection nights. More than 88% of these belonged to the Obsoletus group. The highest midge diversity was found in Sweden, while species richness was highest in the Netherlands, and most specimens were trapped in Italy. For habitats within countries, diversity of the trapped midges was lowest for farms in all countries. Differences in biting midge species communities were more distinct across the three countries than the three habitat types. A core midge community could be identified, in which the Obsoletus group was the most abundant. Variations in vector communities across countries imply different patterns of disease spread throughout Europe. How specific species and their associated communities affect disease risk is still unclear. Our results emphasize the importance of midge diversity data at community level, how this differs across large geographic range within Europe, and its implications

  3. Soil microbial community responses to antibiotic-contaminated manure under different soil moisture regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Rüdiger; Radl, Viviane; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Albert, Andreas; Amelung, Wulf; Schloter, Michael; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören

    2014-01-01

    Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is an antibiotic frequently administered to livestock, and it alters microbial communities when entering soils with animal manure, but understanding the interactions of these effects to the prevailing climatic regime has eluded researchers. A climatic factor that strongly controls microbial activity is soil moisture. Here, we hypothesized that the effects of SDZ on soil microbial communities will be modulated depending on the soil moisture conditions. To test this hypothesis, we performed a 49-day fully controlled climate chamber pot experiments with soil grown with Dactylis glomerata (L.). Manure-amended pots without or with SDZ contamination were incubated under a dynamic moisture regime (DMR) with repeated drying and rewetting changes of >20 % maximum water holding capacity (WHCmax) in comparison to a control moisture regime (CMR) at an average soil moisture of 38 % WHCmax. We then monitored changes in SDZ concentration as well as in the phenotypic phospholipid fatty acid and genotypic 16S rRNA gene fragment patterns of the microbial community after 7, 20, 27, 34, and 49 days of incubation. The results showed that strongly changing water supply made SDZ accessible to mild extraction in the short term. As a result, and despite rather small SDZ effects on community structures, the PLFA-derived microbial biomass was suppressed in the SDZ-contaminated DMR soils relative to the CMR ones, indicating that dynamic moisture changes accelerate the susceptibility of the soil microbial community to antibiotics.

  4. Microbiology Meets Archaeology: Soil Microbial Communities Reveal Different Human Activities at Archaic Monte Iato (Sixth Century BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margesin, Rosa; Siles, José A; Cajthaml, Tomas; Öhlinger, Birgit; Kistler, Erich

    2017-05-01

    Microbial ecology has been recognized as useful in archaeological studies. At Archaic Monte Iato in Western Sicily, a native (indigenous) building was discovered. The objective of this study was the first examination of soil microbial communities related to this building. Soil samples were collected from archaeological layers at a ritual deposit (food waste disposal) in the main room and above the fireplace in the annex. Microbial soil characterization included abundance (cellular phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), viable bacterial counts), activity (physiological profiles, enzyme activities of viable bacteria), diversity, and community structure (bacterial and fungal Illumina amplicon sequencing, identification of viable bacteria). PLFA-derived microbial abundance was lower in soils from the fireplace than in soils from the deposit; the opposite was observed with culturable bacteria. Microbial communities in soils from the fireplace had a higher ability to metabolize carboxylic and acetic acids, while those in soils from the deposit metabolized preferentially carbohydrates. The lower deposit layer was characterized by higher total microbial and bacterial abundance and bacterial richness and by a different carbohydrate metabolization profile compared to the upper deposit layer. Microbial community structures in the fireplace were similar and could be distinguished from those in the two deposit layers, which had different microbial communities. Our data confirmed our hypothesis that human consumption habits left traces on microbiota in the archaeological evidence; therefore, microbiological residues as part of the so-called ecofacts are, like artifacts, key indicators of consumer behavior in the past.

  5. [Effects of different fertilization regimes on weed communities in wheat fields under rice-wheat cropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Li, Yong; Li, Fen-hua; Sun, Guo-jun; Han, Min; Zhang, Hai-yan; Ji, Zhong; Wu, Chen-yu

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the effects of different fertilization regimes on weed communities in wheat fields under a rice-wheat rotation system, a survey was conducted before wheat harvest in 2014 after a 4-year long-term recurrent fertilization scheme. Weed species types, density, height and diversity index under different fertilization and straw-returning schemes in wheat fields were studied and complemented with a canonical correspondence analysis on weed community distribution and soil nutrient factors. Twenty weed species were recorded among 36 wheat fields belonging to 19 genera and 11 families. Beckmannia syzigachne, Hemistepta lyrata, Malachium aquaticum and Cnidium monnieri were widely distributed throughout the sampled area. Long-term fertilization appeared to reduce weed species richness and density, particularly for broadleaf weeds, but increased weed height. Diversity and evenness indices of weed communities were lower and dominance indices were higher in fields where chemical fertilizers were applied alone or combined with organic fertilizers, especially, where organic-inorganic compound fertilizer was used, in which it readily caused the outbreak of a dominant species and severe damage. Conversely, diversity and evenness indices of weed communities were higher and dominance indices were lower when the straw was returned to the field combined with chemical or organic fertilizers, in which weed community structures were complex and stable with lower weed density. Under these conditions weeds only caused slight reduction of wheat growth.

  6. Community shift of biofilms developed in a full-scale drinking water distribution system switching from different water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiying; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Junpeng; Qiao, Yu; Xu, Chen; Liu, Yao; Qian, Lin; Li, Wenming; Dong, Bingzhi

    2016-02-15

    The bacterial community of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with various water sources has been rarely reported. In this research, biofilms were sampled at three points (A, B, and C) during the river water source phase (phase I), the interim period (phase II) and the reservoir water source phase (phase III), and the biofilm community was determined using the 454-pyrosequencing method. Results showed that microbial diversity declined in phase II but increased in phase III. The primary phylum was Proteobacteria during three phases, while the dominant class at points A and B was Betaproteobacteria (>49%) during all phases, but that changed to Holophagae in phase II (62.7%) and Actinobacteria in phase III (35.6%) for point C, which was closely related to its water quality. More remarkable community shift was found at the genus level. In addition, analysis results showed that water quality could significantly affect microbial diversity together, while the nutrient composition (e.g. C/N ration) of the water environment might determine the microbial community. Furthermore, Mycobacterium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in the biofilm, which should give rise to attention. This study revealed that water source switching produced substantial impact on the biofilm community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacterial community composition and potential driving factors in different reef habitats of the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegler, Hauke F.; Lukman, Muhammad; Teichberg, Mirta

    2017-01-01

    Coastal eutrophication is a key driver of shifts in bacterial communities on coral reefs. With fringing and patch reefs at varying distances from the coast the Spermonde Archipelago in southern Sulawesi, Indonesia offers ideal conditions to study the effects of coastal eutrophication along...... a spatially defined gradient. The present study investigated bacterial community composition of three coral reef habitats: the water column, sediments, and mucus of the hard coral genus Fungia, along that cross shelf environmental and water quality gradient. The main research questions were: (1) How do water....../Shigella (Gammaproteobacteria) and Raistonia (Betaproteobacteria), respectively, both dominated the bacterial community composition of the both size fractions of the water column and coral mucus. The sampled reef sediments were more diverse, and no single OTUs was dominant. There was no gradual shift in bacterial classes...

  8. Disturbance caused by freshwater releases of different magnitude on the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities of two coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Rieradevall, Maria

    2010-06-01

    The response of the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities to freshwater releases of different magnitude and persistence was investigated in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons (Ca l'Arana and Ricarda). The study was carried out during 14 months (June 2004-July 2005) in which different environmental variables and the macroinvertebrate communities associated with two different habitats, the Phragmites australis belt and the deep area of the lagoons, were sampled monthly. Additionally, potential colonizing sources were identified through the analysis of Chironomidae pupal exuviae. The initial response of the communities to the freshwater releases was similar, being characterized by a peak of opportunistic taxa (mainly Naididae), but the late response was different for each lagoon. In the Ca l'Arana, the magnitude of the freshwater release was higher (salinity dropped below five, which is the limit commonly established for most freshwater species) and its persistence was also higher, allowing the colonization of the lagoon by new insect taxa, which replaced the brackish water species. In the Ricarda, the salinity never dropped beyond five and pre-disturbance conditions were rapidly re-established. This, together with the acclimatizing mechanisms showed by the species Chironomus riparius and Hediste diversicolor, permitted the recovery of the pre-disturbance macroinvertebrate community.

  9. Different slopes of a mountain can determine the structure of ferns and lycophytes communities in a tropical forest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE C. NETTESHEIM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A community of Ferns and Lycophytes was investigated by comparing the occurrence of species on different slopes of a paleoisland in Southeastern Brazil. Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that slopes with different geographic orientations determine a differentiation of Atlantic Forest ferns and lycophytes community. We recorded these plants at slopes turned towards the continent and at slopes turned towards the open sea. Analysis consisted of a preliminary assessment on fern beta diversity, a Non Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS and a Student t-test to confirm if sites sampling units ordination was different at each axis. We further used the Pearson coefficient to relate fern species to the differentiation pattern and again Student's t-test to determine if richness, plant cover and abundance varied between the two sites. There was a relatively low number of shared species between the two sites and ferns and lycophytes community variation was confirmed. Some species were detected as indicators of the community variation but we were unable to detect richness, plant cover or abundance differences. Despite the evidence of this variation between the slopes, further works are needed to evaluate which processes are contributing to determine this pattern.

  10. Cultural diversity in center-based childcare: Childrearing beliefs of professional caregivers from different cultural communities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, S.K.; Leseman, P.P.M.; Tavecchio, L.W.C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the cultural childrearing beliefs of 116 caregivers from different cultural communities in the Netherlands (Dutch, Caribbean-Dutch, and Mediterranean-Dutch), working with 2-4-year-olds in daycare centers. Cultural childrearing beliefs were assessed with standard

  11. Cultural Diversity in Center-Based Childcare: Childrearing Beliefs of Professional Caregivers from Different Cultural Communities in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbregts, S. K.; Leseman, P. P. M.; Tavecchio, L. W. C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the cultural childrearing beliefs of 116 caregivers from different cultural communities in the Netherlands (Dutch, Caribbean-Dutch, and Mediterranean-Dutch), working with 2-4-year-olds in daycare centers. Cultural childrearing beliefs were assessed with standard questionnaires, focusing on general and…

  12. Female and Male Juvenile Offenders with Disabilities: Differences in the Barriers to Their Transition to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This article examined differences between young women and men who were incarcerated juvenile offenders with disabilities in Oregon in terms of the barriers they faced in their transition from the correctional system back into the community. Data were gathered on 72 females and 276 males, all of whom presented disabilities and who were…

  13. Peer Interaction and Social Network Analysis of Online Communities with the Support of Awareness of Different Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Mai, Li-Jung; Lai, Yung-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies related to social-context awareness (SA) and knowledge-context awareness (KA) argued that each (SA or KA) can individually enhance peer interaction in an online learning community, other studies reached opposite conclusions. These conflicting findings likely stem from different experimental settings. Most importantly, few…

  14. Darwin's naturalization hypothesis up-close: Intermountain grassland invaders differ morphologically and phenologically from native community dominants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; Samantha J. Sears

    2012-01-01

    Darwin's naturalization hypothesis predicts that successful invaders will tend to differ taxonomically from native species in recipient communities because less related species exhibit lower niche overlap and experience reduced biotic resistance. This hypothesis has garnered substantial support at coarse scales. However, at finer scales, the influence of traits...

  15. Inter-specific competition, but not different soil microbial communities, affects N chemical forms uptake by competing graminoids of upland grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Medina-Roldán

    Full Text Available Evidence that plants differ in their ability to take up both organic (ON and inorganic (IN forms of nitrogen (N has increased ecologists' interest on resource-based plant competition. However, whether plant uptake of IN and ON responds to differences in soil microbial community composition and/or functioning has not yet been explored, despite soil microbes playing a key role in N cycling. Here, we report results from a competition experiment testing the hypothesis that soil microbial communities differing in metabolic activity as a result of long-term differences to grazing exposure could modify N uptake of Eriophorum vaginatum L. and Nardus stricta L. These graminoids co-occur on nutrient-poor, mountain grasslands where E. vaginatum decreases and N. stricta increases in response to long-term grazing. We inoculated sterilised soil with soil microbial communities from continuously grazed and ungrazed grasslands and planted soils with both E. vaginatum and N. stricta, and then tracked uptake of isotopically labelled NH(4 (+ (IN and glycine (ON into plant tissues. The metabolically different microbial communities had no effect on N uptake by either of the graminoids, which might suggest functional equivalence of soil microbes in their impacts on plant N uptake. Consistent with its dominance in soils with greater concentrations of ON relative to IN in the soluble N pool, Eriophorum vaginatum took up more glycine than N. stricta. Nardus stricta reduced the glycine proportion taken up by E. vaginatum, thus increasing niche overlap in N usage between these species. Local abundances of these species in mountain grasslands are principally controlled by grazing and soil moisture, although our results suggest that changes in the relative availability of ON to IN can also play a role. Our results also suggest that coexistence of these species in mountain grasslands is likely based on non-equilibrium mechanisms such as disturbance and/or soil heterogeneity.

