WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported close relations

  1. The relation between anorexic symptoms in women and their reports of trustworthiness in interactions with close persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Ken J; Edwards, Kelley

    2017-08-01

    The study examined the relation between women's anorexic symptoms and their reports of trustworthiness in interactions with close persons. Ninety-eight females (mean age=24years-10months) completed the anorexic symptom subscale of the SEDS and reported (ascribed) the extent to which they showed reliability, emotional, and honesty trustworthiness behaviors in interactions with their mother, father, and close friend. Negative linear relations were found between anorexic symptoms and ascribed: (a) trustworthiness with close friends; (b) reliability trustworthiness; and (c) at a trend level, honesty trustworthiness. These were qualified by curvilinear relations and by elevated anorexic vs normative group comparisons. It was found that women with elevated anorexic symptoms ascribed lower trustworthiness than did women with the normal range of anorexic symptoms. The findings were interpreted as supporting the conclusion that women with elevated levels of anorexic symptoms are inclined to believe that they are deceptive in their interactions with close persons, primarily friends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. FINAL CLOSE-OUT REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Carl

    2004-08-03

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) engaged in numerous projects outlined under the scope of work discussed in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant number DE-FG26-01BC15336 awarded to the IOGCC. Numerous projects were completed that were extremely valuable to state oil and gas agencies as a result of work performed utilizing resources provided by the grant. There are numerous areas in which state agencies still need assistance. This additional assistance will need to be addressed under another grant because funding resources have been exhausted under The scope of work objectives for the eight projects covered under this grant is as follows: (1) Improve uniformity within state oil and gas data management efforts. (2) Conduct environmental compliance workshops and related educational projects on natural gas and oil exploration and production. (3) Improve regulatory efficiency through partnering opportunities provided by the Appalachian Illinois Basin Directors. (4) Promote the development and implementation of risk-based environmental regulation at the state level through an expertise-sharing program that brings stakeholders together to develop guidelines and models to meet regulatory challenges. (5) Support the IOGCC's regulatory streamlining efforts, including the identification and elimination of unnecessary duplications of effort between state and federal programs dealing with exploration and production on public lands, and identify the need to enhance and regionalize regulatory coordination and cooperation among the states. (6) Involve states and provinces of Canada that have offshore petroleum exploration and production in a regulatory sharing alliance to identify areas of concern that may be incorporated into standard practices for offshore environmental and regulatory compliance. (7) Coordinate efforts with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to ensure that adequate information is available to the public

  3. Pooling ASR data for closely related languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe several experiments that were conducted to assess the viability of data pooling as a means to improve speech-recognition performance for under-resourced languages. Two groups of closely related languages from the Southern Bantu language...

  4. Sexual disclosures: connections to relational satisfaction and closeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffelt, Tina A; Hess, Jon A

    2014-01-01

    This study examines sexual communication by describing the content of sexual disclosures within marital relationships and assessing the association between sexual disclosures and relational outcomes, specifically relational satisfaction and closeness. A survey administered to 293 married individuals (58% female) who had an average age of 40 years (range = 20-73), 13.7 years of marriage (range = 1 month to 54 years), and who reported high levels of relational satisfaction assessed the relation between the content of sexual disclosures and satisfaction and closeness. While sexual disclosures are made infrequently, positive affect and sexual preferences are disclosed more than negative topics and disclosing sexual information is positively related to relationship satisfaction, rρ(280) =.26, p sexual information and relationship satisfaction and closeness, as reported by individuals experiencing relationship satisfaction.

  5. Social comparison orientation as related to two types of closeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Bosch, Zwenneke A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    Two studies examined the relationship between social comparison orientation (SCO) and two types of closeness (dimensional closeness and psychological closeness) in the context of appearance-related comparisons among women. A pilot study showed that these two types were relatively independent

  6. 12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.123 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Effective June 15...

  7. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.129 Section 225.129 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.129 Activities closely related to banking. Courier activities. The...

  8. Tonal bilingualism : the case of two closely related Chinese dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Junru

    2015-01-01

    Tonal bilinguals of two closely related Chinese dialects handle two tonal systems in their mind; their two vocabularies are from closely related dialects; and they write translation equivalents with common Chinese characters. Their unique language situation makes their mind special. This thesis inve

  9. Close pairs of relative equilibria for identical point vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Tobias; Aref, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Numerical solution of the classical problem of relative equilibria for identical point vortices on the unbounded plane reveals configurations that are very close to the analytically known, centered, symmetrically arranged, nested equilateral triangles. New numerical solutions of this kind are found...... also has this property, and new relative equilibria close to the nested, symmetrically arranged, regular heptagons have been found. The centered regular nonagon is also marginally stable. Again, a new family of close relative equilibria has been found. The closest relative equilibrium pairs occur...

  10. 46 CFR 308.533 - Closing report, Form MA-313.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closing report, Form MA-313. 308.533 Section 308.533 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.533 Closing report, Form...

  11. Competitive strategies differentiate closely related species of marine actinobacteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patin, Nastassia V; Duncan, Katherine R; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Jensen, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    ... to the functional traits and evolutionary processes that led to their divergence. Here we show that two closely related marine actinomycete species can be differentiated based on competitive strategies...

  12. Differentiation of closely related fungi by electronic nose analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlshøj, Kristian; Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2007-01-01

    In this work the potential of electronic nose analysis for differentiation of closely related fun has been described. A total of 20 isolates of the cheese-associated species Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti, P.nordicum, and Proqueford and its closely related species P paneum, P carneum...... as well as the noacheese ociated P. expansum have been investigated by electronic nose, GC-MS, and LGMS analysis. The isolates were inoculated on yeast extract sucroseagar in 20-mL headspace flasks and electronicnose analysis was performed daily for a-74period. To assess which volatile metabolites...... by high pressure liquid chromatography, coupled-to a diode array detector and a time of flight mass spectrometer. Several mycotoxins were detected in samples from the specles P.nordicum, P.roqueforti, P.paneum, P.carneum, and P.expansum. Differentiation of closely related mycotoxin producing fungi...

  13. Ulnar nerve palsy after closed forearm fracture: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Kucuk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Closed double bone forearm fractures are among the most common fractures of childhood. These fractures often heal without problems with closed reduction and casting. The leading complications are known as malunion and compartment syndrome. The reports about nerve injuries related with these fractures are very limited. We present an eight years old boy who admitted to our hospital with ulnar nerve palsy symptomps three months after his initial trauma. His initial trauma was a simple fall which caused radius and ulna fractures. Radiological assessment showed proper union of the fractures. We performed surgical exploration to the ulnar nerve. We found a trapped and damaged nerve in the fracture region. Even though the rate of complications about nerve injuries are extremely rare in forearm fractures, neurologic examinations should be performed before and after the reduction maneuvers. Neurologic examination will be not only a guide for fracture management but also an important point for medicolegal problems. [Hand Microsurg 2012; 1(1.000: 30-32

  14. Comparative Genomics via Wavelet Analysis for Closely Related Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuzhou Song

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative genomics has been a valuable method for extracting and extrapolating genome information among closely related bacteria. The efficiency of the traditional methods is extremely influenced by the software method used. To overcome the problem here, we propose using wavelet analysis to perform comparative genomics. First, global comparison using wavelet analysis gives the difference at a quantitative level. Then local comparison using keto-excess or purine-excess plots shows precise positions of inversions, translocations, and horizontally transferred DNA fragments. We firstly found that the level of energy spectra difference is related to the similarity of bacteria strains; it could be a quantitative index to describe the similarities of genomes. The strategy is described in detail by comparisons of closely related strains: S.typhi CT18, S.typhi Ty2, S.typhimurium LT2, H.pylori 26695, and H.pylori J99.

  15. Comparative Genomics via Wavelet Analysis for Closely Related Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiuzhou; Ware, Tony; Liu, Shu-Lin; Surette, M.

    2004-12-01

    Comparative genomics has been a valuable method for extracting and extrapolating genome information among closely related bacteria. The efficiency of the traditional methods is extremely influenced by the software method used. To overcome the problem here, we propose using wavelet analysis to perform comparative genomics. First, global comparison using wavelet analysis gives the difference at a quantitative level. Then local comparison using keto-excess or purine-excess plots shows precise positions of inversions, translocations, and horizontally transferred DNA fragments. We firstly found that the level of energy spectra difference is related to the similarity of bacteria strains; it could be a quantitative index to describe the similarities of genomes. The strategy is described in detail by comparisons of closely related strains: S.typhi CT18, S.typhi Ty2, S.typhimurium LT2, H.pylori 26695, and H.pylori J99.

  16. School Counselors: Closing Achievement Gaps and Writing Results Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartline, Julie; Cobia, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Charged with closing the achievement gap for marginalized students, school counselors need to be able to identify gaps, develop interventions, evaluate effectiveness, and share results. This study examined 100 summary results reports submitted by school counselors after having received four days of training on the ASCA National Model. Findings…

  17. Rations of Closely Related Elements in Soil and Their Inplications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XINGGUANG-XI; HOUWEN-HUA; 等

    1991-01-01

    This paper has investigated the ratios of closely related elements such as Mn,Cr,V,Ni,Co,Cu,Pb,Cd,Ba,Sr,La and Ce in the major soils of China,and the factors affecting them,and explored their use as indicators in soil formation,material transport and environmental pollution.Results show that the effect of soil-forming processes on the ratios of closely related elements varied with different elements,and became greater in the sequence of Ce/La grassland soils>desert soils and increasing gradually from the semi-arid subhumid zone soils>the temperate zone neutral soils>the north subtropic zone soils>tropical and subtropical acid soils.

  18. Extracted facial feature of racial closely related faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liewchavalit, Chalothorn; Akiba, Masakazu; Kanno, Tsuneo; Nagao, Tomoharu

    2010-02-01

    Human faces contain a lot of demographic information such as identity, gender, age, race and emotion. Human being can perceive these pieces of information and use it as an important clue in social interaction with other people. Race perception is considered the most delicacy and sensitive parts of face perception. There are many research concerning image-base race recognition, but most of them are focus on major race group such as Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid. This paper focuses on how people classify race of the racial closely related group. As a sample of racial closely related group, we choose Japanese and Thai face to represents difference between Northern and Southern Mongoloid. Three psychological experiment was performed to study the strategies of face perception on race classification. As a result of psychological experiment, it can be suggested that race perception is an ability that can be learn. Eyes and eyebrows are the most attention point and eyes is a significant factor in race perception. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to extract facial features of sample race group. Extracted race features of texture and shape were used to synthesize faces. As the result, it can be suggested that racial feature is rely on detailed texture rather than shape feature. This research is a indispensable important fundamental research on the race perception which are essential in the establishment of human-like race recognition system.

  19. MHC adaptive divergence between closely related and sympatric African cichlids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Blais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The haplochromine cichlid species assemblages of Lake Malawi and Victoria represent some of the most important study systems in evolutionary biology. Identifying adaptive divergence between closely-related species can provide important insights into the processes that may have contributed to these spectacular radiations. Here, we studied a pair of sympatric Lake Malawi species, Pseudotropheus fainzilberi and P. emmiltos, whose reproductive isolation depends on olfactory communication. We tested the hypothesis that these species have undergone divergent selection at MHC class II genes, which are known to contribute to olfactory-based mate choice in other taxa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Divergent selection on functional alleles was inferred from the higher genetic divergence at putative antigen binding sites (ABS amino acid sequences than at putatively neutrally evolving sites at intron 1, exon 2 synonymous sequences and exon 2 amino acid residues outside the putative ABS. In addition, sympatric populations of these fish species differed significantly in communities of eukaryotic parasites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that local host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics may have driven adaptive divergence in MHC alleles, influencing odor-mediated mate choice and leading to reproductive isolation. These results provide the first evidence for a novel mechanism of adaptive speciation and the first evidence of adaptive divergence at the MHC in closely related African cichlid fishes.

  20. eShadow: A tool for comparing closely related sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovcharenko, Ivan; Boffelli, Dario; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2004-01-15

    Primate sequence comparisons are difficult to interpret due to the high degree of sequence similarity shared between such closely related species. Recently, a novel method, phylogenetic shadowing, has been pioneered for predicting functional elements in the human genome through the analysis of multiple primate sequence alignments. We have expanded this theoretical approach to create a computational tool, eShadow, for the identification of elements under selective pressure in multiple sequence alignments of closely related genomes, such as in comparisons of human to primate or mouse to rat DNA. This tool integrates two different statistical methods and allows for the dynamic visualization of the resulting conservation profile. eShadow also includes a versatile optimization module capable of training the underlying Hidden Markov Model to differentially predict functional sequences. This module grants the tool high flexibility in the analysis of multiple sequence alignments and in comparing sequences with different divergence rates. Here, we describe the eShadow comparative tool and its potential uses for analyzing both multiple nucleotide and protein alignments to predict putative functional elements. The eShadow tool is publicly available at http://eshadow.dcode.org/

  1. Climate-induced range overlap among closely related species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosby, Meade; Wilsey, Chad B.; McGuire, Jenny L.; Duggan, Jennifer M.; Nogeire, Theresa M.; Heinrichs, Julie A.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary climate change is causing large shifts in biotic distributions, which has the potential to bring previously isolated, closely related species into contact. This has led to concern that hybridization and competition could threaten species persistence. Here, we use bioclimatic models to show that future range overlap by the end of the century is predicted for only 6.4% of isolated, congeneric species pairs of New World birds, mammals and amphibians. Projected rates of climate-induced overlap are higher for birds (11.6%) than for mammals (4.4%) or amphibians (3.6%). As many species will have difficulty tracking shifting climates, actual rates of future overlap are likely to be far lower, suggesting that hybridization and competition impacts may be relatively modest.

  2. Carbapenem resistance in a human clinical isolate identified to be closely related to Acinetobacter indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, Rémy A; Poirel, Laurent; van der Reijden, Tanny J K; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Lescat, Mathilde; Nordmann, Patrice

    2014-10-01

    Here we report a case of carbapenem resistance in a human clinical isolate that was found to be closely related to the newly described environmental species Acinetobacter indicus. This strain harboured the blaOXA-23 carbapenemase gene located on a conjugative plasmid. Partial sequencing of 16S rDNA and rpoB genes, together with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis, showed that this strain was distantly related to the Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex and was closely related to A. indicus.

  3. Detecting Horizontal Gene Transfer between Closely Related Taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Adato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the transfer of genetic material between organisms, is crucial for genetic innovation and the evolution of genome architecture. Existing HGT detection algorithms rely on a strong phylogenetic signal distinguishing the transferred sequence from ancestral (vertically derived genes in its recipient genome. Detecting HGT between closely related species or strains is challenging, as the phylogenetic signal is usually weak and the nucleotide composition is normally nearly identical. Nevertheless, there is a great importance in detecting HGT between congeneric species or strains, especially in clinical microbiology, where understanding the emergence of new virulent and drug-resistant strains is crucial, and often time-sensitive. We developed a novel, self-contained technique named Near HGT, based on the synteny index, to measure the divergence of a gene from its native genomic environment and used it to identify candidate HGT events between closely related strains. The method confirms candidate transferred genes based on the constant relative mutability (CRM. Using CRM, the algorithm assigns a confidence score based on "unusual" sequence divergence. A gene exhibiting exceptional deviations according to both synteny and mutability criteria, is considered a validated HGT product. We first employed the technique to a set of three E. coli strains and detected several highly probable horizontally acquired genes. We then compared the method to existing HGT detection tools using a larger strain data set. When combined with additional approaches our new algorithm provides richer picture and brings us closer to the goal of detecting all newly acquired genes in a particular strain.

  4. Competitive strategies differentiate closely related species of marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, Nastassia V; Duncan, Katherine R; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Jensen, Paul R

    2016-02-01

    Although competition, niche partitioning, and spatial isolation have been used to describe the ecology and evolution of macro-organisms, it is less clear to what extent these principles account for the extraordinary levels of bacterial diversity observed in nature. Ecological interactions among bacteria are particularly challenging to address due to methodological limitations and uncertainties over how to recognize fundamental units of diversity and link them to the functional traits and evolutionary processes that led to their divergence. Here we show that two closely related marine actinomycete species can be differentiated based on competitive strategies. Using a direct challenge assay to investigate inhibitory interactions with members of the bacterial community, we observed a temporal difference in the onset of inhibition. The majority of inhibitory activity exhibited by Salinispora arenicola occurred early in its growth cycle and was linked to antibiotic production. In contrast, most inhibition by Salinispora tropica occurred later in the growth cycle and was more commonly linked to nutrient depletion or other sources. Comparative genomics support these differences, with S. arenicola containing nearly twice the number of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters as S. tropica, indicating a greater potential for secondary metabolite production. In contrast, S. tropica is enriched in gene clusters associated with the acquisition of growth-limiting nutrients such as iron. Coupled with differences in growth rates, the results reveal that S. arenicola uses interference competition at the expense of growth, whereas S. tropica preferentially employs a strategy of exploitation competition. The results support the ecological divergence of two co-occurring and closely related species of marine bacteria by providing evidence they have evolved fundamentally different strategies to compete in marine sediments.

  5. Evolution of transcriptional regulation in closely related bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsoy Olga V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exponential growth of the number of fully sequenced genomes at varying taxonomic closeness allows one to characterize transcriptional regulation using comparative-genomics analysis instead of time-consuming experimental methods. A transcriptional regulatory unit consists of a transcription factor, its binding site and a regulated gene. These units constitute a graph which contains so-called “network motifs”, subgraphs of a given structure. Here we consider genomes of closely related Enterobacteriales and estimate the fraction of conserved network motifs and sites as well as positions under selection in various types of non-coding regions. Results Using a newly developed technique, we found that the highest fraction of positions under selection, approximately 50%, was observed in synvergon spacers (between consecutive genes from the same strand, followed by ~45% in divergon spacers (common 5’-regions, and ~10% in convergon spacers (common 3’-regions. The fraction of selected positions in functional regions was higher, 60% in transcription factor-binding sites and ~45% in terminators and promoters. Small, but significant differences were observed between Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. This fraction is similar to the one observed in eukaryotes. The conservation of binding sites demonstrated some differences between types of regulatory units. In E. coli, strains the interactions of the type “local transcriptional factor gene” turned out to be more conserved in feed-forward loops (FFLs compared to non-motif interactions. The coherent FFLs tend to be less conserved than the incoherent FFLs. A natural explanation is that the former imply functional redundancy. Conclusions A naïve hypothesis that FFL would be highly conserved turned out to be not entirely true: its conservation depends on its status in the transcriptional network and also from its usage. The fraction of positions under selection in

  6. Elucidation of operon structures across closely related bacterial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Zhou

    Full Text Available About half of the protein-coding genes in prokaryotic genomes are organized into operons to facilitate co-regulation during transcription. With the evolution of genomes, operon structures are undergoing changes which could coordinate diverse gene expression patterns in response to various stimuli during the life cycle of a bacterial cell. Here we developed a graph-based model to elucidate the diversity of operon structures across a set of closely related bacterial genomes. In the constructed graph, each node represents one orthologous gene group (OGG and a pair of nodes will be connected if any two genes, from the corresponding two OGGs respectively, are located in the same operon as immediate neighbors in any of the considered genomes. Through identifying the connected components in the above graph, we found that genes in a connected component are likely to be functionally related and these identified components tend to form treelike topology, such as paths and stars, corresponding to different biological mechanisms in transcriptional regulation as follows. Specifically, (i a path-structure component integrates genes encoding a protein complex, such as ribosome; and (ii a star-structure component not only groups related genes together, but also reflects the key functional roles of the central node of this component, such as the ABC transporter with a transporter permease and substrate-binding proteins surrounding it. Most interestingly, the genes from organisms with highly diverse living environments, i.e., biomass degraders and animal pathogens of clostridia in our study, can be clearly classified into different topological groups on some connected components.

  7. Elucidation of operon structures across closely related bacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Ma, Qin; Li, Guojun

    2014-01-01

    About half of the protein-coding genes in prokaryotic genomes are organized into operons to facilitate co-regulation during transcription. With the evolution of genomes, operon structures are undergoing changes which could coordinate diverse gene expression patterns in response to various stimuli during the life cycle of a bacterial cell. Here we developed a graph-based model to elucidate the diversity of operon structures across a set of closely related bacterial genomes. In the constructed graph, each node represents one orthologous gene group (OGG) and a pair of nodes will be connected if any two genes, from the corresponding two OGGs respectively, are located in the same operon as immediate neighbors in any of the considered genomes. Through identifying the connected components in the above graph, we found that genes in a connected component are likely to be functionally related and these identified components tend to form treelike topology, such as paths and stars, corresponding to different biological mechanisms in transcriptional regulation as follows. Specifically, (i) a path-structure component integrates genes encoding a protein complex, such as ribosome; and (ii) a star-structure component not only groups related genes together, but also reflects the key functional roles of the central node of this component, such as the ABC transporter with a transporter permease and substrate-binding proteins surrounding it. Most interestingly, the genes from organisms with highly diverse living environments, i.e., biomass degraders and animal pathogens of clostridia in our study, can be clearly classified into different topological groups on some connected components.

  8. Regulated aggregative multicellularity in a close unicellular relative of metazoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Irimia, Manuel; del Campo, Javier; Parra-Acero, Helena; Russ, Carsten; Nusbaum, Chad; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of metazoans from their unicellular ancestors was one of the most important events in the history of life. However, the cellular and genetic changes that ultimately led to the evolution of multicellularity are not known. In this study, we describe an aggregative multicellular stage in the protist Capsaspora owczarzaki, a close unicellular relative of metazoans. Remarkably, transition to the aggregative stage is associated with significant upregulation of orthologs of genes known to establish multicellularity and tissue architecture in metazoans. We further observe transitions in regulated alternative splicing during the C. owczarzaki life cycle, including the deployment of an exon network associated with signaling, a feature of splicing regulation so far only observed in metazoans. Our results reveal the existence of a highly regulated aggregative stage in C. owczarzaki and further suggest that features of aggregative behavior in an ancestral protist may had been co-opted to develop some multicellular properties currently seen in metazoans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01287.001 PMID:24368732

  9. Retrotranspositions in orthologous regions of closely related grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swigoňová Zuzana

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons are commonly occurring eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs. Among these, long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are the most abundant TEs and can comprise 50–90% of the genome in higher plants. By comparing the orthologous chromosomal regions of closely related species, the effects of TEs on the evolution of plant genomes can be studied in detail. Results Here, we compared the composition and organization of TEs within five orthologous chromosomal regions among three grass species: maize, sorghum, and rice. We identified a total of 132 full or fragmented LTR retrotransposons in these regions. As a percentage of the total cumulative sequence in each species, LTR retrotransposons occupy 45.1% of the maize, 21.1% of the rice, and 3.7% of the sorghum regions. The most common elements in the maize retrotransposon-rich regions are the copia-like retrotransposons with 39% and the gypsy-like retrotransposons with 37%. Using the contiguous sequence of the orthologous regions, we detected 108 retrotransposons with intact target duplication sites and both LTR termini. Here, we show that 74% of these elements inserted into their host genome less than 1 million years ago and that many retroelements expanded in size by the insertion of other sequences. These inserts were predominantly other retroelements, however, several of them were also fragmented genes. Unforeseen was the finding of intact genes embedded within LTR retrotransposons. Conclusion Although the abundance of retroelements between maize and rice is consistent with their different genome sizes of 2,364 and 389 Mb respectively, the content of retrotransposons in sorghum (790 Mb is surprisingly low. In all three species, retrotransposition is a very recent activity relative to their speciation. While it was known that genes re-insert into non-orthologous positions of plant genomes, they appear to re-insert also within retrotransposons, potentially

  10. Aliens on Earth. Are reports of close encounters correct?

    CERN Document Server

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Popular culture (movies, SF literature) and witness accounts of close encounters with extraterrestrials provide a rather bizarre image of Aliens behavior on Earth. It is far from stereotypes of human space exploration. The reported Aliens are not missions of diplomats, scientists nor even invasion fleets; typical encounters are with lone ETs (or small groups), and involve curious behavior: abductions and experiments (often of sexual nature), cattle mutilations, localized killing and mixing in human society using various methods. Standard scientific explanations of these social memes point to influence of cultural artifacts (movies, literature) on social imagination, projection of our fears and observations of human society, and, in severe cases, psychic disorder of the involved individuals. In this work we propose an alternate explanation, claiming that the memes might be the result of observations of actual behavior of true Aliens, who, visiting Earth behave in a way that is then reproduced by such memes. Th...

  11. The Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of B. cereus and B. Thuringiensis isolates closely related to Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, C S; Xie, G; Challacombe, J F; Altherr, M R; Bhotika, S S; Bruce, D; Campbell, C S; Campbell, M L; Chen, J; Chertkov, O; Cleland, C; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, M; Doggett, N A; Fawcett, J J; Glavina, T; Goodwin, L A; Hill, K K; Hitchcock, P; Jackson, P J; Keim, P; Kewalramani, A R; Longmire, J; Lucas, S; Malfatti, S; McMurry, K; Meincke, L J; Misra, M; Moseman, B L; Mundt, M; Munk, A C; Okinaka, R T; Parson-Quintana, B; Reilly, L P; Richardson, P; Robinson, D L; Rubin, E; Saunders, E; Tapia, R; Tesmer, J G; Thayer, N; Thompson, L S; Tice, H; Ticknor, L O; Wills, P L; Gilna, P; Brettin, T S

    2005-10-12

    The sequencing and analysis of two close relatives of Bacillus anthracis are reported. AFLP analysis of over 300 isolates of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis and B. anthracis identified two isolates as being very closely related to B. anthracis. One, a B. cereus, BcE33L, was isolated from a zebra carcass in Nambia; the second, a B. thuringiensis, 97-27, was isolated from a necrotic human wound. The B. cereus appears to be the closest anthracis relative sequenced to date. A core genome of over 3,900 genes was compiled for the Bacillus cereus group, including B anthracis. Comparative analysis of these two genomes with other members of the B. cereus group provides insight into the evolutionary relationships among these organisms. Evidence is presented that differential regulation modulates virulence, rather than simple acquisition of virulence factors. These genome sequences provide insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to the host range and virulence of this group of organisms.

  12. Ventricular Septal Defect Spontaneous Close Induced by Transcatheter: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qilian Xie; Jun Wang; Lei Gao; Zhen Wang; Milin Zhang; Kunshen Liu

    2007-01-01

    Congenital ventricular septal defect (VSD) spontaneous close induced by transcatheter treatment is rare and has not yet been reported.We report on one case of VSD spontaneous close induced by transcatheter treatment in a 10 years old girl.

  13. Significant divergence of sex-related non-coding RNA expression patterns among closely related species in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YongFei; LI Zheng; FAN QiChang; LONG ManYuan; ZHANG WenXia

    2007-01-01

    Whether or not non-coding RNA genes play a significant role in reproductive biology and evolution of sex determination systems is an important problem. We report identification of sex-related non-coding RNA (ncRNA) genes and an analysis of ncRNAs expression patterns among Drosophila species. We detected 12 candidate ncRNAs that are expressed in the gonads of D. melanogaster by an integrative approach of RT-PCR and computational analysis of sequence conservation across species. We experimentally analyzed these ncRNA gene transcripts in head, ovary and testis of closely related species D. simulans, D. yakuba, D. pseudoobscura and D. virilis. We observed that the occurrence and extent of expression of most ncRNA fragments among closely related species show significant divergence.

  14. 46 CFR 308.534 - Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA... § 308.534 Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A. The standard form of Certificate to be attached to the closing report, Form MA-313-A, may be obtained from the American War...

  15. Volatiles as Chemosystematic Markers for Distinguishing Closely Related Species within the Pinus mugo Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiński, Konrad; Bonikowski, Radosław; Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Chudzińska, Ewa; Maliński, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/MS analysis was used to identify the constituents of pine-needle volatiles differentiating three closely-related pine species within the Pinus mugo complex, i.e., P. uncinata Ramond ex DC., P. uliginosa G.E.Neumann ex Wimm., and P. mugo Turra. Moreover, chemosystematic markers were proposed for the three analyzed pine species. The major constituents of the pine-needle volatiles were α-pinene (28.4%) and bornyl acetate (10.8%) for P. uncinata, δ-car-3-ene (21.5%) and α-pinene (16.1%) for P. uliginosa, and α-pinene (20%) and δ-car-3-ene (18.1%) for P. mugo. This study is the first report on the application of the composition of pine-needle volatiles for the reliable identification of closely-related pine species within the Pinus mugo complex.

  16. SHARK a new concept in electrical machines. Closing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, E.; Omand Rasmussen, P.; Tataru Kjaer, A,M.

    2004-10-01

    The research is rooted in the effort to reduce the energy consumed by electric motors. This work explored the idea that the efficiency of a specific type of electric motor may be improved by replacing the usual cylindrical air gap by a non-linear air gap. This idea is not new, other reports addressing this subject having been published prior to this work. However, no systematic analysis has been reported previously. Previous publications tried to demonstrate that the concept could function. The commercial applicability of this concept, called SHARK, was not considered seriously, because of the assembly difficulties caused by the non-linear air gap. However, these problems may be overcome by recently reported technologies. Thus a detailed analysis of the effect of the SHARK air gap on the performance of electric motors became more interesting. The methodology of the study was aimed to provide an analysis tool for future SHARK air gap machines. A Switched Reluctance Machines was selected as vehicle for this study, due to its simple geometry. The study regarded the linear analysis and the Finite Element Analysis as the main tools capable of providing basic knowledge of the magnetic behaviour of various air gap shapes applied in SRM. Based on results obtained from these, an analytical model, describing the magnetisation characteristics of the SHARK SRM in the aligned and unaligned rotor positions, was proposed. The modelling principle was to adapt an existing model of the cylindrical air gap SRM to account for the influence of the SHARK profile in the air gap. The proposed model was used to generate families of characteristics showing the relative improvement in terms of converted energy of the SHARK SRM in comparison with a cylindrical air gap SRM having identical main dimensions. Calculations were verified by measurements on two machines having cylindrical and saw-toothed air gaps. In addition, the performance of an Induction Motor and a brushless DC motor were

  17. A Close Examination of Jo Boaler's Railside Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Clopton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jo Boaler, an Associate Professor at the Stanford School of Education has just published an already well known study of three high schools that she called Hillside, Greendale, and Railside. This study makes extremely strong claims for discovery style instruction in mathematics, and consequently has the potential to affect instruction and curriculum throughout the country.As is the case with much education research of this nature, Prof. Boaler has refused to divulge the identities of the schools to qualified researchers. Consequently, it would normally be impossible to independently check her work. However, in this case, the names of the schools were determined and a close examination of the actual outcomes in these schools shows that Prof. Boaler’s claims are grossly exaggerated and do not translate into success for her treatment students. We give the details in the following article.Other papers where the researchers have refused to divulge such details as the names of the schools to qualified researchers have affected and continue to affect education policy decisions at the school, state and even national levels. Among these papers are Standards, Assessments – and What Else? The Essential Elements of Standards-Based School Improvement, D. Briars - L. Resnick, CRESST Technical Report 528, (2000 which has been cited repeatedly as justification for the adoption of Everyday Mathematics in school districts throughout the country, and The impact of two standards-based mathematics curricula on student achievement in Massachusetts. D. Perda, P. Noyce, J. Riordan, J. for Research in Mathematics Education, 32(2001, p. 368-398. which has been used to justify the adoption of the mathematics program “Investigations,” developed by TERC. It is worth noting that currently about 19% of U.S. elementary students use Everyday Mathematics and between 6% and 9% use Investigations, including many of our inner city schools.If we are to reverse the woeful

  18. Closing in on chemical bonds by opening up relativity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Cynthia K

    2008-03-01

    This paper develops a connection between the phenomenology of chemical bonding and the theory of relativity. Empirical correlations between electron numbers in atoms and chemical bond stabilities in molecules are first reviewed and extended. Quantitative chemical bond strengths are then related to ionization potentials in elements. Striking patterns in ionization potentials are revealed when the data are viewed in an element-independent way, where element-specific details are removed via an appropriate scaling law. The scale factor involved is not explained by quantum mechanics; it is revealed only when one goes back further, to the development of Einstein's special relativity theory.

  19. Tão longe, tão perto: escrita de si em relatórios de viagens So far, so close: writings about oneself in travel reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Chrystina Venancio Mignot

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Explorar os sentidos de um tom autobiográfico inscrito em relatórios de viagens empreendidas por três professores que integravam a primeira missão oficial de educadores que visitaria o continente europeu, no alvorecer da República, com a finalidade de estudar o sistema educacional de vários países, é o horizonte deste texto. Tais experiências compunham as preocupações com as melhorias na instrução pública no país, em que as viagens para conhecer e estudar o outro, divulgadas e defendidas pela Revista Pedagógica, publicação do Pedagogium, revertiam-se em diferentes modos de intervir e propor mudanças na educação no Brasil. Procura-se, nesta análise, em meio à escrita obrigatória e fadada à impessoalidade, mais do que impressões, conclusões e proposições sobre a organização escolar, a organização do magistério, o material didático, a arquitetura das escolas e os aspectos relativos à remuneração dos professores, mas, sobretudo, os traços da intimidade e dos modos de ver o mundo dos professores viajantes.This text explores the meanings and senses of autobiographical travel reports written by three professors, members of the first official educators' committee visiting Europe at the dawn of the Brazilian Republican regime. Their goal was to study the national education systems of several countries. This experience reflected concerns regarding the improvement of Brazilian public education. At that time, trips organized by the "Revista Pedagógica" (Pedagogic Magazine, published by "Pedagogium", were organized in order to study the "other", resulting in different ways of intervention and change proposals for the Brazilian educational system. The present work examines - through the mandatory impersonal writing style - more than mere impressions, conclusions and proposals for school organization, or the organization of teaching staff, school material, school architecture and aspects relating to teaching staff wages

  20. Use of Wild Relatives and Closely Related Species to Adapt Common Bean to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Kelly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important legume crop worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stress limits bean yields to <600 kg ha−1 in low-income countries. Current low yields result in food insecurity, while demands for increased yields to match the rate of population growth combined with the threat of climate change are significant. Novel and significant advances in genetic improvement using untapped genetic diversity available in crop wild relatives and closely related species must be further explored. A meeting was organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust to consider strategies for common bean improvement. This review resulted from that meeting and considers our current understanding of the genetic resources available for common bean improvement and the progress that has been achieved thus far through introgression of genetic diversity from wild relatives of common bean, and from closely related species, including: P. acutifolius, P. coccineus, P. costaricensis and P. dumosus. Newly developed genomic tools and their potential applications are presented. A broad outline of research for use of these genetic resources for common bean improvement in a ten-year multi-disciplinary effort is presented.

  1. Centrin protein and genes in Trichomonas vaginalis and close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugerolle, G; Bricheux, G; Coffe, G

    2000-01-01

    Anti-centrin monoclonal antibodies 20H5 and 11B2 produced against Clamydomononas centrin decorated the group of basal bodies as well as very closely attached structures in all trichomonads studied and in the devescovinids Foaina and Devescovina. Moreover, these antibodies decorated the undulating membrane in Trichomonas vaginalis, Trichomitus batrachorum, and Tritrichomonas foetus, and the cresta in Foaina. Centrin was not demonstrated in the dividing spindle and paradesmosis. Immunogold labeling, both in pre- and post-embedding, confirmed that centrin is associated with the basal body cylinder and is a component of the nine anchoring arms between the terminal plate of flagellar bases and the plasma-membrane. Centrin is also associated with the hook-shaped fibers attached to basal bodies (F1, F3), the X-fiber, and along sigmoid fibers (F2) at the pelta-axostyle junction, which is the microtubule organizing center for pelta-axostyle microtubules. There was no labeling on the striated costa and parabasal fibers nor on microtubular pelta-axostyle, but the fibrous structure inside the undulating membrane was labeled in T. vaginalis. Two proteins of 22-20 kDa corresponding to the centrin molecular mass were recognized by immunoblotting using these antibodies in the three trichomonad species examined. By screening a T. vaginalis cDNA library with 20H5 antibody, two genes encoding identical protein sequences were found. The sequence comprises the 4 typical EF-hand Ca++-binding domains present in every known centrin. Trichomonad centrin is closer to the green algal cluster (70% identity) than to the yeast Cdc31 cluster (55% identity) or the Alveolata cluster (46% identity).

  2. Molecular relationships between closely related strains and species of nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M. H.; Wall, S. M.; Luehrsen, K. R.; Fox, G. E.; Hecht, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrophoretic comparisons have been made for 24 enzymes in the Bergerac and Bristol strains of Caenorhabditis elegans and the related species, Caenorhabditis briggsae. No variation was detected between the two strains of C. elegans. In contrast, the two species, C. elegans and C. briggsae exhibited electrophoretic differences in 22 of 24 enzymes. A consensus 5S rRNA sequence was determined for C. elegans and found to be identical to that from C. briggsae. By analogy with other species with relatively well established fossil records it can be inferred that the time of divergence between the two nematode species is probably in the tens of millions of years. The limited anatomical evolution during a time period in which proteins undergo extensive changes supports the hypothesis that anatomical evolution is not dependent on overall protein changes.

  3. Oviposition preferences for ethanol depend on spatial arrangement and differ dramatically among closely related Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumethasorn, Matt; Turner, Thomas L

    2016-11-15

    Recent work on the model fly Drosophila melanogaster has reported inconsistencies in their preference for laying eggs on intermediate concentrations of ethanol. In this study, we resolve this discrepancy by showing that this species strongly prefers ovipositing on ethanol when it is close to a non-ethanol substrate, but strongly avoids ethanol when options are farther apart. We also show fluidity of these behaviors among other Drosophila species: D. melanogaster is more responsive to ethanol than close relatives in that it prefers ethanol more than other species in the close-proximity case, but avoids ethanol more than other species in the distant case. In the close-proximity scenario, the more ethanol-tolerant species generally prefer ethanol more, with the exception of the island endemic D. santomea This species has the lowest tolerance in the clade, but behaves like D. melanogaster We speculate that this could be an adaptation to protect eggs from parasites or predators such as parasitoid wasps, as larvae migrate to non-toxic substrates after hatching. These natural differences among species are an excellent opportunity to study how genes and brains evolve to alter ethanol preferences, and provide an interesting model for genetic variation in preferences in other organisms, including humans.

  4. Language Adaptation for Extending Post-Editing Estimates for Closely Related Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rios Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an open-source toolkit for predicting human post-editing efforts for closely related languages. At the moment, training resources for the Quality Estimation task are available for very few language directions and domains. Available resources can be expanded on the assumption that MT errors and the amount of post-editing required to correct them are comparable across related languages, even if the feature frequencies differ. In this paper we report a toolkit for achieving language adaptation, which is based on learning new feature representation using transfer learning methods. In particular, we report performance of a method based on Self-Taught Learning which adapts the English-Spanish pair to produce Quality Estimation models for translation from English into Portuguese, Italian and other Romance languages using the publicly available Autodesk dataset.

  5. Ethical Challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence respect for human rights and respect for autonomy...... through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative researchs interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological...... interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must...

  6. Ethical challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth Oc

    2014-02-01

    Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Ehrlichia mineirensis, a Novel Organism Closely Related to Ehrlichia canis with a New Host Association

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Zweygarth, Erich; Broniszweska, Marzena; Passos,Lygia M.F.; Ribeiro,Múcio Flávio Barbosa; Manrique, Marina; Tobes,Raquel; de la Fuente, José

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequencing of Ehrlichia mineirensis, an Ehrlichia organism that was isolated from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus microplus–engorged females. E. mineirensis is the best characterized Ehrlichia isolate from a novel cattle-related clade closely related to the monocytotropic pathogen E. canis.

  8. Towards a more liveable life for close relatives of individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusner, Marie; Carlsson, Gunilla; Brunt, David; Nyström, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The life of close relatives of persons with bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with emotional distress, depression, and a high level of use of mental health care. Illness-related changes of their life situation endanger relationships, social life, finances, and occupational functioning. Understanding of facilitating conditions for close relatives is still a neglected research area. The aim of the present study thus was to explore what makes the life of close relatives of persons with BD more liveable. A lifeworld phenomenological approach was used. The findings reveal that keeping distance, having stability in everyday life, and strengthening equality through transparent communication are conditions that enable close relatives to influence the unpredictable and its consequences and thus make life more liveable. This implies contributions from close relatives, the person with BD, and the caring services. We propose that health-care support should not be divided in support for the patient and/or the close relatives but instead be designed as support for the 'patient and close relatives' as a unit. Professional caregivers need to take responsibility for creating intersubjective settings for the person with BD and their close relatives to share their needs and make joint plans for how to influence the illness-related life issues.

  9. LS1 Report: As one door closes, another opens

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony & Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Across the PS complex - from Linac 2 to TT2 to the accelerator itself - teams have seen the closing of their retro-1980s entryways, and the opening of state-of-the-art access points in compliance with the highest nuclear safety standards.   One of the new PS access points. The new PS access system provides more than just doors. Designed to protect against the radiation hazards and other risks caused by machine operation, the access system will monitor who goes into each zone, check whether or not the individual has the appropriate permissions to be entering, and even stop the beam if access is attempted during beam mode. "These new points provide automatic means to check that the right people are going in and in safe circumstances," says Pierre Ninin, project leader of the PS complex safety system. "All of these checks were previously done manually, so the burden on operators has been significantly reduced." The 19 new access points were successfully insta...

  10. 12 CFR 225.126 - Activities not closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities not closely related to banking. 225.126 Section 225.126 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.126 Activities not closely related to banking. Pursuant to...

  11. Fish and Wildlife report for the Closed Basin Division : San Luis Valley Project Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for the Closed Basin Division is a description of the project and the fish and wildlife resources associated with the project. The document also reports...

  12. New criteria for selecting the origin of DNA replication in Wolbachia and closely related bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldo Laura

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The annotated genomes of two closely related strains of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis have been reported without the identifications of the putative origin of replication (ori. Identifying the ori of these bacteria and related alpha-Proteobacteria as well as their patterns of sequence evolution will aid studies of cell replication and cell density, as well as the potential genetic manipulation of these widespread intracellular bacteria. Results Using features that have been previously experimentally verified in the alpha-Proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus, the origin of DNA replication (ori regions were identified in silico for Wolbachia strains and eleven other related bacteria belonging to Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia genera. These features include DnaA-, CtrA- and IHF-binding sites as well as the flanking genes in C. crescentus. The Wolbachia ori boundary genes were found to be hemE and COG1253 protein (CBS domain protein. Comparisons of the putative ori region among related Wolbachia strains showed higher conservation of bases within binding sites. Conclusion The sequences of the ori regions described here are only similar among closely related bacteria while fundamental characteristics like presence of DnaA and IHF binding sites as well as the boundary genes are more widely conserved. The relative paucity of CtrA binding sites in the ori regions, as well as the absence of key enzymes associated with DNA replication in the respective genomes, suggest that several of these obligate intracellular bacteria may have altered replication mechanisms. Based on these analyses, criteria are set forth for identifying the ori region in genome sequencing projects.

  13. Arterial blood pressure is closely related to ascites development in compensated HCV-related cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vilar Gomez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arterial blood pressure (BP is a reliable marker of circulatory dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. There are no prospective studies evaluating the association between different levels of arterial BP and ascites development in compensated cirrhotic patients. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between arterial BP and ascites development in compensated cirrhotic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 402 patients with compensated HCV-related cirrhosis were prospectively followed during 6 years to identify ascites development. At baseline, patients underwent systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (MAP measurements. Any history of arterial hypertension was also recorded. The occurrence of events such as bleeding, hepatocellular carcinoma, death and liver transplantation prior to ascites development were considered as competing risk events. RESULTS: Over a median of 156 weeks, ascites occurred in 54 patients (13%. At baseline, MAP was significantly lower in patients with ascites development (75.9 mm/Hg [95%CI, 70.3-84.3] than those without ascites (93.6 mm/Hg [95% CI: 86.6-102.3]. After adjusting for covariates, the 6-year cumulative incidence of ascites was 40% (95%CI, 34%-48% for patients with MAP<83.32 mm/Hg. In contrast, cumulative incidences of ascites were almost similar among patients with MAP values between 83.32 mm/Hg and 93.32 mm/Hg (7% [95% CI: 4%-12%], between 93.32 mm/Hg and 100.31 mm/Hg (5% [95% CI: 4%-11%] or higher than 100.31 mm/Hg (3% [95% CI: 1%-6%]. The MAP was an independent predictor of ascites development. CONCLUSIONS: The MAP is closely related to the development of ascites in compensated HCV-related cirrhosis. The risk of ascites development increases in 4.4 fold for subjects with MAP values <83.32 mm/Hg.

  14. A role of Bradyrhizobium elkanii and closely related strains in the degradation of methoxychlor in soil and surface water environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsuma, Koji; Masuda, Minoru; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We have reported that a leguminous bacterial strain, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain 17-4, isolated from river sediment, phylogenetically very close to Bradyrhizobium elkanii, degraded methoxychlor through O-demethylation and oxidative dechlorination. In the present investigation, we found that B. elkanii (USDA94), a standard species deposited in the Culture Collection, degraded methoxychlor. Furthermore, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain 4-1, also very close to B. elkanii, isolated from Japanese paddy field soil, degraded methoxychlor. These B. elkanii and closely related strains degraded methoxychlor through almost identical metabolic pathways, and cleaved the phenyl ring and mineralized. In contrast, another representative Bradyrhizobium species, B. japonicum (USDA110), did not degrade methoxychlor at all. Based on these findings, B. elkanii and closely related strains are likely to play an important role not only in providing the readily biodegradable substrates but also in completely degrading (mineralizing) methoxychlor by themselves in the soil and surface water environment.

  15. Relationship of Dyadic Closeness with Work-Related Stress: A Daily Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the…

  16. Relationship of Dyadic Closeness with Work-Related Stress: A Daily Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the…

  17. Closely related freshwater macrophyte species, Ceratophyllum demersum and em>C. submersum, differ in temperature response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    1. The importance of temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration in determining species distributions was compared in two closely related freshwater macrophytes, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum. The two species differed significantly in response to temperature in the short and...

  18. Studies on the closed-loop digital control of multi-modular reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.; Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.; Meyer, J.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1992-11-01

    This report describes the theoretical development and the evaluation via both experiment and simulation of digital methods for the closed-loop control of power, temperature, and steam generator level in multi-modular reactors. The major conclusion of the research reported here is that the technology is currently available to automate many aspects of the operation of multi-modular plants. This will in turn minimize the number of required personnel and thus contain both operating and personnel costs, allow each module to be operated at a different power level thereby staggering the times at which refuelings would be needed, and maintain the competitiveness of US industry relative to foreign vendors who are developing and applying advanced control concepts. The technology described in this report is appropriate to the proposed multi-modular reactor designs and to present-generation pressurized water reactors. Its extension to boiling water reactors is possible provided that the commitment is made to create a real-time model of a BWR. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to the United States Department of Energy (Division of Industry and University Programs, Contract No. DE-FG07-90ER12930.)

  19. Empathy and the expression and recognition of sarcasm by close relations or strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Patricia

    2003-08-01

    This study examined how relational type and empathy affect the use of sarcasm. We paired interviewers of high and low empathy with either an interviewee who was closely related or a stranger. Interviewers were given 10 questions to ask the interviewee, alternating sarcastic questions with sincere questions. Following each interview, participants completed questionnaires to assess their understanding of how sarcasm affected the interview. Relationship (closely related vs stranger) was a significant factor in recognition of sarcasm but not in its use. Empathy (high vs low) did not significantly affect the production or recognition of sarcasm.

  20. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in §...

  1. The effect of close relatives on unsupervised Bayesian clustering algorithms in population genetic structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramilo, Silvia T; Wang, Jinliang

    2012-09-01

    The inference of population genetic structures is essential in many research areas in population genetics, conservation biology and evolutionary biology. Recently, unsupervised Bayesian clustering algorithms have been developed to detect a hidden population structure from genotypic data, assuming among others that individuals taken from the population are unrelated. Under this assumption, markers in a sample taken from a subpopulation can be considered to be in Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. However, close relatives might be sampled from the same subpopulation, and consequently, might cause Hardy-Weinberg and linkage disequilibrium and thus bias a population genetic structure analysis. In this study, we used simulated and real data to investigate the impact of close relatives in a sample on Bayesian population structure analysis. We also showed that, when close relatives were identified by a pedigree reconstruction approach and removed, the accuracy of a population genetic structure analysis can be greatly improved. The results indicate that unsupervised Bayesian clustering algorithms cannot be used blindly to detect genetic structure in a sample with closely related individuals. Rather, when closely related individuals are suspected to be frequent in a sample, these individuals should be first identified and removed before conducting a population structure analysis.

  2. On Enumerating Frequent Closed Patterns with Key in Multi-relational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hirohisa; Honda, Yuya; Nagano, Shinya

    We study the problem of mining closed patterns in multi-relational databases. Garriga et al. (IJCAI'07) proposed an algorithm RelLCM2 for mining closed patterns (i.e., conjunctions of literals) in multi-relational data, which is an extension of LCM, an efficient enumeration algorithm for frequent closed itemsets mining proposed in the seminal paper by Uno et al. (DS'04). We assume that a database considered contains a special predicate called key (or target), which determines the entities of interest and what is to be counted. We introduce a notion of closed patterns with key (key-closedness for short), where variables in a pattern other than the one in a key predicate are considered to be existentially quantified, and they are linked to a given target object. We then define a closure operation (key-closure) for computing key-closed patterns, and show that the difference between the semantics of key-closed patterns and that of the closed patterns in RelLCM2 implies different properties of the closure operations; in particular, the uniqueness of closure does not hold for key-closure. Nevertheless, we show that we can enumerate key-closed patterns using the technique of ppc-extensions à la LCM, thereby making the enumeration possible without storage space for previously generated patterns. We also propose a literal order designed for mining key-closed patterns, which will require less search space. The correctness of our algorithm is shown, and its computational complexity is discussed. Some preliminary experimental results are also given.

  3. "Close Readings" of Internet Corporate Financial Reporting: Towards a More Critical Pedagogy on the Information Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amernic, Joel H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a curriculum strategy based upon a hierarchy of four close readings of corporate financial reporting Web sites (described as (1) objective characteristics, (2) internet financial reporting as rhetoric, (3) metaphor and thought, and (4) deconstruction) that is proffered as part of a curriculum objective to encourage university business…

  4. Differential regulation of two closely related integrative and conjugative elements from Streptococcus thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carraro Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    , ICESt3 and closely related ICEs, which we identified by analysis of recently sequenced genomes of firmicutes. This is the first report of a partial shutdown of the activity of an ICE executed by a strain belonging to its primary host species. The sharp increase of ICESt3 copy number suggests an induction of replication; such conditional intracellular replication may be common among ICEs.

  5. The Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of B. cereus and B.thuringiensis Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cliff S.; Xie, Gary; Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, MichaelR.; Smriti, B.; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, M.; Doggett, Norman A.; Fawcett, John J.; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Hill, Karen K.; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J.; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti,Stephanie; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J.; Misra, Monica; Moseman,Bernice L.; Mundt, Mark; Munk, A. Christine; Okinaka, Richard T.; Parson-Quintana, B.; Reilly, Lee P.; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, DonnaL.; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders, Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Wills, Patti L.; Gilna, Payl; Brettin, Thomas S.

    2005-08-18

    The sequencing and analysis of two close relatives of Bacillus anthracis are reported. AFLP analysis of over 300 isolates of B.cereus, B. thuringiensis and B. anthracis identified two isolates as being very closely related to B. anthracis. One, a B. cereus, BcE33L, was isolated from a zebra carcass in Nambia; the second, a B. thuringiensis, 97-27, was isolated from a necrotic human wound. The B. cereus appears to be the closest anthracis relative sequenced to date. A core genome of over 3,900 genes was compiled for the Bacillus cereus group, including Banthracis. Comparative analysis of these two genomes with other members of the B. cereus group provides insight into the evolutionary relationships among these organisms. Evidence is presented that differential regulation modulates virulence, rather than simple acquisition of virulence factors. These genome sequences provide insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to the host range and virulence of this group of organisms.

  6. Relatively recent evolution of pelage coloration in Colobinae: phylogeny and phylogeography of three closely related langur species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijin Liu

    Full Text Available To understand the evolutionary processes leading to the diversity of Asian colobines, we report here on a phylogenetic, phylogeographical and population genetic analysis of three closely related langurs, Trachypithecus francoisi, T. poliocephalus and T. leucocephalus, which are all characterized by different pelage coloration predominantly on the head and shoulders. Therefore, we sequenced a 395 bp long fragment of the mitochondrial control region from 178 T. francoisi, 54 T. leucocephalus and 19 T. poliocephalus individuals, representing all extant populations of these three species. We found 29 haplotypes in T. francoisi, 12 haplotypes in T. leucocephalus and three haplotypes in T. poliocephalus. T. leucocephalus and T. poliocephalus form monophyletic clades, which are both nested within T. francoisi, and diverged from T. francoisi recently, 0.46-0.27 (T. leucocephalus and 0.50-0.25 million years ago (T. poliocephalus. Thus, T. francoisi appears as a polyphyletic group, while T. leucocephalus and T. poliocephalus are most likely independent descendents of T. francoisi that are both physically separated from T. francoisi populations by rivers, open sea or larger habitat gaps. Since T. francoisi populations show no variability in pelage coloration, pelage coloration in T. leucocephalus and T. poliocephalus is most likely the result of new genetic mutations after the split from T. francoisi and not of the fixation of different characters derived from an ancestral polymorphism. This case study highlights that morphological changes for example in pelage coloration can occur in isolated populations in relatively short time periods and it provides a solid basis for studies in related species. Nevertheless, to fully understand the evolutionary history of these three langur species, nuclear loci should be investigated as well.

  7. Aspergillus oerlinghausenensis, a new mould species closely related to A. fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Jos; Weig, Michael; Groß, Uwe; Meijer, Martin; Bader, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Two isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Fumigati were recovered from German soil on itraconazole containing agar media. Phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic characterization of both isolates show that they represent a novel species named Aspergillus oerlinghausenensis (holotype CBS H-22119(HT), ex-type CBS 139183(T) = IBT 33878 = DTO 316-A3). The species is phylogenetically related to A. fischeri and A. fumigatus. Aspergillus oerlinghausenensis can be differentiated from A. fischeri by its higher growth rate at 50°C. Furthermore, A. oerlinghausenensis is protoheterothallic as only the MAT1-1 idiomorph was detected, while A. fischeri is homothallic. The species differs from A. fumigatus by a weak sporulation on malt extract agar at 25°C, a floccose colony texture on Czapek yeast extract agar and malt extract agar and subglobose instead of subclavate vesicles. The cyp51A promoter region of A. oerlinghausenensis deviates from the previously reported cyp51A promoter regions in A. fumigatus and potentially presents a novel azole resistance conferring modification. Due to the close relationship of A. oerlinghausenensis with A. fischeri and A. fumigatus, this species is placed in a good position for comparative studies involving these species.

  8. Close monitoring as a contextual stimulator : How need for structure affects the relation between close monitoring and work outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, Eric F.; Slijkhuis, Marjette; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we argue and demonstrate that employees' Personal Need for Structure (PNS) moderates the negative effects of close monitoring on job satisfaction, intrinsic work motivation, and innovative job performance (as rated by their supervisors). In a field study (N=295), we found that emplo

  9. Taxonomy and nomenclature of three closely related species of Eleocharis subgenus Limnochloa (Cyperaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, D.J.; Hatch, S.L.; Carter, R.

    2008-01-01

    A taxonomic synopsis and review of nomenclature is provided for Eleocharis cellulosa, E. mutata, and E. spiralis, three closely related species belonging to subgenus Limnochloa. One heterotypic synonym of E. mutata and the basionym and a heterotypic synonym of E. spiralis are lectotypified. The taxo

  10. Rule-based conversion of closely-related languages: a Dutch-to-Afrikaans convertor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Huyssteen, GB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For fast-tracking the development of resources for resource-scarce languages, one could transfer existing technologies from one language to another well-sourced, closely-related language. In this contribution, the authors describe the development...

  11. Relation between non uniform magnetic field and close binary systems period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zahedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  Magnetic activity of one or both components of close binary systems can cause orbital period variation of the systems.Variation in gravitational quadropole moment will change the orbital period of the systems. In this article, we suppose that magnetic field is poloidal-troidal according to dynamo theory, and finds its relation with period change in the systems.

  12. The Psychosocial Impact of Closed-Circuit Televisions on Persons with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica G.; Jutai, Jeffrey W.; Strong, J. Graham; Plotkin, Ann D.

    2008-01-01

    Closed-circuit televisions (CCTVs) are used by many elderly people who have age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The functional vision of 68 participants, which was measured immediately after they adopted CCTVs, suggested successful outcomes, but the psychosocial impact of the use of CCTVs did not peak until a month later. The findings help…

  13. Taxonomy and nomenclature of three closely related species of Eleocharis subgenus Limnochloa (Cyperaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, D.J.; Hatch, S.L.; Carter, R.

    2008-01-01

    A taxonomic synopsis and review of nomenclature is provided for Eleocharis cellulosa, E. mutata, and E. spiralis, three closely related species belonging to subgenus Limnochloa. One heterotypic synonym of E. mutata and the basionym and a heterotypic synonym of E. spiralis are lectotypified. The

  14. Doing Close-Relative Research: Sticking Points, Method and Ethical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degabriele Pace, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Doing insider research can raise many problematic issues, particularly if the insiders are also close relatives. This paper deals with complexities arising from research which is participatory in nature. Thus, this paper seeks to describe the various sticking points that were encountered by the researcher when she decided to embark on insider…

  15. Family Communication Patterns and Relational Maintenance Behavior: Direct and Mediated Associations with Friendship Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, both face-to-face and online relational maintenance behaviors were tested as mediators of family communication patterns and closeness with a same-sex friend. Participants included 417 young adults recruited from communication courses at a large university in the Midwestern United States. The obtained structural model demonstrated…

  16. Interspecific competition, predation, and the coexistence of three closely related neotropical armoured catfishes (Siluriformes - Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Tropical ecosystems are renowned for their high biodiversity with many closely related species living together. Alpha diversity of tropical freshwater fishes is also extremely high, as exemplified by the cichlid fauna of the Great African lakes and the neotropical characins. Since

  17. Interspecific competition, predation, and the coexistence of three closely related neotropical armoured catfishes (Siluriformes-Callichthyidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Tropical ecosystems are renowned for their high biodiversity with many closely related species living together. Alpha diversity of tropical freshwater fishes is also extremely high, as exemplified by the cichlid fauna of the Great African lakes and the neotropical characins. Since Hutchinson in 1959

  18. Closely related Wolbachia recovered from different genera of Mexican Thelytokous figitidae (Hymenoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closely related novel Wolbachia strains were recovered from the thelytokous figitids Odontosema anastrephae Borgmeier and Aganaspis alujai Ovruski et al. No Wolbachia were detected in a bi-sexual strain of O. anastrephae. While the presence or absence of Wolbachia does not demonstrate that Wolbachia...

  19. Mammary-type myofibroblastoma of soft tissue: a tumor closely related to spindle cell lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, M E; Fletcher, C D

    2001-08-01

    Mammary myofibroblastoma is a benign breast tumor, with a reported predilection for older men. It is composed of fascicles of spindle cells having features of myofibroblasts, with intervening hyalinized collagenous stroma and a variably prominent component of adipose tissue. The spindle cells characteristically express both CD34 and desmin. Herein, we report the clinicopathologic features of nine tumors that were morphologically and immunohistochemically identical to myofibroblastoma of breast; however, they arose in subcutaneous soft tissue at extramammary sites. The study group comprised seven men and two women with an age range of 35-67 years (median 53 years). Lesions presented as either a slowly growing painless mass or were incidental findings at the time of surgery. The site distribution was as follows: inguinal/groin area (five cases) and one case each in posterior vaginal wall, buttock, anterior abdominal wall, and mid-back. Tumor size ranged from 2 to 13 cm (median 6 cm), and all lesions were well circumscribed. Eight tumors had a component of adipose tissue (ranging from 10% to 60%), within which some variation in adipocyte size was often seen. One case showed epithelioid cytomorphology and three cases showed rare atypical or multinucleated cells. Focal myxoid stromal change was seen in four cases. Tumor cells were positive for desmin (9 of 9 cases), CD34 (8 of 9 cases), and occasionally positive for smooth muscle actin (3 of 9 cases). Lesions were marginally excised with no recurrences to date, although follow-up is very limited. Lesions with morphologic and immunophenotypic features similar to myofibroblastoma of breast can arise at extramammary sites, with an apparent predilection for the inguinal area of older men. Both mammary and extramammary lesions show morphologic overlap with spindle cell lipoma and are likely closely related.

  20. Identifying mutation regions for closely related individuals without a known pedigree

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Linkage analysis is the first step in the search for a disease gene. Linkage studies have facilitated the identification of several hundred human genes that can harbor mutations leading to a disease phenotype. In this paper, we study a very important case, where the sampled individuals are closely related, but the pedigree is not given. This situation happens very often when the individuals share a common ancestor 6 or more generations ago. To our knowledge, no algorithm can give good results for this case. Results To solve this problem, we first developed some heuristic algorithms for haplotype inference without any given pedigree. We propose a model using the parsimony principle that can be viewed as an extension of the model first proposed by Dan Gusfield. Our heuristic algorithm uses Clark’s inference rule to infer haplotype segments. Conclusions We ran our program both on the simulated data and a set of real data from the phase II HapMap database. Experiments show that our program performs well. The recall value is from 90% to 99% in various cases. This implies that the program can report more than 90% of the true mutation regions. The value of precision varies from 29% to 90%. When the precision is 29%, the size of the reported regions is three times that of the true mutation region. This is still very useful for narrowing down the range of the disease gene location. Our program can complete the computation for all the tested cases, where there are about 110,000 SNPs on a chromosome, within 20 seconds. PMID:22731852

  1. Angles-only relative navigation and closed-loop guidance for spacecraft proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianjun; Gong, Baichun; Yuan, Jianping; Zhang, Zhaofei

    2016-11-01

    This research investigates angles-only relative navigation and closed-loop guidance algorithm for spacecraft mid-range orbital proximity operations when the orbital maneuver allows for range observability. Emphasis and contribution are on developing angles-only relative navigation and guidance coupling algorithm in the context of Clohessy-Wiltshire and Tschauner-Hempel dynamics. Observability analysis of the relative state is done and the general mathematical expression of the observable condition is obtained. Coupling relationship between the angles-only relative navigation and the multi-pulse sliding guidance is discussed and its analytic expression is derived. A novel closed-loop guidance scheme is designed based on the coupling relationship and unscented kalman filter. Two-body Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to evaluate the validity and test the performance of the closed-loop system. The sensitivities of the navigation and guidance accuracy to the line-of-sight angles accuracy, initial separation and initial state uncertainties, number of pulses, and dynamics are presented and discussed.