  16. Social justice and the university community: does campus involvement make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliff, Kathleen E; Williams, Shannon M; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    We examined perceptions on school sense of community and social justice attitudes among undergraduates (N = 427; 308 women, 115 men; M age = 19.72, SD = 1.91), and how year in school and club membership affected these constructs. Results demonstrated that involvement with a greater number of clubs was associated with having a stronger school sense of community and more positive social justice attitudes. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that year in school did not significantly predict social justice attitudes. Results suggested that greater involvement and sense of school belonging might be linked to social justice attitudes.

  17. Does Social Capital Explain Community-Level Differences in Organ Donor Designation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, Keren; Wang, Rui; Fleishman, Aaron; Boger, Matthew; Rodrigue, James R

    2015-09-01

    The growing shortage of life-saving organs has reached unprecedented levels, with more than 120,000 Americans waiting for them. Despite national attempts to increase organ donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, geographic disparities remain. A better understanding of the contextual determinants of organ donor designation, including social capital, may enhance efforts to increase organ donation by raising the probability of collective action and fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. Because community-level factors, including social capital, predict more than half the variation in donor designation, future interventions should tailor strategies to specific communities as the unit of intervention. The growing shortage of organs has reached unprecedented levels. Despite national attempts to increase donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, their availability and waiting times vary significantly nationwide. Organ donor designation is a collective action problem in public health, in which the regional organ supply and average waiting times are determined by the willingness of individuals to be listed as organ donors. Social capital increases the probability of collective action by fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. We examine whether social capital and other community-level factors explain geographic variation in organ donor designation rates in Massachusetts. We obtained a sample of 3,281,532 registered drivers in 2010 from the Massachusetts Department of Transportation Registry of Motor Vehicles (MassDOT RMV). We then geocoded the registry data, matched them to 4,466 census blocks, and linked them to the 2010 US Census, the American Community Survey (ACS), and other sources to obtain community-level sociodemographic, social capital (residential segregation, voter registration and participation, residential

  18. ITS all right mama: investigating the formation of chimeric sequences in the ITS2 region by DNA metabarcoding analyses of fungal mock communities of different complexities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnsgaard Aas, Anders; Davey, Marie Louise; Kauserud, Håvard

    2017-07-01

    The formation of chimeric sequences can create significant methodological bias in PCR-based DNA metabarcoding analyses. During mixed-template amplification of barcoding regions, chimera formation is frequent and well documented. However, profiling of fungal communities typically uses the more variable rDNA region ITS. Due to a larger research community, tools for chimera detection have been developed mainly for the 16S/18S markers. However, these tools are widely applied to the ITS region without verification of their performance. We examined the rate of chimera formation during amplification and 454 sequencing of the ITS2 region from fungal mock communities of different complexities. We evaluated the chimera detecting ability of two common chimera-checking algorithms: perseus and uchime. Large proportions of the chimeras reported were false positives. No false negatives were found in the data set. Verified chimeras accounted for only 0.2% of the total ITS2 reads, which is considerably less than what is typically reported in 16S and 18S metabarcoding analyses. Verified chimeric 'parent sequences' had significantly higher per cent identity to one another than to random members of the mock communities. Community complexity increased the rate of chimera formation. GC content was higher around the verified chimeric break points, potentially facilitating chimera formation through base pair mismatching in the neighbouring regions of high similarity in the chimeric region. We conclude that the hypervariable nature of the ITS region seems to buffer the rate of chimera formation in comparison with other, less variable barcoding regions, due to shorter regions of high sequence similarity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Community Report and Recommendations from International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) was established in April 1995 at a meeting in Hamburg, Germany. As established in its charter, this working group reports to COSPAR and is charged with developing an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon. It discusses coordination between missions, and a road map for future international lunar exploration and utilisation. It fosters information exchange or potential and real future lunar robotic and human missions, as well as for new scientific and exploration information about the Moon. We refer to COSPAR and ILEWG ICEUM and lunar conferences and declarations [1-18], present the GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration and give a report on ongoing relevant ILEWG community activities. ILEWG supported community forums, ILEWG EuroMoonMars field campaigns and technology validation activities, as well as Young Lunar Explorers events, and activities with broad stakeholders. We discuss how lunar missions SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'E1&2, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LRO, GRAIL, LADEE, Chang'E3 and upcoming missions contribute to lunar exploration objectives & roadmap towards the Moon Village. GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration: "467 International Lunar Explorers, registered delegates from 26 countries, assembled at GLUC Global Lunar Conference including the 11th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM11) in Beijing. The conference engaged scientists, engineers, enthusiast explorers, agencies and organisations in the discussion of recent results and activities and the review of plans for exploration. Space agencies representatives gave the latest reports on their current lunar activities and programmes. GLUC-ICEUM11 was a truly historical meeting that demonstrated the world-wide interest in lunar exploration, discovery, and science. More than 400 abstracts were accepted for oral and poster presentations in the technical sessions, organised in 32 sessions within 4 symposia: Science and Exploration; Technology

  20. Differences on the projective hand test among chronic pain patients reporting three different pain experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Paul E; Skowronski, John J; Wagner, Edwin E

    2002-10-01

    This study examined personality differences among individuals experiencing 3 different types of pain. The projective Hand Test was administered to 90 individuals who were seeking treatment at a pain clinic in an urban area of the southeast United States. These people were seeking treatment for either arthritis (n = 31), fibromyalgia (n = 29), or migraine headaches (n = 30). A 2 (gender) x 3 (pain group) x Age Group multivariate analysis of variance was conducted using the quantitative Hand Test scoring variables as dependent measures. Results indicated that individuals who were seeking treatment for migraine headaches had a higher production rate of responses involving exhibitionistic displays (EXH) than individuals in the other 2 groups. Individuals who were seeking treatment for fibromyalgia had a higher production rate of responses indicating fear and phobic concerns (FEAR) than individuals in the other 2 groups. Individuals who were seeking treatment for arthritis had a higher production rate of Active (ACT) responses than individuals in the other 2 groups. Possible causes and consequences of these effects are discussed.

  1. [Knowledge level and professional attitudes to the Living Will: Differences between different professionals and provinces in the same autonomous community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo Contreras, M C; Valverde Bolívar, F J; Jiménez Rodríguez, J M; Gómez Calero, A; Huertas Hernández, F

    2015-04-01

    Primary: To determine the differences, by occupational category and province, in the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals on the Living Wills Document (LWD) in 4 Andalusian provinces: Cordoba, Jaen, Cadiz, and Granada. Secondary: To determine the number of documents prepared in these areas and the number consulted in terminal situations. Descriptive observational multicenter study, with 17 health areas in 4 Andalusian provinces. Family doctors, nurses and social workers of the areas studied (n=340). Interventions Validated self-administered questionnaire about advance directives. Descriptive and bivariate (×2) analysis of data was performed. Mean age 46±8.8 years, 53.2% women. Physicians 56.1%, nurses 41.1%, social workers 2.6%. The mean score (0-10) of their knowledge was 5.42±2.41, with 78.4% believing that LWD are regulated in Andalusia (provinces differences, P=.001). More than one-third (36.7%) had read the document (differences by occupation, P=.001). The mean score on the advantage of preparing a LWD for the patient was 8.27±2.16 (significant differences between provinces P=.02). Mean score about the practitioner would respect the wishes of a patient in a LWD was 9.14±1.64 (significant difference between provinces P=.03). The mean score of the question about expressing the desires of the professional on preparing their LWD in the following year was 4.85±3.74 (P=.02). There are different behaviors between professions on reading the LWD. There are differences between provinces in the following aspects: whether the documents are regulated, whether the professionals prepare the LWD, and whether the professionals respects the provisions of the LWD. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Are behavioral differences among wild chimpanzee communities genetic or cultural? An assessment using tool-use data and phylogenetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Stephen J; Collard, Mark; McGrew, William C

    2010-07-01

    Over the last 30 years it has become increasingly apparent that there are many behavioral differences among wild communities of Pan troglodytes. Some researchers argue these differences are a consequence of the behaviors being socially learned, and thus may be considered cultural. Others contend that the available evidence is too weak to discount the alternative possibility that the behaviors are genetically determined. Previous phylogenetic analyses of chimpanzee behavior have not supported the predictions of the genetic hypothesis. However, the results of these studies are potentially problematic because the behavioral sample employed did not include communities from central Africa. Here, we present the results of a study designed to address this shortcoming. We carried out cladistic analyses of presence/absence data pertaining to 19 tool-use behaviors in 10 different P. troglodytes communities plus an outgroup (P. paniscus). Genetic data indicate that chimpanzee communities in West Africa are well differentiated from those in eastern and central Africa, while the latter are not reciprocally monophyletic. Thus, we predicted that if the genetic hypothesis is correct, the tool-use data should mirror the genetic data in terms of structure. The three measures of phylogenetic structure we employed (the Retention Index, the bootstrap, and the Permutation Tail Probability Test) did not support the genetic hypothesis. They were all lower when all 10 communities were included than when the three western African communities are excluded. Hence, our study refutes the genetic hypothesis and provides further evidence that patterns of behavior in chimpanzees are the product of social learning and therefore meet the main condition for culture. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Diversity of bacterial communities on the facial skin of different age-group Thai males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Wilantho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Skin microbiome varies from person to person due to a combination of various factors, including age, biogeography, sex, cosmetics and genetics. Many skin disorders appear to be related to the resident microflora, yet databases of facial skin microbiome of many biogeographies, including Thai, are limited. Methods Metagenomics derived B-RISA and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was utilized to identify the culture-independent bacterial diversity on Thai male faces (cheek and forehead areas. Skin samples were categorized (grouped into (i normal (teenage.hea and (ii acne-prone (teenage.acn young adults, and normal (iii middle-aged (middle.hea and (iv elderly (elderly.hea adults. Results The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was successful as the sequencing depth had an estimated >98% genus coverage of the true community. The major diversity was found between the young and elderly adults in both cheek and forehead areas, followed by that between normal and acne young adults. Detection of representative characteristics indicated that bacteria from the order Rhizobiales, genera Sphingomonas and Pseudoalteromonas, distinguished the elderly.hea microbiota, along the clinical features of wrinkles and pores. Prediction of the metabolic potential revealed reduced metabolic pathways involved in replication and repair, nucleotide metabolism and genetic translation in the elderly.hea compared with that in the teenage.hea. For young adults, some unique compositions such as abundance of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with a minor diversity between normal and acne skins, were detected. The metabolic potentials of the acne vs. normal young adults showed that teenage.acn was low in many cellular processes (e.g., cell motility and environmental adaptation, but high in carbohydrate metabolism, which could support acne growth. Moreover, comparison with the age-matched males from the US (Boulder, Colorado to gain insight into the diversity across

  4. NDVI statistical distribution of pasture areas at different times in the Community of Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sotoca, Juan J.; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    The severity of drought has many implications for society, including its impacts on the water supply, water pollution, reservoir management and ecosystem. However, its impacts on rain-fed agriculture are especially direct. Because of the importance of drought, there have been many attempts to characterize its severity, resulting in the numerous drought indices that have been developed (Niemeyer 2008). 'Biomass index' based on satellite image derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been used in countries like United States of America, Canada and Spain for pasture and forage crops for some years (Rao, 2010). This type of agricultural insurance is named as 'index-based insurance' (IBI). IBI is perceived to be substantially less costly to operate and manage than multiple peril insurance. IBI contracts pay indemnities based not on the actual yield (or revenue) losses experienced by the insurance purchaser but rather based on realized NDVI values (historical data) that is correlated with farm-level losses (Xiaohui Deng et al., 2008). Definition of when drought event occurs is defined on NDVI threshold values mainly based in statistical parameters, average and standard deviation that characterize a normal distribution. In this work a pasture area at the north of Community of Madrid (Spain) has been delimited. Then, NDVI historical data was reconstructed based on remote sensing imaging MODIS, with 500x500m2 resolution. A statistical analysis of the NDVI histograms at consecutives 46 intervals of that area was applied to search for the best statistical distribution based on the maximum likelihood criteria. The results show that the normal distribution is not the optimal representation when IBI is available; the implications in the context of crop insurance are discussed (Martín-Sotoca, 2014). References Kolli N Rao. 2010. Index based Crop Insurance. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 1, 193-203. Martín-Sotoca, J.J. (2014) Estructura Espacial

  5. Community-based first aid: a program report on the intersection of community-based participatory research and first aid education in a remote Canadian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderBurgh, D; Jamieson, R; Beardy, J; Ritchie, S D; Orkin, A

    2014-01-01

    Community-based first aid training is the collaborative development of locally relevant emergency response training. The Sachigo Lake Wilderness Emergency Response Education Initiative was developed, delivered, and evaluated through two intensive 5-day first aid courses. Sachigo Lake First Nation is a remote Aboriginal community of 450 people in northern Ontario, Canada, with no local paramedical services. These courses were developed in collaboration with the community, with a goal of building community capacity to respond to medical emergencies. Most first aid training programs rely on standardized curriculum developed for urban and rural contexts with established emergency response systems. Delivering effective community-based first aid training in a remote Aboriginal community required specific adaptations to conventional first aid educational content and pedagogy. Three key lessons emerged during this program that used collaborative principles to adapt conventional first aid concepts and curriculum: (1) standardized approaches may not be relevant nor appropriate; (2) relationships between course participants and the people they help are relevant and important; (3) curriculum must be attentive to existing informal and formal emergency response systems. These lessons may be instructive for the development of other programs in similar settings.

  6. Soil bacterial community response to differences in agricultural management along with seasonal changes in a Mediterranean region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Bevivino

    Full Text Available Land-use change is considered likely to be one of main drivers of biodiversity changes in grassland ecosystems. To gain insight into the impact of land use on the underlying soil bacterial communities, we aimed at determining the effects of agricultural management, along with seasonal variations, on soil bacterial community in a Mediterranean ecosystem where different land-use and plant cover types led to the creation of a soil and vegetation gradient. A set of soils subjected to different anthropogenic impact in a typical Mediterranean landscape, dominated by Quercus suber L., was examined in spring and autumn: a natural cork-oak forest, a pasture, a managed meadow, and two vineyards (ploughed and grass covered. Land uses affected the chemical and structural composition of the most stabilised fractions of soil organic matter and reduced soil C stocks and labile organic matter at both sampling season. A significant effect of land uses on bacterial community structure as well as an interaction effect between land uses and season was revealed by the EP index. Cluster analysis of culture-dependent DGGE patterns showed a different seasonal distribution of soil bacterial populations with subgroups associated to different land uses, in agreement with culture-independent T-RFLP results. Soils subjected to low human inputs (cork-oak forest and pasture showed a more stable bacterial community than those with high human input (vineyards and managed meadow. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the predominance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes phyla with differences in class composition across the site, suggesting that the microbial composition changes in response to land uses. Taken altogether, our data suggest that soil bacterial communities were seasonally distinct and exhibited compositional shifts that tracked with changes in land use and soil management. These findings may contribute to future searches for bacterial bio

  7. Soil bacterial community response to differences in agricultural management along with seasonal changes in a Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevivino, Annamaria; Paganin, Patrizia; Bacci, Giovanni; Florio, Alessandro; Pellicer, Maite Sampedro; Papaleo, Maria Cristiana; Mengoni, Alessio; Ledda, Luigi; Fani, Renato; Benedetti, Anna; Dalmastri, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Land-use change is considered likely to be one of main drivers of biodiversity changes in grassland ecosystems. To gain insight into the impact of land use on the underlying soil bacterial communities, we aimed at determining the effects of agricultural management, along with seasonal variations, on soil bacterial community in a Mediterranean ecosystem where different land-use and plant cover types led to the creation of a soil and vegetation gradient. A set of soils subjected to different anthropogenic impact in a typical Mediterranean landscape, dominated by Quercus suber L., was examined in spring and autumn: a natural cork-oak forest, a pasture, a managed meadow, and two vineyards (ploughed and grass covered). Land uses affected the chemical and structural composition of the most stabilised fractions of soil organic matter and reduced soil C stocks and labile organic matter at both sampling season. A significant effect of land uses on bacterial community structure as well as an interaction effect between land uses and season was revealed by the EP index. Cluster analysis of culture-dependent DGGE patterns showed a different seasonal distribution of soil bacterial populations with subgroups associated to different land uses, in agreement with culture-independent T-RFLP results. Soils subjected to low human inputs (cork-oak forest and pasture) showed a more stable bacterial community than those with high human input (vineyards and managed meadow). Phylogenetic analysis revealed the predominance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes phyla with differences in class composition across the site, suggesting that the microbial composition changes in response to land uses. Taken altogether, our data suggest that soil bacterial communities were seasonally distinct and exhibited compositional shifts that tracked with changes in land use and soil management. These findings may contribute to future searches for bacterial bio-indicators of soil

  8. Environmental factors at different spatial scales governing soil fauna community patterns in fragmented forests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins da Silva, P.; Berg, M.P.; Serrano, A.R.M.; Dubs, F.; Sousa, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in community structure of soil organisms may result from a myriad of processes operating at a hierarchy of spatial scales, from small-scale habitat conditions to species movements among patches and large-sale landscape features. To disentangle the relative importance of

  9. Establishment of different riparian plant communities from the same soil seed bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heerdt, Gerhardus

    2016-01-01

    This thesis shows that weather conditions during the first year of establishment, strongly affect the composition of riparian plant communities. This is one of the factors determining if some goals of the Water Framework Directive and Natura 2000, reed beds and accompanying bird species, can be met.

  10. Families' Experiences in Different Homeless and Highly Mobile Settings: Implications for School and Community Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Family homelessness has been on the rise throughout the United States in recent years. As a result, more schools and communities than ever are challenged to serve students whose lives are touched by instability, uncertainty, and crisis. To date, there has been little inquiry into how families' particular places of homelessness might shape school…

  11. Student Perceptions of Campus Safety: How the University Community May Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Derek John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of religion in creating a campus community to address violence on the college campus. Given the amount of cases and increasing magnitude of the ferocity of perpetrators of violence the study of safety was an important area of research. This study was able to give a voice to students who shared…

  12. Exploring Differences in Online Professional Development Seminars with the Community of Inquiry Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Judi; Haavind, Sarah; Remold, Julie; Schank, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Four sessions of two professional development seminars were offered to members of an organization. The seminars were voluntary, free of charge, and participants did not receive credit for their attendance. Participation rates and exit survey ratings for the four sessions varied. After the seminars, an analysis using the community of inquiry…

  13. Antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal activities of fungal communities present in different substrates from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antarctica is a pristine and extreme environment that represents a unique opportunity for taxonomic, ecological and biotechnological studies of the microorganisms. In the present work, the fungal communities of rhizosphere soil of Deschampsia antarctica, soil, ornithogenic soil, marine and lake sedi...

  14. Community Arts Programs: Cohesion and Difference Case Studies. Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebert-Gruen, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    A comparative case study of two cultural institutions, Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio, founded almost eighty years apart, were involved in social justice causes and community arts. Although both of these institutions participated in the political activism of their time, they also demonstrated an important adaptability. They were…

  15. Alike and Different: Parenting a Child with Special Needs in the Jewish Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrman, Abigail L.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is limited research examining the parenting experiences of parents with a child with special needs, and there is virtually no research on the experience of these parents in the Jewish community. In addressing this gap in the scholarship, this study describes the experiences of parents with a child with special needs and explores the…

  16. Microbial community analysis of field-grown soybeans with different nodulation phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-09-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod(-)), wild-type nodulated (Nod(+)), and hypernodulated (Nod(++)) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod(+) soybean roots. Fusarium solani was stably associated with nodulated (Nod(+) and Nod(++)) roots and less abundant in Nod(-) soybeans, whereas the abundance of basidiomycetes was just the opposite. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that these basidiomycetous fungi might represent a root-associated group in the Auriculariales. Principal-component analysis of the ARISA results showed that there was no clear relationship between nodulation phenotype and bacterial community structure in the stem. In contrast, both the bacterial and fungal community structures in the roots were related to nodulation phenotype. The principal-component analysis further suggested that bacterial community structure in roots could be classified into three groups according to the nodulation phenotype (Nod(-), Nod(+), or Nod(++)). The analysis of root samples indicated that the microbial community in Nod(-) soybeans was more similar to that in Nod(++) soybeans than to that in Nod(+) soybeans.

  17. Microbial Community Analysis of Field-Grown Soybeans with Different Nodulation Phenotypes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E.; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod−), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod+ soybean roots. Fusarium solani was stably associated with nodulated (Nod+ and Nod++) roots and less abundant in Nod− soybeans, whereas the abundance of basidiomycetes was just the opposite. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that these basidiomycetous fungi might represent a root-associated group in the Auriculariales. Principal-component analysis of the ARISA results showed that there was no clear relationship between nodulation phenotype and bacterial community structure in the stem. In contrast, both the bacterial and fungal community structures in the roots were related to nodulation phenotype. The principal-component analysis further suggested that bacterial community structure in roots could be classified into three groups according to the nodulation phenotype (Nod−, Nod+, or Nod++). The analysis of root samples indicated that the microbial community in Nod− soybeans was more similar to that in Nod++ soybeans than to that in Nod+ soybeans. PMID:18658280

  18. Nonlegumes, legumes, and root nodules harbor different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheublin, T.R.; Ridgway, K.P.; Young, J.P.W.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Legumes are an important plant functional group since they can form a tripartite symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria and phosphorus-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, not much is known about AMF community composition in legumes and their root nodules. In this study,

  19. Anaemia and malaria in Yanomami communities with differing access to healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, P; Fanello, C I; Magris, M; Goncalves, J; Metzger, W G; Vivas-Martínez, S; Curtis, C; Vivas, L

    2008-07-01

    Inequitable access to healthcare has a profound impact on the health of marginalised groups that typically suffer an excess burden of infectious disease morbidity and mortality. The Yanomami are traditionally semi-nomadic people living in widely dispersed communities in Amazonian Venezuela and Brazil. Only communities living in the vicinity of a health post have relatively constant access to healthcare. To monitor the improvement in the development of Yanomami healthcare a cross-sectional survey of 183 individuals was conducted to investigate malaria and anaemia prevalence in communities with constant and intermittent access to healthcare. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Malaria was diagnosed by microscopy and haemoglobin concentration by HemoCue. Prevalence of malaria, anaemia, splenomegaly, fever and diarrhoea were all significantly higher in communities with intermittent access to healthcare (anaemia 80.8% vs. 53.6%, P<0.001; malaria 18.2% vs. 6.0%, P=0.013; splenomegaly 85.4% vs.12.5%, P<0.001; fever 50.5% vs. 28.6%, P=0.003; diarrhoea 30.3% vs.10.7% P=0.001). Haemoglobin level (10.0 g/dl vs. 11.5 g/dl) was significantly associated with access to healthcare when controlling for age, sex, malaria and splenomegaly (P=0.01). These findings indicate a heavy burden of anaemia in both areas and the need for interventions against anaemia and malaria, along with more frequent medical visits to remote areas.

  20. Bacterial communities differ among Drosophila melanogaster populations and affect host resistance against parasitoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaplinska, Mariia; Gerritsma, Sylvia; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Falcao Salles, Joana; Wertheim, Bregje

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, diet is considered a prominent factor shaping the associated bacterial community. However, the host population background (e.g. genotype, geographical origin and founder effects) is a factor that may also exert a significant influence and is often overlooked. To test for population

  1. Consumer-Directed Community Care: Race/Ethnicity and Individual Differences in Preferences for Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciegaj, Mark; Capitman, John A.; Kyriacou, Corrine Kay

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. Even though consumer-directed care models are being advocated for use among elder populations, there are few data on the extent of elder interest in participating in the management of community long-term-care services, who they want involved in making these decisions, or their perceptions regarding the relative importance of different…

  2. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impact on plant communities: Mill Creek Tributary Crossing, Jefferson County, New York, 1991 survey. Topical report, June 1991--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, IL (United States); Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted in June 1991 at the Mill Creek tributary crossing, Jefferson County, New York. One pipeline had been installed through the wetland in 1966, and another was scheduled to be installed later in 1991. Data were collected along the existing pipeline ROW and also along the planned ROW for use as baseline data in future studies. Four separate communities were surveyed. A scrub-shrub wetland and a forested wetland were sampled along the existing ROW where the planned pipeline was to be installed. A mixed vegetation community was sampled along the existing ROW, west of where the planned pipeline would joint the ROW. A marsh community was sampled along the route of the planned pipeline. All plant species found on the ROW of the scrub-shrub community were also present in the adjacent natural areas. The vegetation on the ROW of the forested wetland community also consisted mostly of species found in the adjacent natural areas. In the mixed vegetation community, a small drainage channel present on the ROW, possibly resulting from the pipeline construction, provided habitat for a number of obligate species not found in other areas of this community. Differences noted among different areas of this community were also attributed to slight variations in elevation.