  2. Comparative Landscape Genetics of Three Closely Related Sympatric Hesperid Butterflies with Diverging Ecological Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Jan O.; Balkenhol, Niko; Filz, Katharina J.; Habel, Jan C.; Rödder, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    To understand how landscape characteristics affect gene flow in species with diverging ecological traits, it is important to analyze taxonomically related sympatric species in the same landscape using identical methods. Here, we present such a comparative landscape genetic study involving three closely related Hesperid butterflies of the genus Thymelicus that represent a gradient of diverging ecological traits. We analyzed landscape effects on their gene flow by deriving inter-population connectivity estimates based on different species distribution models (SDMs), which were calculated from multiple landscape parameters. We then used SDM output maps to calculate circuit-theoretic connectivity estimates and statistically compared these estimates to actual genetic differentiation in each species. We based our inferences on two different analytical methods and two metrics of genetic differentiation. Results indicate that land use patterns influence population connectivity in the least mobile specialist T. acteon. In contrast, populations of the highly mobile generalist T. lineola were panmictic, lacking any landscape related effect on genetic differentiation. In the species with ecological traits in between those of the congeners, T. sylvestris, climate has a strong impact on inter-population connectivity. However, the relative importance of different landscape factors for connectivity varies when using different metrics of genetic differentiation in this species. Our results show that closely related species representing a gradient of ecological traits also show genetic structures and landscape genetic relationships that gradually change from a geographical macro- to micro-scale. Thus, the type and magnitude of landscape effects on gene flow can differ strongly even among closely related species inhabiting the same landscape, and depend on their relative degree of specialization. In addition, the use of different genetic differentiation metrics makes it possible to

  3. A hetero-micro-seeding strategy for readily crystallizing closely related protein variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad M; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2017-09-01

    Protein crystallization remains difficult to rationalize and screening for optimal crystallization conditions is a tedious and time consuming procedure. Here, we report a hetero-micro-seeding strategy for producing high resolution crystals of closely related protein variants, where micro crystals from a readily crystallized variant are used as seeds to develop crystals of other variants less amenable to crystallization. We applied this strategy to Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (BPTI) variants, which would not crystallize using standard crystallization practice. Out of six variants in our analysis, only one called BPTI-[5,55]A14G formed well behaving crystals; and the remaining five (A14GA38G, A14GA38V, A14GA38L, A14GA38I, and A14GA38K) could be crystallized only using micro-seeds from the BPTI-[5,55]A14G crystal. All hetero-seeded crystals diffracted at high resolution with minimum mosaicity, retaining the same space group and cell dimension. Moreover, hetero-micro-seeding did not introduce any biases into the mutant's structure toward the seed structure, as demonstrated by A14GA38I structures solved using micro-seeds from A14GA38G, A14GA38L and A14GA38I. Though hetero-micro-seeding is a simple and almost naïve strategy, this is the first direct demonstration of its workability. We believe that hetero-micro-seeding, which is contrasting with the popular idea that crystallization requires highly purified proteins, could contribute a new tool for rapidly solving protein structures in mutational analysis studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cooperativity and rapid evolution of cobound transcription factors in closely related mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefflova, Klara; Thybert, David; Wilson, Michael D; Streeter, Ian; Aleksic, Jelena; Karagianni, Panagiota; Brazma, Alvis; Adams, David J; Talianidis, Iannis; Marioni, John C; Flicek, Paul; Odom, Duncan T

    2013-08-01

    To mechanistically characterize the microevolutionary processes active in altering transcription factor (TF) binding among closely related mammals, we compared the genome-wide binding of three tissue-specific TFs that control liver gene expression in six rodents. Despite an overall fast turnover of TF binding locations between species, we identified thousands of TF regions of highly constrained TF binding intensity. Although individual mutations in bound sequence motifs can influence TF binding, most binding differences occur in the absence of nearby sequence variations. Instead, combinatorial binding was found to be significant for genetic and evolutionary stability; cobound TFs tend to disappear in concert and were sensitive to genetic knockout of partner TFs. The large, qualitative differences in genomic regions bound between closely related mammals, when contrasted with the smaller, quantitative TF binding differences among Drosophila species, illustrate how genome structure and population genetics together shape regulatory evolution.

  5. Usefulness of cpDNA markers for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses of closely related cactus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatelli, I A S; Zappi, D C; Taylor, N P; Moraes, E M

    2013-02-28

    Although plastid DNA has been widely explored as a marker of choice for phylogeny and phylogeography studies, little is known about its utility for examining relationships between closely related species. The slow evolutionary rates inherent to chloroplast (cp) DNA make it difficult to perform lower level taxonomic analyses, particularly at the population level. We characterized the nucleotide variation and investigated the utility of eight noncoding cpDNA regions in four closely related species of the Pilosocereus aurisetus group (Cactaceae), an endemic taxon of eastern South America. The plastid intergenic spacers 5'-trnS-trnG, 3'-trnS-trnG and trnT-trnL were the most variable regions and were the most useful for lower level taxonomic comparisons, especially when used together. We conclude that an adequate combination of regions alongside indels as an additional character improves the usefulness of cpDNA for phylogenetic studies.

  6. Cooperativity and Rapid Evolution of Cobound Transcription Factors in Closely Related Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Stefflova, Klara,; Thybert, David; Wilson, Michael D.; Streeter, Ian; Aleksic, Jelena; Karagianni, Panagiota; Brazma, Alvis; Adams, David J.; Talianidis, Iannis; Marioni, John C.; Flicek, Paul; Odom, Duncan T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary To mechanistically characterize the microevolutionary processes active in altering transcription factor (TF) binding among closely related mammals, we compared the genome-wide binding of three tissue-specific TFs that control liver gene expression in six rodents. Despite an overall fast turnover of TF binding locations between species, we identified thousands of TF regions of highly constrained TF binding intensity. Although individual mutations in bound sequence motifs can influence ...

  7. Algal culture studies related to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Fernandez, E.; Ollinger, O.; Howell, C.; Venables, A.; Huggins, D.; Gladue, R.

    1984-01-01

    In many respects, algae would be the ideal plant component for a biologically based controlled life support system, since they are eminently suited to the closely coupled functions of atmosphere regeneration and food production. Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina platensis were grown in three continuous culture apparatuses. Culture vessels their operation and relative merits are described. Both light and nitrogen utilization efficiency are examined. Long term culture issues are detailed and a discussion of a plasmid search in Spirulina is included.

  8. Identification of a cysteine protease closely related to interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheu, C; Blanchet, A M; Collard-Dutilleul, V; Lalanne, J L; Diu-Hercend, A

    1996-02-15

    The present study describes the identification and molecular cloning of a new member of the interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE) family denoted transcript Y (TY). TY is very closely related to both ICE (51% amino acid identity) and a protein named transcript X (TX) (75% amino acid identity) that we recently identified [Faucheu, C., Diu, A., Chan, A.W.E., Blanchet, A.-M., Miossec, C., Hervé, F.,Collard-Dutilleul, V., Gu, Y., Aldape, R., Lippke, J., Rocher, C., Su, M.S.-S., Livingston, D.J., Hercend, T. & Lalanne, J.-L. (1995) EMBO J. 14, 1914-1922]. The amino acids that are implicated in both the ICE catalytic site and in the PI aspartate-binding pocket are conserved in TY. Within the ICE gene family, TY belongs to a subfamily of proteins closely related to the prototype ICE protein. Using transfection experiments into mammalian cells, we demonstrate that TY has protease activity on its own precursor and that this activity is dependent on the presence of a cysteine residue at position 245. However, despite the close similarity between TY and ICE active sites, TY fails to process the interleukin-1 beta precursor. In addition, as already observed for ICE and TX, TY is able to induce apoptosis when overexpressed in COS cells. TY therefore represents a new member of the growing family of apoptosis-inducing ICE-related cysteine proteases.

  9. Perspectives of patients, close relatives, nurses, and physicians on end-of-life medication management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Marianne K; Geijteman, Eric C T; Dekkers, Wim J M; Huisman, Bregje A A; Perez, Roberto S G M; van Zuylen, Lia; van der Heide, Agnes; van Leeuwen, Evert

    2017-08-14

    Our aim was to gain insight into the perspectives of patients, close relatives, nurses, and physicians on medication management for patients with a life expectancy of less than 3 months. We conducted an empirical multicenter study with a qualitative approach, including in-depth interviews with patients, relatives, nurses, specialists, and general practitioners (GPs). We used the constant comparative method and ATLAS.ti (v. 7.1) software for our analysis. Saturation occurred after 18 patient cases (76 interviews). Some 5 themes covering 18 categories were identified: (1) priorities in end-of-life care, such as symptom management and maintaining hope; (2) appropriate medication use, with attention to unnecessary medication and deprescription barriers; (3) roles in decision making, including physicians in the lead, relatives' advocacy, and pharmacists as suppliers; (4) organization and communication (e.g., transparency of tasks and end-of-life conversations); and (5) prerequisites about professional competence, accessibility and quality of medical records, and financial awareness. Patients, relatives, nurses, specialists, and GPs varied in their opinions about these themes. This study adds to our in-depth understanding of the complex practice of end-of-life medication management. It provides knowledge about the diversity of the perspectives of patients, close relatives, nurses, and physicians regarding beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, skills, behavior, work setting, the health system, and cultural factors related to the matter. Our results might help to draw an interdisciplinary end-of-life medication management guide aimed at stimulating a multidisciplinary and patient-centered pharmacotherapeutic care approach.

  10. Relational mobility explains between- and within-culture differences in self-disclosure to close friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Joanna; Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William

    2010-10-01

    In the current research, we tested a novel explanation for previously demonstrated findings that East Asians disclose less personal information to other people than do Westerners. We propose that both between- and within-culture differences in self-disclosure to close friends may be explained by the construct of relational mobility, the general degree to which individuals in a society have opportunities to form new relationships and terminate old ones. In Study 1, we found that cross-cultural differences (Japan vs. United States) in self-disclosure to a close friend were mediated by individuals' perceptions of relational mobility. In Study 2, two separate measures of relational mobility predicted self-disclosure within a single culture (Japan), and this relationship was mediated by the motivation to engage in self-disclosure to strengthen personal relationships. We conclude that societies and social contexts higher in relational mobility (in which relationships can be formed and dissolved relatively easily) produce stronger incentives for self-disclosure as a social-commitment device.

  11. Power, attraction, and reference in macrolevel social relations: An analysis of closed groups and closed societies based on the psychology of the “Soviet person”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radina Nadezhda K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the features of social-relationship systems are analyzed based on the data from a sociopsychological empirical study conducted in two stages (2002 and 2014 on a large sample with the help of g. Kelly’s Repertory grid Technique. A. V. Petrovsky’s three-factor interpersonal-relationships model as interpreted for closed groups by M. Yu. Kondratev and the concept of the closed society as described by Karl Popper provide the foundation for the theoretical hypothesis we tested. The empirical data obtained in 2002 came from 391 participants of different ages who were living in provincial towns in the Nizhny Novgorod region. The elderly respondents (232 people had lived almost all their lives under the Soviet regime; the middle-aged respondents (159 people got their education and started their careers in the USSR. Soviet society is considered to be closed because of its authoritarian and collectivist nature, static social structure, and dogmatic ideology. It is argued that both closed societies and closed groups are characterized by a rigid hierarchical social structure, isolation from other systems, and depersonalization of social relations. We have proved that members of a closed group and citizens of a closed society have similar social-relationship matrices.

  12. SELECTION OF PHYLOGENETICALLY CLOSELY-RELATED YERSINIA PESTIS STRAINS DIFFERING IN THEIR VIRULENCE FOR GUINEA PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Anisimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic, transcriptome or (and proteomic comparison of closely related virulent and avirulent microbial strains underlies the search for new pathogenicity factors, potential molecular targets for etiotropic therapy, vaccine prevention and immunotherapy of infectious diseases. This investigation was aimed in testing the ability of method of testicular animalization to select phylogenetically close pairs of Y. pestis strains, which dramatically differ in their pathogenicity for guinea pigs, from the populations of as a rule subcutaneously avirulent for guinea pigs “vole” strains of the plague pathogen. Animalization of Y. pestis cultures were performed on guinea pig males by fourfold testicular passage with reducing infective dose. There was no correlation between the ability to cause generalized infectious process (death after testicular and subcutaneous infection of guinea pigs, but testicular passages made it possible to enrich bacterial culture with a portion of microbes displaying high virulence after subcutaneous infection of this animal species. The methodical approach under study can be successfully applied for selection of pairs of phylogenetically closely related bacterial strains, dramatically differing in their degrees of selective virulence. 

  13. Origins and close relatives of a semi-domesticated neotropical fruit tree: Chrysophyllum cainito (Sapotaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jennifer J; Parker, Ingrid M; Potter, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Understanding patterns and processes associated with domestication has implications for crop development and agricultural biodiversity conservation. Semi-domesticated crops provide excellent opportunities to examine the interplay of natural and anthropogenic influences on plant evolution. The domestication process has not been thoroughly examined in many tropical perennial crop species. Chrysophyllum cainito (Sapotaceae), the star apple or caimito, is a semi-domesticated species widely cultivated for its edible fruits. It is known to be native to the neotropics, but the precise geographic origins of wild and cultivated forms are unresolved. We used nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences to infer phylogenetic relationships among C. cainito and close relatives (section Chrysophyllum). We employed phylogeographic approaches using ITS and plastid sequence data to determine geographic origins and center(s) of domestication of caimito. ITS data suggest a close relationship between C. cainito and C. argenteum. Plastid haplotype networks reveal several haplotypes unique to individual taxa but fail to resolve distinct lineages for either C. cainito or C. argenteum. Caimito populations from northern Mesoamerica and the Antilles exhibit a subset of the genetic diversity found in southern Mesoamerica. In Panama, cultivated caimito retains high levels of the diversity seen in wild populations. Chrysophyllum cainito is most closely related to a clade containing Central and South American C. argenteum, including subsp. panamense. We hypothesize that caimito is native to southern Mesoamerica and was domesticated from multiple wild populations in Panama. Subsequent migration into northern Mesoamerica and the Antilles was mediated by human cultivation.

  14. Identifying the Best-Fitting Factor Structure of the Experience of Close Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Niclasen, Janni

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of cultural and sample differences in the assessment of attachment by examining the factor structure of the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R). The ECR-R is a self-report measure of adult roman- tic attachment dimensions....... The present study used a Danish sample with the purpose of addressing limitations in previous studies, such as the lack of diversity in cultural back- ground, restricted sample characteristics, and poorly fitting structure models. Participants consisted of 253 parents of children between the ages of 7 and 12...

  15. Closed Hearts, Closed Minds: The Textbook Story of Marriage. A Report to the Nation from the Council on Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.; Gallagher, Maggie; Blankenhorn, David, Ed.

    This report is a summary opinion of current undergraduate marriage and family textbooks. The report suggests some textbooks are deficient, erroneous, and distorted in information given about marriage. Subheadings include: (1)"Why Textbooks Matter"; (2) "The Textbook Story of Marriage"; (3) "The Dangerous Institution"; (4) "People Who Love Too…

  16. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čermáková, Z; Kořískta, M; Blahutová, Š; Dvořáčková, J; Brát, R; Valkovský, I; Hrdličková, R

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a severe life-threatening complication of blood transfusion, characterized by acute lung injury developing within 2-6 h of transfusion. However, TRALI is difficult to diagnose, and the initial report or suspicion of TRALI depends on close collaboration between clinical departments and transfusion centres. A total of 17 adverse post-transfusion reactions were reported to the Blood Centre of the University Hospital Ostrava as suspected TRALI between 2005 and 2010. We report two cases of serious TRALI with different pathogenetic mechanisms.

  17. Genome Annotation Transfer Utility (GATU: rapid annotation of viral genomes using a closely related reference genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upton Chris

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since DNA sequencing has become easier and cheaper, an increasing number of closely related viral genomes have been sequenced. However, many of these have been deposited in GenBank without annotations, severely limiting their value to researchers. While maintaining comprehensive genomic databases for a set of virus families at the Viral Bioinformatics Resource Center http://www.biovirus.org and Viral Bioinformatics – Canada http://www.virology.ca, we found that researchers were unnecessarily spending time annotating viral genomes that were close relatives of already annotated viruses. We have therefore designed and implemented a novel tool, Genome Annotation Transfer Utility (GATU, to transfer annotations from a previously annotated reference genome to a new target genome, thereby greatly reducing this laborious task. Results GATU transfers annotations from a reference genome to a closely related target genome, while still giving the user final control over which annotations should be included. GATU also detects open reading frames present in the target but not the reference genome and provides the user with a variety of bioinformatics tools to quickly determine if these ORFs should also be included in the annotation. After this process is complete, GATU saves the newly annotated genome as a GenBank, EMBL or XML-format file. The software is coded in Java and runs on a variety of computer platforms. Its user-friendly Graphical User Interface is specifically designed for users trained in the biological sciences. Conclusion GATU greatly simplifies the initial stages of genome annotation by using a closely related genome as a reference. It is not intended to be a gene prediction tool or a "complete" annotation system, but we have found that it significantly reduces the time required for annotation of genes and mature peptides as well as helping to standardize gene names between related organisms by transferring reference genome

  18. Genome Annotation Transfer Utility (GATU): rapid annotation of viral genomes using a closely related reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherepanov, Vasily; Ehlers, Angelika; Upton, Chris

    2006-06-13

    Since DNA sequencing has become easier and cheaper, an increasing number of closely related viral genomes have been sequenced. However, many of these have been deposited in GenBank without annotations, severely limiting their value to researchers. While maintaining comprehensive genomic databases for a set of virus families at the Viral Bioinformatics Resource Center http://www.biovirus.org and Viral Bioinformatics - Canada http://www.virology.ca, we found that researchers were unnecessarily spending time annotating viral genomes that were close relatives of already annotated viruses. We have therefore designed and implemented a novel tool, Genome Annotation Transfer Utility (GATU), to transfer annotations from a previously annotated reference genome to a new target genome, thereby greatly reducing this laborious task. GATU transfers annotations from a reference genome to a closely related target genome, while still giving the user final control over which annotations should be included. GATU also detects open reading frames present in the target but not the reference genome and provides the user with a variety of bioinformatics tools to quickly determine if these ORFs should also be included in the annotation. After this process is complete, GATU saves the newly annotated genome as a GenBank, EMBL or XML-format file. The software is coded in Java and runs on a variety of computer platforms. Its user-friendly Graphical User Interface is specifically designed for users trained in the biological sciences. GATU greatly simplifies the initial stages of genome annotation by using a closely related genome as a reference. It is not intended to be a gene prediction tool or a "complete" annotation system, but we have found that it significantly reduces the time required for annotation of genes and mature peptides as well as helping to standardize gene names between related organisms by transferring reference genome annotations to the target genome. The program is freely

  19. Phylogenomics Reveals Convergent Evolution of Lifestyles in Close Relatives of Animals and Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torruella, Guifré; de Mendoza, Alex; Grau-Bové, Xavier; Antó, Meritxell; Chaplin, Mark A; del Campo, Javier; Eme, Laura; Pérez-Cordón, Gregorio; Whipps, Christopher M; Nichols, Krista M; Paley, Richard; Roger, Andrew J; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Donachie, Stuart; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2015-09-21

    The Opisthokonta are a eukaryotic supergroup divided in two main lineages: animals and related protistan taxa, and fungi and their allies [1, 2]. There is a great diversity of lifestyles and morphologies among unicellular opisthokonts, from free-living phagotrophic flagellated bacterivores and filopodiated amoebas to cell-walled osmotrophic parasites and saprotrophs. However, these characteristics do not group into monophyletic assemblages, suggesting rampant convergent evolution within Opisthokonta. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a new phylogenomic dataset via sequencing 12 new strains of protists. Phylogenetic relationships among opisthokonts revealed independent origins of filopodiated amoebas in two lineages, one related to fungi and the other to animals. Moreover, we observed that specialized osmotrophic lifestyles evolved independently in fungi and protistan relatives of animals, indicating convergent evolution. We therefore analyzed the evolution of two key fungal characters in Opisthokonta, the flagellum and chitin synthases. Comparative analyses of the flagellar toolkit showed a previously unnoticed flagellar apparatus in two close relatives of animals, the filasterean Ministeria vibrans and Corallochytrium limacisporum. This implies that at least four different opisthokont lineages secondarily underwent flagellar simplification. Analysis of the evolutionary history of chitin synthases revealed significant expansions in both animals and fungi, and also in the Ichthyosporea and C. limacisporum, a group of cell-walled animal relatives. This indicates that the last opisthokont common ancestor had a complex toolkit of chitin synthases that was differentially retained in extant lineages. Thus, our data provide evidence for convergent evolution of specialized lifestyles in close relatives of animals and fungi from a generalist ancestor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative genomics and phylogenetic discordance of cultivated tomato and close wild relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R. Strickler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Studies of ancestry are difficult in the tomato because it crosses with many wild relatives and species in the tomato clade that have diverged very recently. As a result, the phylogeny in relation to its closest relatives remains uncertain. By using the coding sequence from Solanum lycopersicum, S. galapagense, S. pimpinellifolium, S. corneliomuelleri, and S. tuberosum and the genomic sequence from S. lycopersicum ‘Heinz’, an heirloom line, S. lycopersicum ‘Yellow Pear’, and two of cultivated tomato’s closest relatives, S. galapagense and S. pimpinellifolium, we have aimed to resolve the phylogenies of these closely related species as well as identify phylogenetic discordance in the reference cultivated tomato.Results. Divergence date estimates suggest that the divergence of S. lycopersicum, S. galapagense, and S. pimpinellifolium happened less than 0.5 MYA. Phylogenies based on 8,857 coding sequences support grouping of S. lycopersicum and S. galapagense, although two secondary trees are also highly represented. A total of 25 genes in our analysis had sites with evidence of positive selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage. Whole genome phylogenies showed that while incongruence is prevalent in genomic comparisons between these genotypes, likely as a result of introgression and incomplete lineage sorting, a primary phylogenetic history was strongly supported.Conclusions. Based on analysis of these genotypes, S. galapagense appears to be closely related to S. lycopersicum, suggesting they had a common ancestor prior to the arrival of an S. galapagense ancestor to the Galápagos Islands, but after divergence of the sequenced S. pimpinellifolium. Genes showing selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage may be important in domestication or selection occurring post-domestication. Further analysis of intraspecific data in these species will help to establish the evolutionary history of cultivated tomato. The use of an

  1. Comparative genomics and phylogenetic discordance of cultivated tomato and close wild relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombarely, Aureliano; Munkvold, Jesse D.; York, Thomas; Menda, Naama; Martin, Gregory B.; Mueller, Lukas A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Studies of ancestry are difficult in the tomato because it crosses with many wild relatives and species in the tomato clade that have diverged very recently. As a result, the phylogeny in relation to its closest relatives remains uncertain. By using the coding sequence from Solanum lycopersicum, S. galapagense, S. pimpinellifolium, S. corneliomuelleri, and S. tuberosum and the genomic sequence from S. lycopersicum ‘Heinz’, an heirloom line, S. lycopersicum ‘Yellow Pear’, and two of cultivated tomato’s closest relatives, S. galapagense and S. pimpinellifolium, we have aimed to resolve the phylogenies of these closely related species as well as identify phylogenetic discordance in the reference cultivated tomato. Results. Divergence date estimates suggest that the divergence of S. lycopersicum, S. galapagense, and S. pimpinellifolium happened less than 0.5 MYA. Phylogenies based on 8,857 coding sequences support grouping of S. lycopersicum and S. galapagense, although two secondary trees are also highly represented. A total of 25 genes in our analysis had sites with evidence of positive selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage. Whole genome phylogenies showed that while incongruence is prevalent in genomic comparisons between these genotypes, likely as a result of introgression and incomplete lineage sorting, a primary phylogenetic history was strongly supported. Conclusions. Based on analysis of these genotypes, S. galapagense appears to be closely related to S. lycopersicum, suggesting they had a common ancestor prior to the arrival of an S. galapagense ancestor to the Galápagos Islands, but after divergence of the sequenced S. pimpinellifolium. Genes showing selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage may be important in domestication or selection occurring post-domestication. Further analysis of intraspecific data in these species will help to establish the evolutionary history of cultivated tomato. The use of an heirloom line is helpful

  2. Comparative genomics and phylogenetic discordance of cultivated tomato and close wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Susan R; Bombarely, Aureliano; Munkvold, Jesse D; York, Thomas; Menda, Naama; Martin, Gregory B; Mueller, Lukas A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Studies of ancestry are difficult in the tomato because it crosses with many wild relatives and species in the tomato clade that have diverged very recently. As a result, the phylogeny in relation to its closest relatives remains uncertain. By using the coding sequence from Solanum lycopersicum, S. galapagense, S. pimpinellifolium, S. corneliomuelleri, and S. tuberosum and the genomic sequence from S. lycopersicum 'Heinz', an heirloom line, S. lycopersicum 'Yellow Pear', and two of cultivated tomato's closest relatives, S. galapagense and S. pimpinellifolium, we have aimed to resolve the phylogenies of these closely related species as well as identify phylogenetic discordance in the reference cultivated tomato. Results. Divergence date estimates suggest that the divergence of S. lycopersicum, S. galapagense, and S. pimpinellifolium happened less than 0.5 MYA. Phylogenies based on 8,857 coding sequences support grouping of S. lycopersicum and S. galapagense, although two secondary trees are also highly represented. A total of 25 genes in our analysis had sites with evidence of positive selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage. Whole genome phylogenies showed that while incongruence is prevalent in genomic comparisons between these genotypes, likely as a result of introgression and incomplete lineage sorting, a primary phylogenetic history was strongly supported. Conclusions. Based on analysis of these genotypes, S. galapagense appears to be closely related to S. lycopersicum, suggesting they had a common ancestor prior to the arrival of an S. galapagense ancestor to the Galápagos Islands, but after divergence of the sequenced S. pimpinellifolium. Genes showing selection along the S. lycopersicum lineage may be important in domestication or selection occurring post-domestication. Further analysis of intraspecific data in these species will help to establish the evolutionary history of cultivated tomato. The use of an heirloom line is helpful in

  3. Two closely related species of Caloplaca (Teloschistaceae, Lichenes from the Namib Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kärnefelt

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical and reproductive adaptations of two closely related lichen species.  Caloplaca elegantissima (Nyl. Zahlbr. and C. namibensis Karnef., sp. nov., occurring in the outer Namib fog desert, are discussed. Both species belong to the cmstose forms, frequently found in the remarkably rich lichen communities, which largely depend on fog precipitation for their water supply. Both species are endemic to the Namib Desert. They are mainly distributed in South West Africa/Namibia but also extend into south-western Angola. The asexual isidiate species.  C. namibensis Karnef., is described as new.

  4. Species tree estimation for the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and close relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E Blair

    Full Text Available To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based "supergene" approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred.

  5. Species Tree Estimation for the Late Blight Pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and Close Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jaime E.; Coffey, Michael D.; Martin, Frank N.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based “supergene” approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred. PMID:22615869

  6. RUGBY GAME-RELATED STATISTICS THAT DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN WINNING AND LOSING TEAMS IN IRB AND SUPER TWELVE CLOSE GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vaz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to identify the Rugby game- related statistics that discriminated between winning and losing teams in IRB and S12 close games. Archival data reported to game-related statistics from 120 IRB games and 204 Super Twelve games played between 2003 and 2006. Afterwards, a cluster analysis was conducted to establish, according to game final score differences, three different match groups. Only the close games group was selected for further analysis (IRB n = 64 under 15 points difference and Super Twelve n = 95 under 11 points difference. An analysis to the structure coefficients (SC obtained through a discriminant analysis allowed to identify the most powerful game-related statistics in discriminating between winning and losing teams. The discriminant functions were statistically significant for Super Twelve games (Chi-square = 33.8, p < 0.01, but not for IRB games (Chi- square = 9.4, p = n.s.. In the first case, winners and losers were discriminated by possessions kicked (SC = 0.48, tackles made (SC = 0.45, rucks and pass (SC = -0.40, passes completed (SC = 0. 39, mauls won (SC = -0.36, turnovers won (SC = -0.33, kicks to touch (SC = 0.32 and errors made (SC = -0.32. The minus sign denotes higher values in losing teams. Rugby game-related statistics were able to discriminate between winners and losers in Super Twelve close games and suggest that a kicking based game supported by an effective defensive structure is more likely to win matches than a possession based one

  7. Comparative genome analysis of the closely related Synechocystis strains PCC 6714 and PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Matthias; Klähn, Stephan; Pade, Nadin; Weingärtner, Christian; Hagemann, Martin; Voß, Björn; Hess, Wolfgang R

    2014-06-01

    Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is the most popular cyanobacterial model for prokaryotic photosynthesis and for metabolic engineering to produce biofuels. Genomic and transcriptomic comparisons between closely related bacteria are powerful approaches to infer insights into their metabolic potentials and regulatory networks. To enable a comparative approach, we generated the draft genome sequence of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714, a closely related strain of 6803 (16S rDNA identity 99.4%) that also is amenable to genetic manipulation. Both strains share 2838 protein-coding genes, leaving 845 unique genes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and 895 genes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714. The genetic differences include a prophage in the genome of strain 6714, a different composition of the pool of transposable elements, and a ∼ 40 kb genomic island encoding several glycosyltransferases and transport proteins. We verified several physiological differences that were predicted on the basis of the respective genome sequence. Strain 6714 exhibited a lower tolerance to Zn(2+) ions, associated with the lack of a corresponding export system and a lowered potential of salt acclimation due to the absence of a transport system for the re-uptake of the compatible solute glucosylglycerol. These new data will support the detailed comparative analyses of this important cyanobacterial group than has been possible thus far. Genome information for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714 has been deposited in Genbank (accession no AMZV01000000). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  8. Genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, B N

    2005-05-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species, Drosophila bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana has been investigated by using backcross analysis methods. The role of Y chromosome, major hybrid sterility (MHS) genes (genetic factors) and cytoplasm (non-genetic factor) have been studied in the hybrids of these three species. In the species pair, bipectinata--parabipectinata, Y chromosome introgression of parabipectinata in the genomic background of bipectinata and the reciprocal Y chromosome introgression were unsuccessful as all males in second backcross generation were sterile. Neither MHS genes nor cytoplasm was found important for sterility. This suggests the involvement of X-Y, X-autosomes or polygenic interactions in hybrid male sterility. In bipectinata--malerkotliana and parabipectinata--malerkotliana species pairs, Y chromosome substitution in reciprocal crosses did not affect male fertility. Backcross analyses also show no involvement of MHS genes or cytoplasm in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. Therefore, X- autosome interaction or polygenic interaction is supposed to be involved in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. These findings also provide evidence that even in closely related species, genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility may vary.

  9. Close relation between quantum interference in molecular conductance and diradical existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yuta; Hoffmann, Roald; Strange, Mikkel; Solomon, Gemma C

    2016-01-26

    An empirical observation of a relationship between a striking feature of electronic transmission through a π-system, destructive quantum interference (QI), on one hand, and the stability of diradicals on the other, leads to the proof of a general theorem that relates the two. Subject to a number of simplifying assumptions, in a π-electron system, QI occurs when electrodes are attached to those positions of an N-carbon atom N-electron closed-shell hydrocarbon where the matrix elements of the Green's function vanish. These zeros come in two types, which are called easy and hard. Suppose an N+2 atom, N+2 electron hydrocarbon is formed by substituting 2 CH2 groups at two atoms, where the electrodes were. Then, if a QI feature is associated with electrode attachment to the two atoms of the original N atom system, the resulting augmented N+2 molecule will be a diradical. If there is no QI feature, i.e., transmission of current is normal if electrodes are attached to the two atoms, the resulting hydrocarbon will not be a diradical but will have a classical closed-shell electronic structure. Moreover, where a diradical exists, the easy zero is associated with a nondisjoint diradical, and the hard zero is associated with a disjoint one. A related theorem is proven for deletion of two sites from a hydrocarbon.

  10. Do plant traits predict the competitive abilities of closely related species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lauren M; Gibson, David J; Young, Bryan G

    2015-12-31

    Invasive species are a threat to every ecosystem. There is a strong incentive to predict which species will become invasive before they become too widespread and unmanageable. Different approaches have been advocated to assess invasive species potential. These include examining plant functional traits, quantifying competitive ability and phylogenetic comparison. In this study, we conducted experiments based on the above approaches in a multi-year, temporally replicated, set of experiments to compare these assessment methods to determine the invasive potential of Japanese chaff flower (Achyranthes japonica). We compared plant traits and competitive ability of Japanese chaff flower with two agricultural invasive species, Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), and one endangered plant species, bloodleaf (Iresine rhizomatosa), in the Amaranthaceae. Additionally, we assessed the invasive potential based on each of these approaches and determined the degree of agreement between them. A relatively conservative assessment integrating all three approaches would be that the competitive ability of closely related individuals with similar functional traits would share invasive potential. In a greenhouse experiment, each of the study species and soya beans were grown as monocultures and were evaluated to assess the drawdown of an aboveground (light) and a belowground (nitrogen) resource. In a field experiment, each study species was grown at varying densities per 15-cm-diameter pot with or without one or two soya bean plants, to simulate relative densities for soya beans grown in 38- and 76-cm-wide row spacing, respectively. In addition, Japanese chaff flower seedlings were planted either as un-manipulated seedlings or as a seedling cut back to the soil surface at the four-node stage (cut Japanese chaff flower) at which point seedlings have reached a perennial growth stage. The greenhouse experiment showed that each species drew down

  11. Summary report: Working group 5 on {open_quotes}Particle Beam Sources{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, L. [INFN-Milano and UCLA Dept. of Physics and Astronomy 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Yeremian, A.D. [SLAC---Stanford, P.O. Box 4349, M/S 26, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    We report here on the activity carried in the working group on {open_quotes}Particle Beam Sources,{close_quotes} which was actually focused on electron beams and mostly covered the progress and future perspectives of laser driven RF photo-injectors. Recent experimental work on other types of electron sources were also presented: the pulsed power guns in our working group, while the plasma-based electron injectors in a joint session held with the working group on {open_quotes}Plasma-Based Accelerator Concepts.{close_quotes} Several beam dynamics issues of general interest in the field of high brightness beams production and manipulation have also been addressed by discussions and a number of communications in our working group. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. 46 CFR 308.535 - Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MA-313-B. 308.535 Section 308.535 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 308.535 Certificate to be attached to final closing report, Form MA-313-B. The Standard Form of Certificate, Form MA-313-B, shall be attached to the final closing report after cancellation of the...

  13. Isolation and characterisation of a ruminant alphaherpesvirus closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a free-ranging red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belák Sándor

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Varicellovirus of the Herpesviridae subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae includes a cluster of viruses antigenically and genetically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1: namely bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5, bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV-1, caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1, cervid herpesviruses 1 (CvHV-1 and 2 (CvHV-2 and elk herpesvirus 1 (ElkHV-1. Considering the serological relationship between these ruminant alphaherpesviruses, several surveys have studied the occurrence of BoHV-1 related virus infection in wild and domestic ruminant species. In this way, a recent investigation has indicated, in Belgium, a high increase in the serological prevalence of BoHV-1 related virus infection in free-ranging red deer population. In this context, it has been decided to investigate the presence of an alphaherpesvirus spreading in the Belgian free-ranging red deer population. Results The current study reports the first isolation in a free-ranging red deer of a BoHV-1 closely related virus. The isolate was antigenically, genomically and genetically characterised by comparison with several ruminant alphaherpesvirus. Immunofluorescence assays revealed the isolate was antigenically distinct from bovine and caprine alphaherpesviruses. Similarly, BamHI and BstEII restriction analyses demonstrated the genomic difference between the isolate and the other ruminant alphaherpesviruses. Next, the sequencing of selected parts of UL27 and US8 genes showed a high degree of homologies between each BoHV-1 related ruminant alphaherpesvirus and the isolate. Besides the close relationship between all ruminant alphaherpesviruses, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate clustered with CvHV-1. Conclusion The first isolation of a virus closely related to BoHV-1 in a free-ranging red deer is reported. Data demonstrate that a CvHV-1 strain, named Anlier, circulates in wild red deer in continental Europe. Anlier strain show consistent differences

  14. Closely related Campylobacter jejuni strains from different sources reveal a generalist rather than a specialist lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are human intestinal pathogens of global importance. Zoonotic transmission from livestock animals or animal-derived food is the likely cause for most of these infections. However, little is known about their general and host-specific mechanisms of colonization, or virulence and pathogenicity factors. In certain hosts, Campylobacter species colonize persistently and do not cause disease, while they cause acute intestinal disease in humans. Results Here, we investigate putative host-specificity using phenotypic characterization and genome-wide analysis of genetically closely related C. jejuni strains from different sources. A collection of 473 fresh Campylobacter isolates from Germany was assembled between 2006 and 2010 and characterized using MLST. A subset of closely related C. jejuni strains of the highly prevalent sequence type ST-21 was selected from different hosts and isolation sources. PCR typing of strain-variable genes provided evidence that some genes differed between these strains. Furthermore, phenotypic variation of these strains was tested using the following criteria: metabolic variation, protein expression patterns, and eukaryotic cell interaction. The results demonstrated remarkable phenotypic diversity within the ST-21 group, which however did not correlate with isolation source. Whole genome sequencing was performed for five ST-21 strains from chicken, human, bovine, and food sources, in order to gain insight into ST-21 genome diversity. The comparisons showed extensive genomic diversity, primarily due to recombination and gain of phage-related genes. By contrast, no genomic features associated with isolation source or host were identified. Conclusions The genome information and phenotypic data obtained in vitro and in a chicken infection model provided little evidence of fixed adaptation to a specific host. Instead, the dominant C. jejuni ST-21 appeared to be characterized by phenotypic

  15. Identification of a fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases closely related to tyrosine kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongtao Zhao

    Full Text Available Tyrosine kinases (TKs specifically catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins and play essential roles in many cellular processes. Although TKs mainly exist in animals, recent studies revealed that some organisms outside the Opisthokont clade also contain TKs. The fungi, as the sister group to animals, are thought to lack TKs. To better understand the origin and evolution of TKs, it is important to investigate if fungi have TK or TK-related genes. We therefore systematically identified possible TKs across the fungal kingdom by using the profile hidden Markov Models searches and phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirmed that fungi lack the orthologs of animal TKs. We identified a fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases (FslK that appears to be a sister group closely related to TKs. Sequence analysis revealed that members of the FslK clade contain all the conserved protein kinase sub-domains and thus are likely enzymatically active. However, they lack key amino acid residues that determine TK-specific activities, indicating that they are not true TKs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the last common ancestor of fungi may have possessed numerous members of FslK. The ancestral FslK genes were lost in Ascomycota and Ustilaginomycotina and Pucciniomycotina of Basidiomycota during evolution. Most of these ancestral genes, however, were retained and expanded in Agaricomycetes. The discovery of the fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases closely related to TKs helps shed light on the origin and evolution of TKs and also has potential implications for the importance of these kinases in mushroom fungi.

  16. Identification of a fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases closely related to tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongtao; Jin, Qiaojun; Xu, Jin-Rong; Liu, Huiquan

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases (TKs) specifically catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins and play essential roles in many cellular processes. Although TKs mainly exist in animals, recent studies revealed that some organisms outside the Opisthokont clade also contain TKs. The fungi, as the sister group to animals, are thought to lack TKs. To better understand the origin and evolution of TKs, it is important to investigate if fungi have TK or TK-related genes. We therefore systematically identified possible TKs across the fungal kingdom by using the profile hidden Markov Models searches and phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirmed that fungi lack the orthologs of animal TKs. We identified a fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases (FslK) that appears to be a sister group closely related to TKs. Sequence analysis revealed that members of the FslK clade contain all the conserved protein kinase sub-domains and thus are likely enzymatically active. However, they lack key amino acid residues that determine TK-specific activities, indicating that they are not true TKs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the last common ancestor of fungi may have possessed numerous members of FslK. The ancestral FslK genes were lost in Ascomycota and Ustilaginomycotina and Pucciniomycotina of Basidiomycota during evolution. Most of these ancestral genes, however, were retained and expanded in Agaricomycetes. The discovery of the fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases closely related to TKs helps shed light on the origin and evolution of TKs and also has potential implications for the importance of these kinases in mushroom fungi.

  17. Final Close-Out Report for DE-FG02-93ER40764

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulassy, Miklos [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-02-12

    This is a final close-out report for DOE contract DE-FG02-93ER40764 at Columbia University in New York that funded nuclear theory research at Columbia from 12/15/1992 to 12/14/2015. Highlight of research results from the last FY 2015 period, a list of all 12 PhD students trained through the whole grant, and a list of 201 original papers published from 1993-2015 with impact factor metrics are presented.

  18. Phylogenetic reconstruction and DNA barcoding for closely related pine moth species (Dendrolimus in China with multiple gene markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Yan Dai

    Full Text Available Unlike distinct species, closely related species offer a great challenge for phylogeny reconstruction and species identification with DNA barcoding due to their often overlapping genetic variation. We tested a sibling species group of pine moth pests in China with a standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene and two alternative internal transcribed spacer (ITS genes (ITS1 and ITS2. Five different phylogenetic/DNA barcoding analysis methods (Maximum likelihood (ML/Neighbor-joining (NJ, "best close match" (BCM, Minimum distance (MD, and BP-based method (BP, representing commonly used methodology (tree-based and non-tree based in the field, were applied to both single-gene and multiple-gene analyses. Our results demonstrated clear reciprocal species monophyly for three relatively distant related species, Dendrolimus superans, D. houi, D. kikuchii, as recovered by both single and multiple genes while the phylogenetic relationship of three closely related species, D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, could not be resolved with the traditional tree-building methods. Additionally, we find the standard COI barcode outperforms two nuclear ITS genes, whatever the methods used. On average, the COI barcode achieved a success rate of 94.10-97.40%, while ITS1 and ITS2 obtained a success rate of 64.70-81.60%, indicating ITS genes are less suitable for species identification in this case. We propose the use of an overall success rate of species identification that takes both sequencing success and assignation success into account, since species identification success rates with multiple-gene barcoding system were generally overestimated, especially by tree-based methods, where only successfully sequenced DNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Non-tree based methods, such as MD, BCM, and BP approaches, presented advantages over tree-based methods by reporting the overall success rates with statistical significance. In

  19. Phylogenetic reconstruction and DNA barcoding for closely related pine moth species (Dendrolimus) in China with multiple gene markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qing-Yan; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Chesters, Douglas; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Unlike distinct species, closely related species offer a great challenge for phylogeny reconstruction and species identification with DNA barcoding due to their often overlapping genetic variation. We tested a sibling species group of pine moth pests in China with a standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and two alternative internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes (ITS1 and ITS2). Five different phylogenetic/DNA barcoding analysis methods (Maximum likelihood (ML)/Neighbor-joining (NJ), "best close match" (BCM), Minimum distance (MD), and BP-based method (BP)), representing commonly used methodology (tree-based and non-tree based) in the field, were applied to both single-gene and multiple-gene analyses. Our results demonstrated clear reciprocal species monophyly for three relatively distant related species, Dendrolimus superans, D. houi, D. kikuchii, as recovered by both single and multiple genes while the phylogenetic relationship of three closely related species, D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, could not be resolved with the traditional tree-building methods. Additionally, we find the standard COI barcode outperforms two nuclear ITS genes, whatever the methods used. On average, the COI barcode achieved a success rate of 94.10-97.40%, while ITS1 and ITS2 obtained a success rate of 64.70-81.60%, indicating ITS genes are less suitable for species identification in this case. We propose the use of an overall success rate of species identification that takes both sequencing success and assignation success into account, since species identification success rates with multiple-gene barcoding system were generally overestimated, especially by tree-based methods, where only successfully sequenced DNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Non-tree based methods, such as MD, BCM, and BP approaches, presented advantages over tree-based methods by reporting the overall success rates with statistical significance. In addition, our

  20. A murine herpesvirus closely related to ubiquitous human herpesviruses causes T-cell depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Swapneel J; Zhao, Guoyan; Penna, Vinay R; Park, Eugene; Lauron, Elvin J; Harvey, Ian B; Beatty, Wandy L; Plougastel-Douglas, Beatrice; Poursine-Laurent, Jennifer; Fremont, Daved H; Wang, David; Yokoyama, Wayne M

    2017-02-08

    Mouse models of human herpesvirus infections The human roseoloviruses HHV6A, HHV6B, and HHV7 comprise the Roseolovirus genus of the human Betaherpesvirinae subfamily. Infections with these viruses have been implicated in many diseases; however, it has been challenging to establish infections with Roseoloviruses as direct drivers of pathology because they are nearly ubiquitous and display species-specific tropism. Furthermore, controlled study of infection has been hampered by the lack of experimental models, and until now, a mouse roseolovirus has not been identified. Herein we describe a virus that causes severe thymic necrosis in neonatal mice, characterized by a loss of CD4(+) T-cells. These phenotypes resemble those caused by the previously described mouse thymic virus (MTV), a putative herpesvirus that has not been molecularly characterized. By Next Generation sequencing of infected tissue homogenates, we assembled a contiguous 174Kb genome sequence encoding 128 unique predicted open reading frames (ORFs), many of which were most closely related to herpesvirus genes. Moreover, the structure of the virus genome and phylogenetic analysis of multiple genes strongly suggested that this virus is a betaherpesvirus more closely related to the roseoloviruses, HHV6A, HHV6B, and HHV7, than another murine betaherpesvirus, mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). As such, we have named this virus murine roseolovirus (MRV) because these data strongly suggest that MRV is a mouse homolog of HHV6A/HHV6B/HHV7.Importance: Herein we describe the complete genome sequence of a novel murine herpesvirus. By sequence and phylogenetic analyses, we show that it is a betaherpesvirus most closely related to the roseoloviruses, human herpesvirus 6A, 6B, and 7. These data combined with physiological similarities with human roseoloviruses collectively suggest that this virus is a murine roseolovirus (MRV), the first definitively described rodent roseolovirus, to our knowledge. Many biological and

  1. Separation of human, bovine, and porcine insulins, three very closely related proteins, by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamalle, Caroline; Roland, Diane; Crommen, Jacques; Servais, Anne-Catherine; Fillet, Marianne

    2015-10-01

    Human, bovine, and porcine insulins are small proteins with very closely related amino acid sequences, which makes their separation challenging. In this study, we took advantage of the high-resolution power of CE, and more particularly of micellar electrokinetic chromatography, to separate those biomolecules. Among several surfactants, perfluorooctanoic acid ammonium salt was selected. Then, using a design of experiments approach, the optimal BGE composition was found to consist of 50 mM ammonium acetate pH 9.0, 65 mM perfluorooctanoic acid ammonium salt, and 4% MeOH. The three insulins could be separated within 12 min with a satisfactory resolution. This method could be useful to detect possible counterfeit pharmaceutical formulations. Indeed, it would be easy to determine if human insulin was replaced by bovine or porcine insulin.

  2. TB-infected deer are more closely related than non-infected deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A; Scribner, Kim T; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Winterstein, Scott R

    2007-02-22

    Identifying mechanisms of pathogen transmission is critical to controlling disease. Social organization should influence contacts among individuals and thus the distribution and spread of disease within a population. Molecular genetic markers can be used to elucidate mechanisms of disease transmission in wildlife populations without undertaking detailed observational studies to determine probable contact rates. Estimates of genealogical relationships within a bovine tuberculosis-infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population indicated that infected deer were significantly more closely related than non-infected deer suggesting that contact within family groups was a significant mechanism of disease transmission. Results demonstrate that epidemiological models should incorporate aspects of host ecology likely to affect the probability of disease transmission.

  3. [Duties of TB patients or suspected patients and their close relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Tadeusz M

    2015-01-01

    The effective laws impose the duty upon TB patients or persons suspected to have TB as well as their close relations to undergo compulsory sanitary and epidemiological examinations. Furthermore, treatment is also mandatory and in case of infective patients hospitalization and isolation. Duty does not however denote enforcement, which is required in certain particularly dangerous infectious diseases. Poland operates a system of mandatory TB vaccination applicable, today, only to infants. Persons suspected of TB have the obligation to provide necessary information helping in diagnosing the disease or helping to find the source of infection and transmission of the disease. TB patients are under obligation to discontinue performing their work to prevent the disease from spreading to other persons.

  4. Cell wall swelling, fracture mode, and the mechanical properties of cherry fruit skins are closely related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggenwirth, Martin; Knoche, Moritz

    2017-04-01

    Cell wall swelling, fracture mode (along the middle lamellae vs. across cell walls), stiffness, and pressure at fracture of the sweet cherry fruit skin are closely related. Skin cracking is a common phenomenon in many crops bearing fleshy fruit. The objectives were to investigate relationships between the mode of fracture, the extent of cell wall swelling, and the mechanical properties of the fruit skin using sweet cherry (Prunus avium) as a model. Cracking was induced by incubating whole fruit in deionised water or by fracturing exocarp segments (ESs) in biaxial tensile tests. The fracture mode of epidermal cells was investigated by light microscopy. In biaxial tensile tests, the anticlinal cell walls of the ES fractured predominantly across the cell walls (rather than along) and showed no cell wall swelling. In contrast, fruit incubated in water fractured predominantly along the anticlinal epidermal cell walls and the cell walls were swollen. Swelling of cell walls also occurred when ESs were incubated in malic acid, in hypertonic solutions of sucrose, or in water. Compared to the untreated controls, these treatments resulted in more frequent fractures along the cell walls, lower pressures at fracture (p fracture), and lower moduli of elasticity (E, i.e., less stiff). Conversely, compared to the untreated controls, incubating the ES in CaCl2 and in high concentrations of ethanol resulted in thinner cell walls, in less frequent fractures along the cell walls, higher E and p fracture. Our study demonstrates that fracture mode, stiffness, and pressure at fracture are closely related to cell wall swelling. A number of other factors, including cultivar, ripening stage, turgor, CaCl2, and malic acid, exert their effects only indirectly, i.e., by affecting cell wall swelling.

  5. Mycorrhizal associations and reproductive isolation in three closely related Orchis species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; Honnay, Olivier; Lievens, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The maintenance of species boundaries in sympatric populations of closely related species requires some kind of reproductive isolation that limits gene flow among species and/or prevents the production of viable progeny. Because in orchids mycorrhizal fungi are needed for seed germination and subsequent seedling establishment, orchid–mycorrhizal associations may be involved in acting as a post-mating barrier. Methods We investigated the strength of post-mating barriers up to the seed germination stage acting between three closely related Orchis species (Orchis anthropophora, O. militaris and O. purpurea) and studied the role of mycorrhizal fungi in hybridization by burying seed packets of pure and hybrid seeds. After retrieval and assessment of seed germination, the fungi associating with protocorms originating from hybrid and pure seeds were determined and compared with those associating with adult individuals using DNA array technology. Results Whereas pre-zygotic post-mating barriers were rather weak in most crosses, post-zygotic post-mating barriers were stronger, particularly when O. purpurea was crossed with O. anthropophora. Germination trials in the field showed that seed germination percentages of hybrid seeds were in most cases lower than those originating from pure crosses. In all species pair combinations, total post-mating reproductive isolation was asymmetric. Protocorms associated with a smaller range of fungal symbionts than adult plants, but there was considerable overlap in mycorrhizal associations between protocorms and their respective parents. Conclusions Our results suggest that mycorrhizal associations contribute little to reproductive isolation. Pre-mating barriers are probably the main factors determining hybridization rates between the investigated species. PMID:21186239

  6. Asymmetric gene introgression in two closely related Orchis species: evidence from morphometric and genetic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemyn Hans

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In food-deceptive orchids of the genera Anacamptis, Neotinea and Orchis floral isolation has been shown to be weak, whereas late-acting reproductive barriers are mostly strong, often restricting hybridization to the F1 generation. Only in a few species hybridization extends beyond the F1 generation, giving rise to hybrid swarms. However, little is known about the abundance of later-generation hybrids and what factors drive their occurrence in hybrid populations. In this study, molecular analyses were combined with detailed morphological measurements in a hybrid population of two closely related Orchis species (Orchis militaris and O. purpurea to investigate the hypothesis that the abundance of later-generation hybrids is driven by changes in floral characters after hybridization that exert selective pressures that in turn affect hybridization. Results Both the molecular and morphological data point to extensive genetic and morphological homogenization and asymmetric introgression. Estimating genomic clines from the multi-locus genotype data and testing for deviation from neutrality revealed that 30 out of 113 (27% AFLP markers significantly deviated from neutral expectations. Plants with large floral displays or plant with flowers that resembled more O. purpurea had higher female fitness than plants with small floral displays or plants with flowers resembling more O. militaris, suggesting that directional selection may have contributed to the observed patterns of introgression. Conclusions These results indicate that in closely related orchid species hybridization and gene introgression may be partly driven by selection for floral traits of one of the parental types. However, because some pure individuals were still present in the studied population, the parental species appeared to be sufficiently isolated to survive the challenge of sympatry.

  7. Molecular survey and characterization of a novel Anaplasma species closely related to Anaplasma capra in ticks, northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jifei; Liu, Zhijie; Niu, Qingli; Liu, Junlong; Han, Rong; Liu, Guangyuan; Shi, Yaoxu; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-11-25

    Anaplasma spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that infect a wide variety of wild and domestic animals. These pathogens exhibit a high degree of biological diversity, broad geographical distribution, and represent a serious threat to veterinary and public health worldwide. A novel Anaplasma species was identified in Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (Ixodidae) in northwestern China and was molecularly characterized by comparison of 16S rRNA, gltA, and groEL gene sequences. Of the 414 samples tested, 24 (5.8%) were positive for this Anaplasma species. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene, this organism has been found to be closely related to and exhibit the highest sequence similarity with A. capra (99.8-99.9%) that was identified in goats and humans in northern China, but was distinct from other known Anaplasma species. Sequence analysis of the gltA and groEL genes revealed that this Anaplasma species was distinct from A. capra considering the lower sequence identity (88.6-88.7% for gltA and 90.6-91.0% for groEL) and a divergent phylogenetic position. Therefore, we described this Anaplasma species as A. capra-like bacteria. The present study reports a potential novel Anaplasma species closely related to A. capra in H. qinghaiensis in northwestern China. The zoonotic potential of A. capra-like bacteria needs to be further determined.

  8. Phenology, growth, and fecundity as determinants of distribution in closely related nonnative taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushia, Robin G.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Holt, Jodie S.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species researchers often ask: Why do some species invade certain habitats while others do not? Ecological theories predict that taxonomically related species may invade similar habitats, but some related species exhibit contrasting invasion patterns. Brassica nigra, Brassica tournefortii, and Hirschfeldia incana are dominant, closely related nonnative species that have overlapping, but dissimilar, distributions. Brassica tournefortii is rapidly spreading in warm deserts of the southwestern United States, whereas B. nigra and H. incana are primarily limited to semiarid and mesic regions. We compared traits of B. tournefortii that might confer invasiveness in deserts with those of related species that have not invaded desert ecosystems. Brassica tournefortii, B. nigra and H. incana were compared in controlled experiments conducted outdoors in a mesic site (Riverside, CA) and a desert site (Blue Diamond, NV), and in greenhouses, over 3 yr. Desert and mesic B. tournefortii populations were also compared to determine whether locally adapted ecotypes contribute to desert invasion. Experimental variables included common garden sites and soil water availability. Response variables included emergence, growth, phenology, and reproduction. There was no evidence for B. tournefortii ecotypes, but B. tournefortii had a more rapid phenology than B. nigra or H. incana. Brassica tournefortii was less affected by site and water availability than B. nigra and H. incana, but was smaller and less fecund regardless of experimental conditions. Rapid phenology allows B. tournefortii to reproduce consistently under variable, stressful conditions such as those found in Southwestern deserts. Although more successful in milder, mesic ecosystems, B. nigra and H. incana may be limited by their ability to reproduce under desert conditions. Rapid phenology and drought response partition invasion patterns of nonnative mustards along a gradient of aridity in the southwestern United States

  9. Migratory New World blackbirds (icterids are more neophobic than closely related resident icterids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mettke-Hofmann

    Full Text Available Environments undergo short-term and long-term changes due to natural or human-induced events. Animals differ in their ability to cope with such changes which can be related to their ecology. Changes in the environment often elicit avoidance reactions (neophobia which protect animals from dangerous situations but can also inhibit exploration and familiarization with novel situations and thus, learning about new resources. Studies investigating the relationship between a species' ecology and its neophobia have so far been restricted to comparing only a few species and mainly in captivity. The current study investigated neophobia reactions to experimentally-induced changes in the natural environment of six closely-related blackbird species (Icteridae, including two species represented by two distinct populations. For analyses, neophobic reactions (difference in number of birds feeding and time spent feeding with and without novel objects were related to several measures of ecological plasticity and the migratory strategy (resident or migratory of the population. Phylogenetic relationships were incorporated into the analysis. The degree of neophobia was related to migratory strategy with migrants expressing much higher neophobia (fewer birds feeding and for a shorter time with objects present than residents. Furthermore, neophobia showed a relationship to diet breadth with fewer individuals of diet generalists than specialists returning when objects were present supporting the dangerous niche hypothesis. Residents may have evolved lower neophobia as costs of missing out on opportunities may be higher for residents than migrants as the former are restricted to a smaller area. Lower neophobia allows them approaching changes in the environment (e.g. novel objects quickly, thereby securing access to resources. Additionally, residents have a greater familiarity with similar situations in the area than migrants and the latter may, therefore, initially

  10. The Relation of the Morse Index of Closed Geodesics with the Maslov-type Index of Symplectic Paths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Gen LIU

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the relation of the Morse index of a closed geodesic with the Maslov-type index of a path in a symplectic group. More precisely, for a closed geodesic c on a Riemannian manifold M with its linear Poincare map P (a symplectic matrix), we construct a symplectic path γ(t) starting from identity I and ending at P, such that the Morse index of the closed geodesic c equals the Maslov-type index of γ. As an application of this result, we study the parity of the Morse index of any closed geodesic.

  11. New species of Monepidosis Mamaev, 1966 and Antipodosis gen. nov., a closely related genus from New Zealand (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Jaschhof

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Monepidosis Mamaev, 1966, a Holarctic genus of Porricondylinae (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, are described: M. heterocera sp. nov. from Sweden and Germany, M. scepteroides sp. nov. from Sweden, and M. shikokuensis sp. nov. from Japan. A new porricondyline genus, Antipodosis gen. nov., is introduced for eight new species from New Zealand, named A. australis gen. et sp. nov., A. elongata gen. et sp. nov., A. granvillensis gen. et sp. nov., A. pureora gen. et sp. nov., A. rakiura gen. et sp. nov., A. rotoiti gen. et sp. nov., A. rotoroa gen. et sp. nov., and A. waipapa gen. et sp. nov. Male genitalic morphology indicates that Monepidosis and Antipodosis gen. nov. are closely related, together forming the Monepidosis group of genera, which stands out from the other Porricondylini. Monepidosis spatulata Spungis, 2006, a species originally described from Latvia and Lithuania, is for the first time reported to occur in Sweden.

  12. Comparative genomics of Japanese Erwinia pyrifoliae strain Ejp617 with closely related erwinias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Shree P; Park, Duck H; Kim, Won S; Choi, Beom S; Lim, Jong S; Choi, Ik Y; Hur, Jang H; Lim, Chun K

    2013-02-01

    Japanese Erwinia pyrifoliae strains cause bacterial shoot blight of pear (BSBP) in Japan. The genetics of Japanese Erwinia remains largely unknown relative to the abundant genomic information available for other Erwinia strains. We compared the genome of Japanese and Korean E. pyrifoliae strains along with those of E. amylovora and E. tasmaniensis. Comparisons with the Korean E. pyrifoliae strain revealed numerous gene insertions/deletions, rearrangements, and inversions in the central regions of the chromosomes. Approximately 80% (2843) of coding DNA sequences (CDSs) are shared by these two genomes which represent about three-quarters of the genome, and there are about 20% unique CDSs. Comparative analysis with closely related erwinias showed that 1942 (more than 50%) core open reading frames (ORF) are shared by all these strains. In addition to two type III secretion systems (hrp/dsp and inv/spa), the genome of Ejp617 encodes numerous virulence factors, including a type VI secretion system, an exopolysaccharide synthesis cluster, and another protein secretion system present in plant pathogenic Erwinia strains. The availability of whole genome sequence should provide a resource to further improve the understanding of pathogenesis in Japanese E. pyrifoliae Ejp617 and to facilitate evolutionary studies among the species of the genus Erwinia.

  13. Genetic Comparison of B. Anthracis and its Close Relatives Using AFLP and PCR Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.J.; Hill, K.K.; Laker, M.T.; Ticknor, L.O.; Keim, P.S.

    1999-02-01

    Amplified Fragment length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis allows a rapid, relatively simple analysis of a large portion of a microbial genome, providing information about the species and its phylogenetic relationship to other microbes (Vos, et al., 1995). The method simply surveys the genome for length and sequence polymorphisms. The pattern identified can be used for comparison to the genomes of other species. Unlike other methods, it does not rely on analysis of a single genetic locus that may bias the interpretation of results and it does not require any prior knowledge of the targeted organism. Moreover, a standard set of reagents can be applied to any species without using species-specific information or molecular probes. The authors are using AFLP's to rapidly identify different bacterial species. A comparison of AFLP profiles generated from a large battery of B. anthracis strains shows very little variability among different isolates (Keim, et al., 1997). By contrast, there is a significant difference between AFLP profiles generated for any B. anthracis strain and even the most closely related Bacillus species. Sufficient variability is apparent among all known microbial species to allow phylogenetic analysis based on large numbers of genetically unlinked loci. These striking differences among AFLP profiles allow unambiguous identification of previously identified species and phylogenetic placement of newly characterized isolates relative to known species based on a large number of independent genetic loci. Data generated thus far show that the method provides phylogenetic analyses that are consistent with other widely accepted phylogenetic methods. However, AFLP analysis provides a more detailed analysis of the targets and samples a much larger portion of the genome. Consequently, it provides an inexpensive, rapid means of characterizing microbial isolates to further differentiate among strains and closely related microbial species. Such information

  14. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders : prevention report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podniece, Z.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.