  3. Racial and ethnic differences in psychotropic medication use among community-dwelling persons with dementia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Elsie L; Allen, Rebecca S; Ivey, Keisha; Knapp, Shannon M; Burgio, Louis D

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about the patterns of psychotropic medication use in community-dwelling minority persons with dementia (PWD). The purpose of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic differences in psychotropic medication use across a diverse population of community-dwelling PWD and to examine the extent to which caregiver characteristics influence this use. Data were drawn from the baseline assessment of the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health II trial. Generalized linear models were used to identify racial/ethnic differences in psychotropic medication use. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) model selection was used to evaluate possible explanations for observed differences across racial/ethnic group. Differences in anxiolytic and antipsychotic medication use were observed across racial/ethnic groups; however, race/ethnicity alone was not sufficient to explain those differences. Perceptions of caregiving and caregiver socioeconomic status were important predictors of anxiolytic use while PWD characteristics, including cognitive impairment, functional impairment, problem behavior frequency, pain, relationship to the caregiver, sex, and age were important for antipsychotic use. Racial/ethnic differences in psychotropic medication use among community-dwelling PWD cannot be explained by race/ethnicity alone. The importance of caregiver characteristics in predicting anxiolytic medication use suggest that interventions aimed at caregivers may hold promise as an effective alternative to pharmacotherapy.

  4. Rhizospheric microbial communities are driven by Panax ginseng at different growth stages and biocontrol bacteria alleviates replanting mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Dong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of Panax plants is hindered by replanting problems, which may be caused by plant-driven changes in the soil microbial community. Inoculation with microbial antagonists may efficiently alleviate replanting issues. Through high-throughput sequencing, this study revealed that bacterial diversity decreased, whereas fungal diversity increased, in the rhizosphere soils of adult ginseng plants at the root growth stage under different ages. Few microbial community, such as Luteolibacter, Cytophagaceae, Luteibacter, Sphingomonas, Sphingomonadaceae, and Zygomycota, were observed; the relative abundance of microorganisms, namely, Brevundimonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Pandoraea, Cantharellales, Dendryphion, Fusarium, and Chytridiomycota, increased in the soils of adult ginseng plants compared with those in the soils of 2-year-old seedlings. Bacillus subtilis 50-1, a microbial antagonist against the pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, was isolated through a dual culture technique. These bacteria acted with a biocontrol efficacy of 67.8%. The ginseng death rate and Fusarium abundance decreased by 63.3% and 46.1%, respectively, after inoculation with B. subtilis 50-1. Data revealed that microecological degradation could result from ginseng-driven changes in rhizospheric microbial communities; these changes are associated with the different ages and developmental stages of ginseng plants. Biocontrol using microbial antagonists alleviated the replanting problem. KEY WORDS: Panax ginseng, Microbial communities, Replanting problem, High-throughput sequencing, Different ages, Bioremediation

  5. Characterizing bacterial communities in tilapia pond surface sediment and their responses to pond differences and temporal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Limin; Barry, Kamira; Hu, Gengdong; Meng, Shunlong; Song, Chao; Qiu, Liping; Zheng, Yao; Wu, Wei; Qu, Jianhong; Chen, Jiazhang; Xu, Pao

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial community compositions in the surface sediment of tilapia ponds and their responses to pond characteristics or seasonal variations were investigated. For that, three ponds with different stocking densities were selected to collect the samples. And the method of Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to amplify the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. A total of 662, 876 valid reads and 5649 operational taxonomic units were obtained. Further analysis showed that the dominant phyla in all three ponds were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria. The phyla Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Chlorobi, and Spirochaetae were also relatively abundant. Among the eight phyla, the abundances of only Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Spirochaetae were affected by seasonal variations, while seven of these (with the exception of Acidobacteria) were affected by pond differences. A comprehensive analysis of the richness and diversity of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, and of the similarity in bacterial community composition in sediment also showed that the communities in tilapia pond sediment were shaped more by pond differences than by seasonal variations. Linear discriminant analysis further indicated that the influences of pond characteristics on sediment bacterial communities might be related to feed coefficients and stocking densities of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT).

  6. Habitat conditions drive phylogenetic structure of dominant bacterial phyla of microbialite communities from different locations in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Carla M; Mejía, Omar; Falcón, Luisa I

    2016-09-01

    Community structure and composition are dictated by evolutionary and ecological assembly processes which are manifested in signals of, species diversity, species abundance and species relatedness. Analysis of species coexisting relatedness, has received attention as a tool to identify the processes that influence the composition of a community within a particular habitat. In this study, we tested if microbialite genetic composition is dependent on random events versus biological/abiotical factors. This study was based on a large genetic data set of two hypervariable regions (V5 and V6) from previously generated barcoded 16S rRNA amplicons from nine microbialite communities distributed in Northeastern, Central and Southeastern Mexico collected in May and June of 2009. Genetic data of the most abundant phyla (Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria) were investigated in order to state the phylogenetic structure of the complete communities as well as each phylum. For the complete dataset, Webb NTI index showed positive and significant values in the nine communities analysed, where values ranged from 31.5 in Pozas Azules I to 57.2 in Bacalar Pirate Channel; meanwhile, NRI index were positive and significant in six of the nine communities analysed with values ranging from 18.1 in Pozas Azules I to 45.1 in Río Mesquites. On the other hand, when comparing each individual phylum, NTI index were positive and significant in all groups, except in Cyanobacteria for which positive and significant values were only found in three localities; finally, NRI index was significant in only a few of the comparisons performed. The results suggest that habitat filtering is the main process that drives phylogenetic structure in bacterial communities associated to microbialites with the exception of Cyanobacteria where different lineages can contribute to microbialite formation and growth.

  7. Prokaryotic communities in pit mud from different-aged cellars used for the production of Chinese strong-flavored liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong; Li, Jiabao; Rui, Junpeng; Xu, Zhancheng; Zhou, Yan; Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Menghua; Li, Daping; Li, Xiangzhen

    2014-04-01

    Chinese strong-flavored liquor (CSFL) accounts for more than 70% of all Chinese liquor production. Microbes in pit mud play key roles in the fermentation cellar for the CSFL production. However, microbial diversity, community structure, and cellar-age-related changes in pit mud are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the prokaryotic community structure and diversity in pit-mud samples with different cellar ages (1, 10, 25, and 50 years) using the pyrosequencing technique. Results indicated that prokaryotic diversity increased with cellar age until the age reached 25 years and that prokaryotic community structure changed significantly between three cellar ages (1, 10, and 25 years). Significant correlations between prokaryotic communities and environmental variables (pH, NH4(+), lactic acid, butyric acid, and caproic acid) were observed. Overall, our study results suggested that the long-term brewing operation shapes unique prokaryotic community structure and diversity as well as pit-mud chemistry. We have proposed a three-phase model to characterize the changes of pit-mud prokaryotic communities. (i) Phase I is an initial domestication period. Pit mud is characterized by abundant Lactobacillus and high lactic acid and low pH levels. (ii) Phase II is a transition period. While Lactobacillus abundance decreases dramatically, that of Bacteroidetes and methanogens increases. (iii) Phase III is a relative mature period. The prokaryotic community shows the highest diversity and capability to produce more caproic acid as a precursor for synthesis of ethyl caproate, the main flavor component in CSFL. This research provides scientific evidence to support the practical experience that old fermentation cellars produce high-quality liquor.

  8. Heat pump centered integrated community energy systems: system development. Georgia Institute of Technology final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, D.W.; Trammell, B.C.; Dixit, B.S.; McCurry, D.C.; Rindt, B.A.

    1979-12-01

    Heat Pump Centered-Integrated Community Energy Systems (HP-ICES) show the promise of utilizing low-grade thermal energy for low-quality energy requirements such as space heating and cooling. The Heat Pump - Wastewater Heat Recovery (HP-WHR) scheme is one approach to an HP-ICES that proposes to reclaim low-grade thermal energy from a community's wastewater effluent. This report develops the concept of an HP-WHR system, evaluates the potential performance and economics of such a system, and examines the potential for application. A thermodynamic performance analysis of a hypothetical system projects an overall system Coefficient of Performance (C.O.P.) of from 2.181 to 2.264 for waste-water temperatures varying from 50/sup 0/F to 80/sup 0/F. Primary energy source savings from the nationwide implementation of this system is projected to be 6.0 QUADS-fuel oil, or 8.5 QUADS - natural gas, or 29.7 QUADS - coal for the period 1980 to 2000, depending upon the type and mix of conventional space conditioning systems which could be displaced with the HP-WHR system. Site-specific HP-WHR system designs are presented for two application communities in Georgia. Performance analyses for these systems project annual cycle system C.O.P.'s of 2.049 and 2.519. Economic analysis on the basis of a life cycle cost comparison shows one site-specific system design to be cost competitive in the immediate market with conventional residential and light commercial HVAC systems. The second site-specific system design is shown through a similar economic analysis to be more costly than conventional systems due mainly to the current low energy costs for natural gas. It is anticipated that, as energy costs escalate, this HP-WHR system will also approach the threshold of economic viability.

  9. Effects of different levels of UV-B radiation on marine epilithic communities: a short-term microcosm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Danilov

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Epilithic communities from brackish coastal water of the east coast of Sweden were studied in order to reveal their responses to different levels of UV-B radiation. The experiment was conducted for seven days in an indoor microcosm system. The epilithic communities were exposed daily to different doses of UV-B radiation: 1, 3, 5 and 7 hours, respectively. The intensity of the UV-B radiation used was similar to that in natural environments. After seven days clear shifts both in species composition and community structure were observed. All species of diatoms showed negative correlation with enhanced levels of UV-B. On the other hand, abundance of cyanobacteria was positively correlated with enhanced levels of UV-B (Calothrix aeruginea, R=0.49;Oscillatoria amphibia, R=0.93; Pseudanabaena mucicola, R=0.26. Communities dominated by diatoms and green algae at the initial stage of the experiment did show a drastic decrease in diatom abundance under UV-B stress and finally became dominated by cyanobacteria. Among green algae the abundance of Cladophora sericea correlated positively (R=0.33 with enhanced exposure to UV-B, while Monoraphidium-species exhibited negative correlation to UV-B. Otherwise, no significant correlation between other green algae species identified and UV-B stress could be detected. We conclude that UV-B radiation, even at lower levels, is capable to induce severe changes to marine epilithic communities. The trends revealed in the present study predict a shift from communities dominated by diatoms and green algae to those dominated by cyanobacteria.

  10. Dialectical behavior therapy skills use and emotion dysregulation in personality disorders and psychopathy: a community self-report study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsiu, Andrada D; Tkachuck, Mathew A

    2016-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a critical transdiagnostic mental health problem that needs to be further examined in personality disorders (PDs). The current study examined dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) skills use, emotion dysregulation, and dysfunctional coping among adults who endorsed symptoms of cluster B PDs and psychopathy. We hypothesized that skills taught in DBT and emotion dysregulation are useful for adults with PDs other than borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using a self-report questionnaire, we examined these constructs in three groups of community adults: those who reported symptoms consistent with borderline personality disorder (BPD; N = 29), those who reported symptoms consistent with any other cluster B PD (N = 22), and those with no reported cluster B PD symptoms (N = 77) as measured by the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 + . Both PD groups reported higher emotion dysregulation and dysfunctional coping when compared to the no PD group. Only the BPD group had significantly lower DBT skills use. DBT skills use was found to be a significant predictor of cluster B psychopathology but only before accounting for emotion dysregulation. When added to the regression model, emotion dysregulation was found to be a significant predictor of cluster B psychopathology but DBT skills use no longer had a significant effect. Across all groups, DBT skills use deficits and maladaptive coping, but not emotion dysregulation, predicted different facets of psychopathy. Emotion dysregulation and use of maladaptive coping are problems in cluster B PDs, outside of BPD, but not in psychopathy. Inability to use DBT skills may be unique to BPD. Because this study relied exclusively on self-report, this data is preliminary and warrants further investigation.

  11. Analysis of maintenance and quality assurance measures for the different radioactive materials packagings in the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warniez, P.

    1984-01-01

    The report presents an inventory on quality assurance for the safety of packagings for radioactive materials transport in 4 countries of the European Community : France, Federal Republic of Germany and United Kingdom. For each country the study includes: the inventory of reference documents and elements of national regulations for quality assurance, organization of quality following at the national level, quality assurance applied to spent fuel casks is examined. A preparatory program was previously submitted to competent authorities and organisms responsible in radioactive materials transport. In conclusion different quality assurance systems are in use but main criteria are found in all systems

  12. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible siting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi-structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 19 refs

  13. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible siting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi-structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 19 refs.

  14. Necrotizing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Maharaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cavities are not typically associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. CAP due to P. aeruginosa is rare and even less commonly causes necrotizing pneumonia. We report a case of P. aeruginosa CAP that progressed to necrotizing pneumonia and was eventually fatal. Procalcitonin (PCT has been well investigated in guiding antibiotic therapy (especially CAP in adults. In this case, PCT at presentation and sequentially was negative. We discuss this caveat and present hypotheses as to the sensitivity and specificity of PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP in these patients. To better characterize P. aeruginosa CAP, we undertook a review of cases indexed in PubMed from 2001 to 2016 (n=9. The data reveal that risk factors for P. aeruginosa CAP include smoking, alcohol use, obstructive lung disease, sinusitis, and hot tub use. The route of infection for P. aeruginosa CAP remains unknown. One of the most interesting findings on reviewing cases was that P. aeruginosa CAP involves the right upper lobe in the vast majority. We suggest that when physicians in the community see patients with distinctly upper lobe necrotizing or cavitary pneumonia, they should consider P. aeruginosa in their differential diagnosis. Further studies are needed to clarify route of infection, role of PCT and CRP, and optimal therapy including drug and duration.

  15. Community-Acquired Serratia Marcescens Spinal Epidural Abscess in a Patient Without Risk Factors: Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Parkins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens has rarely been reported as an agent of invasive disease in patients presenting from the community. Furthermore, S marcescens is frequently opportunistic, affecting individuals with serious medical comorbidities including immune suppression and diabetes. A case of a community-acquired S marcescens spontaneous lumbar epidural abscess presenting as cauda equina syndrome is reported in a previously well 36-year-old man with no identifiable risk factors. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of invasive S marcescens causing disease in a patient with no medical comorbidities.

  16. The Community's research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear installations (1989-1993). Annual progress report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the second annual progress report of the European Community's programme (1989-93) of research on decommissioning of nuclear installations. It shows the status of the programme on 31 December 1991. This second progress report summarizes the objectives, scope and work programme of the 76 research contracts concluded, as well as the progress of work achieved and the results obtained in 1991

  17. 75 FR 19319 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Extension of Comment Period... reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical Abstracts Service Number (CAS No.) 7783-06-4) (75 FR... may be potentially affected by this action if you manufacture, process, or otherwise use hydrogen...

  18. The Community's research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Fourth annual progress report (year 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    This is the fourth progress report of the European Community's program. (1979-83) of research on decommissioning of nuclear power plants. It covers the year 1983 and follows the 1980, 1981 and 1982 reports (EUR 7440, EUR 8343, EUR 8962). The present report describes the further progress of research and contains a large amount of results. For a majority of the 51 research contracts composing the 1979-83 programme, work was completed by the end of 1983; the conclusions drawn from this work are in this report. The European Community's program deals with the following fields: long-term integrity of buildings and systems; decontamination for decommissioning purposes; dismantling techniques; treatment of specific wastes materials (steel, concrete and graphite); large transport containers for radioactive waste produced in the dismantling of nuclear power plants; estimation of the quantities of radioactive waste arising from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in the Community; influence of nuclear power plant design features on decommissioning

  19. Zoonoses in Europe: distribution and trends - the EFSA-ECDC Community Summary Report 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahuerta, Angela; Helwigh, Birgitte; Mäkelä, Pia

    2010-01-01

    ,554) in the EU. Foodstuffs that are considered the main source for human listeriosis in the EU include ready-to-eat (RTE) products (fish and meat), soft cheeses, salads and sandwiches. An EFSA-ECDC collaborative survey on Listeria in RTE products and in clinical cases of human listeriosis started in January 2010......, the results of which will contribute to a better understanding about listeriosis in the EU. Q-fever increased by 172% in 2008 (1,594) compared with 2007 (585). This was mainly due to several outbreaks in people entering areas with infected sheep and goats mainly in the Netherlands. In-depth investigations...... from 2007 (2,905 cases). In animals VTEC was mainly isolated from cattle and, in lower proportion from small ruminants such as sheep and goats. In food, VTEC was detected in a considerable proportion of cow milk samples. The 2008 annual Community Summary Report describes the five-year trends...

  20. CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF SELF-REPORTED AGE AT MENOPAUSE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heather F.; Northington, Gina M.; Kaye, Elise M.; Bogner, Hillary R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. METHOD Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of the age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall of age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. RESULTS One hundred and forty three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) of women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994 while 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among women with surgical menopause, women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.15, 0.91]) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years from menopause. CONCLUSIONS Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause. PMID:21971208

  1. Measuring the attractiveness of rural communities in accounting for differences of rural primary care workforce supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Matthew R; Wingrove, Peter M; Petterson, Stephen M; Humphreys, John S; Russell, Deborah J; Bazemore, Andrew W

    2017-01-01

    Many rural communities continue to experience an undersupply of primary care doctor services. While key professional factors relating to difficulties of recruitment and retention of rural primary care doctors are widely identified, less attention has been given to the role of community and place aspects on supply. Place-related attributes contribute to a community's overall amenity or attractiveness, which arguably influence both rural recruitment and retention relocation decisions of doctors. This bi-national study of Australia and the USA, two developed nations with similar geographic and rural access profiles, investigates the extent to which variations in community amenity indicators are associated with spatial variations in the supply of rural primary care doctors. Measures from two dimensions of community amenity: geographic location, specifically isolation/proximity; and economics and sociodemographics were included in this study, along with a proxy measure (jurisdiction) of a third dimension, environmental amenity. Data were chiefly collated from the American Community Survey and the Australian Census of Population and Housing, with additional calculated proximity measures. Rural primary care supply was measured using provider-to-population ratios in 1949 US rural counties and in 370 Australian rural local government areas. Additionally, the more sophisticated two-step floating catchment area method was used to measure Australian rural primary care supply in 1116 rural towns, with population sizes ranging from 500 to 50 000. Associations between supply and community amenity indicators were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients and ordinary least squares multiple linear regression models. It was found that increased population size, having a hospital in the county, increased house prices and affluence, and a more educated and older population were all significantly associated with increased workforce supply across rural areas of both countries

  2. Knowledge, attitude and perceived stigma towards tuberculosis among pastoralists; Do they differ from sedentary communities? A comparative cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezawit Temesgen Sima

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is ninth among the world high tuberculosis (TB burden countries, pastoralists being the most affected population. However, there is no published report whether the behavior related to TB are different between pastoralist and the sedentary communities. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to assess the pastoralist community knowledge, attitude and perceived stigma towards tuberculosis and their health care seeking behavior in comparison to the neighboring sedentary communities and this may help to plan TB control interventions specifically for the pastoralist communities.A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out from September 2014 to January 2015, among 337 individuals from pastoralist and 247 from the sedentary community of Kereyu district. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. Three focus group discussions were used to collect qualitative data, one with men and the other with women in the pastoralist and one with men in the sedentary groups. Data were analyzed using Statistical Software for Social Science, SPSS V 22 and STATA.A Lower proportion of pastoralists mentioned bacilli (bacteria as the cause of PTB compared to the sedentary group (63.9% vs. 81.0%, p<0.01, respectively. However, witchcraft was reported as the causes of TB by a higher proportion of pastoralists than the sedentary group (53.6% vs.23.5%, p<0.01, respectively. Similarly, a lower proportion of pastoralists indicated PTB is preventable compared to the sedentary group (95.8% vs. 99.6%, p<0.01, respectively. Moreover, majority of the pastoralists mentioned that most people would reject a TB patient in their community compared to the sedentary group (39.9% vs. 8.9%, p<0.001, respectively, and the pastoralists expressed that they would be ashamed/embarrassed if they had TB 68% vs.36.4%, p<0.001, respectively.The finding indicates that there is a lower awareness about TB, a negative attitude towards TB patients and a higher perceived

  3. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Bell, Terrence H.; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E.; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequenci...

  4. DNA pyrosequencing evidence for large diversity differences between natural and managed coffee mycorrhizal fungal communities

    OpenAIRE

    De Beenhouwer , Matthias; Muleta , Diriba; Peeters , Bram; Van Geel , Maarten; Lievens , Bart; Honnay , Olivier

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Arabica coffee is a major agricultural commodity worldwide, representing 60 % of the world’s coffee production. Arabica coffee is cultivated in more than 36 countries and is a key cash crop for many developing countries. Despite the coffee’s huge economic importance, there is very limited knowledge on the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with coffee roots. Therefore, we assessed the mycorrhizal diversity and community composition in Arabica coffee (Coffea ar...

  5. A comparison of dental caries levels in two communities with different oral health prevention strategies stratified in different social classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheri, Darius; McLoughlin, Jacinta; Clarkson, John J

    2007-01-01

    To compare dental caries levels of schoolchildren stratified in different social classes whose domestic water supply had been fluoridated since birth (Dublin) with those living in an area where fluoridated salt was available (Freiburg). A representative, random sample of twelve-year-old children was examined and dental caries was recorded using World Health Organization criteria. A total of 699 twelve-year-old children were examined, 377 were children in Dublin and 322 in Freiburg. In Dublin the mean decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) was 0.80 and in Freiburg it was 0.69. An examination of the distribution of the DMFT score revealed that its distribution is highly positively skewed. For this reason this study provides summary analyses based on medians and inter-quartile range and nonparametric rank sum tests. In both cities caries levels of children in social class 1 (highest) were considerably lower when compared with the other social classes regardless of the fluoride intervention model used. The caries levels showed a reduced disparity between children in social class 2 (medium) and 3 (lowest) in Dublin compared with those in social class 2 and 3 in Freiburg. The evidence from this study confirmed that water fluoridation has reduced the gap in dental caries experience between medium and lower social classes in Dublin compared with the greater difference in caries experience between the equivalent social classes in Freiburg. The results from this study established the important role of salt fluoridation where water fluoridation is not feasible.

  6. Molecular analysis of the microbial community structures in water-flooding petroleum reservoirs with different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.-Y.; Duan, R.-Y.; Liu, J.-F.; Yang, S.-Z.; Gu, J.-D.; Mu, B.-Z.

    2012-04-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors regulating the activity and determining the composition of the microbial community. Analysis of microbial communities from six water-flooding petroleum reservoirs at temperatures from 20 to 63 °C by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicates the presence of physiologically diverse and temperature-dependent microorganisms in these subterrestrial ecosystems. In high-temperature petroleum reservoirs, most of the archaeal sequences belong to the thermophilic archaea including the genera Thermococcus, Methanothermobacter and Thermoplasmatales, most of the bacterial sequences belong to the phyla Firmicutes, Thermotogae and Thermodesulfobacteria; in low-temperature petroleum reservoirs, most of the archaeal sequences are affiliated with the genera Methanobacterium, Methanoculleus and Methanocalculus, most of the bacterial sequences to the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that temperature, mineralization, ionic type as well as volatile fatty acids showed correlation with the microbial community structures. These organisms may be adapted to the environmental conditions of these petroleum reservoirs over geologic time by metabolizing buried organic matter from the original deep subsurface environment and became the common inhabitants in subsurface environments.

  7. Examining Thematic Similarity, Difference, and Membership in Three Online Mental Health Communities from Reddit: A Text Mining and Visualization Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike; Chen, Annie T

    2018-01-01

    Social media, including online health communities, have become popular platforms for individuals to discuss health challenges and exchange social support with others. These platforms can provide support for individuals who are concerned about social stigma and discrimination associated with their illness. Although mental health conditions can share similar symptoms and even co-occur, the extent to which discussion topics in online mental health communities are similar, different, or overlapping is unknown. Discovering the topical similarities and differences could potentially inform the design of related mental health communities and patient education programs. This study employs text mining, qualitative analysis, and visualization techniques to compare discussion topics in publicly accessible online mental health communities for three conditions: Anxiety, Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. First, online discussion content for the three conditions was collected from three Reddit communities (r/Anxiety, r/Depression, and r/PTSD). Second, content was pre-processed, and then clustered using the k -means algorithm to identify themes that were commonly discussed by members. Third, we qualitatively examined the common themes to better understand them, as well as their similarities and differences. Fourth, we employed multiple visualization techniques to form a deeper understanding of the relationships among the identified themes for the three mental health conditions. The three mental health communities shared four themes: sharing of positive emotion, gratitude for receiving emotional support, and sleep- and work-related issues. Depression clusters tended to focus on self-expressed contextual aspects of depression, whereas the Anxiety Disorders and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder clusters addressed more treatment- and medication-related issues. Visualizations showed that discussion topics from the Anxiety Disorders and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder subreddits

  8. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  9. Insights to the effects of free cells on community structure of attached cells and chalcopyrite bioleaching during different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shoushuai; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Wu

    2016-01-01

    The effects of free cells on community structure of attached cells and chalcopyrite bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus sp. during different stages were investigated. The attached cells of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans owned the community advantage from 14thd to the end of bioprocess in the normal system. The community structure of attached cells was greatly influenced in the free cells-deficient systems. Compared to A. thiooxidans, the attached cells community of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans had a higher dependence on its free cells. Meanwhile, the analysis of key biochemical parameters revealed that the effects of free cells on chalcopyrite bioleaching in different stages were diverse, ranging from 32.8% to 64.3%. The bioleaching contribution of free cells of A. ferrooxidans in the stationary stage (8-14thd) was higher than those of A. thiooxidans, while the situation was gradually reversed in the jarosite passivation inhibited stage (26-40thd). These results may be useful in guiding chalcopyrite bioleaching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Algal Turf Recruitment and Early Growth did not Differ Across Sites that Varied Greatly in Herbivore and Coral Community Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynus, C.