    2008-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can interfere with activities at work and can lead to reduced productivity, sickness absence and chronic occupational disability. The aim of this report is to systematic evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at the workplace since 2002 and to

  15. Genetic variability in apomictic mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana and its close relatives (Garcinia spp. based on ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOBIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sobir, Poerwanto R, Santosa E, Sinaga S, Mansyah E (2011 Genetic variability in apomictic mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana and its close relatives (Garcinia spp. based on ISSR markers. Biodiversitas 12: 59-63. In order to reveal phylogenetic relationship of mangosteen and several close relatives (Garcinia spp., we employed seven ISSR dinucleotide primer systems on eleven close relatives of mangosteen and 28 mangosteen accessions from four islands in Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and Lombok. ISSR analysis successfully amplified 43 bands on average 6.1 fragments for each primer system, and these all fragments were polymorphic. Seven close relatives of mangosteen were separated with mangosteen accessions at 0.22 level of dissimilarity, while other four including G. malaccensis, were clustered with mangosteen accessions, this results supported proposal that G. malaccensis was allopolyploid derivative of mangosteen. Clustering pattern among mangosteen accessions, however, not represented their origin, indicated that distribution of the accessions was not linked to their genetic properties.

  16. Comparative genomics of four closely related Clostridium perfringens bacteriophages reveals variable rates of evolution within a core genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Biotechnological uses of bacteriophage gene products as alternatives to conventional antibiotics will require a thorough understanding of their genomic context. We sequenced and analyzed the genomes of four closely related phages isolated from Clostridium perfringens, an important agricu...

  17. Contrasting Genomic Diversity in Two Closely Related Postharvest Pathogens: Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julca, Irene; Droby, Samir; Sela, Noa; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Gabaldón, Toni

    2015-12-14

    Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum are two closely related fungal plant pathogens causing green and blue mold in harvested fruit, respectively. The two species differ in their host specificity, being P. digitatum restricted to citrus fruits and P. expansum able to infect a wide range of fruits after harvest. Although host-specific Penicillium species have been found to have a smaller gene content, it is so far unclear whether these different host specificities impact genome variation at the intraspecific level. Here we assessed genome variation across four P. digitatum and seven P. expansum isolates from geographically distant regions. Our results show very high similarity (average 0.06 SNPs [single nucleotide polymorphism] per kb) between globally distributed isolates of P. digitatum pointing to a recent expansion of a single lineage. This low level of genetic variation found in our samples contrasts with the higher genetic variability observed in the similarly distributed P. expansum isolates (2.44 SNPs per kb). Patterns of polymorphism in P. expansum indicate that recombination exists between genetically diverged strains. Consistent with the existence of sexual recombination and heterothallism, which was unknown for this species, we identified the two alternative mating types in different P. expansum isolates. Patterns of polymorphism in P. digitatum indicate a recent clonal population expansion of a single lineage that has reached worldwide distribution. We suggest that the contrasting patterns of genomic variation between the two species reflect underlying differences in population dynamics related with host specificities and related agricultural practices. It should be noted, however, that this results should be confirmed with a larger sampling of strains, as new strains may broaden the diversity so far found in P. digitatum.

  18. The γ-gliadin multigene family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum and its closely related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique properties of wheat flour primarily depend on gluten, which is the most important source of protein for human being. γ-Gliadins have been considered to be the most ancient of the wheat gluten family. The complex family structure of γ-gliadins complicates the determination of their function. Moreover, γ-gliadins contain several sets of celiac disease epitopes. However, no systematic research has been conducted yet. Results A total of 170 γ-gliadin genes were isolated from common wheat and its closely related species, among which 138 sequences are putatively functional. The ORF lengths of these sequences range from 678 to 1089 bp, and the repetitive region is mainly responsible for the size heterogeneity of γ-gliadins. The repeat motif P(Q/L/S/T/I/V/R/AF(S/Y/V/Q/I/C/LP(R/L/S/T/H/C/YQ1–2(P(S/L/T/A/F/HQQ1–2is repeated from 7 to 22 times. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses show that γ-gliadins are highly diverse. Phylogenic analyses indicate that there is no obvious discrimination between Sitopsis and Ae. tauschii at the Gli-1 loci, compared with diploid wheat. According to the number and placement of cysteine residues, we defined nine cysteine patterns and 17 subgroups. Alternatively, we classified γ-gliadins into two types based on the length of repetitive domain. Amino acid composition analyses indicate that there is a wide range of essential amino acids in γ-gliadins, and those γ-gliadins from subgroup SG-10 and SG-12 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain are more nutritional. A screening of toxic epitopes shows that γ-gliadins with a pattern of C9 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain almost lack any epitopes. Conclusion γ-Gliadin sequences in wheat and closely related Aegilops species are diverse. Each group/subgroup contributes differently to nutritional quality and epitope content. It is suggested that the genes with a short repetitive domain are more

  19. Closed gastroschisis, vanishing midgut and extreme short bowel syndrome: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, F A

    2016-08-01

    Gastroschisis alone has excellent survival rates. Occasionally reported is closed gastroschisis, leading to vanishing small bowel and extreme short bowel syndrome. It is believed that the abdominal wall defect can contract or close in utero, which leads to strangulation of the eviscerated bowel and the rare "vanishing gut syndrome." This has a very poor prognosis with mortality as high as 70%. An 18-year-old primigravid patient's 13 week scan diagnosed a large gastroschisis affecting the fetus. After counselling, she decided to continue with the pregnancy. Between 20 and 22 weeks, the gastroschisis disappeared, and the bowel within the abdomen became markedly dilated. Spontaneous labour occurred at 33 + 3 weeks gestation. There was no abdominal wall defect seen at delivery. Imaging and an exploratory laparotomy demonstrated absence of most of the midgut. Because available options for treatment would be very aggressive and risky, palliative care was thought to be the most feasible and practical option. He died at home on day 29 after birth. Extreme short gut syndrome (less than 25 cm of remaining small bowel) is rare. There are 13 reported cases in the literature from year 2000 to 2013. Treatment is aggressive and involves a bowel lengthening procedure or small bowel transplant. All require total parenteral nutrition and liver failure, and liver transplant is a common complication. Of these cases, 12 were born alive and 7 had aggressive treatment. Only two cases were confirmed to still be alive in infancy. If gastroschisis is seen to be reducing and "disappearing" antenatally, parents should be made aware of this rare complication so that they might be prepared if a poor outcome is anticipated.

  20. Molecular characterization of a naturally occurring intraspecific recombinant begomovirus with close relatives widespread in southern Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A

    2014-06-02

    Background: Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus (ToLCSDV) is a single-stranded DNA begomovirus of tomato that causes downward leaf curl, yellowing, and stunting. Leaf curl disease results in significant yield reduction in tomato crops in the Nile Basin. ToLCSDV symptoms resemble those caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, a distinct and widespread begomovirus originating in the Middle East. In this study, tomato samples exhibiting leaf curl symptoms were collected from Gezira, Sudan. The associated viral genome was molecularly characterized, analyzed phylogenetically, and an infectious clone for one isolate was constructed. Findings. The complete genomes for five newly discovered variants of ToLCSDV, ranging in size from 2765 to 2767-bp, were cloned and sequenced, and subjected to pairwise and phylogenetic analyses. Pairwise analysis indicated that the five Gezira isolates shared 97-100% nucleotide identity with each other. Further, these variants of ToLCSDV shared their highest nucleotide identity at 96-98%, 91-95%, 91-92%, and 91-92% with the Shambat, Gezira, Oman and Yemen strains of ToLCSDV, respectively. Based on the high maximum nucleotide identities shared between these ToLCSDV variants from Gezira and other previously recognized members of this taxonomic group, they are considered isolates of the Shambat strain of ToLCSDV. Analysis of the complete genome sequence for these new variants revealed that they were naturally occurring recombinants between two previously reported strains of ToLCSDV. Finally, a dimeric clone constructed from one representative ToLCSV genome from Gezira was shown to be infectious following inoculation to tomato and N. benthamiana plants. Conclusion: Five new, naturally occurring recombinant begomovirus variants (>96% shared nt identity) were identified in tomato plants from Gezira in Sudan, and shown to be isolates of the Shambat strain of ToLCSDV. The cloned viral genome was infectious in N. benthamiana and tomato plants, and symptoms

  1. Sequence and characterization of six mitochondrial subgenomes from Globodera rostochiensis: multipartite structure is conserved among close nematode relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracey; Blok, Vivian C; Dowton, Mark

    2007-09-01

    Recently, a multipartite mitochondrial genome was characterized in the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Six subgenomic circles were detectable by PCR, while full-length genomes were not. We investigate here whether this subgenomic organization occurs in a close relative of G. pallida. We amplified and sequenced one entire mitochondrial subgenome from the cyst-forming nematode, Globodera rostochiensis. Comparison of the noncoding region of this subgenome with those reported previously for G. pallida facilitated the design of amplification primers for a range of subgenomes from G. rostochiensis. We then randomly sequenced five subgenomic fragments, each representative of a unique subgenome. This study indicates that the multipartite structure reported for G. pallida is conserved in G. rostochiensis. A comparison of subgenomic organization between these two Globodera species indicates a considerable degree of overlap between them. Indeed, we identify two subgenomes with an organization identical with that reported for G. pallida. However, other subgenomes are unique to G. rostochiensis, although some of these have blocks of genes comparable to those in G. pallida. Dot-plot comparisons of pairs of subgenomes from G. rostochiensis indicate that the different subgenomes share fragments with high sequence identity. We interpret this as evidence that recombination is operating in the mitochondria of G. rostochiensis.

  2. Testing DNA barcodes in closely related species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) from Myanmar and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Zhao, Jietang; Erickson, David L; Xia, Nianhe; Kress, W John

    2015-03-01

    The genus Curcuma L. is commonly used as spices, medicines, dyes and ornamentals. Owing to its economic significance and lack of clear-cut morphological differences between species, this genus is an ideal case for developing DNA barcodes. In this study, four chloroplast DNA regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-F) and one nuclear region (ITS2) were generated for 44 Curcuma species and five species from closely related genera, represented by 96 samples. PCR amplification success rate, intra- and inter-specific genetic distance variation and the correct identification percentage were taken into account to assess candidate barcode regions. PCR and sequence success rate were high in matK (89.7%), rbcL (100%), trnH-psbA (100%), trnL-F (95.7%) and ITS2 (82.6%) regions. The results further showed that four candidate chloroplast barcoding regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-F) yield no barcode gaps, indicating that the genus Curcuma represents a challenging group for DNA barcoding. The ITS2 region presented large interspecific variation and provided the highest correct identification rates (46.7%) based on BLASTClust method among the five regions. However, the ITS2 only provided 7.9% based on NJ tree method. An increase in discriminatory power needs the development of more variable markers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Isolation and characterization of five lytic bacteriophages infecting a Vibrio strain closely related to Vibrio owensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Ping; Gong, Ting; Jost, Günter; Liu, Wen-Hua; Ye, De-Zan; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Vibrio owensii is a potential bacterial pathogen in marine aquaculture system. In this study, five lytic phages specific against Vibrio strain B8D, closely related to V. owensii, were isolated from seawater of an abalone farm. The phages were characterized with respect to morphology, genome size, growth phenotype, as well as thermal, and pH stability. All phages were found to belong to the family Siphoviridae with long noncontractile tails and terminal fibers. Restriction analysis indicated that the five phages were dsDNA viruses with molecular weights ranging from c. 30 to 48 kb. One-step growth experiments revealed that the phages were heterogeneous in latent periods (10-70 min), rise periods (40-70 min), and burst sizes [23-331 plaque-forming units (PFU) per infected cell] at the same host strain. All phages were thermal stable and were tolerant to a wide range of pH. The results indicated that these phages could be potential candidates of a phage cocktail for biological control of V. owensii in aquaculture systems.

  4. Host plant use among closely related Anaea butterfly species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. QUEIROZ

    Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae. This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.

  5. Comparison of song frequency and receptor tuning in two closely related bushcricket species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmring, K; Rössler, W; Jatho, M; Hoffmann, E

    1995-01-01

    The songs and the structure and physiology of the auditory organs in the closely related bushcricket species Tettigonia viridissima and Tettigonia cantans were investigated comparatively using bioacoustical, histological and neurophysiological methods. The morphology of the crista acustica, the main auditory receptor organ, is very similar in the two species in respect to both the distribution of scolopidia along the length axis of the crista and the dimensions of corresponding scolopidia and attachment structures. The only obvious difference is that T. viridissima has one more scolopidium in the crista acustica and that the overall length of the crista is by about 50 microns larger than in T. cantans. In contrast, differences were found in the physiology of individual auditory receptor cells. Comparison of the threshold characteristics of all the receptor cells of the crista acustica in both species reveals a differential sensitivity of groups of auditory receptor cells at dominant frequencies of the song. In each species, the sensitivity of auditory receptor cells is method to the energy spectrum of the song. These differences in the physiology can partly be explained by differences in transmission characteristics of the acoustic trachea.

  6. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Lunn, John E.; Feil, Regina; Wang, Yufei; Zhao, Jingjing; Tao, Hongxia; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple. PMID:28069587

  7. Differences in metabolic costs of terrestrial mobility in two closely related species of albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Alexander P; Phillips, Richard A; Croxall, John P; Butler, Patrick J

    2007-08-01

    Black-browed albatrosses Thalassarche melanophrys typically colonise steeper habitats than grey-headed albatrosses T. chrysostoma. The present study investigated the effect of colony philopatry on terrestrial locomotory ability in these two species, to determine: (1) if there is a difference in terrestrial locomotory ability between these two closely related species, and (2) what physiological or behavioural adaptations may account for any differences identified. We examined the metabolic cost, mechanical efficiency on an incline, and gait characteristics of terrestrial locomotion of these two species on both level and inclined planes. T. chrysostoma were able to perform at a significantly greater speed than T. melanophrys without reaching a significantly different maximal rate of oxygen consumption (V(O(2))). Conversely, T. melanophrys were able to move up a significantly steeper incline than T. chrysostoma while maintaining a similar maximal V(O(2)). Each species demonstrates stride length, force production (behavioural) and leg length (morphological) adaptations that minimise the cost of traversing their chosen colonies, indicating a clear relationship between terrestrial performance and local topography. However, it is not possible to determine if the difference in locomotory ability results from differences in colony topography, or if choice of colony site is dictated by the ability of the species to traverse different terrain.

  8. Binding site turnover produces pervasive quantitative changes in transcription factor binding between closely related Drosophila species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K Bradley

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in gene expression play an important role in evolution, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying regulatory evolution are poorly understood. Here we compare genome-wide binding of the six transcription factors that initiate segmentation along the anterior-posterior axis in embryos of two closely related species: Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila yakuba. Where we observe binding by a factor in one species, we almost always observe binding by that factor to the orthologous sequence in the other species. Levels of binding, however, vary considerably. The magnitude and direction of the interspecies differences in binding levels of all six factors are strongly correlated, suggesting a role for chromatin or other factor-independent forces in mediating the divergence of transcription factor binding. Nonetheless, factor-specific quantitative variation in binding is common, and we show that it is driven to a large extent by the gain and loss of cognate recognition sequences for the given factor. We find only a weak correlation between binding variation and regulatory function. These data provide the first genome-wide picture of how modest levels of sequence divergence between highly morphologically similar species affect a system of coordinately acting transcription factors during animal development, and highlight the dominant role of quantitative variation in transcription factor binding over short evolutionary distances.

  9. A chestnut seed cystatin differentially effective against cysteine proteinases from closely related pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, M; Sánchez-Monge, R; Gómez, L; Salcedo, G

    1998-12-01

    Cystatin CsC, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from chestnut (Castanea sativa) seeds, has been purified and characterized. Its full-length cDNA clone was isolated from an immature chestnut cotyledon library. The inhibitor was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from bacterial extracts. Identity of both seed and recombinant cystatin was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis, two-dimensional electrophoresis and N-terminal sequencing. CsC has a molecular mass of 11,275 Da and pI of 6.9. Its amino acid sequence includes all three motifs that are thought to be essential for inhibitory activity, and shows significant identity to other phytocystatins, especially that of cowpea (70%). Recombinant CsC inhibited papain (Ki 29 nM), ficin (Ki 65 nM), chymopapain (Ki 366 nM), and cathepsin B (Ki 473 nM). By contrast with most cystatins, it was also effective towards trypsin (Ki 3489 nM). CsC is active against digestive proteinases from the insect Tribolium castaneum and the mite Dermatophagoides farinae, two important agricultural pests. Its effects on the cysteine proteinase activity of two closely related mite species revealed the high specificity of the chestnut cystatin.

  10. Characterisation of a virus from Australia that is closely related to papaya mosaic potexvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geering, A D; Thomas, J E

    1999-01-01

    We have isolated a previously undescribed potexvirus from Alternanthera pungens (Amaranthaceae) in southern Queensland, Australia. This virus was shown to have a moderately wide experimental host range, infecting plants in nine of the twelve families tested. Using specific antibodies, a plate trapped antigen ELISA was developed, allowing detection of virions down to 0.8 microgram/ml of leaf extract. Virions averaged 554 nm long and had a capsid protein with a M(r) of 23.1 x 10(3). A portion of the genome containing the capsid protein ORF and 3' untranslated region was cloned and sequenced. From both serological and amino acid sequence comparisons, the virus was shown to be closely related to papaya mosaic potexvirus (PMV). To determine the taxonomic status of the virus, we assessed variation in the amino acid sequence of capsid proteins of distinct species within the potexvirus genus, as well as variation between strains of the same virus. When the core region of the capsid proteins were compared, distinct species had a maximum of 62.2% sequence identity, whereas strains had a minimum of 88.8% identity. By comparison, the core region of the capsid proteins of the Alternanthera virus and PMV had 79.8% identity. We have concluded that the Alternanthera virus is a different species from PMV, and its relationship with PMV resembles that of potyvirus subgroup members.

  11. Creep performance of PVC aged at temperature relatively close to glass transition temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-hong ZHOU; Yao-long HE; Hong-jiu HU; Feng ZHAO; Xiao-long ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    In order to predict the mechanical performance of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) at a high operating temperature,a series of short-term tensile creep tests (onetenth of the physical aging time) of the PVC are carried out at 63 ℃ with a small constant stress by a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA).The Struik-Kohlrausch (SK)formula and Struik shifting methods are used to describe these creep data for various physical aging time.A new phenomenological model based on the multiple relaxation mechanisms of an amorphous polymer is developed to quantitatively characterize the SK parameters (the initial creep compliance,the characteristic retardation time,and the shape factor) determined by the aging time.It is shown that the momentary creep compliance curve of the PVC at 63 ℃ can be very well fitted by the SK formula for each aging time.However,the SK parameters for the creep curves are not constant during the aging process at the elevated temperatures,and the evolution of these parameters and the creep rate versus aging time curves at the double logarithmic coordinates have shown a nonlinear phenomenon. Moreover,the creep master curves obtained by the superposition with the Struik shifting methods are unsatisfactory in such a case.Finally,the predicted results calculated from the present model incorporating with the SK formula are in excellent agreement with the creep experimental data for the PVC isothermally aged at the temperature relatively close to the glass transition temperature.

  12. New Atglistatin closely related analogues: Synthesis and structure-activity relationship towards adipose triglyceride lipase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pierre-Philippe; D'Souza, Kenneth; Cuperlovic-Culf, Miroslava; Kienesberger, Petra C; Touaibia, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL) performs the first and rate-limiting step in lipolysis by hydrolyzing triacylglycerols stored in lipid droplets to diacylglycerols. By mediating lipolysis in adipose and non-adipose tissues, ATGL is a major regulator of overall energy metabolism and plasma lipid levels. Since chronically high levels of plasma lipids are linked to metabolic disorders including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, ATGL is an interesting therapeutic target. In the present study, fourteen closely related analogues of Atglistatin (1), a newly discovered ATGL inhibitor, were synthesized, and their ATGL inhibitory activity was evaluated. The effect of these analogues on lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes clearly shows that inhibition of the enzyme by Atglistatin (1) is due to the presence of the carbamate and N,N-dimethyl moieties on the biaryl central core at meta and para position, respectively. Mono carbamate-substituted analogue C2, in which the carbamate group was in the meta position as in Atglistatin (1), showed slight inhibition. Low dipole moment of Atglistatin (1) compared to the synthesized analogues possibly explains the lower inhibitory activities.

  13. Host plant use among closely related Anaea butterfly species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUEIROZ J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae. This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.

  14. Intron Derived Size Polymorphism in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Closely Related Chrysoporthe Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzi, Aquillah Mumo; Wingfield, Brenda Diana; Steenkamp, Emma Theodora; Naidoo, Sanushka; van der Merwe, Nicolaas Albertus

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of Chrysoporthe austroafricana (190,834 bp), C. cubensis (89,084 bp) and C. deuterocubensis (124,412 bp) were determined. Additionally, the mitochondrial genome of another member of the Cryphonectriaceae, namely Cryphonectria parasitica (158,902 bp), was retrieved and annotated for comparative purposes. These genomes showed high levels of synteny, especially in regions including genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and electron transfer, unique open reading frames (uORFs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and transfer RNAs (tRNAs), as well as intron positions. Comparative analyses revealed signatures of duplication events, intron number and length variation, and varying intronic ORFs which highlighted the genetic diversity of mt genomes among the Cryphonectriaceae. These mt genomes showed remarkable size polymorphism. The size polymorphism in the mt genomes of these closely related Chrysoporthe species was attributed to the varying number and length of introns, coding sequences and to a lesser extent, intergenic sequences. Compared to publicly available fungal mt genomes, the C. austroafricana mt genome is the second largest in the Ascomycetes thus far.

  15. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eFilée

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales. Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for 5 groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no trend of genome expansion or general tendency of genome contraction. Instead, GV genomes accumulated genomic mutations over the time with gene gains compensating the different losses. In addition, each lineage displays specific patterns of genome evolution. Mimiviridae (megaviruses and mimiviruses and Chlorella Phycodnaviruses evolved mainly by duplications and losses of genes belonging to large paralogous families (including movements of diverse mobiles genetic elements, whereas Micromonas and Ostreococcus Phycodnaviruses derive most of their genetic novelties thought lateral gene transfers. Taken together, these data support an accordion-like model of evolution in which GV genomes have undergone successive steps of gene gain and gene loss, accrediting the hypothesis that genome gigantism appears early, before the diversification of the different GV lineages.

  16. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala. Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple.

  17. Relational Systems: How Older Women with Chronic Health Problems Construct Close Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Brandy Renee; Roberto, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    Close relationships are important throughout life, but their dynamics may change as chronic health conditions permeate the lives of older women. To understand how older women (N = 36) manage their close relationships, this study was guided by two research questions: How do older women with chronic health conditions define meaningful relationships?…

  18. Closed medial total subtalar joint dislocation without ankle fracture: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Total subtalar dislocation without fracture of the ankle is a rare clinical entity; it is usually due to a traumatic high-energy mechanism. Standard treatment is successful closed reduction under general anesthesia followed by non-weight bearing and ankle immobilization with a below-knee cast for 6 weeks. Case presentation We present the case of a 30-year-old Moroccan woman who was involved in a road traffic accident. She subsequently received a radiological assessment that objectified a total subtalar dislocation without fracture of her ankle. She was immediately admitted to the operating theater where an immediate reduction was performed under sedation, and immobilization in a plaster boot was adopted for 8 weeks. The management of this traumatic lesion is discussed in the light of the literature. Conclusions Medial subtalar dislocation is a rare dislocation and is not commonly seen as a sports injury because it requires transfer of a large amount of kinetic energy. The weaker talocalcaneal and talonavicular ligaments often bear the brunt of the energy and are more commonly disrupted, compared to the relatively stronger calcaneonavicular ligament. Urgent reduction is important, and closed reduction under general anesthesia is usually successful, often facilitated by keeping the knee in flexion to relax the gastrocnemius muscle. Long-term sequelae include talar avascular necrosis and osteochondral fracture, as well as chronic instability and pain. PMID:25240955

  19. Report: Close-Out of Hotline Complaint on Unreasonable Cost Increase to the Wastewater Treatment Facility Improvements, Perkins, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #12-X-0161, December 29, 2011. We have closed a hotline complaint that project costs increased unreasonably due to American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) requirements because we found no evidence to support the complaint.

  20. Comparative genomic analysis of phylogenetically closely related Hydrogenobaculum sp. isolates from Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Christine; D'Imperio, Seth; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Lasken, Roger; Shock, Everett L; McDermott, Timothy R

    2013-05-01

    We describe the complete genome sequences of four closely related Hydrogenobaculum sp. isolates (≥ 99.7% 16S rRNA gene identity) that were isolated from the outflow channel of Dragon Spring (DS), Norris Geyser Basin, in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY. The genomes range in size from 1,552,607 to 1,552,931 bp, contain 1,667 to 1,676 predicted genes, and are highly syntenic. There are subtle differences among the DS isolates, which as a group are different from Hydrogenobaculum sp. strain Y04AAS1 that was previously isolated from a geographically distinct YNP geothermal feature. Genes unique to the DS genomes encode arsenite [As(III)] oxidation, NADH-ubiquinone-plastoquinone (complex I), NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain, a DNA photolyase, and elements of a type II secretion system. Functions unique to strain Y04AAS1 include thiosulfate metabolism, nitrate respiration, and mercury resistance determinants. DS genomes contain seven CRISPR loci that are almost identical but are different from the single CRISPR locus in strain Y04AAS1. Other differences between the DS and Y04AAS1 genomes include average nucleotide identity (94.764%) and percentage conserved DNA (80.552%). Approximately half of the genes unique to Y04AAS1 are predicted to have been acquired via horizontal gene transfer. Fragment recruitment analysis and marker gene searches demonstrated that the DS metagenome was more similar to the DS genomes than to the Y04AAS1 genome, but that the DS community is likely comprised of a continuum of Hydrogenobaculum genotypes that span from the DS genomes described here to an Y04AAS1-like organism, which appears to represent a distinct ecotype relative to the DS genomes characterized.

  1. Restricted variation in plant barcoding markers limits identification in closely related bryophyte species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Kristian; Segreto, Rossana; Ekrem, Torbjørn

    2013-11-01

    Species-level identification and delimitation of bryophytes using the proposed general barcode markers for land plants has been challenging. Bryophyta (mosses) is the second most species-rich group of land plants after angiosperms, and it is thus of great importance to find useful barcoding regions also for this group of plants. We investigated how the plastid regions atpF-atpH, rbcL and trnH-psbA and the nuclear ITS2 region performed as barcode markers on closely related bryophyte taxa of selected moss (Bartramia, Distichium, Fissidens, Meesia and Syntrichia) and liverwort (Blepharostoma) genera from boreal and arctic regions. We also evaluated how sequencing success of herbarium specimens is related to length of the sequenced fragment, specimen age and taxonomic group. Sequencing success was higher for shorter fragments and younger herbarium specimens, but was lower than expected in the genera Distichium and Fissidens, indicating imperfect universality of the primers used. None of the studied DNA barcode regions showed a consistent barcode gap across the studied genera. As a single locus, the region atpF-atpH performed slightly better than rbcL and ITS2 and much better than trnH-psbA in terms of grouping conspecific sequences in monophyletic groups. This marker also gave a higher percentage of correct hits when conducting blast searches on a local database of identified sequences. Concatenated data sets of two and three markers grouped more conspecific sequences in monophyletic groups, but the improvement was not great compared with atpF-atpH alone. A discussion of recent studies testing barcode regions for bryophytes is given. We conclude that atpF-atpH, rbcL and ITS2 are to be the most promising barcode markers for mosses.

  2. Chloroplast gene arrangement variation within a closely related group of green algae (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsch, Molly R; Lewis, Louise A

    2012-09-01

    The 22 published chloroplast genomes of green algae, representing sparse taxonomic sampling of diverse lineages that span over one billion years of evolution, each possess a unique gene arrangement. In contrast, many of the >190 published embryophyte (land plant) chloroplast genomes have relatively conserved architectures. To determine the phylogenetic depth at which chloroplast gene rearrangements occur in green algae, a 1.5-4 kb segment of the chloroplast genome was compared across nine species in three closely related genera of Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta). In total, four distinct gene arrangements were obtained for the three genera Elliptochloris, Hemichloris, and Coccomyxa. In Elliptochloris, three distinct chloroplast gene arrangements were detected, one of which is shared with members of its sister genus Hemichloris. Both species of Coccomyxa examined share the fourth arrangement of this genome region, one characterized by very long spacers. Next, the order of genes found in this segment of the chloroplast genome was compared across green algae and land plants. As taxonomic ranks are not equivalent among different groups of organisms, the maximum molecular divergence among taxa sharing a common gene arrangement in this genome segment was compared. Well-supported clades possessing a single gene order had similar phylogenetic depth in green algae and embryophytes. When the dominant gene order of this chloroplast segment in embryophytes was assumed to be ancestral for land plants, the maximum molecular divergence was found to be over two times greater in embryophytes than in trebouxiophyte green algae. This study greatly expands information about chloroplast genome variation in green algae, is the first to demonstrate such variation among congeneric green algae, and further illustrates the fluidity of green algal chloroplast genome architecture in comparison to that of many embryophytes.

  3. Summary report of working group 2 on {open_quotes}Beam Production{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, Luca [INFN and Universita di Milano Via Celoria 16, 20133Milano (Italy)] Cornacchia, Max [SSRL---Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, California94309 (United States)

    1997-06-01

    We summarize here the discussions and the communications presented in the working group on {open_quotes}Beam Production{close_quotes}, whose main aim was actually focused on identification of main processes limiting the maximum achievable electron beam brightness at injection into the undulator of a generic linac-based X-Ray single pass FEL. These processes have been divided into three main categories: stochastic effects in the photoelectric emission at the cathode, emittance degradation due to space charge effects in the injector, coherent spontaneous emission in bends ({ital e.g.} magnetic compressors) and its related impact on the emittance and/or peak current budget. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Whole genome sequencing and comparative genomics of closely related Fusarium Head Blight fungi: Fusarium graminearum, F. meridionale and F. asiaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowiak, Sean; Rowland, Owen; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Subramaniam, Rajagopal

    2016-12-09

    The Fusarium graminearum species complex is composed of many distinct fungal species that cause several diseases in economically important crops, including Fusarium Head Blight of wheat. Despite being closely related, these species and individuals within species have distinct phenotypic differences in toxin production and pathogenicity, with some isolates reported as non-pathogenic on certain hosts. In this report, we compare genomes and gene content of six new isolates from the species complex, including the first available genomes of F. asiaticum and F. meridionale, with four other genomes reported in previous studies. A comparison of genome structure and gene content revealed a 93-99% overlap across all ten genomes. We identified more than 700 k base pairs (kb) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, and deletions (indels) within common regions of the genome, which validated the species and genetic populations reported within species. We constructed a non-redundant pan gene list containing 15,297 genes from the ten genomes and among them 1827 genes or 12% were absent in at least one genome. These genes were co-localized in telomeric regions and select regions within chromosomes with a corresponding increase in SNPs and indels. Many are also predicted to encode for proteins involved in secondary metabolism and other functions associated with disease. Genes that were common between isolates contained high levels of nucleotide variation and may be pseudogenes, allelic, or under diversifying selection. The genomic resources we have contributed will be useful for the identification of genes that contribute to the phenotypic variation and niche specialization that have been reported among members of the F. graminearum species complex.

  5. Medication errors: an analysis comparing PHICO's closed claims data and PHICO's Event Reporting Trending System (PERTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, David M; Pendrak, Robert F

    2003-07-01

    Clinical pharmacologists are all dedicated to improving the use of medications and decreasing medication errors and adverse drug reactions. However, quality improvement requires that some significant parameters of quality be categorized, measured, and tracked to provide benchmarks to which future data (performance) can be compared. One of the best ways to accumulate data on medication errors and adverse drug reactions is to look at medical malpractice data compiled by the insurance industry. Using data from PHICO insurance company, PHICO's Closed Claims Data, and PHICO's Event Reporting Trending System (PERTS), this article examines the significance and trends of the claims and events reported between 1996 and 1998. Those who misread history are doomed to repeat the mistakes of the past. From a quality improvement perspective, the categorization of the claims and events is useful for reengineering integrated medication delivery, particularly in a hospital setting, and for redesigning drug administration protocols on low therapeutic index medications and "high-risk" drugs. Demonstrable evidence of quality improvement is being required by state laws and by accreditation agencies. The state of Florida requires that quality improvement data be posted quarterly on the Web sites of the health care facilities. Other states have followed suit. The insurance industry is concerned with costs, and medication errors cost money. Even excluding costs of litigation, an adverse drug reaction may cost up to $2500 in hospital resources, and a preventable medication error may cost almost $4700. To monitor costs and assess risk, insurance companies want to know what errors are made and where the system has broken down, permitting the error to occur. Recording and evaluating reliable data on adverse drug events is the first step in improving the quality of pharmacotherapy and increasing patient safety. Cost savings and quality improvement evolve on parallel paths. The PHICO data

  6. Relation between premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis and close interpersonal trauma in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Interpersonal traumas are highly prevalent in patients with psychotic disorders. Trauma caused by those close to the patient might have a more profound impact than other types of trauma and may influence early life social functioning. The aim is to investigate the associations between...... different types of trauma, in particular close interpersonal traumas experienced before the age of 18, premorbid factors and baseline clinical characteristics in a sample of first-episode psychosis patients. METHODS: A total of 191 patients from the 'TIPS' cohort completed assessment with the Brief Betrayal...... Trauma Survey at their 5 years follow-up interview. RESULTS: Half of the patients reported that they had experienced interpersonal trauma and one-third reported having experienced close interpersonal trauma before the age of 18. Women reported more sexual abuse, physical attacks and emotional...

  7. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  8. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  9. Rapid identification of closely related muscle foods by vibrational spectroscopy and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David I; Broadhurst, David; Clarke, Sarah J; Goodacre, Royston

    2005-12-01

    Muscle foods are an integral part of the human diet and during the last few decades consumption of poultry products in particular has increased significantly. It is important for consumers, retailers and food regulatory bodies that these products are of a consistently high quality, authentic, and have not been subjected to adulteration by any lower-grade material either by accident or for economic gain. A variety of methods have been developed for the identification and authentication of muscle foods. However, none of these are rapid or non-invasive, all are time-consuming and difficulties have been encountered in discriminating between the commercially important avian species. Whilst previous attempts have been made to discriminate between muscle foods using infrared spectroscopy, these have had limited success, in particular regarding the closely related poultry species, chicken and turkey. Moreover, this study includes novel data since no attempts have been made to discriminate between both the species and the distinct muscle groups within these species, and this is the first application of Raman spectroscopy to the study of muscle foods. Samples of pre-packed meat and poultry were acquired and FT-IR and Raman measurements taken directly from the meat surface. Qualitative interpretation of FT-IR and Raman spectra at the species and muscle group levels were possible using discriminant function analysis. Genetic algorithms were used to elucidate meaningful interpretation of FT-IR results in (bio)chemical terms and we show that specific wavenumbers, and therefore chemical species, were discriminatory for each type (species and muscle) of poultry sample. We believe that this approach would aid food regulatory bodies in the rapid identification of meat and poultry products and shows particular potential for rapid assessment of food adulteration.

  10. Active ammonia oxidizers in an acidic soil are phylogenetically closely related to neutrophilic archaeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baozhan; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Xue; Wang, Dongmei; He, Yuanqiu; Jia, Zhongjun

    2014-03-01

    All cultivated ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) within the Nitrososphaera cluster (former soil group 1.1b) are neutrophilic. Molecular surveys also indicate the existence of Nitrososphaera-like phylotypes in acidic soil, but their ecological roles are poorly understood. In this study, we present molecular evidence for the chemolithoautotrophic growth of Nitrososphaera-like AOA in an acidic soil with pH 4.92 using DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP). Soil microcosm incubations demonstrated that nitrification was stimulated by urea fertilization and accompanied by a significant increase in the abundance of AOA rather than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Real-time PCR analysis of amoA genes as a function of the buoyant density of the DNA gradient following the ultracentrifugation of the total DNA extracted from SIP microcosms indicated a substantial growth of soil AOA during nitrification. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes in the "heavy" DNA fractions suggested that archaeal communities were labeled to a much greater extent than soil AOB. Acetylene inhibition further showed that (13)CO2 assimilation by nitrifying communities depended solely on ammonia oxidation activity, suggesting a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle. Phylogenetic analysis of both (13)C-labeled amoA and 16S rRNA genes revealed that most of the active AOA were phylogenetically closely related to the neutrophilic strains Nitrososphaera viennensis EN76 and JG1 within the Nitrososphaera cluster. Our results provide strong evidence for the adaptive growth of Nitrososphaera-like AOA in acidic soil, suggesting a greater metabolic versatility of soil AOA than previously appreciated.

  11. Visual perception can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and computational fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlin eZhou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that numerosity processing (e.g., comparison of numbers of dots in two dot arrays is significantly correlated with arithmetic performance. Researchers have attributed this association to the fact that both tasks share magnitude processing. The current investigation tested an visual perception hypothesis that visual perceptual ability (as measured by a figure-matching task can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and arithmetic performance (computational fluency. Four hundred and twenty four third- to fifth-grade children (220 boys and 204 girls, 8.0 to 11.0 years old; 120 third graders, 146 fourth graders, and 158 fifth graders were recruited from two schools (one urban and one suburban in Beijing, China. Six classes were randomly selected from each school, and all students in each selected class were asked to participate in the study. All children were given a series of cognitive and mathematical tests, including numerosity comparison, figure matching, forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrices reasoning, mental rotation, choice reaction time, arithmetic tests and curriculum-based mathematical achievement test. Results showed that figure-matching ability had higher correlations with numerosity processing and computational fluency than did other cognitive factors (e.g., forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrices reasoning, mental rotation, and choice reaction time. More important, hierarchical multiple regression showed that figure matching ability accounted for the well-established association between numerosity processing and computational fluency. The results suggest that visual perceptual ability, rather than magnitude processing, may be the shared component of numerosity processing and arithmetic performance.

  12. Glycolysis Is Dynamic and Relates Closely to Respiration Rate in Stored Sugarbeet Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice A. Megguer

    2017-05-01

    storage and that changes in glycolysis are closely related to changes in sugarbeet root respiration.

  13. Initial data sets and the topology of closed three-manifolds in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carfora, M.

    1983-10-01

    The interaction between the matter content of a closed physical space associated with a generic gravitational configuration and the topology of the underlying closed three-manifold is discussed. Within the context of the conformal approach to the initial value problem, it is shown that the presence of enough matter and radiation favors the three-sphere topology or the worm-hole topology. It is argued that such topologies leave more room for possible gravitational initial data sets for the field equations.

  14. Treatment of cervical contractures utilising a closed platysmotomy like approach: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haik, Josef; Prat, Daphna; Kornhaber, Rachel; Tessone, Ariel

    2016-09-01

    Contractures to the cervical region as a result of burns has the capacity to cause restrictions in range of movement, function of the lower face, cervical spine distortion and poor aesthetic outcomes that remain a surgical challenge. Consequently, physical and aesthetic deformities as a result of cervical contractures are reported to cause depression having implications for patients' quality of life and psychosocial wellbeing. At the time this research was conducted, there were no case reports describing a closed platysmotomy approach in burn patients. In this article, we review the literature surrounding closed platysmotomies and present what we believe to be the first reported case in the treatment of cervical contractures utilising a closed platysmotomy approach in a burns patient. A closed platysmotomy approach for the treatment of cervical contractures is a less invasive technique. Further investigation is warranted to determine the feasibility of this reconstructive approach in the area of burn scar management.

  15. Negative aspects of close social relations and 10-year incident ischaemic heart disease hospitalization among middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Thielen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between negative aspects of close social relations and development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We aim to address if the experience of worries/demands and conflicts with close social relations are related to risk of first-time hospitalization...... National Patient Registry. Cox regression analysis was used to analyse data and all analyses were adjusted for age, gender, social class, cohabitation, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Worries/demands from and conflicts with children were associated with IHD hospitalization in an exposure-dependent manner...... was found for conflicts with partner. High levels of worries/demands from or conflicts with family and friends were associated with a 40% higher risk of IHD. CONCLUSIONS: Negative aspects of close social relations are associated with higher risk of incident IHD hospitalization except for conflicts...

  16. Identification of Traditional She Medicine Shi-Liang Tea Species and Closely Related Species Using the ITS2 Barcode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangjiao Ma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional She medicine is part of China’s cultural heritage and has become remarkably popular worldwide. The Shi-Liang tea is made from the processed leaves of Chimonanthus salicifolius S. Y. Hu and Chimonanthus zhejiangensis M. C. Liu. To ensure the safety and efficacy of Shi-Liang tea, we used DNA barcoding based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 of nuclear ribosomal DNA to distinguish the original plant sources of Shi-Liang tea from closely related species. All 71 ITS2 sequences were aligned by Clustal-W, and genetic distances were computed using MEGA 6.0 according to the Kimura 2-parameter model. The results indicated that the sequence lengths of ITS2 regions of the original plants of Shi-Liang tea and closely related species ranged from 256 bp to 260 bp. Interspecific genetic distances ranged from 0 to 0.078. The neighbor-joining (NJ tree showed that the original plants of Shi-Liang tea species can be easily differentiated from closely related species. Distinct molecular differences were found between the secondary structures of ITS2 sequences from Shi-Liang tea and closely related species. The results in the present investigation suggested that the ITS2 could be an effective DNA marker to identify the original plants of Shi-Liang tea and their closely related species. These DNA barcodes can greatly benefit the supervision of the commercial circulation of She medicine.

  17. Asexual reproduction in a close relative of Arabidopsis: a genetic investigation of apomixis in Boechera ( Brassicaceae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schranz, M.E.; Kantama, L.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Mitchell-Olds, T.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) is of great interest to both plant breeders and evolutionary biologists. The genus Boechera is an excellent system for studying apomixis because of its close relationship to Arabidopsis, the occurrence of apomixis at the diploid level, and

  18. A modified nodal pressure method for calculating flow distribution in hydraulic circuits for the case of unconventional closing relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor M. Mikhailovsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a method for numerically solving the problem of flow distribution in hydraulic circuits with lumped parameters for the case of random closing relations. The conventional and unconventional types of relations for the laws of isothermal steady fluid flow through the individual hydraulic circuit components are studied. The unconventional relations are presented by those given implicitly by the flow rate and dependent on the pressure of the working fluid. In addition to the unconventional relations, the formal conditions of applicability were introduced. These conditions provide a unique solution to the flow distribution problem. A new modified nodal pressure method is suggested. The method is more versatile in terms of the closing relation form as compared to the unmodified one, and has lower computational costs as compared to the known technique of double-loop iteration. The paper presents an analysis of the new method and its algorithm, gives a calculated example of a gas transportation network, and its results.

  19. Closed suction drainage using Lichtenstein technique in preventing wound complications following inguinal hernioplasty: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Hemmati

    2015-03-01

    Results: No adverse event including hematoma, seroma or wound infection occurred in either group with or without closed suction drainage in the first 10 days after surgery. Only one patient carried wound infection during days 10 to 15 following operation who was in the group with closed drainage (P=1.00. Conclusion: In this study, Seroma and hematoma was not observed in patients with and without closed suction drainage. To avoid drains' complications, indiscriminate use of antibiotics, prolonged hospital stay, we do not recommend the use of drains in this type of surgery.

  20. The closely related CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs) and lymphoid-resident CD8+ DCs differ in their inflammatory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhijun; Bedoui, Sammy; Brady, Jamie L; Walter, Anne; Chopin, Michael; Carrington, Emma M; Sutherland, Robyn M; Nutt, Stephen L; Zhang, Yuxia; Ko, Hyun-Ja; Wu, Li; Lew, Andrew M; Zhan, Yifan

    2014-01-01

    Migratory CD103+ and lymphoid-resident CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs) share many attributes, such as dependence on the same transcription factors, cross-presenting ability and expression of certain surface molecules, such that it has been proposed they belong to a common sub-lineage. The functional diversity of the two DC types is nevertheless incompletely understood. Here we reveal that upon skin infection with herpes simplex virus, migratory CD103+ DCs from draining lymph nodes were more potent at inducing Th17 cytokine production by CD4+ T cells than CD8+ DCs. This superior capacity to drive Th17 responses was also evident in CD103+ DCs from uninfected mice. Their differential potency to induce Th17 differentiation was reflected by higher production of IL-1β and IL-6 by CD103+ DCs compared with CD8+ DCs upon stimulation. The two types of DCs from isolated lymph nodes also differ in expression of certain pattern recognition receptors. Furthermore, elevated levels of GM-CSF, typical of those found in inflammation, substantially increased the pool size of CD103+ DCs in lymph nodes and skin. We argue that varied levels of GM-CSF may explain the contrasting reports regarding the positive role of GM-CSF in regulating development of CD103+ DCs. Together, we find that these two developmentally closely-related DC subsets display functional differences and that GM-CSF has differential effect on the two types of DCs.

  1. The closely related CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs and lymphoid-resident CD8+ DCs differ in their inflammatory functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Jiao

    Full Text Available Migratory CD103+ and lymphoid-resident CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs share many attributes, such as dependence on the same transcription factors, cross-presenting ability and expression of certain surface molecules, such that it has been proposed they belong to a common sub-lineage. The functional diversity of the two DC types is nevertheless incompletely understood. Here we reveal that upon skin infection with herpes simplex virus, migratory CD103+ DCs from draining lymph nodes were more potent at inducing Th17 cytokine production by CD4+ T cells than CD8+ DCs. This superior capacity to drive Th17 responses was also evident in CD103+ DCs from uninfected mice. Their differential potency to induce Th17 differentiation was reflected by higher production of IL-1β and IL-6 by CD103+ DCs compared with CD8+ DCs upon stimulation. The two types of DCs from isolated lymph nodes also differ in expression of certain pattern recognition receptors. Furthermore, elevated levels of GM-CSF, typical of those found in inflammation, substantially increased the pool size of CD103+ DCs in lymph nodes and skin. We argue that varied levels of GM-CSF may explain the contrasting reports regarding the positive role of GM-CSF in regulating development of CD103+ DCs. Together, we find that these two developmentally closely-related DC subsets display functional differences and that GM-CSF has differential effect on the two types of DCs.

  2. Spotted fever group rickettsia closely related to Rickettsia monacensis isolated from ticks in South Jeolla province, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Choi, Yeon-Joo; Shin, Sun-Hye; Choi, Min-Kyung; Song, Hyeon-Je; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A; Richards, Allen L; Park, Kyung-Hee; Jang, Won-Jong

    2013-07-01

    Rickettsia monacensis, a spotted fever group rickettsia, was isolated from Ixodes nipponensis ticks collected from live-captured small mammals in South Jeolla province, Korea in 2006. Homogenates of tick tissues were inoculated into L929 and Vero cell monolayers using shell vial assays. After several passages, Giemsa staining revealed rickettsia-like organisms in the inoculated Vero cells, but not the L929 cells. Sequencing analysis revealed that the ompA-small part (25-614 bp region), ompA-large part (2849-4455 bp region), nearly full-length ompB (58-4889 bp region) and gltA (196-1236 bp region) of the isolates had similarities of 100%, 99.8%, 99.3% and 99.5%, respectively, to those of R. monacensis. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate was grouped into the cluster in the same way as R. monacensis in the trees of all genes examined. These results strongly suggest that the isolate is closely related to R. monacensis. As far as is known, this is the first report of isolation of R. monacensis from ticks in Korea.

  3. Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Highland Ranch, CO; Pentilla, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI; Koivuranta, Kari [Vantaa, FI; Roberg-Perez, Kevin [Minneapolis, MN

    2012-01-17

    Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

  4. Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Closely Related Bacteria, Actinomyces sp. Strain Chiba101 and Actinomyces denticolens DSM 20671T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishige, Taichiro; Sekigawa, Yuriko; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Torii, Yasushi; Yokoyama, Eiji; Ishiwata, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Moriyuki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Azuma, Ryozo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Actinomyces sp. strain Chiba101, isolated from an arthritic leg joint of a pig raised in Japan, is a bacterium closely related to Actinomyces denticolens. Here, we deciphered the complete genome sequence of Actinomyces sp. Chiba101 and the high-quality draft genome sequence of A. denticolens DSM 20671T. PMID:28385845

  5. Phylogeny Inference of Closely Related Bacterial Genomes: Combining the Features of Both Overlapping Genes and Collinear Genomic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Cong; Lin, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping genes (OGs) represent one type of widespread genomic feature in bacterial genomes and have been used as rare genomic markers in phylogeny inference of closely related bacterial species. However, the inference may experience a decrease in performance for phylogenomic analysis of too closely or too distantly related genomes. Another drawback of OGs as phylogenetic markers is that they usually take little account of the effects of genomic rearrangement on the similarity estimation, such as intra-chromosome/genome translocations, horizontal gene transfer, and gene losses. To explore such effects on the accuracy of phylogeny reconstruction, we combine phylogenetic signals of OGs with collinear genomic regions, here called locally collinear blocks (LCBs). By putting these together, we refine our previous metric of pairwise similarity between two closely related bacterial genomes. As a case study, we used this new method to reconstruct the phylogenies of 88 Enterobacteriale genomes of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that the topological accuracy of the inferred phylogeny was improved when both OGs and LCBs were simultaneously considered, suggesting that combining these two phylogenetic markers may reduce, to some extent, the influence of gene loss on phylogeny inference. Such phylogenomic studies, we believe, will help us to explore a more effective approach to increasing the robustness of phylogeny reconstruction of closely related bacterial organisms. PMID:26715828

  6. Composition of the essential oils from underground parts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and several closely related taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Hendriks, Henk; Scheffer, Johannes J. C.

    1997-01-01

    The volatile constituents from roots and rhizomes of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and of several closely related Valeriana taxa were investigated by GC and GCMS (EI and NICI) analysis. Seeds were obtained from different botanical gardens in Europe, and the plants investigated were grown in an exper

  7. Gender-related inequalities in the division of family work in close relationships: A social psychological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, E.S.; Mikula, G.

    2003-01-01

    We offer a social psychological perspective on gender-related inequalities in close relationships and integrate two lines of research that have focused on the intrapersonal perceptions and interpersonal consequences respectively of the gendered division of labour. We start with a brief summary of

  8. Microvariation artifacts introduced by PCR and cloning of closely related 16S rRNA gene sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Jong, S. de; Kline, E.; Stephen, J.R.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    A defined template mixture of seven closely related 16S-rDNA clones was used in a PCR-cloning experiment to assess and track sources of artifactual sequence variation in 16S rDNA clone libraries. At least 14% of the recovered clones contained aberrations. Artifact sources were polymerase errors, a m

  9. Microvariation Artifacts Introduced by PCR and Cloning of Closely Related 16S rRNA Gene Sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Jong, de S.; Kline, E.; Stephen, J.R.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    A defined template mixture of seven closely related 16S-rDNA clones was used in a PCR-cloning experiment to assess and track sources of artifactual sequence variation in 16S rDNA clone libraries. At least 14% of the recovered clones contained aberrations. Artifact sources were polymerase errors, a m

  10. Gender-related inequalities in the division of family work in close relationships: A social psychological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, E.S.; Mikula, G.

    2003-01-01

    We offer a social psychological perspective on gender-related inequalities in close relationships and integrate two lines of research that have focused on the intrapersonal perceptions and interpersonal consequences respectively of the gendered division of labour. We start with a brief summary of re

  11. Beauty is in the 'we' of the beholder: greater agreement on facial attractiveness among close relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstad, P Matthew; Russell, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Scientific research on facial attractiveness has focused primarily on elucidating universal factors to which all raters respond consistently. However, recent work has shown that there is also substantial disagreement between raters, highlighting the importance of determining how attractiveness preferences vary among different individuals. We conducted a typical attractiveness ratings study, but took the unusual step of recruiting pairs of subjects who were spouses, siblings, or close friends. The agreement between pairs of affiliated friends, siblings, and spouses was significantly greater than between pairs of strangers drawn from the same race and culture, providing evidence that facial-attractiveness preferences are socially organized.

  12. [Marks on clothing and skin in absolutely and relatively close distance gunshots with fright weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjem, H; Bohnert, M; Schley, K; Pollak, S

    1996-01-01

    Based on an actual case to be examined-the victim had sustained burning and powder tattooing of the abdominal skin--test shots were performed with blank cartridge guns (Mauser and Umarex revolvers, cal. 380) in order to study the changes occurring on textiles in the area of contact and close range shots. As expected, the extent of burning and smoke soiling depended on whether the propellant of the blank cartridges consisted of nitrocellulose (Nc) or black powder. At the same distance the smokeless nitro-powder caused less soot soiling and burning than black powder. Contact or near contact shots produced tear-like tissue damages due to the pressure of the discharged muzzle gases. When black powder cartridges were used, burn holes larger than the caliber were observed; with Nc blank cartridges the thermal effects were most pronounced if textiles made of thermolabile synthetics were shot at.

  13. Large-Grain Superconducting Gun Cavity Testing Program Phase One Closing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bellavia, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Belomestnykh, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cullen, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dai, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Degen, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hahn, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Masi, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); McIntyre, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schultheiss, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Seda, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kellerman, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tallerico, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Todd, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tuozzolo, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xu, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Than, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2013-10-31

    This report details the experimental configuration and RF testing results for the first phase of a large-grained niobium electron gun cavity testing program being conducted in the Small Vertical Testing Facility in the Collider-Accelerator Department. This testing is meant to explore multi-pacting in the cavity and shed light on the behavior of a counterpart cavity of identical geometry installed in the Energy Recovery LINAC being constructed in the Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This test found that the Q of the large-grained cavity at 4 K reached ~6.5 × 108 and at 2 K reached a value of ~6 × 109. Both of these values are about a factor of 10 lower than would be expected for this type of cavity given the calculated surface resistance and the estimated geometry factor for this half-cell cavity. In addition, the cavity reached a peak voltage of 0.6 MV before there was sig-nificant decline in the Q value and a substantial increase in field emission. This relatively low volt-age, coupled with the low Q and considerable field emission suggest contamination of the cavity interior, possibly during experimental assembly. The results may also suggest that additional chemical etching of the interior surface of the cavity may be beneficial. Throughout the course of testing, various challenges arose including slow helium transfer to the cryostat and cable difficulties. These difficulties and others were eventually resolved, and the re-port discusses the operating experience of the experiment thus far and the plans for future work aimed at exploring the nature of multipacting with a copper cathode inserted into the cavity.

  14. Shifts in patterns of microhabitat occupation by six closely related species of mosses along a complex altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Maxine A

    1980-01-01

    Changes in patterns of microhabitat occupation were examined for six closely related moss species (family Polytrichaceae) found growing together along a complex altitudinal gradient on the northeast face of Mount Washington, New Hampshire. Little evidence could be found to support the hypothesis that the relative distributions of these six moss species were determined by competitive interactions occurring among them. Instead, the data support the hypothesis that changing patterns in the relative distributions of these six moss species result from differences in microhabitat availability among sites. The moss species appear to behave in an opportunistic manner, occupying a wide array of microhabitats as these microhabitats become available to them.

  15. Studies on two closely related species of octocorallians: biochemical and molecular characteristics of the organic matrices of endoskeletal sclerites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Isa, Y; Uehara, T

    2006-01-01

    Two species of alcyonarian corals, Lobophytum crassum and Sinularia polydactyla, are closely related to each other. It is reported that the calcified organic substances in the skeletons of both contain a protein-polysaccharide complex playing a key role in the regulation of biocalcification. However, information on the matrix proteins of endoskeletal sclerite has been lacking. Hence we studied the proteinaceous organic matrices of sclerites for both species, to analyze the sequences and the functional properties of the proteins present. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the preparations showed four bands of proteins with apparent molecular masses of 102, 67, 48, and 37 kDa for L. crassum and seven bands of 109, 83, 70, 63, 41, 30, and 22 kDa for S. polydactyla. A major protein band of about 67 kDa in L. crassum and two bands of proteins of about 70 and 63 kDa in S. polydactyla yielded N-terminal amino acid sequences. Periodic acid-Schiff staining indicated that the 67-kDa protein in L. crassum, and 83- and 63-kDa proteins in S. polydactyla were glycosylated. For detection of calcium binding proteins, a Ca(2+) overlay analysis was conducted in the extract via (45)Ca autoradiography. The 102- and 67-kDa calcium binding proteins in L. crassum, and the 109- and 63-kDa Ca(2+) binding proteins in S. polydactyla were found to be radioactive. An assay for carbonic anhydrase (CA), which is thought to play an important role in the process of calcification, revealed specific activities. Newly derived protein sequences were subjected to standard sequence analysis involving identification of similarities to other proteins in databases. The significantly different protein expressions and compositional analysis of sequences between two species were demonstrated.

  16. A new vanilla species from Costa Rica closely related to V. planifolia (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Azofeifa-Bolaños

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new vanilla species growing in sympatry with Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews (Orchidaceae in the province of Limón, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. The morphology of the reproductive and vegetative organs observed on vines cultivated under shade-house, the nuclear (Internal Transcribed Spacer and plastid (matK nucleotide sequences, as well as the contents of aromatic compounds measured in ripe fruits, show that this species is close to but distinct from V. planifolia. The name V. sotoarenasii M.Pignal, Azofeifa-Bolaños & Grisoni sp. nov. is proposed for this new Vanilla species endemic in Costa Rica. It is especially distinguished from V. planifolia by a reduction of about 30% of the size of the fruits and flowers, by a divergence of ITS sequences for at least two species-conserved nucleotides compared to seven other species of the V. planifolia group, and by the presence of anisic compounds and low content of phenolic compounds (including vanillin in the fruits. These results confirmed the extension of the area of distribution of V. planifolia southward to Costa Rica, where a recent speciation process occurred. Because of its particular agronomic and aromatic properties, V. sotoarenasii sp. nov. could represent a valuable biological resource for the vanilla industry.

  17. Adaptation and modification of three CRISPR loci in two closely related cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Stephanie; Scholz, Ingeborg; Voß, Björn; Hess, Wolfgang R

    2013-05-01

    An RNA-based screen was performed to reveal a possible evolutionary scenario for the CRISPR-Cas systems in two cyanobacterial model strains. Following the analysis of a draft genome sequence of Synechocystis sp PCC6714, three different CRISPR-Cas systems were characterized that have different degrees of relatedness to another three CRISPR-Cas systems in Synechocystis sp PCC6803. A subtype III-B system was identified that is extremely conserved between both strains. Strong signals in northern hybridizations and the presence of different spacers (but identical repeats) indicated this system to be active, despite the absence of a known endonuclease candidate gene involved in the maturation of its crRNAs in the two strains. The other two systems were found to differ significantly from each other, with different sets of repeat-spacer arrays and different Cas genes. In view of the otherwise very close relatedness of the two analyzed strains, this is suggestive of an unknown mechanism involved in the replacement of CRISPR-Cas cassettes as a whole. Further RNA analyses revealed the accumulation of crRNAs to be impacted by environmental conditions critical for photoautotropic growth. All six systems are associated with a gene for a possible transcriptional repressor. Indeed, we identified one of these genes, sll7009, as encoding a negative regulator specific for the CRISPR1 subtype I-D system in Synechocystis sp PCC6803.

  18. Asexual reproduction in a close relative of Arabidopsis: a genetic investigation of apomixis in Boechera (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schranz, M Eric; Kantama, Laksana; de Jong, Hans; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Understanding apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) is of great interest to both plant breeders and evolutionary biologists. The genus Boechera is an excellent system for studying apomixis because of its close relationship to Arabidopsis, the occurrence of apomixis at the diploid level, and its potentially simple inheritance by transmission of a heterochromatic (Het) chromosome. Diploid sexual Boechera stricta and diploid apomictic Boechera divaricarpa (carrying a Het chromosome) were crossed. Flow cytometry, karyotype analysis, genomic in situ hybridization, pollen staining and seed-production measurements were used to analyse the parents and resulting F1, F2 and selected F3 and test-cross (TC) generations. The F1 plant was a low-fertility triploid that produced a swarm of aneuploid and polyploid F2 progeny. Two of the F2 plants were fertile near-tetraploids, and analysis of their F3 and TC progeny revealed that they were sexual and genomically stabilized. The apomictic phenotype was not transmitted by genetic crossing as a single dominant locus on the Het chromosome, suggesting a complex genetic control of apomixis that has implications for future genetic and evolutionary analyses in this group.

  19. Embarrassment When Illness Strikes A Close Relative: A World Mental Health Survey Consortium Multi-Site Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedani, Brian K.; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kessler, Ronald C.; de Graaf, Ron; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Zarkov, Zahari; Viana, Maria Carmen; Huang, Y.Q.; Hu, Chiyi; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Karam, Aimee N.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Gureje, Oye; Ferry, Finola; Sagar, Rajesh; Anthony, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Background This global study seeks to estimate the degree to which a family member might feel embarrassed when a close relative is suffering from an alcohol, drug, or mental health condition (ADMC) versus a general medical condition (GMC). To date, most studies have considered embarrassment and stigma in society and internalized by the afflicted individual, but have not assessed family embarrassment in a large scale study. Method In 16 sites of the World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS), standardized assessments were completed including items on family embarrassment. Site matching was used to constrain local socially shared determinants of stigma-related feelings, enabling a conditional logistic regression model that estimates the embarrassment close relatives may hold in relation to family members affected by an ADMC, GMC, or both conditions. Results There was a statistically robust association such that subgroups with an ADMC-affected relative were more likely to feel embarrassed as compared to subgroups with a relative affected by a GMC (p<0.001), even with covariate adjustments for age and sex. Conclusions The pattern of evidence from this research is consistent with conceptual models for interventions that target individual- and family-level stigma-related feelings of embarrassment as might be part of the obstacles to effective early intervention and treatment for ADMC conditions. Macro-level interventions are underway, but micro-level interventions also may be required among family members, along with care for each person with an ADMC. PMID:23298443

  20. A dimensionless relative trajectory estimation algorithm for autonomous imaging of a small astronomical body in a close distance flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariu, Kaito; Inamori, Takaya; Funase, Ryu; Nakasuka, Shinichi

    2016-08-01

    The world's first micro-spacecraft, "Proximate Object Close flYby with Optical Navigation" (PROCYON) has the advanced mission to approach an asteroid in dozen km (a one-order closer imaging distance compared with previous probes). In such a close distance encounter, the estimation of the relative trajectory of the target is necessary to perform autonomous imaging. However, the estimation is difficult owing to rapid changes of the line-of-sight direction of the target body. To overcome this problem, a novel dimensionless or direction only relative trajectory estimation algorithm, which uses a least square method, is proposed. The evaluation function for the least square method coincides with the error property of picture information to enable all of its calculations to be recursive and linear. It is suited for the implementation on the limited on-board computer. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm should enable the one-order closer flyby observation.

  1. Students' perceptions of parent-adolescent closeness and communication about sexuality: relations with sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, C L; Paulson, S E

    2000-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore how parent-adolescent closeness and communication about sexuality were associated with three aspects of adolescent sexuality (sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors). Participants were 157 boys and girls in grades 9 to 12 from two suburban high schools in the Midwest. Canonical correlation analyses revealed two significant combinations of variables. First, younger age and less maternal and paternal communication were related to less sexual behavior and less sexual knowledge. Second, being younger and female and receiving less maternal communication was related to less sexual knowledge and more conservative attitudes. Contrary to expectation, higher levels of parental closeness in conjunction with parental communication did not have a significant influence on these adolescents' sexuality. Given the importance of both age and parental communication in predicting adolescent's sexuality in this study, implications concerning the timing of communication become evident.

  2. Closed hollow bulb obturator--one-step fabrication: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzayan, Muaiyed M; Ariffin, Yusnidar T; Yunus, Norsiah

    2013-10-01

    A method is described for the fabrication of a closed hollow bulb obturator prosthesis using a hard thermoforming splint material and heat-cured acrylic resin. The technique allowed the thickness of the thermoformed bulb to be optimized for weight reduction, while the autopolymerized seal area was covered in heat-cured acrylic resin, thus eliminating potential leakage and discoloration. This technique permits the obturator prosthesis to be processed to completion from the wax trial denture without additional laboratory investing, flasking, and processing.

  3. Closed rhinoplasty:effects and changes on voice - a preliminary report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Guarro; Romano Mafifa; Barbara Rasile; Carmine Alfano

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Effects of rhinoplasty were already studied from many points of view: otherwise poor is scientific production focused on changes of voice after rhinoplasty. This preliminary study analyzed objectively and subjectively these potential effects on 19 patients who underwent exclusively closed rhinoplasty.Methods: This preliminary evaluation was conducted from September 2012 to May 2013 and 19 patients have undergone primary rhinoplasty with exclusively closed approach (7 males, 12 females). All patients were evaluated before and 6 months after surgery. Each of them answered to a questionnaire (Voice Handicap Index Score) and the voice was recorded for spectrographic analysis: this system allowed to perform the measurement of the intensity and frequency of vowels (“A” and “E”) and nasal consonants (“N” and “M”) before and after surgery. Data were analysed with the Mann-Whitney test.Results: Sixteen patients showed statistically significant differences after surgery. It was detected in 69% of cases an increased frequency of emission of the consonant sounds (P = 0.046), while in 74% of cases the same phenomenon was noticed for vowel sounds (P = 0.048).Conclusion: Many patients who undergo rhinoplasty think that the intervention only leads to anatomical changes and improvement of respiratory function. The surgeon should instead accurately inform patients about the potential effects on the voice. This preliminary study reveals the significant effects of closed rhinoplasty on the human voice.

  4. Political market orientation and its commercial cousin: Close family or distant relatives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    2007-01-01

    the differences between the related terms of "market orientation" and "marketing orientation." Further, the article surveys the political market orientation literature and then discusses the perspective that each approach adopts, the extent to which a distinction is made between a "political market orientation...

  5. New criteria for selecting the origin of DNA replication in Wolbachia and closely related bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Sapountzis, Panagiotis

    2007-01-01

    , the origin of DNA replication (ori) regions were identified in silico for Wolbachia strains and eleven other related bacteria belonging to Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia genera. These features include DnaA-, CtrA- and IHF-binding sites as well as the flanking genes in C. crescentus. The Wolbachia ori...

  6. Two-component signal transduction in Bacillus cereus and closely related bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, de M.W.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive pathogen that is recognised as an important cause of food-borne disease worldwide. Within the genus Bacillus, B. cereus and its closest relatives form a homogeneous subdivision that has been termed the B. cereus group. This group includes B. anthracis, a pathogen

  7. Gene regulations in HBV-related liver cirrhosis closely correlate with disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seram; Kim, Soyoun

    2007-09-30

    Liver cirrhosis (LC) is defined as comprising diffuse fibrosis and regenerating nodules of the liver. The biochemical and anatomical dysfunction in LC results from both reduced liver cell number and portal vascular derangement. Although several studies have investigated dysregulated genes in cirrhotic nodules, little is known about the genes implicated in the pathophysiologic change of LC or about their relationship with the degree of decompensation. Here, we applied cDNA microarray analysis using 38 HBsAg-positive LC specimens to identify the genes dysregulated in HBV-associated LC and to evaluate their relation to disease severity. Among 1063 known cancer- and apoptosis-related genes, we identified 104 genes that were significantly up- (44) or down- (60) regulated in LC. Interestingly, this subset of 104 genes was characteristically correlated with the degree of decompensation, called the Pugh-Child classification (20 Pugh-Child A, 10 Pugh-Child B, and 8 Pugh-Child C). Patient samples from Pugh-Child C exhibited a distinct pattern of gene expression relative to those of Pugh-Child A and B. Especially in Pugh-Child C, genes encoding hepatic proteins and metabolizing enzymes were significantly down-regulated, while genes encoding various molecules related to cell replication were up-regulated. Our results suggest that subsets of genes in liver cells correspond to the pathophysiologic change of LC according to disease severity and possibly to hepatocarcinogenesis.

  8. Closed-loop surface-related multiple elimination and its application to simultaneous data reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Angarita, G.A.; Verschuur, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) is one of the most commonly used methods for suppressing surface multiples. However, to obtain an accurate surface multiple estimation, dense source and receiver sampling is required. The traditional approach to this problem is performing data interpolatio

  9. Estrus Traits Derived from Activity Measurements are Heritable and Closely Related to Conventional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed Ismael Sayed; Kargo, Morten; Fogh, Anders

    This study was aimed at assessing the genetic parameters for fertility-related traits, comparing the interval from calving to first insemination (ICF) to physical activity traits, especially days from calving to first high activity, DFHA. Data from commercial Holstein herds included insemination...

  10. Specific molecular detection of Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ixodid ticks and cattle in a pastureland in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian P; Tagawa, Michihito; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Kishimoto, Toshio; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular analyses of the Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (previously believed to be A. phagocytophilum) in Japan have clarified its distinct phylogenetic position. PCR methods relying on 16S rRNA- and P44/MSP2-based primers designed to detect this species have low sensitivity and specificity. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific nested PCR method using newly designed primers based on heat-shock operon gene (groEL) was developed to detect this species. The method was later used in an epidemiological study testing DNA samples from 85 Ixodid ticks (collected by flagging) and 50 cattle from the same pastureland in Nakaosobetsu, Hokkaido, Japan. Results revealed prevalence rates of 2.4% (2 of 85) in ticks and 2% (1 of 50) in cattle. The present study also reported the first molecular detection of the Anaplasma sp. closely related to A. phagocytophilum in Japan in H. douglasii, and established a new reliable PCR method that detects this Anaplasma sp. closely related to A. phagocytophilum in Japan.

  11. Comparative genomics of four closely related Clostridium perfringens bacteriophages reveals variable evolution among core genes with therapeutic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragusa Gregory R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because biotechnological uses of bacteriophage gene products as alternatives to conventional antibiotics will require a thorough understanding of their genomic context, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of four closely related phages isolated from Clostridium perfringens, an important agricultural and human pathogen. Results Phage whole-genome tetra-nucleotide signatures and proteomic tree topologies correlated closely with host phylogeny. Comparisons of our phage genomes to 26 others revealed three shared COGs; of particular interest within this core genome was an endolysin (PF01520, an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase and a holin (PF04531. Comparative analyses of the evolutionary history and genomic context of these common phage proteins revealed two important results: 1 strongly significant host-specific sequence variation within the endolysin, and 2 a protein domain architecture apparently unique to our phage genomes in which the endolysin is located upstream of its associated holin. Endolysin sequences from our phages were one of two very distinct genotypes distinguished by variability within the putative enzymatically-active domain. The shared or core genome was comprised of genes with multiple sequence types belonging to five pfam families, and genes belonging to 12 pfam families, including the holin genes, which were nearly identical. Conclusions Significant genomic diversity exists even among closely-related bacteriophages. Holins and endolysins represent conserved functions across divergent phage genomes and, as we demonstrate here, endolysins can have significant variability and host-specificity even among closely-related genomes. Endolysins in our phage genomes may be subject to different selective pressures than the rest of the genome. These findings may have important implications for potential biotechnological applications of phage gene products.

  12. Integrative analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene expression efficiently distinguishes samples from closely related ethnic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsin-Chou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ancestry informative markers (AIMs are a type of genetic marker that is informative for tracing the ancestral ethnicity of individuals. Application of AIMs has gained substantial attention in population genetics, forensic sciences, and medical genetics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, the materials of AIMs, are useful for classifying individuals from distinct continental origins but cannot discriminate individuals with subtle genetic differences from closely related ancestral lineages. Proof-of-principle studies have shown that gene expression (GE also is a heritable human variation that exhibits differential intensity distributions among ethnic groups. GE supplies ethnic information supplemental to SNPs; this motivated us to integrate SNP and GE markers to construct AIM panels with a reduced number of required markers and provide high accuracy in ancestry inference. Few studies in the literature have considered GE in this aspect, and none have integrated SNP and GE markers to aid classification of samples from closely related ethnic populations. Results We integrated a forward variable selection procedure into flexible discriminant analysis to identify key SNP and/or GE markers with the highest cross-validation prediction accuracy. By analyzing genome-wide SNP and/or GE markers in 210 independent samples from four ethnic groups in the HapMap II Project, we found that average testing accuracies for a majority of classification analyses were quite high, except for SNP-only analyses that were performed to discern study samples containing individuals from two close Asian populations. The average testing accuracies ranged from 0.53 to 0.79 for SNP-only analyses and increased to around 0.90 when GE markers were integrated together with SNP markers for the classification of samples from closely related Asian populations. Compared to GE-only analyses, integrative analyses of SNP and GE markers showed comparable testing

  13. NEGLECTED POSTERIOR KNEE DISLOCATION TREATED WITH CLOSED MANIPULATION AND UNIPLANAR EXTERNAL FIXATOR : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neglected traumatic posterior knee dislocations were rare in orthopaedic literature more so after a surgical intervention . Majority of the injuries are associated with vascular trauma and distal or proximal fractures and complete disruption of anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments and nerve traction injuries. Traumatic knee dislocations are therefore treated as an orthopaedic emergency. There were no definitive guide lines to open reduction as well as conservative methods of treatment. The end results of functional recovery are still controversial with residual posterior subluxation. Here we present a case of neglected posterior knee dislocation treated with closed manipulation and uni planar external fixator

  14. Summarizing knowledge about ethical considerations when conducting Joint Interviews with close relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    2016-01-01

    was analyzed using thematic analysis with an inductive approach. Results In total 17 articles were located. Findings were divided into two main themes: Ethical challenges in conducting joint interviews and Ethical challenges when planning and reporting from joint interviews. Conclusions and implications Joint......Background and purpose Interviewing interrelated persons simultaneously might pose different ethical considerations than single interviews due to informants’ relationship. Studies indicate that conflict torn relationships are the strongest predictor for a negative health status which obligates...... the researcher not to jeopardize it doing joint interviews. Ethical considerations conducting joint interviews remain largely undescribed in the literature. Our purpose was to illuminate the literature regarding specific ethical challenges conducting joint interviews with interrelated people in order to avoid...

  15. The evolution of different maternal investment strategies in two closely related desert vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Averill-Murray, Roy C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Agha, Mickey; Loughran, Caleb; Tennant, Laura A.; Sinervo, Barry

    2017-01-01

    We compared egg size phenotypes and tested several predictions from the optimal egg size (OES) and bet-hedging theories in two North American desert-dwelling sister tortoise taxa, Gopherus agassizii and G. morafkai, that inhabit different climate spaces: relatively unpredictable and more predictable climate spaces, respectively. Observed patterns in both species differed from the predictions of OES in several ways. Mean egg size increased with maternal body size in both species. Mean egg size was inversely related to clutch order in G. agassizii, a strategy more consistent with the within-generation hypothesis arising out of bet-hedging theory or a constraint in egg investment due to resource availability, and contrary to theories of density dependence, which posit that increasing hatchling competition from later season clutches should drive selection for larger eggs. We provide empirical evidence that one species, G. agassizii, employs a bet-hedging strategy that is a combination of two different bet-hedging hypotheses. Additionally, we found some evidence for G. morafkai employing a conservative bet-hedging strategy. (e.g., lack of intra- and interclutch variation in egg size relative to body size). Our novel adaptive hypothesis suggests the possibility that natural selection favors smaller offspring in late-season clutches because they experience a more benign environment or less energetically challenging environmental conditions (i.e., winter) than early clutch progeny, that emerge under harsher and more energetically challenging environmental conditions (i.e., summer). We also discuss alternative hypotheses of sexually antagonistic selection, which arise from the trade-offs of son versus daughter production that might have different optima depending on clutch order and variation in temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) among clutches. Resolution of these hypotheses will require long-term data on fitness of sons versus daughters as a function of

  16. Ethical Challenges when Interviewing Close Relatives Together – An Integrative Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    2015-01-01

    . The purpose of this study is to describe the special ethical perspectives concerning joint interviews with interrelated persons. Method An integrative review was performed. A search was conducted in Pub Med, Cinahl, Philosophers Index and Academic Search from 1980 -2014. Data corpus from the 17 articles...... was analysed using thematic analysis with an inductive approach searching for themes about ethical considerations doing joint interviews. The SPIDER search tool was applied using keywords relatives, ethic, dyadic interview, challenges and qualitative methods created on the basis of relevant pseudonyms, Mesh...

  17. Solvent-Induced Reversal of Activities between Two Closely Related Heterogeneous Catalysts in the Aldol Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandel, Kapil [Ames Laboratory; Althaus, Stacey M [Ames Laboratory; Peeraphatdit, Chorthip [Ames Laboratory; Kobayashi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory; Trewyn, Brian G [Ames Laboratory; Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory; Slowing, Igor I [Ames Laboratory

    2013-01-11

    The relative rates of the aldol reaction catalyzed by supported primary and secondary amines can be inverted by 2 orders of magnitude, depending on the use of hexane or water as a solvent. Our analyses suggest that this dramatic shift in the catalytic behavior of the supported amines does not involve differences in reaction mechanism, but is caused by activation of imine to enamine equilibria and stabilization of iminium species. The effects of solvent polarity and acidity were found to be important to the performance of the catalytic reaction. This study highlights the critical role of solvent in multicomponent heterogeneous catalytic processes.

  18. Collecting close-contact social mixing data with contact diaries: reporting errors and biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieszek, T; Burri, E U; Scherzinger, R; Scholz, R W

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of contact networks plays a major role to understanding the dynamics of disease spread. Empirical contact data is often collected using contact diaries. Such studies rely on self-reported perceptions of contacts, and arrangements for validation are usually not made. Our study was based on a complete network study design that allowed for the analysis of reporting accuracy in contact diary studies. We collected contact data of the employees of three research groups over a period of 1 work week. We found that more than one third of all reported contacts were only reported by one out of the two involved contact partners. Non-reporting is most frequent in cases of short, non-intense contact. We estimated that the probability of forgetting a contact of ≤5 min duration is greater than 50%. Furthermore, the number of forgotten contacts appears to be proportional to the total number of contacts.

  19. Closed loop chemical systems for energy storage and transmission (chemical heat pipe). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakil, H.B.; Flock, J.W.

    1978-02-01

    The work documents the anlaysis of closed loop chemical systems for energy storage and transmission, commonly referred to as the Chemical Heat Pipe (CHP). Among the various chemical reaction systems and sources investigated, the two best systems were determined to be the high temperature methane/steam reforming reaction (HTCHP) coupled to a Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR) and the lower temperature, cyclohexane dehydrogenation reaction (LTCHP) coupled to existing sources such as coal or light water reactors. Solar and other developing technologies can best be coupled to the LTCHP. The preliminary economic and technical analyses show that both systems could transport heat at an incremental cost of approximately $1.50/GJ/160 km (in excess of the primary heat cost of $2.50/GJ), at system efficiencies above 80%. Solar heat can be transported at an incremental cost of $3/GJ/160 km. The use of the mixed feed evaporator concept developed in this work contributes significantly to reducing the transportation cost and increasing the efficiency of the system. The LTCHP shows the most promise of the two systems if the technical feasibility of the cyclic closed loop chemical reaction system can be established. An experimental program for establishing this feasibility is recommended. Since the VHTR is several years away from commercial demonstration and the HTCHP chemical technology is well developed, future HTCHP programs should be aimed at VHTR and interface problems.

  20. Ethical Challenges when Interviewing Close Relatives Together – An Integrative Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Interviewing two interrelated persons (or more) simultaneously might pose different ethical considerations than interviewing just one person. Such ethical considerations, however, remain largely undescribed in literature, challenging the researcher who wishes to conduct them...... was analysed using thematic analysis with an inductive approach searching for themes about ethical considerations doing joint interviews. The SPIDER search tool was applied using keywords relatives, ethic, dyadic interview, challenges and qualitative methods created on the basis of relevant pseudonyms, Mesh......: The researcher/interviewer, Planning of joint interviews and Participant well-being. Conclusions and implications The nature of joint interviews poses many ethical challenges as more people are involved. They provide insight into shared accounts and communication patterns between interviewees, highlighting...

  1. Estrus Traits Derived from Activity Measurements are Heritable and Closely Related to Conventional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed Ismael Sayed; Kargo, Morten; Fogh, Anders

    This study was aimed at assessing the genetic parameters for fertility-related traits, comparing the interval from calving to first insemination (ICF) to physical activity traits, especially days from calving to first high activity, DFHA. Data from commercial Holstein herds included insemination...... dates of 11,363 cows for ICF. The activity traits were derived from electronic activity tags for 3533 Holstein cows. Estimates of heritability were 0.05 for ICF and 0.15 for DFHA. The genetic correlation between ICF and DFHA was strong (0.92). The high heritability estimate and the strong genetic...... correlation between ICF and DFHA suggest that genetic gain in ICF can be improved by including DFHA as a supplementary trait in the genetic evaluation of female fertility...

  2. Genetic rescue of an endangered domestic animal through outcrossing with closely related breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strønen, Astrid Vik; Salmela, Elina; Baldursdottir, Birna K.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic rescue, outcrossing with individuals from a related population, is used to augment genetic diversity in populations threatened by severe inbreeding and extinction. The endangered Norwegian Lundehund dog underwent at least two severe bottlenecks in the 1940s and 1960s that each left only......: Norwegian Buhund, Icelandic Sheepdog, and Norrbottenspets. Examination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes based on 165K loci in 48 dogs from the four breeds revealed substantially lower genetic diversity for the Lundehund (HE 0.035) than for other breeds (HE 0.209-0.284). Analyses of genetic...... structure with > 15K linkage disequilibrium-pruned SNPs showed four distinct genetic clusters. Pairwise FST values between Lundehund and the candidate breeds were highest for Icelandic Sheepdog, followed by Buhund and Norrbottenspets. We assessed the presence of outlier loci among candidate breeds...

  3. Differential specificity between closely related corals and abundant Endozoicomonas endosymbionts across global scales

    KAUST Repository

    Neave, Matthew J.

    2016-07-08

    Reef-building corals are well regarded not only for their obligate association with endosymbiotic algae, but also with prokaryotic symbionts, the specificity of which remains elusive. To identify the central microbial symbionts of corals, their specificity across species and conservation over geographic regions, we sequenced partial SSU ribosomal RNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea from the common corals Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora verrucosa across 28 reefs within seven major geographical regions. We demonstrate that both corals harbor Endozoicomonas bacteria as their prevalent symbiont. Importantly, catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD–FISH) with Endozoicomonas-specific probes confirmed their residence as large aggregations deep within coral tissues. Using fine-scale genotyping techniques and single-cell genomics, we demonstrate that P. verrucosa harbors the same Endozoicomonas, whereas S. pistillata associates with geographically distinct genotypes. This specificity may be shaped by the different reproductive strategies of the hosts, potentially uncovering a pattern of symbiont selection that is linked to life history. Spawning corals such as P. verrucosa acquire prokaryotes from the environment. In contrast, brooding corals such as S. pistillata release symbiont-packed planula larvae, which may explain a strong regional signature in their microbiome. Our work contributes to the factors underlying microbiome specificity and adds detail to coral holobiont functioning.

  4. Plant Virus Differentially Alters the Plant's Defense Response to Its Closely Related Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaobin; Pan, Huipeng; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Liu, Yang; Fang, Yong; Chen, Gong; Gao, Xiwu; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Background The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is one of the most widely distributed agricultural pests. In recent years, B. tabaci Q has invaded China, and Q has displaced B in many areas now. In a number of regions of the world, invasion by B and/or Q has been followed by outbreaks of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Our previous study showed TYLCV directly and indirectly modified the feeding behavior of B. tabaci in favor of Q rather than B. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we quantified the salicylic acid (SA) titers and relative gene expression of SA in tomato leaves that were infested with viruliferous or non-viruliferous B and Q. We also measured the impacts of exogenous SA on the performance of B and Q, including the effects on ovary development. SA titer was always higher in leaves that were infested with viruliferous B than with viruliferous Q, whereas the SA titer did not differ between leaves infested with non-viruliferous B and Q. The relative gene expression of SA signaling was increased by feeding of viruliferous B but was not increased by feeding of viruliferous Q. The life history traits of B and Q were adversely affected on SA-treated plants. On SA-treated plants, both B and Q had lower fecundity, shorter longevity, longer developmental time and lower survival rate than on untreated plants. Compared with whiteflies feeding on control plants, those feeding on SA-treated plants had fewer oocytes and slower ovary development. On SA-treated plants, viruliferous B had fewer oocytes than viruliferous Q. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that TYLCV tends to induce SA-regulated plant defense against B but SA-regulated plant defense against Q was reduced. In other words, Q may have a mutualistic relationship with TYLCV that results in the reduction of the plant's defense response. PMID:24391779

  5. Characterisation data of simple sequence repeats of phages closely related to T7M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiao-Yin Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Coliphages T7M and T3, Yersinia phage ϕYeO3-12, and Salmonella phage ϕSG-JL2 share high homology in genomic sequences. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are found in their genomes and variations of SSRs among these phages are observed. Analyses on regions of sequences in T7M and T3 genomes that are likely derived from phage recombination, as well as the counterparts in ϕYeO3-12 and ϕSG-JL2, have been discussed by Lin in “Simple sequence repeat variations expedite phage divergence: mechanisms of indels and gene mutations” [1]. These regions are referred to as recombinant regions. The focus here is on SSRs in the whole genome and regions of sequences outside the recombinant regions, referred to as non-recombinant regions. This article provides SSR counts, relative abundance, relative density, and GC contents in the complete genome and non-recombinant regions of these phages. SSR period sizes and motifs in the non-recombinant regions of phage genomes are plotted. Genomic sequence changes between T7M and T3 due to insertions, deletions, and substitutions are also illustrated. SSRs and nearby sequences of T7M in the non-recombinant regions are compared to the sequences of ϕYeO3-12 and ϕSG-JL2 in the corresponding positions. The sequence variations of SSRs due to vertical evolution are classified into four categories and tabulated: (1 insertion/deletion of SSR units, (2 expansion/contraction of SSRs without alteration of genome length, (3 changes of repeat motifs, and (4 generation/loss of repeats.

  6. Different mechanics of snap-trapping in the two closely related carnivorous plants Dionaea muscipula and Aldrovanda vesiculosa

    CERN Document Server

    Poppinga, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The carnivorous aquatic Waterwheel Plant (Aldrovanda vesiculosa L.) and the closely related terrestrial Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula SOL. EX J. ELLIS) both feature elaborate snap-traps, which shut after reception of an external mechanical stimulus by prey animals. Traditionally, Aldrovanda is considered as a miniature, aquatic Dionaea, an assumption which was already established by Charles Darwin. However, videos of snapping traps from both species suggest completely different closure mechanisms. Indeed, the well-described snapping mechanism in Dionaea comprises abrupt curvature inversion of the two trap lobes, while the closing movement in Aldrovanda involves deformation of the trap midrib but not of the lobes, which do not change curvature. In this paper, we present the first detailed mechanical models for these plants, which are based on the theory of thin solid membranes and explain this difference by showing that the fast snapping of Aldrovanda is due to kinematic amplification of the bending deforma...

  7. Subacute autonomic and sensory neuropathy closely related to cytomegalovirus infection preceded by frequent syncopal attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Koichi; Namekawa, Michito; Kondo, Soichi; Ono, Sayaka; Nakano, Imaharu

    2016-08-31

    is the first report of subacute autonomic and sensory neuropathy caused by CMV infection.

  8. Domestication and defence: Foliar tannins and C/N ratios in cassava and a close wild relative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondolot, Laurence; Marlas, Amandine; Barbeau, Damien; Gargadennec, Annick; Pujol, Benoît; McKey, Doyle

    2008-09-01

    Plant domestication is accompanied by shifts in resource allocation, as a result of farmer selection for genotypes that give high yields in agricultural habitats. Relaxed natural selection for chemical and physical defences in these habitats could facilitate resource allocation to yield. We compared the concentrations of tannins, and C/N ratios, which are often correlated with investment in cell-wall compounds, in leaves of landraces of domesticated cassava ( Manihot esculenta) and a close wild relative in French Guiana. Foliar concentrations of tannins were about 1.9 times higher in the wild relative than in domesticated cassava. Histochemical analyses showed that tannins were present in nearly all palisade and spongy parenchyma cells of the wild taxon, but in only some cells of these tissues in M. esculenta. C/N ratios were also 1.9 times higher in leaves of the wild relative than in those of domesticated cassava. Tannins accounted for only a small proportion of total carbon, and the higher C/N ratio in wild than in domesticated cassava may reflect higher investment in carbon-containing compounds additional to tannins, such as cell-wall compounds. The divergence in these traits between cassava and this close wild relative mirrors a broad pattern observed in wild plant species across habitats varying in resource availability. One explanation for our results is that domestication in cassava may have favoured a shift from a resource conservation strategy to a resource acquisition strategy.

  9. Transposons play an important role in the evolution and diversification of centromeres among closely related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eJackson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Centromeres are important chromosomal regions necessary for eukaryotic cell segregation and replication. Due to high amounts of tandem repeats and transposons, centromeres have been difficult to sequence in most multicellular organisms, thus their sequence structure and evolution are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed transposons in the centromere 8 (Cen8 from the African cultivated rice (O. glaberrima and two subspecies of the Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa, indica and japonica. We detected much higher transposon contents (>69% in centromere regions than in the whole genomes of O. sativa ssp japonica and O. glaberrima (~35%. We compared the three Cen8s and identified numerous recent insertions of transposons that were frequently organized into multiple-layer nested blocks, similar to nested transposons in maize. Except for the Hopi retrotransposon, all LTR retrotransposons were shared but exhibit different abundances amongst the three Cen8s. Even though a majority of the transposons were located in intergenic regions, some gene-related transposons were found and may be involved in gene diversification. Chromatin immunoprecipitated (ChIP data analysis revealed that 165 families from both Class I and Class II transposons were found in CENH3-associated chromatin sequences. These results indicate essential roles for transposons in centromeres and that the rapid divergence of the Cen8 sequences between the two cultivated rice species was primarily caused by recent transposon insertions.

  10. Locomotor performance of closely related Tropidurus species: relationships with physiological parameters and ecological divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlsdorf, Tiana; James, Rob S; Carvalho, José E; Wilson, Robbie S; Dal Pai-Silva, Maeli; Navas, Carlos A

    2004-03-01

    Tropidurid lizards have colonized a variety of Brazilian open environments without remarkable morphological variation, despite ecological and structural differences among habitats used. This study focuses on two Tropidurus sister-species that, despite systematic proximity and similar morphology, exhibit great ecological divergence and a third ecologically generalist congeneric species providing an outgroup comparison. We quantified jumping capacity and sprint speed of each species on sand and rock to test whether ecological divergence was also accompanied by differences in locomotor performance. Relevant physiological traits possibly associated with locomotor performance - metabolic scopes and fiber type composition, power output and activity of the enzymes citrate synthase, pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase of the iliofibularis muscle - were also compared among the three Tropidurus species. We found that the two sister-species exhibited remarkable differences in jumping performance, while Tropidurus oreadicus, the more distantly related species, exhibited intermediate values. Tropidurus psamonastes, a species endemic to sand dunes, exhibited high absolute sprint speeds on sand, jumped rarely and possessed a high proportion of glycolytic fibers and low activity of citrate synthase. The sister-species Tropidurus itambere, endemic to rocky outcrops, performed a large number of jumps and achieved lower absolute sprint speed than T. psamonastes. This study provides evidence of rapid divergence of locomotor parameters between sister-species that use different substrates, which is only partially explained by variation in physiological parameters of the iliofibularis muscle.

  11. Rediscovery of Trypanosoma (Pycnomonas) suis, a tsetse-transmitted trypanosome closely related to T. brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Rachel; Gibson, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    The African tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes are considered to be a well-known group of parasitic protozoa, but in 2008 a novel and distinctive trypanosome related to Trypanosoma brucei was discovered among tsetse isolates from Msubugwe in Tanzania. The host range, distribution and potential pathogenicity of this new trypanosome remain to be elucidated; such studies would be facilitated by a sensitive and specific identification method. Here, we identified two highly repetitive elements in the genome of the new trypanosome: a 177 bp repeat, which was located predominantly on the highly abundant minichromosomes, and a 138 bp repeat, which was widely dispersed in the genome. A PCR test based on each repeat was specific for the new trypanosome and sensitive to Trypanosoma (Pycnomonas) suis. We also present data on the molecular karyotype and spliced leader (SL, miniexon) repeat of the new trypanosome, both of which distinguish T. suis from other, better-known African tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes. The rediscovery of T. suis opens new lines of research into the evolution and biology of the African trypanosomes.

  12. Open and closed lip schizencephaly in Seckel syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Rajoo; Mallick, Debkrishna; Biswas, Biswajit; Ghosh, Apurba

    2010-04-01

    Seckel syndrome (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database Number 210600) is the classic prototype of primordial bird-headed dwarfism. In addition to the characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism and skeletal defects, abnormalities of the cardiovascular, hematopoietic, endocrine, and central nervous systems are described. The full phenotypic spectrum of this clinically and genetically heterogeneous syndrome is yet to be delineated. Presented herein is a boy 2 years and 5 months old, with Seckel syndrome, born to second-degree consanguineous Muslim parents. In addition to the classic phenotype of the disorder, this patient had both, an open and a closed lip schizencephaly detected on cranial computed tomography (CT) scan. To our knowledge, the association of schizencephaly and Seckel syndrome is not described previously in the English language literature. In addition, presented briefly is a review of the anatomical cerebral cortical malformations associated with this syndrome.

  13. USSR Report, International Economic Relations, No. 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS No. 61 CONTENTS USSR- CEMA TRADE CEMA Progress in 1982 Spotlighted (APN DAILY REVIEW, 8 Aug 83) 1 Plant...Director Views Relations With CEMA Counterparts (V. P. Kabaidze Interview; PRAVDA, 27 Jun 83) 3 Soviet, CEMA Cooperation With Cuba (V. Morozov; APN...DAILY REVIEW, 29 Jul 83) 8 CEMA Specialization, Integration Noted (N. Syomin; APN DAILY REVIEW, 12 May 83) 12 TRADE WITH IDC’S

  14. Closely related intertidal and deep-sea Halomonhystera species have distinct fatty acid compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Jelle; Vanreusel, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The deep-sea free-living nematode Halomonhystera hermesi, dominant in the sulphidic sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (1280 m, Barent sea slope), is part of the mainly estuarine Halomonhystera disjuncta species complex consisting of five cryptic species (GD1-GD5). Cryptic species have a very similar morphology raising questions on their specific environmental differences. This study analyzed total fatty acid (FA) compositions of H. hermesi and GD1, one of H. hermesi's closest relatives. Additionally, we experimentally investigated the effect of a temperature reduction, salinity increase and sulphide concentrations on GD1's FA composition. Because nematodes are expected to have low amounts of storage FA, total FA compositions most likely reflect FA contents of cellular membranes. The deep-sea nematode H. hermesi had significantly lower saturation levels and increased highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFAs) proportions due to the presence of docosahexanoic acid (DHA—22:6ω3) and higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA—20:5ω3) proportions. HUFAs were absent in H. hermesi's food source indicating the ability and need for this nematode to synthesize HUFAs in a deep-sea environment. Our experimental data revealed that only a decrease in temperature resulted in lower saturated fatty acids proportions, indicating that the FA content of H. hermesi is most likely a response to temperature but not to sulphide concentrations or salinity differences. In experimental nematodes, EPA proportions were low and DHA was absent indicating that other factors than temperature, salinity and sulphides mediate the presence of these HUFAs in H. hermesi.

  15. Transcriptomic Analyses Elucidate Adaptive Differences of Closely Related Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekera, Thusitha S.; Bowen, Loryn L.; Zhou, Carol E.; Howard-Byerly, Susan C.; Foley, William S.; Striebich, Richard C.; Dugan, Larry C.; Ruiz, Oscar N.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2017-03-17

    Pseudomonas aeruginosacan utilize hydrocarbons, but different strains have various degrees of adaptation despite their highly conserved genome.P. aeruginosaATCC 33988 is highly adapted to hydrocarbons, whileP. aeruginosastrain PAO1, a human pathogen, is less adapted and degrades jet fuel at a lower rate than does ATCC 33988. We investigated fuel-specific transcriptomic differences between these strains in order to ascertain the underlying mechanisms utilized by the adapted strain to proliferate in fuel. During growth in fuel, the genes related to alkane degradation, heat shock response, membrane proteins, efflux pumps, and several novel genes were upregulated in ATCC 33988. Overexpression ofalkgenes in PAO1 provided some improvement in growth, but it was not as robust as that of ATCC 33988, suggesting the role of other genes in adaptation. Expression of the function unknown gene PA5359 from ATCC 33988 in PAO1 increased the growth in fuel. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that PA5359 is a predicted lipoprotein with a conserved Yx(FWY)xxD motif, which is shared among bacterial adhesins. Overexpression of the putative resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux pump PA3521 to PA3523 increased the growth of the ATCC 33988 strain, suggesting a possible role in fuel tolerance. Interestingly, the PAO1 strain cannot utilizen-C8andn-C10. The expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control ofalkBpromoters confirmed thatalkgene promoter polymorphism affects the expression ofalkgenes. Promoter fusion assays further confirmed that the regulation ofalkgenes was different in the two strains. Protein sequence analysis

  16. Transcriptomic Analyses Elucidate Adaptive Differences of Closely-Related Strains of P. aeruginosa in Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Thusitha S; Bowen, Loryn L; Zhou, Carol E; Howard-Byerly, Susan C; Foley, William S; Striebich, Richard C; Dugan, Larry C; Ruiz, Oscar N

    2017-03-17

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can utilize hydrocarbons, but different strains have varying degrees of adaptation despite their highly conserved genome. P. aeruginosa ATCC 33988 is highly adapted to hydrocarbons while strain PAO1, a human pathogen, is less-adapted and degrades jet fuel at a slower rate than does ATCC 33988. We investigated fuel specific transcriptomic differences between these strains in order to ascertain the underling mechanisms utilized by the adapted strain to proliferate in fuel. During growth in fuel, the genes related to alkane degradation, heat-shock response, membrane proteins, efflux pumps and several novel genes were upregulated in ATCC 33988. Overexpression of alk genes in PAO1 provided some improvement in growth, but not as robust as that of ATCC 33988, suggesting the role of other genes in adaptation. Expression of the function unknown gene PA5359 from ATCC 33988 in PAO1 increased the growth in fuel. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that PA5359 is a predicted lipoprotein with a conserved 'Yx(FWY)xxD' motif, which is shared among bacterial adhesins. Overexpression of the putative RND-efflux pump PA3521-PA3523 increased the growth of ATCC 33988 strain suggesting a possible role in fuel tolerance. Interestingly the PAO1 strain cannot utilize nC8 and nC10. Expression of GFP under the control of alkB promoters confirmed that alk gene promoter polymorphism affects the expression of alk genes. Promoter fusion assays further confirmed that regulation of alk genes was different in the two strains. Protein sequence analysis showed low amino acid differences for many of the upregulated genes, further supporting transcriptional control as the main mechanism for enhanced adaptation.IMPORTANCE These results support that specific signal transduction, gene regulation and coordination of multiple biological responses are required to improve survival, growth and metabolism of fuel in adapted strains. This study provides new insight into the mechanistic

  17. Poecilia picta, a Close Relative to the Guppy, Exhibits Red Male Coloration Polymorphism: A System for Phylogenetic Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Anna K; Sandkam, Ben; Pohl, Kristina; Breden, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the evolution of female preference and male color polymorphism frequently focus on single species since traits and preferences are thought to co-evolve. The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has long been a premier model for such studies because female preferences and orange coloration are well known to covary, especially in upstream/downstream pairs of populations. However, focused single species studies lack the explanatory power of the comparative method, which requires detailed knowledge of multiple species with known evolutionary relationships. Here we describe a red color polymorphism in Poecilia picta, a close relative to guppies. We show that this polymorphism is restricted to males and is maintained in natural populations of mainland South America. Using tests of female preference we show female P. picta are not more attracted to red males, despite preferences for red/orange in closely related species, such as P. reticulata and P. parae. Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked. P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs. We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome. The presence/absence of red male coloration of P. picta described here makes this an ideal system for phylogenetic comparisons that could reveal the evolutionary forces maintaining mate choice and color polymorphisms in this speciose group.

  18. Combining morphology, DNA sequences, and morphometrics: revising closely related species in the orb-weaving spider genus Araniella (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojevic, Tamara; Kropf, Christian; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Lasut, Liana

    2016-05-17

    The integration of independent data sets could solve problems in both traditional and DNA-based taxonomy. The aim of this study is to investigate the power of CO1 sequences and of morphometrics to distinguish closely related species in the spider genus Araniella. We put special emphasis on the species pair A. cucurbitina (Clerck, 1757) and A. opisthographa (Kulczyński, 1905) since the females are morphologically difficult to distinguish and often misidentified. A total of 216 sequences of eight Araniella species from seven European countries, North America and Asia were included in the molecular analysis. The results from both maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference indicate successful separation of six out of eight Araniella species, including A. cucurbitina and A. opisthographa. For the same six species, we detect no overlap of intra- and interspecific genetic divergence, leading to successful species identification with a threshold approach. In addition, morphometric analysis of the epigyna of A. cucurbitina and A. opisthographa supports species separation by two best explanatory ratios: receptaculum length and distance between receptaculum and copulatory duct. Although a small overlap in the ratios exists, the species identification rate increases when combining morphometric and molecular data, which demonstrates the efficiency of integrative approaches for distinguishing closely related species. However, none of the molecular approaches was able to separate closely related A. alpica (L. Koch, 1869) and A. inconspicua (Simon, 1874) due to shared CO1 haplotypes. Considering the clear morphological separation of the males and different habitat preferences, incomplete lineage sorting or introgressive hybridization could have led to identical CO1 sequences. Therefore, DNA-barcoding must be thoroughly tested even within small homogenous genera of spiders.

  19. Two closely related species of desert carpenter ant differ in individual-level allocation to fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Daniel A

    2006-01-01

    Comparison of closely related species that differ in their life histories is a powerful method for studying the underlying physiological mechanisms contributing to life-history variation. I investigated whether two closely related members of the Camponotus festinatus species complex of desert carpenter ants, C. nr. festinatus Desert Light and C. nr. festinatus Desert Dark, differed in their life-history tactics with respect to fat storage. Newly mated queens were collected in the field, and colonies were reared under common conditions in the laboratory for 2 yr before sampling. I show that the two species differ in fat storage at the individual level. While the basic scaling relationship between lean mass and fat content did not differ between the two species, Dark workers and soldiers stored significantly more fat per unit lean mass than Light workers or soldiers. There were no significant demographic differences in the proportions of workers or soldiers involved in fat storage between the two species, although there was a trend toward Light colonies having a greater proportion of soldiers storing large amounts of fat. There was also no significant difference in the total amount of fat stored by the two species at the colony level. The detection of strong individual-level effects but no colony-level effects was likely due to the low statistical power of colony-level analyses. Showing that these two closely related species differ in fat storage at the individual level in a common environment demonstrates their utility as a model for understanding the physiological and behavioral mechanisms regulating life-history variation in fat storage in ants.

  20. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liukang [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); McDermitt, Dayle [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Anderson, Tyler [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Riensche, Brad [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Komissarov, Anatoly [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Howe, Julie [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been

  1. The ectomycorrhizal morphotype Pinirhiza sclerotia is formed by Acephala macrosclerotiorum sp. nov., a close relative of Phialocephala fortinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzenberger, Babette; Bubner, Ben; Wöllecke, Jens; Sieber, Thomas N; Bauer, Robert; Fladung, Matthias; Hüttl, Reinhard F

    2009-09-01

    Relatively few ectomycorrhizal fungal species are known to form sclerotia. Usually, sclerotia are initiated at the extraradical mycelium. In this study, we present anatomical and ultrastructural evidence for the formation of sclerotia directly in the hyphal mantle of the mycorrhizal morphotype Pinirhiza sclerotia. A dark-pigmented fungal strain was isolated from Pinirhiza sclerotia and identified by molecular tools as Acephala macrosclerotiorum sp. nov., a close relative of Phialocephala fortinii s.l. As dark septate fungi are known to be mostly endophytic, resyntheses with Pinus sylvestris and A. macrosclerotiorum as well as Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides and A. macrosclerotiorum or P. fortinii s.l. were performed under axenic conditions. No mycorrhizas were found when hybrid aspen was inoculated with A. macrosclerotiorum or P. fortinii. However, A. macrosclerotiorum formed true ectomycorrhizas in vitro with P. sylvestris. Anatomical and ultrastructural features of this ectomycorrhiza are presented. The natural and synthesized ectomycorrhizal morphotypes were identical and characterized by a thin hyphal mantle that bore sclerotia in a later ontogenetic stage. The Hartig net was well-developed and grew up to the endodermis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence at the anatomical and ultrastructural level that a close relative of P. fortinii s.l. forms true ectomycorrhizas with a coniferous host.

  2. Conservative whole-organ scaling contrasts with highly labile suborgan scaling differences among compound eyes of closely related Formica ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Craig D; Rossoni, Sergio; Niven, Jeremy E

    2017-03-01

    Static allometries determine how organ size scales in relation to body mass. The extent to which these allometric relationships are free to evolve, and how they differ among closely related species, has been debated extensively and remains unclear; changes in intercept appear common, but changes in slope are far rarer. Here, we compare the scaling relationships that govern the structure of compound eyes of four closely related ant species from the genus Formica. Comparison among these species revealed changes in intercept but not slope in the allometric scaling relationships governing eye area, facet number, and mean facet diameter. Moreover, the scaling between facet diameter and number was conserved across all four species. In contrast, facet diameters from distinct regions of the compound eye differed in both intercept and slope within a single species and when comparing homologous regions among species. Thus, even when species are conservative in the scaling of whole organs, they can differ substantially in regional scaling within organs. This, at least partly, explains how species can produce organs that adhere to genus wide scaling relationships while still being able to invest differentially in particular regions of organs to produce specific features that match their ecology.

  3. USSR Report, International Economic Relations, No. 57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    ECONOMIC RELATIONS No. 57 CONTENTS USSR WORLD TRADE Soviet Aid in Building Projects in CEMA , Less Developed Countries (I. Kapranov; EKONOMICHESKAYA...GAZETA, No 18, Apr 83) . 1 USSR- CEMA TRADE Coordinating CEMA Statistical Data (L. Antsiferovaj VESTNIK STATISTIKI, Jan 83) 9 USSR-EAST EUROPE...Meets (S. Nikolayevj EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, No 11, Mar 83) UU b - USSR WORLD TRADE SOVIET AID IN BUILDING PROJECTS IN CEMA , LESS DEVELOPED

  4. Complete cardiac rupture associated with closed chest cardiac massage: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattoli, Lucia; Maselli, Eloisa; Romanelli, Maria Carolina; Di Vella, Giancarlo; Solarino, Biagio

    2014-03-01

    Chest skeletal injuries are the most frequent complications of external chest massage (ECM) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but heart and great vessels lacerations that are indeed very rare. We report the case of a 35-year-old workman who collapsed and underwent ECM by his co-workers for almost 30 min. At autopsy, no external injuries, fractures or bruises of the ribs or sternum, were observed. A hemopericardium with a rupture of the heart was found, with no signs of pre-existent cardiac disease. Bruises of thoracic aortic wall, lung petechiae, a contusion of the liver, and bruises of lumbar muscles were found. The cause of death was due to sudden cardiac death with an extensive cardiac rupture. This is an unusual report of massive heart damage without any skeletal or muscle chest injuries, secondary to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This kind of cardiac lesions may be considered when thoracic–abdominal trauma, or medical history, is unclear.

  5. Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in close proximity to the skin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagouri Flora

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy is a minimally invasive technique used increasingly for the assessment of mammographically detected, non-palpable breast lesions. The effectiveness of vacuum-assisted breast biopsy has been demonstrated on lesions both with and without microcalcifications. Given that the position of the lesion represents a major factor in stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy, targeting lesions in close proximity to the skin (superficial lesions has been described as a problematic issue. Case presentation A 53-year-old woman presented with a newly developed, non-palpable lesion in her left breast. The lesion consisted of widely spread microcalcifications located approximately 5 mm from the skin. The lesion was isoechoic on ultrasound examination. Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy was scheduled (on the Fischer's table, using 11-gauge probes, under local anaesthesia. The vacuum-assisted breast biopsy probe was inserted antidiametrically into the breast, the probe reached the lesion and effort was made to excise the microcalcifications. As only a small proportion of the microcalcifications were excised an accurate diagnosis could not be expected. However, with the probe having entered the breast antidiametrically, the probe tip underlying the skin could be palpated. Following the palpation of the tip, the exact point was marked by a pen, the probe was removed and the patient was transferred to the surgery room to have the remaining lesion removed by a spindle-form excision under local anaesthesia. The mammogram of the removed specimen confirmed the total excision of the suspicious microcalcifications. Conclusion Isoechoic superficial lesions can be localized with a hook-wire and open breast biopsy under general or local anaesthesia can be performed. However, vacuum-assisted breast biopsy might offer an alternative solution and serve as an alternative approach to localize the lesion. The clinical significance of

  6. Strong differences in chemical recognition cues between two closely related species of ants from the genus Lasius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, W R; Witte, V

    2011-11-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are increasingly recognized as important to insects and are used for constructing taxonomies. However, multiple parameters affect the expression of CHCs besides a genetic component. We propose that selection may act differently on the expression of CHCs, depending on the evolutionary context. To explore the influence of selection, the CHCs of two closely related ant species, Lasius niger and Lasius platythorax, were studied in a multidisciplinary approach. We characterized (i) CHCs and (ii) niches (through baiting, activity observations and foraging analysis). The species were distinct in both measures, although to a varying degree. Although they showed moderate niche partitioning along diet and environmental preferences, chemical differences were unexpectedly pronounced. This may be explained by divergent selection on mate recognition cues or by other influences on CHCs. Such striking chemical differences among closely related species may not be the rule and suggest that taxonomies based on CHCs should be interpreted cautiously; though, they remain useful tools for differentiating among cryptic species. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Closely-related taxa influence woody species discrimination via DNA barcoding: evidence from global forest dynamics plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Nancai; Erickson, David L; Chen, Bufeng; Ge, Xuejun; Mi, Xiangcheng; Swenson, Nathan G; Zhang, Jin-Long; Jones, Frank A; Huang, Chun-Lin; Ye, Wanhui; Hao, Zhanqing; Hsieh, Chang-Fu; Lum, Shawn; Bourg, Norman A; Parker, John D; Zimmerman, Jess K; McShea, William J; Lopez, Ida C; Sun, I-Fang; Davies, Stuart J; Ma, Keping; Kress, W John

    2015-10-12

    To determine how well DNA barcodes from the chloroplast region perform in forest dynamics plots (FDPs) from global CTFS-ForestGEO network, we analyzed DNA barcoding sequences of 1277 plant species from a wide phylogenetic range (3 FDPs in tropics, 5 in subtropics and 5 in temperate zone) and compared the rates of species discrimination (RSD). We quantified RSD by two DNA barcode combinations (rbcL + matK and rbcL + matK + trnH-psbA) using a monophyly-based method (GARLI). We defined two indexes of closely-related taxa (Gm/Gt and S/G ratios) and correlated these ratios with RSD. The combination of rbcL + matK averagely discriminated 88.65%, 83.84% and 72.51% at the local, regional and global scales, respectively. An additional locus trnH-psbA increased RSD by 2.87%, 1.49% and 3.58% correspondingly. RSD varied along a latitudinal gradient and were negatively correlated with ratios of closely-related taxa. Successes of species discrimination generally depend on scales in global FDPs. We suggested that the combination of rbcL + matK + trnH-psbA is currently applicable for DNA barcoding-based phylogenetic studies on forest communities.

  8. Coagulation and fibrinolysis in capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), a close relative of the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, D P; Polizello, A C; Rothschild, Z

    2000-01-01

    Fibrinolytic and coagulation properties of capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, LINNAEUS, 1766) plasma were analysed and the results compared to the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus), a close relative. Capybara fibrinogen was isolated and fibrinolysis of its plasma was carried out in a homologous system and with bovine fibrin. Undiluted plasma did not have fibrinolytic activity on fibrin plates; euglobulins gave a dose-related response. Zymography of capybara and guinea-pig plasma gave the same patterns of activity as human or bovine plasma. Human urokinase (UK) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) produced lysis in capybara fibrin plates. Streptokinase (SK) (500 IU/ml) did not activate capybara or guinea-pig plasma. In this system, human plasma was extensively activated. Coagulation tests for both species of rodent were prolonged. The capybara showed values for prothrombin time (PT) shorter than activated thromboplastin time (APTT). The guinea-pig, as already shown, had longer PT values. Factors X and VII were very low for capybara and guinea-pig when tested using reference curves and diagnostic kits for human plasma. It is suggested that the capybara could be a valuable laboratory animal considering its size and closeness to the guinea-pig, and this could allow for the provision of materials from one single animal when convenient or necessary.

  9. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Hódar, José A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada Spain; Sardans, Jordi [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Kyle, Jennifer E. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Oravec, Michal [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Urban, Otmar [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Guenther, Alex [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California 92697 USA; Peñuelas, Josep [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain

    2016-06-02

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but the entire metabolome (the set of molecular metabolites), including defensive compounds. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are directly affected by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from Pinus pinaster, P. nigra and P. sylvestris to determine if these closely related Pinus species with different coevolutionary histories with the caterpillars of the processionary moth respond similarly to attacks by this lepidopteran. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the pine species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of phenolic metabolites were generally not higher in the attacked trees, which had lower concentrations of terpenes, suggesting that herbivores avoid individuals with high concentrations of terpenes. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution.

  10. DNA barcoding in closely related species: A case study of Primula L.sect.Proliferae Pax (Primulaceae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Fei YAN; Gang HAO; Chi-Ming HU; Xue-Jun GE

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a method of identifying species by analyzing one or a few short standardized DNA sequences. There are particular challenges in barcoding plants, especially for distinguishing closely related species. Hence, there is an urgent need to evaluate the performance of candidate loci for distinguishing between species, especially closely related species, to complement the rbcL + matK combination suggested as the core barcode for land plants. We sampled 48 individuals representing 12 species in Primula sect. Proliferae Pax in China to evaluate the performance of eight leading candidate barcode loci (matK, rbcL, rpoB, rpoCl, trnH-psbA, psbK-psbI, atpFatpH, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)). The core combination rbcL + matK gave only 50% species resolution in sect. Proliferae. In terms of intraspecies and interspecies divergence, degree of monophyly, and sequence similarity, ITS, trnH-psbA, and psbK-psbI showed good performance as single-locus barcodes. Internal transcribed spacer displayed the highest genetic divergence and best discriminatory power, both alone and in combination with rbcL +matK (83.3% species resolution). We recommend evaluating the use of ITS for barcoding in other species. Low or single copy nuclear regions would provide more sophisticated barcoding tools in the long term, even though further research is required to find suitable loci.

  11. Bacillus Strains Most Closely Related to Bacillus nealsonii Are Not Effectively Circumscribed within the Taxonomic Species Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kealy Peak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains with >99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were characterized with DNA:DNA hybridization, cellular fatty acid (CFA analysis, and testing of 100 phenotypic traits. When paired with the most closely related type strain, percent DNA:DNA similarities (% S for six Bacillus strains were all far below the recommended 70% threshold value for species circumscription with Bacillus nealsonii. An apparent genomic group of four Bacillus strain pairings with 94%–70% S was contradicted by the failure of the strains to cluster in CFA- and phenotype-based dendrograms as well as by their differentiation with 9–13 species level discriminators such as nitrate reduction, temperature range, and acid production from carbohydrates. The novel Bacillus strains were monophyletic and very closely related based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. Coherent genomic groups were not however supported by similarly organized phenotypic clusters. Therefore, the strains were not effectively circumscribed within the taxonomic species definition.

  12. Evolution of hydraulic traits in closely related species pairs from Mediterranean and nonMediterranean environments of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Radika; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Ackerly, David D

    2007-01-01

    Chaparral shrubs in California experience cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers characteristic of mediterranean-type climates; by contrast, morphologically similar close relatives in central Mexico experience summer rainfall. A comparison of closely related species pairs was conducted to examine whether evolutionary divergences in plant hydraulic conductivity were associated with contrasting seasonality of precipitation. Six species pairs in Santa Barbara, California and Tehuacan, Mexico were chosen to test for repeated directional divergences across the habitat contrast. Additionally, evolutionary correlations were examined using phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) among a suite of hydraulic traits, including stem- and leaf-specific conductivity, resistance to embolism, wood density, inverse Huber value, and minimum seasonal water potential. Leaf-specific conductivity was generally higher in California, but for most hydraulic traits the species pairs exhibited varied evolutionary trajectories across the climate contrast. A significant correlation was found between divergences in xylem resistance to embolism and minimum seasonal water potential, but no evolutionary trade-off was found between resistance and stem conductivity. Higher leaf-specific conductivity may be adaptive in California, where soil and atmospheric droughts coincide during summer months. This response is consistent with a hydraulic strategy of high leaf water supply under high evaporative demand to prevent excessive drops in water potential.

  13. Buried waste integrated demonstration fiscal year 1992 close-out report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, P.G.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program (BWID) is to support the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially-available baseline technologies form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste disposed of throughout the US Department of Energy complex. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated the BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY)-91. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID Program during FY-92.

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Bereavement: Early Psychological Sequelae of Losing a Close Relative Due to Terminal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T. E.; Elklit, A.; Karstoft, K. I.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a consequence of bereavement from terminal illness. Therefore, knowledge on the traumatizing effects of bereavement and risk factors for traumatization from bereavement is rather sparse. This study investigated prevalence...... and predictors of PTSD in a group of people who had recently lost a close relative due to incurable cancer. The participants were 132 persons who were assessed with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, the Trauma Symptom Checklist, and the Crisis Support Scale. One month after the loss, 29.5% of the subjects had...... clinical PTSD and an additional 26.2% reached a subclinical PTSD level. Negative affectivity, social support, and locus of control in relation to the loss predicted 57% of the variance in PTSD severity. A focus on these risk factors in early assessment after bereavement will help identify subjects at risk...

  15. The Cost of Mating: Influences of Life History Traits and Mating Strategies on Lifespan in Two Closely Related Yponomeuta Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Bakker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory predicts that in monandrous butterfly species males should not invest in a long lifespan because receptive females quickly disappear from the mating population. In polyandrous species, however, it pays for males to invest in longevity, which increases the number of mating opportunities and thus reproductive fitness. We tested an extension of this idea and compared male and female lifespan of two closely related Yponomeuta species with different degree of polyandry. Our results confirmed the theoretical prediction that male lifespan is fine-tuned to female receptive lifespan; once-mated males and females of both polyandrous species had an equal lifespan. However, the degree of polyandry was not reflected in male relative to female lifespan. The observed similar female and male lifespan could largely be attributed to a dramatic reduction of female lifespan after mating.

  16. ”How do the patients and their close relatives experience The Coordinated Investigation Model of Dementia in the North Denmark Region?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Aase Marie

    How do the patients and their close relatives experience The Coordinated Investigation Model of Dementia in the North Denmark Region? The aim of the project was to investigate how the patients and their close relatives experienced the investigation and the subsequent social medicine intervention...

  17. Buried waste integrated demonstration Fiscal Year 1993 close-out report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, K.J.; Hyde, R.A.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management needs and objectives. BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID program during FY-93.

  18. Competing structures in nuclei near closed shells. Final report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S.J.

    1999-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress made during this period. A series of experiments on levels in {sup 144}Nd have led to the identification of quadrupole-octupole coupled states in the nucleus. These experiments included the measurement of excited level lifetimes using the GRID technique, the measurement of transition conversion coefficients and the measurement of weak transition intensities. A fast electronic timing system has been set-up at Tennessee Tech. This system can be used to measure nuclear excited state lifetimes in the range from 5 ps upward. A new variation of the centroid shift method has been developed which eliminates the need to determine a prompt position. This centroid difference method employs both forward and reverse gating of gamma cascades to generate two timing spectra.

  19. Final report for LDRD project {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the research performed under the laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}, funded FY94-6. We describe the goals of the research, motivate and list our improvements to the state of the art in multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny (evolutionary tree) construction, but leave technical details to the six publications resulting from this work. At least three algorithms for phylogeny construction or tree consensus have been implemented and used by researchers outside of Sandia.

  20. Final report for LDRD project {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the research performed under the laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}, funded FY94-6. We describe the goals of the research, motivate and list our improvements to the state of the art in multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny (evolutionary tree) construction, but leave technical details to the six publications resulting from this work. At least three algorithms for phylogeny construction or tree consensus have been implemented and used by researchers outside of Sandia.

  1. Technical Area V (TA-V) transformation project close-out report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Technical Area V (TA-V) has provided unique nuclear experimental environments for decades. The technologies tested in TA-V facilities have furthered the United States Nuclear Weapons program and has contributed to the national energy and homeland security mission. The importance of TA-V working efficiently to produce an attractive and effective platform for experiments should not be underestimated. Throughout its brief history, TA-V has evolved to address multiple and diverse sets of requirements. These requirements evolved over many years; however, the requirements had not been managed nor communicated comprehensively or effectively. A series of programmatic findings over several years of external audits was evidence of this downfall. Today, these same requirements flow down through a new TA-V management system that produces consistently applied and reproducible approaches to work practices. In 2008, the TA-V department managers assessed the state of TA-V services and work activities to understand how to improve customer interfaces, stakeholders perceptions, and workforce efficiencies. The TA-V management team initiated the TA-V Transformation Project after they deemed the pre-June 2008 operational model to be ineffective in managing work and in providing integrated, continuous improvement to TA-V processes. This report summarizes the TA-V Transformation Project goals, activities, and accomplishments.

  2. Air Force Research Laboratory Spacecraft Cryocooler Endurance Evaluation Facility Closing Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J.; Martin, K. W.; Fraser, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Spacecraft Component Thermal Research Group has been devoted to evaluating lifetime performance of space cryocooler technology for over twenty years. Long-life data is essential for confirming design lifetimes for space cryocoolers. Continuous operation in a simulated space environment is the only accepted method to test for degradation. AFRL has provided raw data and detailed evaluations to cryocooler developers for advancing the technology, correcting discovered deficiencies, and improving cryocooler designs. At AFRL, units of varying design and refrigeration cycles were instrumented in state-of-the-art experiment stands to provide spacelike conditions and were equipped with software data acquisition to track critical cryocooler operating parameters. This data allowed an assessment of the technology's ability to meet the desired lifetime and documented any long-term changes in performance. This paper will outline a final report of the various flight cryocoolers tested in our laboratory. The data summarized includes the seven cryocoolers tested during 2014-2015. These seven coolers have a combined total of 433,326 hours (49.5 years) of operation.