    2016-02-01

    Worldwide losses of coral with accompanying phase shifts to algae have been attributed to human alterations of major ecological processes, especially top down (herbivory) and bottom up (nutrients) forces. While positive effects on macroalgae have received some attention, less is known about turf algae. Closely cropped turf algae (French Polynesia. While this study will continue for 2 years, data here are for 5 weeks. We chose 3 sites in Cooks Bay that likely varied in nutrients and 3 along the north shore, presumably higher in herbivory. At each site 10 recruitment tiles were deployed. Turf communities accumulated over five-weeks while benthic and herbivorous fish communities were quantified at each site. Herbivorous fish communities consisted of juveniles and adults from the families Acanthuridae and Scaridae with both adult and juvenile acanthurids, comprising > 50% of all herbivorous fish. Sites within the bay, however, contained at least 66.7% less fish than sites along the north shore. In contrast benthic surveys portrayed little difference between sites, with turf making up > 70% of total hard bottom cover. Similarly, there was little difference among sites in the recruitment and growth rate ( 0.2-0.3 mm/week) of turf on tiles. While turf recruitment and early development appeared to be unaffected by herbivory or nutrients over the short time, we predict that longer-term effects will occur as this community develops.

  11. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi T Makino

    Full Text Available When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies, and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant-pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly.

  12. Differences found in the macroinvertebrate community composition in the presence or absence of the invasive alien crayfish, Orconectes hylas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland-Riggert, Brandye T.; Cairns, Stefan H.; Poulton, Barry C.; Riggert, Chris M.

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of alien species into aquatic ecosystems have been well documented, including invasions of crayfish species; however, little is known about the effects of these introductions on macroinvertebrate communities. The woodland crayfish (Orconectes hylas (Faxon)) has been introduced into the St. Francis River watershed in southeast Missouri and has displaced populations of native crayfish. The effects of O. hylas on macroinvertebrate community composition were investigated in a fourth-order Ozark stream at two locations, one with the presence of O. hylas and one without. Significant differences between sites and across four sampling periods and two habitats were found in five categories of benthic macroinvertebrate metrics: species richness, percent/composition, dominance/diversity, functional feeding groups, and biotic indices. In most seasons and habitat combinations, the invaded site had significantly higher relative abundance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae), and significantly lower Missouri biotic index values, total taxa richness, and both richness and relative abundance of midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). Overall study results indicate that some macroinvertebrate community differences due to the O. hylas invasion were not consistent between seasons and habitats, suggesting that further research on spatial and temporal habitat use and feeding ecology of Ozark crayfish species is needed to improve our understanding of the effects of these invasions on aquatic communities.

  13. Compositional differences in simulated root exudates elicit a limited functional and compositional response in soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Nelson, Jim A; Bradford, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Inputs of low molecular weight carbon (LMW-C) to soil - primarily via root exudates- are expected to be a major driver of microbial activity and source of stable soil organic carbon. It is expected that variation in the type and composition of LMW-C entering soil will influence microbial community composition and function. If this is the case then short-term changes in LMW-C inputs may alter processes regulated by these communities. To determine if change in the composition of LMW-C inputs influences microbial community function and composition, we conducted a 90 day microcosm experiment whereby soils sourced from three different land covers (meadows, deciduous forests, and white pine stands) were amended, at low concentrations, with one of eight simulated root exudate treatments. Treatments included no addition of LMW-C, and the full factorial combination of glucose, glycine, and oxalic acid. After 90 days, we conducted a functional response assay and determined microbial composition via phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Whereas we noted a statistically significant effect of exudate treatments, this only accounted for ∼3% of the variation observed in function. In comparison, land cover and site explained ∼46 and ∼41% of the variation, respectively. This suggests that exudate composition has little influence on function compared to site/land cover specific factors. Supporting the finding that exudate effects were minor, we found that an absence of LMW-C elicited the greatest difference in function compared to those treatments receiving any LMW-C. Additionally, exudate treatments did not alter microbial community composition and observable differences were instead due to land cover. These results confirm the strong effects of land cover/site legacies on soil microbial communities. In contrast, short-term changes in exudate composition, at meaningful concentrations, may have little impact on microbial function and composition.

  14. [Influence of Different Straws Returning with Landfill on Soil Microbial Community Structure Under Dry and Water Farming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Mu-ling; Gao, Ming

    2015-11-01

    Based on rice, wheat, corn straw and rape, broad bean green stalk as the research object, using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) method, combining principal component analysis method to study the soil microbial quantity, distribution of flora, community structure characteristics under dry and water farming as two different cultivated land use types. The PLFA analysis results showed that: under dry farming, total PLFA quantity ranged 8.35-25.15 nmol x g(-1), showed rape > broad bean > corn > rice > wheat, rape and broad bean significantly increased total PLFA quantity by 1.18 and 1.08 times compared to the treatment without straw; PLFA quantity of bacterial flora in treatments with straws was higher than that without straw, and fungal biomass was significantly increased, so was the species richness of microbial community. Under water faming, the treatments of different straws returning with landfill have improved the PLFA quantity of total soil microbial and flora comparing with the treatment without straw, fungi significantly increased, and species richness of microbial communities value also increased significantly. Total PLFA quantity ranged 4.04-22.19 nmol x g(-1), showed rice > corn > wheat > broad bean > rape, which in rape and broad bean treatments were lower than the treatment without straw; fungal PLFA amount in 5 kinds of straw except broad bean treatment was significantly higher than that of the treatment without straw, bacteria and total PLFA quantity in broad bean processing were significantly lower than those of other treatments, actinomycetes, G+, G- had no significant difference between all treatments; rice, wheat, corn, rape could significantly increase the soil microbial species richness index and dominance index under water faming. The results of principal component analysis showed that broad bean green stalk had the greatest impact on the microbial community structure in the dry soil, rape green stalk and wheat straw had the biggest influence on

  15. An Exploration into the Bacterial Community under Different Pasteurization Conditions during Substrate Preparation (Composting-Phase II) for Agaricus bisporus Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabricio Rocha; Pecchia, John Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Substrate preparation (i.e., composting) for Agaricus bisporus cultivation is the most critical point of mushroom production. Among many factors involved in the composting process, the microbial ecology of the system is the underlying drive of composting and can be influenced by composting management techniques. Pasteurization temperature at the beginning of phase II, in theory, may influence the bacterial community and subsequently the "selectivity" and nutrition of the final substrate. Therefore, this hypothesis was tested by simulation in bioreactors under different pasteurization conditions (57 °C/6 h, 60 °C/2 h, and 68 °C/2 h), simulating conditions adopted by many producers. Bacterial diversity, based on 16S ribosomal RNA obtained by high-throughput sequencing and classified in operational taxonomic units (OTUs), was greater than previously reported using culture-dependent methods. Alpha diversity estimators show a lower diversity of OTUs under a high-temperature pasteurization condition. Bacillales order shows a relatively higher OTU abundance under a high-pasteurization temperature, which also was related to high ammonia emission measurements. On the other hand, beta diversity analysis showed no significantly changes in the bacterial community structure under different conditions. Agaricus bisporus mycelium growth during a standard spawn run period was significantly slower in the compost pasteurized at high temperature. Since the bacterial community structure was not greatly affected by different pasteurization conditions but by-products left (e.g., ammonia) at the end of compost conditioning varied, further studies need to be conducted to determine the functional role of the microbial communities found during substrate preparation for Agaricus bisporus cultivation.

  16. Structure of the tree stratum of three swamp forest communities in southern Brazil under different soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carla Mancino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga forests are commonly known to be plant communities rather poor in tree species. This study aimed to describe and explain the association between the floristic-structural similarities and the environmental conditions in three Swamp Restinga Forest communities in southern Brazil. In 13 plots of 100 m2 each, we sampled all individual trees (circumference at breast height >12 cm and height ≥3 m. We collected soil samples in each plot for chemical and textural analyses. Phytosociological parameters were calculated and different structural variables were compared between areas. The density of individuals did not differ between areas; however, the maximum height and abundance of species differed between the site with Histosols and the other two sites with Gleysols. Further, a canonical correspondence analysis based on a matrix of vegetation and that of environmental characteristics explained 31.5% of the total variation. The high floristic and environmental heterogeneity indicate that swamp-forests can shelter many species with low frequency. Most species were generalists that were not exclusive to this type of forest. Overall, our study showed that swamp-forests within the same region can show considerable differences in composition and structure and can include species-rich communities, mostly due to the presence of species with a broader distribution in the Atlantic Rainforest domain on sites with less stressful environmental conditions and without waterlogged conditions.

  17. Microbial community evolution during simulated managed aquifer recharge in response to different biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) concentrations

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the microbial community in laboratory-scale soil columns simulating the infiltration zone of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. Parallel systems were supplemented with either moderate (1.1 mg/L) or low (0.5 mg/L) biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) for a period of six months during which time, spatial (1 cm, 30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm, and 120 cm) and temporal (monthly) analyses of sediment-associated microbial community structure were analyzed. Total microbial biomass associated with sediments was positively correlated with BDOC concentration where a significant decline in BDOC was observed along the column length. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated dominance by Bacteria with Archaea comprising less than 1 percent of the total community. Proteobacteria was found to be the major phylum in samples from all column depths with contributions from Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Microbial community structure at all the phylum, class and genus levels differed significantly at 1 cm between columns receiving moderate and low BDOC concentrations; in contrast strong similarities were observed both between parallel column systems and across samples from 30 to 120 cm depths. Samples from 1 cm depth of the low BDOC columns exhibited higher microbial diversity (expressed as Shannon Index) than those at 1 cm of moderate BDOC columns, and both increased from 5.4 to 5.9 at 1 cm depth to 6.7-8.3 at 30-120 cm depths. The microbial community structure reached steady state after 3-4 months since the initiation of the experiment, which also resulted in an improved DOC removal during the same time period. This study suggested that BDOC could significantly influence microbial community structure regarding both composition and diversity of artificial MAR systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Functional assays and metagenomic analyses reveals differences between the microbial communities inhabiting the soil horizons of a Norway spruce plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Uroz

    Full Text Available In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France. The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource

  19. The community's research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Third annual progress report (year 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This is the third progress report of the European Community's programme (1979-83) of research on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. It covers the year 1982 and follows the 1980 and 1981 reports (EUR 7440, EUR 8343). Since 1982 was a very active year of research under the programme, this report contains a large amount of results. Besides, the work programmes of some additional research contracts, awarded through 1982, are described

  20. An Integrated Assessment of Geochemical and Community Structure Determinants of Metal Reduction Rates in Subsurface Sediments. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfiffner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the importance of microbial community structure in influencing uranium reduction rates in subsurface sediments. If the redox state alone is the key to metal reduction, then any organisms that can utilize the oxygen and nitrate in the subsurface can change the geochemical conditions so metal reduction becomes an energetically favored reaction. Thus, community structure would not be critical in determining rates or extent of metal reduction unless community structure influenced the rate of change in redox. Alternatively, some microbes may directly catalyze metal reduction (e.g., specifically reduce U). In this case the composition of the community may be more important and specific types of electron donors may promote the production of communities that are more adept at U reduction. Our results helped determine if the type of electron donor or the preexisting community is important in the bioremediation of metal-contaminated environments subjected to biostimulation. In a series of experiments at the DOE FRC site in Oak Ridge we have consistently shown that all substrates promoted nitrate reduction, while glucose, ethanol, and acetate always promoted U reduction. Methanol only occasionally promoted extensive U reduction which is possibly due to community heterogeneity. There appeared to be limitations imposed on the community related to some substrates (e.g. methanol and pyruvate). Membrane lipid analyses (phospholipids and respiratory quinones) indicated different communities depending on electron donor used. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone libraries indicated distinct differences among communities even in treatments that promoted U reduction. Thus, there was enough metabolic diversity to accommodate many different electron donors resulting in the U bioimmobilization.

  1. How do habitat filtering and niche conservatism affect community composition at different taxonomic resolutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, François; Ramesh, B R; Couteron, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Understanding how local species assembly depends on the regional biogeographic and environmental context is a challenging task in community ecology. In spatially implicit neutral models, a single immigration parameter, I(k), represents the flux of immigrants from a regional pool that compete with local offspring for establishment in communities. This flux counterbalances the effect of local stochastic extinctions to maintain local species diversity. If some species within the regional pool are not adapted to the local environment (habitat filtering), the migrant flux is reduced beyond that of the neutral model, such that habitat filtering influences the value of I(k) in non-neutral situations. Here, we propose a novel model in which immigrants from the regional pool are filtered according to their habitat preferences and the local environment, while taxa potentially retain habitat preferences from their ancestors (niche conservatism). Using both analytical reasoning and simulations, we demonstrate that I(k) is expected to be constant when estimated based on the community composition at several taxonomic levels, not only under neutral assumptions, but also when habitat filtering occurs, unless there is substantial niche conservatism. In the latter case, I(k) is expected to decrease when estimated based on the composition at species to genus and family levels, thus allowing a signature of niche conservatism to be detected by simply comparing I(k) estimates across taxonomic levels. We applied this approach to three rain forest data sets from South India and Central America and found no significant signature of niche conservatism when I(k) was compared across taxonomic levels, except at the family level in South India. We further observed more limited immigration in South Indian forests, supporting the hypothesis of a greater impact of habitat filtering and heterogeneity there than in Central America. Our results highlight the relevance of studying variations of I

  2. Non-target impact of fungicide tetraconazole on microbial communities in soils with different agricultural management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sułowicz, Sławomir; Cycoń, Mariusz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-08-01

    Effect of the fungicide tetraconazole on microbial community in silt loam soils from orchard with long history of triazole application and from grassland with no known history of fungicide usage was investigated. Triazole tetraconazole that had never been used on these soils before was applied at the field rate and at tenfold the FR. Response of microbial communities to tetraconazole was investigated during 28-day laboratory experiment by determination of changes in their biomass and structure (phospholipid fatty acids method-PLFA), activity (fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis-FDA) as well as changes in genetic (DGGE) and functional (Biolog) diversity. Obtained results indicated that the response of soil microorganisms to tetraconazole depended on the management of the soils. DGGE patterns revealed that both dosages of fungicide affected the structure of bacterial community and the impact on genetic diversity and richness was more prominent in orchard soil. Values of stress indices-the saturated/monounsaturated PLFAs ratio and the cyclo/monounsaturated precursors ratio, were almost twice as high and the Gram-negative/Gram-positive ratio was significantly lower in the orchard soil compared with the grassland soil. Results of principal component analysis of PLFA and Biolog profiles revealed significant impact of tetraconazole in orchard soil on day 28, whereas changes in these profiles obtained for grassland soil were insignificant or transient. Obtained results indicated that orchards soil seems to be more vulnerable to tetraconazole application compared to grassland soil. History of pesticide application and agricultural management should be taken into account in assessing of environmental impact of studied pesticides.

  3. Soil microbial communities and glyphosate decay in soils with different herbicide application history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro, Keren Hernández; Aparicio, Virginia; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Castellote, Martín; Figuerola, Eva L; Costa, José Luis; Erijman, Leonardo

    2018-04-11

    This study evaluates the glyphosate dissipation under field conditions in three types of soil, and aims to determine the importance of the following factors in the environmental persistence of herbicide: i) soil bacterial communities, ii) soil physicochemical properties, iii) previous exposure to the herbicide. A soil without previous record of GP application (P0) and two agricultural soils, with 5 and >10years of GP exposure (A5 and A10) were subjected to the application of glyphosate at doses of 3mg·kg -1 . The concentration of GP and AMPA was determined over time and the dynamics of soil bacterial communities was evaluated using 16S ARN ribosomal gene amplicon-sequencing. The GP exposure history affected the rate but not the extent of GP biodegradation. The herbicide was degraded rapidly, but P0 soil showed a dissipation rate significantly lower than soils with agricultural history. In P0 soil, a significant increase in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was observed in response to herbicide application. More generally, all soils displayed shifts in bacterial community structure, which nevertheless could not be clearly associated to glyphosate dissipation, suggesting the presence of redundant bacteria populations of potential degraders. Yet the application of the herbicide prompted a partial disruption of the bacterial association network of unexposed soil. On the other hand, higher values of linear (Kd) and nonlinear (Kf) sorption coefficient in P0 point to the relevance of cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay and organic matter to the capacity of soil to adsorb the herbicide, suggesting that bioavailability was a key factor for the persistence of GP and AMPA. These results contribute to understand the relationship between bacterial taxa exposed to the herbicide, and the importance of soil properties as predictors of the possible rate of degradation and persistence of glyphosate in soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antibiotic usage and resistance in different regions of the Dutch community.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, N.; Filius, P.M.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Degener, J.E.; Endtz, P.; Bogaard, A.E. van den; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2002-01-01

    Regional differences of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance in the fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci were determined in different cities in the south, west, and north of The Netherlands. In 1999, differences in antibiotic consumption were observed between the different

  5. Antibiotic usage and resistance in different regions of the Dutch community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, N; Filius, PMG; De Smet, PAGM; Degener, J; Endtz, P; Van den Bogaard, AE; Stobberingh, EE

    2002-01-01

    Regional differences of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance in the fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci were determined in different cities in the south, west, and north of The Netherlands. In 1999, differences in antibiotic consumption were observed between the different

  6. [Potential Carbon Fixation Capability of Non-photosynthetic Microbial Community at Different Depth of the South China Sea and Its Response to Different Electron Donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Feng; Wang, Lei; Xi, Xue-fei; Hu, Jia-jun; Fu, Xiao-hua; Lu, Bing; Xu, Dian-sheng

    2015-05-01

    The seawater samples collected from many different areas with different depth in the South China Sea were cultivated using different electron donors respectively. And the variation in the potential carbon fixation capability ( PCFC ) of non-photosynthetic microbial community (NPMC) in seawater with different depth was determined after a cycle of cultivation through the statistic analysis. In addition, the cause for the variation was clarified through analyzing key gene abundance regarding CO2 fixation and characteristics of seawater with different depth. The result showed that the PCFCs of NPMC in seawater with different depth were generally low and had no significant difference when using NaNO2 as the electron donor. The PCFC of NPMC in surface seawater was higher than that in deep seawater when using H2 as the electron donor, on the contrary, the PCFC of NPMC in deep seawater was higher than that in surface seawater when using Na2S2O3 as the electron donor. The abundance of the main CO2 fixation gene cbbL in surface seawater was higher than that in deep seawater while the cbbM gene abundance in deep seawater was higher than that in surface seawater. Most hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria had the cbbL gene, and most sulfur bacteria had the cbbM gene. The tendency of seawater cbbL/cbbM gene abundance with the change of depth revealed that there were different kinds of bacteria accounting for the majority in NPMC fixing CO2 at different depth of ocean, which led to different response of PCFC of NPMC at different depth of the sea to different electron donors. The distributions of dissolved oxygen and inorganic carbon concentration with the change of the depth of the sea might be an important reason leading to the difference of NPMC structure and even the difference of PCFC at different depth of the sea.

  7. Age differences and interindividual variation in cognition in community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H; Mackinnon, A; Jorm, A F; Henderson, A S; Scott, L R; Korten, A E

    1994-09-01

    The cognitive test performance of 897 community-dwelling elderly Ss, aged 70 years and over, was examined for age trends and interindividual variation. Data were subjected to factor analysis, and 3 factors emerged (Crystallized Intelligence, Fluid Intelligence, and Memory). Over the age span sampled, Crystallized Intelligence, Fluid Intelligence, and Memory all decreased with the decrease being greatest for Fluid Intelligence and least for Crystallized Intelligence. Interindividual variation increased for Fluid Intelligence and Memory, but not for Crystallized Intelligence. These findings give support to the view that crystallized intelligence is lower in the very old and that there is a greater degree of variability in test performance with advancing age.

  8. Changing times, changing stories: Generational differences in climate change perspectives from four remote indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Mercer, Nicole M.; Matkin, Elli; Laituri, Melinda J.; Toohey, Ryan C; Massey, Maggie; Elder, Kelly; Schuster, Paul F.; Mutter, Edda A.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities currently are facing a myriad of social and environmental changes. In response to these changes, studies concerning indigenous knowledge (IK) and climate change vulnerability, resiliency, and adaptation have increased dramatically in recent years. Risks to lives and livelihoods are often the focus of adaptation research; however, the cultural dimensions of climate change are equally important because cultural dimensions inform perceptions of risk. Furthermore, many Arctic and Subarctic IK climate change studies document observations of change and knowledge of the elders and older generations in a community, but few include the perspectives of the younger population. These observations by elders and older generations form a historical baseline record of weather and climate observations in these regions. However, many indigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities are composed of primarily younger residents. We focused on the differences in the cultural dimensions of climate change found between young adults and elders. We outlined the findings from interviews conducted in four indigenous communities in Subarctic Alaska. The findings revealed that (1) intergenerational observations of change were common among interview participants in all four communities, (2) older generations observed more overall change than younger generations interviewed by us, and (3) how change was perceived varied between generations. We defined “observations” as the specific examples of environmental and weather change that were described, whereas “perceptions” referred to the manner in which these observations of change were understood and contextualized by the interview participants. Understanding the differences in generational observations and perceptions of change are key issues in the development of climate change adaptation strategies.

  9. Analysis of phytoplankton distribution and community structure in the German Bight with respect to the different size classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschläger, Jochen; Wiltshire, Karen Helen; Petersen, Wilhelm; Metfies, Katja

    2015-05-01

    Investigation of phytoplankton biodiversity, ecology, and biogeography is crucial for understanding marine ecosystems. Research is often carried out on the basis of microscopic observations, but due to the limitations of this approach regarding detection and identification of picophytoplankton (0.2-2 μm) and nanophytoplankton (2-20 μm), these investigations are mainly focused on the microphytoplankton (20-200 μm). In the last decades, various methods based on optical and molecular biological approaches have evolved which enable a more rapid and convenient analysis of phytoplankton samples and a more detailed assessment of small phytoplankton. In this study, a selection of these methods (in situ fluorescence, flow cytometry, genetic fingerprinting, and DNA microarray) was placed in complement to light microscopy and HPLC-based pigment analysis to investigate both biomass distribution and community structure of phytoplankton. As far as possible, the size classes were analyzed separately. Investigations were carried out on six cruises in the German Bight in 2010 and 2011 to analyze both spatial and seasonal variability. Microphytoplankton was identified as the major contributor to biomass in all seasons, followed by the nanophytoplankton. Generally, biomass distribution was patchy, but the overall contribution of small phytoplankton was higher in offshore areas and also in areas exhibiting higher turbidity. Regarding temporal development of the community, differences between the small phytoplankton community and the microphytoplankton were found. The latter exhibited a seasonal pattern regarding number of taxa present, alpha- and beta-diversity, and community structure, while for the nano- and especially the picophytoplankton, a general shift in the community between both years was observable without seasonality. Although the reason for this shift remains unclear, the results imply a different response of large and small phytoplankton to environmental influences.

  10. Differences between bacterial communities in the gut of a soil-feeding termite (Cubitermes niokoloensis) and its mounds

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Saliou; Hamelin, J.; Ndiaye, Farma; Assigbetse, Komi; Aragno, M.; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Brauman, Alain

    2007-01-01

    In tropical ecosystems, termite mound soils constitute an important soil compartment covering around 10% of African soils. Previous studies have shown (S. Fall, S. Nazaret, J. L. Chotte, and A. Brauman, Microb. Ecol. 28:191-199, 2004) that the bacterial genetic structure of the mounds of soil-feeding termites (Cubitermes niokoloensis) is different from that of their surrounding soil. The aim of this study was to characterize the specificity of bacterial communities within mounds with respect ...