  3. Organellar Genomes from a ∼5,000-Year-Old Archaeological Maize Sample Are Closely Related to NB Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Zamorano, Bernardo; Vallebueno-Estrada, Miguel; Martínez González, Javier; García Cook, Angel; Montiel, Rafael; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The story of how preColumbian civilizations developed goes hand-in-hand with the process of plant domestication by Mesoamerican inhabitants. Here, we present the almost complete sequence of a mitochondrial genome and a partial chloroplast genome from an archaeological maize sample collected at the Valley of Tehuacán, México. Accelerator mass spectrometry dated the maize sample to be 5,040–5,300 years before present (95% probability). Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial genome shows that the archaeological sample branches basal to the other Zea mays genomes, as expected. However, this analysis also indicates that fertile genotype NB is closely related to the archaeological maize sample and evolved before cytoplasmic male sterility genotypes (CMS-S, CMS-T, and CMS-C), thus contradicting previous phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genomes from maize. We show that maximum-likelihood infers a tree where CMS genotypes branch at the base of the tree when including sites that have a relative fast rate of evolution thus suggesting long-branch attraction. We also show that Bayesian analysis infer a topology where NB and the archaeological maize sample are at the base of the tree even when including faster sites. We therefore suggest that previous trees suffered from long-branch attraction. We also show that the phylogenetic analysis of the ancient chloroplast is congruent with genotype NB to be more closely related to the archaeological maize sample. As shown here, the inclusion of ancient genomes on phylogenetic trees greatly improves our understanding of the domestication process of maize, one of the most important crops worldwide. PMID:28338960

  4. Vibrio vulnificus phage PV94 is closely related to temperate phages of V. cholerae and other Vibrio species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryshliak, Mark; Hammerl, Jens A; Reetz, Jochen; Strauch, Eckhard; Hertwig, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an important pathogen which can cause serious infections in humans. Yet, there is limited knowledge on its virulence factors and the question whether temperate phages might be involved in pathogenicity, as is the case with V. cholerae. Thus far, only two phages (SSP002 and VvAW1) infecting V. vulnificus have been genetically characterized. These phages were isolated from the environment and are not related to Vibrio cholerae phages. The lack of information on temperate V. vulnificus phages prompted us to isolate those phages from lysogenic strains and to compare them with phages of other Vibrio species. In this study the temperate phage PV94 was isolated from a V. vulnificus biotype 1 strain by mitomycin C induction. PV94 is a myovirus whose genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 33,828 bp with 5'-protruding ends. Sequence analysis of PV94 revealed a modular organization of the genome. The left half of the genome comprising the immunity region and genes for the integrase, terminase and replication proteins shows similarites to V. cholerae kappa phages whereas the right half containing genes for structural proteins is closely related to a prophage residing in V. furnissii NCTC 11218. We present the first genomic sequence of a temperate phage isolated from a human V. vulnificus isolate. The sequence analysis of the PV94 genome demonstrates the wide distribution of closely related prophages in various Vibrio species. Moreover, the mosaicism of the PV94 genome indicates a high degree of horizontal genetic exchange within the genus Vibrio, by which V. vulnificus might acquire virulence-associated genes from other species.

  5. Vibrio vulnificus phage PV94 is closely related to temperate phages of V. cholerae and other Vibrio species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pryshliak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio vulnificus is an important pathogen which can cause serious infections in humans. Yet, there is limited knowledge on its virulence factors and the question whether temperate phages might be involved in pathogenicity, as is the case with V. cholerae. Thus far, only two phages (SSP002 and VvAW1 infecting V. vulnificus have been genetically characterized. These phages were isolated from the environment and are not related to Vibrio cholerae phages. The lack of information on temperate V. vulnificus phages prompted us to isolate those phages from lysogenic strains and to compare them with phages of other Vibrio species. RESULTS: In this study the temperate phage PV94 was isolated from a V. vulnificus biotype 1 strain by mitomycin C induction. PV94 is a myovirus whose genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 33,828 bp with 5'-protruding ends. Sequence analysis of PV94 revealed a modular organization of the genome. The left half of the genome comprising the immunity region and genes for the integrase, terminase and replication proteins shows similarites to V. cholerae kappa phages whereas the right half containing genes for structural proteins is closely related to a prophage residing in V. furnissii NCTC 11218. CONCLUSION: We present the first genomic sequence of a temperate phage isolated from a human V. vulnificus isolate. The sequence analysis of the PV94 genome demonstrates the wide distribution of closely related prophages in various Vibrio species. Moreover, the mosaicism of the PV94 genome indicates a high degree of horizontal genetic exchange within the genus Vibrio, by which V. vulnificus might acquire virulence-associated genes from other species.

  6. Specificity of herbivore-induced hormonal signaling and defensive traits in five closely related milkweeds (Asclepias spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Hastings, Amy P; Patrick, Eamonn T; Knight, Anna C

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recognition that phytohormonal signaling mediates induced responses to herbivory, we still have little understanding of how such signaling varies among closely related species and may generate herbivore-specific induced responses. We studied closely related milkweeds (Asclepias) to link: 1) plant damage by two specialist chewing herbivores (milkweed leaf beetles Labidomera clivicolis and monarch caterpillars Danaus plexippus); 2) production of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA); 3) induction of defensive cardenolides and latex; and 4) impacts on Danaus caterpillars. We first show that A. syriaca exhibits induced resistance following monarch herbivory (i.e., reduced monarch growth on previously damaged plants), while the defensively dissimilar A. tuberosa does not. We next worked with a broader group of five Asclepias, including these two species, that are highly divergent in defensive traits yet from the same clade. Three of the five species showed herbivore-induced changes in cardenolides, while induced latex was found in four species. Among the phytohormones, JA and ABA showed specific responses (although they generally increased) to insect species and among the plant species. In contrast, SA responses were consistent among plant and herbivore species, showing a decline following herbivore attack. Jasmonic acid showed a positive quantitative relationship only with latex, and this was strongest in plants damaged by D. plexippus. Although phytohormones showed qualitative tradeoffs (i.e., treatments that enhanced JA reduced SA), the few significant individual plant-level correlations among hormones were positive, and these were strongest between JA and ABA in monarch damaged plants. We conclude that: 1) latex exudation is positively associated with endogenous JA levels, even among low-latex species; 2) correlations among milkweed hormones are generally positive, although herbivore damage induces a

  7. New Techniques for Relating Dynamically Close Galaxy Pairs to Merger and Accretion Rates Application to the SSRS2 Redshift Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Patton, D R; Marzke, R O; Pritchet, C J; Da Costa, L N; Pellegrini, P S

    2000-01-01

    We introduce two new pair statistics, which relate close galaxy pairs to the merger and accretion rates. We demonstrate the importance of correcting these (and other) pair statistics for selection effects related to sample depth and completeness. In particular, we highlight the severe bias that can result from the use of a flux-limited survey. The first statistic, denoted N_c, gives the number of companions per galaxy, within a specified range in absolute magnitude. N_c is directly related to the galaxy merger rate. The second statistic, called L_c, gives the total luminosity in companions, per galaxy. This quantity can be used to investigate the mass accretion rate. Both N_c and L_c are related to the galaxy correlation function and luminosity function in a straightforward manner. We outline techniques which account for various selection effects, and demonstrate the success of this approach using Monte Carlo simulations. If one assumes that clustering is independent of luminosity (which is appropriate for re...

  8. Mesophyll cells of C4 plants have fewer chloroplasts than those of closely related C3 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stata, Matt; Sage, Tammy L; Rennie, Troy D; Khoshravesh, Roxana; Sultmanis, Stefanie; Khaikin, Yannay; Ludwig, Martha; Sage, Rowan F

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of C(4) photosynthesis from C(3) ancestors eliminates ribulose bisphosphate carboxylation in the mesophyll (M) cell chloroplast while activating phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation in the cytosol. These changes may lead to fewer chloroplasts and different chloroplast positioning within M cells. To evaluate these possibilities, we compared chloroplast number, size and position in M cells of closely related C(3), C(3) -C(4) intermediate and C(4) species from 12 lineages of C(4) evolution. All C(3) species had more chloroplasts per M cell area than their C(4) relatives in high-light growth conditions. C(3) species also had higher chloroplast coverage of the M cell periphery than C(4) species, particularly opposite intercellular air spaces. In M cells from 10 of the 12 C(4) lineages, a greater fraction of the chloroplast envelope was pulled away from the plasmalemma in the C(4) species than their C(3) relatives. C(3) -C(4) intermediate species generally exhibited similar patterns as their C(3) relatives. We interpret these results to reflect adaptive shifts that facilitate efficient C(4) function by enhancing diffusive access to the site of primary carbon fixation in the cytosol. Fewer chloroplasts in C(4) M cells would also reduce shading of the bundle sheath chloroplasts, which also generate energy required by C(4) photosynthesis.

  9. Different mechanics of snap-trapping in the two closely related carnivorous plants Dionaea muscipula and Aldrovanda vesiculosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Joyeux, Marc

    2011-10-01

    The carnivorous aquatic waterwheel plant (Aldrovanda vesiculosa L.) and the closely related terrestrial venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Sol. ex J. Ellis) both feature elaborate snap-traps, which shut after reception of an external mechanical stimulus by prey animals. Traditionally, Aldrovanda is considered as a miniature, aquatic Dionaea, an assumption which was already established by Charles Darwin. However, videos of snapping traps from both species suggest completely different closure mechanisms. Indeed, the well-described snapping mechanism in Dionaea comprises abrupt curvature inversion of the two trap lobes, while the closing movement in Aldrovanda involves deformation of the trap midrib but not of the lobes, which do not change curvature. In this paper, we present detailed mechanical models for these plants, which are based on the theory of thin solid membranes and explain this difference by showing that the fast snapping of Aldrovanda is due to kinematic amplification of the bending deformation of the midrib, while that of Dionaea unambiguously relies on the buckling instability that affects the two lobes.

  10. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  11. Leave for illness/accident or in the event of illness of a close relative - New medical certificate templates

    CERN Multimedia

    HR department

    2016-01-01

    Medical certificate templates are now available in the Admin e-guide (follow the “Forms and templates” link):    Medical certificate for illness/accident Medical certificate for a medical examination or treatment Medical certificate in the event of illness of a close relative These templates are provided for the convenience of members of the personnel and their use is recommended but not compulsory. Other forms of medical certificates issued by a medical doctor may also be submitted, provided they contain the same items of information as those given in the templates. More information on the applicable rules and on the way leave is managed at CERN can be found in the Admin e-guide web pages. Human Resources department HR.leave@cern.ch

  12. Shedding dynamics of Morogoro virus, an African arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus, in its natural reservoir host Mastomys natalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borremans, Benny; Vossen, Raphaël; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Gryseels, Sophie; Hughes, Nelika; Van Gestel, Mats; Van Houtte, Natalie; Günther, Stephan; Leirs, Herwig

    2015-05-29

    Arenaviruses can cause mild to severe hemorrhagic fevers. Humans mainly get infected through contact with infected rodents or their excretions, yet little is known about transmission dynamics within rodent populations. Morogoro virus (MORV) is an Old World arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus with which it shares the same host species Mastomys natalensis. We injected MORV in its host, and sampled blood and excretions at frequent intervals. Infection in adults was acute; viral RNA disappeared from blood after 18 days post infection (dpi) and from excretions after 39 dpi. Antibodies were present from 7 dpi and never disappeared. Neonatally infected animals acquired a chronic infection with RNA and antibodies in blood for at least 3 months. The quantified excretion and antibody patterns can be used to inform mathematical transmission models, and are essential for understanding and controlling transmission in the natural rodent host populations.

  13. [Genetic Connectivity Between Sympatric Populations of Closely Related Char Species, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma and White Char Salvelinus albus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmenkova, E A

    2016-01-01

    The closely related chars Salvelinus malma and Salvelinus albus, which sympatrically inhabit the Kamchatka River basin and Kronotsky Lake (Kamchatka), attract the attention of the researchers because of their debated origin and taxonomic status. Previous studies of sympatric populations of these chars revealed small but statistically significant genetic differences between these species at a number of molecular markers, suggesting the presence of the genetic exchange and hybridization. In this study, based on genotypic characterization of nine microsatellite loci, a considerable level of historical and contemporary genetic migration between sympatric populations of these chars was demonstrated. At the individual level a high degree of hybridization was observed, mainly among the Dolly Varden individuals from the studied populations. The obtained evidence on the genetic connectivity between sympatric S. malma and S. albus do not support the separate species status of S. albus.

  14. Mutations and/or close relatives? Six case work examples where 49 autosomal SNPs were used as supplementary markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2011-06-01

    Six case work examples are presented, where the individuals were typed for 15 autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) and 49 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The 15 STRs were typed with the AmpFlSTR Identifiler PCR Amplification Kit and the 49 SNPs were typed with the SNPforID multiplex assay. The six cases included two duos, two trios and two cases, where the alleged father was not available for testing and one or two of his close relatives were tested instead. The SNP investigation was more informative than the STR investigation in all six cases. In two cases, the alleged father would have been falsely included based on the STR results, while the SNP results showed that the alleged father was not the true parent. These case work examples underline the importance of performing supplementary investigations in selected cases and demonstrate the usefulness of the SNPforID multiplex assay.

  15. Sampling strategy and potential utility of indels for DNA barcoding of closely related plant species: a case study in taxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Provan, Jim; Gao, Lian-Ming; Li, De-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Although DNA barcoding has become a useful tool for species identification and biodiversity surveys in plant sciences, there remains little consensus concerning appropriate sampling strategies and the treatment of indels. To address these two issues, we sampled 39 populations for nine Taxus species across their entire ranges, with two to three individuals per population randomly sampled. We sequenced one core DNA barcode (matK) and three supplementary regions (trnH-psbA, trnL-trnF and ITS) for all samples to test the effects of sampling design and the utility of indels. Our results suggested that increasing sampling within-population did not change the clustering of individuals, and that meant within-population P-distances were zero for most populations in all regions. Based on the markers tested here, comparison of methods either including or excluding indels indicated that discrimination and nodal support of monophyletic groups were significantly increased when indels were included. Thus we concluded that one individual per population was adequate to represent the within-population variation in these species for DNA barcoding, and that intra-specific sampling was best focused on representing the entire ranges of certain taxa. We also found that indels occurring in the chloroplast trnL-trnF and trnH-psbA regions were informative to differentiate among for closely related taxa barcoding, and we proposed that indel-coding methods should be considered for use in future for closed related plant species DNA barcoding projects on or below generic level.

  16. 16S-23S rRNA Gene Intergenic Spacer Region Variability Helps Resolve Closely Related Sphingomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokajian, Sima; Issa, Nahla; Salloum, Tamara; Ibrahim, Joe; Farah, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Sphingomonads comprise a physiologically versatile group many of which appear to be adapted to oligotrophic environments, but several also had features in their genomes indicative of host associations. In this study, the extent variability of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences of 14 ATCC reference sphingomonad strains and 23 isolates recovered from drinking water was investigated through PCR amplification and sequencing. Sequencing analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS region revealed that the ITS sizes for all studied isolates varied between 415 and 849 bp, while their G+C content was 42.2-57.9 mol%. Five distinct ITS types were identified: ITS(none) (without tRNA genes), ITS(Ala(TGC)), ITS(Ala(TGC)+Ile(GAT)), ITS(Ile(GAT)+Ala(TGC)), and ITS (Ile(GAT)+Pseudo). All of the identified tRNA(Ala(TGC)) molecules consisted of 73 bases, and all of the tRNA(Ile(GAT)) molecules consisted of 74 bases. We also detected striking variability in the size of the ITS region among the various examined isolates. Highest variability was detected within the ITS-2. The importance of this study is that this is the first comparison of the 16S-23S rDNA ITS sequence similarities and tRNA genes from sphingomonads. Collectively the data obtained in this study revealed the heterogeneity and extent of variability within the ITS region compared to the 16S rRNA gene within closely related isolates. Sequence and length polymorphisms within the ITS region along with the ITS types (tRNA-containing or lacking and the type of tRNA) and ITS-2 size and sequence similarities allowed us to overcome the limitation we previously encountered in resolving closely related isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence.

  17. Teaching International Public Relations: An Update Report among Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Angela Ka Ying

    2017-01-01

    Involvement in international and multicultural career-related practices is ever on the rise in a global economic and political society, especially in public relations. This article reported an update of examining the attributes of public relations educators and their institutions in teaching of international public relations (IPR) through an…

  18. Transcriptome sequencing of Crucihimalaya himalaica (Brassicaceae) reveals how Arabidopsis close relative adapt to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qin; Wang, Qia; Han, Xi; Guan, Yanlong; Sun, Hang; Zhong, Yang; Huang, Jinling; Zhang, Ticao

    2016-02-24

    The extreme environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provides an ideal natural laboratory for studies on adaptive evolution. Few genome/transcriptome based studies have been conducted on how plants adapt to the environments of QTP compared to numerous studies on vertebrates. Crucihimalaya himalaica is a close relative of Arabidopsis with typical QTP distribution, and is hoped to be a new model system to study speciation and ecological adaptation in extreme environment. In this study, we de novo generated a transcriptome sequence of C. himalaica, with a total of 49,438 unigenes. Compared to five relatives, 10,487 orthogroups were shared by all six species, and 4,286 orthogroups contain putative single copy gene. Further analysis identified 487 extremely significantly positively selected genes (PSGs) in C. himalaica transcriptome. Theses PSGs were enriched in functions related to specific adaptation traits, such as response to radiation, DNA repair, nitrogen metabolism, and stabilization of membrane. These functions are responsible for the adaptation of C. himalaica to the high radiation, soil depletion and low temperature environments on QTP. Our findings indicate that C. himalaica has evolved complex strategies for adapting to the extreme environments on QTP and provide novel insights into genetic mechanisms of highland adaptation in plants.

  19. 26 CFR 1.6045-4 - Information reporting on real estate transactions with dates of closing on or after January 1, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information reporting on real estate... Information Returns § 1.6045-4 Information reporting on real estate transactions with dates of closing on or... (d) of this section, a real estate reporting person (“reporting person”) must make an information...

  20. High-pressure Raman study of two ferroelectric crystals closely related to PbTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gerald; Sanjurjo, J. A.; López-Cruz, E.

    1984-12-01

    We report high-pressure Raman measurements of the zone-center phonons in two ferroelectric crystals that closely resemble the ABO3 perovskite crystal PbTiO3. These crystals are (Pb0.22Ba0.78)TiO3, i.e., Ba replacing Pb on the A site, and Pb(Ti0.81Sn0.19)O3, i.e., Sn replacing Ti on the B site. In both cases, at room temperature, we follow the modes and determine Pc, the transition pressure from the ferroelectric tetragonal phase to the cubic phase, to be 4.3 and 9.0 GPa, respectively. By observing the coalescence to the same frequency of the appropriate high-energy A1(TO)+E(TO) pairs of phonons, we determine the second-order character of the phase transitions at Pc. The tendency towards a second-order phase transition seems to be the rule at Pc as long as one makes the measurements at a temperature well below Tc; this is in agreement with theory. Thus, these systems exhibit tricritical points in the (P,T) phase diagram. The soft-E(TO)-phonon frequency (ω0) and damping constant (γ) can be measured to pressures reasonably close to Pc while the mode remains underdamped. These results are discussed in terms of a frequency-independent damping constant for the behavior of ω0 and γ near Pc. In the (Pb,Ba)TiO3 crystal, the hydrostatic pressure increases the intensity of the soft A1(TO) mode making it observable. This seems to happen in general in the perovskites. In the Pb(Ti,Sn)O3 crystal we observe the coupling of the soft E(TO) mode with an extra mode at 59 cm-1; this also has been studied as a function of temperature.

  1. Mass spectrometry of planetary exospheres at high relative velocity: direct comparison of open- and closed source measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan; Tulej, Marek; Wurz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The exploration of habitable worlds around the gas giants in the Solar System is of major interest in upcoming planetary missions. Exactly this theme is addressed by the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission of ESA, which will characterise Ganymede, Europa and Callisto as planetary objects and potential habitats [1], [2]. We developed a prototype of the Neutral gas and Ion Mass spectrometer (NIM) of the Particle Environment Package (PEP) for the JUICE mission intended for composition measurements of neutral gas and thermal plasma. NIM/PEP will be used to measure the chemical composition of the exospheres of the icy Jovian moons. Besides direct ion measurement, the NIM instrument is able to measure the inflowing neutral gas in two different modes: in neutral mode the gas enters directly the ion source (open source) and in thermal mode, the gas gets thermally accommodated to wall temperature by several collisions inside an equilibrium sphere before entering the ion source (closed source). We performed measurements with the prototype NIM using a neutral gas beam of 1 up to 5 km/s velocity in the neutral and thermal mode. The current trajectory of JUICE foresees a flyby velocity of 4 km/s at Europa, other flybys are in the range of 1 up to 7 km/s and velocity in Ganymede orbits is around 2 km/s. Different species are used for gas beam, such as noble gases Ne, Ar, Kr as well as molecules like H2, Methane, Ethane, Propane and more complex ones. We will present the results of these measurements with respect to fragmentation and density enhancements in the closed source mode. Furthermore, we will give a direct comparison between open and closed source mode measurements. References: [1] ESA, "JUICE assessment study report (Yellow Book)", ESA/SRE(2011)18, 2012. [2] O. Grasset, M.K. Dougherty, A. Coustenis, E.J. Bunce, C. Erd, D. Titov, M. Blanc, A. Coates, P. Drossart, L.N. Fletcher, H. Hussmann, R. Jaumann, N. Krupp, J.-P. Lebreton, O. Prieto-Ballesteros, P. Tortora, F

  2. 29 CFR 776.17 - Employment in a “closely related process or occupation directly essential to” production of goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 776.17 Employment in a “closely related process or occupation directly essential to” production of... process or occupation directly essential to the production thereof, in any State.” 77 Prior to the Fair... criteria for determining whether a process or occupation is “closely related” to production cannot...

  3. Characterization of a novel Lactobacillus species closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii using a combination of molecular and comparative genomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Martínez Gaspar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH constitutes a powerful tool for identification and characterization of bacterial strains. In this study we have applied this technique for the characterization of a number of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the intestinal content of rats fed with a diet supplemented with sorbitol. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, recA, pheS, pyrG and tuf sequences identified five bacterial strains isolated from the intestinal content of rats as belonging to the recently described Lactobacillus taiwanensis species. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that these five strains are distinct but closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus gasseri. A whole genome DNA microarray designed for the probiotic L. johnsonii strain NCC533 was used for CGH analysis of L. johnsonii ATCC 33200T, L. johnsonii BL261, L. gasseri ATCC 33323T and L. taiwanensis BL263. In these experiments, the fluorescence ratio distributions obtained with L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri showed characteristic inter-species profiles. The percentage of conserved L. johnsonii NCC533 genes was about 83% in the L. johnsonii strains comparisons and decreased to 51% and 47% for L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri, respectively. These results confirmed the separate status of L. taiwanensis from L. johnsonii at the level of species, and also that L. taiwanensis is closer to L. johnsonii than L. gasseri is to L. johnsonii. Conclusion Conventional taxonomic analyses and microarray-based CGH analysis have been used for the identification and characterization of the newly species L. taiwanensis. The microarray-based CGH technology has been shown as a remarkable tool for the identification and fine discrimination between phylogenetically close species, and additionally provided insight into the adaptation of the strain L. taiwanensis BL263 to its ecological niche.

  4. Vibrio metoecus sp. nov., a close relative of Vibrio cholerae isolated from coastal brackish ponds and clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberger, Paul C; Turnsek, Maryann; Hunt, Dana E; Haley, Bradd J; Colwell, Rita R; Polz, Martin F; Tarr, Cheryl L; Boucher, Yan

    2014-09-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, curved-rod-shaped bacterium with close resemblance to Vibrio cholerae, the aetiological agent of cholera, was isolated over the course of several years from coastal brackish water (17 strains) and from clinical cases (two strains) in the United States. 16S rRNA gene identity with V. cholerae exceeded 98 % yet an average nucleotide identity based on genome data of around 86 % and multi locus sequence analysis of six housekeeping genes (mdh, adk, gyrB, recA, pgi and rpoB) clearly delineated these isolates as a distinct genotypic cluster within the V. cholerae-V. mimicus clade. Most standard identification techniques do not differentiate this cluster of isolates from V. cholerae. Only amplification of the ompW gene using V. cholerae-specific primers and a negative Voges-Proskauer test showed a difference between the two clusters. Additionally, all isolated strains differed phenotypically from V. cholerae in their ability to utilize N-acetyl-d-galactosamine and d-glucuronic acid as sole carbon sources. Furthermore, they were generally unable to infect the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum, a widespread ability in V. cholerae. Based on these clear phenotypic differences that are not necessarily apparent in standard tests as well as average nucleotide identity and phylogeny of protein-coding genes, we propose the existence of a novel species, Vibrio metoecus sp. nov. with the type strain OP3H(T) ( = LMG 27764(T) = CIP 110643(T)). Due to its close resemblance to V. cholerae and the increasing number of strains isolated over the past several years, we suggest that V. metoecus sp. nov. is a relatively common species of the genus Vibrio, isolates of which have been identified as atypical isolates of V. cholerae in the past. Its isolation from clinical samples also indicates that strains of this species, like V. cholerae, are opportunistic pathogens. © 2014 IUMS.

  5. Differences in Glycoprotein Complex Receptor Binding Site Accessibility Prompt Poor Cross-Reactivity of Neutralizing Antibodies between Closely Related Arenaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Rachel B; Phillips, Elisabeth K; Ayithan, Natarajan; Maury, Wendy

    2017-04-01

    The glycoprotein complex (GPC) of arenaviruses, composed of stable signal peptide, GP1, and GP2, is the only antigen correlated with antibody-mediated neutralization. However, despite strong cross-reactivity of convalescent antisera between related arenavirus species, weak or no cross-neutralization occurs. Two closely related clade B viruses, Machupo virus (MACV) and Junín virus (JUNV), have nearly identical overall GPC architecture and share a host receptor, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1). Given structural and functional similarities of the GP1 receptor binding site (RBS) of these viruses and the recent demonstration that the RBS is an important target for neutralizing antibodies, it is not clear how these viruses avoid cross-neutralization. To address this, MACV/JUNV chimeric GPCs were assessed for interaction with a group of α-JUNV GPC monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and mouse antisera against JUNV or MACV GPC. All six MAbs targeted GP1, with those that neutralized JUNV GPC-pseudovirions competing with each other for RBS binding. However, these MAbs were unable to bind to a chimeric GPC composed of JUNV GP1 containing a small disulfide bonded loop (loop 10) unique to MACV GPC, suggesting that this loop may block MAbs interaction with the GP1 RBS. Consistent with this loop causing interference, mouse anti-JUNV GPC antisera that solely neutralized pseudovirions bearing autologous GP1 provided enhanced neutralization of MACV GPC when this loop was removed. Our studies provide evidence that loop 10, which is unique to MACV GP1, is an important impediment to binding of neutralizing antibodies and contributes to the poor cross-neutralization of α-JUNV antisera against MACV.IMPORTANCE Multiple New World arenaviruses can cause severe disease in humans, and some geographic overlap exists among these viruses. A vaccine that protects against a broad range of New World arenaviruses is desirable for purposes of simplicity, cost, and broad protection against multiple National

  6. Summary report on close-coupled subsurface barrier technology: Initial field trials to full-scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, J.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Waste Technology Center; Dwyer, B. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the installation and measure the performance of a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional, low-cost, cement-grout containment barrier followed by a thin lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement-polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of the issues concerning the use of polymers to laboratory compatibility and performance measurements of various polymer systems to a pilot-scale, single column injection at Sandia to full-scale demonstration. The feasibility of the close-coupled barrier concept was proven in a full-scale cold demonstration at Hanford, Washington and then moved to the final stage with a full-scale demonstration at an actual remediation site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). At the Hanford demonstration the composite barrier was emplaced around and beneath a 20,000 liter tank. The secondary cement layer was constructed using conventional jet grouting techniques. Drilling was completed at a 45{degree} angle to the ground, forming a cone-shaped barrier. The primary barrier was placed by panel jet-grouting with a dual-wall drill stem using a two part polymer grout. The polymer chosen was a high molecular weight acrylic. At the BNL demonstration a V-trough barrier was installed using a conventional cement grout for the secondary layer and an acrylic-gel polymer for the primary layer. Construction techniques were identical to the Hanford installation. This report summarizes the technology development from pilot- to full-scale demonstrations and presents some of the performance and quality achievements attained.

  7. Genetic variability and relationship between MT-1 elephant grass and closely related cultivars assessed by SRAP markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xin-Ming Xie; Feng Zhou; Xiang-Qian Zhang; Ju-Ming Zhang

    2009-12-01

    Genetic variability and relationships among elephant grass cultivars were estimated by the SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) assay. A total of 60 individuals collected from five cultivars in China were analysed. Sixty-two selected primer combinations generated 1395 bands, with an average of 22.5 per primer combination. The average value of percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) was 72.8% at species level. The PPB was from 15.2% to 75%, with an average of 39.6% at cultivar level. $H_{POP}$, within-cultivar Shannon’s index was 1.738 at cultivar level; at species level, the Shannon’s index $(H_{SP})$ was 3.880. An assessment of diversity between cultivars $[(H_{SP} −H_{POP})/H_{SP}]$ indicated that most of the diversity (55.2%) was detected among cultivars, and only 44.8% was within cultivars in total genetic variation. According to UPGMA dendrogram, the five cultivars were clustered into three main groups. One group included MT-1 and Mott with a bootstrap support of 100%, another consisted of Huanan and N51 with a bootstrap support of 81%, and last one was only Guimu-1. The results indicate that the MT-1 and Mott have a closest genetic relationship; Huanan and N51 possess a relatively close relationship, and Guimu-1 is the most distinct from the other four cultivars.

  8. Molecular evidence that the spiny mouse (Acomys) is more closely related to gerbils (Gerbillinae) than to true mice (Murinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevret, P; Denys, C; Jaeger, J J; Michaux, J; Catzeflis, F M

    1993-04-15

    Spiny mice of the genus Acomys traditionally have been classified as members of the Murinae, a subfamily of rodents that also includes rats and mice with which spiny mice share a complex set of morphological characters, including a unique molar pattern. The origin and evolution of this molar pattern, documented by many fossils from Southern Asia, support the hypothesis of the monophyly of Acomys and all other Murinae. This view has been challenged by immunological studies that have suggested that Acomys is as distantly related to mice (Mus) as are other subfamilies (e.g., hamsters: Cricetinae) of the muroid rodents. We present molecular evidence derived from DNA.DNA hybridization data that indicate that the spiny mouse Acomys and two African genera of Murinae, Uranomys and Lophuromys, constitute a monophyletic clade, a view that was recently suggested on the basis of dental characters. However, our DNA.DNA hybridization data also indicate that the spiny mice (Acomys) are more closely related to gerbils (Gerbillinae) than to the true mice and rats (Murinae) with which they have been classified. Because Acomys and the brush-furred mice Uranomys and Lophuromys share no derived morphological characters with the Gerbillinae, their murine morphology must have evolved by convergence, including the molar pattern previously considered to support the monophyly of the Murinae.

  9. DNA sequence conservation between the Bacillus anthracis pXO2 plasmid and genomic sequence from closely related bacteria

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    Sabin Robert

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete sequencing and annotation of the 96.2 kb Bacillus anthracis plasmid, pXO2, predicted 85 open reading frames (ORFs. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates that ranged in genomic similarity to B. anthracis, as determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis, were examined by PCR for the presence of sequences similar to 47 pXO2 ORFs. Results The two most distantly related isolates examined, B. thuringiensis 33679 and B. thuringiensis AWO6, produced the greatest number of ORF sequences similar to pXO2; 10 detected in 33679 and 16 in AWO6. No more than two of the pXO2 ORFs were detected in any one of the remaining isolates. Dot-blot DNA hybridizations between pXO2 ORF fragments and total genomic DNA from AWO6 were consistent with the PCR assay results for this isolate and also revealed nine additional ORFs shared between these two bacteria. Sequences similar to the B. anthracis cap genes or their regulator, acpA, were not detected among any of the examined isolates. Conclusions The presence of pXO2 sequences in the other Bacillus isolates did not correlate with genomic relatedness established by AFLP analysis. The presence of pXO2 ORF sequences in other Bacillus species suggests the possibility that certain pXO2 plasmid gene functions may also be present in other closely related bacteria.

  10. Identification and characterization of two closely related unclassifiable endogenous retroviruses in pythons (Python molurus and Python curtus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huder, Jon B; Böni, Jürg; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Soldati, Guido; Lutz, Hans; Schüpbach, Jörg

    2002-08-01

    Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a fatal disorder of boid snakes that is suspected to be caused by a retrovirus. In order to identify this agent, leukocyte cultures (established from Python molurus specimens with symptoms of BIBD or kept together with such diseased animals) were assessed for reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. Virus from cultures exhibiting high RT activity was banded on sucrose density gradients, and the RT peak fraction was subjected to highly efficient procedures for the identification of unknown particle-associated retroviral RNA. A 7-kb full retroviral sequence was identified, cloned, and sequenced. This virus contained intact open reading frames (ORFs) for gag, pro, pol, and env, as well as another ORF of unknown function within pol. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus is distantly related to viruses from both the B and D types and the mammalian C type but cannot be classified. It is present as a highly expressed endogenous retrovirus in all P. molurus individuals; a closely related, but much less expressed virus was found in all tested Python curtus individuals. All other boid snakes tested, including Python regius, Python reticulatus, Boa constrictor, Eunectes notaeus, and Morelia spilota, were virus negative, independent of whether they had BIBD or not. Virus isolated from P. molurus could not be transmitted to the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of B. constrictor or P. regius. Thus, there is no indication that this novel virus, which we propose to name python endogenous retrovirus (PyERV), is causally linked with BIBD.

  11. Identifying the Best-Fitting Factor Structure of the Experience of Close Relations - Revised in a Scandinavian Example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hoff Esbjørn

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of cultural and sample differences in the assessment of attachment by examining the factor structure of the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R. The ECR-R is a self-report measure of adult romantic attachment dimensions. The present study used a Danish sample with the purpose of addressing limitations in previous studies, such as the lack of diversity in cultural background, restricted sample characteristics, and poorly fitting structure models. Participants consisted of 253 parents of children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, 53% being mothers. The parents completed the paper version of the questionnaire. Confirmatory Factor Analyses were carried out to determine whether theoretically and empirically established models including one and two factors would also provide adequate fits in a Danish sample. A previous study using the original ECR suggested that Scandinavian samples may best be described using a five-factor solution. Our results indicated that the one- and two-factor models of the ECR-R did not fit the data well. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a five-factor model. Our study provides evidence that further investigation is needed to establish which model may provide the best model fit in the Scandinavian countries.

  12. Absence of XMRV and closely related viruses in primary prostate cancer tissues used to derive the XMRV-infected cell line 22Rv1.

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    Jaydip Das Gupta

    Full Text Available The 22Rv1 cell line is widely used for prostate cancer research and other studies throughout the world. These cells were established from a human prostate tumor, CWR22, that was serially passaged in nude mice and selected for androgen independence. The 22Rv1 cells are known to produce high titers of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV. Recent studies suggested that XMRV was inadvertently created in the 1990's when two murine leukemia virus (MLV genomes (pre-XMRV1 and pre-XMRV-2 recombined during passaging of the CWR22 tumor in mice. The conclusion that XMRV originated from mice and not the patient was based partly on the failure to detect XMRV in early CWR22 xenografts. While that deduction is certainly justified, we examined the possibility that a closely related virus could have been present in primary tumor tissue. Here we report that we have located the original prostate tumor tissue excised from patient CWR22 and have assayed the corresponding DNA by PCR and the tissue sections by fluorescence in situ hybridization for the presence of XMRV or a similar virus. The primary tumor tissues lacked mouse DNA as determined by PCR for intracisternal A type particle DNA, thus avoiding one of the limitations of studying xenografts. We show that neither XMRV nor a closely related virus was present in primary prostate tissue of patient CWR22. Our findings confirm and reinforce the conclusion that XMRV is a recombinant laboratory-generated mouse virus that is highly adapted for human prostate cancer cells.

  13. Single substitutions to closely related amino acids contribute to the functional diversification of an insect-inducible, positively selected plant cystatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoolizadeh, Asieh; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Sainsbury, Frank; Cloutier, Conrad; Michaud, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    A causal link has been reported between positively selected amino acids in plant cystatins and the inhibitory range of these proteins against insect digestive cysteine (Cys) proteases. Here we assessed the impact of single substitutions to closely related amino acids on the contribution of positive selection to cystatin diversification. Cystatin sequence alignments, while confirming hypervariability, indicated a preference for related amino acids at positively selected sites. For example, the non-polar residues leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) were shown to predominate at positively selected site 2 in the N-terminal region, unlike selected sites 6 and 10, where polar residues are preferred. The model cystatin SlCYS8 and single variants with Leu, Ile or Val at position 2 were compared with regard to their ability to bind digestive proteases of the coleopteran pest Leptinotarsa decemlineata and to induce compensatory responses in this insect. A functional proteomics procedure to capture target Cys proteases in midgut extracts allowed confirmation of distinct binding profiles for the cystatin variants. A shotgun proteomics procedure to monitor whole Cys protease complements revealed protease family specific compensatory responses in the insect, dependent on the variant ingested. Our data confirm the contribution of closely related amino acids to the functional diversity of positively selected plant cystatins in a broader structure/function context imposing physicochemical constraints to primary structure alterations. They also underline the complexity of protease/inhibitor interactions in plant-insect systems, and the challenges still to be met in order to harness the full potential of ectopically expressed protease inhibitors in crop protection.

  14. TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES DONALDSON COMPANY INC.SERIES 6000 DISEL OXIDATION CATALYST MUFFLER AND SPIRACLE CLOSED CRANKCASE FILTRATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is on testing of a Donaldson Corp. catalytic muffler and closed crankcase filtration system for diesel trucks. It verified the emissions for these systems using low sufur and ultra low sulfur fuel.

  15. Molecular detection of novel Anaplasmataceae closely related to Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Armanda D S; Mohammed, Osama B; Bennett, Nigel C; Petevinos, Charalambos; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N

    2015-09-30

    Serological surveys have confirmed Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in dromedary camels, but molecular surveys and genetic characterisation of camel-associated Anaplasma species are lacking. In this study, we detected tick-borne Anaplasmataceae in 30 of 100 (30%) healthy dromedary camels screened using a combined 16S rRNA-groEL PCR-sequencing approach. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed Anaplasmataceae genome presence in 28 of the 33 16S rRNA PCR-positive samples, with two additional positive samples, for which 16S rRNA sequence data were ambiguous, being identified by groEL gene characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses of a 1289 nt segment of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the presence of a unique Ehrlichia lineage and a discrete Anaplasma lineage, comprising three variants, occurring at an overall prevalence of 4% and 26%, respectively. Genetic characterisation of an aligned 559 nt groEL gene region revealed the camel-associated Anaplasma and Ehrlichia lineages to be novel and most closely related to Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis. Based on the confirmed monophyly, minimum pairwise genetic distances between each novel lineage and its closest sister taxon, and the inability to isolate the bacteria, we propose that Candidatus status be assigned to each. This first genetic characterisation of Anaplasmataceae from naturally infected, asymptomatic dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia confirms the presence of two novel lineages that are phylogenetically linked to two pathogenic canid species of increasing zoonotic concern.

  16. The Use of Differential EXAFS Analysis for the determination of Small Structural Differences between two closely-related Ruthenium Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianolio, D.; Borfecchia, E.; Garino, C.; Ruiu, T.; Lamberti, C.; Salassa, L.

    2013-04-01

    X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is a sensitive and powerful technique in revealing the structure of a material, providing as well high accuracy on interatomic distances. Nevertheless, when dealing with systems that differ only by small structural features, a standard data analysis might be unable of discriminating between such differences. A differential approach was proposed by Bressler, Chergui, and co-workers [2003, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 047403][2006, J. Phys. Chem B, 110, 14035][2009 Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 48 2711] to solve this problem and differentiate between excited and unexcited state structures during pump-and-probe transient XAS experiments. In this contribution, we apply the differential data analysis procedure to the study of two closely-related molecular complexes, namely cis-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2]2+ and cis-[Ru(bpy)2(py)(H2O)]2+, characterized under static conditions. It is herein demonstrated that the method, based on a direct fit of differential curves, is able to reveal the small differences present between the two structures which, conversely, could not be resolved by standard EXAFS fitting of full spectra.

  17. ATGC: a database of orthologous genes from closely related prokaryotic genomes and a research platform for microevolution of prokaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novichkov, Pavel S.; Ratnere, Igor; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dubchak, Inna

    2009-07-23

    The database of Alignable Tight Genomic Clusters (ATGCs) consists of closely related genomes of archaea and bacteria, and is a resource for research into prokaryotic microevolution. Construction of a data set with appropriate characteristics is a major hurdle for this type of studies. With the current rate of genome sequencing, it is difficult to follow the progress of the field and to determine which of the available genome sets meet the requirements of a given research project, in particular, with respect to the minimum and maximum levels of similarity between the included genomes. Additionally, extraction of specific content, such as genomic alignments or families of orthologs, from a selected set of genomes is a complicated and time-consuming process. The database addresses these problems by providing an intuitive and efficient web interface to browse precomputed ATGCs, select appropriate ones and access ATGC-derived data such as multiple alignments of orthologous proteins, matrices of pairwise intergenomic distances based on genome-wide analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates and others. The ATGC database will be regularly updated following new releases of the NCBI RefSeq. The database is hosted by the Genomics Division at Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory and is publicly available at http://atgc.lbl.gov.

  18. Differences in c-Jun N-terminal kinase recognition and phosphorylation of closely related stathmin-family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Yan Y; Yeap, Yvonne Y C; Bogoyevitch, Marie A; Ng, Dominic C H

    2014-03-28

    The stathmin (STMN) family of tubulin-binding phosphoproteins are critical regulators of interphase microtubule dynamics and organization in a broad range of cellular processes. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling to STMN family proteins has been implicated specifically in neuronal maturation, degeneration and cell stress responses more broadly. Previously, we characterized mechanisms underlying JNK phosphorylation of STMN at proline-flanked serine residues (Ser25 and Ser38) that are conserved across STMN-like proteins. In this study, we demonstrated using in vitro kinase assays and alanine replacement of serine residues that JNK phosphorylated the STMN-like domain (SLD) of SCG10 on Ser73, consistent with our previous finding that STMN Ser38 was the primary JNK target site. In addition, we confirmed that a JNK binding motif ((41)KKKDLSL(47)) that facilitates JNK targeting of STMN is conserved in SCG10. In contrast, SCLIP was phosphorylated by JNK primarily on Ser60 which corresponds to Ser25 on STMN. Moreover, although the JNK-binding motif identified in STMN and SCG10 was not conserved in SCLIP, JNK phosphorylation of SCLIP was inhibited by a substrate competitive peptide (TI-JIP) highlighting kinase-substrate interaction as required for JNK targeting. Thus, STMN and SCG10 are similarly targeted by JNK but there are clear differences in JNK recognition and phosphorylation of the closely related family member, SCLIP.

  19. Genetic entities and mating system in hermaphroditic Fucus spiralis and its close dioecious relative F. vesiculosus (Fucaceae, Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C R; Daguin, C; Serrão, E A

    2005-06-01

    To date, molecular markers have not settled the question of the specific status of the closely related, but phylogenetically unresolved, brown seaweeds, hermaphroditic Fucus spiralis and dioecious Fucus vesiculosus, nor their propensity for natural hybridization. To test the degree of species integrity and to assess effect of the mating system on the population genetic structure, 288 individuals coming from parapatric (discontinuous) and sympatric (contiguous) spatial configurations at two sites were genotyped with five microsatellite loci. Using a Bayesian admixture analysis, our results show that F. spiralis and F. vesiculosus comprise clearly distinct genetic entities (clusters) generally characterized by cosexual and unisexual individuals, respectively. Genetic diversity within each entity suggests that F. spiralis reproduces primarily through selfing while F. vesiculosus is characterized by an endogamous breeding regime. Nevertheless, aberrant sexual phenotypes were observed in each cluster, no diagnostic alleles were revealed and 10% of study individuals were intermediate between the two genetic entities. This pattern can be explained by recent divergence of two taxa with retention of ancestral polymorphism or asymmetrical, introgressive hybridization. However, given (i) coincident monomorphism at three loci in spiralis clusters and (ii) that significantly more intermediates were observed in sympatric stations than in parapatric stations, we argue that interspecific gene flow has occurred after divergence of the two taxa. Finally, we show that whether recently separated or recently introgressive, the divergent breeding systems probably contribute to species integrity in these two taxa.

  20. Wing pattern morphology of three closely related Melitaea (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae species reveals highly inaccurate external morphology-based species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Jugovic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wing morphology of the three closely related species of Melitaea – M. athalia (Rottemburg, 1775, M. aurelia (Nickerl, 1850 and M. britomartis Assmann, 1847 – co-occurring in the Balkans (SE Europe was investigated in detail through visual inspection, morphometric analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. Results are compared to recent phylogenetic studies, searching for concordant patterns and discrepancies between the two approaches. The morphology of the genitalic structures is also compared with the results of the other two approaches. The main conclusions are as follows: (1 small albeit significant differences in wing morphology exist among the three species and (2 while the structure of male genitalia and phylogenetic position of the three species are concordant, they are (3 in discordance with the wing morphology. The present study represents another example where identification based on external morphology would lead to highly unreliable determinations, hence identification based on phylogenetic studies and/or genitalia is strongly recommended not only for the three studied species but also more broadly within the genus. Furthermore, we show that some of the characters generally used in the identification of these three Melitaea species should be avoided in future.

  1. Identification of structurally closely related monosaccharide and disaccharide isomers by PMP labeling in conjunction with IM-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongmei; Shi, Lei; Zhuang, Xiaoyu; Su, Rui; Wan, Debin; Song, Fengrui; Li, Jinying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-06-16

    It remains particularly difficult for gaining unambiguous information on anomer, linkage, and position isomers of oligosaccharides using conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods. In our laboratory, an ion mobility (IM) shift strategy was employed to improve confidence in the identification of structurally closely related disaccharide and monosaccharide isomers using IMMS. Higher separation between structural isomers was achieved using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization in comparison with phenylhydrazine (PHN) derivatization. Furthermore, the combination of pre-IM fragmentation of PMP derivatives provided sufficient resolution to separate the isomers not resolved in the IMMS. To chart the structural variation observed in IMMS, the collision cross sections (CCSs) for the corresponding ions were measured. We analyzed nine disaccharide and three monosaccharide isomers that differ in composition, linkages, or configuration. Our data show that coexisting carbohydrate isomers can be identified by the PMP labeling technique in conjunction with ion-mobility separation and tandem mass spectrometry. The practical application of this rapid and effective method that requires only small amounts of sample is demonstrated by the successful analysis of water-soluble ginseng extract. This demonstrated the potential of this method to measure a variety of heterogeneous sample mixtures, which may have an important impact on the field of glycomics.

  2. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuxia; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Li, Jianling; Liu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and in vitro susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). We analysed 63 vaginal C. parapsilosis specimens. After the molecular analyses, the isolates were characterised as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (77.8%), C. orthopsilosis (7.9%) and C. metapsilosis (14.3%). The signs and symptoms of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis sensu lato, including itching, erythema and abnormal discharge, were milder than those caused by C. albicans. None of the C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates were resistant to fluconazole, miconazole or itraconazole. The resistance rates of C. albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole were 2.3, 1.5, 3.1 and 0.8%, respectively. Both C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. albicans were susceptible to nystatin. The mycological eradication rate at follow-up days 7-14 and 30-35 were 77.8% (49/63) and 76.2% (48/63), respectively, when treated with various antifungal agents and regimens. We conclude that C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were present in the vaginal samples of VVC patients. The symptoms and signs of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis are milder than those caused by C. albicans. The antifungal susceptibility and therapeutic efficacy in patients colonised by C. parapsilosis sensu lato were similar to those observed in C. albicans-colonised patients.

  3. Genome scanning for interspecific differentiation between two closely related oak species [Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Mariette, Stéphanie; Porth, Ilga; Goicoechea, Pablo G; Barreneche, Teresa; Bodénès, Catherine; Burg, Kornel; Kremer, Antoine

    2004-11-01

    Interspecific differentiation values (G(ST)) between two closely related oak species (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) were compiled across different studies with the aim to explore the distribution of differentiation at the genome level. The study was based on a total set of 389 markers (isozymes, AFLPs, SCARs, microsatellites, and SNPs) for which allelic frequencies were estimated in pairs of populations sampled throughout the sympatric distribution of the two species. The overall distribution of G(ST) values followed an L-shaped curve with most markers exhibiting low species differentiation (G(ST) 10% levels. Twelve percent of the loci exhibited significant G(ST) deviations to neutral expectations, suggesting that selection contributed to species divergence. Coding regions expressed higher differentiation than noncoding regions. Among the 389 markers, 158 could be mapped on the 12 linkage groups of the existing Q. robur genetic map. Outlier loci with large G(ST) values were distributed over 9 linkage groups. One cluster of three outlier loci was found within 0.51 cM; but significant autocorrelation of G(ST) was observed at distances <2 cM. The size and distribution of genomic regions involved in species divergence are discussed in reference to hitchhiking effects and disruptive selection.

  4. A new isolation with migration model along complete genomes infers very different divergence processes among closely related great ape species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mailund

    Full Text Available We present a hidden Markov model (HMM for inferring gradual isolation between two populations during speciation, modelled as a time interval with restricted gene flow. The HMM describes the history of adjacent nucleotides in two genomic sequences, such that the nucleotides can be separated by recombination, can migrate between populations, or can coalesce at variable time points, all dependent on the parameters of the model, which are the effective population sizes, splitting times, recombination rate, and migration rate. We show by extensive simulations that the HMM can accurately infer all parameters except the recombination rate, which is biased downwards. Inference is robust to variation in the mutation rate and the recombination rate over the sequence and also robust to unknown phase of genomes unless they are very closely related. We provide a test for whether divergence is gradual or instantaneous, and we apply the model to three key divergence processes in great apes: (a the bonobo and common chimpanzee, (b the eastern and western gorilla, and (c the Sumatran and Bornean orang-utan. We find that the bonobo and chimpanzee appear to have undergone a clear split, whereas the divergence processes of the gorilla and orang-utan species occurred over several hundred thousands years with gene flow stopping quite recently. We also apply the model to the Homo/Pan speciation event and find that the most likely scenario involves an extended period of gene flow during speciation.

  5. Frequent cytoplasmic exchanges between oak species that are not closely related: Quercus suber and Q. ilex in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belahbib, N; Pemonge, M H; Ouassou, A; Sbay, H; Kremer, A; Petit, R J

    2001-08-01

    Chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA variation were studied in 97 populations of cork oak (Quercus suber) in Morocco; in 31 of these populations, holm oak (Quercus ilex), a clearly distinct species, also occurred and was compared with Q. suber. Three cpDNA and one mtDNA primer pairs were used in the survey, each in combination with one restriction enzyme. Six haplotypes belonging to two very divergent lineages were detected; one lineage predominates in each species, and is probably ancestral, as inferred from comparisons with other oak species. In the mixed-species populations, cytoplasmic genomes were frequently shared across species, as indicated by an introgression ratio of 0.63. This index is a new measure of the propensity of species to share locally genetic markers, varying from zero (complete differentiation) to one (no differentiation). By contrast, more closely related deciduous oak species (Q. robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens) have introgression ratios varying from 0.82 to 0.97. The introgression events appear to have been more frequent in the direction Q. ilex (female) x Q. suber (male), a finding which seems attributable to the flowering phenology of these two species. This asymmetry may have favoured immigration of Q. suber beyond its main range, in regions already colonized by Q. ilex. There, rare hybridization and further introgression through long distance pollen flow have established populations that are morphologically indistinguishable from Q. suber but that have cytoplasmic genomes originating from the local Q. ilex populations.

  6. Hybridization between alien species Rumex obtusifolius and closely related native vulnerable species R. longifolius in a mountain tourist destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Koichi; Hanyu, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Alien species expand their distribution by transportation network development. Hybridization between alien species Rumex obtusifolius and closely related native vulnerable species R. longifolius was examined in a mountain tourist destination in central Japan. The three taxa were morphologically identified in the field. Stem height and leaf area were greater in R. longifolius than R. obtusifolius; hybrids were intermediate between the two Rumex species. R. longifolius and the hybrids grew mainly in wet land and the river tributary; R. obtusifolius grew mainly at the roadside and in meadows. Hybrid germination rates of pollen and seeds were much lower than for the two Rumex species. Clustering analysis showed the three taxa each formed a cluster. Most hybrids were F1 generation; the possibility was low of introgression into the two Rumex species by backcross. This study clarified that (1) hybridization occurred between R. obtusifolius and R. longifolius because they occurred together in a small area, but grew in different water habitat conditions, and (2) hybridization was mostly F1 generation because hybrid pollen and seed fertility was low. However, we need caution about introgression into R. longifolius by R. obtusifolius in this area because of the slight possibility of F2 generation and backcrosses. PMID:26354180

  7. Hybridization between alien species Rumex obtusifolius and closely related native vulnerable species R. longifolius in a mountain tourist destination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Koichi; Hanyu, Masaaki

    2015-09-10

    Alien species expand their distribution by transportation network development. Hybridization between alien species Rumex obtusifolius and closely related native vulnerable species R. longifolius was examined in a mountain tourist destination in central Japan. The three taxa were morphologically identified in the field. Stem height and leaf area were greater in R. longifolius than R. obtusifolius; hybrids were intermediate between the two Rumex species. R. longifolius and the hybrids grew mainly in wet land and the river tributary; R. obtusifolius grew mainly at the roadside and in meadows. Hybrid germination rates of pollen and seeds were much lower than for the two Rumex species. Clustering analysis showed the three taxa each formed a cluster. Most hybrids were F1 generation; the possibility was low of introgression into the two Rumex species by backcross. This study clarified that (1) hybridization occurred between R. obtusifolius and R. longifolius because they occurred together in a small area, but grew in different water habitat conditions, and (2) hybridization was mostly F1 generation because hybrid pollen and seed fertility was low. However, we need caution about introgression into R. longifolius by R. obtusifolius in this area because of the slight possibility of F2 generation and backcrosses.

  8. The Dynamics of Genetic Interactions between Vibrio metoecus and Vibrio cholerae, Two Close Relatives Co-Occurring in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orata, Fabini D; Kirchberger, Paul C; Méheust, Raphaël; Barlow, E Jed; Tarr, Cheryl L; Boucher, Yan

    2015-10-09

    Vibrio metoecus is the closest relative of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the potent diarrheal disease cholera. Although the pathogenic potential of this new species is yet to be studied in depth, it has been co-isolated with V. cholerae in coastal waters and found in clinical specimens in the United States. We used these two organisms to investigate the genetic interaction between closely related species in their natural environment. The genomes of 20 V. cholerae and 4 V. metoecus strains isolated from a brackish coastal pond on the US east coast, as well as 4 clinical V. metoecus strains were sequenced and compared with reference strains. Whole genome comparison shows 86-87% average nucleotide identity (ANI) in their core genes between the two species. On the other hand, the chromosomal integron, which occupies approximately 3% of their genomes, shows higher conservation in ANI between species than any other region of their genomes. The ANI of 93-94% observed in this region is not significantly greater within than between species, meaning that it does not follow species boundaries. Vibrio metoecus does not encode toxigenic V. cholerae major virulence factors, the cholera toxin and toxin-coregulated pilus. However, some of the pathogenicity islands found in pandemic V. cholerae were either present in the common ancestor it shares with V. metoecus, or acquired by clinical and environmental V. metoecus in partial fragments. The virulence factors of V. cholerae are therefore both more ancient and more widespread than previously believed. There is high interspecies recombination in the core genome, which has been detected in 24% of the single-copy core genes, including genes involved in pathogenicity. Vibrio metoecus was six times more often the recipient of DNA from V. cholerae as it was the donor, indicating a strong bias in the direction of gene transfer in the environment. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  9. Light response, oxidative stress management and nucleic acid stability in closely related Linderniaceae species differing in desiccation tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakar, Challabathula; Bartels, Dorothea

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, three closely related Linderniaceae species which differ in their sensitivity to desiccation are compared in response to light and oxidative stress defence. Lindernia brevidens, a desiccation-tolerant plant, displayed intense purple pigmentation in leaves under long-day conditions in contrast to Craterostigma plantagineum (desiccation tolerant) and Lindernia subracemosa (desiccation sensitive). The intense pigmentation in leaves does not affect the desiccation tolerance behaviour but seems to be related to oxidative stress protection. Green leaves of short-day and purple leaves of long-day plants provided suitable material for comparing basic photosynthetic parameters. An increase in non-photochemical quenching in purple leaves appears to prevent photoinhibition. Treatment with methyl viologen decreased the photochemical activities in both long-day and short-day plants but long-day plants which accumulate anthocyanins maintained a higher non-photochemical quenching than short-day plants. No differences were seen in the expression of desiccation-induced proteins and proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism in short-day and long-day grown plants, whereas differences were observed in the expression of transcripts encoding chloroplast-localised stress proteins and transcripts encoding antioxidant enzymes. While the expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes were either constitutive or up-regulated during desiccation in C. plantagineum, the expression was down-regulated in L. subracemosa. RNA expression analysis indicated degradation of mRNA during desiccation in L. subracemosa but not in desiccation tolerant species. These results indicate that a better oxidative stress management and mRNA stability are correlated with desiccation tolerance.

  10. Relations and Utilities Operation monthly report, September, 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1956-10-24

    This document contains the September 1956 management and operations statistics of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation (HAPO) for their ``Relations and Utilities Operations.`` This is a monthly report. (BN)

  11. 2013 Service Academy Gender Relations Focus Group; Overview Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-30

    reporting unwanted sexual contact because they may be afraid people will think they’re homosexual when they’re not. There’s more social pressure...if you treat people like children they’ll act like children . If you treat people like adults, they’ll act like adults.” (Male) Sexting...close relationship. It’s just almost like a sponsor parent . A sponsor parent basically. I would definitely go to coach if I had any problems or

  12. The Closed End Fund in the Vietnam Stock Market: An Examination of Market relation, Foreign Speculation, and Investor Sentiment

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thanh Tung,

    2007-01-01

    The Vietnam stock market is a young and small stock market, but it has attracted much attention from the financial public. The Vietnam stock market is also one of the most volatile markets with 2 “bubbles” and 2 recessions within 1 year. Closed end fund is considered as a measure of the sentiment of individual investors (De Long, Shleifer, Summers, and Waldmann (1990)). Closed end fund is one of the shares that we can measure its fundamentals through the Net Asset Value (NAV). The closed end ...

  13. Neuropathological review of 138 cases genetically tested for X-linked hydrocephalus: evidence for closely related clinical entities of unknown molecular bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adle-Biassette, Homa; Saugier-Veber, Pascale; Fallet-Bianco, Catherine; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Razavi, Férecheté; Drouot, Nathalie; Bazin, Anne; Beaufrère, Anne-Marie; Bessières, Bettina; Blesson, Sophie; Bucourt, Martine; Carles, Dominique; Devisme, Louise; Dijoud, Frédérique; Fabre, Blandine; Fernandez, Carla; Gaillard, Dominique; Gonzales, Marie; Jossic, Frédérique; Joubert, Madeleine; Laurent, Nicole; Leroy, Brigitte; Loeuillet, Laurence; Loget, Philippe; Marcorelles, Pascale; Martinovic, Jelena; Perez, Marie-José; Satge, Daniel; Sinico, Martine; Tosi, Mario; Benichou, Jacques; Gressens, Pierre; Frebourg, Thierry; Laquerrière, Annie

    2013-09-01

    L1 syndrome results from mutations in the L1CAM gene located at Xq28. It encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases, X-linked hydrocephalus being the most severe phenotype detected in utero, and whose pathophysiology is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to report detailed neuropathological data from patients with mutations, to delineate the neuropathological criteria required for L1CAM gene screening in foetuses by characterizing the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the cardinal signs, and to discuss the main differential diagnoses in non-mutated foetuses in order to delineate closely related conditions without L1CAM mutations. Neuropathological data from 138 cases referred to our genetic laboratory for screening of the L1CAM gene were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-seven cases had deleterious L1CAM mutations. Of these, 100 % had hydrocephalus, 88 % adducted thumbs, 98 % pyramidal tract agenesis/hypoplasia, 90 % stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius and 68 % agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Two foetuses had L1CAM mutations of unknown significance. Seventy-nine cases had no L1CAM mutations; these were subdivided into four groups: (1) hydrocephalus sometimes associated with corpus callosum agenesis (44 %); (2) atresia/forking of the aqueduct of Sylvius/rhombencephalosynapsis spectrum (27 %); (3) syndromic hydrocephalus (9 %), and (4) phenocopies with no mutations in the L1CAM gene (20 %) and in whom family history strongly suggested an autosomal recessive mode of transmission. These data underline the existence of closely related clinical entities whose molecular bases are currently unknown. The identification of the causative genes would greatly improve our knowledge of the defective pathways involved in these cerebral malformations.

  14. A study on some welfare-related parameters of hDAF transgenic pigs when compared with their conventional close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, G; Sardi, L; Stancampiano, L; Govoni, N; Zannoni, A; Nannoni, E; Forni, M; Bacci, M L

    2014-05-01

    Pigs are increasingly used in medical research as transgenic laboratory animals; however, little knowledge is presently available concerning their welfare assessment. The aim of the present study was to investigate some welfare-related parameters of transgenic pigs intended for xenotrasplantation (human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF)) when compared with their conventional (i.e. not transgenic) close relatives (full sibs and half sibs). A total of 14 Large White female transgenic pigs and 10 female non-transgenic (conventional) pigs from four litters were used. All pigs were from the same conventional boar, donor of the semen treated for sperm-mediated gene transfer. During the experiment, BW ranged from 50 to about 80 kg and pigs were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Animals were subjected to a set of behavioural tests: a human approach test (HAT), a novel object test (NOT) and an open-door test (ODT). Food preferences were tested through the offer of different foods (banana, apple, carrot, cracker and lemon). During a 4-day period, pigs were diurnally videotaped to study the prevalence of the different behaviours and social interactions (aggressive and non-aggressive interactions). At the end of the trial, cortisol level had been assessed on bristles. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between hDAF transgenic and conventional pigs with respect to growth traits, reactivity towards unexpected situations (HAT, NOT, ODT), food preferences, main behavioural traits, social interactions and hair cortisol.

  15. Perceived job demands relate to self-reported health complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Schreuder, K.J.; Koopmans, P.C.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Illness and illness behaviour are important problems in the Dutch workforce. Illness has been associated with job demands, with high demands relating to poorer health. It has not been reported whether subjective health complaints relate to job demands. Aims To investigate whether perceive

  16. The changes in various hydroxyproline fractions in aortic tissue of rabbits are closely related to the progression of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhomida AS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most important function of collagen and elastin is to induce several mechanical parameters which are known to play a dominant role in governing mechanical properties of the blood vessels. The aortic tissue of rabbit is one of the important sources of collagen and elastin. The effects of high fat diet (HFD on the hydroxyproline (Hyp fractions in serum and aortic tissues of rabbits and collagen content in the aortic tissues of rabbits have not been documented before. The present study was undertaken to investigate the changes in Hyp fractions in serum and aortic tissues of rabbits and collagen content in the aortic tissues of rabbits during the progression of atherosclerosis. The atherosclerotic model used in this study was the New Zealand white rabbit (male; 12 weeks old. Twenty five rabbits were individually caged, and divided into control group (NOR; n = 10 and HFD group (CHO; n = 15. The control group was fed (100 g/day of normal (NOR diet for a period of 15 weeks. The HFD group was fed normal diet supplemented with 1.0% cholesterol plus 1.0% olive oil (100 g/day for the same period of time. Results We found that the TC, LDLC, and TG (mg/dl were significantly (p Conclusions These results suggest that percentage decrease in various Hyp fractions in aortic tissue of HFD rabbits are closely related to percentage decrease of collagen content in aortic tissues of HFD rabbits. These results also suggest that it may be possible to use the changes in various Hyp fractions in aortic tissues of rabbits as an important risk factor during the progression of atherosclerosis.

  17. Choose Your Weaponry: Selective Storage of a Single Toxic Compound, Latrunculin A, by Closely Related Nudibranch Molluscs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Cheney

    Full Text Available Natural products play an invaluable role as a starting point in the drug discovery process, and plants and animals use many interesting biologically active natural products as a chemical defense mechanism against predators. Among marine organisms, many nudibranch gastropods are known to derive defensive metabolites from the sponges they eat. Here we investigated the putative sequestration of the toxic compound latrunculin A--a 16-membered macrolide that prevents actin polymerization within cellular processes--which has been identified from sponge sources, by five closely related nudibranch molluscs of the genus Chromodoris. Only latrunculin A was present in the rim of the mantle of these species, where storage reservoirs containing secondary metabolites are located, whilst a variety of secondary metabolites were found in their viscera. The species studied thus selectively accumulate latrunculin A in the part of the mantle that is more exposed to potential predators. This study also demonstrates that latrunculin-containing sponges are not their sole food source. Latrunculin A was found to be several times more potent than other compounds present in these species of nudibranchs when tested by in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays. Anti-feedant assays also indicated that latrunculin A was unpalatable to rock pool shrimps, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings led us to propose that this group of nudibranchs has evolved means both to protect themselves from the toxicity of latrunculin A, and to accumulate this compound in the mantle rim for defensive purposes. The precise mechanism by which the nudibranchs sequester such a potent compound from sponges without disrupting their own key physiological processes is unclear, but this work paves the way for future studies in this direction. Finally, the possible occurrence of both visual and chemosensory Müllerian mimicry in the studied species is discussed.

  18. Counteraction of tetherin antiviral activity by two closely related SIVs differing by the presence of a Vpu gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Nikovics

    Full Text Available In different primate lentiviruses, three proteins (Vpu, Env and Nef have been shown to have anti-tetherin activities. SIVden is a primate lentivirus harbored by a Cercopithecus denti (C. denti whose genome code for a Vpu gene. We have compared the activity of HIV-1 Vpu and of SIVden Vpu on tetherin proteins from humans, from C. denti and from Cercopithecus neglectus (C. neglectus, a monkey species that is naturally infected by SIVdeb, a virus closely related to SIVden but which does not encode a Vpu protein. Here, we demonstrate that SIVden Vpu, is active against C. denti tetherin, but not against human tetherin. Interestingly, C. neglectus tetherin was more sensitive to SIVden Vpu than to HIV-1 Vpu. We also identify residues in the tetherin transmembrane domains that are responsible for the species-specific Vpu effect. Simultaneous mutation (P40L and T45I of human tetherin conferred sensitivity to SIVden Vpu, while abolishing its sensitivity to HIV-1 Vpu. We next analyzed the anti-tetherin activity of the Nef proteins from HIV-1, SIVden and SIVdeb. All three Nef proteins were unable to rescue virus release in the presence of human or C. denti tetherin. Conversely, SIVdeb Nef enhanced virus release in the presence of C. neglectus tetherin, suggesting that SIVdeb relies on Nef in its natural host. Finally, while HIV-1 Vpu not only removed human tetherin from the cell surface but also directed it for degradation, SIVden Vpu only induced the redistribution of both C. denti and C. neglectus tetherins, resulting in a predominantly perinuclear localization.

  19. Anthracnose disease of centipedegrass turf caused by Colletotrichum eremochloae, a new fungal species closely related to Colletotrichum sublineola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Jo Anne; Tomaso-Peterson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Colletotrichum is a cosmopolitan, anamorphic fungal genus responsible for anthracnose disease in hundreds of plant species worldwide, including members of the Poaceae. Anthracnose disease of the widely planted, non-native, warm-season lawn grass, Eremochloae ophiuroides (centipedegrass), is commonly encountered in the southern United States, but the causal agent has never been identified. We use DNA sequence data from modern cultures and archival fungarium specimens in this study to determine the identity of the fungus responsible for centipedegrass anthracnose disease and provide experimental confirmation of pathogenicity. C. eremochloae sp. nov., a pathogen of centipedegrass, is proposed based on phylogenetic evidence from four sequence markers (Apn2, Apn2/ Mat1, Sod2, ITS). C. eremochloae isolates from centipedegrass shared common morphology and phenotype with C. sublineola, a destructive pathogen of cultivated sorghum and Johnsongrass weeds (Sorghum halepense, S. vulgaris). Molecular phylogenetic analysis identified C. eremochloae and C. sublineola as closely related sister taxa, but genealogical concordance supported their distinction as unique phylogenetic species. Fixed nucleotide differences between C. eremochloae and C. sublineola were observed from collections of these fungi spanning 105 y, including the 1904 lectotype specimen of C. sublineola. C. eremochloae was identified from a fungarium specimen of centipedegrass intercepted at a USA port from a 1923 Chinese shipment; the multilocus sequence from this specimen was identical to modern samples of the fungus. Thus, it appears that the fungus might have migrated to the USA around the same time that centipedegrass first was introduced to the USA in 1916 from China, where the grass is indigenous. The new species C. eremochloae is described and illustrated, along with a description and discussion of C. sublineola based on the lectotype and newly designated epitype.

  20. Identification of chloroplast genome loci suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic studies of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae) and closely related taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ibrar; Matthews, Peter J; Biggs, Patrick J; Naeem, Muhammad; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2013-09-01

    Recently, we reported the chloroplast genome-wide association of oligonucleotide repeats, indels and nucleotide substitutions in aroid chloroplast genomes. We hypothesized that the distribution of oligonucleotide repeat sequences in a single representative genome can be used to identify mutational hotspots and loci suitable for population genetic, phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. Using information on the location of oligonucleotide repeats in the chloroplast genome of taro (Colocasia esculenta), we designed 30 primer pairs to amplify and sequence polymorphic loci. The primers have been tested in a range of intra-specific to intergeneric comparisons, including ten taro samples (Colocasia esculenta) from diverse geographical locations, four other Colocasia species (C. affinis, C. fallax, C. formosana, C. gigantea) and three other aroid genera (represented by Remusatia vivipara, Alocasia brisbanensis and Amorphophallus konjac). Multiple sequence alignments for the intra-specific comparison revealed nucleotide substitutions (point mutations) at all 30 loci and microsatellite polymorphisms at 14 loci. The primer pairs reported here reveal levels of genetic variation suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic and evolutionary studies of taro and other closely related aroids. Our results confirm that information on repeat distribution can be used to identify loci suitable for such studies, and we expect that this approach can be used in other plant groups.

  1. Standardized subsets of the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, accounting for atypical and duplicated samples and pairs of close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2006-11-01

    The HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel is a widely-used resource for studies of human genetic variation. Here, pairs of close relatives that have been included in the panel are identified. Together with information on atypical and duplicated samples, the inferred relative pairs suggest standardized subsets of the panel for use in future population-genetic studies.

  2. Asymmetric female preferences for courtship pheromones in two closely-related newt species, the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris) and the Carpathian newt (L. montandoni) (Salamandridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osikowski, Artur

    2012-06-01

    The smooth (Lissotriton vulgaris) and Carpathian (L. montandoni) newts are sister species. These are separated by a moderate genetic distance, but exhibit striking morphological differences, especially in male epigamic traits. In the areas where they co-occur, they readily mate with each other and produce viable hybrids. However, a high level of pre-zygotic isolation with an unknown behavioral basis has been reported. The complex courtship of newts consists of at least three types of modality: chemical, visual, and tactile. The relative significance of these in mate choice is unclear, but it is commonly accepted that pheromones are an important communication channel. The goal of this study was to determine whether the females of L. vulgaris and L. montandoni exhibit preferences for conspecific extracts from the pheromone-producing abdominal (dorsal) glands. Females of both species spent more time in proximity to the source of the abdominal gland extracts of their own species when a liver extract was presented as an alternative. In a second trial, females were simultaneously confronted with conspecific and heterospecific abdominal gland extracts. Asymmetric preferences were found. Lissotriton vulgaris females were not selective, whereas L. montandoni females preferred the conspecific abdominal gland extract. This finding is consistent with the results of earlier experiments on mate choice in these species. The results strongly indicate that pheromones play a crucial role in courtship and species recognition in this pair of closely related, hybridizing species.

  3. The genomes of closely related Pantoea ananatis maize seed endophytes having different effects on the host plant differ in secretion system genes and mobile genetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani-Tezerji, Raheleh; Naveed, Muhammad; Jehl, Marc-André; Sessitsch, Angela; Rattei, Thomas; Mitter, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The seed as a habitat for microorganisms is as yet under-explored and has quite distinct characteristics as compared to other vegetative plant tissues. In this study, we investigated three closely related P. ananatis strains (named S6, S7, and S8), which were isolated from maize seeds of healthy plants. Plant inoculation experiments revealed that each of these strains exhibited a different phenotype ranging from weak pathogenic (S7), commensal (S8), to a beneficial, growth-promoting effect (S6) in maize. We performed a comparative genomics analysis in order to find genetic determinants responsible for the differences observed. Recent studies provided exciting insight into the genetic drivers of niche adaption and functional diversification of the genus Pantoea. However, we report here for the first time on the analysis of P. ananatis strains colonizing the same ecological niche but showing distinct interaction strategies with the host plant. Our comparative analysis revealed that genomes of these three strains are highly similar. However, genomic differences in genes encoding protein secretion systems and putative effectors, and transposase/integrases/phage related genes could be observed.

  4. The genomes of closely related Pantoea ananatis maize seed endophytes having different effects on the host plant differ in secretion system genes and mobile genetic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh eSheibani-Tezerji

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The seed as a habitat for microorganisms is as yet under-explored and has quite distinct characteristics as compared to other vegetative plant tissues. In this study, we investigated three closely related P. ananatis strains (named S6, S7 and S8, which were isolated from maize seeds of healthy plants. Plant inoculation experiments revealed that each of these strains exhibited a different phenotype ranging from weak pathogenic (S7, commensal (S8, to a beneficial, growth-promoting effect (S6 in maize. We performed a comparative genomics analysis in order to find genetic determinants responsible for the differences observed. Recent studies provided exciting insight into the genetic drivers of niche adaption and functional diversification of the genus Pantoea. However, we report here for the first time on the analysis of P. ananatis strains colonizing the same ecological niche but showing distinct interaction strategies with the host plant. Our comparative analysis revealed that genomes of these three strains are highly similar. However, genomic differences in genes encoding protein secretion systems and putative effectors, and transposase/integrases/phage related genes could be observed.

  5. Relation of completeness of reporting of health research to journals’ endorsement of reporting guidelines: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Adrienne; Shamseer, Larissa; Weinstein, Erica; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Turner, Lucy; Thielman, Justin; Altman, Douglas G; Hirst, Allison; Hoey, John; Palepu, Anita; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the completeness of reporting of health research is related to journals’ endorsement of reporting guidelines. Design Systematic review. Data sources Reporting guidelines from a published systematic review and the EQUATOR Network (October 2011). Studies assessing the completeness of reporting by using an included reporting guideline (termed “evaluations”) (1990 to October 2011; addendum searches in January 2012) from searches of either Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Methodology Register or Scopus, depending on reporting guideline name. Study selection English language reporting guidelines that provided explicit guidance for reporting, described the guidance development process, and indicated use of a consensus development process were included. The CONSORT statement was excluded, as evaluations of adherence to CONSORT had previously been reviewed. English or French language evaluations of included reporting guidelines were eligible if they assessed the completeness of reporting of studies as a primary intent and those included studies enabled the comparisons of interest (that is, after versus before journal endorsement and/or endorsing versus non-endorsing journals). Data extraction Potentially eligible evaluations of included guidelines were screened initially by title and abstract and then as full text reports. If eligibility was unclear, authors of evaluations were contacted; journals’ websites were consulted for endorsement information where needed. The completeness of reporting of reporting guidelines was analyzed in relation to endorsement by item and, where consistent with the authors’ analysis, a mean summed score. Results 101 reporting guidelines were included. Of 15 249 records retrieved from the search for evaluations, 26 evaluations that assessed completeness of reporting in relation to endorsement for nine reporting guidelines were identified. Of those, 13 evaluations assessing seven reporting guidelines (BMJ

  6. A bridge between a lonely soul and the surrounding world: A study on existential consequences of being closely related to a person with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study illuminates existential consequences of being closely related to a person suffering from aphasia. Seventeen close relatives were interviewed and their narratives were interpreted with inspiration from Ricoeur, Levinas, Husserl, Winnicot, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. The emerging interpretations resulted in four themes that illuminate a life characterized by lost freedom, staying, a new form of relationship, and growing strong together with others. An overarching theme suggests that a life together with an aphasic person means being used as a bridge between the aphasic person and the surrounding world. Moreover, it illuminates that a close relative to a person with aphasia is a person who does not leave, despite a heavy burden of lonely responsibility. It is concluded that community services need to fulfill their responsibility of providing support to informal caregivers as suggested by the Swedish lawmakers.

  7. A bridge between a lonely soul and the surrounding world: A study on existential consequences of being closely related to a person with aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study illuminates existential consequences of being closely related to a person suffering from aphasia. Seventeen close relatives were interviewed and their narratives were interpreted with inspiration from Ricoeur, Levinas, Husserl, Winnicot, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. The emerging interpretations resulted in four themes that illuminate a life characterized by lost freedom, staying, a new form of relationship, and growing strong together with others. An overarching theme suggests that a life together with an aphasic person means being used as a bridge between the aphasic person and the surrounding world. Moreover, it illuminates that a close relative to a person with aphasia is a person who does not leave, despite a heavy burden of lonely responsibility. It is concluded that community services need to fulfill their responsibility of providing support to informal caregivers as suggested by the Swedish lawmakers. PMID:22114621

  8. A bridge between a lonely soul and the surrounding world: A study on existential consequences of being closely related to a person with aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nyström

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study illuminates existential consequences of being closely related to a person suffering from aphasia. Seventeen close relatives were interviewed and their narratives were interpreted with inspiration from Ricoeur, Levinas, Husserl, Winnicot, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. The emerging interpretations resulted in four themes that illuminate a life characterized by lost freedom, staying, a new form of relationship, and growing strong together with others. An overarching theme suggests that a life together with an aphasic person means being used as a bridge between the aphasic person and the surrounding world. Moreover, it illuminates that a close relative to a person with aphasia is a person who does not leave, despite a heavy burden of lonely responsibility. It is concluded that community services need to fulfill their responsibility of providing support to informal caregivers as suggested by the Swedish lawmakers.

  9. The Relative Effects upon High School Students of Inductive and Programmed Instruction in the Close Reading of Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, James David

    To examine the effects of inductive and programmed instruction in the close reading of poetry, four control classes of urban 11th graders receiving inductive instruction in poetry were compared with four equivalent experimental classes using programmed textbooks. Both groups were given free response tests on two poems: one poem, included in…

  10. Not equal in the face of habitat change: closely related fishes differ in their ability to use predation-related information in degraded coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Maud C O; McCormick, Mark I; Allan, Bridie J M; Chivers, Douglas P

    2017-04-12

    Coral reefs are biodiversity hotpots that are under significant threat due to the degradation and death of hard corals. When obligate coral-dwelling species die, the remaining species must either move or adjust to the altered conditions. Our goal was to investigate the effect of coral degradation on the ability of coral reef fishes to assess their risk of predation using alarm cues from injured conspecifics. Here, we tested the ability of six closely related species of juvenile damselfish (Pomacentridae) to respond to risk cues in both live coral or dead-degraded coral environments. Of those six species, two are exclusively associated with live coral habitats, two are found mostly on dead-degraded coral rubble, while the last two are found in both habitat types. We found that the two live coral associates failed to respond appropriately to the cues in water from degraded habitats. In contrast, the cue response of the two rubble associates was unaffected in the same degraded habitat. Interestingly, we observed a mixed response from the species found in both habitat types, with one species displaying an appropriate cue response while the other did not. Our second experiment suggested that the lack of responses stemmed from deactivation of the alarm cues, rather than the inability of the species to smell. Habitat preference (live coral versus dead coral associates) and phylogeny are good candidates for future work aimed at predicting which species are affected by coral degradation. Our results point towards a surprising level of variation in the ability of congeneric species to fare in altered habitats and hence underscores the difficulty of predicting community change in degraded habitats. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. When the presence of creative coworkers is related to creativity: role of supervisor close monitoring, developmental feedback, and creative personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing

    2003-06-01

    Study 1 was conducted to examine the contribution of the joint condition of supervisor close monitoring and the presence of creative coworkers to employees' creativity. In addition to replicating Study 1's results, Study 2 examined (a) the joint condition of supervisor developmental feedback and presence of creative coworkers and (b) whether creative personality moderated the contributions of the 2 joint conditions. Converging results from the 2 field studies demonstrated that when creative coworkers were present, the less supervisors engaged in close monitoring, the more employees exhibited creativity. Study 2 also found that the contribution of this joint condition was stronger for employees with less creative personalities and that when creative coworkers were present, the more supervisors provided developmental feedback, the more employees exhibited creativity.

  12. BAF Complex Is Closely Related to and Interacts with NF1/CTF and RNA Polymerase Ⅱ in Gene Transcriptional Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Hui ZHAO; Xue-Qing BA; Xiao-Guang WANG; Xiao-Juan ZHU; Li WANG; Xian-Lu ZENG

    2005-01-01

    Brg- or hBrm-associated factor (BAF) complexes, a chromatin-remodeling complex family of mammalian cells, facilitate transcriptional activity by remodeling nucleosome structure. Brg 1 is the core subunit of Brg-associated factor complexes. In the present study, we investigated the spatial relationship between Brg1 and nuclear factor 1 (NF1/CTF) and RNA polymerase Ⅱ (RNAP Ⅱ) upon gene transcriptional activation in vivo by employing immuno-gold labeling. The data showed that Brg1 was closely co-localized with NF1/CTF and RNAP Ⅱ in HeLa cells. Moreover, the co-immunoprecipitation assay further revealed that Brg1 can be isolated together with NF1/CTF and RNAP Ⅱ in the ConA-stimulated, but not the resting,T lymphocyte. The combined results suggested that BAF complexes can interact with NF1/CTF and RNAP Ⅱ, and this interaction is closely dependent on the activation of gene transcription.

  13. Related giant viruses in distant locations and different habitats: Acanthamoeba polyphaga moumouvirus represents a third lineage of the Mimiviridae that is close to the megavirus lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosuf, Niyaz; Yutin, Natalya; Colson, Philippe; Shabalina, Svetlana A; Pagnier, Isabelle; Robert, Catherine; Azza, Said; Klose, Thomas; Wong, Jimson; Rossmann, Michael G; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Koonin, Eugene V

    2012-01-01

    The 1,021,348 base pair genome sequence of the Acanthamoeba polyphaga moumouvirus, a new member of the Mimiviridae family infecting Acanthamoeba polyphaga, is reported. The moumouvirus represents a third lineage beside mimivirus and megavirus. Thereby, it is a new member of the recently proposed Megavirales order. This giant virus was isolated from a cooling tower water in southeastern France but is most closely related to Megavirus chiliensis, which was isolated from ocean water off the coast of Chile. The moumouvirus is predicted to encode 930 proteins, of which 879 have detectable homologs. Among these predicted proteins, for 702 the closest homolog was detected in Megavirus chiliensis, with the median amino acid sequence identity of 62%. The evolutionary affinity of moumouvirus and megavirus was further supported by phylogenetic tree analysis of conserved genes. The moumouvirus and megavirus genomes share near perfect orthologous gene collinearity in the central part of the genome, with the variations concentrated in the terminal regions. In addition, genomic comparisons of the Mimiviridae reveal substantial gene loss in the moumouvirus lineage. The majority of the remaining moumouvirus proteins are most similar to homologs from other Mimiviridae members, and for 27 genes the closest homolog was found in bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes supported gene acquisition from diverse bacteria after the separation of the moumouvirus and megavirus lineages. Comparative genome analysis of the three lineages of the Mimiviridae revealed significant mobility of Group I self-splicing introns, with the highest intron content observed in the moumouvirus genome.

  14. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, closely related causal agents of cacao black pod rot, underwent increases in genome sizes and gene numbers by different mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and P. palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing black pod rot of cacao. While Ppal is a cosmopolitan plant pathogen, cacao is the only known host of importance for Pmeg. Pmeg is more virulent on cacao than Ppal. Therefore, we have sequenced both the Pmeg and...

  16. A Holistic Approach to Taxonomic Evaluation of Two Closely Related Endangered Freshwater Mussel Species, the Oyster Mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis) and Tan Riffleshell (Epioblasma florentina walkeri) (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Jess Walter

    2004-01-01

    A Holistic Approach to Taxonomic Evaluation of Two Closely Related Endangered Freshwater Mussel Species, the Oyster Mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis) and Tan Riffleshell (Epioblasma florentina walkeri) (Bivalvia: Unionidae) by Jess W. Jones Richard J. Neves, Chairperson Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences (ABSTRACT) Primers for 10 polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci were developed and characterized for the endangered oyster mussel Epioblasma capsaeformis from the Clinch River, TN. Microsatellite...

  17. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Peterson, Stephen W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266T=Thom 4138.HS2T=IBT 31900T). Asperg...

  18. Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    and correction method proposed here is deemed applicable to closed-path systems featuring a broad range of sampling lines, and indeed applicable also to passive gases as a special case. The methods described in this paper are incorporated, as processing options, in the free and open-source eddy......, a composite of two existing approaches, for correcting eddy-covariance fluxes. By means of a comparison with parallel open-path measurements, we show that the mixed method leads to an improved estimation of latent heat fluxes, with respect to the method described by Ibrom et al. (2007). The quantification......-covariance software packages ECO2S and EddyPro....

  19. A minimally invasive technique for closing an iatrogenic subclavian artery cannulation using the Angio-Seal closure device: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szkup Peter L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In the two cases described here, the subclavian artery was inadvertently cannulated during unsuccessful access to the internal jugular vein. The puncture was successfully closed using a closure device based on a collagen plug (Angio-Seal, St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN, USA. This technique is relatively simple and inexpensive. It can provide clinicians, such as intensive care physicians and anesthesiologists, with a safe and straightforward alternative to major surgery and can be a life-saving procedure. Case presentation In the first case, an anesthetist attempted ultrasound-guided access to the right internal jugular vein during the preoperative preparation of a 66-year-old Caucasian man. A 7-French (Fr triple-lumen catheter was inadvertently placed into his arterial system. In the second case, an emergency physician inadvertently placed a 7-Fr catheter into the subclavian artery of a 77-year-old Caucasian woman whilst attempting access to her right internal jugular vein. Both arterial punctures were successfully closed by means of a percutaneous closure device (Angio-Seal. No complications were observed. Conclusions Inadvertent subclavian arterial puncture can be successfully managed with no adverse clinical sequelae by using a percutaneous vascular closure device. This minimally invasive technique may be an option for patients with non-compressible arterial punctures. This report demonstrates two practical points that may help clinicians in decision-making during daily practice. First, it provides a practical solution to a well-known vascular complication. Second, it emphasizes a role for proper vascular ultrasound training for the non-radiologist.

  20. Bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jin Woo [College of Dentistry, Gangneung Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Bisphosphonates are compounds used to treat osteoporosis and malignant bone metastasis. Despite the benefits related to the use of these medications, osteonecrosis of the jaws is a significant complication in a subset of patients receiving these drugs. This complication occurs either spontaneously or after a simple dento-alveolar surgery. Recently there were two patients who showed the features of bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) in Gangneung Wonju National University Dental Hospital. The patients revealed the clinical and radiological features of classical osteomyelitis. This report presents two cases of BRONJ which were examined by plain radiography and computed tomography.

  1. [Boxing-related cranial injury in children: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, S; Rougeau, T; Grevent, D; Chéron, G

    2012-11-01

    No pediatric recommendations exist in France on the exercise of boxing by children and adolescents despite the risk of traumatic injury, sometimes serious. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who participated in amateur boxing and had a subdural hematoma. Brain injuries and concussions are frequent and multiple. Severity is not always correlated with the intensity of the blows. There are age-related features. Several international medical organizations oppose boxing for children and adolescents.

  2. Post-Closure Report for Closed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Units, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for fiscal year 2013 (October 2012 - September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    2014-01-31

    This report serves as the combined annual report for post-closure activities for the following closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs): CAU 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment; CAU 91, Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well; CAU 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility; CAU 110, Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater; CAU 111, Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits; and, CAU 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches.

  3. Mass spectrometry of planetary exospheres at high relative velocity: direct comparison of open- and closed-source measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan; Tulej, Marek; Wurz, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The exploration of habitable environments on or inside icy moons around the gas giants in the solar system is of major interest in upcoming planetary missions. Exactly this theme is addressed by the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission of ESA, which will characterise Ganymede, Europa and Callisto as planetary objects and potential habitats. We developed a prototype of the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass spectrometer (NIM) of the Particle Environment Package (PEP) for the JUICE mission intended for composition measurements of neutral gas and thermal plasma. NIM/PEP will be used to measure the chemical composition of the exospheres of the icy Jovian moons. Besides direct ion measurement, the NIM instrument is able to measure the inflowing neutral gas in two different modes: in neutral mode, where the gas enters directly the ion source (open source), and in thermal mode, where the gas gets thermally accommodated to the wall temperature by several collisions inside an equilibrium sphere, called antechamber, before entering the ion source (closed source). We performed measurements with the prototype NIM using a neutral gas beam of 1 up to 4.5 km s-1 velocity in the neutral and thermal mode. The current trajectory of JUICE foresees a flyby velocity of 4 km s-1 at Europa; other flybys are in the range of 1 up to 7 km s-1 and orbital velocity in Ganymede orbits is around 2 km s-1. Different species are used for the gas beam, such as noble gases Ne, Ar, Kr as well as molecules like H2, methane, ethane, propane and more complex ones. The NIM prototype was successfully tested under realistic JUICE mission conditions. In addition, we find that the antechamber (closed source) behaves as expected with predictable density enhancement over the specified mass range and within the JUICE mission phase velocities. Furthermore, with the open source and the closed source we measure almost the same composition for noble gases, as well as for molecules, indicating no additional

  4. Critical experiments supporting close proximity water storage of power reactor fuel. Technical progress report, October 1, 1977-December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M.N.; Hoovler, G.S.

    1978-03-01

    Experiments are being conducted on critical configurations of clusters of fuel rods, mocking up LWR-type fuel elements in close proximity water storage. Spacings between fuel clusters and the intervening material are being varied to provide a variety of benchmark loadings. (DLC)

  5. Report on the Development of a Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP) Educational Technician Program (Museum and Archive Use).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelin, Joel

    A close range photogrammetry (CRP) technician training program was developed at Miami-Dade Community College and used to teach the technology to 16 students. Although the results of the study show that it is possible to teach CRP in a two-year program, the technology is too new in the United States to support a sustaining educational program. The…

  6. The enigmatic monotypic crab plover Dromas ardeola is closely related to pratincoles and coursers (Aves, Charadriiformes, Glareolidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic placement of the monotypic crab plover Dromas ardeola (Aves, Charadriiformes remains controversial. Phylogenetic analysis of anatomical and behavioral traits using phenetic and cladistic methods of tree inference have resulted in conflicting tree topologies, suggesting a close association of Dromas to members of different suborders and lineages within Charadriiformes. Here, we revisited the issue by applying Bayesian and parsimony methods of tree inference to 2,012 anatomical and 5,183 molecular characters to a set of 22 shorebird genera (including Turnix. Our results suggest that Bayesian analysis of anatomical characters does not resolve the phylogenetic relationship of shorebirds with strong statistical support. In contrast, Bayesian and parsimony tree inference from molecular data provided much stronger support for the phylogenetic relationships within shorebirds, and support a sister relationship of Dromas to Glareolidae (pratincoles and coursers, in agreement with previously published DNA-DNA hybridization studies.

  7. a new record of acanthodactylus cantoris (sauria: lacertidae) and its comparison with closely related a.blanfordi in southeastern iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    a new record ofacanthodactylus cantoris from sistan and baluchistan in southeastern iran is presented in this paper,and this lizard is found occurring in the coastal area of the persian gulf from govater to chabahar.this species is mainly sympatric with a.blanfordi,and their habits and habitats support their close relationship within the cantoris group.in total,29 specimens ofa.cantoris (n =12) and a.blanfordi (n =17) were compared morphologically using statistical methods.the occurrence of a.cantoris in iran has been questioned for a long time by different herpetologists,and the distribution,ecology and taxonomy of this newly recorded species were investigated and provided in this paper.an updated identification key for the species of acanthodactylus in iran is given.

  8. Closeness and distance in the nurse-patient relation. The relevance of Edith Stein's concept of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Sylvia M

    2006-01-01

    This paper emanates from the concept of empathy as understood by the German philosopher Edith Stein. It begins by highlighting different interpretations of empathy. According to the German philosopher Martin Buber, empathy cannot be achieved as an act of will. In contrast, the psychologist Carl Rogers believes that empathy is identical with dialogue and is the outcome of a cognitive act of active listening. The empathy concept of Edith Stein, philosopher and follower of Edmund Husserl's phenomenology, goes beyond these conflicting views and offers a more complex interpretation, with relevance for both healthcare and nursing education. When studying Stein's three-level model of empathy, a field of tension between perspectives of closeness and distance becomes apparent. The paper concludes by suggesting Stein's model of empathy as a strategy to overcome the tension and meet the demands of empathy.

  9. DENOSUMAB-RELATED OSTEONECROSIS OF THE JAWS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Petkova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are potent and effective drugs frequently used to prevent the skeletal complications associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis in women, to manage patients with multiple myeloma, hypercalcemia, and metastasis of cancer to the bone. The search for new medications with the same therapeutic effectiveness as the bisphosphonates but fewer side effects has resulted in the discovery of Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody against the receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL, therefore inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and function. Denosumab is a class of drugs that are entirely different from the traditional antiresorptive drugs, the bisphosphonates. Denosumab has several advantages, including better tolerability, ease of subcutaneous injection, a shorter half-life, and a reduced incidence of nephrotoxicity. Patients receiving bisphosphonates are at risk to develop a severe devastating complication - osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ - which is challenging to treat. Since 2010 there have been reports of ONJ in patients taking denosumab. In the 2014 position paper of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, the nomenclature “bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw” was changed to “medication related osteonecrosis of the jaw” (MRONJ. The change is justified to accommodate the growing number of osteonecrosis cases involving the maxilla and mandible associated with other antiresorptive (denosumab and antiangiogenic therapies. Here we report a development of denosumab-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (DRONJ - a new type of bony necrosis- in patient with bone metastases of breast cancer on Denosumab therapy. The patient has no previous history of taking bisphosphonates.

  10. Close-coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies. Final report, [October 1, 1988--July 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Popper, G.A.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-06-01

    This is the final report of a four year and ten month contract starting on October 1, 1988 to July 31, 1993 with the US Department of Energy to study and improve Close-Coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Direct Liquefaction of coal by producing high yields of distillate with improved quality at lower capital and production costs in comparison to existing technologies. Laboratory, Bench and PDU scale studies on sub-bituminous and bituminous coals are summarized and referenced in this volume. Details are presented in the three topical reports of this contract; CTSL Process Bench Studies and PDU Scale-Up with Sub-Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-1, CTSL Process Bench Studies with Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-2, and CTSL Process Laboratory Scale Studies, Modelling and Technical Assessment-DE-88818-TOP-3. Results are summarized on experiments and studies covering several process configurations, cleaned coals, solid separation methods, additives and catalysts both dispersed and supported. Laboratory microautoclave scale experiments, economic analysis and modelling studies are also included along with the PDU-Scale-Up of the CTSL processing of sub-bituminous Black Thunder Mine Wyoming coal. During this DOE/HRI effort, high distillate yields were maintained at higher throughput rates while quality was markedly improved using on-line hydrotreating and cleaned coals. Solid separations options of filtration and delayed coking were evaluated on a Bench-Scale with filtration successfully scaled to a PDU demonstration. Directions for future direct coal liquefaction related work are outlined herein based on the results from this and previous programs.

  11. [Closing diastemas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, L C; Pereira, J C; Coradazzi, J L; Francischone, C E

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe a clinical case of closing upper central incisives diastema, reconstructiva of a conoid upper lateral and the rechaping of an upper canine to a lateral incisive. The material used was composite resin.

  12. Desferrioxamine-related ocular toxicity: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumu Simon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old lady receiving repeated blood transfusions for β thalassemia since childhood, presented with rapidly deteriorating symptoms of night blindness and peripheral visual field loss. She was recently commenced on high-dose intravenous desferrioxamine for reducing the systemic iron overload. Clinical and investigative findings were consistent with desferrioxamine-related pigmentary retinopathy and optic neuropathy. Recovery was partial following cessation of desferrioxamine. This report highlights the ocular side-effects of desferrioxamine mesylate and the need to be vigilant in patients on high doses of desferrioxamine.

  13. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition in the entomopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas entomophila L48 and its close relative Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthijs, Sandra; Laus, Georges; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Abbaspour-Tehrani, Kourosch; Schäfer, Mathias; Budzikiewicz, Herbert; Cornelis, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Pseudomonas entomophila L48 is a recently identified entomopathogenic bacterium which, upon ingestion, kills Drosophila melanogaster, and is closely related to P. putida. The complete genome of this species has been sequenced and therefore a genomic, genetic and structural analysis of the siderophore-mediated iron acquisition was undertaken. P. entomophila produces two siderophores, a structurally new and unique pyoverdine and the secondary siderophore pseudomonine, already described in P. fluorescens species. Structural analysis of the pyoverdine produced by the closely related P. putida KT2440 showed that this strain produces an already characterised pyoverdine, but different from P. entomophila, and no evidence was found for the production of a second siderophore. Growth stimulation assays with heterologous pyoverdines demonstrated that P. entomophila is able to utilize a large variety of structurally distinct pyoverdines produced by other Pseudomonas species. In contrast, P. putida KT2440 is able to utilize only its own pyoverdine and the pyoverdine produced by P. syringae LMG 1247. Our data suggest that although closely related, P. entomophila is a more efficient competitor for iron than P. putida.

  14. Varying importance of cuticular hydrocarbons and iridoids in the species-specific mate recognition pheromones of three closely related Leptopilina species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar eWeiss

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Finding a suitable mate for reproduction is one of the most important tasks for almost all animals. In insects this task is often facilitated by pheromone-mediated communication. While insect pheromones in general show enormous chemical diversity, closely related species often use structurally similar compounds in their pheromones. Despite this similarity, pheromones of congeneric species living in sympatry need to be species specific.We investigated the pheromone-mediated mate recognition by males of three closely related species of Leptopilina, a genus of parasitoid wasps that utilize the larvae of Drosophila as hosts. The study species, L. heterotoma, L. boulardi, and L. victoriae, occur sympatrically and have a similar ecology and life history. We have found that mate recognition is species specific in all three species. This species specificity is achieved by a differing importance of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs and iridoids in the female mate recognition pheromones. In L. heterotoma the iridoids are of major importance while CHCs play a negligible role. In L. boulardi, however, the CHCs are as important as the iridoids, while in L. victoriae, the CHCs alone elicit a full behavioral response of males.Our results provide novel insights into pheromone evolution in insects by showing that selection on two completely different classes of chemical compounds may generate conditions where compounds from both classes contribute to a varying degree to the chemical communication of closely related species and that this variation also generates the species specificity of the signals.

  15. Characterization of leaf cuticular waxes and cutin monomers of Camelina sativa and closely-related Camelina species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina sativa is an old world crop newly introduced to the semi-arid regions of the Southwestern US. Recently, Camelina gained attention as a biofuel feedstock crop due to its relatively high oil content, polyunsaturated fatty acids, very short growing season with fairly good adaption to marginal ...

  16. The Relationship between Instructor Misbehaviors and Student Antisocial Behavioral Alteration Techniques: The Roles of Instructor Attractiveness, Humor, and Relational Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Christopher J.; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie; Chory, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    Using rhetorical/relational goal theory as a guiding frame, we examined relationships between instructor misbehaviors (i.e., indolence, incompetence, and offensiveness) and the likelihood of students communicating antisocial behavioral alteration techniques (BATs). More specifically, the study focused on whether students' perceptions of instructor…

  17. The Relationship between Instructor Misbehaviors and Student Antisocial Behavioral Alteration Techniques: The Roles of Instructor Attractiveness, Humor, and Relational Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Christopher J.; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie; Chory, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    Using rhetorical/relational goal theory as a guiding frame, we examined relationships between instructor misbehaviors (i.e., indolence, incompetence, and offensiveness) and the likelihood of students communicating antisocial behavioral alteration techniques (BATs). More specifically, the study focused on whether students' perceptions of instructor…

  18. Production of mycotoxins by Aspergillus lentulus and other medically important and closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2007-01-01

    The production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites have been studied by LC-DAD-MS from six species in Aspergillus section Fumigati. This includes the three new species Aspergillus lentulus, A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis as well as A. fumigatus, Neosartoria fisheri and N....... pseudofisheri. A major finding was detection of gliotoxin from N. pseudofisheri, a species not previously reported to produce this mycotoxin. Gliotoxin was also detected from A. fumigatus together with fumagillin, fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, fumiquinazolines, trypacidin, methyl- sulochrin, TR-2...

  19. The proxy problem: Child report versus parent report in health-related quality of life research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, N.C.M.; Vogels, T.G.C.; Koopman, H.M.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Wit, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluates the agreement between child and parent reports on children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a representative sample of 1,105 Dutch children (age 8-11 years old). Both children and their parents completed a 56 item questionnaire (TACQOL). The questionnaire contains sev

  20. Relation between hydraulic properties and plant coverage of the closed-landfill soils in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinari, C.; Manfredi, P.; Giupponi, L.; Trevisan, M.; Piccini, C.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper the results of a study of soil hydraulic properties and plant coverage of a landfill located in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy) are presented, together with the attempt to put the hydraulic properties in relation with plant coverage. The measured soil water retention curve was first compared with the output of some pedotransfer functions taken from the literature and then with the output of the same pedotransfer functions applied to a reference soil. The landfill plant coverage was also studied. The relation between soil hydraulic properties and plant coverage showed that the landfill soils have a low water content available for plants and this fact, together with their lack of depth and compacted structure, justifies the presence of a nitrophilous, disturbed-soil vegetation type, dominated by ephemeral annual species (therophytes).

  1. TRADE EFFECTS: REGULATORY, ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND REPORTING OF INFORMATION RELATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARISTIŢA ROTILĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that within trade relations providers often credit customers for the value of goods or services which are the subject of conducted commercial transactions, this aspect being materialized in the issuance and acceptance of a trade effect. From the time of acceptance until maturity / settlement, trade effects should be reflected separately in the accounts and, to the extent that were not settled until the end of exercise, their value must be presented in the financial statements. Based on analysis of the Romanian accounting regulations, also taking into consideration the opinions expressed in specific literature concerning accounting reflection of trade effects, in this article we try to point out some aspects which, in our opinion, require clarification. We also want to point out some contradictions / inconsistencies regarding the reporting of information on the trade effects, specifically between the text of accounting regulations concerning the definition of accounting structures „cash and bank accounts” and “short term investments” and their contents when presented as positions in the balance sheet structure. In relation to the issues raised we try to prove the effects on the indicators concerning financial position and to make some suggestions that would have effects on Romanian accounting regulations, namely the improvement of financial reporting performed by the economic operators.

  2. 34 CFR 611.47 - What are a scholarship recipient's reporting responsibilities upon the close of the LEA's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are a scholarship recipient's reporting... EDUCATION TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM Scholarships § 611.47 What are a scholarship recipient...'s academic year, a scholarship recipient whose LEA reports under § 611.46(a) that he or she...

  3. Male attractiveness is influenced by UV wavelengths in a newt species but not in its close relative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Secondi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional communication in the UV range has been reported in Invertebrates and all major groups of Vertebrates but Amphibians. Although perception in this wavelength range has been shown in a few species, UV signalling has not been demonstrated in this group. One reason may be that in lentic freshwater habitats, litter decomposition generates dissolved organic carbon that absorbs UV radiation and thus hinders its use for visual signalling. We tested the effect of male UV characteristics on female sexual preference in two newt species that experience contrasting levels of UV water transmission when breeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed water spectral characteristics of a sample of breeding ponds in both species. We quantified male ventral coloration and measured male attractiveness under two lighting conditions (UV present, UV absent using a no-choice female preference design. UV transmission was higher in Lissotriton vulgaris breeding sites. Male UV patterns also differed between experimental males of the two species. We observed a first common peak around 333 nm, higher in L. vulgaris, and a second peak around 397 nm, more frequent and higher in L. helveticus. Male attractiveness was significantly reduced in L. vulgaris when UV was not available but not in L. helveticus. Male attractiveness depended on the hue of the first UV peak in L. vulgaris. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first report of functional UV-based communication in Amphibians. Interestingly, male spectral characteristics and female preferences were consistent with the differences in habitat observed between the two species as L. helveticus often breeds in ponds containing more UV blocking compounds. We discuss the three hypotheses proposed so far for UV signalling in animals (enhanced signal detectability, private communication channel, indicator of individual quality.

  4. "Impulsivity": relations between self-report and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Leigh; Kohl, Krista; Morgan, Theresa A; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-03-01

    The trait of "impulsivity" is difficult to place within a personality framework due to the many potential pathways to impulsive behavior and the lack of consensus regarding the structure of the trait(s). This lack of consensus also hinders systematic investigation into relations between "impulsivity" and its behavioral manifestations. Undergraduates (Sample 1 N = 507) completed a battery of self-report measures, all purporting to assess trait "impulsivity"; a subset (n = 408) and Sample 2 (N = 388) also completed a retrospective questionnaire about specific behaviors they may have engaged in over the past year, and another subset of Sample 1 agreed to complete (n = 208) and actually completed (n = 152) a 2-week prospective measure of impulsive behaviors. Finally, a subset of Sample 1 (n = 321) and Sample 2 completed an omnibus self-report inventory in a follow-up study. Structural equation modeling confirmed a 3-factor structure of what we call impulsigenic traits-traits that are manifested in impulsive behavior. This finding is consistent with previous research and supports the growing consensus that "impulsivity" is a colloquial label attached to a group of distinct traits that have phenotypically similar behavioral manifestations. Each of these impulsigenic traits relates differentially to impulsive behavior and to broad temperamental dimensions. The results also show clear 2-factor structures of both daily and less frequent (yearly/semiyearly) impulsive behaviors. Finally, a unique method of data collection permitted an investigation of relations between the impulsigenic and other personality traits and observed behaviors, demonstrating the predictive utility of personality traits to discrete, in situ behaviors.

  5. An analysis of psychotropic drug sales. Increasing sales of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors anre closely related to number of products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Margrethe; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    by changes in sales of the benzodiazepines and SSRIs. We found a decline in the sales of benzodiazepines after a peak in 1986, likely due to the recognition that they cause dependence. From a low level in 1992, we found that the sales of SSRIs increased almost linearly by a factor of 18, up to 44 DDD per......BACKGROUND: Prescribing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has increased dramatically. OBJECTIVE: To compare the sales of benzodiazepines and SSRIs within the primary care sector in Denmark and relate changes in usage to number of indications and products on the market. METHODS: We...

  6. Discovery of a novel insect neuropeptide signaling system closely related to the insect adipokinetic hormone and corazonin hormonal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karina Kiilerich; Stafflinger, Elisabeth; Schneider, Martina

    2010-01-01

    that are structurally related to the AKHs but represent a different neuropeptide signaling system. We have previously cloned an orphan GPCR from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that was structurally intermediate between the A. gambiae AKH and corazonin GPCRs. Using functional expression of the receptor in cells...... receptors, this is a prominent example of receptor/ligand co-evolution, probably originating from receptor and ligand gene duplications followed by mutations and evolutionary selection, thereby yielding three independent hormonal systems. The ACP signaling system occurs in the mosquitoes A. gambiae, Aedes...

  7. Replications of Two Closely Related Groups of Jumbo Phages Show Different Level of Dependence on Host-encoded RNA Polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takeru; Yoshikawa, Genki; Mihara, Tomoko; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Kawasaki, Takeru; Nakano, Miyako; Fujie, Makoto; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum phages ΦRP12 and ΦRP31 are jumbo phages isolated in Thailand. Here we show that they exhibit similar virion morphology, genome organization and host range. Genome comparisons as well as phylogenetic and proteomic tree analyses support that they belong to the group of ΦKZ-related phages, with their closest relatives being R. solanacearum phages ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1. Compared with ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1, ΦRP12 and ΦRP31 possess larger genomes (ca. 280 kbp, 25% larger). The replication of ΦRP12 and ΦRP31 was not affected by rifampicin treatment (20 μg/ml), suggesting that phage-encoded RNAPs function to start and complete the infection cycle of these phages without the need of host-encoded RNAPs. In contrast, ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1, encoding the same set of RNAPs, did not produce progeny phages in the presence of rifampicin (5 μg/ml). This observation opens the possibility that some ΦRP12/ΦRP31 factors that are absent in ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1 are involved in their host-independent transcription. PMID:28659872

  8. New insights into the phylogeny and worldwide dispersion of two closely related nematode species, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pereira

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the greatest threats to coniferous forests worldwide, causing severe ecological damage and economic loss. The biology of B. xylophilus is similar to that of its closest relative, B. mucronatus, as both species share food resources and insect vectors, and have very similar morphological characteristics, although little pathogenicity to conifers has been associated with B. mucronatus. Using both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we show that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus form distinct phylogenetic groups with contrasting phylogeographic patterns. B. xylophilus presents lower levels of intraspecific diversity than B. mucronatus, as expected for a species that evolved relatively recently through geographical or reproductive isolation. Genetic diversity was particularly low in recently colonised areas, such as in southwestern Europe. By contrast, B. mucronatus displays high levels of genetic diversity and two well-differentiated clades in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA phylogenies. The lack of correlation between genetic and geographic distances in B. mucronatus suggests intense gene flow among distant regions, a phenomenon that may have remained unnoticed due to the reduced pathogenicity of the species. Overall, our findings suggest that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus have different demographic histories despite their morphological resemblance and ecological overlap. These results suggest that Bursaphelenchus species are a valuable model for understanding the dispersion of invasive species and the risks posed to native biodiversity and ecosystems.

  9. Genes coding for intermediate filament proteins closely related to the hagfish "thread keratins (TK)" alpha and gamma also exist in lamprey, teleosts and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffeld, Michael; Schultess, Jan

    2006-05-15

    The "thread keratins (TK)" alpha and gamma so far have been considered highly specialized intermediate filament (IF) proteins restricted to hagfish. From lamprey, we now have sequenced five novel IF proteins closely related to TKalpha and TKgamma, respectively. Moreover, we have detected corresponding sequences in EST and genomic databases of teleosts and amphibians. The structure of the TKalpha genes and the positions of their deduced amino acid sequences in a phylogenetic tree clearly support their classification as type II keratins. The genes encoding TKgamma show a structure typical for type III IF proteins, whereas their positions in phylogenetic trees favor a close relationship to the type I keratins. Considering that most keratin-like sequences detected in the lancelet also exhibit a gene structure typical for type III IF proteins, it seems likely that the keratin gene(s) originated from an ancient type III IF protein gene. According to EST analyses, the expression of the thread keratins in teleost fish and amphibians may be particularly restricted to larval stages, which, in conjunction with the observed absence of TKalpha and TKgamma genes in any of the available Amniota databases, indicates a thread keratin function closely related to larval development in an aquatic environment.

  10. Antibody potency relates to the ability to recognize the closed, pre-fusion form of HIV Env

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Miklos; Cupo, Albert; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Sanders, Rogier W.; Wilson, Ian A.; Moore, John P.; Lee, Kelly K.

    2015-02-01

    HIV’s envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole target for neutralizing antibodies. The structures of many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in complex with truncated Env subunits or components have been reported. However, their interaction with the intact Env trimer, and the structural determinants that underlie neutralization resistance in this more native context are less well understood. Here we use hydrogen/deuterium exchange to examine the interactions between a panel of bNAbs and native-like Env trimers (SOSIP.664 trimers). Highly potent bNAbs cause only localized effects at their binding interface, while the binding of less potent antibodies is associated with elaborate changes throughout the trimer. In conjunction with binding kinetics, our results suggest that poorly neutralizing antibodies can only bind when the trimer transiently samples an open state. We propose that the kinetics of such opening motions varies among isolates, with Env from neutralization-sensitive viruses opening more frequently than Env from resistant viruses.

  11. Production of mycotoxins by Aspergillus lentulus and other medically important and closely related species in section Fumigati.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Thomas O; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Nielsen, Kristian F; Hansen, Michael A E; Samson, Robert A; Frisvad, Jens C

    2007-05-01

    The production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites have been studied by LC-DAD-MS from six species in Aspergillus section Fumigati. This includes the three new species Aspergillus lentulus, A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis as well as A. fumigatus, Neosartoria fisheri and N. pseudofisheri. A major finding was detection of gliotoxin from N. pseudofisheri, a species not previously reported to produce this mycotoxin. Gliotoxin was also detected from A. fumigatus together with fumagillin, fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, fumiquinazolines, trypacidin, methyl-sulochrin, TR-2, verruculogen, helvolic acid and pyripyropenes. Major compounds from A. lentulus were cyclopiazonic acid, terrein, neosartorin, auranthine and pyripyropenes A, E and O. Thus in the present study A. fumigatus and A. lentulus did not produce any of the same metabolites except for pyripyropenes. The fact that A. lentulus apparently does not produce gliotoxin supports the idea that other compounds than gliotoxin might play an important role in the effective invasiveness of A. lentulus. An overall comparison of secondary metabolite production by strains of the six species was achieved by analysis of fungal extracts by direct injection mass spectrometry and cluster analysis. Separate groupings were seen for all the six species even though only one isolate was included in this study for the two species A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis.

  12. Inhibition of RNA silencing by the coat protein of Pelargonium flower break virus: distinctions from closely related suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; Hernández, Carmen

    2009-02-01

    Viral-derived double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) activate RNA silencing, generating small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) which are incorporated into an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) that promotes homology-dependent degradation of cognate RNAs. To counteract this, plant viruses express RNA silencing suppressors. Here, we show that the coat protein (CP) of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), a member of the genus Carmovirus, is able to efficiently inhibit RNA silencing. Interestingly, PFBV CP blocked both sense RNA- and dsRNA-triggered RNA silencing and did not preclude generation of siRNAs, which is in contrast with the abilities that have been reported for other carmoviral CPs. We have also found that PFBV CP can bind siRNAs and that this ability correlates with silencing suppression activity and enhancement of potato virus X pathogenicity. Collectively, the results indicate that PFBV CP inhibits RNA silencing by sequestering siRNAs and preventing their incorporation into a RISC, thus behaving similarly to unrelated viral suppressors but dissimilarly to orthologous ones.

  13. Molecular and biological analysis of eight genetic islands that distinguish Neisseria meningitidis from the closely related pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, S R; Nassif, X; Kusecek, B; Merker, P; Beretti, J L; Achtman, M; Tinsley, C R

    2000-04-01

    The pathogenic species Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae cause dramatically different diseases despite strong relatedness at the genetic and biochemical levels. N. meningitidis can cross the blood-brain barrier to cause meningitis and has a propensity for toxic septicemia unlike N. gonorrhoeae. We previously used subtractive hybridization to identify DNA sequences which might encode functions specific to bacteremia and invasion of the meninges because they are specific to N. meningitidis and absent from N. gonorrhoeae. In this report we show that these sequences mark eight genetic islands that range in size from 1.8 to 40 kb and whose chromosomal location is constant. Five of these genetic islands were conserved within a representative set of strains and/or carried genes with homologies to known virulence factors in other species. These were deleted, and the mutants were tested for correlates of virulence in vitro and in vivo. This strategy identified one island, region 8, which is needed to induce bacteremia in an infant rat model of meningococcal infection. Region 8 encodes a putative siderophore receptor and a disulfide oxidoreductase. None of the deleted mutants was modified in its resistance to the bactericidal effect of serum. Neither were the mutant strains altered in their ability to interact with endothelial cells, suggesting that such interactions are not encoded by large genetic islands in N. meningitidis.

  14. Closing the quality gap: revisiting the state of the science (vol. 5: public reporting as a quality improvement strategy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Annette M; Wagner, Jesse; Tiwari, Arpita; O'Haire, Christen; Griffin, Jessica; Walker, Miranda

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of public reporting of health care quality information as a quality improvement strategy. We sought to determine if public reporting results in improvements in health care delivery and patient outcomes. We also considered whether public reporting affects the behavior of patients or of health care providers. Finally we assessed whether the characteristics of the public reports and the context affect the impact of public reports. Articles available between 1980 and 2011 were identified through searches of the following bibliographical databases: MEDLINE®, Embase, EconLit, PsychINFO, Business Source Premier, CINAHL, PAIS, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EPOC Register of Studies, DARE, NHS EED, HEED, NYAM Grey Literature Report database, and other sources (experts, reference lists, and gray literature). We screened citations based on inclusion and exclusion criteria developed based on our definition of public reporting. We initially did not exclude any studies based on study design. Of the 11,809 citations identified through title and abstract triage, we screened and reviewed 1,632 articles. A total of 97 quantitative and 101 qualitative studies were included, abstracted, entered into tables, and evaluated. The heterogeneity of outcomes as well as methods prohibited formal quantitative synthesis. Systematic reviews were used to identify studies, but their conclusions were not incorporated into this review. For most of the outcomes, the strength of the evidence available to assess the impact of public reporting was moderate. This was due in part to the methodological challenges researchers face in designing and conducting research on the impact of population-level interventions. Public reporting is associated with improvement in health care performance measures such as those included in Nursing Home Compare. Almost all identified studies found no evidence or only weak evidence that public reporting

  15. Digestive proteolysis organization in two closely related Tenebrionid beetles: red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, K S; Elpidina, E N; Zhuzhikov, D P; Oppert, B; Kodrik, D; Sehnal, F

    2009-04-01

    The spectra of Tribolium castaneum and T. confusum larval digestive peptidases were characterized with respect to the spatial organization of protein digestion in the midgut. The pH of midgut contents in both species increased from 5.6-6.0 in the anterior to 7.0-7.5 in the posterior midgut. However, the pH optimum of the total proteolytic activity of the gut extract from either insect was pH 4.1. Approximately 80% of the total proteolytic activity was in the anterior and 20% in the posterior midgut of either insect when evaluated in buffers simulating the pH and reducing conditions characteristic for each midgut section. The general peptidase activity of gut extracts from either insect in pH 5.6 buffer was mostly due to cysteine peptidases. In the weakly alkaline conditions of the posterior midgut, the serine peptidase contribution was 31 and 41% in T. castaneum and T. confusum, respectively. A postelectrophoretic peptidase activity assay with gelatin also revealed the important contribution of cysteine peptidases in protein digestion in both Tribolium species. The use of a postelectrophoretic activity assay with p-nitroanilide substrates and specific inhibitors revealed a set of cysteine and serine endopeptidases, 8 and 10 for T. castaneum, and 7 and 9 for T. confusum, respectively. Serine peptidases included trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, and elastase-like enzymes, the latter being for the first time reported in Tenebrionid insects. These data support a complex system of protein digestion in the Tribolium midgut with the fundamental role of cysteine peptidases.

  16. Tube Thoracostomy-Related Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Pin Hsu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous pneumothorax is a serious complication of pulmonary tuberculosis that requires immediate treatment. Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious, rapidly progressive infection of the subcutaneous tissue and fascia, most related to trauma or surgery. Here, we report a case of pulmonary tuberculosis with spontaneous pneumothorax. A standard procedure of tube thoracostomy was performed for lung re-expansion. Two days after the tube was removed, necrotizing fasciitis developed from the puncture site. Computed tomography of the chest showed focal thickness with gas formation and loss of the fat plane over the chest wall, which is compatible with the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. Aggressive treatment was given, including emergency fasciectomy and adequate systemic antibiotic and antituberculous treatment. The necrotizing fasciitis was successfully treated. The patient was discharged and sent home with maintenance antituberculous therapy.

  17. Psychopathology Related to Energy Drinks: A Psychosis Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hernandez-Huerta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks (ED are nonalcoholic beverages that have caffeine as their most common active substance. The rapid expansion of ED consumption has created concern in the scientific community as well as in the public opinion. We report a psychotic episode probably triggered by ED abuse in a young adult without previous psychotic disorders. We have reviewed the literature regarding the relationship between caffeine, energy drinks, and psychopathology. Few articles have been published about mental health effects of energy drinks and caffeine abuse. Nevertheless, this relationship has been suggested, specifically with anxiety disorders, manic episodes, suicide attempts, psychotic decompensation, and substance use disorder. ED consumption could represent a global public health problem because of the potential severe adverse effects in mental and physical health. To our knowledge, this article is probably the first case of psychosis related to ED abuse in an individual without previous psychotic disorders.

  18. Psychopathology Related to Energy Drinks: A Psychosis Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Larregola, Maria; Gomez-Arnau, Jorge; Correas-Lauffer, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Energy drinks (ED) are nonalcoholic beverages that have caffeine as their most common active substance. The rapid expansion of ED consumption has created concern in the scientific community as well as in the public opinion. We report a psychotic episode probably triggered by ED abuse in a young adult without previous psychotic disorders. We have reviewed the literature regarding the relationship between caffeine, energy drinks, and psychopathology. Few articles have been published about mental health effects of energy drinks and caffeine abuse. Nevertheless, this relationship has been suggested, specifically with anxiety disorders, manic episodes, suicide attempts, psychotic decompensation, and substance use disorder. ED consumption could represent a global public health problem because of the potential severe adverse effects in mental and physical health. To our knowledge, this article is probably the first case of psychosis related to ED abuse in an individual without previous psychotic disorders. PMID:28116203

  19. Recent speciation in three closely related sympatric specialists: inferences using multi-locus sequence, post-mating isolation and endosymbiont data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Jun Xue

    Full Text Available Shifting between unrelated host plants is relatively rare for phytophagous insects, and distinct host specificity may play crucial roles in reproductive isolation. However, the isolation status and the relationship between parental divergence and post-mating isolation among closely related sympatric specialists are still poorly understood. Here, multi-locus sequence were used to estimate the relationship among three host plant-specific closely related flea beetles, Altica cirsicola, A. fragariae and A. viridicyanea (abbreviated as AC, AF and AV respectively. The tree topologies were inconsistent using different gene or different combinations of gene fragments. The relationship of AF+(AC+AV was supported, however, by both gene tree and species tree based on concatenated data. Post-mating reproductive data on the results of crossing these three species are best interpreted in the light of a well established phylogeny. Nuclear-induced but not Wolbachia-induced unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility, which was detected in AC-AF and AF-AV but not in AC-AV, may also suggest more close genetic affinity between AC and AV. Prevalence of Wolbachia in these three beetles, and the endosymbiont in most individuals of AV and AC sharing a same wsp haplotype may give another evidence of AF+(AC+AV. Our study also suggested that these three flea beetles diverged in a relative short time (0.94 My, which may be the result of shifting between unrelated host plants and distinct host specificity. Incomplete post-mating isolation while almost complete lineage sorting indicated that effective pre-mating isolation among these three species should have evolved.

  20. Four tropical, closely related fern species belonging to the genus Adiantum L. are genetically distinct as revealed by ISSR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpelainen, Helena; de Britto, John; Doublet, Jérémy; Pravin, Sahaya

    2005-11-01

    The level and pattern of genetic variation was analyzed in four species of the fern genus Adiantum L., A. hispidulum Sw., A. incisum Forrsk., A. raddianum C.Presl, and A. zollingeri Mett. ex Kuhn, originating from South India, using the ISSR fingerprinting method. The populations of Adiantum possessed a considerable level of genetic variation, the diversity indices ranging from 0.284 to 0.464. Only 12% of the ISSR markers found were restricted to one species only, and 54% were detected in all four species. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that 71.1% of variation was present within populations. The proportion of variation detected among species was only 18.5% while the proportion of variation among populations within species equalled 10.4%. Despite the low level of intrageneric differentiation, the discriminant analysis and clustering of genetic distances indicated that the four Adiantum species are genetically distinct. The F(ST) values calculated for the species were low, varying from 0.089 to 0.179. No linkage disequilibrium was detected between the loci. Such low level of differentiation among populations and the presence of linkage equilibrium reflect that the life history of Adiantum ferns apparently involves common or relatively common sexuality, effective wind-dispersal of spores and outcrossing.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of blood brain/nerve barrier dysfunction and leukocyte infiltration: closely related or discordant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa eWeise

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other organs the nervous system is secluded from the rest of the organism by the blood brain (BBB or blood nerve barrier (BNB preventing passive influx of fluids from the circulation. Similarly, leukocyte entry to the nervous system is tightly controlled. Breakdown of these barriers and cellular inflammation are hallmarks of inflammatory as well as ischemic neurological diseases and thus represent potential therapeutic targets. The spatiotemporal relationship between BBB/BNB disruption and leukocyte infiltration has been a matter of debate. We here review contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a non-invasive tool to depict barrier dysfunction and its relation to macrophage infiltration in the central and peripheral nervous system under pathological conditions. Novel experimental contrast agents like Gadofluorine M (Gf allow more sensitive assessment of BBB dysfunction than conventional Gadolinium (Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI. In addition, Gf facilitates visualization of functional and transient alterations of the BBB remote from lesions. Cellular contrast agents such as superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO and perfluorocarbons (PFC enable assessment of leukocyte (mainly macrophage infiltration by MR technology. Combined use of these MR contrast agents disclosed that leukocytes can enter the nervous system independent from a disturbance of the BBB, and vice versa, a dysfunctional BBB/BNB by itself is not sufficient to attract inflammatory cells from the circulation. We will illustrate these basic imaging findings in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS, cerebral ischemia and traumatic nerve injury and review corresponding findings in patients.