  11. Divergent Responses of Forest Soil Microbial Communities under Elevated CO2 in Different Depths of Upper Soil Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; He, Zhili; Wang, Aijie; Xie, Jianping; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Jin, Decai; Shao, Zhimin; Schadt, Christopher W; Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the continuous increase of atmosphere CO 2 concentrations may have profound effects on the forest ecosystem and its functions. However, little is known about the response of belowground soil microbial communities under elevated atmospheric CO 2 (eCO 2 ) at different soil depth profiles in forest ecosystems. Here, we examined soil microbial communities at two soil depths (0 to 5 cm and 5 to 15 cm) after a 10-year eCO 2 exposure using a high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip). The results showed that eCO 2 significantly shifted the compositions, including phylogenetic and functional gene structures, of soil microbial communities at both soil depths. Key functional genes, including those involved in carbon degradation and fixation, methane metabolism, denitrification, ammonification, and nitrogen fixation, were stimulated under eCO 2 at both soil depths, although the stimulation effect of eCO 2 on these functional markers was greater at the soil depth of 0 to 5 cm than of 5 to 15 cm. Moreover, a canonical correspondence analysis suggested that NO 3 -N, total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), and leaf litter were significantly correlated with the composition of the whole microbial community. This study revealed a positive feedback of eCO 2 in forest soil microbial communities, which may provide new insight for a further understanding of forest ecosystem responses to global CO 2 increases. IMPORTANCE The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has continuously been increasing since the industrial revolution. Understanding the response of soil microbial communities to elevated atmospheric CO 2 (eCO 2 ) is important for predicting the contribution of the forest ecosystem to global atmospheric change. This study analyzed the effect of eCO 2 on microbial communities at two soil depths (0 to 5 cm and 5 to 15 cm) in a forest ecosystem. Our findings suggest that the compositional and functional structures of microbial

  12. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Posttraumatic Growth: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevsky, Tanya; Cann, Arnie; Calhoun, Lawrence G.; Tedeschi, Richard G.; Demakis, George J.

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the direction and magnitude of gender differences in self-reported posttraumatic growth. Results from 70 studies (N = 16,076) revealed a small to moderate gender difference (g = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.21 -0.32), with women reporting more posttraumatic growth than men. Moderator analyses were then conducted to…

  13. A closer look at racial differences in the reporting of self-assessed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... to as 'non-whites' under ... respect to the perception and reporting of SAH between members of different race groups in ... better than that of Black African persons with the health of ... straightforward to explain current racial differences in health .... the reporting of SAH, it risks the possibility of fomenting.

  14. 77 FR 75259 - Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and Capital Standards Among the Federal Banking Agencies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... consistent with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. There were no significant differences in...] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Joint Report: Differences in Accounting and... submit an annual report to the Committee on Financial Services of the U.S. House of Representatives and...

  15. Differences in Students' Reading Comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards: A South African Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Stephen A.; Janse van Rensburg, Cecile; Schmulian, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This study explores differences in students' reading comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards in a South African financial reporting class with a heterogeneous student cohort. Statistically significant differences were identified for prior academic performance, language of instruction, first language and enrolment in the…

  16. Helminth parasite communities of two Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 (Anura: Leiuperidae populations under different conditions of habitat integrity in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aguiar

    Full Text Available Abstract Adults of Physalaemus cuvieri were collected and necropsied between November 2009 and January 2010. This was carried out in order to report and compare the helminth fauna associated with two populations of this anuran species from the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest under different conditions of habitat integrity. The hosts from the disturbed area were parasitized with five helminth taxa: Cosmocerca parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Nematoda and Polystoma cuvieri (Monogenea while those from the preserved area had four helminth taxa: C. parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., and Acanthocephalus saopaulensis (Acanthocephala. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance, mean richness, importance index and dominance frequency of helminth component communities were similar in both areas. The helminth community associated with anurans from the disturbed area had higher diversity than that from the preserved area. This study is the first to report on the acanthocephalan parasites of Ph. cuvieri, and the similarity between helminth fauna composition of two host populations under different selective pressures.

  17. Facilitating Deployment of Community Solar PV systems on Rooftops and Vacant Land in Northeast IL - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Deborah [Cook County, Chicago, IL (United States); Oakleaf, Laura [Cook County, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-12-31

    The Cook County Community Solar project set out to unlock the potential of community solar in the Chicago region with lessons that could be applied nationally. One of the first steps was to prove out the potential market. This was done through an opportunity assessment which showed there is over 9,000 megawatts worth of site capacity available for community solar projects in Cook County – nearly enough to offset all of Cook County’s residential electricity use. The assessment also showed that almost 75% of Cook County households are not able to invest directly in solar photovoltaic systems due to a variety of issues from physical barriers such as shading, or condition of the roof, to financial barriers such as lack of roof ownership, or the up-front costs of installation. Because of these barriers, community solar is an essential part of making the benefits of renewable energy available to all of the residents of Cook County. In addition to the opportunity assessment the project team also worked with the over 200 individuals who participated in the stakeholder advisory group to develop a number of other products including: 1) an Economic & Policy Barriers Resolutions and Work Plan document which laid out best practices to address the policy barriers that existed at the time (May of 2016) 2) Value Proposition Report I and Report II which summarize the value of community solar to potential developers and subscribers, 3) The Community Solar Business Case Tool, which provides a flexible financial model that projects the costs and befits to the system developer and subscriber for a project, 4) Bill Crediting Analysis and the 5) Final Report. The Final Report contains 15 case studies which prove that community solar projects are economically feasible in Cook County with a variety of sites, solar designs, ownership and subscriber models.

  18. Community structure of fish larvae in mangroves with different root types in Labuhan coastal area, Sepulu - Madura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaki, Farid Kamal; Giffari, Aninditha; Saptarini, Dian

    2017-06-01

    Mangrove root complexity and shading are well known to give positive correlation for both juveniles and adult fishes. However, it is remain unclear whether that complexity would affect the community of fish larvae (ichthyoplankton). This study aimed to address the question, especially in mangrove area in coastal area of Sepulu, Madura which projected as a mangrove protection area. Sampling periods were from March to May, 2016. The samples of fish larvae were collected by plankton net (mesh-size 0.150 and 0.265 mm) from six different locations representing different root types (stilt root, pneumatophore, combination of stilt root-pneumatophore and unvegetated area). As the results, 6 families were identified, namely Gobiidae, Blennidae, Pomacentridae, Carangidae, Engraulidae and Ambassidae, respectively. Gobiidae seems to be the most abundant and widely dispersed in the area. Results of two-way AnovadanTukey HSD (both at p=0.05) indicate that there were significant difference in the larval abundance regarding locations, sampling periods and interaction of both factors. As for number of taxa, significant difference occurred only from factors of locations and sampling periods, but not for interaction of both factors. Highest larval abundance and number of taxa occurred in Rhizophoraspp (with stilt root), indicating that root complexity would affect the community of fish larvae. Ordination by canonical analysis shows that different taxa of the fish larvae are tend to be distributed on different locations.

  19. Rural and Urban Differences in Air Quality, 2008-2012, and Community Drinking Water Quality, 2010-2015 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosnider, Heather; Kennedy, Caitlin; Monti, Michele; Yip, Fuyuen

    2017-06-23

    concentration for a community water system (CWS) to the maximum contaminant level (MCL) defined by EPA for 10 contaminants: arsenic, atrazine, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), haloacetic acids (HAA5), nitrate, perchloroethene (PCE), radium, trichloroethene (TCE), total trihalomethanes (TTHM), and uranium. Findings are presented by urban-rural classification scheme: four metropolitan (large central metropolitan, large fringe metropolitan, medium metropolitan, and small metropolitan) and two nonmetropolitan (micropolitan and noncore) categories. Regression modeling was used to determine whether differences in the measures by urban-rural categories were statistically significant. Patterns for all three air-quality measures suggest that air quality improves as areas become more rural (or less urban). The mean total number of ozone days decreased from 47.54 days in large central metropolitan counties to 3.81 days in noncore counties, whereas the mean total number of PM 2.5 days decreased from 11.21 in large central metropolitan counties to 0.95 in noncore counties. The mean average annual PM 2.5 concentration decreased from 11.15 μg/m 3 in large central metropolitan counties to 8.87 μg/m 3 in noncore counties. Patterns for the water-quality measure suggest that water quality improves as areas become more urban (or less rural). Overall, 7% of CWSs reported at least one annual mean concentration greater than the MCL for all 10 contaminants combined. The percentage increased from 5.4% in large central metropolitan counties to 10% in noncore counties, a difference that was significant, adjusting for U.S. region, CWS size, water source, and potential spatial correlation. Similar results were found for two disinfection by-products, HAA5 and TTHM. Arsenic was the only other contaminant with a significant result. Medium metropolitan counties had 3.1% of CWSs reporting at least one annual mean greater than the MCL, compared with 2.4% in large central counties. Noncore (rural) counties

  20. Effects of the communities that care prevention system on youth reports of protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B K Elizabeth; Gloppen, Kari M; Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David

    2015-07-01

    Many interventions seeking to reduce problem behaviors and promote healthy youth development target both risk and protective factors, yet few studies have examined the effect of preventive interventions on overall levels of protection community wide. In a community-randomized controlled trial, this study tested the effect of Communities That Care (CTC) on protective factors in 24 communities across seven states. Data on protective factors were collected from a panel of 4407 youths in CTC and control communities followed from grade 5 through grade 8. Hierarchical linear modeling compared mean levels of 15 protective factors derived from the social development model in CTC and control communities in grade 8, adjusted for individual and community characteristics and baseline levels of protective factors in grade 5. Global test statistics were calculated to examine effects on protection overall and by domain. Analyses across all protective factors found significantly higher levels of overall protection in CTC compared to control communities. Analyses by domain found significantly higher levels of protection in CTC than control communities in the community, school, and peer/individual domains, but not in the family domain. Significantly higher levels of opportunities for prosocial involvement in the community, recognition for prosocial involvement in school, interaction with prosocial peers, and social skills among CTC compared to control youth contributed to the overall and domain-specific results. This is consistent with CTC's theory of change, which posits that strengthening protective factors is a mechanism through which CTC prevents behavior problems.

  1. Fourteenth general report on the activities of the European Communities in 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The general economic situation, Community achievements at home, enlargement of the Community, and the correlations of the Community and world events in 1980 are described. Activities of institutions connected with the Communities and financing Community activities in 1980 are also described. Other topics covered concerning the Community are: economic and monetary policy and internal market and industrial affairs, customs union, competition, financial institutions and taxation, employment and social policy, regional policies, environmental affairs, agriculture, fisheries, transport policy, energy, safety, research, and information markets. Considerations with countries (Greece, Spain, Portugal) which have applied or are being accepted as members are reviewed. Developments in the Community law are discussed. A section, The Year in Brief, is included. (MCW)

  2. Seasonality in the dung beetle community in a Brazilian tropical dry forest: Do small changes make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Anderson Matos; Lopes, Priscila Paixão

    2014-01-01

    Dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Scarabaeinae) activity is influenced by rainfall seasonality. We hypothesized that rainfall might also play a major role in regulating the community structure of this group. In this study, we describe seasonal changes in the richness, composition, and structure of the Scarabaeinae community in a Brazilian tropical dry forest. A fragment of arboreal Caatinga was sampled using baited pitfall traps during the early dry season (EDS), late dry season (LDS), early wet season (EWS), and middle wet season (MWS). We compared the dung beetle community in each season in relationship to species richness, rank-dominance, curves, and composition. We collected 1352 Scarabaeinae individuals , belonging to 15 species. Dichotomius aff. laevicollis Felsche (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) was the dominant species, representing 73.89% of the individuals. There were no seasonal changes in the rank dominance curves; all had a single dominant species and a few species with low abundance, typical for arid areas. Estimated richness was highest in MWS, followed by EWS. Dry-season samples (EDS and LDS) had lower richness, with no significant difference between the dry seasons. Although species richness increased as the habitat became wetter, the difference between the wet and dry seasons was small, which differs completely from the findings of other studies in Neotropical dry forests, where almost all species cease activities in the dry season. Species composition changes were found in non-metric multidimensional scaling and sustained by analysis of similarity. All the seasons had pairwise differences in composition, with the exception of EDS and MWS, which indicates that the dung beetle community in this fragment requires more than three months of drought to trigger changes in species composition; this is probably due to small changes in the forest canopy. There was no difference in composition between EDS and MWS. As in other tropical dry forests, although

  3. Archaeal and Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus of Caribbean Corals Differ in Their Degree of Host Specificity and Community Turnover Over Reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frade, P.R.; Roll, K.; Bergauer, K.; Herndl, G.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the distribution of archaeal versus bacterial communities associatedwith the surface mucus layer of corals have rarely taken place. It has thereforeremained enigmatic whether mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities exhibita similar specificity towards coral hosts