  2. Morphological, phylogenetic, and ecological diversity of the new model species Setaria viridis (Poaceae: Paniceae) and its close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Daniel J; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2014-03-01

    Species limits of the emerging model organism Setaria viridis (tribe Paniceae, subtribe Cenchrinae) are not well defined. It is thought to be related to S. adhaerens, S. faberi, S. verticillata, and S. verticilliformis and in North America occurs with the morphologically similar S. pumila. An integrated approach was taken to evaluate its variation and relationships with the other taxa. Statistical morphology, flow cytometry, molecular phylogenetics, and growth experiments were employed to examine the group's physical variation, polyploidy, evolutionary relationships, and drought ecology, respectively. SETARIA VIRIDIS contributed one genome to the tetraploids S. faberi, S. verticillata, and S. verticilliformis; the other genome of the latter two was contributed by S. adhaerens. Setaria pumila is unrelated. Morphologically, S. viridis is most similar to S. faberi, but all tested accessions of S. viridis were diploid, whereas those of S. faberi were all tetraploid. Principal component analysis of 70 morphological characters consistently separated S. viridis from S. faberi, largely by spikelet characters. The diagnostic morphological characters are not affected by watering. Setaria faberi is far more sensitive to drought, in terms of mortality and morphological stunting, than S. viridis or S. pumila. SETARIA VIRIDIS is a diploid species and has contributed to several polyploid derivatives. The most morphologically similar of the polyploids is S. faberi, which differs in spikelet features, phylogenetics, genome size, and ecological response to drought. Researchers using field-collected S. viridis as a model organism will benefit from the clear delimitation provided in this study.

  3. Selaginella moellendorffii has a reduced and highly conserved expansin superfamily with genes more closely related to angiosperms than to bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Robert E; Hepler, Nathan K; Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2013-01-03

    Expansins are plant cell wall loosening proteins encoded by a large superfamily of genes, consisting of four families named EXPA, EXPB, EXLA, and EXLB. The evolution of the expansin superfamily is well understood in angiosperms, thanks to synteny-based evolutionary studies of the gene superfamily in Arabidopsis, rice, and Populus. Analysis of the expansin superfamily in the moss Physcomitrella patens revealed a superfamily without EXLA or EXLB genes that has evolved considerably and independently of angiosperm expansins. The sequencing of the Selaginella moellendorffii genome has allowed us to extend these analyses into an early diverging vascular plant. The expansin superfamily in Selaginella moellendorffii has now been assembled from genomic scaffolds. A smaller (and less diverse) superfamily is revealed, consistent with studies of other gene families in Selaginella. Selaginella has an expansin superfamily, which, like Physcomitrella, lacks EXLA or EXLB genes, but does contain two EXPA genes that are related to a particular Arabidopsis-rice clade involved in root hair development. From sequence-based phylogenetic analysis, most Selaginella expansins lie outside the Arabidopsis-rice clades, leading us to estimate the minimum number of expansins present in the last common ancestor of Selaginella and angiosperms at 2 EXPA genes and 1 EXPB gene. These results confirm Selaginella as an important intermediary between bryophytes and angiosperms.

  4. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomics responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, A. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Sardans, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Hódar, J. A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada Spain; Garcia-Porta, J. [Institute of Evolutionary Biology, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Spain; Guenther, A. [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine CA USA; Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Oravec, M. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Urban, O. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Peñuelas, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Leiss, K.

    2016-05-16

    Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at elemental and molecular levels have focused on nutrients or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defensive metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and to avoid those with higher levels of phenolics and terpenes. Unfortunately, the defensive role of phenolics in conifers is still unclear. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under the herbivorous attack by the caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an important pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Herbivorous attack was not associated with any of the elements analyzed. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing the concentrations of various terpenes and phenolics. Systemic responses differed between subspecies and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Contrary as usually thought, foliar nutrient concentrations did not show to be a main factor of an alleged plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition. Local increases in phenolics were more associated with antioxidant function for protection against oxidative damage produced by folivory. On the other hand, terpenes were directly related to defense against herbivores. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, including both primary and secondary metabolisms, that was, however, less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Subspecies responded similarly locally but differently to folivory at systemic level.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of blood brain/nerve barrier dysfunction and leukocyte infiltration: closely related or discordant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Gesa; Stoll, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Unlike other organs the nervous system is secluded from the rest of the organism by the blood brain barrier (BBB) or blood nerve barrier (BNB) preventing passive influx of fluids from the circulation. Similarly, leukocyte entry to the nervous system is tightly controlled. Breakdown of these barriers and cellular inflammation are hallmarks of inflammatory as well as ischemic neurological diseases and thus represent potential therapeutic targets. The spatiotemporal relationship between BBB/BNB disruption and leukocyte infiltration has been a matter of debate. We here review contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive tool to depict barrier dysfunction and its relation to macrophage infiltration in the central and peripheral nervous system under pathological conditions. Novel experimental contrast agents like Gadofluorine M (Gf) allow more sensitive assessment of BBB dysfunction than conventional Gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA enhanced MRI. In addition, Gf facilitates visualization of functional and transient alterations of the BBB remote from lesions. Cellular contrast agents such as superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) and perfluorocarbons enable assessment of leukocyte (mainly macrophage) infiltration by MR technology. Combined use of these MR contrast agents disclosed that leukocytes can enter the nervous system independent from a disturbance of the BBB, and vice versa, a dysfunctional BBB/BNB by itself is not sufficient to attract inflammatory cells from the circulation. We will illustrate these basic imaging findings in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia, and traumatic nerve injury and review corresponding findings in patients.

  6. Allergic reaction related to ramipril use: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alencar Renata C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors are widely prescribed for patients with diabetes as a nephroprotector drug or to treat hypertension. Generally they are safe for clinical practice, but the relationship between these drugs and angioedema is known. The exact mechanism for ACE inhibitors-induced angioedema is not clear and it is still a matter of discussion. Case Report We reported a case of a 23-year-old black female with an 11 year history of type 1 diabetes, regularly monitored in the department of diabetes, in use of 0,98 UI/kg/day of human insulin, which presented an allergic reaction 24 h after ramipril use. The drug had been prescribed to treat diabetic nephropathy. There was no previous history of drug induced or alimentary allergy. The patient was instructed to discontinue the use of ramipril and oral antihistaminic drug and topical corticosteroid were prescribed. Skin biopsies were performed and confirmed the clinical hypothesis of pharmacodermy. The evaluation of ACE polymorphism identified DD genotype. Six months after the withdrawal of ramipril the patient was prescribed the angiotensin-II receptor blocker (ARB losartan as nephroprotector. She remained well without adverse reactions. Conclusions ACE inhibitors-induced angioedema is uncommon and the clinical presentation is variable with lips, tongue, oropharinge, and larynge as the most common locations. The presence of angioedema during treatment requires the immediate cessation of treatment due to the risk of possible severe complications. The case reported presented moderate symptoms, with the development of early onset edema in uncommon regions. ACE DD genotype had been associated with angioedema-ACE inhibitors induced. In patients who have experienced ACE inhibitor-related angioedema, ARB should be used cautiously used. However in the case of our patient, the prescription of losartan as nefroprotector did not result in any recurrent adverse effect.

  7. Field and experimental evidence of a new caiman trypanosome species closely phylogenetically related to fish trypanosomes and transmitted by leeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno R. Fermino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma terena and Trypanosoma ralphi are known species of the South American crocodilians Caiman crocodilus, Caiman yacare and Melanosuchus niger and are phylogenetically related to the tsetse-transmitted Trypanosoma grayi of the African Crocodylus niloticus. These trypanosomes form the Crocodilian clade of the terrestrial clade of the genus Trypanosoma. A PCR-survey for trypanosomes in caiman blood samples and in leeches taken from caimans revealed unknown trypanosome diversity and frequent mixed infections. Phylogenies based on SSU (small subunit of rRNA and gGAPDH (glycosomal Glyceraldehyde Phosphate Dehydrogenase gene sequences revealed a new trypanosome species clustering with T. terena and T. ralphi in the crocodilian clade and an additional new species nesting in the distant Aquatic clade of trypanosomes, which is herein named Trypanosoma clandestinus n. sp. This new species was found in Caiman yacare, Caiman crocodilus and M. niger from the Pantanal and Amazonian biomes in Brazil. Large numbers of dividing epimastigotes and unique thin and long trypomastigotes were found in the guts of leeches (Haementeria sp. removed from the mouths of caimans. The trypanosomes recovered from the leeches had sequences identical to those of T. clandestinus of caiman blood samples. Experimental infestation of young caimans (Caiman yacare with infected leeches resulted in long-lasting T. clandestinus infections that permitted us to delineate its life cycle. In contrast to T. terena, T. ralphi and T. grayi, which are detectable by hemoculturing, microscopy and standard PCR of caiman blood, T. clandestinus passes undetected by these methods due to very low parasitemia and could be detected solely by the more sensitive nested PCR method. T. clandestinus n. sp. is the first crocodilian trypanosome known to be transmitted by leeches and positioned in the aquatic clade closest to fish trypanosomes. Our data show that caimans can host trypanosomes

  8. Applying DNA Barcodes to Identify Closely Related Species of Ferns: A Case Study of the Chinese Adiantum (Pteridaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan-Hong; Lu, Jin-Mei; Wen, Jun; Ebihara, Atsushi; Li, De-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a fast-developing technique to identify species by using short and standard DNA sequences. Universal selection of DNA barcodes in ferns remains unresolved. In this study, five plastid regions (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA, trnL-F and rps4-trnS) and eight nuclear regions (ITS, pgiC, gapC, LEAFY, ITS2, IBR3_2, DET1, and SQD1_1) were screened and evaluated in the fern genus Adiantum from China and neighboring areas. Due to low primer universality (matK) and/or the existence of multiple copies (ITS), the commonly used barcodes matK and ITS were not appropriate for Adiantum. The PCR amplification rate was extremely low in all nuclear genes except for IBR3_2. rbcL had the highest PCR amplification rate (94.33%) and sequencing success rate (90.78%), while trnH-psbA had the highest species identification rate (75%). With the consideration of discriminatory power, cost-efficiency and effort, the two-barcode combination of rbcL+ trnH-psbA seems to be the best choice for barcoding Adiantum, and perhaps basal polypod ferns in general. The nuclear IBR3_2 showed 100% PCR amplification success rate in Adiantum, however, it seemed that only diploid species could acquire clean sequences without cloning. With cloning, IBR3_2 can successfully distinguish cryptic species and hybrid species from their related species. Because hybridization and allopolyploidy are common in ferns, we argue for including a selected group of nuclear loci as barcodes, especially via the next-generation sequencing, as it is much more efficient to obtain single-copy nuclear loci without the cloning procedure.

  9. Field and experimental evidence of a new caiman trypanosome species closely phylogenetically related to fish trypanosomes and transmitted by leeches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermino, Bruno R.; Paiva, Fernando; Soares, Priscilla; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo R.; Viola, Laerte B.; Ferreira, Robson C.; Botero-Arias, Robinson; de-Paula, Cátia D.; Campaner, Marta; Takata, Carmen S.A.; Teixeira, Marta M.G.; Camargo, Erney P.

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma terena and Trypanosoma ralphi are known species of the South American crocodilians Caiman crocodilus, Caiman yacare and Melanosuchus niger and are phylogenetically related to the tsetse-transmitted Trypanosoma grayi of the African Crocodylus niloticus. These trypanosomes form the Crocodilian clade of the terrestrial clade of the genus Trypanosoma. A PCR-survey for trypanosomes in caiman blood samples and in leeches taken from caimans revealed unknown trypanosome diversity and frequent mixed infections. Phylogenies based on SSU (small subunit) of rRNA and gGAPDH (glycosomal Glyceraldehyde Phosphate Dehydrogenase) gene sequences revealed a new trypanosome species clustering with T. terena and T. ralphi in the crocodilian clade and an additional new species nesting in the distant Aquatic clade of trypanosomes, which is herein named Trypanosoma clandestinus n. sp. This new species was found in Caiman yacare, Caiman crocodilus and M. niger from the Pantanal and Amazonian biomes in Brazil. Large numbers of dividing epimastigotes and unique thin and long trypomastigotes were found in the guts of leeches (Haementeria sp.) removed from the mouths of caimans. The trypanosomes recovered from the leeches had sequences identical to those of T. clandestinus of caiman blood samples. Experimental infestation of young caimans (Caiman yacare) with infected leeches resulted in long-lasting T. clandestinus infections that permitted us to delineate its life cycle. In contrast to T. terena, T. ralphi and T. grayi, which are detectable by hemoculturing, microscopy and standard PCR of caiman blood, T. clandestinus passes undetected by these methods due to very low parasitemia and could be detected solely by the more sensitive nested PCR method. T. clandestinus n. sp. is the first crocodilian trypanosome known to be transmitted by leeches and positioned in the aquatic clade closest to fish trypanosomes. Our data show that caimans can host trypanosomes of the aquatic or

  10. Bacillus tequilensis sp. nov., isolated from a 2000-year-old Mexican shaft-tomb, is closely related to Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatson, Joshua W; Benz, Bruce F; Chandrasekaran, Chitra; Satomi, Masataka; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Hart, Mark E

    2006-07-01

    A Gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus was isolated from a sample taken from an approximately 2000-year-old shaft-tomb located in the Mexican state of Jalisco, near the city of Tequila. Tentative identification using conventional biochemical analysis consistently identified the isolate as Bacillus subtilis. DNA isolated from the tomb isolate, strain 10b(T), and closely related species was used to amplify a Bacillus-specific portion of the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene and an internal region of the superoxide dismutase gene (sodA(int)). Trees derived from maximum-likelihood methods applied to the sodA(int) sequences yielded non-zero branch lengths between strain 10b(T) and its closest relative, whereas a comparison of a Bacillus-specific 546 bp amplicon of the 16S rRNA gene demonstrated 99 % similarity with B. subtilis. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strain 10b(T) and B. subtilis were 99 % similar, PFGE of NotI-digested DNA of strain 10b(T) revealed a restriction profile that was considerably different from those of B. subtilis and other closely related species. Whereas qualitative differences in whole-cell fatty acids were not observed, significant quantitative differences were found to exist between strain 10b(T) and each of the other closely related Bacillus species examined. In addition, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that strain 10b(T) had a relatedness value of less than 70 % with B. subtilis and other closely related species. Evidence from the sodA(int) sequences, whole-cell fatty acid profiles and PFGE analysis, together with results from DNA-DNA hybridization studies, justify the classification of strain 10b(T) as representing a distinct species, for which the name Bacillus tequilensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 10b(T) (=ATCC BAA-819(T)=NCTC 13306(T)).

  11. Standardized reporting for rapid relative effectiveness assessments of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijnen, Sarah; Pasternack, Iris; Van de Casteele, Marc; Rossi, Bernardette; Cangini, Agnese; Di Bidino, Rossella; Jelenc, Marjetka; Abrishami, Payam; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Seyfried, Hans; Wildbacher, Ingrid; Goettsch, Wim G

    2014-11-01

    Many European countries perform rapid assessments of the relative effectiveness (RE) of pharmaceuticals as part of the reimbursement decision making process. Increased sharing of information on RE across countries may save costs and reduce duplication of work. The objective of this article is to describe the development of a tool for rapid assessment of RE of new pharmaceuticals that enter the market, the HTA Core Model® for Rapid Relative Effectiveness Assessment (REA) of Pharmaceuticals. Eighteen member organisations of the European Network of Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) participated in the development of the model. Different versions of the model were developed and piloted in this collaboration and adjusted accordingly based on feedback on the content and feasibility of the model. The final model deviates from the traditional HTA Core Model® used for assessing other types of technologies. This is due to the limited scope (strong focus on RE), the timing of the assessment (just after market authorisation), and strict timelines (e.g. 90 days) required for performing the assessment. The number of domains and assessment elements was limited and it was decided that the primary information sources should preferably be a submission file provided by the marketing authorisation holder and the European Public Assessment Report. The HTA Core Model® for Rapid REA (version 3.0) was developed to produce standardised transparent RE information of pharmaceuticals. Further piloting can provide input for possible improvements, such as further refining the assessment elements and new methodological guidance on relevant areas.

  12. Differences in the mannose oligomer specificities of the closely related lectins from Galanthus nivalis and Zea mays strongly determine their eventual anti-HIV activity

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    Fouquaert Elke

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a recent report, the carbohydrate-binding specificities of the plant lectins Galanthus nivalis (GNA and the closely related lectin from Zea mays (GNAmaize were determined by glycan array analysis and indicated that GNAmaize recognizes complex-type N-glycans whereas GNA has specificity towards high-mannose-type glycans. Both lectins are tetrameric proteins sharing 64% sequence similarity. Results GNAmaize appeared to be ~20- to 100-fold less inhibitory than GNA against HIV infection, syncytia formation between persistently HIV-1-infected HuT-78 cells and uninfected CD4+ T-lymphocyte SupT1 cells, HIV-1 capture by DC-SIGN and subsequent transmission of DC-SIGN-captured virions to uninfected CD4+ T-lymphocyte cells. In contrast to GNA, which preferentially selects for virus strains with deleted high-mannose-type glycans on gp120, prolonged exposure of HIV-1 to dose-escalating concentrations of GNAmaize selected for mutant virus strains in which one complex-type glycan of gp120 was deleted. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR analysis revealed that GNA and GNAmaize interact with HIV IIIB gp120 with affinity constants (KD of 0.33 nM and 34 nM, respectively. Whereas immobilized GNA specifically binds mannose oligomers, GNAmaize selectively binds complex-type GlcNAcβ1,2Man oligomers. Also, epitope mapping experiments revealed that GNA and the mannose-specific mAb 2G12 can independently bind from GNAmaize to gp120, whereas GNAmaize cannot efficiently bind to gp120 that contained prebound PHA-E (GlcNAcβ1,2man specific or SNA (NeuAcα2,6X specific. Conclusion The markedly reduced anti-HIV activity of GNAmaize compared to GNA can be explained by the profound shift in glycan recognition and the disappearance of carbohydrate-binding sites in GNAmaize that have high affinity for mannose oligomers. These findings underscore the need for mannose oligomer recognition of therapeutics to be endowed with anti-HIV activity and that mannose, but

  13. Comparative analysis of emm type pattern of Group A Streptococcus throat and skin isolates from India and their association with closely related SIC, a streptococcal virulence factor

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    Ganguly Nirmal K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group A streptococcus (GAS causes a wide variety of life threatening diseases in humans and the incidence of such infections is high in developing countries like India. Although distribution of emm types of GAS in India has been described, there is a lack of data describing either the comparative distribution of emm types in throat versus skin isolates, or the distribution of certain virulence factors amongst these isolates. Therefore in the present study we have monitored the emm type pattern of Group A streptococcus throat and skin isolates from India. Additionally, the association of these isolates with closely related sic (crs, a multifunctional compliment binding virulence factor, was also explored. Results Of the 94 (46 throat and 48 skin isolates analyzed, 37 emm types were identified. The most frequently observed emm types were emm49 (8.5% and emm112 (7.5% followed by 6.5% each of emm1-2, emm75, emm77, and emm81. Out of 37 emm types, 27 have been previously reported and rest were isolated for the first time in the Indian Community. The predominant emm types of throat (emm49 and emm75 samples were different from those of skin (emm44, emm81 and emm112 samples. After screening all the 94 isolates, the crs gene was found in six emm1-2 (crs1-2 isolates, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing and expression analysis. Despite the polymorphic nature of crs, no intravariation was observed within crs1-2. However, insertions and deletions of highly variable sizes were noticed in comparison to CRS isolated from other emm types (emm1.0, emm57. CRS1-2 showed maximum homology with CRS57, but the genomic location of crs1-2 was found to be the same as that of sic1.0. Further, among crs positive isolates, speA was only present in skin samples thus suggesting possible role of speA in tissue tropism. Conclusion Despite the diversity in emm type pattern of throat and skin isolates, no significant association between emm type and source of

  14. A minimally invasive technique for closing an iatrogenic subclavian artery cannulation using the Angio-Seal closure device: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction In the two cases described here, the subclavian artery was inadvertently cannulated during unsuccessful access to the internal jugular vein. The puncture was successfully closed using a closure device based on a collagen plug (Angio-Seal, St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN, USA). This technique is relatively simple and inexpensive. It can provide clinicians, such as intensive care physicians and anesthesiologists, with a safe and straightforward alternative to major surgery an...

  15. Potential utility of cinacalcet as a treatment for CDC73-related primary hyperparathyroidism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeshi; Muroya, Koji; Hanakawa, Junko; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Nozawa, Kumiko; Masudo, Katsuhiko; Yamakawa, Tadashi; Asakura, Yumi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Adachi, Masanori

    2016-07-01

    We report a Japanese pedigree with familial primary hyperparathyroidism due to a CDC73 mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cinacalcet as a treatment for CDC73-related primary hyperparathyroidism. The proband had severe psychomotor retardation and received laryngotracheal separation surgery. At 19 yr of age, he developed acute pancreatitis. Hypercalcemia (12.2-13.8 mg/dL), elevated levels of intact PTH (86-160 pg/mL), and a tumor detected upon neck ultrasonography led to the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism. Family history and biochemical examinations revealed that three family members (the proband's mother, elder brother, and maternal grandfather) had primary hyperparathyroidism. We identified a novel heterozygous mutation, c.240delT, p.Glu81Lysfs*28, in the CDC73 gene in three affected family members, excluding the proband's elder brother who refused genetic testing. Parathyroidectomy for the proband was considered as high-risk, because the tumor was located close to the tracheostomy orifice. After receiving approval from the institutional review board and obtaining the consent, we initiated cinacalcet treatment. At 22 yr of age, treatment with 100 mg of cinacalcet maintained serum calcium levels below 11.0 mg/dL with no apparent side effects. Our report presents the potential efficacy of cinacalcet as a treatment for CDC73-related primary hyperparathyroidism, in particularly inoperative cases.

  16. Conserved PCR primer set designing for closely-related species to complete mitochondrial genome sequencing using a sliding window-based PSO algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Ho, Chang-Hsuan; Chou, Yii-Cheng; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2011-03-18

    Complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequencing is becoming increasingly common for phylogenetic reconstruction and as a model for genome evolution. For long template sequencing, i.e., like the entire mtDNA, it is essential to design primers for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplicons which are partly overlapping each other. The presented chromosome walking strategy provides the overlapping design to solve the problem for unreliable sequencing data at the 5' end and provides the effective sequencing. However, current algorithms and tools are mostly focused on the primer design for a local region in the genomic sequence. Accordingly, it is still challenging to provide the primer sets for the entire mtDNA. The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated primer design algorithm for entire mt genome in general, and for the common primer sets for closely-related species in particular. We introduce ClustalW to generate the multiple sequence alignment needed to find the conserved sequences in closely-related species. These conserved sequences are suitable for designing the common primers for the entire mtDNA. Using a heuristic algorithm particle swarm optimization (PSO), all the designed primers were computationally validated to fit the common primer design constraints, such as the melting temperature, primer length and GC content, PCR product length, secondary structure, specificity, and terminal limitation. The overlap requirement for PCR amplicons in the entire mtDNA is satisfied by defining the overlapping region with the sliding window technology. Finally, primer sets were designed within the overlapping region. The primer sets for the entire mtDNA sequences were successfully demonstrated in the example of two closely-related fish species. The pseudo code for the primer design algorithm is provided. In conclusion, it can be said that our proposed sliding window-based PSO algorithm provides the necessary primer sets for the entire mt genome amplification and

  17. Conserved PCR primer set designing for closely-related species to complete mitochondrial genome sequencing using a sliding window-based PSO algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequencing is becoming increasingly common for phylogenetic reconstruction and as a model for genome evolution. For long template sequencing, i.e., like the entire mtDNA, it is essential to design primers for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR amplicons which are partly overlapping each other. The presented chromosome walking strategy provides the overlapping design to solve the problem for unreliable sequencing data at the 5' end and provides the effective sequencing. However, current algorithms and tools are mostly focused on the primer design for a local region in the genomic sequence. Accordingly, it is still challenging to provide the primer sets for the entire mtDNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated primer design algorithm for entire mt genome in general, and for the common primer sets for closely-related species in particular. We introduce ClustalW to generate the multiple sequence alignment needed to find the conserved sequences in closely-related species. These conserved sequences are suitable for designing the common primers for the entire mtDNA. Using a heuristic algorithm particle swarm optimization (PSO, all the designed primers were computationally validated to fit the common primer design constraints, such as the melting temperature, primer length and GC content, PCR product length, secondary structure, specificity, and terminal limitation. The overlap requirement for PCR amplicons in the entire mtDNA is satisfied by defining the overlapping region with the sliding window technology. Finally, primer sets were designed within the overlapping region. The primer sets for the entire mtDNA sequences were successfully demonstrated in the example of two closely-related fish species. The pseudo code for the primer design algorithm is provided. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, it can be said that our proposed sliding window-based PSO

  18. Recommendations on selecting the closing relations for calculating friction pressure drop in the loops of nuclear power stations equipped with VVER reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipchenkov, V. M.; Belikov, V. V.; Davydov, A. V.; Emel'yanov, D. A.; Mosunova, N. A.

    2013-05-01

    Closing relations describing friction pressure drop during the motion of two-phase flows that are widely applied in thermal-hydraulic codes and in calculations of the parameters characterizing the flow of water coolant in the loops of reactor installations used at nuclear power stations and in other thermal power systems are reviewed. A new formula developed by the authors of this paper is proposed. The above-mentioned relations are implemented in the HYDRA-IBRAE thermal-hydraulic computation code developed at the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. A series of verification calculations is carried out for a wide range of pressures, flowrates, and heat fluxes typical for transient and emergency operating conditions of nuclear power stations equipped with VVER reactors. Advantages and shortcomings of different closing relations are revealed, and recommendations for using them in carrying out thermal-hydraulic calculations of coolant flow in the loops of VVER-based nuclear power stations are given.

  19. Temperature as an ecological factor in the distribution of two closely related freshwater Triclads: an experimental study. [Polycelis tenuis, polycelis nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascombe, C.; Pattee, E.; Bornard, C.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the ecophysiology of two closely related limnophilic Triclads, Polycelis tenuis and P. nigra, in the Lyons region was investigated. Both species have the same physiological rate in the middle zone of the temperature range, but P. tenuis prevails at both ends of the range. It tolerates higher temperatures and its reproduction rate is greater in the cold. Also, because of the existence of physiological races, it seems adapted to a greater diversity of situations. It appears as a real eurytherm. These different points contribute to the explanation of the habitat of both species in the region.

  20. Enhanced depth imaging is less suited than indocyanine green angiography for close monitoring of primary stromal choroiditis: a pilot report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Ozlem; Gasc, Amel; Jeannin, Bruno; Herbort, Carl P

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance, utility, and precision of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) versus indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in tracking any fluctuation in the activity of stromal choroiditis in response to therapeutic interventions during long-term follow-up. Patients with a diagnosis of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease or birdshot retinochoroiditis (BRC), with untreated initial disease, and having had long-term follow-up, including both ICGA and EDI-OCT, were recruited at the Centre for Ophthalmic Specialised care, Lausanne, Switzerland. Angiography signs were quantified according to established dual fluorescein angiography (FA) and ICGA scoring systems for uveitis. Changes in ICGA score and EDI choroidal thickness, in response to therapeutic intervention, were assessed. In the four eyes analysed (2 BRC and 2 VKH), mean EDI-OCT choroidal thickness decreased from 672 ± 101 µm at presentation to 358.5 ± 44.5 µm in a mean of 26.5 months, i.e. the time taken to stabilize the disease. Mean ICGA scores decreased from 28 ± 4.2 at presentation to 5 ± 7 at stabilization. Only ICGA was sufficiently sensitive and reactive having the ability to detect disease recurrences and efficacy or the absence of effect of successive treatment changes, detected in seven instances during follow-up, not recorded by EDI-OCT. This pilot study showed that ICGA was a more sensitive methodology, which promptly identifies evolving subclinical and occult choroidal disease, and flag occult recurrence and/or therapeutic responses that were otherwise missed by EDI-OCT. Although choroidal thickness was proportional to treatment course, demonstrating a linear decrease, these changes were too sluggish to be relied upon for close follow-up and timely adjustment of therapy.

  1. Work-Related Upper Limb Disorders: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Borisova Stoyneva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the complex interrelationship between physical factors, job stress, lifestyle and genetic factors on symptoms of work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs is demonstrated by a case report and discussion of the literature. A 58 year old woman with long lasting complaints of the upper limbs with increasing intensity and duration, generalisation, combined with skin thickness, Raynaud’s phenomenon, joint disorders, arterial and pulmonary hypertension, metabolic lipid dysfunctions is presented. Occupational history proves continuous duration of service at a job with occupational physical static load with numerous repetitive monotonous systematic motions of fingers and hands as a weaver of Persian rugs followed by work at an automated loom and variable labour activities. Though the complaints dated since the time she was a manual weaver, the manifestations of generalized joint degenerative changes, system sclerosis with Raynaud’s phenomenon with similar upper extremities signs and symptoms discount upper limbs musculoskeletal disorder as caused only or mainly by occupational risk factors. The main principles and criteria for occupational diagnosis of musculoskeletal upper limb disorders and legislative requirements for their reglamentation are discussed.

  2. [Scleroderma related to specific immunotherapy. A report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfín Maciel, Blanca María; Castillo Morfín, Blanca María

    2009-01-01

    It has been described two main phenotypes of helper T cells. On activation, the immune system develops the most effective Th response. Whereas Th1 cells promote cell-mediate immunity against intracellular pathogens and an over expression could favor autoimmune diseases; Th2 cells develop humoral immunity against extracellular pathogens promoting allergic response. Normally, the two profiles coexist in the same individual with different grades of expression. Recently, it has been described a new subset: Th17, which is related to tissue injury in autoimmune diseases. Then, allergic and autoimmune diseases result from an unbalanced response of the immune system. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of a specific allergy, which leads to a life-long tolerance against allergens. There are no controlled studies about the effectiveness or risks associated with allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with autoimmune disorders. On the other hand, scleroderma is an autoimmune chronic systemic disorder of unknown etiology characterized by excess collagen deposition in the skin and viscera, along with vascular injury. We report a girl with allergic asthma and with a second degree family history of systemic sclerosis who developed localized scleroderma during allergen specific immunotherapy. Because allergy vaccination alter the balance between effector and regulatory T-cell populations, which regulate immune tolerance, a positive family history of autoimmunity in first or second degree, could be a contraindication for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  3. Desmin-related myopathy: Report of a rare case

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    Sridhar E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Protein Surplus Myopathies (PSM are characterized by accumulation of protein aggregates, identifiable ultrastructurally, resulting due to mutations of the encoding genes. Desmin-related myopathies (DRM are a form of PSM characterized by mutations of the desmin gene resulting in the formation of protein aggregates comprising mutant protein desmin and disturbance of the regular desmin intermediate network in the muscle fibers. We describe a rare case of DRM in a 23-year-old man who presented with complaints of difficulty in climbing stairs and running since the age of 5 years. EMG studies revealed a myopathic pattern. Muscle biopsy showed the features of muscular dystrophy with bluish rimmed vacuoles and sarcoplasmic inclusions, which were immunoreactive to desmin. Ultrastructural examination showed sarcoplasmic bodies and granulofilamentous inclusions. Although rare, the possibility of DRM/desminopathy should be considered in the presence of bluish rimmed vacuoles on light microscopy and characteristic ultrastructural inclusions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of DRM/desminopathy reported from India.

  4. Genomics of sponge-associated Streptomyces spp. closely related to Streptomyces albus J1074: insights into marine adaptation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ian

    Full Text Available A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway. Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts.

  5. Use of two novel approaches to discriminate between closely related host microRNAs that are manipulated by Toxoplasma gondii during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Gusti M; Boothroyd, John C

    2010-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenously encoded regulatory RNAs that function to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in a wide variety of eukaryotes. Within organisms, some mature miRNAs, such as paralogous miRNAs, have nearly identical nucleotide sequences, which makes them virtually indistinguishable from one another by conventional hybridization-based approaches. Here we describe two inexpensive, sensitive methods for rapidly discriminating between paralogous miRNAs or other closely related miRNAs and for quantifying their abundance. The first approach is a sequential ribonuclease-protection and primer-extension assay; the second approach is a primer-extension assay that employs short oligonucleotide probes to exacerbate the instability of mismatched probe:miRNA hybrids. Both approaches are rapid and can be easily performed in their entirety using common laboratory equipment. As a proof of concept, we have used these methods to determine the exact identities of the human miR-17 family members that are increased by infection with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. These methods can be used to rapidly and inexpensively discriminate between any closely related miRNAs in any organism.

  6. Molecular investigation and phylogeny of Anaplasma spp. in Mediterranean ruminants reveal the presence of neutrophil-tropic strains closely related to A. platys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobba, Rosanna; Anfossi, Antonio G; Pinna Parpaglia, Maria Luisa; Dore, Gian Mario; Chessa, Bernardo; Spezzigu, Antonio; Rocca, Stefano; Visco, Stefano; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Few data are available on the prevalence and molecular typing of species belonging to the genus Anaplasma in Mediterranean ruminants. In this study, PCR analysis and sequencing of both 16S rRNA and groEL genes were combined to investigate the presence, prevalence, and molecular traits of Anaplasma spp. in ruminants sampled on the Island of Sardinia, chosen as a subtropical representative area. The results demonstrate a high prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in ruminants, with animals infected by at least four of six Anaplasma species (Anaplasma marginale, A. bovis, A. ovis, and A. phagocytophilum). Moreover, ruminants host a number of neutrophil-tropic strains genetically closely related to the canine pathogen A. platys. The high Anaplasma spp. prevalence and the identification of as-yet-unclassified neutrophil-tropic strains raise concerns about the specificity of serological tests routinely used in ruminants and provide additional background for reconstructing the evolutionary history of species genetically related to A. phagocytophilum.

  7. Karyotyping of female and male Hediste japonica (Polychaeta, Annelida) in comparison with those of two closely related species, H. diadroma and H. atoka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosuji, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Junko; Hayata, Yuki; Sato, Masanori

    2004-02-01

    Karyotypes of females and males of the brackish-water polychaete Hediste japonica sensu stricto, collected from the Ariake Sea, Japan, were examined by using regenerating tails. We used the Giemsa staining method and a computer-assisted image-analyzing system for the identification of each chromosome pair. The somatic chromosome number was 2n=28. The presence of an XX-XY (male heterogametic) sex chromosome system was determined from well-spread metaphase plates of somatic cells. The type of sex chromosomes related with phenotype exactly. The metacentric Y chromosome was much larger than the submetacentric X chromosome. All autosomes were metacentric. The karyotype of this species was compared with those of the other two closely related species (H. diadroma and H. atoka). The karyotypes of all the three species were similar to one another.

  8. Occlusal factors are not related to self-reported bruxism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Visscher, C.M.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the contribution of various occlusal features of the natural dentition that may identify self-reported bruxers compared to nonbruxers. METHODS: Two age- and sex-matched groups of self-reported bruxers (n = 67) and self-reported nonbruxers (n = 75) took part in the study. For each

  9. Novel low abundance and transient RNAs in yeast revealed by tiling microarrays and ultra high-throughput sequencing are not conserved across closely related yeast species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Lee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A complete description of the transcriptome of an organism is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of how it functions and how its transcriptional networks are controlled, and may provide insights into the organism's evolution. Despite the status of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as arguably the most well-studied model eukaryote, we still do not have a full catalog or understanding of all its genes. In order to interrogate the transcriptome of S. cerevisiae for low abundance or rapidly turned over transcripts, we deleted elements of the RNA degradation machinery with the goal of preferentially increasing the relative abundance of such transcripts. We then used high-resolution tiling microarrays and ultra high-throughput sequencing (UHTS to identify, map, and validate unannotated transcripts that are more abundant in the RNA degradation mutants relative to wild-type cells. We identified 365 currently unannotated transcripts, the majority presumably representing low abundance or short-lived RNAs, of which 185 are previously unknown and unique to this study. It is likely that many of these are cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs, which are rapidly degraded and whose function(s within the cell are still unclear, while others may be novel functional transcripts. Of the 185 transcripts we identified as novel to our study, greater than 80 percent come from regions of the genome that have lower conservation scores amongst closely related yeast species than 85 percent of the verified ORFs in S. cerevisiae. Such regions of the genome have typically been less well-studied, and by definition transcripts from these regions will distinguish S. cerevisiae from these closely related species.

  10. Rare Head and Neck Benign Mesenchymoma in Close Proximity to Submandibular Gland in a Pediatric Patient: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric head and neck masses are commonly congenital in origin or of infectious etiology. We present a rare case of benign mesenchymoma in close proximity to the submandibular gland in an otherwise asymptomatic child. Computerized tomography (CT scan of the head and neck area revealed a benign lesion, which was later determined to be a benign mesenchymoma on histopathology. The child did well after surgery without any reported recurrence. We discuss the salient features of a benign mesenchymoma in a child and also discuss relevant imaging and management.

  11. Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase and Its Closely Related Kinase Genes in Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hanyang ecai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As Ca2+ sensors and effectors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs play important roles in regulating the downstream components of calcium signaling, which are ubiquitously involved in plant growth, development, and response to environmental cues. However, no CDPKs have been characterized in Capsicum annuum thus far. Herein, a comprehensive analysis of genes encoding pepper CDPKs and CDPK-related protein kinases (CRKs was performed, and 31 CDPK genes and five closely related kinase genes were identified, which were phylogenetically divided into four distinct subfamilies and unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes. Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CaCPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events. Five CDPKs in the Capsicum annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin. The majority of CDPK and CRK genes were expressed in different pepper tissues and developmental stages, and 10, 12, and eight CDPK genes were transcriptionally modified by salt, heat, and Ralstonia solanacearum stresses, respectively. Furthermore, these genes were found to respond specifically to one stress as well as respond synergistically to two stresses or three stresses, suggesting that these CDPK genes might be involved in the specific or synergistic response of pepper to salt, heat, and R. solanacearum. Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

  12. Hybridization and massive mtDNA unidirectional introgression between the closely related Neotropical toads Rhinella marina and R. schneideri inferred from mtDNA and nuclear markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Horacio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classical perspective that interspecific hybridization in animals is rare has been changing due to a growing list of empirical examples showing the occurrence of gene flow between closely related species. Using sequence data from cyt b mitochondrial gene and three intron nuclear genes (RPL9, c-myc, and RPL3 we investigated patterns of nucleotide polymorphism and divergence between two closely related toad species R. marina and R. schneideri. By comparing levels of differentiation at nuclear and mtDNA levels we were able to describe patterns of introgression and infer the history of hybridization between these species. Results All nuclear loci are essentially concordant in revealing two well differentiated groups of haplotypes, corresponding to the morphologically-defined species R. marina and R. schneideri. Mitochondrial DNA analysis also revealed two well-differentiated groups of haplotypes but, in stark contrast with the nuclear genealogies, all R. schneideri sequences are clustered with sequences of R. marina from the right Amazon bank (RAB, while R. marina sequences from the left Amazon bank (LAB are monophyletic. An Isolation-with-Migration (IM analysis using nuclear data showed that R. marina and R. schneideri diverged at ≈ 1.69 Myr (early Pleistocene, while R. marina populations from LAB and RAB diverged at ≈ 0.33 Myr (middle Pleistocene. This time of divergence is not consistent with the split between LAB and RAB populations obtained with mtDNA data (≈ 1.59 Myr, which is notably similar to the estimate obtained with nuclear genes between R. marina and R. schneideri. Coalescent simulations of mtDNA phylogeny under the speciation history inferred from nuclear genes rejected the hypothesis of incomplete lineage sorting to explain the conflicting signal between mtDNA and nuclear-based phylogenies. Conclusions The cytonuclear discordance seems to reflect the occurrence of interspecific hybridization between these

  13. Two atomic constraints unambiguously position the S4 segment relative to S1 and S2 segments in the closed state of Shaker K channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fabiana V; Chanda, Baron; Roux, Benoît; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2007-05-01

    It is now well established that the voltage-sensing S4 segment in voltage-dependent ion channels undergoes a conformational change in response to varying membrane potential. However, the magnitude of the movement of S4 relative to the membrane and the rest of the protein remains controversial. Here, by using histidine scanning mutagenesis in the Shaker K channel, we identified mutants I241H (S1 segment) and I287H (S2 segment) that generate inward currents at hyperpolarized potentials, suggesting that these residues are part of a hydrophobic plug that separates the water-accessible crevices. Additional experiments with substituted cysteine residues showed that, at hyperpolarized potentials, both I241C and I287C can spontaneously form disulphide and metal bridges with R362C, the position of the first charge-carrying residue in S4. These results constrain unambiguously the closed-state positions of the S4 segment with respect to the S1 and S2 segments, which are known to undergo little or no movement during gating. To satisfy these constraints, the S4 segment must undergo an axial rotation of approximately 180 degrees and a transmembrane (vertical) movement of approximately 6.5 A at the level of R362 in going from the open to the closed state of the channel, moving the gating charge across a focused electric field.

  14. Bacterial Species-Specific Activity of a Fluoroquinolone against Two Closely Related Pasteurellaceae with Similar MICs: Differential In Vitro Inoculum Effects and In Vivo Efficacies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lhermie

    Full Text Available We investigated the antimicrobial activity of a fluoroquinolone against two genetically close bacterial species belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Time-kill experiments were used to measure the in vitro activity of marbofloxacin against two strains of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida with similar MICs. We observed that marbofloxacin was equally potent against 105 CFU/mL inocula M. haemolytica and P. multocida. However, an inoculum effect was observed with P. multocida, meaning that marbofloxacin activity was decreased against a 108 CFU/mL inoculum, whereas no inoculum effect was observed with M. haemolytica. Marbofloxacin activity was also tested in a lung infection model with immunocompromised mice intratracheally infected with 109 CFU of each bacteria. At the same dose, the clinical and bacteriological outcomes were much better for mice infected with M. haemolytica than for those infected with P. multocida. Moreover, bacteriological eradication was obtained with a lower marbofloxacin dose for mice infected with M. haemolytica. Our results suggest that the differential in vivo marbofloxacin efficacy observed with the two bacterial species of similar MIC could be explained by a differential inoculum effect. Consequently, MICs determined on 105 CFU inocula were not predictive of the differences in antibiotic efficacies against high bacterial inocula of closely related bacterial strains. These results could stimulate further investigations on bacterial species-specific antibiotic doses in a clinical setting.

  15. Bacterial Species-Specific Activity of a Fluoroquinolone against Two Closely Related Pasteurellaceae with Similar MICs: Differential In Vitro Inoculum Effects and In Vivo Efficacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermie, Guillaume; El Garch, Farid; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Ferran, Aude A.; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial activity of a fluoroquinolone against two genetically close bacterial species belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Time-kill experiments were used to measure the in vitro activity of marbofloxacin against two strains of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida with similar MICs. We observed that marbofloxacin was equally potent against 105 CFU/mL inocula M. haemolytica and P. multocida. However, an inoculum effect was observed with P. multocida, meaning that marbofloxacin activity was decreased against a 108 CFU/mL inoculum, whereas no inoculum effect was observed with M. haemolytica. Marbofloxacin activity was also tested in a lung infection model with immunocompromised mice intratracheally infected with 109 CFU of each bacteria. At the same dose, the clinical and bacteriological outcomes were much better for mice infected with M. haemolytica than for those infected with P. multocida. Moreover, bacteriological eradication was obtained with a lower marbofloxacin dose for mice infected with M. haemolytica. Our results suggest that the differential in vivo marbofloxacin efficacy observed with the two bacterial species of similar MIC could be explained by a differential inoculum effect. Consequently, MICs determined on 105 CFU inocula were not predictive of the differences in antibiotic efficacies against high bacterial inocula of closely related bacterial strains. These results could stimulate further investigations on bacterial species-specific antibiotic doses in a clinical setting. PMID:26506096

  16. 18 CFR 12.10 - Reporting safety-related incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... at the project, the applicant or licensee must report that drowning or other accident to the Regional... the Regional Engineer any condition affecting the safety of a project or projects works, as defined in...)(1), the applicant or licensee must submit to the Regional Engineer a written report on the condition...

  17. Pacemaker Related Infective Endocarditis from Staphylococcus Lugdunensis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a common skin flora not typically associated with infection. There are, however, several cases reported in the literature of Staphylococcus lugdunensis as a causative bacterium of various infections. This paper reports an additional case of pacemaker associated endocarditis with Staphylococcus lugdunensis as the causative bacterium.

  18. Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis from closely related microorganisms by analysis of 16S and 23S rRNA with oligonucleotide microchips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavykin, Sergei G.; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.

    2007-10-30

    The present invention is directed to a novel method of discriminating a highly infectious bacterium Bacillus anthracis from a group of closely related microorganisms. Sequence variations in the 16S and 23S rRNA of the B. cereus subgroup including B. anthracis are utilized to construct an array that can detect these sequence variations through selective hybridizations. The identification and analysis of these sequence variations enables positive discrimination of isolates of the B. cereus group that includes B. anthracis. Discrimination of single base differences in rRNA was achieved with a microchip during analysis of B. cereus group isolates from both single and in mixed probes, as well as identification of polymorphic sites. Successful use of a microchip to determine the appropriate subgroup classification using eight reference microorganisms from the B. cereus group as a study set, was demonstrated.

  19. Autism Symptoms Related to Tyrosinemia Type III: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Yolga Tahiroğlu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The published literature on tyrosinemia type III consists of only a few case reports. In this report, we present a patient with tyrosinemia type III, autism, and mental retardation. This patient’s speech improved and his autistic symptoms lessened on a tyrosine-restricted diet, although his mental retardation remained unchanged. This is the first published report of a patient with tyrosinemia type III and autism. This observation is significant due to the paucity of published information about tyrosinemia type III. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 55-6

  20. Secondary metabolite profiles and antifungal drug susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus and closely related species, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuyo; Yahiro, Maki; Toyotome, Takahito; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of Aspergillus infection has been increasing in the past few years. Also, new Aspergillus fumigatus-related species, namely Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans, were shown to infect humans. These fungi exhibit marked morphological similarities to A. fumigatus, albeit with different clinical courses and antifungal drug susceptibilities. The present study used liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the secondary metabolites secreted as virulence factors by these Aspergillus species and compared their antifungal susceptibility. The metabolite profiles varied widely among A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. viridinutans, producing 27, 13, 8, and 11 substances, respectively. Among the mycotoxins, fumifungin, fumiquinazoline A/B and D, fumitremorgin B, gliotoxin, sphingofungins, pseurotins, and verruculogen were only found in A. fumigatus, whereas auranthine was only found in A. lentulus. The amount of gliotoxin, one of the most abundant mycotoxins in A. fumigatus, was negligible in these related species. In addition, they had decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents such as itraconazole and voriconazole, even though metabolites that were shared in the isolates showing higher minimum inhibitory concentrations than epidemiological cutoff values were not detected. These strikingly different secondary metabolite profiles may lead to the development of more discriminative identification protocols for such closely related Aspergillus species as well as improved treatment outcomes.

  1. Study of variations as desired-relative (DELTA), rather than absolute, differences: falsification of the purpose of achieving source-representative and closely comparable lab-results

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, B P

    2014-01-01

    Recently (arXiv:1101.0973), it has been pointed out by us that the possible variation in any source (S) specific elemental isotopic (viz. 2H/1H) abundance ratio SR can more accurately be assessed by its absolute estimate Sr [viz. as (Sr - DR), with D as a standard-source] than by either corresponding measured-relative (S/W-DELTA) estimate ([Sr/Wr] - 1) or DELTA-scale-converted-relative (S/D-DELTA) estimate ([Sr/DR] - 1). Here, we present the fundamentals behind scale-conversion, thereby enabling to understand why at all Sr should be the source- and/ or variation-characterizing key, i.e. why different lab-specific results should be more closely comparable as absolute estimates (SrLab1, SrLab2) than as desired-relative (S/D-DELTALab1, S/D-DELTALab2) estimates. Further, the study clarifies that: (i) the DELTA-scale-conversion (S/W-DELTA into S/D-DELTA, even with the aid of calibrated auxiliary-reference-standard(s) Ai(s)) cannot make the estimates (as S/D-DELTA, and thus Sr) free of the measurement-reference W; ...

  2. Can mixed-species groups reduce individual parasite load? A field test with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Dargent

    Full Text Available Predation and parasitism are two of the most important sources of mortality in nature. By forming groups, individuals can gain protection against predators but may increase their risk of being infected with contagious parasites. Animals might resolve this conflict by forming mixed-species groups thereby reducing the costs associated with parasites through a relative decrease in available hosts. We tested this hypothesis in a system with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta and their host-specific monogenean ectoparasites (Gyrodactylus spp. in Trinidad. Fish from three different rivers were sampled from single and mixed-species groups, measured and scanned for Gyrodactylus. The presence and abundance of Gyrodactylus were lower when fish of both species were part of mixed-species groups relative to single-species groups. This is consistent with the hypothesis that mixed-species groups provide a level of protection against contagious parasites. We discuss the importance of potentially confounding factors such as salinity and individual fish size.

  3. Can mixed-species groups reduce individual parasite load? A field test with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargent, Felipe; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Scott, Marilyn E; Ramnarine, Indar; Fussmann, Gregor F

    2013-01-01

    Predation and parasitism are two of the most important sources of mortality in nature. By forming groups, individuals can gain protection against predators but may increase their risk of being infected with contagious parasites. Animals might resolve this conflict by forming mixed-species groups thereby reducing the costs associated with parasites through a relative decrease in available hosts. We tested this hypothesis in a system with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta) and their host-specific monogenean ectoparasites (Gyrodactylus spp.) in Trinidad. Fish from three different rivers were sampled from single and mixed-species groups, measured and scanned for Gyrodactylus. The presence and abundance of Gyrodactylus were lower when fish of both species were part of mixed-species groups relative to single-species groups. This is consistent with the hypothesis that mixed-species groups provide a level of protection against contagious parasites. We discuss the importance of potentially confounding factors such as salinity and individual fish size.

  4. Industrial Change and Black Men's Relative Earnings: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroman, Wayne

    This study examines the relative earnings of black men from a time series perspective covering 1930 to 1990. Regression analyses were fitted to annual data to isolate factors responsible for changes in relative earnings. National and regional data on population growth and employment growth by industry were analyzed to determine the degree of…

  5. Relation of Spatial Skills to Calculus Proficiency: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Booth, Julie L.; Wills, Theodore W.; Chang, Briana L.; Tran, Nhi; Madeja, Michael; Shipley, Thomas F.; Zahner, William

    2017-01-01

    Spatial skills have been shown in various longitudinal studies to be related to multiple science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) achievement and retention. The specific nature of this relation has been probed in only a few domains, and has rarely been investigated for calculus, a critical topic in preparing students for and in STEM…

  6. Relation of Spatial Skills to Calculus Proficiency: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Booth, Julie L.; Wills, Theodore W.; Chang, Briana L.; Tran, Nhi; Madeja, Michael; Shipley, Thomas F.; Zahner, William

    2017-01-01

    Spatial skills have been shown in various longitudinal studies to be related to multiple science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) achievement and retention. The specific nature of this relation has been probed in only a few domains, and has rarely been investigated for calculus, a critical topic in preparing students for and in STEM…

  7. CULTURAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS RELATING TO LEARNING DEVELOPMENT. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACCOBY, MICHAEL; MODIANO, NANCY

    THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO COMPARE CULTURAL AND CHARACTER VARIABLES AND RELATE THEM TO THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF MEXICAN PEASANT CHILDREN. THE CULTURAL VARIABLES STUDIED INCLUDE ECONOMIC LEVELS, MORAL AND AFFECTIVE JUDGMENTS, AND THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PARENTS AND CHILDREN. MODES OF ASSIMILATION, SOCIAL RELATIONS, FIXATIONS,…

  8. Closed orbit response to quadrupole strength variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolski, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-20

    We derive two formulae relating the variation in closed orbit in a storage ring to variations in quadrupole strength, neglecting nonlinear and dispersive effects. These formulae correct results previously reported [1,2,3]. We compare the results of the formulae applied to the ATF with simulations using MAD, and consider their application to beam-based alignment.

  9. Live music therapy in waiting area of intensive care units: a novel concept for betterment of close relatives of ICU patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Sumathy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Family members of ICU patients experience high levels of stress and anxiety. We explored a novel concept of live music therapy for relatives of ICU patients. Weekly 1-hour sessions of live music therapy consisting of devotional songs and prayers were performed in waiting area of ICU in a tertiary care hospital. Responses of 100 first degree relatives of ICU patients were documented using an 8-item questionnaire. 69% of the subjects rated live music therapy sessions as and ldquo;excellent and rdquo;; 50% of the subjects reported that they felt and ldquo;excellent and rdquo; after a single session. Such sessions were reported as a felt need by 77% of the subjects; 92% of the subjects reported that there were high chances that they would recommend such sessions in the hospital in future. In our study, we found our concept to be feasible, acceptable and highly appreciated as well as encouraged by first degree relatives of ICU patients. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 947-949

  10. Correlation between serum hepatitis B virus core-related antigen and intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Fumitaka; Miyakoshi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Mariko; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2009-01-01

    Nucleos(t)ide analogues are utilized for the treatment of chronic HBV infection, and HBe seroconversion and HBV DNA levels are commonly used as markers of viral status and as primary treatment endpoints. Recently, a new assay was prepared for the detection of serum HBV core-related antigen (HBcrAg), consisting of HBcAg, HBeAg, and p22cr, which is a precore protein from amino acid -28 to at least amino acid 150, by coding the precore/core region. In this study, we examined the correlation between serum HBcrAg concentration and viral status by the analysis of serum HBeAg, HBsAg, peripheral HBV DNA, and intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in 57 chronic hepatitis B patients. Intrahepatic cccDNA was detected in all 57 patients, 42 patients were HBcrAg-positive, and serum HBcrAg concentration level was closely correlated with cccDNA. Additionally, positive HBcrAg concentration level results were observed in 6 out of 13 HBsAg seroclearance patients and 20 out of 31 HBV DNA-negative patients. Moreover, the correlation between HBcrAg and cccDNA in these 31 HBV DNA-negative patients was statistically significant (r = 0.482, P = 0.006). These data suggest that serum HBcrAg concentration is well correlated with intrahepatic cccDNA level, and that the measurement of serum HBcrAg may be clinically useful for monitoring intrahepatic HBV viral status, especially in patients under treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues.

  11. Pain Report and Pain-Related Evoked Potentials Operantly Conditioned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousberg, Richel; Vuurman, Eric; Lamers, Theo; Breukelen, van Gerard; Jongen, Ellen; Rijnen, Heidi; Maessen, Christa; Hermens, Hermie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to answer the ques- tion whether pain report can be increased and decreased by operant conditioning. We predicted that the conditioned pain effects would remain significant after correction for social desirability and fantasy proneness. Furthermore, we

  12. Pain Report and Pain-Related Evoked Potentials Operantly Conditioned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousberg, Richel; Vuurman, Eric; Lamers, Theo; van Breukelen, Gerard; Jongen, Ellen; Rijnen, Heidi; Maessen, Christa; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to answer the ques- tion whether pain report can be increased and decreased by operant conditioning. We predicted that the conditioned pain effects would remain significant after correction for social desirability and fantasy proneness. Furthermore, we

  13. Transfusion-related acute lung injury:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Petrou; Vasiliki Karali; Vasiliki Vartela

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury is the most common cause of serious morbidity and mortality associated with the transfusion of plasma-containing blood components. The syndrome can be confused with other causes of acute respiratory failure. Herein, we describe a 71-year-old man who was transfused with fresh frozen plasma due to prolonged INR, and died of what was considered as transfusion-related acute lung injury, despite treatment.

  14. Clinical reports for peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海滨

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate causes and risk factors of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis,explore the pathogenic bacteria and drug sensitivity.Methods CAPD patients suffered peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis were recruited in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University in 2012.Gender,age and possible risk factors were analyzed by unvaried and multivariate logistic regression analysis.The causes,pathogenic bacteria,

  15. A case report of suicidal behavior related to subclinical hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in thyroid function are associated with many psychiatric symptoms. We present a report of a 15-year-old girl who was admitted to the psychiatry inpatient unit with symptoms of suicidal behavior, irritability, and impulsivity. One year previously, she had become more short-tempered, and had started to cut her wrists impulsively. Laboratory tests revealed subclinical hyperthyroidism. She was treated with anxiolytic and antithyroid drugs, and her suicidal ideation and irritability ...

  16. Obesity-Related Adipokines Predict Patient-Reported Shoulder Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Gandhi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Increasingly, an inflammatory modulating effect of adipokines within synovial joints is being recognized. To date, there has been no work examining a potential association between the presence of adipokines in the shoulder and patient-reported outcomes. This study undertakes an investigation assessing these potential links. Methods: 50 osteoarthritis patients scheduled for shoulder surgery completed a pre-surgery questionnaire capturing demographic information including validated, patient-reported function (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire and pain (Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire measures. Synovial fluid (SF samples were analyzed for leptin, adiponectin, and resistin levels using Milliplex MAP assays. Linear regression modeling was used to assess the association between adipokine levels and patient-reported outcomes, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and disease severity. Results: 54% of the cohort was female (n = 27. The mean age (SD of the sample was 62.9 (9.9 years and the mean BMI (SD was 28.1 (5.4 kg/m2. From regression analyses, greater SF leptin and adiponectin levels, but not regarding resistin, were found to be associated with greater pain (p Conclusions: The identified association between shoulder-derived SF leptin and adiponectin and shoulder pain is likely explained by the pro-inflammatory characteristics of the adipokines and represents potentially important therapeutic targets.

  17. Post-Closure Report for Closed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Units, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, for Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvas, Alissa J. [NSTec

    2015-01-14

    This report serves as the combined annual report for post-closure activities for the following closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs): • CAU 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment • CAU 91, Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well • CAU 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility • CAU 110, Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater • CAU 111, Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits • CAU 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches This report covers fiscal year 2014 (October 2013–September 2014). The post-closure requirements for these sites are described in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit Number NEV HW0101 and summarized in each CAU-specific section in Section 1.0 of this report. The results of the inspections, a summary of maintenance activities, and an evaluation of monitoring data are presented in this report. Site inspections are conducted semiannually at CAUs 90 and 91 and quarterly at CAUs 92, 110, 111, and 112. Additional inspections are conducted at CAU 92 if precipitation occurs in excess of 0.50 inches (in.) in a 24-hour period and at CAU 111 if precipitation occurs in excess of 1.0 in. in a 24-hour period. Inspections include an evaluation of the condition of the units, including covers, fences, signs, gates, and locks. In addition to visual inspections, soil moisture monitoring, vegetation evaluations, and subsidence surveys are conducted at CAU 110. At CAU 111, soil moisture monitoring, vegetation evaluations, subsidence surveys, direct radiation monitoring, air monitoring, radon flux monitoring, and groundwater monitoring are conducted. The results of the vegetation surveys and an analysis of the soil moisture monitoring data at CAU 110 are presented in this report. Results of additional monitoring at CAU 111 are documented annually in the Nevada National Security Site Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites and in the Nevada National Security Site Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

  18. The IAB Iron-Meteorite Complex: A Group, Five Subgroups, Numerous Grouplets, Closely Related, Mainly Formed by Crystal Segregation in Rapidly Cooling Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, J. T.; Kallemeyn, G. W.

    2002-01-01

    We present new data or iron meteorites that are members of group IAB or are closely related to this large group, and we have also reevaluated some of our earlier data for these irons. In the past it was not possible to distinguish IAB and IIICD irons on the basis of their positions on element-Ni diagrams. We now find that plotting, the new and revised data yields six sets of compact fields on element-Au diagrams, each set corresponding to a compositional group. The largest set includes the majority (approximately equal to 70) of irons previously designated IA: We christened this set the IAB main group. The remaining five sets we designate subgroups within the IAB complex. Three of these subgroups have Au contents similar to the main group, and form parallel trends in most element-Ni diagrams. The groups originally designated IIIC and IIID are two of these subgroups: they are now well resolved from each other and from the main group. The other low-Au subgroup has Ni contents just above the main group. Two other IAB subgroups have appreciably higher Au contents than the main group and show weaker compositional links to it. We have named these five subgroups on the basis of their Au and Ni contents. The three subgroups having Au contents similar to the main group are the low-Au (L) subgroups the two others the high-Au (H) subgroups. The Ni contents are designated high (H), medium (M), or low (L). Thus the old group IIID is now the sLH subgroup. the old group IIIC is the sLM subgroup. In addition, eight irons assigned to two grouplets plot between sLL and sLM on most element-Au diagrams. A large number (27) of related irons plot outside these compact fields but nonetheless appear to be sufficiently related to also be included in the IAB complex.

  19. Extensive inter- and intraspecific venom variation in closely related parasites targeting the same host: the case of Leptopilina parasitoids of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Dominique; Deleury, Emeline; Anselme, Caroline; Cazes, Dominique; Poulain, Julie; Azema-Dossat, Carole; Belghazi, Maya; Gatti, Jean-Luc; Poirié, Marylène

    2013-07-01

    The arms race between immune suppressive parasites that produce virulence factors and hosts that evolve resistance to these factors is suggested to be a key driver for the diversification of both partners. However, little is known regarding the diversity of virulence factors in closely related parasites or the mechanisms underlying the variation of virulence. One of the best-described model to address this issue is the interaction between Leptopilina parasitic wasps and their Drosophila hosts, in which variation of virulence is well documented. Thanks to a combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach, we have identified the main secreted proteins in the venom of Leptopilina heterotoma (Gotheron strain, 66 proteins) and of two well-characterized strains of Leptopilina boulardi, ISm and ISy (65 and 49 proteins, respectively). Results revealed significant quantitative differences in venom components between the L. boulardi strains, in agreement with their different virulence properties. Strikingly, the two related Leptopilina species did not share any abundant venom protein. The main identified proteins in L. boulardi were RhoGAPs and serpins while an aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA) was found abundant in L. heterotoma. The extensive quantitative variation observed between these species may be related with their use of different virulence strategies and/or to differences in their host range (specialist versus generalist). Altogether, our data suggests that parasitoid venom can quickly evolve, mainly through rapid changes in regulation of gene expression. It also evidences venom evolutionary processes largely described in other venomous animals i.e. the convergent recruitment of venom proteins between phylogenetically unrelated organisms, and the role of duplications in the emergence of multigenic families of virulence factors.

  20. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders : back to work report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinder, A.; Yeomans, L.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.; Verjans, M.; Muylaert, K.; Broeck, V.de; Buffet, M.A.; Nevala, N.

    2007-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are impairments of bodily structures, such as muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, nerves or the localised blood circulation system. MSDs can interfere with activities at work, and can cause an increase in sickness absence, and chronic occupational

  1. 2016 Service Academy Gender Relations Survey: Overview Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    were constructed based on 2017 2016 Service Academy Gender Relations Survey 239 | OPA feedback from Academy focus groups and frequencies and...stop sexual harassment and sexual assault. They provided feedback on the actions of Academy senior leadership, officers, and non-commissioned...harassment after having been previously spoken to. Response categories were collapsed so that large extent represents the combination of moderate extent

  2. Is anti-doping analysis so far from clinical, legal or forensic targets?: The added value of close relationships between related disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Jordi

    2009-11-01

    There are many areas of common interest between anti-doping laboratories and those working in the clinical, legal and forensic fields. In addition to methodological similarities, there are aspects of the findings in sport drug testing that overlap with other fields in such a way that sport drug testing and clinical, legal or forensic work may benefit from mutual interaction. Three recent examples are presented from the author's experience. Case report 1 concerns the clinical relevance of hCG findings in sport drug testing as potential indicators of the presence of a (testicular) tumour in athletes. Case report 2 refers to difficulties that accredited laboratories can encounter due to differences between national legal systems and the administrative regulation systems of sport authorities. The example involves a network of blood collection for further autologous transfusion. Case report 3 relates to additional forensic-type investigations needed to interpret a situation where intoxication of a whole delegation was responsible for apparent doping cases. Clinical, legal and forensic fields must recognize the added value that some results and developments coming from anti-doping laboratories may have. At the same time anti-doping analysts should be aware of new issues, methodologies and problems appearing in related fields.

  3. A case report of suicidal behavior related to subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Soo-Hyun; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in thyroid function are associated with many psychiatric symptoms. We present a report of a 15-year-old girl who was admitted to the psychiatry inpatient unit with symptoms of suicidal behavior, irritability, and impulsivity. One year previously, she had become more short-tempered, and had started to cut her wrists impulsively. Laboratory tests revealed subclinical hyperthyroidism. She was treated with anxiolytic and antithyroid drugs, and her suicidal ideation and irritability resolved. This case demonstrates that subclinical hyperthyroidism can be associated with suicidal behavior as well as overt hyperthyroidism. Early intervention is required to prevent suicidal behavior in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

  4. Energy-related inventions program invention 637. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The final technical report for the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus, describes progress from the development stage to the product support stage. The US Department of Agriculture - Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is now in the second year of a three year study comparing the Pegasus to conventional tillage. So far, no downside has been with the Pegasus and the following benefits have been documented: (1) Energy savings of 65.0 kilowatt hours per hectare over conventional tillage. This is when the Pegasus plow is used to bury whole stalks, and represents a 70% savings over conventional tillage (92.5 kilowatt hours per hectare). (2) Four to seven fewer passes of tillage, depending on the particular situation. This represents a substantial time savings to farmers. (3) So far, no differences in cotton yields. Recent cotton boll counts in one study indicate a higher yield potential with the Pegasus. (4) No disease problems. (5) Significantly higher levels of organic matter in the soil. A hypothesis of the study is that whole stalk burial may reduce plant disease problems. This hypothesis has not yet been proven. (6) Significantly higher levels of nitrate nitrogen. Total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen trended higher but were not significantly different. This shows that whole stalk burial does not adversely affect the nitrogen cycle in the soil and may actually improve it. The marketing support stage of the project is also described in the report.

  5. TRADE EFFECTS: REGULATORY, ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND REPORTING OF INFORMATION RELATED

    OpenAIRE

    ARISTIŢA ROTILĂ

    2014-01-01

    It is known that within trade relations providers often credit customers for the value of goods or services which are the subject of conducted commercial transactions, this aspect being materialized in the issuance and acceptance of a trade effect. From the time of acceptance until maturity / settlement, trade effects should be reflected separately in the accounts and, to the extent that were not settled until the end of exercise, their value must be presented in the financial ...

  6. 2015 Service Academy Gender Relations Focus Groups: Overview Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    gender focus groups, similar procedures were used, selecting an equal number of junior and senior men and women to achieve sessions of approximately 10...Male) Service Academy Gender Relations Focus Groups 2015 68 | DMDC  Some cadets indicated that the Corps in general understands the importance of...aspect of gender equality almost brought into CASHA. So it’s not just like about sexual harassment, sexual assault, and don’t do this, don’t do that

  7. Unusual exercise-related stress fractures. Two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink-Bennett, D.M.; Benson, M.T.

    1984-08-01

    We describe two unusual exercise-related stress fractures, one in the sacroiliac joint of a long distance runner, the other in the body of the scapulae of an above-knee amputee. Each were detected on a 2-hour delay bone scan. To our knowledge, neither have been described scintigraphically. The bilateral scapular fracture is an unreported entity, and the fractured SI joint is a very uncommon site for an overuse injury.

  8. Brain spontaneous fluctuations in sensorimotor regions were directly related to eyes open and eyes closed: evidences from a machine learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishan eLiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that the difference between resting-state brain activations depends on whether the subject was eyes open (EO or eyes closed (EC. However, whether the spontaneous fluctuations are directly related to these two different resting states are still largely unclear. In the present study, we acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 24 healthy subjects (11 males, 20.17 ± 2.74 years under the EO and EC states. The amplitude of the spontaneous brain activity in low-frequency band was subsequently investigated by using the metric of fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF for each subject under each state. A support vector machine (SVM analysis was then applied to evaluate whether the category of resting states could be determined from the brain spontaneous fluctuations. We demonstrated that these two resting states could be decoded from the identified pattern of brain spontaneous fluctuations, predominantly based on fALFF in the sensorimotor module. Specifically, we observed prominent relationships between increased fALFF for EC and decreased fALFF for EO in sensorimotor regions. Overall, the present results indicate that a SVM performs well in the discrimination between the brain spontaneous fluctuations of distinct resting states and provide new insight into the neural substrate of the resting states during EC and EO.

  9. Towards harmonised procedures in wildlife epidemiological investigations: a serosurvey of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerli, Olivia; Blatter, Sohvi; Boadella, Mariana; Schöning, Janne; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a (re-)emerging disease in European countries, including Switzerland. This study assesses the seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland, because wild boar are potential maintenance hosts of these pathogens. The study employs harmonised laboratory methods to facilitate comparison with the situation in other countries. Eighteen out of 743 blood samples tested seropositive (2.4%, CI: 1.5-3.9%) by ELISA, and the results for 61 animals previously assessed using culture and PCR indicated that this serological test was not 100% specific for M. bovis, cross-reacting with M. microti. Nevertheless, serology appears to be an appropriate test methodology in the harmonisation of wild boar testing throughout Europe. In accordance with previous findings, the low seroprevalence found in wild boar suggests wildlife is an unlikely source of the M. bovis infections recently detected in cattle in Switzerland. This finding contrasts with the epidemiological situation pertaining in southern Spain.

  10. Heterogeneity in ess transcriptional organization and variable contribution of the Ess/Type VII protein secretion system to virulence across closely related Staphylocccus aureus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneuper, Holger; Cao, Zhen Ping; Twomey, Kate B; Zoltner, Martin; Jäger, Franziska; Cargill, James S; Chalmers, James; van der Kooi-Pol, Magdalena M; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Ryan, Robert P; Hunter, William N; Palmer, Tracy

    2014-09-01

    The Type VII protein secretion system, found in Gram-positive bacteria, secretes small proteins, containing a conserved W-x-G amino acid sequence motif, to the growth medium. Staphylococcus aureus has a conserved Type VII secretion system, termed Ess, which is dispensable for laboratory growth but required for virulence. In this study we show that there are unexpected differences in the organization of the ess gene cluster between closely related strains of S. aureus. We further show that in laboratory growth medium different strains of S. aureus secrete the EsxA and EsxC substrate proteins at different growth points, and that the Ess system in strain Newman is inactive under these conditions. Systematic deletion analysis in S. aureus RN6390 is consistent with the EsaA, EsaB, EssA, EssB, EssC and EsxA proteins comprising core components of the secretion machinery in this strain. Finally we demonstrate that the Ess secretion machinery of two S. aureus strains, RN6390 and COL, is important for nasal colonization and virulence in the murine lung pneumonia model. Surprisingly, however, the secretion system plays no role in the virulence of strain SA113 under the same conditions.

  11. Molecular analyses of a potentially novel Anaplasma species closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian P; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Kishimoto, Toshio; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-05-25

    An Anaplasma species closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in sika deer in Hokkaido, Japan was molecularly analyzed using 16S rRNA, citrate synthase (gltA), and heat-shock operon (groEL) gene sequences. Genome walking was performed to determine its complete gltA and groEL sequences (1233 bp and 1650 bp, respectively). Percent identities to the closest A. phagocytophilum sequences from the US and European strains were 98.6-98.8%, 76.5%, and 80.3-80.8% for 16S rRNA, gltA, and groEL genes, respectively. For deduced amino acid sequences, percent identities to the closest A. phagocytophilum sequences were 66.7% and 97.6% for gltA and groEL genes, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed divergence from any known A. phagocytophilum strain. The lower identities and the divergent phylogenetic position of the Anaplasma sp. detected from sika deer in Japan with established A. phagocytophilum strains provide evidence of its potential novelty. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel PCR-RFLP assay for molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and closely related species in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Amani, Hizem; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis, due to Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.), currently affects three million people, especially in low-income countries and results in high livestock production loss. DNA-based methods demonstrated genetic variability of E. granulosus s. l., and five species were recognized to belong to the complex, including E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s) (genotypes G1-G3), Echinococcus equinus (genotype G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (genotype G5), Echinococcus canadensis (genotypes G6-G10), and the lion strain Echinococcus felidis. The characterization of Echinococcus species responsible for human and animal echinococcosis is crucial to adapt the preventive measures against this parasitic disease. The sequencing approach is the gold standard for genotyping assays. Unfortunately, developing countries do not often have access to these techniques. Based on in silico RFLP tools, we described an accurate PCR-RFLP method for Echinococcus spp. characterization. The double digestion with the HaeIII and HinfI restriction enzymes of the PCR product from nad1 gene (1071 bp) led to a clear discrimination between E. granulosus s. l. and most closely related species (Echinococcus shiquicus and Echinococcus multilocularis).Molecular procedures and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the efficiency and the reproducibility of this simple and fast PCR-RFLP method. This technique is proved useful for fresh/unfixed and FF-PET tissues and enables large-scale molecular epidemiological screening in developing countries.

  13. Description of larvae of two closely related species Cassida palaestina Reiche, 1858 and Cassida rubiginosa Müller, 1776 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiętojańska, Jolanta; Moradian, Hossein; Borowiec, Lech; Ostovan, Hadi

    2013-11-29

    Larvae of two closely related species Cassida palaestina Reiche, 1858 and Cassida rubiginosa Müller, 1776 are described in detail including SEM microstructures. First instars are extremely similar with no clear diagnostic characters, larvae of Cassida palaestina are slightly more contrastingly coloured than larvae of C. rubiginosa, the latter having darker scoli, basal part of supra-anal processes and legs. Last instars differ in very subtle but constant characters: lateral scoli of C. palaestina are slightly shorter than those of C. rubiginosa, in C. palaestina tops of the lateral branches are armed apically with an elongate cauliflower-shaped sensillum while in C. rubiginosa tops of the lateral branches are more often armed with a pointed seta than with an elongate cauliflower-shaped sensillum, and cauliflower-shaped sensilla on tergites are less elongate in C. palaestina than in C. rubiginosa. These differences accompanied by distinguishing characters of adults and their distribution range indicate that both taxa are probably vicariant species with partial parapatric occurrence. Centaurea behen is a new host plant for C. palaestina.

  14. Gray mold populations in german strawberry fields are resistant to multiple fungicides and dominated by a novel clade closely related to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroch, Michaela; Plesken, Cecilia; Weber, Roland W S; Kauff, Frank; Scalliet, Gabriel; Hahn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to fruit and vegetable production. Strawberry fields usually receive several fungicide treatments against Botrytis per season. Gray mold isolates from several German strawberry-growing regions were analyzed to determine their sensitivity against botryticides. Fungicide resistance was commonly observed, with many isolates possessing resistance to multiple (up to six) fungicides. A stronger variant of the previously described multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype MDR1, called MDR1h, was found to be widely distributed, conferring increased partial resistance to two important botryticides, cyprodinil and fludioxonil. A 3-bp deletion mutation in a transcription factor-encoding gene, mrr1, was found to be correlated with MDR1h. All MDR1h isolates and the majority of isolates with resistance to multiple fungicides were found to be genetically distinct. Multiple-gene sequencing confirmed that they belong to a novel clade, called Botrytis group S, which is closely related to B. cinerea and the host-specific species B. fabae. Isolates of Botrytis group S genotypes were found to be widespread in all German strawberry-growing regions but almost absent from vineyards. Our data indicate a clear subdivision of gray mold populations, which are differentially distributed according to their host preference and adaptation to chemical treatments.

  15. Identification of Enterobacter sakazakii from closely related species: The use of Artificial Neural Networks in the analysis of biochemical and 16S rDNA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waddington Michael

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterobacter sakazakii is an emergent pathogen associated with ingestion of infant formula and accurate identification is important in both industrial and clinical settings. Bacterial species can be difficult to accurately characterise from complex biochemical datasets and computer algorithms can potentially simplify the process. Results Artificial Neural Networks were applied to biochemical and 16S rDNA data derived from 282 strains of Enterobacteriaceae, including 189 E. sakazakii isolates, in order to identify key characteristics which could improve the identification of E. sakazakii. The models developed resulted in a predictive performance for blind (validation data of 99.3 % correct discrimination between E. sakazakii and closely related species for both phenotypic and genotypic data. Three main regions of the partial rDNA sequence were found to be key in discriminating the species. Comparison between E. sakazakii and other strains also constitutively positive for expression of the enzyme α-glucosidase resulted in a predictive performance of 98.7 % for 16S rDNA sequence data and 100% for phenotypic data. Conclusion The computationally based methods developed here show a remarkable ability in reducing data dimensionality and complexity, in order to eliminate noise from the system in order to facilitate the speed and reliability of a potential strain identification system. Furthermore, the approaches described are also able to provide valuable information regarding the population structure and distribution of individual species thus providing the foundations for novel assays and diagnostic tests for rapid identification of pathogens.

  16. A phylogenetic lineage of closely related trypanosomes (Trypanosomatidae, Kinetoplastida) of anurans and sand flies (Psychodidae, Diptera) sharing the same ecotopes in brazilian amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Robson C; De Souza, Adelson A; Freitas, Rui A; Campaner, Marta; Takata, Carmem S A; Barrett, Toby V; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among trypanosomes from vertebrates and invertebrates disclosed a new lineage of trypanosomes circulating among anurans and sand flies that share the same ecotopes in Brazilian Amazonia. This assemblage of closely related trypanosomes was determined by comparing whole SSU rDNA sequences of anuran trypanosomes from the Brazilian biomes of Amazonia, the Pantanal, and the Atlantic Forest and from Europe, North America, and Africa, and from trypanosomes of sand flies from Amazonia. Phylogenetic trees based on maximum likelihood and parsimony corroborated the positioning of all new anuran trypanosomes in the aquatic clade but did not support the monophyly of anuran trypanosomes. However, all analyses always supported four major clades (An01-04) of anuran trypanosomes. Clade An04 is composed of trypanosomes from exotic anurans. Isolates in clades An01 and An02 were from Brazilian frogs and toads captured in the three biomes studied, Amazonia, the Pantanal and the Atlantic Forest. Clade An01 contains mostly isolates from Hylidae whereas clade An02 comprises mostly isolates from Bufonidae; and clade An03 contains trypanosomes from sand flies and anurans of Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae, and Leiuperidae exclusively from Amazonia. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing morphological and growth features, and molecular phylogenetic affiliation of trypanosomes from anurans and phlebotomines, incriminating these flies as invertebrate hosts and probably also as important vectors of Amazonian terrestrial anuran trypanosomes.

  17. Recurrent prurigo nodularis related to infected tonsils: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katotomichelakis Michael

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Prurigo nodularis is an unusual disorder of unknown aetiology, which is notoriously resistant to therapy, and is characterized by extremely pruritic nodules with well-defined clinical symptoms and histopathological findings. Case presentation We report the case of a patient presenting with pruritic papules and nodules on his legs, arms and trunk over the past 4 years, recurring after episodes of acute tonsillitis. Although oral and topical corticosteroids, oral antibiotics and emollients were used in his therapy, only tonsillectomy finally proved the definitive treatment. Conclusion We discuss the aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of prurigo nodularis associated with chronic tonsillitis, and we further review the literature on this rare condition.

  18. A case report of suicidal behavior related to subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo SH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Hyun Joo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Seung-Chul HongDepartment of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, KoreaAbstract: Abnormalities in thyroid function are associated with many psychiatric symptoms. We present a report of a 15-year-old girl who was admitted to the psychiatry inpatient unit with symptoms of suicidal behavior, irritability, and impulsivity. One year previously, she had become more short-tempered, and had started to cut her wrists impulsively. Laboratory tests revealed subclinical hyperthyroidism. She was treated with anxiolytic and antithyroid drugs, and her suicidal ideation and irritability resolved. This case demonstrates that subclinical hyperthyroidism can be associated with suicidal behavior as well as overt hyperthyroidism. Early intervention is required to prevent suicidal behavior in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.Keywords: suicidal behavior, subclinical hyperthyroidism, anxiolytics

  19. Multiplicity of Galactic Cepheids from long-baseline interferometry~III. Sub-percent limits on the relative brightness of a close companion of $\\delta$~Cephei

    CERN Document Server

    Gallenne, A; Kervella, P; Monnier, J D; Schaefer, G H; Roettenbacher, R M; Gieren, W; Pietrzynski, G; McAlister, H; Brummelaar, T ten; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N; Anderson, R I

    2016-01-01

    We report new CHARA/MIRC interferometric observations of the Cepheid archetype $\\delta$ Cep, which aimed at detecting the newly discovered spectroscopic companion. We reached a maximum dynamic range $\\Delta H $ = 6.4, 5.8, and 5.2 mag, respectively within the relative distance to the Cepheid $r 9.15, 8.31$ and 7.77 mag, respectively for $r < 25$ mas, $25 < r < 50$ mas and $50 < r < 100$ mas. We also found that to be consistent with the predicted orbital period, the companion has to be located at a projected separation $< 24$ mas with a spectral type later than a F0V star.

  20. Work-related posttraumatic upper limb disorder. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, P; Nigrelli, M P; Malaguti, S; Panigazzi, M; Pierobon, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we describe a patient with mor-sensory loss in the right forearm and hand, which persisted more than 2 years after work-related crush trauma of the left hand. Radiographic and electromyographic investigations, somatosensory evoked potentials, CT scans of the encephalus as well as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Roarschach test have been performed. On the basis of these investigations, we think this represents a case of conversion disorder with somatic features. Included is a brief overview of other psychological illness with physical findings involving the upper limb.

  1. Speciation history of three closely related pines Pinus mugo (T.), P. uliginosa (N.) and P. sylvestris (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowiak, Witold; Palmé, Anna E; Savolainen, Outi

    2011-04-01

    Nucleotide polymorphisms at genomic regions including 17 nuclear loci, two chloroplast and one mitochondrial DNA fragments were used to study the speciation history of three pine species: dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo), peat-bog pine (P. uliginosa) and Scots pine (P. sylvestris). We set out to investigate three specific speciation scenarios: (I) P. uliginosa is a homoploid hybrid between the other two, (II) the species have evolved without gene flow after divergence and (III) there has been substantial gene flow between the species since their divergence. Overall, the genetic data suggest that P. mugo and P. uliginosa share the same gene pool (average net divergence of 0.0001) and that the phenotypic differences (e.g. growth form) are most likely due to very limited areas of the genome. P. mugo and P. uliginosa are more diverged from P. sylvestris than from each other (average net divergence of 0.0027 and 0.0026, respectively). The nucleotide patterns can best be explained by the divergence with migration speciation scenario, although the hybrid speciation scenario with small genomic contribution from P. sylvestris cannot be completely ruled out. We suggest that the large amount of shared polymorphisms between the pine taxa and the lack of monophyly at all loci studied between P. sylvestris and P. mugo-P. uliginosa can largely be explained by relatively recent speciation history and large effective population sizes but also by interspecific gene flow. These closely related pine taxa form an excellent system for searching for loci involved in adaptive variation as they are differentiated in phenotype and ecology but have very similar genetic background.

  2. Genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies in four closely related bromeliads adapted to neotropical ‘inselbergs’: Alcantarea glaziouana, A. regina, A. geniculata and A. imperialis (Bromeliaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbará, Thelma; Martinelli, Gustavo; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Fay, Michael F.; Mayo, Simon; Lexer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) adapted to rock outcrops or ‘inselbergs’ in neotropical rain forests have been identified as suitable plant models for studying population divergence and speciation during continental plant radiations. Little is known about genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies within and among inselberg-adapted species, yet knowledge of these parameters is important for understanding divergence processes and for conservation planning. Methods Nuclear microsatellites were used to assess the role of clonal reproduction, estimate genetic diversity and explore genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies for a total of 15 populations of four closely related Alcantarea inselberg species in south-eastern Brazil: A. glaziouana, A. regina, A. geniculata and A. imperialis. Key Results Clonal propagation is frequent in coastal populations of A. glaziouana and A. regina, but absent in the high-altitude species A. geniculata and A. imperialis. Considerable variation in clonal diversity, gene diversity (He), allelic richness, and Wright's inbreeding coefficient (FIS) exists within and between species of Alcantarea. A Bayesian analysis of coastal inselberg species indicated pronounced genetic structure. A neighbor-joining analysis grouped populations of each species together with moderate bootstrap support, except for the high altitude species A. imperialis. Conclusions The coastal inselberg species A. glaziouana and A. regina tend to propagate asexually via vegetative clonal growth, and both reproductive strategies and breeding systems vary greatly between populations and species of Alcantarea. The microsatellite data indicate a history of hybridization and reticulation involving the high-altitude species A. geniculata and A. imperialis in areas of co-occurrence. The results highlight the need to understand similarities and differences in reproductive strategies both within and between related species

  3. Species-level determination of closely related araucarian resins using FTIR spectroscopy and its implications for the provenance of New Zealand amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla J. Seyfullah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Some higher plants, both angiosperms and gymnosperms, can produce resins and some of these resins can polymerize and fossilize to form ambers. Various physical and chemical techniques have been used to identify and profile different plant resins and have then been applied to fossilized resins (ambers, to try to detect their parent plant affinities and understand the process of polymerization, with varying levels of success. Here we focus on resins produced from today’s most resinous conifer family, the Araucariaceae, which are thought to be the parent plants of some of the Southern Hemisphere’s fossil resin deposits. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra of the resins of closely related Araucariaceae species were examined to test whether they could be distinguished at genus and species level and whether the results could then be used to infer the parent plant of a New Zealand amber. The resin FTIR spectra are distinguishable from each other, and the three Araucaria species sampled produced similar FTIR spectra, to which Wollemia resin is most similar. Interspecific variability of the FTIR spectra is greatest in the three Agathis species tested. The New Zealand amber sample is similar in key shared features with the resin samples, but it does differ from the extant resin samples in key distinguishing features, nonetheless it is most similar to the resin of Agathis australis in this dataset. However on comparison with previously published FTIR spectra of similar aged amber and older (Eocene resinites both found in coals from New Zealand and fresh Agathis australis resin, our amber has some features that imply a relatively immature resin, which was not expected from an amber of the Miocene age.

  4. Identification of distinct quantitative trait loci associated with defence against the closely related aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum and A. kondoi in Medicago truncatula

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Su-Min

    2012-03-21

    Aphids are a major family of plant insect pests. Medicago truncatula and Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphid, PA) are model species with a suite of resources available to help dissect the mechanism underlying plant-aphid interactions. A previous study focused on monogenic and relatively strong resistance in M. truncatula to PA and other aphid species. In this study a moderate resistance to PA was characterized in detail in the M. truncatula line A17 and compared with the highly susceptible line A20 and the more resistant line Jester. The results show that PA resistance in A17 involves both antibiosis and tolerance, and that resistance is phloem based. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (n=114) from a cross between A17 and A20 revealed that one locus, which co-segregated with AIN (Acyrthosiphon-induced necrosis) on chromosome 3, is responsible for the reduction of aphid biomass (indicator of antibiosis) for both PA and bluegreen aphid (BGA, A. kondoi), albeit to a lesser degree for PA than BGA. Interestingly, two independent loci on chromosomes 5 and 3 were identified for the plant biomass reduction (indicator of plant tolerance) by PA and BGA, respectively, demonstrating that the plant\\'s tolerance response to these two closely related aphid species is distinct. Together with previously identified major resistant (R) genes, the QTLs identified in this study are powerful tools to understand fully the spectrum of plant defence against sap-sucking insects and provide opportunities for breeders to generate effective and sustainable strategies for aphid control. 2012 The Author.

  5. Single cell genomics of uncultured, health-associated Tannerella BU063 (Oral Taxon 286 and comparison to the closely related pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford J Beall

    Full Text Available The uncultivated bacterium Tannerella BU063 (oral taxon 286 is the closest relative to the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, but is not disease-associated itself. Using a single cell genomics approach, we isolated 12 individual BU063 cells by flow cytometry, and we amplified and sequenced their genomes. Comparative analyses of the assembled genomic scaffolds and their gene contents allowed us to study the diversity of this taxon within the oral community of a single human donor that provided the sample. Eight different BU063 genotypes were represented, all about 5% divergent at the nucleotide level. There were 2 pairs of cells and one group of three that were more highly identical, and may represent clonal populations. We did pooled assemblies on the nearly identical genomes to increase the assembled genomic coverage. The presence of a set of 66 "core" housekeeping genes showed that two of the single cell assemblies and the assembly derived from the three putatively identical cells were essentially complete. As expected, the genome of BU063 is more similar to Tannerella forsythia than any other known genome, although there are significant differences, including a 44% difference in gene content, changes in metabolic pathways, loss of synteny, and an 8-9% difference in GC content. Several identified virulence genes of T. forsythia are not found in BU063 including karilysin, prtH, and bspA. The absence of these genes may explain the lack of periodontal pathogenesis by this species and provides a new foundation to further understand the genome evolution and mechanisms of bacterial-host interaction in closely related oral microbes with different pathogenicity potential.

  6. Single cell genomics of uncultured, health-associated Tannerella BU063 (Oral Taxon 286) and comparison to the closely related pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Clifford J; Campbell, Alisha G; Dayeh, Daniel M; Griffen, Ann L; Podar, Mircea; Leys, Eugene J

    2014-01-01

    The uncultivated bacterium Tannerella BU063 (oral taxon 286) is the closest relative to the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, but is not disease-associated itself. Using a single cell genomics approach, we isolated 12 individual BU063 cells by flow cytometry, and we amplified and sequenced their genomes. Comparative analyses of the assembled genomic scaffolds and their gene contents allowed us to study the diversity of this taxon within the oral community of a single human donor that provided the sample. Eight different BU063 genotypes were represented, all about 5% divergent at the nucleotide level. There were 2 pairs of cells and one group of three that were more highly identical, and may represent clonal populations. We did pooled assemblies on the nearly identical genomes to increase the assembled genomic coverage. The presence of a set of 66 "core" housekeeping genes showed that two of the single cell assemblies and the assembly derived from the three putatively identical cells were essentially complete. As expected, the genome of BU063 is more similar to Tannerella forsythia than any other known genome, although there are significant differences, including a 44% difference in gene content, changes in metabolic pathways, loss of synteny, and an 8-9% difference in GC content. Several identified virulence genes of T. forsythia are not found in BU063 including karilysin, prtH, and bspA. The absence of these genes may explain the lack of periodontal pathogenesis by this species and provides a new foundation to further understand the genome evolution and mechanisms of bacterial-host interaction in closely related oral microbes with different pathogenicity potential.

  7. 2015 QuickCompass of Sexual Assult-Related Responders: Statistical Methodology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    AND RESPONSE-RELATED RESPONDERS: STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY REPORT Defense Research , Surveys, and Statistics Center Defense Manpower Data Center...2015 QuickCompass of Sexual Assault Prevention and Response- Related Responders Statistical Methodology Report Additional copies of this report...Defense Research , Surveys, and Statistics Center (RSSC) 4800 Mark Center Drive, Suite 04E25-01, Alexandria, VA 22350-4000 ii Acknowledgments

  8. Geophysical variables and behavior: XXIII. Relations between UFO reports within the Uinta Basin and local seismicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, M A; Derr, J S

    1985-02-01

    A strong temporal correlation was found between the numbers of reports of UFOs (unidentified flying objects) and nearby seismic activity within the Uinta Basin for the year 1967. The numbers of UFO reports per month during this classic UFO flap were correlated 0.80 with the sum of the earthquake magnitudes per month for events within 150 km of the report area. Numbers of UFO reports were not correlated significantly with earthquake activity at distances greater than 150 km but less than 250 km away. The strongest correlation occurred between UFO reports and nearby seismic activity within the same month but not for previous or consequent months. Close scrutiny of daily shifts in epicenters and reports of UFOs indicate that they occurred when the locus of successive epicenters shifted across the area. These analyses were interpreted as support for the existence of strain fields whose movements generate natural phenomena that are reported as UFOs.

  9. Investigations on detonation shock dynamics and related topics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D.S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics

    1993-11-01

    This document is a final report that summarizes the research findings and research activities supported by the subcontract DOE-LANL-9-XG8-3931P-1 between the University of Illinois (D. S. Stewart Principal Investigator) and the University of California (Los Alamos National Laboratory, M-Division). The main focus of the work has been on investigations of Detonation Shock Dynamics. A second emphasis has been on modeling compaction of energetic materials and deflagration to detonation in those materials. The work has led to a number of extensions of the theory of Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) and its application as an engineering design method for high explosive systems. The work also enhanced the hydrocode capabilities of researchers in M-Division by modifications to CAVEAT, an existing Los Alamos hydrocode. Linear stability studies of detonation flows were carried out for the purpose of code verification. This work also broadened the existing theory for detonation. The work in this contract has led to the development of one-phase models for dynamic compaction of porous energetic materials and laid the groundwork for subsequent studies. Some work that modeled the discrete heterogeneous behavior of propellant beds was also performed. The contract supported the efforts of D. S. Stewart and a Postdoctoral student H. I. Lee at the University of Illinois.

  10. Diaphragmatic rupture caused by inappropriate closed drainage of thoracic cavity:a case report%胸腔闭式引流不当致膈肌破裂1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋; 张进祥; 杨冲; 陈立波

    2013-01-01

    Drainage of thoracic cavity is a routine treatment for traumatic pleural effusion or pneurnothorax, whereas improper operation may cause serious consequences, A case of 47-year-old man with traffic injury is reported herein. The patient had abdominal pain, chest distress, and trouble breathing when admitted to our hospital. After admission, the patient's blood pressure decreased, heart rate increased and blood was draw upon from the chest tubes. Chest examination indicated wet rales in both sides and decreased breath sounds in the left side. Abdominal examination reversed peritonitis symptoms. Abdominal X-ray indicated there were free gas under left hernidia-phragm and moderate amount of left pleural effusion. The abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed pleural drainage tube in the abdominal cavity which was closely related to spleen. We made diagnosis as following: ①multiple injuries caused by traffic injury;②diaphragmatic injury;③splenic rupture.

  11. 33 CFR 150.825 - Reporting a diving-related casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting a diving-related casualty. 150.825 Section 150.825 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Reporting a diving-related casualty. Deaths and injuries related to diving within the safety zone of...

  12. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    The development of scanning probe techniques, such as scanning tunnelling microscopy [1], has often been touted as the catalyst for the surge in activity and progress in nanoscale science and technology. Images of nanoscale structural detail have served as an invaluable investigative resource and continue to fascinate with the fantastical reality of an intricate nether world existing all around us, but hidden from view of the naked eye by a disparity in scale. As is so often the case, the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope heralded far more than just a useful new apparatus, it demonstrated the scope for exploiting the subtleties of electronic contact. The shrinking of electronic devices has been a driving force for research into molecular electronics, in which an understanding of the nature of electronic contact at junctions is crucial. In response, the number of experimental techniques in molecular electronics has increased rapidly in recent years. Scanning tunnelling microscopes have been used to study electron transfer through molecular films on a conducting substrate, and the need to monitor the contact force of scanning tunnelling electrodes led to the use of atomic force microscopy probes coated in a conducting layer as studied by Cui and colleagues in Arizona [2]. In this issue a collaboration of researchers at Delft University and Leiden University in the Netherlands report a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport, which will enable thorough studies of molecular transport in the future [3]. Scanning probes can also be used to pattern surfaces, such as through spatially-localized Suzuki and Heck reactions in chemical scanning probe lithography. Mechanistic aspects of spatially confined Suzuki and Heck chemistry are also reported in this issue by researchers in Oxford [4]. All these developments in molecular electronics fabrication and characterization provide alternative

  13. Mitragynine 'Kratom' related fatality: a case report with postmortem concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Iain M; Trochta, Amber; Stolberg, Susan; Campman, Steven C

    2015-03-01

    A 24-year-old man whose medical history was significant for alcohol abuse and depression was found unresponsive in bed. He had several prior suicide attempts with 'pills' and had also been hospitalized for an accidental overdose on a previous occasion. Autopsy findings were unremarkable apart from pulmonary edema and congestion, and urinary retention. Postmortem peripheral blood initially screened positive for mitragynine 'Kratom' (by routine alkaline drug screen by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS), which was subsequently confirmed by a specific GC-MS selective ion mode analysis following solid-phase extraction. Concentrations were determined in the peripheral blood (0.23 mg/L), central blood (0.19 mg/L), liver (0.43 mg/kg), vitreous (<0.05 mg/L), urine (0.37 mg/L) and was not detected in the gastric. Therapeutic concentrations of venlafaxine, diphenhydramine and mirtazapine were also detected together with a negligible ethanol of 0.02% (w/v). The results are discussed in relation to previous cases of toxicity, and the lack of potential for mitragynine postmortem redistribution.

  14. The Castleman's Disease and Related Disorders--A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M K; Talukder, R H; Kamruzzaman, M

    2016-01-01

    Castleman's disease is a rare primary disease of the lymph nodes. Little is known about the management of the disease. Surgical treatment gives a very good result. What other modalities of treatment could be done is not yet established. The role of surgery gives good result and follow up evaluation is satisfactory. We found a solitary intra-abdominal mass of lymphoid hyperplasia with a histological diagnosis of Castlemans disease identified in the pathological data base. Unicentric disease was defined as it was a solitary mass. Clinical, Radiological and Laboratory data were analysed to evaluate treatment response. The patient also has related disorders as Acanthosis nigricans, Myoneuronal disorder as-MG and bronchiolitis. The patient diagnosed as angiofollicular hyperplasia (Castleman's disease). After evaluation patient under went surgical treatment, partial excision of tumor mass due to morbid adhesion with inferior vena cava. The patient becomes symptom free and lump disappears within 60 days of treatment. There was no recurrence of the disease after further evaluation. The author recommends that in Unicentric variant of Castlemans disease surgical resection of the tumor is curative. The unicentric tumour may be hyaline-vascular or hyaline-vascular/ plasma cell type. Partial resection, Radiotherapy or observation alone may avoid excessive aggressive therapy.

  15. Fine definition of the pedigree haplotypes of closely related rice cultivars by means of genome-wide discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibaya Taeko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To create useful gene combinations in crop breeding, it is necessary to clarify the dynamics of the genome composition created by breeding practices. A large quantity of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data is required to permit discrimination of chromosome segments among modern cultivars, which are genetically related. Here, we used a high-throughput sequencer to conduct whole-genome sequencing of an elite Japanese rice cultivar, Koshihikari, which is closely related to Nipponbare, whose genome sequencing has been completed. Then we designed a high-throughput typing array based on the SNP information by comparison of the two sequences. Finally, we applied this array to analyze historical representative rice cultivars to understand the dynamics of their genome composition. Results The total 5.89-Gb sequence for Koshihikari, equivalent to 15.7× the entire rice genome, was mapped using the Pseudomolecules 4.0 database for Nipponbare. The resultant Koshihikari genome sequence corresponded to 80.1% of the Nipponbare sequence and led to the identification of 67 051 SNPs. A high-throughput typing array consisting of 1917 SNP sites distributed throughout the genome was designed to genotype 151 representative Japanese cultivars that have been grown during the past 150 years. We could identify the ancestral origin of the pedigree haplotypes in 60.9% of the Koshihikari genome and 18 consensus haplotype blocks which are inherited from traditional landraces to current improved varieties. Moreover, it was predicted that modern breeding practices have generally decreased genetic diversity Conclusions Detection of genome-wide SNPs by both high-throughput sequencer and typing array made it possible to evaluate genomic composition of genetically related rice varieties. With the aid of their pedigree information, we clarified the dynamics of chromosome recombination during the historical rice breeding process. We also found several

  16. No evidence of contemporary interploidy gene flow between the closely related European woodland violets Viola reichenbachiana and V. riviniana (sect. Viola, Violaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdałek, G; Nowak, J; Saługa, M; Cieślak, E; Szczepaniak, M; Ronikier, M; Marcussen, T; Słomka, A; Kuta, E

    2017-07-01

    Viola reichenbachiana (2n = 4x = 20) and V. riviniana (2n = 8x = 40) are closely related species widely distributed in Europe, often sharing the same habitat throughout their overlapping ranges. It has been suggested in numerous studies that their high intraspecific morphological variability and plasticity might have been further increased by interspecific hybridisation in contact zones, given the sympatry of the species and the incomplete sterility of their hybrid. The aims of this study were to: (i) confirm that V. reichenbachiana and V. riviniana have one 4x genome in common, and (ii) determine the impact of hybridisation and introgression on genetic variation of these two species in selected European populations. For our study, we used 31 Viola populations from four European countries, which were analysed using AFLP and sequencing of a variable plastid intergenic spacer, trnH-psbA. Our analysis revealed that V. reichenbachiana exhibited larger haplotype diversity, having three species-specific haplotypes versus one in V. riviniana. The relationships among haplotypes suggest transfer of common haplotypes into V. riviniana from both V. reichenbachiana and hypothetically the other, now extinct, parental species. AFLP analysis showed low overall genetic diversity of both species, with V. riviniana showing higher among-population diversity. None of the morphologically designated hybrid populations had additive AFLP polymorphisms that would have indicated recent hybridisation. Also, kinship coefficients between both species did not indicate gene flow. V. riviniana showed significant population subdivision and significant isolation by distance, in contrast to V. reichenbachiana. The results indicate lack of gene flow between species, high influence of selfing on genetic variability, as well as probably only localised introgression toward V. riviniana. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Patient self-assessed shoulder comfort and function and active motion are not closely related to surgically documented rotator cuff tear integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jason E; Tang, Anna; Matsen, Frederick A

    2017-07-06

    The rationale for rotator cuff repair surgery is that better integrity of the cuff should be associated with better comfort and function. However, in patients with cuff disease, there is not good evidence that the degree of rotator cuff integrity is closely associated with the shoulder's comfort, function, or active motion. The goal of this study was to explore these relationships in shoulders with surgically documented cuff disease. In 55 shoulders having surgery for cuff-related symptoms, we correlated the preoperative Simple Shoulder Test score with the objectively measured preoperative active shoulder motion and with the integrity of the cuff observed at surgery. The 16 shoulders with tendinosis or partial-thickness tears had an average Simple Shoulder Test score of 3.7 ± 3.3, active abduction of 111° ± 38°, and active flexion of 115° ± 36°. The corresponding values were 3.6 ± 2.8, 94° ± 47°, and 94° ± 52° for the 22 full-thickness supraspinatus tears and 3.9 ± 2.7, 89° ± 39°, and 100° ± 39° for the 17 supraspinatus and infraspinatus tears. In this study, surgically observed cuff integrity was not strongly associated with the shoulder's comfort or function. Whereas surgeons often seek to improve the integrity of the rotator cuff, the management of patients with rotator cuff disorders needs to be informed by a better understanding of the factors other than cuff integrity that influence the comfort and functioning of shoulders with cuff disease. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A DNA barcoding method to discriminate between the model plant Brachypodium distachyon and its close relatives B. stacei and B. hybridum (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alvarez, Diana; López-Herranz, Maria Luisa; Betekhtin, Alexander; Catalán, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon s. l. has been widely investigated across the world as a model plant for temperate cereals and biofuel grasses. However, this annual plant shows three cytotypes that have been recently recognized as three independent species, the diploids B. distachyon (2n = 10) and B. stacei (2n = 20) and their derived allotetraploid B. hybridum (2n = 30). We propose a DNA barcoding approach that consists of a rapid, accurate and automatable species identification method using the standard DNA sequences of complementary plastid (trnLF) and nuclear (ITS, GI) loci. The highly homogenous but largely divergent B. distachyon and B. stacei diploids could be easily distinguished (100% identification success) using direct trnLF (2.4%), ITS (5.5%) or GI (3.8%) sequence divergence. By contrast, B. hybridum could only be unambiguously identified through the use of combined trnLF+ITS sequences (90% of identification success) or by cloned GI sequences (96.7%) that showed 5.4% (ITS) and 4% (GI) rate divergence between the two parental sequences found in the allopolyploid. Our data provide an unbiased and effective barcode to differentiate these three closely-related species from one another. This procedure overcomes the taxonomic uncertainty generated from methods based on morphology or flow cytometry identifications that have resulted in some misclassifications of the model plant and its allies. Our study also demonstrates that the allotetraploid B. hybridum has resulted from bi-directional crosses of B. distachyon and B. stacei plants acting either as maternal or paternal parents.

  19. 关注电磁学相关物理效应的教学%Paying Close Attention to Teaching of the Physical Effects Related to Electromagnetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长胜; 冯丽爽

    2015-01-01

    We propose to pay close attention to teaching of the physical effects related to electromagnetics in the courses of Theory of Electromagnetic Field and Electromagnetic Field&Wave,and analyze necessity and feasibility of the proposed teaching content. Teaching of electromagnetic effects is of great help to students to let them under-stand basic concepts and theorems of electromagnetic field and wave,to improve their innovation abilities,and to stimulate their interests of study and scientific research. Such factors as different students'majors,dependence on teaching content,and significance in theory and application,play great roles in the selection of electromagnetic effects to teach.%本文提出在“电磁场理论”和“电磁场与电磁波”课程教学中关注电磁学相关物理效应,并分析其必要性和可行性。关注电磁学效应的教学,将有助于学生对电磁场与电磁波相关基本概念和定理的理解,有利于提高学生的创新研究能力,有助于激发学生的学习兴趣和科研热情。在本课程教学过程中,可根据不同专业的需要和教学内容的相关性等,适当选讲具有一定理论和实际意义的电磁学效应。

  20. Three novel rice genes closely related to the Arabidopsis IRX9, IRX9L, and IRX14 genes and their roles in xylan biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn eChiniquy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide on Earth, and represents a major component of both dicot wood and the cell walls of grasses. Much knowledge has been gained from studies of xylan biosynthesis in the model plant, Arabidopsis. In particular, the irregular xylem (irx mutants, named for their collapsed xylem cells, have been essential in gaining a greater understanding of the genes involved in xylan biosynthesis. In contrast, xylan biosynthesis in grass cell walls is poorly understood. We identified three rice genes Os07g49370 (OsIRX9, Os01g48440 (OsIRX9L, and Os06g47340 (OsIRX14, from glycosyltransferase family 43 as putative orthologs to the putative β-1,4-xylan backbone elongating Arabidopsis IRX9, IRX9L, and IRX14 genes, respectively. We demonstrate that the overexpression of the closely related rice genes, in full or partly complement the two well-characterized Arabidopsis irregular xylem (irx mutants: irx9 and irx14. Complementation was assessed by measuring dwarfed phenotypes, irregular xylem cells in stem cross sections, xylose content of stems, xylosyltransferase activity of stems, and stem strength. The expression of OsIRX9 in the irx9 mutant resulted in xylosyltransferase activity of stems that was over double that of wild type plants, and the stem strength of this line increased to 124% above that of wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that OsIRX9/OsIRX9L, and OsIRX14, have similar functions to the Arabidopsis IRX9 and IRX14 genes, respectively. Furthermore, our expression data indicate that OsIRX9 and OsIRX9L may function in building the xylan backbone in the secondary and primary cell walls, respectively. Our results provide insight into xylan biosynthesis in rice and how expression of a xylan synthesis gene may be modified to increase stem strength.

  1. Head Transcriptomes of Two Closely Related Species of Fruit Flies of the Anastrepha fraterculus Group Reveals Divergent Genes in Species with Extensive Gene Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Borges Rezende

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several fruit flies species of the Anastrepha fraterculus group are of great economic importance for the damage they cause to a variety of fleshy fruits. Some species in this group have diverged recently, with evidence of introgression, showing similar morphological attributes that render their identification difficult, reinforcing the relevance of identifying new molecular markers that may differentiate species. We investigated genes expressed in head tissues from two closely related species: A. obliqua and A. fraterculus, aiming to identify fixed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and highly differentiated transcripts, which, considering that these species still experience some level of gene flow, could indicate potential candidate genes involved in their differentiation process. We generated multiple libraries from head tissues of these two species, at different reproductive stages, for both sexes. Our analyses indicate that the de novo transcriptome assemblies are fairly complete. We also produced a hybrid assembly to map each species’ reads, and identified 67,470 SNPs in A. fraterculus, 39,252 in A. obliqua, and 6386 that were common to both species. We identified 164 highly differentiated unigenes that had a mean interspecific index (D¯ of at least 0.94. We selected unigenes that had Ka/Ks higher than 0.5, or had at least three or more highly differentiated SNPs as potential candidate genes for species differentiation. Among these candidates, we identified proteases, regulators of redox homeostasis, and an odorant-binding protein (Obp99c, among other genes. The head transcriptomes described here enabled the identification of thousands of genes hitherto unavailable for these species, and generated a set of candidate genes that are potentially important to genetically identify species and understand the speciation process in the presence of gene flow of A. obliqua and A. fraterculus.

  2. A DNA barcoding method to discriminate between the model plant Brachypodium distachyon and its close relatives B. stacei and B. hybridum (Poaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana López-Alvarez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brachypodium distachyon s. l. has been widely investigated across the world as a model plant for temperate cereals and biofuel grasses. However, this annual plant shows three cytotypes that have been recently recognized as three independent species, the diploids B. distachyon (2n = 10 and B. stacei (2n = 20 and their derived allotetraploid B. hybridum (2n = 30. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We propose a DNA barcoding approach that consists of a rapid, accurate and automatable species identification method using the standard DNA sequences of complementary plastid (trnLF and nuclear (ITS, GI loci. The highly homogenous but largely divergent B. distachyon and B. stacei diploids could be easily distinguished (100% identification success using direct trnLF (2.4%, ITS (5.5% or GI (3.8% sequence divergence. By contrast, B. hybridum could only be unambiguously identified through the use of combined trnLF+ITS sequences (90% of identification success or by cloned GI sequences (96.7% that showed 5.4% (ITS and 4% (GI rate divergence between the two parental sequences found in the allopolyploid. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data provide an unbiased and effective barcode to differentiate these three closely-related species from one another. This procedure overcomes the taxonomic uncertainty generated from methods based on morphology or flow cytometry identifications that have resulted in some misclassifications of the model plant and its allies. Our study also demonstrates that the allotetraploid B. hybridum has resulted from bi-directional crosses of B. distachyon and B. stacei plants acting either as maternal or paternal parents.

  3. Advantageous Direct Quantification of Viable Closely Related Probiotics in Petit-Suisse Cheeses under In Vitro Gastrointestinal Conditions by Propidium Monoazide - qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Martha Lissete Morales; Padilha, Marina; Vieira, Antonio Diogo Silva; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Martinez, Rafael Chacon Ruiz; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2013-01-01

    Species-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA) were used along with the plate count method to evaluate the survival of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, and the bacteriocinogenic and potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in synbiotic (F1) and probiotic (F2) petit-suisse cheeses exposed throughout shelf-life to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. The three strains studied showed a reduction in their viability after the 6 h assay. Bb-12 displayed the highest survival capacity, above 72.6 and 74.6% of the initial populations, respectively, by plate count and PMA-qPCR, maintaining population levels in the range or above 6 log CFU/g. The prebiotic mix of inulin and FOS did not offer any additional protection for the strains against the simulated gastrointestinal environment. The microorganisms' populations were comparable among the three methods at the initial time of the assay, confirming the presence of mainly viable and culturable cells. However, with the intensification of the stress induced throughout the various stages of the in vitro test, the differences among the methods increased. The qPCR was not a reliable enumeration method for the quantification of intact bacterial populations, mixed with large numbers of injured and dead bacteria, as confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy results. Furthermore, bacteria plate counts were much lower (P<0.05) than with the PMA-qPCR method, suggesting the accumulation of stressed or dead microorganisms unable to form colonies. The use of PMA overcame the qPCR inability to differentiate between dead and alive cells. The combination of PMA and species-specific qPCR in this study allowed a quick and unequivocal way of enumeration of viable closely related species incorporated into probiotic and synbiotic petit-suisse cheeses and under stress

  4. Advantageous direct quantification of viable closely related probiotics in petit-suisse cheeses under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions by Propidium Monoazide--qPCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lissete Morales Villarreal

    Full Text Available Species-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA were used along with the plate count method to evaluate the survival of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, and the bacteriocinogenic and potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in synbiotic (F1 and probiotic (F2 petit-suisse cheeses exposed throughout shelf-life to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. The three strains studied showed a reduction in their viability after the 6 h assay. Bb-12 displayed the highest survival capacity, above 72.6 and 74.6% of the initial populations, respectively, by plate count and PMA-qPCR, maintaining population levels in the range or above 6 log CFU/g. The prebiotic mix of inulin and FOS did not offer any additional protection for the strains against the simulated gastrointestinal environment. The microorganisms' populations were comparable among the three methods at the initial time of the assay, confirming the presence of mainly viable and culturable cells. However, with the intensification of the stress induced throughout the various stages of the in vitro test, the differences among the methods increased. The qPCR was not a reliable enumeration method for the quantification of intact bacterial populations, mixed with large numbers of injured and dead bacteria, as confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy results. Furthermore, bacteria plate counts were much lower (P<0.05 than with the PMA-qPCR method, suggesting the accumulation of stressed or dead microorganisms unable to form colonies. The use of PMA overcame the qPCR inability to differentiate between dead and alive cells. The combination of PMA and species-specific qPCR in this study allowed a quick and unequivocal way of enumeration of viable closely related species incorporated into probiotic and synbiotic petit-suisse cheeses and

  5. Airflow limitation or static hyperinflation: which is more closely related to dyspnea with activities of daily living in patients with COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura Takashi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyspnea while performing the activities of daily living has been suggested to be a better measurement than peak dyspnea during exercise. Furthermore, the inspiratory capacity (IC has been shown to be more closely related to exercise tolerance and dyspnea than the FEV1, because dynamic hyperinflation is the main cause of shortness of breath in patients with COPD. However, breathlessness during exercise is measured in most studies to evaluate this relationship. Purpose To evaluate the correlation between breathlessness during daily activities and airflow limitation or static hyperinflation in COPD. Methods We examined 167 consecutive outpatients with stable COPD. The Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI was used to evaluate dyspnea with activities of daily living. The relationship between the BDI score and the clinical measurements of pulmonary function was then investigated. Results The Spearman rank correlation coefficients (Rs between the BDI score and the FEV1(L, FEV1(%pred and FEV1/FVC were 0.60, 0.56 and 0.56, respectively. On the other hand, the BDI score also correlated with the IC, IC/predicted total lung capacity (TLC and IC/TLC (Rs = 0.45, 0.46 and 0.47, respectively. Although all of the relationships studied were strongly correlated, the correlation coefficients were better between dyspnea and airflow limitation than between dyspnea and static hyperinflation. In stepwise multiple regression analyses, the BDI score was most significantly explained by the FEV1 (R2 = 26.2% and the diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (R2 = 14.4% (Cumulative R2 = 40.6%. Static hyperinflation was not a significant factor for clinical dyspnea on the stepwise multiple regression analysis. Conclusion Both static hyperinflation and airflow limitation contributed greatly to dyspnea in COPD patients.

  6. Prognostic Patterns in Self-Report, Relative Report, and Professional Evaluation Measures for Hospitalized and Day-Care Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, A. A.; Michaux, Mary H.

    1975-01-01

    This study attempted to determine differences between patients who relapse and those who do not in both hospital and day-care settings. Subjects were 142 adult psychiatric patients. Three groups of measures were used: one based on professional evaluation, one based on self-report, and one based on relative report. (Author)

  7. Visceral fat dominant distribution in male type 2 diabetic patients is closely related to hepatic insulin resistance, irrespective of body type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Yoshinori

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All previous studies that investigated the association between abdominal fat distribution and insulin resistance evaluated subcutaneous and visceral fat area and/or volume, but these values were not related to the body type of each subject. In the present study we have examined the association between abdominal fat distribution and peripheral (muscle/hepatic sensitivity to insulin using the visceral to abdominal subcutaneous fat area ratio (VF/SF ratio in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This ratio defines the predominancy of visceral or subcutaneous abdominal adiposity, independent of the body type of each individual. Methods Thirty-six type 2 diabetic male patients underwent a euglycemic insulin clamp (insulin infusion rate = 40 mU/m2·min with 3-3H-glucose to measure insulin-mediated total body (primarily reflects muscle glucose disposal (TGD and suppression of endogenous (primarily reflects liver glucose production (EGP in response to a physiologic increase in plasma insulin concentration. Abdominal subcutaneous (SF and intraabdominal visceral fat (VF areas were quantitated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at the level of L4–5. Results TGD and TGD divided by steady state plasma insulin concentration during the insulin clamp (TGD/SSPI correlated inversely with body mass index (BMI, total fat mass (FM measured by 3H2O, SF and VF areas, while VF/SF ratio displayed no significant relationship with TGD or TGD/SSPI. In contrast, EGP and the product of EGP and SSPI during the insulin clamp (an index hepatic insulin resistance correlated positively with VF/SF ratio, but not with BMI, FM, VF or SF. Conclusion We conclude that, independent of the individual's body type, visceral fat dominant accumulation as opposed to subcutaneous fat accumulation is associated with hepatic insulin resistance, whereas peripheral (muscle insulin resistance is more closely related to general obesity (i.e. higher BMI and total FM

  8. Metabolic and evolutionary insights into the closely-related species Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans deduced from high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Marcus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst being closely related to the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2, S. lividans 66 differs from it in several significant and phenotypically observable ways, including antibiotic production. Previous comparative gene hybridization studies investigating such differences have used low-density (one probe per gene PCR-based spotted arrays. Here we use new experimentally optimised 104,000 × 60-mer probe arrays to characterize in detail the genomic differences between wild-type S. lividans 66, a derivative industrial strain, TK24, and S. coelicolor M145. Results The high coverage and specificity (detection of three nucleotide differences of the new microarrays used has highlighted the macroscopic genomic differences between two S. lividans strains and S. coelicolor. In a series of case studies we have validated the microarray and have identified subtle changes in genomic structure which occur in the Asp-activating adenylation domains of CDA non-ribosomal peptide synthetase genes which provides evidence of gene shuffling between these domains. We also identify single nucleotide sequence inter-species differences which exist in the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster. As the glyoxylate bypass is non-functional in both S. lividans strains due to the absence of the gene encoding isocitrate lyase it is likely that the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway functions as the alternative mechanism for the assimilation of C2 compounds. Conclusions This study provides evidence for widespread genetic recombination, rather than it being focussed at 'hotspots', suggesting that the previously proposed 'archipelago model' of genomic differences between S. coelicolor and S. lividans is unduly simplistic. The two S. lividans strains investigated differ considerably in genetic complement, with TK24 lacking 175 more genes than its wild-type parent when compared to S. coelicolor. Additionally, we confirm the presence of bldB in S. lividans and

  9. Multiplicity of Galactic Cepheids from long-baseline interferometry - III. Sub-percent limits on the relative brightness of a close companion of δ Cephei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenne, A.; Mérand, A.; Kervella, P.; Monnier, J. D.; Schaefer, G. H.; Roettenbacher, R. M.; Gieren, W.; Pietrzyński, G.; McAlister, H.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Anderson, R. I.

    2016-09-01

    We report new CHARA/Michigan InfraRed Combiner interferometric observations of the Cepheid archetype δ Cep, which aimed at detecting the newly discovered spectroscopic companion. We reached a maximum dynamic range ΔH = 6.4, 5.8 and 5.2 mag, respectively, within the relative distance to the Cepheid r 9.15, 8.31 and 7.77 mag, respectively, for r < 25 mas, 25 < r < 50 mas and 50 < r < 100 mas. We also found that to be consistent with the predicted orbital period (Anderson et al.), the companion has to be located at a projected separation <24 mas with a spectral type later than an F0V star.

  10. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gallery > Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  11. Evolutionary insights from bat trypanosomes: morphological, developmental and phylogenetic evidence of a new species, Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) erneyi sp. nov., in African bats closely related to Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi and allied species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luciana; Silva, Flávia Maia da; Neves, Luis; Attias, Márcia; Takata, Carmen S A; Campaner, Marta; de Souza, Wanderley; Hamilton, Patrick B; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2012-11-01

    Parasites of the genus Trypanosoma are common in bats and those of the subgenus Schizotrypanum are restricted to bats throughout the world, with the exception of Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi that also infects other mammals and is restricted to the American Continent. We have characterized trypanosome isolates from Molossidae bats captured in Mozambique, Africa. Morphology and behaviour in culture, supported by phylogenetic inferences using SSU (small subunit) rRNA, gGAPDH (glycosomal glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and Cyt b (cytochrome b) genes, allowed to classify the isolates as a new Schizotrypanum species named Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) erneyi sp. nov. This is the first report of a Schizotrypanum species from African bats cultured, characterized morphologically and biologically, and positioned in phylogenetic trees. The unprecedented finding of a new species of the subgenus Schizotrypanum from Africa that is closest related to the America-restricted Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi marinkellei and T. cruzi provides new insights into the origin and evolutionary history of T. cruzi and closely related bat trypanosomes. Altogether, data from our study support the hypothesis of an ancestor trypanosome parasite of bats evolving to infect other mammals, even humans, and adapted to transmission by triatomine bugs in the evolutionary history of T. cruzi in the New World.

  12. HTF: A b-ZIP transcription factor that is closely related to the human XBP/TREB5 and is activated by hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, T; Kokura, K; Kumagai, Y; Wakamatsu, T; Makino, Y; Tamura, T

    1996-06-25

    We screened for rat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-related genes by a novel cDNA subtraction method and obtained one gene. This gene was transcribed as 2.0- and 2.5-kb mRNAs, and its transcription was specifically enhanced in HCC. These cDNAs had the same open reading frame, but the 2.5 kb transcript had an extra 495 bases of 5'-UTR at the 5'-terminus. The deduced aa sequence revealed a basic-leucine zipper (b-ZIP) and proline/glutamine-rich structures, both of which are characteristic motifs for transcription factors. We designated the translation product of this gene HTF (Hepatocarcinogenesis-related Transcription Factor). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated the DNA-binding ability of the recombinant HTF. It is most interesting that HTF had a considerable homology with human XBP/TREB5, which has been reported to be a binding factor for the X-box of the MHC class II gene and for the 21-bp enhancer of the HTLV-1 LTR. Genomic Southern analysis suggested that the 2.0- and 2.5-kb mRNAs are transcribed by a dual promoter of a single gene. Our results may suggest that HTF is a b-ZIP-type transcription factor involved in rat hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

  14. Bead-probe complex capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chaobo; Guo, Baocheng; He, Shunping

    2009-01-01

    Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members), designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp fishes, which strengthened

  15. Bead-probe complex capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Baocheng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively, two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members, designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp

  16. 13 CFR 120.1060 - Confidentiality of Reports, Risk Ratings and related Confidential Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... order prior to disclosure. For purposes of this regulation, “Information Provider” means any contractor... abides by them. Any disclosure of the Report, Risk Rating, or Confidential Information other than as... Confidentiality of Reports, Risk Ratings and related Confidential Information. (a) In general. Reports and other...

  17. The Relation of Recent Tampon Use, Douching, Coitus, and Vaginal Medications for Reported Cervical Cytology Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) on the pathology report. Assumptions Tampon use is drying to the vaginal epithelium and has been...SUBTITLE 5, FUNDING NUMBERS The Relation of Recent Tamplon Use, Douching, Coitus, and Vaginal Medications for Reported Cervical Cytology Results. 6. AUTHOR...11¾ .. ?j’ 󈧎 U..- THE RELATION OF RECENT TAMPON USE, DOUCHING, COITUS, AND VAGINAL MEDICATIONS TO REPORTED CERVICAL CYTOLOGY RESULTS By MARYANN

  18. Appendiceal immunoglobulin G4-related disease mimicking appendiceal tumor or appendicitis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kang, Won Kyung; Chung, Dong Jin [Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is an autoimmune disease that forms tumorous lesions. Several cases involving various organs are reported, however, IgG4-related disease involving appendix has not been reported yet. In this report, we presented a case of IgG4-related disease of appendix, which raised a suspicion of appendiceal tumor or usual appendicitis and, therefore, led to unnecessary surgical resection. IgG4-related disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a mass-like swelling of the appendix, in order to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  19. On the relation between the fundamental equation of thermodynamics and the energy balance equation in the context of closed and open systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Barneveld, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we elaborate on the connection between the fundamental equation of thermodynamics, which is essentially the combination of the First and Second Laws of thermodynamics, and the energy balance equation in the context of closed and open systems. We point out some misinterpretations in

  20. On the relation between the fundamental equation of thermodynamics and the energy balance equation in the context of closed and open systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Barneveld, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we elaborate on the connection between the fundamental equation of thermodynamics, which is essentially the combination of the First and Second Laws of thermodynamics, and the energy balance equation in the context of closed and open systems. We point out some misinterpretations in at